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Sample records for blood sampling system

  1. Automated system for fractionation of blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N. E.; Genung, R. K.; Johnson, W. F.; Mrochek, J. E.; Scott, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system for preparing multiple fractions of blood components (plasma, washed red cells, and hemolysates) using automated techniques has been developed. The procedure is based on centrifugal separation and differential pressure-induced transfer in a rotor that has been designed to process numerous samples simultaneously. Red cells are sedimented against the outer walls of the sample chamber, and plasma is syphoned, by imposition of eithr a slight positive or negative pressure, into individual reservoirs in a collection ring. Washing of cells is performed in situ; samples of washed cells, either packed or in saline solution, can be recovered. Cellular hemolysates are prepared and automatically transferred to individual, commercially available collection vials ready for storage in liquid nitrogen or immediate analysis. The system has potential application in any biomedical area which requires high sample throughput and in which one or more of the blood fractions will be used. A separate unit has been designed and developed for the semiautomated cleaning of the blood processing vessel.

  2. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  3. Development of Automatic 3D Blood Vessel Search and Automatic Blood Sampling System by Using Hybrid Stereo-Autofocus Method

    OpenAIRE

    Eiji Nakamachi; Yusuke Morita; Yoshifumi Mizuno

    2012-01-01

    We developed an accurate three-dimensional blood vessel search (3D BVS) system and an automatic blood sampling system. They were implemented into a point-of-care system designed for medical care, installed in a portable self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) device. The system solves problems of human error caused by complicated manual operations of conventional SMBG devices. We evaluated its accuracy of blood-vessel position detection. The 3D BVS system uses near-infrared (NIR) light imaging a...

  4. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Shinoda, Masaki; Sakamoto, Setsu; Senda, Michio [Inst. of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Kobe City Coll. of Technology (Japan); Tarutani, Kazumasa; Minato, Kotaro [Nara Inst. of Science and Technology, Ikoma (Japan). Graduate School of Information Science

    2002-11-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with {sup 15}O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for {sup 68}Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was increased. The count rate characteristic of the PD and COINC was linear up to 8 kcps. The reproducibility of sensitivity for nylon tube geometry of COINC was the smallest (coefficient of variation (C.V.)=1.00%) among the three. PD was the weights the least (3.5 kg) among the three, which is convenient for clinical use. Each detector has unique characteristics derived from its own structure. Although the performance of all three detectors meets clinical requirement, PD had the highest physical performance. (author)

  5. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  6. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B;

    2014-01-01

    corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters......Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...

  7. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects. PMID:22273184

  8. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels

    OpenAIRE

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects.

  9. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Miyamoto; Taylor, Sandra L.; Barupal, Dinesh K; Ayumu Taguchi; Gert Wohlgemuth; Wikoff, William R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Gandara, David R.; Samir M. Hanash; Kyoungmi Kim; Oliver Fiehn

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer ...

  10. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  11. Blood groups systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ranadhir Mitra; Nitasha Mishra; Girija Prasad Rath

    2014-01-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importa...

  12. Blood Donation Management System

    OpenAIRE

    K M Akkas Ali; Israt Jahan; Md. Ariful Islam; Md. Shafa-at Parvez

    2015-01-01

    This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood) and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this app...

  13. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  14. Blood groups systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitra, Ranadhir; Mishra, Nitasha; Rath, Girija Prasad

    2014-09-01

    International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system. PMID:25535412

  15. Blood Donation Management System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K M Akkas Ali

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on Blood Donation Management System which is a web application with supporting mobile application aimed to serve as a communication tool between patients (who need blood and blood donor. To become members of the system, donors need to create their profiles by providing fundamental information like name, blood group, email address, password, and exact location from “Google Map”. In order to find out the exact location of a donor, Google Map is integrated with this application. The mobile application always updates the location of a donor. As a result, the system can automatically find a registered donor wherever he/she goes. Visitors can search blood donors from the home page by blood group and the place where blood is needed. The system will show the available donors along with their phone number, email address and mailing address through arranging them by nearest place and blood donation expire date. Visitors can send message to all donors through email but a member can send message using email and mobile phone. An appointment will be created only whenever a donor confirms that he/she will donate blood. Then the system will alert the donor before 12 hours of donation. Blood donors can also be searched from the mobile application, but this is only accessible for registered members. The goal of this paper is to reduce the complexity of the system to find blood donors in an emergency situation.

  16. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during...

  17. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient’s identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient’s identification and sample errors were collec...

  18. An experimental model for simultaneous chronic sampling of portal and systemic blood and gastrointestinal lymph via cannulae in conscious swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, K J; Farmer, H M; Cussen, M; Welbourn, R B

    1983-10-01

    Surgical techniques are described whereby safe chronic cannulations of the portal vein, the external iliac artery and vein and the cisterna chyli of pigs were performed. The pigs tolerated the operations well and there was a short recovery period. They were unrestrained during the subsequent feeding experiments, when large sequential blood and lymph samples were withdrawn readily. The experimental periods varied from 3 to 46 days (mean : 13.4 days, SE: 2.0). All of 22 arterial cannulae remained patent (mean : 16 days, SE : 2.2), nineteen of 22 portal cannulae (mean : 15 days, SE : 1.8) and eighteen of 22 venous cannulae (mean : 14 days, SE : 1.9). The lymph cannula patency varied from 2 to 7 days, but lymph samples were easily obtained through all but one of them during the third postoperative day. PMID:6627950

  19. Blood sample tube transporting system versus point of care technology in an emergency department; effect on time from collection to reporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Birgitte; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    technologies (POCT) are used in emergency departments. This study assesses the hypothesis, that using Point of Care Technology in analysing blood samples versus tube transporting blood samples for laboratory analyses results in shorter time from the blood sample is collected to the result is reported in an...

  20. Comparison of in-house and commercial sample preparation and PCR amplification systems for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in blood samples from Tanzanian adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamuya, E; Bredberg-Rådén, U; Albert, J.; Grankvist, O; Msangi, V; Kagoma, C.; Mhalu, F; Biberfeld, G

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the performance of several in-house nested PCR systems and the Amplicor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PCR kit in the detection of HIV-1 DNA in Tanzanian samples prepared by two different methods. All six of the in-house primer sets evaluated had a higher sensitivity for HIV DNA detection in samples prepared by the Amplicor PCR sample preparation method than in those prepared by the Ficoll-Isopaque (FIP) density gradient centrifugation method. A sensitivity of...

  1. Improving blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics and handling at hospitals has great potential. This research will show how a simulation model can be used to evaluate changes made to two different cases of transportation of blood samples at a hospital, by evaluating...

  2. Percutaneous ultrasound guided umbilical cord blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a technique and the result of percutaneous ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood sampling and its potential use in the management of diagnostic problems in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. This method has been employed in the prenatal assessment of 19 fetuses at risk for chromosomal disorders, fetal hypoxia and hematologic disorders. This simple and rapid procedure offers a safe access to the fetal circulation

  3. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient's identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient's identification and sample errors were collected daily. The average scores of 8 items users' perceived ease of use was 25.21(3.72), 9 items users' perceived usefulness was 28.53(5.00), and 14 items task-technology fit was 52.24(7.09), the rate of patient identification error and samples with order cancelled were down to zero, however, new errors were generated after the new system deployed; which were the position of barcode stickers on the sample tubes. Overall, more than half of nurses (62.5%) were willing to use the new system. PMID:24199057

  4. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kanai, Yasukazu; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Minato, Kotaro; Shimizu, Keiji; Senda, Michio; Hatazawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front layer detects the positron and the background gamma photons, and the back layer detects the background gamma photons. By subtracting the count rate of the latter from that of the former, the count rate of the positrons can be estimated. The GSO for the front layer has a Ce concentration of 1.5 mol% (decay time of 35 ns), and that for the back layer has a Ce concentration of 0.5 mol% (decay time of 60 ns). By using the pulse shape analysis, the count rate of these two GSOs can be discriminated. The thickness is 0.5 mm, which is thick enough to detect positrons while minimizing the detection of the background gamma photons. These two types of thin GSOs were optically coupled to each other and connected to a metal photomultiplier tube (PMT) through triangular light guides. The signal from the PMT was digitized by 100 MHz free-running A-D converters in the data acquisition system and digitally integrated at two different integration times for the pulse shape analysis. We obtained good separation of the pulse shape distributions of these two GSOs. The energy threshold level was decreased to 80 keV, increasing the sensitivity of the detector. The sensitivity of a small diameter plastic tube was 8.6% and 24% for the F-18 and C-11 positrons, respectively. The count rate performance was linear up to approximately 50 kcps. The background counts from the gamma photons could be precisely corrected. The time-activity curve (TAC) of the rat artery blood was successfully obtained and showed a good correlation with that measured using a well counter. With these results, we confirmed

  5. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front layer detects the positron and the background gamma photons, and the back layer detects the background gamma photons. By subtracting the count rate of the latter from that of the former, the count rate of the positrons can be estimated. The GSO for the front layer has a Ce concentration of 1.5 mol% (decay time of 35 ns), and that for the back layer has a Ce concentration of 0.5 mol% (decay time of 60 ns). By using the pulse shape analysis, the count rate of these two GSOs can be discriminated. The thickness is 0.5 mm, which is thick enough to detect positrons while minimizing the detection of the background gamma photons. These two types of thin GSOs were optically coupled to each other and connected to a metal photomultiplier tube (PMT) through triangular light guides. The signal from the PMT was digitized by 100 MHz free-running A-D converters in the data acquisition system and digitally integrated at two different integration times for the pulse shape analysis. We obtained good separation of the pulse shape distributions of these two GSOs. The energy threshold level was decreased to 80 keV, increasing the sensitivity of the detector. The sensitivity of a small diameter plastic tube was 8.6% and 24% for the F-18 and C-11 positrons, respectively. The count rate performance was linear up to ∼50 kcps. The background counts from the gamma photons could be precisely corrected. The time-activity curve (TAC) of the rat artery blood was successfully obtained and showed a good correlation with that measured using a well counter. With these results, we confirmed that the

  6. Performance testing of a semi-automatic card punch system, using direct STR profiling of DNA from blood samples on FTA™ cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Samantha J; Horton, Jeffrey K; Stubbs, Simon L; Tatnell, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The 1.2 mm Electric Coring Tool (e-Core™) was developed to increase the throughput of FTA(™) sample collection cards used during forensic workflows and is similar to a 1.2 mm Harris manual micro-punch for sampling dried blood spots. Direct short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling was used to compare samples taken by the e-Core tool with those taken by the manual micro-punch. The performance of the e-Core device was evaluated using a commercially available PowerPlex™ 18D STR System. In addition, an analysis was performed that investigated the potential carryover of DNA via the e-Core punch from one FTA disc to another. This contamination study was carried out using Applied Biosystems AmpflSTR™ Identifiler™ Direct PCR Amplification kits. The e-Core instrument does not contaminate FTA discs when a cleaning punch is used following excision of discs containing samples and generates STR profiles that are comparable to those generated by the manual micro-punch. PMID:25407399

  7. Blood Pump Bearing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aber, Gregory S. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    An apparatus is provided for a blood pump bearing system within a pump housing to support long-term highspeed rotation of a rotor with an impeller blade having a plurality of individual magnets disposed thereon to provide a small radial air gap between the magnets and a stator of less than 0.025 inches. The bearing system may be mounted within a flow straightener, diffuser, or other pump element to support the shaft of a pump rotor. The bearing system includes a zirconia shaft having a radiused end. The radiused end has a first radius selected to be about three times greater than the radius of the zirconia shaft. The radiused end of the zirconia shaft engages a flat sapphire endstone. Due to the relative hardness of these materials a flat is quickly produced during break-in on the zirconia radiused end of precisely the size necessary to support thrust loads whereupon wear substantially ceases. Due to the selection of the first radius, the change in shaft end-play during pump break-in is limited to a total desired end-play of less than about 0.010 inches. Radial loads are supported by an olive hole ring jewel that makes near line contact around the circumference of the Ir shaft to support big speed rotation with little friction. The width of olive hole ring jewel is small to allow heat to conduct through to thereby prevent heat build-up in the bearing. A void defined by the bearing elements may fill with blood that then coagulates within the void. The coagulated blood is then conformed to the shape of the bearing surfaces.

  8. Design of Er:YAG laser blood-sampling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-chao; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Ling, Ming; Liang, Zhu

    2009-07-01

    Laser blood-sampling device is one of the foremost tasks in medicine domain. It has a lot of merits such as un-touching, avoiding infection, indolence, and fast healing etc. The Er:YAG laser with wavelength of 2.94μm which is just close to the absorbency peak of water can be strongly absorbed by water molecular, so it has very wide application value in clinical medicine. In the paper, based on the mutual action characters of the laser with 2.94μm wave length on biological tissues, such as high absorption, acting on surface, the design of a new type of laser blood-sampling device is introduced. According to the needs of practice, the main component of the blood-sampling device is the laser, which includes optical resonator, optical collector, pumping source, optical guidance and focusing system. All of them are designed in the paper, and the reflection index of output coupling mirror of laser is optimized, the laser threshold is reduced, and pumping efficiency is improved. Moreover, thermal effect of Er:YAG solid-state laser is analyzed and a reasonable cooling method is designed. As a result, an excellent laser blood- sampling is obtained, the maximum output power is about 1J, the optical to optical conversion efficiency is 1.2%. For the better production-grade, the cuprum-based conduction is adopt to eliminate heat, the precision modulation and fixing of the optical resonance is achieved by the special adjusting structure that not only improve the stability and reliability, but also reduce the size of laser bloodsampling device. The size is 110×190×320mm, the weight is about 5.8kg, and the laser blood- sampling efficiency is 100%.

  9. Blood samples in the neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether crocodile, platypus, man, or chicken: Always the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has the same task. It carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. In investigative manner and international team around Dr. Andreas Stadler from the Julic Research Center has deciphered in detail, how and why the hemoglobines of these creatures nevertheless differ. Their findings are among others interesting for the research on artificial blood.

  10. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.;

    2008-01-01

    whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected and...... stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, and...

  11. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of retro-orbital blood sampling is prohibited in Denmark. For this reason, alternative methods are used for obtaining larger blood samples of a good quality. The facial vein is generally recommended for this. However, we have experienced discomfort for mice subjected to facial...

  12. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...... of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. VO2max decreased towards the end of the season whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test.The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes...

  13. Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

  14. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  15. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  16. A Mars Sample Return Sample Handling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, David; Stroker, Carol

    2013-01-01

    We present a sample handling system, a subsystem of the proposed Dragon landed Mars Sample Return (MSR) mission [1], that can return to Earth orbit a significant mass of frozen Mars samples potentially consisting of: rock cores, subsurface drilled rock and ice cuttings, pebble sized rocks, and soil scoops. The sample collection, storage, retrieval and packaging assumptions and concepts in this study are applicable for the NASA's MPPG MSR mission architecture options [2]. Our study assumes a predecessor rover mission collects samples for return to Earth to address questions on: past life, climate change, water history, age dating, understanding Mars interior evolution [3], and, human safety and in-situ resource utilization. Hence the rover will have "integrated priorities for rock sampling" [3] that cover collection of subaqueous or hydrothermal sediments, low-temperature fluidaltered rocks, unaltered igneous rocks, regolith and atmosphere samples. Samples could include: drilled rock cores, alluvial and fluvial deposits, subsurface ice and soils, clays, sulfates, salts including perchlorates, aeolian deposits, and concretions. Thus samples will have a broad range of bulk densities, and require for Earth based analysis where practical: in-situ characterization, management of degradation such as perchlorate deliquescence and volatile release, and contamination management. We propose to adopt a sample container with a set of cups each with a sample from a specific location. We considered two sample cups sizes: (1) a small cup sized for samples matching those submitted to in-situ characterization instruments, and, (2) a larger cup for 100 mm rock cores [4] and pebble sized rocks, thus providing diverse samples and optimizing the MSR sample mass payload fraction for a given payload volume. We minimize sample degradation by keeping them frozen in the MSR payload sample canister using Peltier chip cooling. The cups are sealed by interference fitted heat activated memory

  17. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duale Nur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression.

  18. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical feature...... number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.......Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in...

  19. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P < 0.001) was lower in hemolyzed...... samples but plasma propionate, caproate, isovalerate (P < 0.001), and isobutyrate (P < 0.05) were higher in hemolyzed samples. Plasma glucose and lactate were the only metabolites that were not affected by hemolysis. Interactions with hemolysis and other fixed effects were not found (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2...

  20. Real-time RT-PCR systems for CTC detection from blood samples of breast cancer and gynaecological tumour patients (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andergassen, Ulrich; Kölbl, Alexandra C; Mahner, Sven; Jeschke, Udo

    2016-04-01

    Cells, which detach from a primary epithelial tumour and migrate through lymphatic vessels and blood stream are called 'circulating tumour cells'. These cells are considered to be the main root of remote metastasis and are correlated to a worse prognosis concerning progression-free and overall survival of the patients. Therefore, the detection of the minimal residual disease is of great importance regarding therapeutic decisions. Many different detection strategies are already available, but only one method, the CellSearch® system, reached FDA approval. The present review focusses on the detection of circulating tumour cells by means of real-time PCR, a highly sensitive method based on differences in gene expression between normal and malignant cells. Strategies for an enrichment of tumour cells are mentioned, as well as a large panel of potential marker genes. Drawbacks and advantages of the technique are elucidated, whereas, the greatest advantage might be, that by selection of appropriate marker genes, also tumour cells, which have already undergone epithelial to mesenchymal transition can be detected. Finally, the application of real-time PCR in different gynaecological malignancies is described, with breast cancer being the most studied cancer entity. PMID:26848098

  1. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus...... of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood...... minutes. Furthermore, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential...

  2. Vesicle-associated microRNAs are released from blood cells on incubation of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberle, Verena; Kakoschky, Bianca; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Schmithals, Christian; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulating extracellularly in the blood are currently intensively studied as novel disease markers. However, the preanalytical factors influencing the levels of the extracellular miRNAs are still incompletely explored. In particular, it is unknown, whether the incubation of blood samples as occurring in clinical routine can lead to a release of miRNAs from blood cells and thus alter the extracellular miRNA levels before the preparation of serum or plasma from the blood cells. Using a set of marker miRNAs and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the levels of extracellular miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 were increased in EDTA and serum collection tubes incubated for 1-3 hours at room temperature and declined thereafter; the levels of the liver-specific miRNA-122 declined monophasically. These events occurred in the absence of significant hemolysis. When the blood was supplemented with Ribonuclease A inhibitor, the levels of miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 increased substantially during the initial 3 hours of incubation and those of miRNA-122 remained unchanged, indicating that the release of blood cell-derived miRNAs occurred during the initial 3 hours of incubation of the blood tubes, but not at later time points. Separation of 5-hour preincubated blood into vesicle and nonvesicle fractions revealed a selective increase in the portion of vesicle-associated miRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the release of vesicle-associated miRNAs from blood cells can occur in blood samples within the time elapsing in normal clinical practice until their processing without significant hemolysis. This becomes particularly visible on the inhibition of miRNA degradation by Ribonuclease A inhibitor. PMID:26608461

  3. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  4. Carbon monoxide stability in stored postmortem blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsman, G W; Presses, C L; Rodriguez, P

    2000-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of both suicidal and accidental deaths in the United States. As a consequence, determination of the percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb) level in postmortem blood is a common analysis performed in toxicology laboratories. The blood specimens analyzed are generally preserved with either EDTA or sodium fluoride. Potentially problematic scenarios that may arise in conjunction with CO analysis are a first analysis or a reanalysis requested months or years after the initial toxicology testing is completed; both raise the issue of the stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored postmortem blood specimens. A study was conducted at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office to evaluate the stability of CO in blood samples collected in red-, gray-, and purple-top tubes by comparing results obtained at the time of the autopsy and after two years of storage at 3 degrees C using either an IL 282 or 682 CO-Oximeter. The results from this study suggest that carboxyhemoglobin is stable in blood specimens collected in vacutainer tubes, with or without preservative, and stored refrigerated for up to two years. PMID:11043662

  5. [Selenium determination in blood plasma samples of high performance athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, E; Krützfeldt, B; Rokitzki, L

    1989-01-01

    Cooperating with the department "Sport- und Leistungsmedizin" of the university hospital of Freiburg/Brsg. we investigated the problem whether endurance stress leads to a significant change in the selenium blood concentration of athletes. We took blood samples of 13 test persons (11 men, 2 women) before, immediately after and 2 hours following a marathon course. The analyses of the concentration of selenium in plasma were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry AAS (molybdenum-coated graphite tube technique with L'vov platform as well as matrix modification with nickel nitrate in order to thermally stabilize the selenium). The selenium level of the plasma samples ranged between 41 and 153 micrograms/L. Our experiments have shown that running a marathon course does not lead to significant changes in the standard selenium plasma concentrations of the athletes. PMID:2818554

  6. Development of blood extraction system for health monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2004-03-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop the compact human blood sampling device applied for a health monitoring system(HMS), which is called "Mobile Hospital". The HMS consists of (1) a micro electrical pumping system for blood extraction, (2) a bio-sensor to detect and evaluate an amount of Glucose, Cholesterol and Urea in extracted blood, by using enzyme such as Glucoseoxidase (GOD), Cholesteroloxidase and Urease. The mechanical design elements of the device are bio-compatible microneedle, indentation unit using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator and pumping unit using a piezoelectric microactuator. The design concept is the biomimetic micromachine of female mosquito"s blood sampling mechanism. The performances of the main mechanical elements such as indentation force of the microneedle, actual stroke of the indentation unit using a SMA actuator and liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit using PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The 3 mm stroke of the indentation load generated by SMA actuator was 0.8mN. The amount of imitation blood extracted by using bimorph PZT actuators was about 0.5 microliters for 10 sec. A 60-micrometer outer diameter and 25-micrometer inner diameter Titanium microneedle, which size is same as female mosquito"s labium, was produced by sputter deposition.

  7. Validation of an automated ELISA system for detection of antibodies to Aleutian mink disease virus using blood samples collected in filter paper strips

    OpenAIRE

    Knuuttila, Anna; Aronen, Pirjo; Eerola, Majvor; Gardner, Ian A; Virtala, Anna-Maija K; Vapalahti, Olli

    2014-01-01

    Background Aleutian mink disease virus (AMDV) is the cause of a chronic immune complex disease, Aleutian disease (AD), which is common in mink-producing countries. In 2005, implementation of an AMDV eradication programme in Finland created a need for an automated high-throughput assay. The aim of this study was to validate an AMDV-VP2 -recombinant antigen ELISA, which we developed earlier, in an automated assay format for the detection of anti-AMDV antibodies in mink blood and to determine th...

  8. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M092)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolte, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    The Blood Pressure Measuring System is described. It measures blood pressure by the noninvasive Korotkoff sound technique on a continual basis as physical stress is imposed during experiment M092, Lower Body Negative Pressure, and experiment M171, Metabolic Activity.

  9. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  10. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a...

  11. Noninvasive alternatives to arterial blood sampling in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography is commonly employed for the quantitative assessment of regional biochemistry. The determination of glucose and oxygen utilization rates using [F-18] 2FDG and [0-15] 0/sub 2/ demand accurate measurement of the driving function producing the observed tissue response. Conventional techniques consist of an arterial or venous puncture with either discrete or continuous sampling of blood label concentrations. A time-of-flight (TOF) probe and expired gas detector have been developed as alternatives to these invasive techniques. The acquisition of serial spectra with the TOF pair (4 x 4cm BaF/sub 2/;XP2020Q;380 psec FWHM), sampling a line through the cardiac chambers, reveals the spatial distribution of activity in the heart and surrounding tissue as a function of time. Region-of-interest analysis of the temporally resolved spectra produce the activity time courses required for analysis of tissue response data. Multigated TOF acquisition using a pulsewatch (LED-phototransistor pair which detects finger-tip blood volume changes) as the gating mechanism promises to provide an easy and accurate method for positioning the TOF probe. Dynamic techniques for the measurement of oxygen utilization rates require both the arterial [0-15] 0/sub 2/ and [0-15] H/sub 2/O concentrations. A heated flow-through plastic (NE 102) beta detector was developed to measure the concentration of label in the alveolar gas which was equilibrated with the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Combining the TOF probe and expired gas data allows the separation of the oxygen and water components of the input function

  12. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside James W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc, although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS, which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  13. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  14. Comet assay, a possible screening assay to classify subgroups of individuals with different radiosensitivity using high throughput scanning system for multiple samples of human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research was designed to identify the correlation between clinical radiosensitivity among breast cancer patients and in vitro radiosensitivity measured by alkaline comet assay in high throughput fashion. In 62 patients with breast cancer and age-matched 41 healthy volunteers, acute adverse effects on skin after radiotherapy were clinically scored according to RTOG grading system. Maximum score during 6 months after radiotherapy was grade 0 for 9 patients, grade 1 for 25 patients, grade 2 for 24 patients, and grade 3 for 4 patients. The parameters of alkaline comet assay were initial damage, which was mean tail moment (MTM) values in irradiated cells in vitro immediately after irradiation with 5 Gy, and % residual damage (RD) at 15 min after irradiation. Correlation between initial damage and skin reaction was found in breast cancer patients between grade 1 and grade 2, 3 (p=0.017). There was no correlation between RD and skin reaction (p=0.056), while large inter-individual variation of RD was revealed among breast cancer patients with grade 0 (17.04 +13.31 %), or grade 2, 3 (16.86 +11.09 %). By introducing a new analyzer, throughput of the comet assay data was highly improved. Our data suggests that the comet assay might be one of supportive assays to classify subpopulation of patients who have different radiosensitivity from normal responders with a fair-poor discriminating capacity of the test to identify the patients with higher risk of developing a severe acute reaction

  15. Rejection sampling in demand systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ley, Eduardo; Mark F.J. Steel

    1992-01-01

    We illustrate the method of rejection sampling in a Bayesian application of a new approach toı estimating Demand Systems. This approach, suggested by Varian (1990), is based on a generalization of Afriat's (1967) efficiency index. Rejection sampling is applied to the prior-to-posterior mapping enabling us to obtain posterior results in a nonstandard model.

  16. [Research of Outlier Samples Elimination Methods for Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Blood Glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongzhong; Li, Lina; Lin, Tianliang

    2015-12-01

    For the near-infrared (NIR) spectral analysis of the concentration of blood glucose, the calibration accuracy can be affected because of the existing of outlier samples. In this research, a Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV) method is constructed for eliminating outlier samples. The human blood plasma experiment in vitro and the human body experiment in vivo were introduced to evaluate the MCCV method for its application effect in NIR spectral analysis of blood glucose. And the uninformative sample elimination method based on modified uninformative variable elimination (MUVE-USE) was employed in this study for the comparison with MCCV. The results indicated that, like the MUVE-USE method, the outlier samples elimination method based on MCCV could be used to eliminate the outlier samples which came from gross errors (such as bad sample) or system errors (such as baseline drift). In addition, the outlier samples from the random errors of uncertain causes which affect model accuracy can be eliminated simultaneously by MCCV. The elimination of multiple outlier samples is beneficial to the improvement of prediction accuracy of calibration model. PMID:27079108

  17. Isolation and identification of strains and drug detection and analysis of BioMerieux blood culture system combined with Vitek 2 compact in blood samples%梅里埃血培养仪联合Vitek2 compact在血标本中菌株分离鉴定及耐药检测分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢南子

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyse the isolation and identification of strains and drug detection of BioMerieux blood culture system combined with Vitek 2 compact in blood samples.Methods:Selection of clinical samples of 1 350 blood samples,the identification and drug resistance analysis.Results:152 pathogenic bacteria were isolated from 1 350 blood samples,gram negative bacteria 78 strains(51.31% ),66 gram positive bacteria(43.42% ),fungi 8 strains(5.27% ),the resistance rate of gram positive bacteria to the resistance rate of 62.12% and 77.27% respectively,gram negative bacteria to the resistance rates of both the class and penicillin were higher.Conclusion:Vitek2 compact and bioMerieux blood culture system can accurately separate specimens bleeding strain,it has good prospects in the field of rapid diagnosis and treatment of bloodstream infections diseases.%目的:分析Vitek2 compact和梅里埃血培养仪在血标本菌株分离鉴定和耐药分析的应用.方法:选择临床送检血液样本1 350份,进行菌种鉴定和耐药性分析.结果:在1 350份血液样本中分离出病原菌152株,革兰阴性菌78株(51.31%),革兰阳性菌66株(43.42%),真菌8株(5.27%);革兰阳性菌对苯唑西林与苄青霉素的耐药率分别为62.12%和77.27%,革兰阴性菌对头孢素类和青霉素类的耐药率均较高.结论:Vitek2 compact和梅里埃血培养仪能准确分离出血标本中菌株,在血流感染疾病的快速诊疗领域中具有较好的应用前景.

  18. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed. PMID:20024028

  19. Sample pretreatment microfluidic chip for DNA extraction from rat peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing; CUI Dafu; LIU Changchun; LI Hui; ZHAO Weixing

    2007-01-01

    A sample pretreatment microfluidic chip was described based on the principle of solid phase extraction and micro electro mechanical system technology.Oxidized porous silicon with the large surface area as the solid phase matrix for absorption of DNA from a biological sample can greatly improve the DNA yield.The factors that could affect the DNA yield were analyzed and the preparation technology and the experiment procedure were improved.The DNA purification process from the rat peripheral blood can be achieved and the DNA yield is 24 ng/(μL whole blood),which can reach the level of the commercial DNA purification kits.Furthermore,the DNA extracted from the whole blood can be amplified by polymerase chain reaction,which can achieve a high efficiency of the amplification.

  20. Automated processing of whole blood samples for the determination of immunosuppressants by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Spöhrer, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Background: Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an efficient technology for routine determination of immunosuppressants in whole blood; however, time-consuming manual sample preparation remains a significant limitation of this technique. Methods: Using a commercially available robotic pipetting system (Tecan Freedom EVO), we developed an automated sample-preparation protocol for quantification of tacrolimus in whole blood by LC-MS/MS. Barcode reading, sample resuspens...

  1. Influence of Blood Collection Systems on Coagulation Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soner Yavaş

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Coagulation tests are influenced by pre-analytic conditions such as blood collection systems. Change of glass collection tubes with plastic ones will cause alteration of the test results. The aim of this study was to compare three plastic blood collection tubes with a standard glass blood collection tube and each plastic collection tube with the other two for possible additional tube-to- tube differences. METHODS: A total of 284 blood samples were obtained from 42 patients receiving warfarin during their routine controls, besides 29 healthy volunteers. Subgroup analyses were done according to health status. RESULTS: Our study demonstrated that different blood collection tubes have a statistically significant influence on coagulation tests. The magnitude of the effect depends on the tube used. However most of the tests performed on samples obtained from any tube correlated significantly with results obtained from other tube samples. CONCLUSION: Although blood collection tubes with different brands or properties will have distinct effects on coagulation tests, the influence of these blood collection tubes may be relatively small to interfere with decision-making on dose prescription, therefore lack clinical importance. Correlations between the results showed that, one of these plastic blood collection tubes tested in our study, can be used interchangably for a wide variety of coagulation assays.

  2. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmacologically active substances in urine and blood samples by use of a continuous solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 22 pharmacologically active substances (frequently used in the treatment of human and animal's diseases) including analgesics, antibacterials, anti-epileptics, antiseptics, β-blockers, hormones, lipid regulators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in blood and urine samples. Samples were subjected to continuous solid-phase extraction in a sorbent column (Oasis HLB), and then the target analytes were eluted with ethyl acetate and derivatized in a household microwave oven at 350 W for 3 min. Finally, these products were determined in a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. The analyte detection limits thus obtained ranged from 0.2 to 1.3 ng L⁻¹ for urine samples and 0.8-5.6 ng L⁻¹ for blood samples. Recoveries from both blood and urine ranged from 85 to 102%, and within-day and between-day relative standard deviations were all less than 7.5%. The proposed method offers advantages in reduction of the exposure danger to toxic solvents used in conventional sample pretreatment, simplicity of the extraction processes, rapidity, and sensitivity enhancement. The method was successfully used to quantify pharmacologically active substances in human and animal (lamb, veal and pig) blood and urine. The hormones estrone and 17β-estradiol were detected in virtually all samples, and so were other analytes such as acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triclosan in human samples, and florfenicol, pyrimethamine and phenylbutazone in animal samples. PMID:22391330

  3. SYSTEMIC BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND AFTER AUTOTRANSFUSION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SCHONBERGER, JPAM; VANOEVEREN, W; BREDEE, JJ; EVERTS, PAM; DEHAAN, J; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the extent of shed blood activation in two autotransfusion systems and the effect of circulating blood activation upon autotransfusion, we performed a prospective study in 18 patients undergoing internal mammary artery bypass operation and a control group of 10 patients. The autotransfus

  4. Blood monitoring systems and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mir, Jose (Inventor); Zander, Dennis (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A blood monitoring system is capable of monitoring the blood of a subject in vivo. The blood monitoring system comprises: 1) an array of movable microneedle micromachined within associated wells; 2) array of motion actuators able to move each needle in and out of their associated wells; 3) array of microvalves associated with each microneedle able to control the flow of air around the microneedle; 4) an array of chemical sensors inserted into patient by movable microneedles; 5) an array of inductors able to measure chemical concentration in the vicinity of inserted chemical sensors; 6) conducting vias that provide timed actuating signal signals from a control system to each motion actuator; 7) conducting vias that transmit signal produced by array of chemical sensors to the control system for processing, although the blood monitoring system can comprise other numbers and types of elements in other configurations.

  5. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana del Valle Mendoza

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers, and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease.

  6. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, T. L.; Nybo, M.

    2015-01-01

    . As suggested by the EFLM working group on the preanalytical phase we introduced continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme to monitor the quality of blood sampling performed on an everyday basis. Materials and methods: Based on our own routines...... the EFLM auditing questionnaire was altered giving an observation scheme containing 19 observation issues. Using this scheme three blood samplings from two phlebotomists was observed twice a week (at the blood sampling unit and at a hospital ward, respectively), giving a total of 12 blood drawings...

  7. Automatic blood pressure measuring system (M091)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    The Leg Volume Measuring System is used to measure leg calf girth changes that occur during exposure to lower body negative pressure as a result of pooling of blood and other fluids in the lower extremities.

  8. Design and microfabrication of new automatic human blood sample collection and preparation devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Minh Nhut

    2015-01-01

    For self-sampling or collection of blood by health personal related to point-ofcare diagnostics in health rooms, it may often be necessary to perform automatic collection of blood samples. The most important operation that needs to be done when handling whole blood is to be able to combine automatic sample collection with optimal mixing of anticoagulation liquid and weak xatives. In particular before doing any transport of a sample or point-of-care nucleic acid diagnostics (PO...

  9. Identification of Nocardiopsis dassonvillei in a Blood Sample from a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lejbkowicz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocardiopsis dassonvillei is an environmental aerobic actinomycete producing a funguslike mycelium and aerial hyphae. Here we report the first Nocardiopsis dassonvillei isolated from a blood sample from a 3-year-old child hospitalized with fever, respiratory difficulty and cough. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time this organism has been detected in the BacT/Alert system. This Nocardiopsis was designated Nocardiopsis dassonvillei based on morphological and physiological tests.

  10. Action of Gaseous Nitric Oxide on Some Physical and Chemical Parameters of Human Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Martusevich; Anna G. Soloveva; Sergey P. Peretyagin; Vanin, Anatoly F.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the metabolic changes induced by gaseous nitric oxide in whole blood samples in vitro. Blood samples were collected from healthy donors (Nizhny Novgorod station of blood transfusion). We carried out the direct bubbling of blood samples (n = 14) with gaseous flow with NO in a special appliance. We modeled standard conditions using the apparatus “Plazon” (concentration NO 800 mcg/l). Middle power of gas flow was used. The blood sparging time was 2 min, and exposition time lasted 3 mi...

  11. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...... isoflurane showed lower increases in blood pressure after, and fewer fluctuations in body temperature during sampling, and the post-anaesthetic effects of isoflurane, if any, seemed to disappear immediately after sampling. It is, therefore, concluded that blood sampling in rats by jugular puncture seems to...

  12. Blood samples in the neutron beam; Blutproben im Neutronenstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Whether crocodile, platypus, man, or chicken: Always the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has the same task. It carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. In investigative manner and international team around Dr. Andreas Stadler from the Julic Research Center has deciphered in detail, how and why the hemoglobines of these creatures nevertheless differ. Their findings are among others interesting for the research on artificial blood.

  13. A novel automated discontinuous venous blood monitoring system for ex vivo glucose determination in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaller, R; Feichtner, F; Köhler, H; Bodenlenz, M; Plank, J; Wutte, A; Mader, J K; Ellmerer, M; Hellmich, R; Wedig, H; Hainisch, R; Pieber, T R; Schaupp, L

    2009-03-15

    Intensive insulin therapy reduces mortality and morbidity in critically ill patients but imposes great demands on medical staff who must take frequent blood samples for the determination of glucose levels. A solution to this resourcing problem would be provided by an automated blood monitoring system. The aim of the present clinical study was to evaluate such a system comprising an automatic blood sampling unit linked to a glucose biosensor. Our approach was to determine the correlation and system error of the sampling unit alone and of the combined system with respect to reference levels over 12h in humans. Two venous cannulae were inserted to connect the automatic and reference systems to the subjects. Blood samples were taken at 15 and 30 min intervals. The median Pearson coefficient of correlation between manually and automatically withdrawn blood samples was 0.982 for the sampling unit alone and 0.950 for the complete system. The biosensor had a linear range up to 20 mmoll(-1) and a 95% response time of Titration Error Grid analysis suggested an acceptable treatment in 99.56% of cases. Implementation of a "Keep Vein Open" saline infusion into the automated blood sampling system reduced blood withdrawal failures through occluded catheters fourfold. In summary, automated blood sampling from a peripheral vein coupled with automatic glucose determination is a promising alternative to frequent manual blood sampling. PMID:19135351

  14. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  15. A simple and efficient method for DNA purification from samples of highly clotted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruyi; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Dong, Jin; Deng, Xinxin

    2010-11-01

    Rapid purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood is a challenging problem due to the difficulty in recovering and dispersing blood clots. We developed a new method for discarding the serum-separator gel and rapidly dispersing the blood clots. A special disposable tip was inserted into the serum-separator gel so that the serum-separator gel could be discarded. The blood clot obtained was dispersed into small pieces through a copper mesh (pore size, 250 μm) in a special dispersing instrument by centrifugation. After lysis of red blood cells and white blood cells, genomic DNA was concentrated and desalted by isopropanol precipitation. The mean yield of DNA purified from a 0.3-ml blood clot was 22.70 μg in 173 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for 1 month, and 19.02 μg in 1,372 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for >6 months. DNA samples were successfully performed through polymerase chain reaction, real time polymerase chain reaction, and melt curve analysis. Their quality was comparable with that purified directly from EDTA-anticoagulated blood. The new method overcomes the difficulties in recovering and dispersing blood clots, allowing efficient purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood. PMID:20549389

  16. IBCIS:Intelligent blood cell identification system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Adnan Khashman

    2008-01-01

    The analysis of blood cells in microscope images can provide useful information concerning the health of patients.There are three major blood cell types,namely,erythrocytes (red),leukocytes (white),and platelets.Manual classification is time consuming and susceptible to error due to the different morphological features of the cells.This paper presents an intelligent system that simulates a human visual inspection and classification of the three blood cell types.The proposed system comprises two phases:The image preprocessing phase where blood cell features are extracted via global pattern averaging,and the neural network arbitration phase where training is the first and then classification is carried out.Experimental results suggest that the proposed method performs well in identifying blood cell types regardless of their irregular shapes,sizes and orientation,thus providing a fast,simple and efficient rotational and scale invariant blood cell identification system which can be used in automating laboratory reporting.

  17. Validation of a fully automated robotic setup for preparation of whole blood samples for LC-MS toxicology analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Rasmussen, Brian; Linnet, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    A fully automated setup was developed for preparing whole blood samples using a Tecan Evo workstation. By integrating several add-ons to the robotic platform, the flexible setup was able to prepare samples from sample tubes to a 96-well sample plate ready for injection on liquid chromatography......-mass spectrometry using several preparation techniques, including protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction and centrifugation, without any manual intervention. Pipetting of a known aliquot of whole blood was achieved by integrating a balance and performing gravimetric measurements. The system was able to...

  18. Popliteal Vein Blood Sampling and the Postmortem Redistribution of Diazepam, Methadone, and Morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Eric; Schmidt, Carl; Denooz, Raphael; Charlier, Corinne; Boxho, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Postmortem redistribution (PMR) refers to the site- and time-related blood drug concentration variations after death. We compared central blood (cardiac and subclavian) with peripheral blood (femoral and popliteal) concentrations of diazepam, methadone, and morphine. To our knowledge, popliteal blood has never been compared with other sites. Intracardiac blood (ICB), subclavian blood (SB), femoral blood (FB), and popliteal blood (PB) were sampled in 30 cases. To assess PMR, mean concentrations and ratios were compared. Influence of postmortem interval on mean ratios was also assessed. Results show that popliteal mean concentrations were lower than those for other sites for all three drugs, even lower than femoral blood; mean ratios suggested that the popliteal site was less subject to PMR, and estimated postmortem interval did not influence ratios except for diazepam and methadone FB/PB. In conclusion, our study is the first to explore the popliteal site and suggests that popliteal blood is less prone to postmortem redistribution. PMID:27364283

  19. Immunoassay of human TSH using dried blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive, semi-quantitative radioimmunoassay method to screen for elevations of TSH concentration in blood is described. The method requires two 0.32 cm dots of dried blood-impregnated filter paper (equivalent to 3 μl plasma) and a 3-day incubation. Separation of bound and free is obtained using polyethylene glycol. The method can recognize TSH concentrations as low as 22 μU/ml using a highly sensitive antiserum developed by one of us (AFP). TSH in dried cord and newborn blood from four infants with congenital hypothyroidism was clearly higher than in normal infants. The method is suitable for use in a newborn screening program to confirm the suspicion of primary hypothyroidism in specimens with low T4 concentrations

  20. Geometric characterization of red blood cells. Differentiation of normal and pathologic samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the irregularity of abstract and natural objectswith the fractal dimension. Fractal calculationshave been applied to the structures of the humanbody and to quantifications in physiology fromthe theory of dynamic systems.Material and Methods. The fractal dimensionswere calculated, the number of occupationspaces in the space border of box counting andthe area of two red blood cells groups, 7 normalones, group A, and 7 abnormal, group B, comingfrom patient and of bags for transfusion, werecalculated using the method of box counting anda software developed for such effect. The obtainedmeasures were compared, looking for differencesbetween normal and abnormal red blood cells,with the purpose of differentiating samples.Results. The abnormality characterizes by anumber of squares of occupation of the fractalspace greater or equal to 180; values of areasbetween 25.117 and 33.548 correspond to normality.In case that the evaluation according tothe number of pictures is of normality, must beconfirmed with the value of the area applied toadjacent red blood cells within the sample, thatin case of having values by outside establishedand/or the greater or equal spaces to 180, theysuggest abnormality of the sample.Conclusions. The developed methodology iseffective to differentiate the red globules alterationsand probably useful in the analysis of bagsof transfusion for clinical use.

  1. Fiscal 1998 survey report. Medical equipment (Development of fine sampling/analysis system for blood / Development of high-precision 3-D image diagnosis system / Development of low-invasion operation support system / Total development of artificial internal organ technologies); 1998 nendo chosa hokokusho. Iryo kiki (ketsuekinado biryo saishu, biryo bunseki system kaihatsu/koseido sanjigen eizo shindan system kaihatsu/teishinshu shujutsu shien system kaihatsu/jinko zoki gijutsu sogo kaihatsu)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    For efficient medical care supply systems, the R and D of advanced medical care technology and equipment largely contribute to productivity improvement for medical care services. Among them, a progress of medical care technology is becoming important for preparation of efficient and fair supply systems. MITI thus established 'Medical care and welfare equipment development project' in 1994, and has promoted the strategic long-term R and D project of medical care and welfare equipment as joint R and D project of NEDO and private enterprises. In fiscal 1998, on the development of the fine sampling/analysis system for blood, the high- precision 3-D image diagnosis system, the low-invasion operation support system, and the artificial internal organ technologies since fiscal 1996, this project clarified essential technical issues based on the future view, selected some themes to be newly developed in the future, and surveyed and evaluated the details of their R and D concretely. (NEDO)

  2. Behavior of optical properties of coagulated blood sample at 633 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cruzado, Beatriz; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio; Delgado Atencio, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Determination of tissue optical parameters is fundamental for application of light in either diagnostics or therapeutical procedures. However, in samples of biological tissue in vitro, the optical properties are modified by cellular death or cellular agglomeration that can not be avoided. This phenomena change the propagation of light within the biological sample. Optical properties of human blood tissue were investigated in vitro at 633 nm using an optical setup that includes a double integrating sphere system. We measure the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the blood sample and compare these physical properties with those obtained by Monte Carlo Multi-Layered (MCML). The extraction of the optical parameters: absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropic factor g from the measurements were carried out using a Genetic Algorithm, in which the search procedure is based in the evolution of a population due to selection of the best individual, evaluated by a function that compares the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of those individuals with the experimental ones. The algorithm converges rapidly to the best individual, extracting the optical parameters of the sample. We compare our results with those obtained by using other retrieve procedures. We found that the scattering coefficient and the anisotropic factor change dramatically due to the formation of clusters.

  3. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  4. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1μm) to be collected over a 30min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFUmL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFUmL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  5. Minimally invasive blood sampling method for genetic studies on Gopherus tortoises

    OpenAIRE

    García–Feria, L. M.; Ureña–Aranda, C. A.; Espinosa de los Monteros, A.

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining good quality tissue samples is the first hurdle in any molecular study. This is especially true for studies involving management and conservation of wild fauna. In the case of tortoises, the most common sources of DNA are blood samples. However, only a minimal amount of blood is required for PCR assays. Samples are obtained mainly from the brachial and jugular vein after restraining the animal chemically, or from conscious individuals by severe handling methods and clamping. Herein,...

  6. The efficacy of field techniques for obtaining and storing blood samples from fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T D; Donaldson, M R; Drenner, S M; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A; Hills, J; Ives, V; Carter, J J; Cooke, S J; Farrell, A P

    2011-11-01

    Prompted by the dramatic increase in the use of blood analyses in fisheries research and monitoring, this study investigated the efficacy of common field techniques for sampling and storing blood from fishes. Three questions were addressed: (1) Do blood samples taken via rapid caudal puncture (the 'grab-and-stab' technique) yield similar results for live v. sacrificed groups of fishes? (2) Do rapidly obtained caudal blood samples accurately represent blood properties of fishes prior to capture? (3) Does storage of whole blood in an ice slurry for a working day (8·5 h) modify the properties of the plasma? It was shown that haematocrit, plasma ions, metabolites, stress hormones and sex hormones of caudal blood samples were statistically similar when taken from live v. recently sacrificed groups of adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Moreover, this study confirmed by using paired blood samples from cannulated O. kisutch that blood acquired through the caudal puncture technique (mean ±s.e. 142 ± 26 s after capture) was representative of fish prior to capture. Long-term (8·5 h) cold storage of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka whole blood caused significant decreases in plasma potassium and chloride, and a significant increase in plasma glucose. Previous research has suggested that these changes largely result from net movements of ions and molecules between the plasma and erythrocytes, movements that can occur within minutes of storage. Thus, blood samples from fishes should be centrifuged as quickly as practicable in the field for separation of plasma and erythrocytes to prevent potentially misleading data. PMID:22026608

  7. Detection of drugs in 275 alcohol-positive blood samples of Korean drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunmi; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Juseon; Jang, Moonhee; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS. For the detection of DUID related drugs in blood samples, a total of 49 drugs were selected and were examined by GC-MS. For a rapid detection of these drugs, an automated identification software called "DrugMan" was used. Concentrations of alcohol in 275 blood samples ranged from 0.011 to 0.249% (average 0.119%). Six specimens showed positive results by immunoassay: one methamphetamine and five benzodiazepines I. By GC-MS confirmation, only benzodiazepines in four cases were identified, while methamphetamine and benzodiazepine in two cases were not detected from the presumptive positive blood samples. Using DrugMan, four drugs were detected; chlorpheniramine (5)*, diazepam (4), dextromethorphan (1) and doxylamine (1). In addition, ibuprofen (1), lidocaine (1) and topiramate (1) were also detected as general drugs in blood samples ('*' indicates frequency). The frequency of drug abuse by Korean drivers was relatively low and a total 14 cases were positive in 275 blood samples with a ratio of 5%. However it is necessary to analyze more samples including alcohol negative blood, and to expand the range of drug lists to get the detailed information. PMID:27015372

  8. Minimally invasive blood sampling method for genetic studies on Gopherus tortoises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García–Feria, L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining good quality tissue samples is the first hurdle in any molecular study. This is especially true for studies involving management and conservation of wild fauna. In the case of tortoises, the most common sources of DNA are blood samples. However, only a minimal amount of blood is required for PCR assays. Samples are obtained mainly from the brachial and jugular vein after restraining the animal chemically, or from conscious individuals by severe handling methods and clamping. Herein, we present a minimally invasive technique that has proven effective for extracting small quantities of blood, suitable for genetic analyses. Furthermore, the samples obtained yielded better DNA amplification than other cell sources, such as cloacal epithelium cells. After two years of use on wild tortoises, this technique has shown to be harmless. We suggest that sampling a small amount of blood could also be useful for other types of analyses, such as physiologic and medical monitoring.

  9. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  10. Comparison of three methods of sampling trout blood for measurements of hematocrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucke, Erwin W., Jr.; Schoettger, Richard A.

    1967-01-01

    Trout blood is frequently collected for hematocrit measurements by excising the caudal fin (Snieszko, 1960), but this technique is impractical if valuable fish are to be sampled or if repeated observations are desired. Schiffman (1959) and Snieszko (1960) collected blood from the dorsal aorta and the heart, but these methods are relatively slow and require the preparation of needles and syringes. The use of pointed capillary tubes for cardiac punctures increases the speed of sampling, but body fluids may dilute the blood (Perkins, 1957; Larsen and Snieszko, 1961; and Normandau, 1962). There is need for methods of sampling which are rapid and which neither influence hematological determinations nor harm the fish.

  11. Prions and the blood and immune systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabbott, Neil; Turner, Marc

    2005-04-01

    Prion diseases take a number of forms in animals and humans. They are caused by conformational change in widely expressed prion protein leading to the formation of intracellular aggregates. Although the main focus of disease is the central nervous system, it is known that involvement of the immune system occurs in peripherally transmitted disease in particular. Animal experiments suggest that in some prion diseases follicular dendritic cells in the germinal centers are a major site of initial accumulation, and that abnormal prion protein and infectivity are detectable in peripheral lymphoid tissue from the earliest phase of disease. This raises the possibility that in a human peripherally transmitted prion disease like variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, further transmission could occur through blood or tissue products or contamination of surgical instrumentation. Indeed two recent reports confirm that this disease has been transmitted by blood, raising significant public health concerns. PMID:15820951

  12. Evaluation of different sized blood sampling tubes for thromboelastometry, platelet function, and platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Pistor-Riebold, Thea Unger; Knudsen, Ingrid Hell;

    2014-01-01

    Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses and compa...

  13. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 i

  14. Robotic system for process sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A three-axis cartesian geometry robot for process sampling was developed at the Savannah River Laboratory (SRL) and implemented in one of the site radioisotope separations facilities. Use of the robot reduces personnel radiation exposure and contamination potential by routinely handling sample containers under operator control in a low-level radiation area. This robot represents the initial phase of a longer term development program to use robotics for further sample automation. Preliminary design of a second generation robot with additional capabilities is also described. 8 figs

  15. Measurement of effective hepatic blood flow using 99mTc-PMT SPECT and single blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective hepatic blood flow (EHBF) was measured from an uptake constant using single blood sampling and 99mTc-PMT hepatobiliary SPECT data. After intravenous injection of 3 mCi (111MBq) of 99mTc-PMT, serial 1 min SPECT data were obtained for 7 minutes. A time activity curve (TAC) over the heart, that was normalized with the 5 minutes venous sample concentration (%/dose/m1), was used as a blood clearance curve (B(t)). And a TAC of the whole liver, that was normalized with the injected dose of 99mTc-PMT (%/dose), was used as a hepatogram (L(t)). An uptake constant representing EHBF, was estimated from the Rutland's method L. (t)/B(t) was plotted against ∫otB(t)dt/B(t), and the slope of the least square fitted straight line was determined as the uptake constant. In 16 cases, significant correlation was obtained between the 99mTc-PMT hepatic uptake at 5 minutes and the EHBF estimated from the blood clearance (r=0.85,p99mTc-PMT SPECT data enables us to estimate EHBF with single venous sampling and in relatively short acquisition time. This method is thought to be very valuable in clinical practice. (author)

  16. A duplex PCR for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Mozafar mohamadi; Vahbeh Piranfar; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Reza Kachuei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Methods: Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Results: Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus (B. abortus) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis (B. ovis) (0%). Conclusions: This work de=monstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples.

  17. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Adam R; Mondala Tony S; Robison Elizabeth H; Head Steven R; Salomon Daniel R; Kurian Sunil M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a veno...

  18. Blood safety and availability: continuing challenges in China's blood banking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Ling; Wang, Jing-Xing; Stevens, Lori; Ness, Paul; Shan, Hua

    2014-02-01

    Social and economic development, along with increased health care coverage, has caused a sharp increase in the clinical demand for blood in China. Whole blood collection has increased rapidly in the past decade but has failed to keep pace with the ever-increasing demand. Overall, the country's blood safety has been improved with 99% of whole blood donations collected from voluntary unpaid donors. However, the unmet clinical demand for blood and the increasing incidence of human immunodeficiency virus and syphilis in the general population pose new challenges to China's blood banking system. To ensure a safe and adequate blood supply, continued efforts are required to recruit and retain a sufficient number of low-risk voluntary blood donors, improve donor prescreening and blood testing process, ease donor restrictions, and strengthen patient blood management. PMID:23710600

  19. Effect of conditions in obtaining blood samples for ECP testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J M; Rubira, N; Botey, J; Rodrigo, M J; Alonso, R; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A; Ras, R M

    1996-02-01

    Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a basic protein found in eosinophil granules. This cell and its mediators are currently considered to be potential indicators of the severity of inflammation in the organism. ECP concentration can be reliably tested using several RIA or ELISA methods. It is well known that the conditions of sample obtention can affect the ECP values in blood. The aim of this study is to establish which parameters affect ECP testing during regular blood sample collection and how they affect it. Blood samples taken for the routine study of five children attended in our department were analysed: four were asthmatic and one child had atopic dermatitis. In the results we observed that ECP was not detected in the blood samples taken with EDTA tripotassium. In both the plasma samples taken with heparin as well as with serum, more ECP was released at a higher temperature. In the release of ECP obtained by coagulation, samples at 37 degrees showed values of between 4 and 20 higher than those obtained for an hour at 0 degrees. There is a considerable variability in the testing of ECP depending on the blood test extraction conditions, the range is bigger in the samples with eosinophils. These results imply the need to define a stricter protocol for obtaining samples than that suggested at present. PMID:8703307

  20. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  1. Markers infectious agent in the cord blood samples public register of donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Smoljaninov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the distribution of markers of infectious agents in umbilical cord blood samples Pokrovskij public stem cell bank donor registry for five years (2009 – 2013.Materials and Methods. 3533 plasma samples were investigatedafter selection during cord blood processing procedure for allogeneic use in Pokrovskij stem cell bank. All plasma samples were investigated in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health № 325 – 2003 by enzymelinked immunoassay method. In addition, during the period from November 2011 to December 2013 1030 plasma samples of umbilical cord blood were examined for the presence of HCV RNA, the RNA of HIV and HBV DNA.Results. Markers of the agents above have not been found in the plasma of 481 samples (13.6%. During the described period, no significant change in the share of samples containing antibodies to cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis (cytomegalovirus – 1978 samples (56%, Toxoplasma gondii – 112 samples (3.2%, 825 samples (23.4% cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii simultaneously were registered. 137 samples (3.9% were subjected to utilization in connection with detection of antibodies to HbcorAg – 116 samples (3.3%, antibodies to HCV – five samples (0.14%, and antibodies to Treponema pallidum – 16 samples (0.45%.Conclusion. The introduction of an additional method of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of nucleic acids of hepatitis viruses B, C, human immunodeficiency virus, along with study of cord blood samples by enzyme-linked immunoassay improve the quality of the control of the transmission of blood-borne infections.

  2. A new solid phase microextraction method using organic ligand in micropipette tip syringe system packed with modified carbon cloth for preconcentration of cadmium in drinking water and blood samples of kidney failure patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Salma Aslam; Naeemullah; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPμE) in a syringe system was developed for preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) in environmental and biological samples, followed by flame atomic absorption technique. The syringe system contains the micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth, coated with modified magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide Triton X114 (ACC-NPs). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy used for characterization of the size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC-NPs. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent 8-hydroxyqunilone (8-HQ), and drawn into the syringe, filled with ACC-MNPs and dispensed manually for 2-10 drawing/discharging cycles. The analyte retained on ACC-NPs in micropipette tip-syringe system were then eluted with different volume of 1.5 mol L-1 HCl by 1-5 drawing/discharging cycles. The syringe system directly couple with FAAS for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency of Cd, including adsorbent dosage, pH, sample volume, eluent volume and drawing/discharging cycles of syringe system were optimized. At optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 5-250 μg L-1, with a limit of detection 0.15 μg L-1. Repeatability of the extraction (%RSD) was <5%, n = 5. The validity and accuracy of the method was checked by the certified reference materials. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd in different drinking water and biological samples of kidney failure patients and healthy controls.

  3. A new solid phase microextraction method using organic ligand in micropipette tip syringe system packed with modified carbon cloth for preconcentration of cadmium in drinking water and blood samples of kidney failure patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Arain, Salma Aslam; Naeemullah; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Arain, Mariam Shahzadi

    2015-03-01

    A simple and efficient miniaturized solid phase microextraction (M-SPμE) in a syringe system was developed for preconcentration of cadmium (Cd) in environmental and biological samples, followed by flame atomic absorption technique. The syringe system contains the micropipette tip packed with activated carbon cloth, coated with modified magnetic nanoparticles of iron oxide Triton X114 (ACC-NPs). Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy used for characterization of the size, morphology and elemental composition of ACC-NPs. The sample solution treated with a complexing reagent 8-hydroxyqunilone (8-HQ), and drawn into the syringe, filled with ACC-MNPs and dispensed manually for 2-10 drawing/discharging cycles. The analyte retained on ACC-NPs in micropipette tip-syringe system were then eluted with different volume of 1.5molL(-1) HCl by 1-5 drawing/discharging cycles. The syringe system directly couple with FAAS for analysis. The influence of different variables on the extraction efficiency of Cd, including adsorbent dosage, pH, sample volume, eluent volume and drawing/discharging cycles of syringe system were optimized. At optimized extraction conditions, the method showed good linearity in the range of 5-250μgL(-1), with a limit of detection 0.15μgL(-1). Repeatability of the extraction (%RSD) was <5%, n=5. The validity and accuracy of the method was checked by the certified reference materials. The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Cd in different drinking water and biological samples of kidney failure patients and healthy controls. PMID:25498826

  4. Time impact on non-activated and kaolin-activated blood samples in thromboelastography

    OpenAIRE

    Durila, Miroslav; Lukáš, Pavel; Bronský, Jiří; Cvachovec, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Background The correct methodology of thrombelastography might be influenced by elapsing time. In our study we investigated kaolin activated citrated samples together with non-activated citrated samples in relation to the elapsed times of 0, 15 and 30 minutes to compare both methods and to find out if there is an impact of time on results of thrombelastography. Methods Blood samples obtained from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed after 0, 15 and 30 minutes from sampling with kaolin activati...

  5. Putative Epimutagens in Maternal Peripheral and Cord Blood Samples Identified Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of transcription and genome stability by epigenetic systems are crucial for the proper development of mammalian embryos. Chemicals that disturb epigenetic systems are termed epimutagens. We previously performed chemical screening that focused on heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation status in mouse embryonic stem cells and identified five epimutagens: diethyl phosphate (DEP, mercury (Hg, cotinine, selenium (Se, and octachlorodipropyl ether (S-421. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs to confirm the effects of 20 chemicals, including the five epimutagens, detected at low concentrations in maternal peripheral and cord blood samples. Of note, these individual chemicals did not exhibit epimutagenic activity in hiPSCs. However, because the fetal environment contains various chemicals, we evaluated the effects of combined exposure to chemicals (DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 on hiPSCs. The combined exposure caused a decrease in the number of heterochromatin signals and aberrant DNA methylation status at multiple gene loci in hiPSCs. The combined exposure also affected embryoid body formation and neural differentiation from hiPSCs. Therefore, DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 were defined as an “epimutagen combination” that is effective at low concentrations as detected in maternal peripheral and cord blood.

  6. Particle swarm optimization algorithm for optimizing assignment of blood in blood banking system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olusanya, Micheal O; Arasomwan, Martins A; Adewumi, Aderemi O

    2015-01-01

    This paper reports the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) for the assignment of blood to meet patients' blood transfusion requests for blood transfusion. While the drive for blood donation lingers, there is need for effective and efficient management of available blood in blood banking systems. Moreover, inherent danger of transfusing wrong blood types to patients, unnecessary importation of blood units from external sources, and wastage of blood products due to nonusage necessitate the development of mathematical models and techniques for effective handling of blood distribution among available blood types in order to minimize wastages and importation from external sources. This gives rise to the blood assignment problem (BAP) introduced recently in literature. We propose a queue and multiple knapsack models with PSO-based solution to address this challenge. Simulation is based on sets of randomly generated data that mimic real-world population distribution of blood types. Results obtained show the efficiency of the proposed algorithm for BAP with no blood units wasted and very low importation, where necessary, from outside the blood bank. The result therefore can serve as a benchmark and basis for decision support tools for real-life deployment. PMID:25815046

  7. Ultrasound systems for blood velocity estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    1998-01-01

    Medical ultrasound scanners can be used both for displayinggray-scale images of the anatomy and for visualizing theblood flow dynamically in the body.The systems can interrogate the flow at a single position in the bodyand there find the velocity distribution over time. They can also show adynamic...... color image of velocity at up to 20 to 60 frames a second. Both measurements are performedby repeatedly pulsing in the same direction and then usethe correlation from pulse to pulse to determine the velocity.The paper gives a simple model for the interactionbetween the ultrasound and the moving blood...

  8. Batch Gas-Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz, Vernon, Jr.; Miller, E. L.; Rollins, F. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sampler collects air or other gases in consistent way and stabilizes them for later chemical analysis. Device used for concentrations ranging from few parts per million to 100 percent. Also separates and collects particles in gas for analysis. Gas flows into vacuum sphere when solenoid valve opened. As it passes through conversion tube, constituent of gas forms stable compound that remains in conversion tube for analysis at later time. Sampler parts made of glass, polytetrafluoroethylene, and stainless steel so they do not react with sample.

  9. Measurement of cerebral blood flow the blood sampling method using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. Simultaneous scintigram scanning of arterial blood samples and the brain with a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Inugami, Atsushi [Rehabilitation Center for Physically Disabled Persons and Medical Center for Mental Health-Akita, Kyowa (Japan); Iida, Hidehiro; Mizuta, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Inoue, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    To measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by blood sampling using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD we devised a method of measuring the radioactive concentration in arterial blood sample with a gamma camera. In this method the head and a blood sample are placed within the same visual field to record the SPECT data of both specimens simultaneously. The results of an evaluation of the counting rate performance, applying the 30 hours decaying method using {sup 99m}Tc solution showed that this method is not comparable to the well-type scintillation counter and in clinical cases the active concentration in arterial blood sample remained well within the dynamic range. In addition, examination of the influence of scattered radiation from the brain by the dilution method showed that it was negligible at a distance of more than 7.5 cm between the brain and the arterial blood sample. In the present study we placed a head-shaped phantom next to the sample. The results of the examinations suggested that this method is suitable for clinical application, and because it does not require a well-type scintillation counter, it is expected to find wide application. (author)

  10. Comparison of drug concentrations in blood and oral fluid collected with the Intercept sampling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Mordal, Jon; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Bramness, Jørgen G; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine drug concentration ratios between oral fluid collected with the Intercept device and whole blood. Samples of blood and oral fluid were obtained from patients admitted to acute psychiatric treatment and drivers suspected of drugged driving. Samples were analyzed for illegal drugs, benzodiazepines, opioids, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. Drugs were detected in samples of both blood and oral fluid from 59 subjects; altogether, 17 different drugs were found. Concentration ratios between oral fluid and blood were determined for all cases. The distributions of drug concentration ratios were wide for most drugs and do not allow reliable estimations of drug concentrations in blood using concentrations in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood drug concentration ratios for the most prevalent drugs were 0.036 diazepam, 0.027 nordiazepam, 7.1 amphetamine, 2.9 methamphetamine, 5.4 codeine, 1.9 morphine, and 4.7 tetrahydrocannabinol. The correlation coefficients between drug concentrations in oral fluid and blood ranged from 0.15 to 0.96 for the six most prevalent drugs. PMID:20465866

  11. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölenius Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  12. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population–based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  13. Extreme Environment Sampling System Deployment Mechanism Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Future Venus or Comet mission architectures may feature robotic sampling systems comprised of a Sampling Tool and Deployment Mechanism. Since 2005, Honeybee has...

  14. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    humans. The overall recovery of radioiron from blood is more than 90%, and the coefficient of variation, as judged by the variation in the ratio Fe-55/Fe-59 is in the order of 4%. Combined with whole-body counting of 59Fe and direct gamma -counting of Fe-59 on blood samples, this method represents a......For studies on iron absorption in man radioisotopes represent an easy and simple tool. However, measurement of the orbital electron emitting radioiron, Fe-55, in blood is difficult and insufficiently described in the literature. The present study describes a relatively simple method for...... simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable in...

  15. Effect of blood sampling on apomorphine-induced penile tumescence in erectile impotence: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiely, M E; Thavundayil, J X; Lal, S

    1995-01-01

    Apomorphine HCl (Apo) (0.5 mg sc), but not placebo, induced an erectile response (monitored with a mercury strain gauge) lasting 40 min in an impotent hyperprolactinemic patient. Serial blood sampling modified the 40 min erectile response. Prompt detumescence followed by complete or partial restoration of tumescence occurred each time blood was drawn. This observation points to the sensitivity of the Apo-erectile response to experimental procedures subjectively perceived as anxiogenic.

  16. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C15O (CO), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [11C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H215O (H2O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter β. Tracer-specific mean values of β were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ''true'' K1true, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. The rank order of the means of β was CO 2O, reflecting their different splanchnic mean transit times. Estimated K1est was not significantly different from ''true'' K1true. The hepatic dual tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. (orig.)

  17. Biomarkers for Monitoring Pre-Analytical Quality Variation of mRNA in Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Korenková, Vlasta; Sjöback, Robert; Švec, David; Björkman, Jens; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Verderio, Paolo; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Wyrich, Ralf; Oelmueller, Uwe; Kubista, Mikael; Lindahl, Torbjørn; Lönneborg, Anders; Rian, Edith

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need for proper quality control tools in the pre-analytical phase of the molecular diagnostic workflow. The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical mRNA quality variations in two different types of blood collection tubes, K2EDTA (EDTA) tubes and PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes (PAXgene tubes). These tubes are extensively used both in the diagnostic setting as well as for research biobank samples. Blood specimens collected in the two dif...

  18. Determination of optimal sampling times for a two blood sample clearance method using (51)Cr-EDTA in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Eva; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; Vermeire, Simon T; Van Hoek, Ingrid M; Daminet, Sylvie; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y

    2010-08-01

    Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a useful tool in the evaluation of kidney function in feline medicine. GFR can be determined by measuring the rate of tracer disappearance from the blood, and although these measurements are generally performed by multi-sampling techniques, simplified methods are more convenient in clinical practice. The optimal times for a simplified sampling strategy with two blood samples (2BS) for GFR measurement in cats using plasma (51)chromium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) clearance were investigated. After intravenous administration of (51)Cr-EDTA, seven blood samples were obtained in 46 cats (19 euthyroid and 27 hyperthyroid cats, none with previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD)). The plasma clearance was then calculated from the seven point blood kinetics (7BS) and used for comparison to define the optimal sampling strategy by correlating different pairs of time points to the reference method. Mean GFR estimation for the reference method was 3.7+/-2.5 ml/min/kg (mean+/-standard deviation (SD)). Several pairs of sampling times were highly correlated with this reference method (r(2) > or = 0.980), with the best results when the first sample was taken 30 min after tracer injection and the second sample between 198 and 222 min after injection; or with the first sample at 36 min and the second at 234 or 240 min (r(2) for both combinations=0.984). Because of the similarity of GFR values obtained with the 2BS method in comparison to the values obtained with the 7BS reference method, the simplified method may offer an alternative for GFR estimation. Although a wide range of GFR values was found in the included group of cats, the applicability should be confirmed in cats suspected of renal disease and with confirmed CKD. Furthermore, although no indications of age-related effect were found in this study, a possible influence of age should be included in future studies. PMID:20452793

  19. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  20. Genome-wide scans using archived neonatal dried blood spot samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiuf Carsten

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of disease susceptible genes requires access to DNA from numerous well-characterised subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot samples from national newborn screening programs may provide DNA from entire populations and medical registries the corresponding clinical information. The amount of DNA available in these samples is however rarely sufficient for reliable genome-wide scans, and whole-genome amplification may thus be necessary. This study assess the quality of DNA obtained from different amplification protocols by evaluating fidelity and robustness of the genotyping of 610,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, using the Illumina Infinium HD Human610-Quad BeadChip. Whole-genome amplified DNA from 24 neonatal dried blood spot samples stored between 15 to 25 years was tested, and high-quality genomic DNA from 8 of the same individuals was used as reference. Results Using 3.2 mm disks from dried blood spot samples the optimal DNA-extraction and amplification protocol resulted in call-rates between 99.15% – 99.73% (mean 99.56%, N = 16, and conflicts with reference DNA in only three per 10,000 genotype calls. Conclusion Whole-genome amplified DNA from archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for reliable genome-wide scans and is a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new samples.

  1. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  2. Rapid microbial sample preparation from blood using a novel concentration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Anna K; Campbell, Jennifer; Wirz, Holger; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate care for bacteremic patients is dictated by the amount of time needed for an accurate diagnosis. However, the concentration of microbes in the blood is extremely low in these patients (1-100 CFU/mL), traditionally requiring growth (blood culture) or amplification (e.g., PCR) for detection. Current culture-based methods can take a minimum of two days, while faster methods like PCR require a sample free of inhibitors (i.e., blood components). Though commercial kits exist for the removal of blood from these samples, they typically capture only DNA, thereby necessitating the use of blood culture for antimicrobial testing. Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The process can efficiently lyse 10 mL of bacteremic blood while maintaining the microorganisms' viability, giving a 30-μL final output volume. A suite of six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans) at a range of clinically relevant concentrations was tested. All of the microorganisms had recoveries greater than 55% at the highest tested concentration of 100 CFU/mL, with three of them having over 70% recovery. At the lowest tested concentration of 3 CFU/mL, two microorganisms had recoveries of ca. 40-50% while the other four gave recoveries greater than 70%. Using a Taqman assay for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA)to prove the feasibility of downstream analysis, we show that our microbial pellets are clean enough for PCR amplification. PCR testing of 56 spiked-positive and negative samples gave a specificity of 0.97 and a sensitivity of 0.96, showing that our sample preparation protocol holds great promise for the rapid diagnosis of bacteremia directly from a primary sample. PMID:25675242

  3. Infrared spectroscopic approach for diagnosis of cancer via analysis of blood samples and chemometric data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been employed to detect cancer tissues from normal ones. In most of these researches the infrared spectral characteristics have been analyzed by statistical tools to study variations in metabolites. An important analytical advantage of FT-IR is that no sample content modification is required before analysis. FTIR data can be used as molecular signatures for physiological status once the spectral patterns are correlated with biological properties. Studying the tissue samples has drawbacks such as difficult sampling, low speed sample preparation and very sensitive keeping conditions. Also sample contamination would affect the diagnosis results while the sampling procedure from human may help the malignancy to be more developed. Thus, it seems necessary to look after a substitute for tissue samples which would be easier in providing and analysis, while its results are reliable. According to our literature survey, there was no report to indicate the analysis of whole blood by spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis. In this work, first, we used whole blood sample instead of tissue because sample preparation procedure is very simple in blood study. It was tried to classify the blood samples in normal and cancer cases by chemometric techniques i.e. LDA, PCA and Cluster analysis. Initial results showed that the normal and malignant blood samples could be identified with 85% of accuracy. In order to specify our studies, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and breast cancer were selected. Of course the metastasis of BCC is seldom reported but observations in protein content of skin would be a useful mark in order to design a new diagnosis method based on blood analysis. Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification method was applied for pattern recognition of blood samples in order to obtain if they are normal or cancerous. Results showed about 90% of accuracy

  4. Detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood by multi-sampling in patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Wei Zhang; Hong-Yu Yang; Ping Fan; Li Yang; Guo-Yu Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reverse transcriptase-PCR assay and multiple sampling for detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in peripheral blood of colorectal carcinoma patients and to investigate the clinical significance of micrometastasis in peripheral blood.METHODS: The expression of CK20 mRNA by RT-PCR was investigated in bone marrow, portal vein and peripheral blood in 58 colorectal cancer patients and 12 controls without known cancer. The peripheral blood was sampled twice at intervals of 3 d before operation. All the patients were followed up for one year.RESULTS: There was no positive expression of CK20mRNA in 12 volunteers. The positive expression of CK20mRNA was 77.6% (45/58) in bone marrow, and that in portal vein was 74.1% (43/58) of colorectal carcinoma patients.The positive expression of CK20mRNA cells in peripheral blood rose from 44.8% (26/58) to 69.0% (40/58) (P<0.01).The total positivity of CK20mRNA expression in peripheral blood was similar to the positivity of CK20mRNA in bone marrow and portal vein. The positive rates became higher in later clinical stages than in early stages. The CK20mRNA positive patients had a higher relapse rate within one year than the CK20mRNA negative patients.CONCLUSION: Multiple blood sampling can increase the detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood by RT-PCR for CK20mRNA in colorectal carcinoma patients and it is as sensitive and specific as that of bone marrow and portal vein. This technique may be reliable and convenient to diagnose micrometastasis of colorectal carcinoma and has an important significance in determining the prognosis of cancer patients.

  5. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures

    OpenAIRE

    Jae-Seok Kim; Go-Eun Kang; Han-Sung Kim; Hyun Soo Kim; Wonkeun Song; Kyu Man Lee

    2016-01-01

    The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA) was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD...

  6. A sample conveying system for measuring apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns the sample conveying systems for measuring instruments. It particularly refers to such systems for appliances effecting repetitive measurements on numerous successive samples and it has a significant application in counting the activity, γ in particular, of samples contained in flasks or test tubes. The sample transport system includes a conveyor and a mechanism to move samples from the transfer position to the measuring position. The displacement mechanism includes a set of tongues for holding each sample, controlled by a single motor which through a gear train closes the tongues on a sample and then moves them along a successively vertical upwards, transversal and vertically downwards path and then the reverse movements

  7. Survey on Positioning System: Sampling methods

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Sheng; Trinkle, Matthew; Wang, Hongyuan

    2013-01-01

    Millimeter-accuracy Ultra-Wideband (UWB) positioning systems using the Time Difference Of Arrival (TDOA) algorithm are able to be utilized in military and many other important applications. Previous research on UWB positioning system has achieved up to mm or sub-mm accuracy. However, one bottleneck in UWB system is at sampling high resolution UWB signals, as well as high resolution timing information. In this paper, UWB positioning systems are surveyed and we focus on sampling methods for han...

  8. 40 CFR 1065.805 - Sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling system. 1065.805 Section 1065.805 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR POLLUTION CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Testing With Oxygenated Fuels § 1065.805 Sampling system. (a) Dilute...

  9. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  10. Intelligent micro blood typing system using a fuzzy algorithm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABO typing is the first analysis performed on blood when it is tested for transfusion purposes. The automated machines used in hospitals for this purpose are typically very large and the process is complicated. In this paper, we present a new micro blood typing system that is an improved version of our previous system (Kang et al 2004 Trans. ASME, J. Manuf. Sci. Eng. 126 766, Lee et al 2005 Sensors Mater. 17 113). This system, fabricated using microstereolithography, has a passive valve for controlling the flow of blood and antibodies. The intelligent micro blood typing system has two parts: a single-line micro blood typing device and a fuzzy expert system for grading the strength of agglutination. The passive valve in the single-line micro blood typing device makes the blood stop at the entrance of a micro mixer and lets it flow again after the blood encounters antibodies. Blood and antibodies are mixed in the micro mixer and agglutination occurs in the chamber. The fuzzy expert system then determines the degree of agglutination from images of the agglutinated blood. Blood typing experiments using this device were successful, and the fuzzy expert system produces a grading decision comparable to that produced by an expert conducting a manual analysis

  11. Fluid sampling system for a nuclear reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, L.K.; Alper, N.I.

    1994-11-22

    A system of extracting fluid samples, either liquid or gas, from the interior of a nuclear reactor containment utilizes a jet pump. To extract the sample fluid, a nonradioactive motive fluid is forced through the inlet and discharge ports of a jet pump located outside the containment, creating a suction that draws the sample fluid from the containment through a sample conduit connected to the pump suction port. The mixture of motive fluid and sample fluid is discharged through a return conduit to the interior of the containment. The jet pump and means for removing a portion of the sample fluid from the sample conduit can be located in a shielded sample grab station located next to the containment. A non-nuclear grade active pump can be located outside the grab sampling station and the containment to pump the nonradioactive motive fluid through the jet pump. 1 fig.

  12. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J;

    2014-01-01

    cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities...... of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to...

  13. Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther A; Stahl, Marta; Brandslund, Ivan;

    2008-01-01

    , centrifuged and separated at the doctor's office within 45-60 min. This sample was considered as the best estimate of a comparison value. RESULTS: The pre-set quality goals were fulfilled for all the investigated components for samples transported to hospital by courier either as whole blood or as "on gel...... impact on the quality of results, we wanted to study which combination of transport conditions could fulfil our pre-defined goals for maximum allowable error. METHODS: Samples from 406 patients from nine general practitioners (GPs) in two Danish counties were sent to two hospitals for analyses, during...... whole blood if the above mentioned conditions are met. There is no need for centrifugation in the primary sector. Neither mailing of samples with plasma "on gel" nor public transport by coach bus fulfil our analytical goals....

  14. Detection of the BLV provirus from nasal secretion and saliva samples using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: Comparison with blood samples from the same cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Saito, Susumu; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Haga, Satoshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Ayumu; Murakami, Hironobu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. Sero-epidemiological studies show that BLV infection occurs worldwide. Direct contact between infected and uninfected cattle is thought to be one of the risk factors for BLV transmission. Contact transmission occurs via a mixture of natural sources, blood, and exudates. To confirm that BLV provirus is detectable in these samples, matched blood, nasal secretion, and saliva samples were collected from 50 cattle, and genomic DNA was extracted. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2, an assay developed for the highly sensitive detection of BLV, was then used to measure the proviral load in blood (n=50), nasal secretions (n=48), and saliva (n=47) samples. The results showed that 35 blood samples, 14 nasal secretion samples, and 6 saliva samples were positive for the BLV provirus. Matched blood samples from cattle that were positive for the BLV provirus (either in nasal secretion or saliva samples) were also positive in their blood. The proviral load in the positive blood samples was >14,000 (copies/1×10(5) cells). Thus, even though the proviral load in the nasal secretion and saliva samples was much lower (<380 copies/1×10(5) cells) than that in the peripheral blood, prolonged direct contact between infected and healthy cattle may be considered as a risk factor for BLV transmission. PMID:26298004

  15. Development of an accurate 3D blood vessel searching system using NIR light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Yoshifumi; Katayama, Tsutao; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2010-02-01

    Health monitoring system (HMS) and drug delivery system (DDS) require accurate puncture by needle for automatic blood sampling. In this study, we develop a miniature and high accurate automatic 3D blood vessel searching system. The size of detecting system is 40x25x10 mm. Our searching system use Near-Infrared (NIR) LEDs, CMOS camera modules and image processing units. We employ the stereo method for searching system to determine 3D blood vessel location. Blood vessel visualization system adopts hemoglobin's absorption characterization of NIR light. NIR LED is set behind the finger and it irradiates Near Infrared light for the finger. CMOS camera modules are set in front of the finger and it captures clear blood vessel images. Two dimensional location of the blood vessel is detected by luminance distribution of the image and its depth is calculated by the stereo method. 3D blood vessel location is automatically detected by our image processing system. To examine the accuracy of our detecting system, we carried out experiments using finger phantoms with blood vessel diameters, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0mm, at the depths, 0.5 ~ 2.0 mm, under the artificial tissue surface. Experimental results of depth obtained by our detecting system showed good agreements with given depths, and the availability of this system is confirmed.

  16. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  17. Tissue distribution, excretion and blood distribution of [3H]-acetylshikonin in mice by sample oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the tissue distribution, excretion and blood distribution of [3H]-acetylshikonin in mice by Sample Oxidizer pretreatment technology. Methods: After 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose suspension containing [3H] - acetylshikonin was administered by gastric gavage at the dose of 120 mg/kg(2.96 x 107 Bq/kg), the tissue, feces, urine and blood samples of the mice were collected. The samples were pretreated by Sample Oxidizer. The radioactivity was determined by Liquid Scintillation Analyzer Tn-Card 29007R. Results: After oral administration of [3H]-acetylshikonin 120 mg/kg with 2.96 x 107 Bq/kg to mice, [3H]-acetylshikonin was mainly distributed in the stomach and intestine, secondarily in the gallbladder, liver, kidneys, lungs, and least in the brain and spinal cord. The cumulative radioactivity rate of the feces and urine was(68.5±3.3)% and (17.6±3.1)% within 271 h, respectively. The total excretion rate was (86.1±5.5)%. Besides, the exploratory study was carried out on acetylshikonin the existing form of in blood, allocation in plasma and blood cells, binding mode and binding rates of plasma proteins. Conclusions: Acetylshikonin has a relatively low absorption rate and wide distribution in mice, and is excreted completely more by fecal route than by urine. Acetylshikonin exits as a binding form in mouse blood. Allocation of acetylshikonin in mouse plasma and blood cells is nearly 4:1. Plasma protein binding rates of three levels (high, medium and low) are (94.7±O.44)%, (94.7±0.29)% and (95.4±0.13)%, respectively. The binding between acetylshikonin and human plasma protein is the coexistence of covalent bonding and hydrophobic interaction. (authors)

  18. Uranium concentration in blood samples of Southern Iraqi leukemia patients using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simple and effective technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in human blood samples taken from two groups of male and female participants: leukemia patients and healthy subjects group. The blood samples of leukemia patients and healthy subjects were collected from three key southern governorates namely, Basrah, Muthanna and Dhi-Qar. These governorates were the centers of intensive military activities during the 1991 and 2003 Gulf wars, and the discarded weapons are still lying around in these regions. CR-39 track detector was used for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in the blood samples of leukemia patients was 4.71 ppb (female, 45 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 1.91 ppb (male, 3 years old, from Muthanna). For healthy group, the maximum uranium concentration was 2.15 ppb (female, 55 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 0.86 ppb (male, 5 years old, from Dhi-Qar). It has been found that the uranium concentrations in human blood samples of leukemia patients are higher than those of the healthy group. These uranium concentrations in the leukemia patients group were significantly different (P < 0.001) from those in the healthy group. (author)

  19. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker;

    2015-01-01

    ' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). DISCUSSION: After adjusting risk......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  20. Fabrication and Characterization of a Microfluidic Device to Ultrapurify Blood Samples

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Marco

    2015-05-04

    The improvement of blood cell sorting techniques in recent years have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the possible benefits that these methods can lead in biology, regenerative medicine, materials science and therapeutic area. In this work a cell sorting technique based on filtration is described. The separation occurs by means of a microfluidic device, suitably designed, manufactured and tested, that is connected to an external experimental set-up. The fabrication process can be divided in two parts: at first it is described the manufacturing process of a filtering membrane, with holes of specific size that allow the passage of only certain cell types. Following the microfluidic device is fabricated through the mechanical micromilling. The membrane and the microdevice are suitably bonded and tested by means of an external connection with syringe pumps that inject blood samples at specific flow rates. The device is designed to separate blood cells and tumor cells only by using differences in size and shape. In particular during the first experiments red blood cells and platelets are sorted from white blood cells; in the other experiments red blood cells and platelets are separated from white blood cells and tumor cells. The microdevice has proven to be very efficient, in fact a capture efficiency of 99% is achieved. For this reason it could be used in identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells, a very rare cancer cell type whose presence in the bloodstream could be symptom of future solid tumor formation. The various experiments have also demonstrated that tumor cells survive even after the separation treatment, and then the suffered stress during the sorting process does not harm the biological sample.

  1. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  2. Rotary Mode Core Sample System availability improvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Rotary Mode Core Sample System (RMCSS) is used to obtain stratified samples of the waste deposits in single-shell and double-shell waste tanks at the Hanford Site. The samples are used to characterize the waste in support of ongoing and future waste remediation efforts. Four sampling trucks have been developed to obtain these samples. Truck I was the first in operation and is currently being used to obtain samples where the push mode is appropriate (i.e., no rotation of drill). Truck 2 is similar to truck 1, except for added safety features, and is in operation to obtain samples using either a push mode or rotary drill mode. Trucks 3 and 4 are now being fabricated to be essentially identical to truck 2

  3. Modular microfluidic system for biological sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rose, Klint A.; Mariella, Jr., Raymond P.; Bailey, Christopher G.; Ness, Kevin Dean

    2015-09-29

    A reconfigurable modular microfluidic system for preparation of a biological sample including a series of reconfigurable modules for automated sample preparation adapted to selectively include a) a microfluidic acoustic focusing filter module, b) a dielectrophoresis bacteria filter module, c) a dielectrophoresis virus filter module, d) an isotachophoresis nucleic acid filter module, e) a lyses module, and f) an isotachophoresis-based nucleic acid filter.

  4. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni...... than 0.0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  5. Evaluation of a nested-pcr for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lacerda Alves da Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine, regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if not showing a good sensitivity, should be considered as a helpful tool especially in the extrapulmonary cases or in cases where confirmatory diagnosis is quite difficult to be achieved by routine methods. The performance of PCR-based techniques should be considered and tested in future works on other types of biological specimens besides sputum, like blood and urine, readily obtainable in most cases. The improving of M. tuberculosis nested-PCR detection in TB affected patients will give the possibility of an earlier detection of bacilli thus interrupting the transmission chain of the disease.

  6. A Comet Surface Sample Return System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase II investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal...

  7. A Comet Surface Sample Return System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed Phase I investigation will focus on the development of spacecraft systems required to obtain a sample from the nucleus of a comet, hermetically seal...

  8. GeoLab Sample Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Develop  a robotic sample handling/ manipulator system for the GeoLab glovebox. This work leverages from earlier GeoLab work and a 2012 collaboration with a...

  9. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord [Aarhus University Hospital, PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Keiding, Susanne; Soerensen, Michael [Aarhus University Hospital, PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology V, Aarhus C (Denmark); Mortensen, Frank Viborg [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Surgery L, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-02-15

    Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C{sup 15}O (CO), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [{sup 11}C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H{sub 2} {sup 15}O (H{sub 2}O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter {beta}. Tracer-specific mean values of {beta} were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ''true'' K{sub 1} {sup true}, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. The rank order of the means of {beta} was CO < FDG {approx} MG < FDGal < H{sub 2}O, reflecting their different splanchnic mean transit times. Estimated K{sub 1} {sup est} was not significantly different from ''true'' K{sub 1} {sup true}. The hepatic dual tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. (orig.)

  10. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Nayera E. Hassan; Salwa M. El Shebini; Nihad H. Ahmed; Mohamed Selim Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure wa...

  11. [Research on Zhejiang blood information network and management system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Li-Xing; Xu, Yan; Meng, Zhong-Hua; Kong, Chang-Hong; Wang, Jian-Min; Jin, Zhen-Liang; Wu, Shi-Ding; Chen, Chang-Shui; Luo, Ling-Fei

    2007-02-01

    This research was aimed to develop the first level blood information centralized database and real time communication network at a province area in China. Multiple technology like local area network database separate operation, real time data concentration and distribution mechanism, allopatric backup, and optical fiber virtual private network (VPN) were used. As a result, the blood information centralized database and management system were successfully constructed, which covers all the Zhejiang province, and the real time exchange of blood data was realised. In conclusion, its implementation promote volunteer blood donation and ensure the blood safety in Zhejiang, especially strengthen the quick response to public health emergency. This project lays the first stone of centralized test and allotment among blood banks in Zhejiang, and can serve as a reference of contemporary blood bank information systems in China. PMID:17490550

  12. Systemic blood coagulation activation in acute coronary syndromes

    OpenAIRE

    Undas, Anetta; Szułdrzyński, Konstanty; Brummel-Ziedins, Kathleen E.; Tracz, Wiesława; Zmudka, Krzysztof; Mann, Kenneth G.

    2009-01-01

    We evaluated systemic alterations to the blood coagulation system that occur during a coronary thrombotic event. Peripheral blood coagulation in patients with acute coronary thrombosis was compared with that in people with stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Blood coagulation and platelet activation at the microvascular injury site were assessed using immunochemistry in 28 non-anticoagulated patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI) versus 28 stable CAD patients matched for age, sex, ...

  13. Is intrapartum fetal blood sampling a gold standard diagnostic tool for fetal distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendru, Amita A; Lees, Christoph C

    2011-06-01

    Developed in 1960s, cardiotocography is a screening test and fetal blood sampling (FBS) is an adjunctive, diagnostic technique to detect fetal hypoxia. A fetal blood sample pH value of less than 7.20 has a higher specificity than a pathological CTG to predict low Apgar score at 1 min. Though with a pathological CTG and despite a normal FBS pH value the risk of delivering a hypoxic infant is 30-50%, FBS has assumed considerable importance in purportedly reducing unnecessary obstetric intervention. The evidence for this is weak: the use of FBS with CTG has been shown to reduce operative vaginal deliveries though not Caesarean sections due to fetal distress. There is no difference in the umbilical artery pH at delivery with the use of intermittent FBS with CTG compared to CTG alone. FBS is an invasive procedure: obtaining an adequate blood sample is often difficult and the pH results are affected by handling of the sample, aerobic contamination and processing. Validation of intrapartum FBS requires that the pH and other values obtained are compared to a 'gold standard' technique. Although FBS has been compared to other tests such as scalp lactate, pulse oximetry, fetal ECG waveform analysis, and central haemodynamics in labouring rhesus monkeys, none of these can be considered as 'gold standard'. In the light of the existing evidence, the role of intrapartum FBS as a gold standard diagnostic technique is unproven. PMID:21300427

  14. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  15. Stability of HE4 and CA125 in blood samples from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Noreen; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus; Laursen, Inga A; Christensen, Ib J; Høgdall, Estrid V S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of handling and storage on HE4 and CA125 serum and EDTA plasma levels to clarify any important consequences for a clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples from 13 ovarian cancer (OC) patients were collected and allowed to clot or sediment for up to 72 hours...... at 4 °C or 20 °C, then processed into serum and EDTA plasma. Furthermore, the effects of up to eight repetitive cycles of freeze/thaw were investigated. HE4 and CA125 were analyzed using a Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay on the Architect i2000sr System. RESULTS: No significant effect of...... processing time for HE4 could be shown. HE4 EDTA plasma levels were insignificantly lower (3%) than serum levels (p = 0.41). Similarly, no significant effect of processing time for CA125 could be demonstrated. CA125 levels at 4 °C were significantly reduced compared to levels at 20 °C (p = 0.024). No...

  16. Transcutaneous monitoring of blood gases: is it comparable with arterialized earlobe sampling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S; Cave, C; Pavord, I; Potter, J F

    1998-03-01

    Researchers are increasingly looking for reliable non-invasive methods of assessing blood gas concentrations, and several new techniques have recently become available. Values derived using arterialized earlobe samples have been found to be comparable with conventional arterial samples, and recent studies have compared transcutaneous blood gas analysis with the traditional arterial samples and found a reasonable level of agreement in particular for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. There are no data comparing oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures (pO2, pCO2) derived from arterialized samples with one of the newer transcutaneous techniques. We therefore simultaneously studied arterialized earlobe blood gas samples and values for pO2 and pCO2 obtained by a transcutaneous monitor (TINA, Radiometer, Copenhagen) in 26 subjects with varying blood gas values. There was a close agreement between the two methods for assessment of pCO2 [mean difference (95% C.I.) between transcutaneous and earlobe values 0.25 kPa (-0.004, 0.5 kPa)], but not for pO2 [1.71 kPa (0.35, 3.07 kPa)]. Similarly, the limits of agreement were narrow for pCO2 compared to those for pO2 (-0.98, 1.47 kPa and -6.44, 3.02 kPa respectively). We conclude that transcutaneous measurement of pCO2 using the TINA is acceptable in the research setting, whereas assessment of pO2 cannot reliably be made using this technique. PMID:9692127

  17. Lead and cadmium determinations by atomic absorption technique in biological samples: blood, placenta and umbilical cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the possibility contamination of lead and cadmium in pregnant women living in the mining-smelting city of La Oroya in Peru, lead and cadmium concentrations were assessed in maternal blood (pre-birth), umbilical cord blood and placental tissue. Forty deliveries with normal evolution were evaluated between October 2002 and January 2003. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption on a graphite furnace at the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) laboratories. Results are summarized as follows: a) Mean lead concentrations in maternal blood (MB), umbilical cord blood (UCB) and placental tissue (PT) were 27.23 μg/dL, 18.48 μg/dL and 363.97 μg/100g, respectively; b) Mean cadmium concentrations in MB, UCB and PT were 8.82 μg/dL, 12,0 μg/dL and 104,44 μg/100g, respectively; c) The correlation coefficient between lead concentration in maternal blood and umbilical cord was 0.122; d). The correlation coefficient of cadmium concentration between MB and UCB was 0.223; e). The correlation coefficient of lead concentration between MB and PT was 0.189; f). The correlation coefficient of cadmium concentration between MB and PT was 0.633. Trans-placental transport of lead was 67.84% (27,23 μg/dL in MB vs. 18.48 μg/dL in UCB); whereas in the case of cadmium, the concentration in UC (12,00 μg/dL) was greater than in MB (8.82 μg/dL.). These results could indicate that the placenta acts as a barrier trapping lead and cadmium. This barrier is efficient for lead since the concentration in cord blood is inferior to maternal blood but it is less efficient for cadmium. (author)

  18. DETERMINATION OF LEPTIN EXPRESSION IN BEEF CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USED BY RTQ PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to detect the presence and concentration of leptin in different breeds of cattle by PCR and Real time PCR method. Blood of different breeds of bulls was used as biological material in our experiments: Slovak pied cattle (10 samples, Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed (10 samples and Holstein breed (10 samples. The presence of leptin was detected in all samples based on the results of molecular-genetic detection of leptin gene. The average concentration of leptinin 30 samples of beef cattle was 22.1477 μg.μl-1. Differences in leptin concentrations were statistically significant between Holstein breed and Slovak pied cattle and between Slovak pied cattle and Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed.

  19. Application of dried blood sample on FTA paper for detection of Trypanosoma evansi by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi present in the dried blood on FTA Paper was developed. A simple lysis method was used to remove of the red blood cells on a 1.2 x 1.2 mm paper in 0.2 mL PCR tube. The dried paper sample was placed directly into a 25 μL PCR reaction as a DNA template. The primer set was designed and synthesized to amplify a single band of 257 bp PCR product. The sensitivity limit of test was 2.2 x 105 parasites/mL that was less than DNA templates derived from whole blood at 6.0 x 10-2 parasites/mL. The use of dried blood on FTA paper was sensitive equivalent to the determination by using the conventional wet blood film (WBF) and less sensitive than microcentrifuge heamatocrit test (MHCT) as well as mouse inoculation test (MIT). This application is not only beneficial for detection of the parasite but also useful for epidemiological study and designing Trypanosomiasis control programme. (author)

  20. A new donor system for the patients with thalassemia: "Blood mother and blood father"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Canatan Duran

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Donor recruitment programs differ in countries depending on local conditions and causes. Regularly voluntary blood donation rate should be 5% of the population but it is extremely low in Turkey. In 1998, "Thalassemia flowers don′t fade" campaigning was started to get regular voluntary blood for patients with thalassemia. We would like to present results of our campaigning. Materials and Methods: The Thalassemia center was established in Antalya on the 1 st June 1994 by Ministry of Health, Turkey, because the incidence of thalassemia is very high in the Antalya region. A total of 388 patients with thalassemia were followed up regularly in the center. The annually blood requirement was approximately 5000 units per year. In 1998, a new program of blood donation for patients with thalassemia called "BLOOD MOTHER and BLOOD FATHER" was started with the support of Governor of Antalya and health management system in Antalya. Results : Between year 1998 and 2006, a total 3000 voluntary blood donors between age 18 and 65 years, of which 2160 males (72% and 840 were females (28%, had participated in this program. Conclusion: "Blood Mother and Blood Father" campaign was successful donor recruitment program for thalassemic care. After 2006, this program is now adopted and run by Turkish Red Crescent and Thalassemia Federation of Turkey for all thalassemics in Turkey.

  1. Methods for extracting genomic DNA from whole blood samples: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    Diego Chacon-Cortes, Lyn R Griffiths Genomics Research Centre, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD, Australia Abstract: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction has considerably evolved since it was initially performed back in 1869. It is the first step required for many of the available downstream applications used in the field of molecular biology. Whole blood samples are one of the main sources used to obtain DNA, and there a...

  2. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    OpenAIRE

    weyant, Robert J.; Richard Crout; McNeil, Daniel W.; Adriana Modesto; Iêda M. Orioli; Figen Seymen; Eduardo E. Castilla; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Steven Wendell; Renato Menezes; Ariadne Letra; Mereb, Juan C.; Mine Yildirim; Poletta, Fernando A.; Christopher Rozhon

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,4...

  3. TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis in skin samples and peripheral blood of mycosis fungoides patients:

    OpenAIRE

    Bašanović, Jelena; Cikota, Bojana; Kandolf Sekulović, Lidija; Magić, Zvonko; Medenica, Ljiljana; Pavlović, Miloš; Stojadinović, Olivera; Škiljević, Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing mycosis fungoides (MF) can be challenging in the early stage of the disease because histopathological features may simulate a varietyof benign inflammatory skin diseases. Assessment of T-cell clonality was found to be useful in diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Objective: In this study, PCR-based TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis was performed in skin and peripheral blood samples of patients with MF treated at the two largest referral centers in Serbia, and the re...

  4. Metabolic phenotyping by 1H-NMR spectroscopy detects lung cancer via a simple blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis,Evelyne; MESOTTEN, Liesbet; Thomeer, Michiel; Vandeurzen, Kurt; Darquennes, Karen; Vanhove, Karolien; Reekmans, Gunter; Adriaensens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect lung cancer. Accumulating evidence shows that the metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of normal cells. Disturbances in biochemical pathways which occur during the development of cancer provoke changes in the metabolic phenotype. Objective: To determine the metabolic phenotype of lung cancer by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Methods: Fasting venous blood samples of 78...

  5. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida B.; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry; Nøhr-Jensen, Lene; Nielsen, Dorthe E.; Brandslund, Ivan; Madsen, Jonna S.

    2015-01-01

    impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening......: Significant diurnal variation was found for albumin (n = 15,544; p<2×10-16), TSH (n = 20,019; p<2×10-16), calcium (n = 13,588; p = 2.8×10-12) and sodium (n = 51,917; p<2×10-16). Further significant influence for resting time was found for albumin (p = 2.6×10-4), TSH (p = 0.004), calcium (p = 8.9×10-7) and...... sodium (p = 8.7×10-16). Only TSH and albumin were clinically significantly influenced by diurnal variation. Resting time had no clinically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found no need for resting 15 minutes prior to blood sampling. However, diurnal variation was found to have a significant and...

  6. ANALYSIS OF CHROMIUM BIOACCUMULATION IN BLOOD, URINE AND NAIL SAMPLES OF CHROMATE FACTORY WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. JOB GOPINATH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial play a major role in country's economy. Air pollution is an occupational health problem in industries. Generaly, there are more man made pollution in the air of heavy industries and major cities around the industries, Exposure as inhalation represents one of the major routes by which the body can be exposed by accident or design to foreign materials. One having entered to the respiratory tract, inhaled materails may be readly absorbed or may react directly with the alveolar epithelium and entered in to the blood steam. These air pollution induce many changes in physiological and biochemical process. The present study was contucted on chromate industrial workers as these workers were repeatedly exposed to pollutants in chromium factors (Tamil Nadu Chromate and Chemical Ltd., Ranipet industrial Town, Tamil Nadu. The bioaccumulation of chromium was estimated from one hundred samples of blood and urine as well as twenty five samples of nails collected from TCC industrial workers and control subject. The workers and control subject were randomly selected. Estimation was carried out by Atomic Absorption spectrometry. From the results it was obeserved tha the accumulation of heavy metal chromium in the blood. urine and nail samples of chromate factory worker are above the normal ranges. Results are statistically significant.

  7. Evaluation of Verigene Blood Culture Test Systems for Rapid Identification of Positive Blood Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Seok Kim

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of molecular tests using the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture nucleic acid tests (BC-GP and BC-GN, resp.; Naosphere, Northbrook, IL, USA was evaluated for the identification of microorganisms detected from blood cultures. Ninety-nine blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria and 150 containing Gram-negative bacteria were analyzed using the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, respectively. Blood cultures were performed using the Bactec blood culture system (BD Diagnostic Systems, Franklin Lakes, NJ, USA and conventional identification and antibiotic-susceptibility tests were performed using a MicroScan system (Siemens, West Sacramento, CA, USA. When a single strain of bacteria was isolated from the blood culture, Verigene assays correctly identified 97.9% (94/96 of Gram-positive bacteria and 93.8% (137/146 of Gram-negative bacteria. Resistance genes mecA and vanA were correctly detected by the BC-GP assay, while the extended-spectrum β-lactamase CTX-M and the carbapenemase OXA resistance gene were detected from 30 cases cultures by the BC-GN assay. The BC-GP and BC-GN assays showed high agreement with conventional identification and susceptibility tests. These tests are useful for rapid identification of microorganisms and the detection of clinically important resistance genes from positive Bactec blood cultures.

  8. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal ...

  9. System accuracy of blood glucose monitoring systems: impact of use by patients and ambient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Haug, Cornelia; Heinemann, Lutz; Freckmann, Guido

    2013-10-01

    For self-monitoring of blood glucose by people with diabetes, the reliability of the measured blood glucose values is a prerequisite in order to ensure correct therapeutic decisions. Requirements for system accuracy are defined by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in the standard EN ISO 15197:2003. However, even a system with high analytical quality is not a guarantee for accurate and reliable measurement results. Under routine life conditions, blood glucose measurement results are affected by several factors. First, the act of performing measurements as well as the handling of the system may entail numerous possible error sources, such as traces of glucose-containing products on the fingertips, the use of deteriorated test strips, or the incorrect storage of test strips. Second, ambient and sampling conditions such as high altitude, partial pressure of oxygen, ambient temperature, and the use of alternate test sites can have an influence on measurement results. Therefore, the user-friendliness of a system and the quality of the manufacturer's labeling to reduce the risk of handling errors are also important aspects in ensuring reliable and accurate measurement results. In addition, the analytical performance of systems should be less prone to user errors and ambient conditions. Finally, people with diabetes must be aware of the information and instructions in the manufacturer's labeling and must be able to measure and interpret blood glucose results correctly. PMID:23883407

  10. Blood Vessel Diameter Estimation System Using Active Contours

    OpenAIRE

    Courtney, Jane; Tizon, Ana

    2011-01-01

    The study and analysis of blood vessel geometry has become the basis of medical applications related to early diagnosis and effective monitoring of therapies in vascular diseases. This paper presents a new method to trace the outline of blood vessels from imperfect images and extract useful information about their dimensions in an automated manner. The system consists of a segmentation procedure that uses two Active Contours to detect blood vessel boundaries and a novel approach to measure bl...

  11. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  12. Analysis of tumor template from multiple compartments in a blood sample provides complementary access to peripheral tumor biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, William M; Carter, Chris; Simmons, Jill; Klem, Erich; Goodman, Nathan; Vahidi, Behrad; Romero, Juan; Masterman-Smith, Michael; O'Regan, Ruth; Gogineni, Keerthi; Schwartzberg, Lee; Austin, Laura K; Dempsey, Paul W; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Targeted cancer therapeutics are promised to have a major impact on cancer treatment and survival. Successful application of these novel treatments requires a molecular definition of a patient's disease typically achieved through the use of tissue biopsies. Alternatively, allowing longitudinal monitoring, biomarkers derived from blood, isolated either from circulating tumor cell derived DNA (ctcDNA) or circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ccfDNA) may be evaluated. In order to use blood derived templates for mutational profiling in clinical decisions, it is essential to understand the different template qualities and how they compare to biopsy derived template DNA as both blood-based templates are rare and distinct from the gold-standard. Using a next generation re-sequencing strategy, concordance of the mutational spectrum was evaluated in 32 patient-matched ctcDNA and ccfDNA templates with comparison to tissue biopsy derived DNA template. Different CTC antibody capture systems for DNA isolation from patient blood samples were also compared. Significant overlap was observed between ctcDNA, ccfDNA and tissue derived templates. Interestingly, if the results of ctcDNA and ccfDNA template sequencing were combined, productive samples showed similar detection frequency (56% vs 58%), were temporally flexible, and were complementary both to each other and the gold standard. These observations justify the use of a multiple template approach to the liquid biopsy, where germline, ctcDNA, and ccfDNA templates are employed for clinical diagnostic purposes and open a path to comprehensive blood derived biomarker access. PMID:27049831

  13. Detection of bacteremia by Difco ESP blood culture system.

    OpenAIRE

    Morello, J A; Leitch, C; Nitz, S.; Dyke, J W; Andruszewski, M; Maier, G.; Landau, W.; Beard, M. A.

    1994-01-01

    In a multicenter study, the Difco ESP blood culture system (Difco Laboratories, Detroit, Mich.) was compared with the BACTEC NR660 system (Becton Dickinson Diagnostic Instrument Systems, Sparks, Md.). The ESP system monitors each blood culture bottle every 12 to 24 min to detect changes in oxygen consumption and gas production by microbes. Equal volumes of blood were inoculated into aerobic ESP-80A and BACTEC 6A, 16A, or PEDS Plus broths and anaerobic ESP-80N and BACTEC 7A or 17A broths and w...

  14. The LITA Drill and Sample Delivery System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, G.; Yoon, S.; Zacny, K.; Wettergreeng, D.; Cabrol, N. A.

    2013-12-01

    The Life in the Atacama (LITA) project has a goal of demonstrating autonomous roving, sample acquisition, delivery and analysis operations in Atacama, Chile. To enable the sample handling requirement, Honeybee Robotics developed a rover-deployed, rotary-percussive, autonomous drill, called the LITA Drill, capable of penetrating to ~80 cm in various formations, capturing and delivering subsurface samples to a 20 cup carousel. The carousel has a built-in capability to press the samples within each cup, and position target cups underneath instruments for analysis. The drill and sample delivery system had to have mass and power requirements consistent with a flight system. The drill weighs 12 kg and uses less than 100 watt of power to penetrate ~80 cm. The LITA Drill auger has been designed with two distinct stages. The lower part has deep and gently sloping flutes for retaining powdered sample, while the upper section has shallow and steep flutes for preventing borehole collapse and for efficient movement of cuttings and fall back material out of the hole. The drill uses the so called 'bite-sampling' approach that is samples are taken in short, 5-10 cm bites. To take the first bite, the drill is lowered onto the ground and upon drilling of the first bite it is then retracted into an auger tube. The auger with the auger tube are then lifted off the ground and positioned next to the carousel. To deposit the sample, the auger is rotated and retracted above the auger tube. The cuttings retained on the flutes are either gravity fed or are brushed off by a passive side brush into the cup. After the sample from the first bite has been deposited, the drill is lowered back into the same hole to take the next bite. This process is repeated until a target depth is reached. The bite sampling is analogous to peck drilling in the machining process where a bit is periodically retracted to clear chips. If there is some fall back into the hole once the auger has cleared the hole, this

  15. Air sampling system for airborne surveys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An air sampling system has been designed for installation on the Beechcraft King Air A-100 aircraft as a part of the Aerial Radiological Measuring System (ARMS). It is intended for both particle and whole gas sampling. The sampling probe is designed for isokinetic sampling and is mounted on a removable modified escape hatch cover, behind the co-pilot's seat, and extends about two feet forward of the hatch cover in the air stream lines. Directly behind the sampling probe inside the modified hatch cover is an expansion chamber, space for a 5-inch diameter filter paper cassette, and an optional four-stage cascade impactor for particle size distribution measurements. A pair of motors and blower pumps provide the necessary 0.5 atmosphere pressure across the type MSA 1106 B glass fiber filter paper to allow a flow rate of 50 cfm. The MSA 1106 B filter paper is designed to trap sub-micrometer particles with a high efficiency; it was chosen to enable a quantitative measurement of airborne radon daughters, one of the principal sources of background signals when radiological surveys are being performed. A venturi section and pressure gauges allow air flow rate measurements so that airborne contaminant concentrations may be quantified. A whole gas sampler capable of sampling a cubic meter of air is mounted inside the aircraft cabin. A nuclear counting system on board the aircraft provides capability for α, β and γ counting of filter paper samples. Design data are presented and types of survey missions which may be served by this system are described

  16. Clinical laboratory comparison of the 10-ml isolator blood culture system with BACTEC radiometric blood culture media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, J A; Manzella, J P; McConville, J H

    1984-10-01

    The efficiency of the 10-ml Isolator (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc.) for recovery of pathogens from blood was compared with that of BACTEC 6B and 7C media (Johnston Laboratories) by using 4,195 cultures from 1,662 patients. During the first phase of the study, BACTEC bottles were inoculated with 3 ml of blood; in the second phase, bottles were inoculated with 5 ml. The objectives were to compare results with similar blood volumes used for the detection of anaerobes as well as similar overall volumes and to determine the relative sensitivity of BACTEC media inoculated with the minimum and maximum volumes suggested by the manufacturer. From 180 patients, 391 significant isolates were recovered, 354 (91%) with the Isolator and 304 (78%) with the bottles. Isolators recovered 31 (15%) and 19 (18%) more pathogens overall than did the two-bottle system inoculated with 3 and 5 ml of blood, respectively, including 30 (36%) and 10 (34%) more Enterobacteriaceae. Recovery of anaerobes was greater in the BACTEC anaerobic medium, but only when its inoculum was increased to 5 ml. No significant differences existed between the two systems in pathogen detection times or detection of polymicrobic bacteremia. The Isolator contamination rate (8.3%) was approximately 4 times that of the bottles. The number of CFU of pathogen per milliliter of blood, blood volume sampled, and number of Isolators collected were more important than antimicrobial agent pretreatment in contributing to patient bacteremia of fungemia undetected by the Isolator. The Isolator appeared to be a practical alternative for recovery of aerobic and facultatively anaerobic pathogens from the blood. PMID:6386871

  17. Sensitivity of PCR assays for murine gammaretroviruses and mouse contamination in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling Lee

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples.

  18. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Aldo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition.

  19. Quantification of phenol, phenyl glucuronide, and phenyl sulfate in blood of unanesthetized rainbow trout by online microdialysis sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Hoffman, Alex D; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Lien, Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Free concentrations of phenol (PH), phenyl glucuronide (PG), and phenyl sulfate (PS) were measured in the bloodstream of unanesthetized rainbow trout by online microdialysis (MD) sampling. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize the MD system and evaluate three retrodialysis calibration standards: p-nitrophenyl glucuronide (PNPG), p-nitrophenyl sulfate (PNPS), and [(14)C]-phenol ((14)C-PH). PG and PNPG exhibited nearly identical dialyzing properties in vitro (saline and plasma) and in vivo (muscle tissue and dorsal aorta). A similar result was obtained for PS and PNPS. In vivo studies were therefore performed using PNPG, PNPS, and (14)C-PH as retrodialysis calibrators for PG, PS, and PH, respectively. The utility of MD sampling for kinetic studies with fish was investigated by implanting MD probes into the dorsal aorta of spinally transected rainbow trout. Each fish was then exposed to PH in water in a respirometer-metabolism chamber. The free concentration of PH in blood reached a steady-state level within 12 h of initiating the exposure. A steady state for PS was generally established within 24 h, while free concentrations of PG tended to increase throughout the exposure. Terminal plasma samples were dialyzed using the same probe employed in each experiment. Analyte concentrations determined in this manner were in good agreement with calculated in vivo values. The methods described in this study can be used to collect kinetic data sets of high temporal resolution while eliminating artifacts often associated with conventional blood sampling methods. PMID:20020864

  20. An improved, PCR-based strategy for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-dos-Santos, G; Nishiya, A S; Sabino, E C; Chamone, D F; Saez-Alquézar, A

    1999-10-01

    Attempts were made to improve the PCR-based detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples, primarily for screening blood donors. Samples were obtained from candidate donors who were reactive in one or two of three serological tests for Chagas disease (and therefore considered 'indeterminate') or in all three tests (3+). Each sample was then examined using three different, PCR-based techniques: 'PCR-I' (in which the target DNA is a nuclear repetitive sequence); 'PCR-II' [amplifying a conserved region of the T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA (kDNA)]; and 'PCR-III' (a new strategy in which the target kDNA is amplified by 'nested' PCR). Among the samples from 3+ individuals, PCR-I, PCR-II and PCR-III amplified two (3.8%) out of 52, four (4.5%) out of 88, and 27 (25.7%) out of 105 samples tested, respectively. Seven, 69 and 70 samples from 'indeterminate' subjects were tested by PCR-I, PCR-II and PCR-III, respectively; there was not a single positive result by PCR-I or PCR-II, but three (4.3%) of the samples tested by PCR-III were positive. In a reconstruction experiment, in conditions in which PCR-I and PCR-II could not detect 10,000 parasites/ml, PCR-III was able to detect one parasite/ml. Although all three PCR-based strategies examined had rather poor sensitivities, PCR-III was far more sensitive than PCR-I or PCR-II. PMID:10715696

  1. 77 FR 37471 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-21

    ... complete Privacy Act Statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National Highway... comments. SUMMARY: The NHTSA is conducting a comprehensive review of the National Automotive...

  2. 78 FR 36633 - National Automotive Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-18

    ... complete Privacy Act statement in the Federal Register published on April 11, 2000 (65 FR 19477-78) or you... 21, 2012, NHTSA published a Federal Register notice (77 FR 37471-72) soliciting comments from NASS... National Highway Traffic Safety Administration National Automotive Sampling System AGENCY: National...

  3. Results of Pancreatic Blood Shunting into the Systemic Blood Flow in Insulin-Dependent Diabetics

    OpenAIRE

    Galperin, E. I.; Diuzheva, T. G.; Petrovsky, P. F.; A. Yu. Chevokin; Dokuchayev, K. V.; Rabinovich, S. E.; Gitel, E. P.; Kuzovlev, N. F.; Platonov, L. V.

    1996-01-01

    A new surgical method of treating patients with unstable insulin-dependent diabetes (IDD) has been developed-that of surgically shunting pancreatic blood into the systemic blood flow with the purpose of creating a more optimal interaction of subcutaneously administered insulin and pancreas-secreted glucagon. The long term results of the operation depend on the patency of a splenorenal anastomosis. This has been studied by following up 137 patients over periods from half a year to three years....

  4. Physiological and Pathological Impact of Blood Sampling by Retro-Bulbar Sinus Puncture and Facial Vein Phlebotomy in Laboratory Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Nygaard Madsen, Andreas; Holst, Birgitte; Hau, Jann; Rozell, Björn; Abelson, Klas Stig Peter

    2014-01-01

    time points, and the samples were analyzed for plasma corticosterone. Body weights were measured at the day of blood sampling and the day after blood sampling, and the food consumption was recorded automatically during the 24 hours post-procedure. At the end of study, cheeks and orbital regions were...... weight following blood sampling, but the body weight loss was higher in mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy. The food consumption was not significantly different between the two groups. At gross necropsy, subcutaneous hematomas were found in both groups and the histopathological analyses revealed...

  5. [Study of molecular mechanism for a blood sample with A3 phenotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Yang, Liang; Mei, Chuanliang; Xu, Deyi; Deng, Gang; He, Yunlei; Liu, Yiyu; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the molecular mechanism for a blood sample with mixed-field hemagglutination upon determination of ABO blood group. METHODS Serological techniques were employed to identify the erythrocyte phenotype. The A and B antigens were detected by flow cytometry. The preliminary genotype of ABO gene was assayed with sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP). Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were amplified with PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing. Haplotypes of the ABO gene were analyzed by cloning sequencing as well. RESULTS The serological reaction pattern has supported an O phenotype when all the tubes were centrifuged for the first time. However, a mixed-field hemagglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) with anti-A antibodies was present after the tube was centrifuged five times later. A antigens were detected on the surface of partial red blood cells of the sample by flow cytometry. PCR- SSP results have shown that the preliminary ABO genotype was A/O. Analysis of the fragments of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene has indicated that heterozygosis lied as follows: 261G/A, 425T/T, 467C/T, 646A/T, 681A/G, 745C/T, 771C/T, 829A/G, conjecturing the genotype to be A307/O02, which was confirmed by haplotype sequence analysis. Compared with A101 allele, A307 allele has two missense mutations, 467C> T and 745C> T, which have resulted in substitutions Pro156Leu and Arg249Trp in the A glycosyltransferase polypeptide chain. CONCLUSION A variant allele (A307) has been identified for the first time in mainland China, which is responsible for the formation of A3 phenotype. PMID:26418996

  6. Does volumetric absorptive microsampling eliminate the hematocrit bias for caffeine and paraxanthine in dried blood samples? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-06-30

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel sampling technique that allows the straightforward collection of an accurate volume of blood (approximately 10μL) from a drop or pool of blood by dipping an absorbent polymeric tip into it. The resulting blood microsample is dried and analyzed as a whole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of VAMS to overcome the hematocrit bias, an important issue in the analysis of dried blood microsamples. An LC-MS/MS method for analysis of the model compounds caffeine and paraxanthine in VAMS samples was fully validated and fulfilled all pre-established criteria. In conjunction with previously validated procedures for dried blood spots (DBS) and blood, this allowed us to set up a meticulous comparative study in which both compounds were determined in over 80 corresponding VAMS, DBS and liquid whole blood samples. These originated from authentic human patient samples, covering a wide hematocrit range (0.21-0.50). By calculating the differences with reference whole blood concentrations, we found that analyte concentrations in VAMS samples were not affected by a bias that changed over the evaluated hematocrit range, in contrast to DBS results. However, VAMS concentrations tend to overestimate whole blood concentrations, as a consistent positive bias was observed. A different behavior of VAMS samples prepared from incurred and spiked blood, combined with a somewhat reduced recovery of caffeine and paraxanthine from VAMS tips at high hematocrit values, an effect that was not observed for DBS using a very similar extraction procedure, was found to be at the basis of the observed VAMS-whole blood deviations. Based on this study, being the first in which the validity and robustness of VAMS is evaluated by analyzing incurred human samples, it can be concluded that VAMS effectively assists in eliminating the effect of hematocrit. PMID:26041521

  7. Identification of a suitable internal control for fluorescence analysis on canine peripheral blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondato, F; Martini, V; Poggi, A; Rota, A; Comazzi, S; Sulce, M; Bruno, B; Borrelli, A; Miniscalco, B

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of fluorescence intensity (FI) by flow cytometry (FC) is fundamental. FI depends on instrument settings and sample processing procedures: thus, measurements should be done using internal controls with known FI. Commercially available beads-based standards are expensive, thus reducing their usability in the veterinary practice. Cell subsets with stable mean FI (MFI) within the population have been proposed as acceptable surrogates in human medicine. In veterinary medicine, no data exist about stability of antigen expression among different subjects or upon sample storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MFI variability of main lymphocytes antigens among the lymphoid cells within each subject, among different subjects, and upon 24-h storage, in order to identify the antigen most suitable as stable internal control in MFI analyses. Peripheral blood samples from 18 healthy dogs were analysed by FC within 3h from sampling to assess the expression of CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8, CD21 and cyCD79b using conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Analyses were restricted to the lymphoid population. Fluorescent microbeads were added to each tube, and antigen MFI was calculated as Relative Fluorescence Intensity RFI (CD/beads). Fluorescence histogram CV (fhCV) for each CD was regarded as an index of the variability of expression among lymphocytes within each subject (cell-to-cell variability); whereas the CV of RFI was regarded as an index of inter-subjects variability (dog-to-dog variability). In 11 cases, FC analyses were repeated after 24h storage at 4°C and RFI and CVs of fresh and stored samples were compared to assess variability linked to storage. CD4 was identified as the best antigen to be used as an internal control for MFI analyses in canine peripheral blood samples because of low cell-to-cell and dog-to-dog variability, and optimal stability upon 24-h storage. Blood samples from a second group of 21 healthy dogs were labelled only with CD4, in order

  8. Is liquid heparin comparable to dry balanced heparin for blood gas sampling in intensive care unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswas Chhapola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood gas (BG analysis is required for management of critically ill patients in emergency and intensive care units. BG parameters can be affected by the type of heparin formulations used-liquid heparin (LH or dry balanced heparin (DBH. This study was conducted to determine whether blood gas, electrolyte, and metabolite estimations performed by using DBH and LH are comparable. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at pediatric intensive care unit (PICU of a tertiary care hospital. Paired venous samples were collected from 35 consecutive children in commercially prepared DBH syringes and custom-prepared LH syringes. Samples were immediately analyzed by blood gas analyzer and compared for pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCO 3 - , Na + , K + , Cl - , and lactate. Paired comparisons were done and agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman difference plots. The 95% limits of absolute agreement (LOA were compared with the specifications for total allowable error (TEa. Results: The P values were significant for all measured parameters, with the exception of pCO 2 and K +. Bland-Altman difference plots showed wide LOA for pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCO3 - , Na + , K + , and Cl - when compared against TEa. For pCO 2 , HCO3 - , Na + , K + , and Cl - , 40%, 23%, 77%, 34%, and 54% of samples were outside the TEa limits, respectively, with LH. Conclusion: Our study showed that there is poor agreement between LH and DBH for the BG parameters pCO2, pO2, HCO3 - , K + , Na + , and Cl - and, thus, are not comparable. But for pH and lactate, LH and DBH can be used interchangeably.

  9. Trace elements in blood samples of workers in Atbara railways foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine trace elements and toxic substances in biological samples (blood samples) of humans. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), (Pb), lead, and zinc (Zn) in biological samples of workers employed in the industrial workshops in the River Nile state to assess the potential impact of exposure to the work environmental factors. For the purpose of comparison biological samples were collected from the same group of workers exposed to the elements of the work environment and workers not exposed to the elements of the work environment. The analysis of all elements in biological samples was done by x-ray fluorescence technique (X RF). There were no statistically significant differences between the analytical results for the exposed group and non-exposed group, using the same technique. The results showed that the concentrations of the four elements copper, lead, iron, and zinc in all biological samples from workers exposed were not much higher than those not exposed, it could be argued that there was a possible link between these elements with different causes of physiological disorder. The results also showed that need for an attention for improvements in hygiene practice in the workplace and industrial ventilation.(Author)

  10. Geometric characterization of red blood cells. Differentiation of normal and pathologic samples

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Rodríguez; Catalina Correa; Signed Prieto; Benjamín Ospino; Pedro Bernal; Liliana Ortiz; Ángela Munévar

    2008-01-01

    the irregularity of abstract and natural objectswith the fractal dimension. Fractal calculationshave been applied to the structures of the humanbody and to quantifications in physiology fromthe theory of dynamic systems.Material and Methods. The fractal dimensionswere calculated, the number of occupationspaces in the space border of box counting andthe area of two red blood cells groups, 7 normalones, group A, and 7 abnormal, group B, comingfrom patient and of bags for transfusion, werecalcul...

  11. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  12. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.D.; Hasselbalch, H.C.;

    2014-01-01

    eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the...... tumors within the first three years following the DIFF. Using multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and adjusted for previous eosinophilia, sex, age, year, month, C-reactive protein, previous cancer and Charlson's Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: The risk of bladder cancer was...

  13. Return of Results from Research Using Newborn Screening Dried Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Goldenberg, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    There may be compelling reasons to return to parents a limited subset of results from research conducted using residual newborn screening dried blood samples (DBS). This article explores the circumstances under which research results might be returned, as well as the mechanisms by which state newborn screening programs might facilitate the return of research results. The scope of any responsibility to return results of research conducted using DBS should be assessed in light of the potential impact on the primary mission of state newborn screening programs. PMID:26479566

  14. Screening for genetic haemochromatosis in blood samples with raised alanine aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani, M; Lloyd, D; Bhattacharyya, A.; Marples, J; Elton, P; Worwood, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the UK approximately 1 in 140 people are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and are at risk from iron overload caused by genetic haemochromatosis (GH). Early detection can prevent organ damage secondary to iron deposition and increase life expectancy.
AIM—To screen for GH in all blood samples sent to the laboratory for routine liver function tests in which raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was detected.
METHODS—ALT was measured in sera sent to t...

  15. IRON CONCENTRATIONS IN SOIL, PASTURE AND BLOOD PLASMA OF BEEF CATTLE REARED IN SUCKLING COWS SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleš Pavlík

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows The objective of this study was to compare concentrations of iron (Fe in soil, pasture sward and blood plasma of extensive reared Aberdeen Angus bulls and heifers on a farm in the foothills of the Orlické Mountains. We sampled soil, pasture sward from pasture areas and blood from 22 bulls and 22 heifers in the period from birth to weaning at regular intervals (81, 151, 189 and 273 days of age. Concentrations of iron were analysed. Not significant relationships were noted between soil and pasture iron concentrations (r = 0.32, pasture and blood plasma iron concentration (r = 0.39. In this study, there were not found relationships between iron-soil, forage and blood concentration in beef cattle reared in suckling cows system.

  16. Quantitative Analysis of Trace Chromium in Blood Samples. Combination of the Advanced Oxidation Process with Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Li; Armstrong, Kristie C.; Dansby-Sparks, Royce N.; Carrington, Nathan A.; Chambers, James Q.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-01-01

    A new method for pretreating blood samples for trace Cr analysis is described. The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP with H2O2 and 5.5-W irradiation for 60 min) is used to remove biological/organic species for subsequent analysis. Prior to the AOP pretreatment, acid (HNO3) is used at pH 3.0 to inhibit the enzyme catalase in the blood samples. Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (CAdSV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE) gives Cr concentration of 6.0 ± 0.3 ppb in the blood samples. This c...

  17. Comprehensive kinetics of triiodothyronine production, distribution, and metabolism in blood and tissue pools of the rat using optimized blood-sampling protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, J J; Jang, M; Malone, T K; Broutman, M

    1982-01-01

    We have determined estimates for 24 physiological parameters of production, interpool transport, distribution, and metabolism of T3 in the major T3 pools of the unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rat, from blood-borne data and a comprehensive model and analysis of this system. Most of these indices have previously been unavailable. Whereas only 3% (2 ng/100 g BW) of the total body T3 pool (74 ng/100 g BW) is in plasma, the composite of slowly equilibrating (slow) tissue pools (e.g. muscle, skin, and brain) appears to contain most of the T3, 76% (57 ng/100 g BW) of the total. The composite of rapidly equilibrating (fast) tissue pools (e.g. liver and kidney) contains the remaining 19% (16 ng/100 g BW). The total body T3 production rate is 0.12 ng/100 g BW . min, and we estimate that about half of this emanates directly from T4 in the slow pools, whereas the remainder is derived from both thyroidal secretion and T4 to T3 conversion in the fast pools. Our results also indicate that T3 molecules spend an average of only 0.5 min in transit each time through plasma, whereas the single pass mean transit times in fast and slow tissue pools (the times available for hormone action) are 10 times and 200 times greater. In contrast, the mean residence time for T3 in the entire system is greater than 12 h despite the extremely rapid early disappearance of injected T3 from plasma. To obtain the required accuracy, we used a novel optimization approach for choosing blood-sampling schedules (1, 4, 44, 202, and 600 min), a remarkably small number of sample times, and each was adjustable by about +/- 20% without effect on optimized parameter accuracies. PMID:7053984

  18. Optimization of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar D; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

    2016-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, is caused by Leishmania donovani eukaryotic protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, the disease is prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. VL can be diagnosed by PCR amplifying ITS1 and/or kDNA genes. The current study involved the optimization of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Three LAMP systems were developed; in two of those the primers were designed based on shared regions of the ITS1 gene among different Leishmania species, while the primers for the third LAMP system were derived from a newly identified repeated region in the Leishmania genome. The LAMP tests were shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.1pg of DNA from most Leishmania species. The green nucleic acid stain SYTO16, was used here for the first time to allow real-time monitoring of LAMP amplification. The advantage of real time-LAMP using SYTO 16 over end-point LAMP product detection is discussed. The efficacy of the real time-LAMP tests for detecting Leishmania DNA in dried blood samples from volunteers living in endemic areas, was compared with that of qRT-kDNA PCR. PMID:27288706

  19. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu protein. The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023). Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024). No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564), lymph node involvement (p = 0.673), ER (p = 0.877), PR (p = 0.763), and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335), was observed. Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer

  20. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant...... time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... antigens as fresh samples, as day-old samples potentiated with bovine IL-12, and as day-old samples treated with anti-bovine IL-10 antibody. Day-old samples were stored overnight at -4ºC. The correlations between IFN-γ responses in the three types of samples and on different sampling dates were then...

  1. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 μg L-1 Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L-1 and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 μg L-1 Hg

  2. Thyroxine and thyrotropin radioimmunoassays using dried blood samples on filter paper for screening of neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine and automatized methodology for thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) using dried blood samples on filter paper is described. Five mm diameter dots were prepared. One eluted dot, corresponding to 4 μl of plasma, was used for T4-RIA while two were necessary for TSH-RIA. Reference filter papers were introduced in each assay for quality control. In a preliminary study on 1903 newborns, samples were obtained, generally between the 5th-7th day. Mean dot T4 was 7.38 +- 2.5 μg/dl. Mean dot TSH was 11.83 +- 9.1 μU/ml, the equation of the regression line between dot TSH (y) and serum TSH (x) being Y = 10.29 + 0.623x. (orig.)

  3. A STUDY OF METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN BLOOD SAMPLES OF BURNED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Septicaemia is a life threatening complication of severely burned patients. Among many organisms invading blood stream Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known for its powerful antibiotic resistance mechanisms which increasingly limit the choices for treatment. Among many such resistance mechanisms it is the metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL which confers resistance to Carbapenem group of antibiotics, one of the final resorts to fight them. The present study was undertaken to detect MBL producing P. aeruginosa using phenotypic method from blood samples of burned patients as well as to know their drug sensitivity pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose 67 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from blood samples of admitted burned patients were subjected to susceptibility testing to antipseudomonal drugs by disc diffusion test and those found to be Carbapenem resistant were subjected to Imipenem - EDTA combined disk synergy test for MBL detection. RESULT: Out of 67 isolates of P.aeruginosa, 19 (28.4% were found to be Carbapenem resistant and 11 (16.4% were MBL producers. A particularly important feature was that the MBL producers were highly resistant to the antibiotics tested than the non-producers. However all of them were susceptible to Colistin and Polymixin B. CONCLUSION: This study has made us to think that a constant vigil and careful selection of antibiotics are necessary to keep prevalence of MBL producing P.aeruginosa in check. The accurate identification and reporting of MBL producing P. aeruginosa will aid infection control practitioners in preventing the spread of these multidrug-resistant isolates

  4. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  5. A comparative evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols from whole blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheri, M; Kahrizi, D; Yari, K; Babaie, A; Suthar, R S; Kazemi, E

    2016-01-01

    All organisms have Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within their cells. DNA is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. DNA extraction is one of the most basic and essential techniques in the study of DNA that allow huge advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and bioinformatics laboratories. Whole blood samples are one of the main sources used to obtain DNA and there are many different protocols available in this issue. In current research, compared four DNA extraction protocols from blood samples; include modified phenol-chloroform protocol, two salting-out and enzyme free method and from commercial kit. The extracted DNAs by these protocols were analyzed according to their time demands, quality and quantity, toxicity and functionality in PCR method. Also the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA were surveyed by gel electrophoresis and Nanodrop spectrophotometry methods. It was observed that there are not significantly differences between these methods about DNA Purity (A260/A280), but the DNA yield (ng DNA/μl) of phenol/chloroform method was higher than other methods. In addition, phenol/chloroform was the most toxic method and it takes more time than other methods. Roche diagnostics GmbH kit was the most expensive among the four methods but the least extraction time was required and it was the safest method. PMID:27064884

  6. Design compliance matrix waste sample container filling system for nested, fixed-depth sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This design compliance matrix document provides specific design related functional characteristics, constraints, and requirements for the container filling system that is part of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system. This document addresses performance, external interfaces, ALARA, Authorization Basis, environmental and design code requirements for the container filling system. The container filling system will interface with the waste stream from the fluidic pumping channels of the nested, fixed-depth sampling system and will fill containers with waste that meet the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) criteria for waste that contains volatile and semi-volatile organic materials. The specifications for the nested, fixed-depth sampling system are described in a Level 2 Specification document (HNF-3483, Rev. 1). The basis for this design compliance matrix document is the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) desk instructions for design Compliance matrix documents (PI-CP-008-00, Rev. 0)

  7. Multi-Sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrenko, M.; Ichoku, C.; Leptoukh, G.

    2011-01-01

    Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS), which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient) of aerosol products from multiple spacebome sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua), MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  8. The New Era of the Lymphatic System: No Longer Secondary to the Blood Vascular System

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Inho; Lee, Sunju; Hong, Young-Kwon

    2012-01-01

    The blood and lymphatic systems are the two major circulatory systems in our body. Although the blood system has been studied extensively, the lymphatic system has received much less scientific and medical attention because of its elusive morphology and mysterious pathophysiology. However, a series of landmark discoveries made in the past decade has begun to change the previous misconception of the lymphatic system to be secondary to the more essential blood vascular system. In this article, ...

  9. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  10. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Dawei [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Han, Baoqin, E-mail: baoqinh@ouc.edu.cn [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China); Dong, Wen; Yang, Zhao; Lv, You; Liu, Wanshun [College of Marine Life Sciences, Ocean University of China, Qingdao 266003 (China)

    2011-04-29

    Highlights: {yields} We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. {yields} CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  11. Effects of carboxymethyl chitosan on the blood system of rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → We report, for the first time, the safety of carboxymethyl chitosan in blood system. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on coagulation function of rats. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on anticoagulation performance of rats. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on fibrinolytic function of rats. → CM-Chitosan has no significant effects on hemorheology of rats. -- Abstract: Carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan), a derivative of chitosan, was extensively studied in the biomedical materials field for its beneficial biological properties of hemostasis and stimulation of healing. However, studies examining the safety of CM-chitosan in the blood system are lacking. In this study CM-chitosan was implanted into the abdominal cavity of rats to determine blood indexes at different times and to evaluate the effects of CM-chitosan on the blood system of rats. Coagulation function was reflected by thrombin time (TT), prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplatin time (APTT), fibrinogen (FIB) and platelet factor 4 (PF4) indexes; anti-coagulation performance was assessed by the index of antithrombinIII (ATIII); fibrinolytic function was reflected by plasminogen (PLG) and fibrin degradation product (FDP) indexes; and blood viscosity (BV) and plasma viscosity (PV) indexes reflected hemorheology. Results showed that CM-chitosan has no significant effects on the blood system of rats, and provides experimental basis for CM-chitosan to be applied in the field of biomedical materials.

  12. Concentrations of environmental contaminants in blood samples collected from Sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) from the Eastern Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table 1 provides the results of organochlorine and mercury analysis on plasma and whole blood samples (respectively) collected from 20 sharp-shinned hawks at HMS...

  13. Development of portable health monitoring system for automatic self-blood glucose measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Huijun; Mizuno, Yoshihumi; Nakamachi, Eiji; Morita, Yusuke

    2010-02-01

    In this study, a new HMS (Health Monitoring System) device is developed for diabetic patient. This device mainly consists of I) 3D blood vessel searching unit and II) automatic blood glucose measurement (ABGM) unit. This device has features such as 1)3D blood vessel location search 2) laptop type, 3) puncturing a blood vessel by using a minimally invasive micro-needle, 4) very little blood sampling (10μl), and 5) automatic blood extraction and blood glucose measurement. In this study, ABGM unit is described in detail. It employs a syringe type's blood extraction mechanism because of its high accuracy. And it consists of the syringe component and the driving component. The syringe component consists of a syringe itself, a piston, a magnet, a ratchet and a micro-needle whose inner diameter is about 80μm. And the syringe component is disposable. The driving component consists of body parts, a linear stepping motor, a glucose enzyme sensor and a slider for accurate positioning control. The driving component has the all-in-one mechanism with a glucose enzyme sensor for compact size and stable blood transfer. On designing, required thrust force to drive the slider is designed to be greater than the value of the blood extraction force. Further, only one linear stepping motor is employed for blood extraction and transportation processes. The experimental result showed more than 80% of volume ratio under the piston speed 2.4mm/s. Further, the blood glucose was measured successfully by using the prototype unit. Finally, the availability of our ABGM unit was confirmed.

  14. An integrative pharmacological approach to radio telemetry and blood sampling in pharmaceutical drug discovery and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamendi Harriet W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A successful integration of the automated blood sampling (ABS and telemetry (ABST system is described. The new ABST system facilitates concomitant collection of physiological variables with blood and urine samples for determination of drug concentrations and other biochemical measures in the same rat without handling artifact. Method Integration was achieved by designing a 13 inch circular receiving antenna that operates as a plug-in replacement for the existing pair of DSI's orthogonal antennas which is compatible with the rotating cage and open floor design of the BASi Culex® ABS system. The circular receiving antenna's electrical configuration consists of a pair of electrically orthogonal half-toroids that reinforce reception of a dipole transmitter operating within the coil's interior while reducing both external noise pickup and interference from other adjacent dipole transmitters. Results For validation, measured baclofen concentration (ABST vs. satellite (μM: 69.6 ± 23.8 vs. 76.6 ± 19.5, p = NS and mean arterial pressure (ABST vs. traditional DSI telemetry (mm Hg: 150 ± 5 vs.147 ± 4, p = NS variables were quantitatively and qualitatively similar between rats housed in the ABST system and traditional home cage approaches. Conclusion The ABST system offers unique advantages over traditional between-group study paradigms that include improved data quality and significantly reduced animal use. The superior within-group model facilitates assessment of multiple physiological and biochemical responses to test compounds in the same animal. The ABST also provides opportunities to evaluate temporal relations between parameters and to investigate anomalous outlier events because drug concentrations, physiological and biochemical measures for each animal are available for comparisons.

  15. Comparison of Simultaneous Splenic Sample PCR with Blood Sample PCR for Diagnosis and Treatment of Experimental Ehrlichia canis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination.

  16. Determination of the presence of Babesia species in blood samples of cattle, camel and sheep in Iran by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Khamesipour Faham; Doosti Abbas; Koohi Arman; Chehelgerdi Mohammad; Mokhtari-Farsani Abbas; Chengula Augustino Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, causing anemia in the host. The parasites cause a zoonotic disease known as babesiosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be very sensitive for detecting Babesia in blood samples of affected animals, particular in ruminants. The purpose of the current study was to determine the presence of Babesia spp. in blood samples obtained from 2 cattle,...

  17. Assessment of the accuracy of dried blood spot (DBS sample in HIV-1 viral load as compared to plasma sample using Abbot assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisca Benedicto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV has claimed millions of lives with the Sub-Saharan Africa being the most affected. There is a significant increase in access to antiretroviral drugs which also demands frequent monitoring to determine the drug effectiveness and efficacy. Thus there is a great need to evaluate simplified methods to monitor treatment with such antiretroviral drugs. Use of dried blood spots (DBS can be ideal if evaluated in resource limited countries such as Malawi since they are easy to collect, store and convenient. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a dry blood spot sample in the quantification of viral particles in HIV reactive patients using the Abbott m2000rt assay. Methods: 87 participants were recruited from the ART clinic at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital using convenience sampling method. 29 were on antiretroviral therapy and 58 had not started the therapy. HIV-1 RNA extraction and quantification was performed from DBS and plasma using Abbott m2000sp and m2000rt systems respectively. The results were statistically analyzed by Bland-Altman method using medcalc software version 12.6.1. Results: 66 paired samples with detectable viral loads were analysed. These gave a correlation of 0.98. The mean difference was 0.05 log10 copies/ml with a standard deviation of 0.17 at 95% confidence interval.The Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement which ranged from -0.38 to 0.28 log10 copies/ml at 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: Results showed strong agreement between the plasma and DBS samples. A slight and clinically insignificant difference was observed between the two methods. A larger sample size can give support to the study findings. Since samples were less than a week old, it is not known if the results would be different if they were to be stored for a longer period. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 338-342

  18. Robust and efficient direct multiplex amplification method for large-scale DNA detection of blood samples on FTA cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage arising from radiations widely occurred along with the development of nuclear weapons and clinically wide application of computed tomography (CT) scan and nuclear medicine. All ionizing radiations (X-rays, γ-rays, alpha particles, etc.) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation lead to the DNA damage. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most wildly used techniques for detecting DNA damage as the amplification stops at the site of the damage. Improvements to enhance the efficiency of PCR are always required and remain a great challenge. Here we establish a multiplex PCR assay system (MPAS) that is served as a robust and efficient method for direct detection of target DNA sequences in genomic DNA. The establishment of the system is performed by adding a combination of PCR enhancers to standard PCR buffer, The performance of MPAS was demonstrated by carrying out the direct PCR amplification on l.2 mm human blood punch using commercially available primer sets which include multiple primer pairs. The optimized PCR system resulted in high quality genotyping results without any inhibitory effect indicated and led to a full-profile success rate of 98.13%. Our studies demonstrate that the MPAS provides an efficient and robust method for obtaining sensitive, reliable and reproducible PCR results from human blood samples. (authors)

  19. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  20. Microfluidic-Based Robotic Sampling System for Radioactive Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jack D. Law; Julia L. Tripp; Tara E. Smith; Veronica J. Rutledge; Troy G. Garn; John Svoboda; Larry Macaluso

    2014-02-01

    A novel microfluidic based robotic sampling system has been developed for sampling and analysis of liquid solutions in nuclear processes. This system couples the use of a microfluidic sample chip with a robotic system designed to allow remote, automated sampling of process solutions in-cell and facilitates direct coupling of the microfluidic sample chip with analytical instrumentation. This system provides the capability for near real time analysis, reduces analytical waste, and minimizes the potential for personnel exposure associated with traditional sampling methods. A prototype sampling system was designed, built and tested. System testing demonstrated operability of the microfluidic based sample system and identified system modifications to optimize performance.

  1. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  2. A New Blood Collection Device Minimizes Cellular DNA Release During Sample Storage and Shipping When Compared to a Standard Device

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Sheila E; Luna, Kristin K; Lechner, Joel M; Qin, Jianbing; Fernando, M Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in blood is currently used for noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic tests. Minimizing background DNA is vital for detection of low abundance cfDNA. We investigated whether a new blood collection device could reduce background levels of genomic DNA (gDNA) in plasma compared to K3EDTA tubes, when subjected to conditions that may occur during sample storage and shipping. Methods Blood samples were drawn from healthy donors into K3EDTA and Cell-Free D...

  3. Influence of EDTA and magnesium on DNA extraction from blood samples and specificity of polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    H. Khosravinia; Ramesha, KP

    2007-01-01

    This study consisting of two trails conducted to examine the impact of initial EDTA level added to blood samples on quantity and quality of genomic DNA isolated from avian fresh blood and the influence of initial EDTA level with various levels of $MgCl_2$ added to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) final volume on amplification pattern. EDTA level added to collected blood samples had no significant impact on quantity as well as quality of extracted genomic DNA. However, higher levels of EDTA inc...

  4. Effects of two kinds of femoral vein blood sampling methods on blood samples of newborn%两种股静脉采血方法对新生儿血标本的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋力艳; 海冬; 王彩芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective Effects of 2 kinds of methods to explore the application of disposable blood collecting needle essence of neonatal femoral vein blood sample collection and traditional syringe oblique femoral vein blood sample collection of blood samples in blood coagulation, hemolysis, blood volume in 3 aspects. Methods Our department from January to May 2014, 60 cases of the neonates were divided into observation group and control group with 30 cases in each group, the 2 group objects are the newborn, blood sampling sites were the femoral vein, the observation group used a disposable blood taking needle oblique femoral venous retention method to take blood samples, the control group used the traditional syringe inclined thorn femoral vein leaving method blood samples, will affect the 2 groups of blood sampling methods on blood samples of newborn compared. Results The observation group used a disposable blood taking needle oblique femoral venous blood specimens in anti coagulation, anti hemolysis, blood volume reached 3 aspects of statistical difference is significant. Conclusion The observation group used a disposable blood taking needle oblique femoral venous blood specimens in anti coagulation, anti hemolysis, blood volume reached 3 aspects of statistical difference is significant.%目的:探讨新生儿应用一次性采血针斜刺股静脉采集血标本与传统注射器斜刺股静脉采集血标本2种方法对血标本在凝血、溶血、采血量3个方面的影响。方法本科室将2014年1月至5月60例新生儿分为观察组和对照组各30例,2组采血对象均为新生儿,采血部位均为股静脉,观察组采用一次性采血针斜刺股静脉留取血标本的方法,对照组采用传统注射器斜刺股静脉留取血标本的方法,将2组采血方法对新生儿血标本的影响进行比较。结果观察组采用一次性采血针斜刺股静脉留取血标本在防凝血、防溶血、达到采血量3个方面统计学的

  5. 21 CFR 862.1130 - Blood volume test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood volume test system. 862.1130 Section 862.1130 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES CLINICAL CHEMISTRY AND CLINICAL TOXICOLOGY DEVICES Clinical Chemistry Test Systems §...

  6. Identification of malaria infected red blood samples by digital holographic quantitative phase microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimit R.; Chhaniwal, Vani K.; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Development of devices for automatic identification of diseases is desired especially in developing countries. In the case of malaria, even today the gold standard is the inspection of chemically treated blood smears through a microscope. This requires a trained technician/microscopist to identify the cells in the field of view, with which the labeling chemicals gets attached. Bright field microscopes provide only low contrast 2D images of red blood cells and cell thickness distribution cannot be obtained. Quantitative phase contrast microscopes can provide both intensity and phase profiles of the cells under study. The phase information can be used to determine thickness profile of the cell. Since cell morphology is available, many parameters pertaining to the 3D shape of the cell can be computed. These parameters in turn could be used to decide about the state of health of the cell leading to disease diagnosis. Here the investigations done on digital holographic microscope, which provides quantitative phase images, for comparison of parameters obtained from the 3D shape profile of objects leading to identification of diseased samples is described.

  7. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  8. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  9. Antidepressants detection and quantification in whole blood samples by GC-MS/MS, for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truta, Liliana; Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Costa, Pedro; Sales, M Goreti F; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-09-01

    Depression is among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of our society, leading to an increase in antidepressant drug consumption that needs to be accurately determined in whole blood samples in Forensic Toxicology Laboratories. For this purpose, this work presents a new gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method targeting the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 common Antidepressants in whole blood: 13 Antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, dothiepin, fluoxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nortryptiline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine and venlafaxine) and 1 Metabolite (N-desmethylclomipramine). Solid-phase extraction was used prior to chromatographic separation. Chromatographic and MS/MS parameters were selected to improve sensitivity, peak resolution and unequivocal identification of the eluted analyte. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in tandem, using electronic impact ionization. Clomipramine-D3 and trimipramine-D3 were used as deutered internal standards. The validation parameters included linearity, limits of detection, lower limit of quantification, selectivity/specificity, extraction efficiency, carry-over, precision and robustness, and followed internationally accepted guidelines. Limits of quantification and detection were lower than therapeutic and sub-therapeutic concentration ranges. Overall, the method offered good selectivity, robustness and quick response (<16min) for typical concentration ranges, both for therapeutic and lethal levels. PMID:27376459

  10. Production of dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells from banked umbilical cord blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood (UCB is considered to be a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. All UCB banks have recently become interested in the isolation and storage of HSCs for the treatment of hematological diseases. However, UCB was also recently confirmed as a source of immune cells for immunotherapy such as dendritic cells (DCs and cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs. This study aimed to exploit this source of immune cells in banked UCB samples. After collection of UCB samples, mononuclear cells (MNCs containing stem cells, progenitor cells, and mature cells were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque-based centrifugation. The MNCs were subjected to freezing and thawing according to a previously published protocol. The banked MNCs were used to produce DCs and CIKs. To produce DCs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with GM-CSF (50 ng/ml and IL-4 (40 ng/ml for 14 days. To produce CIKs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, IL-3, and GMC-SF for 21 and ndash;28 days. Both DCs and CIKs were evaluated for their phenotypes and functions according to previously published protocols. The results showed that banked UCB samples can be successfully used to produce functional DCs and CIKs. These samples are valuable sources of immune cells for immunotherapy. The present results suggest that banked UCB samples are useful not only for stem cell isolation, but also for immune cell production. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(11.000: 402-408

  11. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Since the Apollo era, sample return missions have been primarily limited to asteroid sampling. More comprehensive sampling could yield critical information on the...

  12. Real-time PCR for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in blood samples using SYBR green fluorescent dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi DNA in mouse blood samples. The PCR was performed with repetitive DNA primers targeting the 257- bp in T.evansi and with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to monitor the amplicon accumulation. The minimal detection of purified T.evansi genomic DNA was 0.00338 pg per reaction. DNA template preparation was performed on T.evansi infected mouse blood samples using Chelex 100 resin. It was shown to be a simples and quantitative method as revealed by real-time PCR. The detection limit of the assay was as little as 0.039 Trypanosomes (0.0039 pg) per reaction corresponding to 39 Trypanosomes per mL of blood. DNA template of T.evansi from blood samples was amplified with as little as same amount of purified T.evansi genomic DNA. Similar efficiency between the real-time assay ensured quantitative results. No amplicon was obtained with samples from Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale infected cow blood. The results indicate that the real-time PCR assay described is a rapid and sensitive method suitable for the detection of T.evansi in blood samples in routine clinical laboratory practice. (author)

  13. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokas Emmanouil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA. We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2/neu protein. Results The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023. Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024. No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564, lymph node involvement (p = 0.673, ER (p = 0.877, PR (p = 0.763, and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335, was observed. Conclusion Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

  14. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  15. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. PMID:23806567

  16. A STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION OF ABO AND RH BLOOD GROUPS SYSTEM AMONG BLOOD DONORS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    OpenAIRE

    Rajesh Kumar; Puja; Vivek Vikram; Amit; Shweeta; Sawke; Shalaka; Nilima

    2015-01-01

    Up till now about 400red cells antigen have been identified. The majority are inherited by Mendelian fashion. The ABO and Rh blood group system was first to be identified and is most important for blood transfusion purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of ABO and Rhesus (Rh) blood groups in a ter...

  17. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean±S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1±10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2±10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3±5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05±12.3 and 5.05±12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight

  18. Screening for neonatal hypothyroidism by thyroxine and thyrotrophin radioimmunoassays using dried blood samples on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine and automated methodology for thyroxine (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) using dried blood samples on filter paper is described. T4-RIA was performed on one single dot (5 mm diameter equivalent to 4 μl of serum) while two dots were necessary for TSH-RIA. Reference filter papers were introduced in each assay for quality control. In a preliminary study on 4,155 neonates, samples generally obtained between the 5th-7th day gave a mean 'dot-T4' of 97.95 +- 36.04 nmol/l and a mean 'dot-TSH' of 10.19 mU/l +- 8.25, corresponding to 2.47 mU/l of serum. Within an 18-month period (November 1976 - April 1978), a total of 16,522 neonates have been screened allowing detection of three cases of congenital hypothyroidism (incidence 1:5507), two cases of congenitally low TBG and thirty-three cases of transient hypothyroidism. (author)

  19. Aerobot Sampling and Handling System Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Honeybee Robotics proposes to: ?Derive and document the functional and technical requirements for Aerobot surface sampling and sample handling across a range of...

  20. Rapid detection of Candida albicans by polymerase spiral reaction assay in clinical blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqun eJiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen which causes mucosal infections and invasive fungal diseases. Early detection of this pathogen is needed to guide preventative and therapeutic treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR assay that rapidly and accurately detects C. albicans and to assess the clinical applicability of PSR-based diagnostic testing. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2, a region between 5.8S and 28S fungal ribosomal DNA, was used as the target sequence. Four primers were designed for amplification of ITS2 with the PSR method, which was evaluated using real time turbidity monitoring and visual detection using a pH indicator. Fourteen non- C. albicans yeast strains were negative for detection, which indicated the specificity of PSR assay was 100%. A 10-fold serial dilution of C. albicans genomic DNA was subjected to PSR and conventional PCR to compare their sensitivities. The detection limit of PSR was 6.9 pg/µl within 1 h, 10-fold higher than that of PCR (69.0 pg/µl. Blood samples (n=122 were collected from intensive care unit and hematological patients with proven or suspected C. albicans infection at two hospitals in Beijing, China. Both PSR assay and the culture method were used to analyze the samples. Of the 122 clinical samples, 34 were identified as positive by PSR. The result was consistent with those obtained by the culture method. In conclusion, a novel and effective C. albicans detection assay was developed that has a great potential for clinical screening and point-of-care testing.

  1. Sampling Theory of Food Safety System

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Bing; Chen, Guohua; Zhu, Ning

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the stratified sampling method, and put forward theoretical unbiased estimation of stratified sampling program, as well as the model and statistics of experimental design test. We also discuss the establishment of dietary exposure model, pollutant distribution model, and risk evaluation model. Finally, we present some methods for sampling design in China.

  2. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A; Svehag, S E

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays. Serum samples from patients with SLE obtained by coagulation at 37 degrees C had a lower complement activity than serum samples from blood coagulated at 4 degrees C when the capacity of the serum sam...

  3. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  4. Activity of neutron-induced Na-24 in NaCl solution to simulate human blood: effects of the sample-source distance and the irradiation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an accident of neutron radiation, the neutron dose can be estimated by measuring radioactivity of 24Na in blood of the patients. In this work, NaCl solution as simulated blood was irradiated by a 252Cf neutron source, and measured by a low background γ-ray measurement system. The 24Na activity was measured at different source-sample distances for different irradiation hours. The 24Na activity after decay correction decreases exponentially with increasing distance, but increases linearly with irradiation time. (authors)

  5. 40 CFR 86.509-90 - Exhaust gas sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... eliminate water condensation in the dilution and sampling systems. Control of water condensation with... in the dilution and sampling systems. Control of water condensation with methanol-fueled vehicles is... exchanger, positive displacement pump, sampling systems including, probes and sampling lines which, in...

  6. Nanoparticles and the blood coagulation system. Part II: safety concerns

    OpenAIRE

    Ilinskaya, Anna N; Dobrovolskaia, Marina A.

    2013-01-01

    Nanoparticle interactions with the blood coagulation system can be beneficial or adverse depending on the intended use of a nanomaterial. Nanoparticles can be engineered to be procoagulant or to carry coagulation-initiating factors to treat certain disorders. Likewise, they can be designed to be anticoagulant or to carry anticoagulant drugs to intervene in other pathological conditions in which coagulation is a concern. An overview of the coagulation system was given and a discussion of a des...

  7. Comparative determination of methyl mercury in whole blood samples using GC-ICP-MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, J; Hoppe, H W; Mosel, F; Rettenmeier, A W; Hirner, A V

    2009-08-15

    Two methods for the determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in whole blood samples based on different mass spectrometric detection techniques are compared. The methods were employed in two studies in which the internal exposure of a group of mercury-exposed workers to total mercury and MeHg was investigated. Blood samples of these workers were analysed for MeHg independently from each other in two laboratories using similar extraction procedures but different detection techniques, viz. coupled GC-EI-MS/ICP-MS and GC-MS using D(3)-MeHg as internal standard. MeHg was detected in all blood samples in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 9.0 microg/L. Though different detection techniques were employed, the results obtained by the two laboratories were in relatively good agreement. PMID:19560985

  8. Trace samples of human blood in mosquitoes as a forensic investigation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects. PMID:26600546

  9. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  10. Systemic chemotherapy induces microsatellite instability in the peripheral blood mononuclear cells of breast cancer patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Systemic chemotherapy is an important part of treatment for breast cancer. We conducted the present study to evaluate whether systemic chemotherapy could produce microsatellite instability (MSI) in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell fraction of breast cancer patients. We studied 119 sequential blood samples from 30 previously untreated breast cancer patients before, during and after chemotherapy. For comparison, we also evaluated 20 women who had no relevant medical history (control group). In 27 out of 30 patients we observed MSI in at least one sample, and six patients had loss of heterozygosity. We found a significant correlation between the number of MSI events per sample and chemotherapy with alkylating agents (P < 0.0001). We also observed an inverse correlation between the percentage of cells positive for hMSH2 and the number of MSI events per sample (P = 0.00019) and use of alkylating agents (P = 0.019). We conclude that systemic chemotherapy may induce MSI and loss of heterozygosity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells from breast cancer patients receiving alkylating agents, possibly mediated by a chemotherapy-induced decrease in the expression of hMSH2. These effects may be related to the generation of secondary leukaemia in some patients, and may also intensify the genetic instability of tumours and increase resistance to treatment

  11. A Geology Sampling System for Small Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naids, Adam J.; Hood, Anthony D.; Abell, Paul; Graff, Trevor; Buffington, Jesse

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are being discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a small body. Currently, the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  12. A Geology Sampling System for Microgravity Bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hood, Anthony; Naids, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Human exploration of microgravity bodies is being investigated as a precursor to a Mars surface mission. Asteroids, comets, dwarf planets, and the moons of Mars all fall into this microgravity category and some are been discussed as potential mission targets. Obtaining geological samples for return to Earth will be a major objective for any mission to a microgravity body. Currently the knowledge base for geology sampling in microgravity is in its infancy. Humans interacting with non-engineered surfaces in microgravity environment pose unique challenges. In preparation for such missions a team at the NASA Johnson Space Center has been working to gain experience on how to safely obtain numerous sample types in such an environment. This paper describes the type of samples the science community is interested in, highlights notable prototype work, and discusses an integrated geology sampling solution.

  13. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  14. Sampling blood from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in the field with and without anesthesia: Impacts on survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wimsatt, J.; Pearce, R.D.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Blood was collected from wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with and without anesthesia in Fort Collins, Colorado in 2004 to assess the impacts of these procedures on short-term survival and 1-yr return rates. Short-term survival and 1-yr return rates after release were passively monitored using PIT tag detection hoops placed at selected buildings. Comparison of 14-day maximum likelihood survival estimates from bats not bled (142 adult females, 62 volant juveniles), and bats sampled for blood with anesthesia (96 adult females, 23 volant juveniles) and without anesthesia (112 adult females, 22 volant juveniles) indicated no adverse effects of either treatment (juveniles: X2=53.38, df=41, P=0.09; adults: X2=39.09, df=44, P=0.68). Return rates of bats one year after sampling were similar among adult female controls (75.4%, n=142, 95% CI=67.4-82.2%), females sampled for blood with anesthesia (83.0%, n=112, 95% CI=74.8-89.5%), and females sampled without anesthesia (87.5%, n=96, 95% CI=79.2-93.4%). Lack of an effect was also noted in 1-yr return rates of juvenile females. These data suggest that the use of anesthesia during sampling of blood has no advantages in terms of enhancement of survival in big brown bats. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  15. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Rühle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384, pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553, and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955 and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome.

  16. Sample Return Systems for Extreme Environments Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — In Phase I we were able to demonstrate that sample return missions utilizing high velocity penetrators (0.1- 1 km/s) could provide substantial new capabilities for...

  17. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K; Bender, D; Hansen, S B; Keiding, S

    2001-01-01

    parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver. METHODS: Six pigs underwent PET after [15O]carbon monoxide inhalation, 3-O-[11C]methylglucose (MG) injection, and [18F]FDG injection. For the glucose scans, PET data were acquired for 90 min......Metabolic processes studied by PET are quantified traditionally using compartmental models, which relate the time course of the tracer concentration in tissue to that in arterial blood. For liver studies, the use of arterial input may, however, cause systematic errors to the estimated kinetic....... Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood...

  18. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable in...

  19. Determination of lead in whole blood: Comparison of the LeadCare blood lead testing system with zeeman longitudinal electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study compares the efficiency of blood lead level analysis by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and the portable LeadCare Blood lead testing system (LCS). Recoveries of two added lead concentrations of 22 and 42 μg/dL ranged from 102.4 to 105.5% for LCS and from 96.3 to 97.2% for GFAAS. Measurement of a certified sample (Certified Danish Whole Blood) at a blood lead concentration of 26.2 μg/dL gave within- and between-run coefficients of variation which were both approximately 8% by LCS and 2% by GFAAS. Comparison of the tested method (LCS) versus GFAAS from analysis of 76 samples of blood lead collected from workers in different industrial sectors showed imperfect overall correlation (r = 0.95). The LCS is quite suitable for screening purposes, but requires the use of non-frozen blood collected less than 24 h before. Conservative threshold values should be applied when using the LCS for initial screening in the field. (orig.)

  20. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  1. A Comparative Study of Blood Culture Sampling from Umbilical Catheter Line versus Peripheral Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of death and morbidity in newborns and is diagnosed by isolation of organism in blood culture. In several reports,reliablity of blood cultures were done from umbi lical catheters,have been demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to determine,wether an inde welling umbilical catheter, could be an alternative site for blood culture. In a prospective study over 6 months during 2006,141 paired blood cultures from 134 infant,were done simultaneously from peripheral site and umbilical catheter (mostly U. V. C,during the first four days of life. Majority of these infants were preterm and admitted to NICU for special care. these infants had indwelling umbilical line and had indication of sepsis workup. A total of 141 pairs of blood cultures were obtained from 134 infants. In 16 infants blood culture pairs were positive for one organism in both peripheral vein and umbilical site. 71. 6% of total cultures (n=11pairs were negative in boths site. A total of 22 pairs were positive in one site only,with 5 positive from peripheral vein only and the other 17 from umblical site. Two pairs were positve in boths site with two different organism. In over all 16 infant (11%of blood were considered to be contaminated. Contamination rate were 2. 4% and 9. 2% for peripheral and umbilical catheter site. Contamination rate increased after 48 hours of age in umbilical catheter. The result showed that after 2 days contamination rate for blood culture taken from catheter line increased and specifity decreased. We recommended that blood culture via umblical catheter in first 2 days in sick neonates with indwelling catheter can be a alternate site of blood culture sampelling.

  2. Effects of coagulation temperature on measurements of complement function in serum samples from patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baatrup, G; Sturfelt, G; Junker, A; Svehag, S E

    1992-01-01

    Blood samples from 15 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and 15 healthy blood donors were allowed to coagulate for one hour at room temperature, followed by one hour at 4 or 37 degrees C. The complement activity of the serum samples was assessed by three different functional assays......, determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography, was also similar. This study shows that the results of functional complement assays, applied to serum samples from patients with SLE cannot be compared unless the conditions for blood coagulation and serum handling are defined and are the same...

  3. Direct diagnosis ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in blood samples of HIV infected patients by polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Saravanakumar, Dhashinamoorthy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Solomon, Sunithi; Sritharan, Manjula; Sritharan, Venkataraman

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a simple, economical and reproducible method for processing blood samples from HIV infected patients for diagnosis of tuberculosis. The procedure was validated on 55 samples selected for tuberculosis based on clinical criteria. 52 patients had radiological changes indicative of pulmonary tuberculosis of which only 28 were positive for AFB in sputum (sensitivity 54%) and 27 for tuberculin (sensitivity 52%). 26 HIV positive patients who showed positive X-ray did not react to t...

  4. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M;

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  5. Rapid surface sampling and archival record system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barren, E.; Penney, C.M.; Sheldon, R.B. [GE Corporate Research and Development Center, Schenectady, NY (United States)] [and others

    1995-10-01

    A number of contamination sites exist in this country where the area and volume of material to be remediated is very large, approaching or exceeding 10{sup 6} m{sup 2} and 10{sup 6} m{sup 3}. Typically, only a small fraction of this material is actually contaminated. In such cases there is a strong economic motivation to test the material with a sufficient density of measurements to identify which portions are uncontaminated, so extensively they be left in place or be disposed of as uncontaminated waste. Unfortunately, since contamination often varies rapidly from position to position, this procedure can involve upwards of one million measurements per site. The situation is complicated further in many cases by the difficulties of sampling porous surfaces, such as concrete. This report describes a method for sampling concretes in which an immediate distinction can be made between contaminated and uncontaminated surfaces. Sample acquisition and analysis will be automated.

  6. Performance test of SAUNA xenon mobile sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this article, the structure and basic functions of SAUNA noble gas xenon mobile sampling system are introduced. The sampling capability of this system is about 2.2 mL per day, as a result from a 684-h operation. The system can be transported to designated locations conveniently to collect xenon sample for routine or emergency environment monitoring. (authors)

  7. Systems and methods for self-synchronized digital sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samson, Jr., John R. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Systems and methods for self-synchronized data sampling are provided. In one embodiment, a system for capturing synchronous data samples is provided. The system includes an analog to digital converter adapted to capture signals from one or more sensors and convert the signals into a stream of digital data samples at a sampling frequency determined by a sampling control signal; and a synchronizer coupled to the analog to digital converter and adapted to receive a rotational frequency signal from a rotating machine, wherein the synchronizer is further adapted to generate the sampling control signal, and wherein the sampling control signal is based on the rotational frequency signal.

  8. Performance Evaluation and Labeling Comprehension of a New Blood Glucose Monitoring System with Integrated Information Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    List, Susan M; Starks, Nykole; Baum, John; Greene, Carmine; Pardo, Scott; Parkes, Joan L; Schachner, Holly C; Cuddihy, Robert

    2011-01-01

    Background This study evaluated performance and product labeling of CONTOUR® USB, a new blood glucose monitoring system (BGMS) with integrated diabetes management software and a universal serial bus (USB) port, in the hands of untrained lay users and health care professionals (HCPs). Method Subjects and HCPs tested subject's finger stick capillary blood in parallel using CONTOUR USB meters; deep finger stick blood was tested on a Yellow Springs Instruments (YSI) glucose analyzer for reference. Duplicate results by both subjects and HCPs were obtained to assess system precision. System accuracy was assessed according to International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 15197:2003 guidelines [within ±15 mg/dl of mean YSI results (samples system features and ease-of-use were evaluated by subject questionnaires. Results All subjects who completed the study (N = 74) successfully performed blood glucose measurements, connected the meter to a laptop computer, and used key features of the system. The system was accurate; 98.6% (146/148) of subject results and 96.6% (143/148) of HCP results exceeded ISO 15197:2003 criteria. All subject and HCP results were clinically accurate (97.3%; zone A) or associated with benign errors (2.7%; zone B). The majority of subjects rated features of the BGMS as “very good” or “excellent.” Conclusions CONTOUR USB exceeded ISO 15197:2003 system performance criteria in the hands of untrained lay users. Subjects understood the product labeling, found the system easy to use, and successfully performed blood glucose testing. PMID:22027308

  9. Analytical Chemistry Division's sample transaction system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Analytical Chemistry Division uses the DECsystem-10 computer for a wide range of tasks: sample management, timekeeping, quality assurance, and data calculation. This document describes the features and operating characteristics of many of the computer programs used by the Division. The descriptions are divided into chapters which cover all of the information about one aspect of the Analytical Chemistry Division's computer processing

  10. Voltammetric Detection of Mn(II in Blood Sample at C60 and MWCNT Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed M. Radhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Glassy carbon electrode GCE was modified with different microparticles to increase the efficiency of analysis Mn2+ in blood samples by cyclic voltammetry and applied for the detection of trace Mn(II by oxidation process. Approach: The structure and composition of the modified GCE processed by using Carbon Nanotubes CNT and C60 to produce two modified electrodes CNT/GCE and C60/GCE, to detect a trace Mn2+ by cyclic voltammetry for mouse blood with comparison the best modified electrode for detection the ion by the sensitivity and values of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD in calibration curve. Results: A wide linear range and good repeatability were obtained for Mn2+ detection by CNT/GCE in aqueous KCl as supporting electrolyte at different ratio of KCl: Blood using CNT/GCE and C60/GCE, the relative standard deviation of two modified electrodes are good on CNT/GCE than C60/GCE. Conclusion: The two modified electrodes CNT/GCE and C60/GCE depending on the redox current of Mn(II ions were evaluated by the determination of low concentration of Mn(II in blood samples by cyclic voltammetric method, the most modified electrode to detect the Mn(II in blood is CNT/GCE.

  11. Consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems based on sampled data with a small sampling delay are considered. First, a consensus protocol based on sampled data with a small sampling delay for heterogeneous multi-agent systems is proposed. Then, the algebra graph theory, the matrix method, the stability theory of linear systems, and some other techniques are employed to derive the necessary and sufficient conditions guaranteeing heterogeneous multi-agent systems to asymptotically achieve the stationary consensus. Finally, simulations are performed to demonstrate the correctness of the theoretical results. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  12. The effect of a plasma needle on bacteria in planktonic samples and on peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the application of a plasma needle to induce necrosis in planktonic samples containing a single breed of bacteria. Two different types of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), were covered in this study. In all experiments with bacteria, the samples were liquid suspensions of several different concentrations of bacteria prepared according to the McFarland standard. The second system studied in this paper was human peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (hPB-MSC). In the case of hPB-MSC, two sets of experiments were performed: when cells were covered with a certain amount of liquid (indirect) and when the cell sample was in direct contact with the plasma. Most importantly, the study is made with the aim to see the effects when the living cells are in a liquid medium, which normally acts as protection against the many agents that may be released by plasmas. It was found that a good effect may be expected for a wide range of initial cell densities and operating conditions causing destruction of several orders of magnitude even under the protection of a liquid. It was established independently that a temperature increase could not affect the cells under the conditions of our experiment, so the effect could originate only from the active species produced by the plasma. In the case of those hPB-MSC that were not protected by a liquid, gas flow proved to produce a considerable effect, presumably due to poor adhesion of the cells, but in a liquid the effect was only due to the plasma. Further optimization of the operation may be attempted, opening up the possibility of localized in vivo sterilization.

  13. The impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples measured by the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2016-09-01

    The comet assay is frequently used in human biomonitoring for the detection of exposure to genotoxic agents. Peripheral blood samples are most frequently used and tested either as whole blood or after isolation of lymphocytes (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC). To investigate a potential impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples, we exposed blood ex vivo to mutagens with different modes of genotoxic action. The comet assay was performed either directly with whole blood at the end of the exposure period or with lymphocytes isolated directly after exposure. In addition to the recommended standard protocol for lymphocyte isolation, a shortened protocol was established to optimise the isolation procedure. The results indicate that the effects of induced DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites induced by ionising radiation and alkylants, respectively, are significantly reduced in isolated lymphocytes. In contrast, oxidative DNA base damage (induced by potassium bromate) and stable bulky adducts (induced by benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide; BPDE) seem to be less affected. Our findings suggest that in vivo-induced DNA damage might also be reduced in isolated lymphocytes in comparison with the whole blood depending of the types of DNA damage induced. Because only small genotoxic effects can generally be expected in human biomonitoring studies with the comet assay after occupational and environmental exposure to genotoxic agents, any loss might be relevant and should be avoided. The possibility of such effects and their potential impact on variability of comet assay results in human biomonitoring should be considered when performing or evaluating such kind of studies. PMID:27154923

  14. Adaptive Stochastic Methods for Sampling Driven Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, Andrew; Leimkuhler, Benedict

    2011-01-01

    Thermostatting methods are discussed in the context of canonical sampling in the presence of driving stochastic forces. Generalisations of the Nosé-Hoover method and Langevin dynamics are introduced which are able to dissipate excess heat introduced by steady Brownian perturbation (without a priori knowledge of its strength) while preserving ergodicity. Implementation and parameter selection are considered. It is demonstrated using numerical experiments that the methods derived can adaptively...

  15. Thyroxine (T4) radioimmunoassay using filter paper dried blood sample: an attempt for screening of neonates for hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a sensitive but simple and less expensive method suitable for estimation of thyroxine (T4) level. Deficiency of iodine during fetal life results in neonatal hypothyroidism and critinism. Frequency of neonatal hypothyroidism is 1 in 5000 to 7000 in countries having iodine deficiency. It is therefore important to diagnose the neonatal hypothyroidism as soon as possible after birth. The estimation of thyroxine has been found to the a reliable index for diagnosis of hypothyroidism and has long been used for screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. In the present study, instead of serum sample, a 6 mm disc of filter paper containing dried blood sample was used. The test was carried out in the laboratory with 40 samples. As compared to the sensitivity of serum sample technique which is 15.19 n mol/L, the filter paper technique has the sensitivity of 17.23 n mol/L. The work revealed that the T4 concentration do not depend upon the amount of blood on the filter paper. Effect of temperature on filter paper disc was evaluated at 4o c, at 25o c and at 37o c. Results obtained showed significant variation and the best result was obtained for the sample kept at 4o c. The method is simple, rapid, less expensive and needs a small amount of blood and is, therefore, a useful technique for mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. 6 refs., 4 tables (author)

  16. Raman spectroscopy for a rapid diagnosis of sickle cell disease in human blood samples: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antonio Carlos Bueno; Silveira, Landulfo; Yanai, Ana Leticia Sant'Anna; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been proposed as a tool for diagnosis of human blood diseases aiming a quick and accurate diagnosis. Sickle cell disease arises in infancy and causes a severe anemia; thus, an early diagnosis may avoid pathological complications such as vasoocclusion, hemolytic anemia, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and infections. This work evaluated spectral differences between hemoglobin S (HbS) and hemoglobin A (HbA) to be used in a diagnostic model based on principal components analysis. Blood samples of patients with a previous diagnosis of sickle cell disease were hemolyzed with water, centrifuged, and the pellet was collected with a pipette. Near-infrared Raman spectra (830 nm, 200 mW) were obtained from these samples, and a model based on principal components analysis and Mahalanobis distance were used to discriminate HbA from HbS. Differences were found in the spectra of HbS and HbA, mainly in the 882 and 1,373 cm(-1) (valine, HbA) and 1,547 and 1,622 cm(-1) (glutamic acid, HbS). The spectral model could correctly discriminate 100% of the samples in the correspondent groups. Raman spectroscopy was able to detect the subtle changes in the polypeptide chain (valine and glutamic acid substitution) due to the sickle cell disease and could be used to discriminate blood samples with HbS from HbA with minimum sample preparations (hemolysis with water and centrifugation). PMID:25217409

  17. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling.

  18. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by ...

  19. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  20. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Schmitt, Christopher J; May, Thomas W

    2005-07-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were

  1. Noninvasive biosensor and wireless interrogating system for glucose in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varadan, Vijay K.; Whitchurch, Ashwin K.; Sarukesi, K.

    2003-07-01

    Hypoglycemia-abnormal decrease in blood sugar-is a major obstacle in the management of diabetes and prevention of long-term complications, and it may impose serious effects on the brain, including impairment of memory and other cognitive functions. This paper presents the development of a non-invasive sensor with miniaturized telemetry device in a wrist-watch for monitoring glucose concentration in blood. The sensor concept is based on optical chirality of glucose level in the interstitial fluid. The wrist watch consists of a laser power source of the wavelength compatible with the glucose. A nanofilm with specific chirality is placed at the bottom of the watch. The light then passes through the film and illuminates a small area on the skin. It has been documented that there is certain concentration of sugar level is taken by the intertitial fluid from the blood stream and deposit a portion of it at the dead skin. The wrist-watch when in contact with the outer skin of the human will thus monitor the glucose concentration. A wireless monitoring system in the watch then downloads the data from the watch to a Palm or a laptop computer.

  2. 21 CFR 864.9175 - Automated blood grouping and antibody test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) Identification. An automated blood grouping and antibody test system is a device used to group erythrocytes (red blood cells) and to detect antibodies to blood group antigens. (b) Classification. Class II (performance... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Automated blood grouping and antibody test...

  3. Advanced deep reactive-ion etching technology for hollow microneedles for transdermal blood sampling and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufei; Eng, Pay F; Guy, Owen J; Roberts, Kerry; Ashraf, Huma; Knight, Nick

    2013-06-01

    Using an SPTS Technologies Ltd. Pegasus deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) system, an advanced two-step etching process has been developed for hollow microneedles in applications of transdermal blood sampling and drug delivery. Because of the different etching requirements of both narrow deep hollow and large open cavity, hollow etch and cavity etch steps have been achieved separately. This novel two-step etching process is assisted with a bi-layer etching mask. Results show that the etch rate of silicon during this hollow etch step was about 7.5 microm/min and the etch rate of silicon during this cavity etch step was about 8-10 microm/min, using the coil plasma etching power between 2.0 and 2.8 kW. Especially for the microneedle bores etch, the deeper it etched, the slower the etch rate was. The microneedle bores have successfully been obtained 75-150 microm in inner diametre and 700-1000 microm long with high aspect ratio DRIE, meanwhile, the vertical sidewall structures have been achieved with the high etch load exposed area over 70% for the cavity etch step. PMID:24046906

  4. Lagoa Real design. Description and evaluation of sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes the samples preparation system of drilling from Lagoa Real Design, aiming obtainment representative fraction of the half from drilling outlier. The error of sampling + analysis and analytical accuracy was obtainment by delayed neutron analysis. (author)

  5. Na, Al, K, Mn, Mg, Br, Ca, And Cl Concentration Values in the whole Blood Samples of Human Cancer using Short Time Neutron Irradiation Facility of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cancer Institute of Egypt submit us with 18 blood samples (11 Breast),(2 Prostate),(2 Colon),(1 Pancreatic),(1 Ovarian) and one samples from random person to estimate the concentration values of Na, Al ,K , Mn , Mg ,Br and Cl. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was calculated f (169) at irradiation position. The obtained concentration was calculated using kθ standardization method. Fortran and Axel programs were constructed for the determination of neutron fluxes and for elemental concentration values .For sake of comparisons the obtained results, the elemental concentrations of the random sample using (kθ - NAA) compared with the concentrations obtained by (ICP-MS) technique.

  6. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  7. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIMORI, Asami; KONNAI, Satoru; IKEBUCHI, Ryoyo; OKAGAWA, Tomohiro; NAKAHARA, Ayako; MURATA, Shiro; OHASHI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  8. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  9. Representativity of gas samples taken with the pressurized water sampling system (PAVE) 1995-2004

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Development of the pressurized water down-borehole sampling system (PAVE) for the sampling of dissolved gases was initiated in 1993. The first test runs with PAVE were performed at Olkiluoto in 1995. From the 1995 to February 2004, a total of 174 samples were taken. PAVE sampling is continuing at Olkiluoto. During the pre-pumping period and when groundwater sampling, the water flows directly to the surface past the PAVE pressure vessels. During gas sampling, the water flows to the pressure vessels by opening the pressure valve. Argon or nitrogen gas was used as back-pressure gas in the pressure vessel to maintain pressure in the vessel when filling with sample. In the PAVE-sampling system there can be one to three pressure vessels in sequence (currently always three). Dissolved gas samples in pressure vessels have also been taken from groundwater pumped to the surface. In this report, all gas samples taken with the PAVE sampling system by the end of February 2004 are discussed. Samples are from Olkiluoto, Haestholmen, Kivetty and Romuvaara. Mainly the samples having at least two pressure vessels analysed from the same sampling point are discussed. The aim of this report is to determine if there is any systematic behaviour in the amount of water filling the pressure vessels, the extent of argon, nitrogen or air contamination, the possibility of water leaks, or other problems. Understanding these problems will help the development work of the PAVE equipment. In addition the measuring uncertainty of the gas results is evaluated. The most representative gas results are selected for all Olkiluoto PAVE samplings. All gas results are classified in four categories where success of the sampling and analysis has been taken into account. (orig.)

  10. Simultaneous determination of CRP and D-dimer in human blood plasma samples with White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouvinos, Georgios; Petrou, Panagiota; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Drygiannakis, Dimitris; Raptis, Ioannis; Stefanitsis, Gerasimos; Martini, Spyridoula; Nikita, Dimitra; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2016-10-15

    A dual-analyte assay for the simultaneous determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in human blood plasma based on a white light interference spectroscopy sensing platform is presented. Measurement is accomplished in real-time by scanning the sensing surface, on which distinct antibody areas have been created, with a reflection probe used both for illumination of the surface and collection of the reflected interference spectrum. The composition of the transducer, the sensing surface chemical activation and biofunctionalization procedures were optimized with respect to signal magnitude and repeatability. The assay format involved direct detection of CRP whereas for D-dimer a two-site immunoassay employing a biotinylated reporter antibody and reaction with streptavidin was selected. The assays were sensitive with detection limits of 25ng/mL for both analytes, precise with intra- and inter-assay CV values ranging from 3.6% to 7.7%, and from 4.8% to 9.5%, respectively, for both assays, and accurate with recovery values ranging from 88.5% to 108% for both analytes. Moreover, the values determined for the two analytes in 35 human plasma samples were in excellent agreement with those received for the same samples by standard diagnostic laboratory instrumentation employing commercial kits. The excellent agreement of the results supported the validity of the proposed system for clinical application for the detection of multiple analytes since it was demonstrated that up to seven antibody areas can be created on the sensing surface and successfully interrogated with the developed optical set-up. PMID:26675113

  11. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...

  12. Prevalence of Fragilysin Gene in Bacteroides fragilis Isolates from Blood and Other Extraintestinal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Foulon, Ina; Piérard, Denis; Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Soetens, Oriane; Rosseel, Paul; Lauwers, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Of 166 Bacteroides fragilis isolates, 26.2% of 103 isolates from blood and 20.6% of 63 extraintestinal isolates harbored the fragilysin gene (difference not statistically significant). Clinical characteristics and evolution were comparable in patients with B. fragilis bacteremia with or without this enterotoxin. Fragilysin seems not to be an important virulence factor in B. fragilis disease.

  13. Comparison of Chlorhexidine and Tincture of Iodine for Skin Antisepsis in Preparation for Blood Sample Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Barenfanger, Joan; Drake, Cheryl; Lawhorn, Jerry; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of contamination of blood cultures obtained when skin was prepared with iodine tincture versus chlorhexidine were compared. For iodine tincture, the contamination rate was 2.7%; for chlorhexidine, it was 3.1%. The 0.41% difference is not statistically significant. Chlorhexidine has comparable effectiveness and is safer, cheaper, and preferred by staff, so it is an alternative to iodine tincture.

  14. Differentiating between intra- and extracellular chemiluminescence in diluted whole-blood samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rájecký, Michal; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2012), s. 136-142. ISSN 1751-5521 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemiluminescence * isoluminol * whole blood Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2012

  15. Development of inexpensive blood imaging systems: where are we now?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Kaiqin; Smith, Zachary J; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    Clinical applications in the developing world, such as malaria and anemia diagnosis, demand a change in the medical paradigm of expensive care given in central locations by highly trained professionals. There has been a recent explosion in optical technologies entering the consumer market through the widespread adoption of smartphones and LEDs. This technology commoditization has enabled the development of small, portable optical imaging systems at an unprecedentedly low cost. Here, we review the state-of-the-field of the application of these systems for low-cost blood imaging with an emphasis on cellular imaging systems. In addition to some promising results addressing specific clinical issues, an overview of the technology landscape is provided. We also discuss several key issues that need to be addressed before these technologies can be commercialized. PMID:26305840

  16. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  17. Performance of two updated blood glucose monitoring systems: an evaluation following ISO 15197:2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleus, Stefan; Baumstark, Annette; Rittmeyer, Delia; Jendrike, Nina; Haug, Cornelia; Freckmann, Guido

    2016-05-01

    Objective For patients with diabetes, regular self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is essential to ensure adequate glycemic control. Therefore, accurate and reliable blood glucose measurements with SMBG systems are necessary. The international standard ISO 15197 describes requirements for SMBG systems, such as limits within which 95% of glucose results have to fall to reach acceptable system accuracy. The 2013 version of this standard sets higher demands, especially regarding system accuracy, than the currently still valid edition. ISO 15197 can be applied by manufacturers to receive a CE mark for their system. Research design and methods This study was an accuracy evaluation following ISO 15197:2013 section 6.3 of two recently updated SMBG systems (Contour * and Contour TS; Bayer Consumer Care AG, Basel, Switzerland) with an improved algorithm to investigate whether the systems fulfill the requirements of the new standard. For this purpose, capillary blood samples of approximately 100 participants were measured with three test strip lots of both systems and deviations from glucose values obtained with a hexokinase-based comparison method (Cobas Integra † 400 plus; Roche Instrument Center, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) were determined. Percentages of values within the acceptance criteria of ISO 15197:2013 were calculated. This study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov (NCT02358408). Main outcome Both updated systems fulfilled the system accuracy requirements of ISO 15197:2013 as 98.5% to 100% of the results were within the stipulated limits. Furthermore, all results were within the clinically non-critical zones A and B of the consensus error grid for type 1 diabetes. Conclusions The technical improvement of the systems ensured compliance with ISO 15197 in the hands of healthcare professionals even in its more stringent 2013 version. Alternative presentation of system accuracy results in radar plots provides additional information with certain advantages. In addition

  18. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  19. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3H-Leu

  20. Phenotype frequencies of blood group systems (Rh, Kell, Kidd, Duffy, MNS, P, Lewis, and Lutheran in blood donors of south Gujarat, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manoj A Kahar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This is the first study on phenotype frequencies of various blood group systems in blood donors of south Gujarat, India using conventional tube technique. Material and Methods: A total of 115 "O" blood group donors from three different blood banks of south Gujarat were typed for D, C, c, E, e, K, Jk a , Le a , Le b , P 1 , M, and N antigens using monoclonal antisera and k, Kp a , Kp b , Fy a ,Fy b , Jk b , S,s, Lu a , and Lu b antigens were typed using polyclonal antisera employing Indirect Antiglobulin Test. Antigens and phenotype frequencies were expressed as percentages. Results: From the 115 blood donor samples used for extended antigen typing in the Rh system, e antigen was found in 100% donors, followed by D [84.35%], C [81.74%], c [56.32%], and E [21.74%] with DCe/DCe (R 1 R 1 , 40.87% as the most common phenotype. k was found to be positive in 100% of donors and no K+k- phenotype was found in Kell system. For Kidd and Duffy blood group system, Jk(a+b+ and Fy(a-b- were the most common phenotypes with frequency of 52.17% and 48.69%, respectively. In the MNS system, 39.13% donors were typed as M+N+, 37.39% as M+N-, and 23.48% as M-N+. S+s+ was found in 24.35% of donors, S+s- in 8.69%, and S-s+ as the commonest amongst donors with 66.96%. No Lu(a+b+ or Lu(a+b- phenotypes were detected in 115 donors typed for Lutheran antigens. A rare Lu(a-b- phenotype was found in 2.61% donors. Conclusion: Data base for antigen frequency of various blood group systems in local donors help provide antigen negative compatible blood units to patients with multiple antibodies in order to formulate in-house red cells for antibody detection and identification and for preparing donor registry for rare blood groups.

  1. Metabolic phenotyping by 1H-NMR spectroscopy to detect lung cancer via a simple blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis,Evelyne; Adriaensens, Peter; MESOTTEN, Liesbet; Thomeer, Michiel; Reekmans, Gunter; Vanhove, Karolien; Vandeurzen, Kurt; Darquennes, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect lung cancer. Accumulating evidence shows that the metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of normal cells. Disturbances in biochemical pathways which occur during the development of cancer provoke changes in the metabolic phenotype. Objective: To determine the metabolic phenotype of lung cancer by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Methods: Fasting venous blood samples of 78...

  2. Patient-Specific Method of Generating Parametric Maps of Patlak Ki without Blood Sampling or Metabolite Correction: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, George A.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Youngho Seo

    2011-01-01

    Currently, kinetic analyses using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experience very limited use despite their potential for improving quantitative accuracy in several clinical and research applications. For targeted volume applications, such as radiation treatment planning, treatment monitoring, and cerebral metabolic studies, the key to implementation of these methods is the determination of an arterial input function, which can include time-consuming analysis of blood samples for m...

  3. Sample preparation system for microfluidic applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mosier, Bruce P. (San Francisco, CA); Crocker, Robert W. (Fremont, CA); Patel, Kamlesh D. (Dublin, CA); Harnett, Cindy K. (Livermore, CA)

    2007-05-08

    An apparatus that couples automated injection with flow feedback to provide nanoliter accuracy in controlling microliter volumes. The apparatus comprises generally a source of hydraulic fluid pressure, a fluid isolator joined to the outlet of the hydraulic pressure source and a flow sensor to provide pressure-driven analyte metering. For operation generally and particularly in microfluidic systems the hydraulic pressure source is typically an electrokinetic (EK) pump that incorporates gasless electrodes. The apparatus is capable of metering sub-microliter volumes at flowrates of 1 100 .mu.L/min into microsystem load pressures of up to 1000 50 psi, respectively. Flowrates can be specified within 0.5 .mu.L/min and volumes as small as 80 nL can be metered.

  4. Inorganic elements determination in human and animal whole blood samples by X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood is a suspension of cells contained in a complex liquid called plasma. The term 'whole blood' refers to samples with both solid and liquid parts. Inorganic elements are responsible for essential functions, such as osmotic regulation, cardiac frequency and contractibility, blood clotting and neuromuscular excitability. The determination of inorganic elements in corporeal fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, tissue and urine is used as a monitor for a part or the whole organism. In this work, the X-Ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) was used for the determination of inorganic elements in whole blood samples from humans and animals (golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and crioula breed horses, Equus caballus). The reference intervals of Na (1788 - 1826 μg g'-1), Mg (63 - 75 μg g-1), P (602 - 676 μg g-1), S (1519 - 1718 μg g-1), Cl (2743 - 2867 μg g-1), K (1508 - 1630 μg g-1), Ca (214 - 228 μg g'-1), Cu (4 -6 μg g-1) e Zn (1 - 3 μg g'-1) were determined for human blood. The reference intervals, for golden hamster blood were found to be: Na (1714 - 1819 μg g-1), Mg (51 - 79 μg g-1), P (970 - 1080 μg g-1), S (1231 - 1739 μg g-1), Cl (2775 - 2865 μg g-1), K (1968 - 2248 μg g-1), Ca (209 - 257 μg g-1), Cu (4 - 6 μg g-1) e Zn (3 - 5 μg g-1). The reference intervals, for crioula breed horse blood, showed to be: Na (1955 - 2013 μg g-1), Mg (51 - 75 μg g-1), P (443 - 476 μg g-1), S (1038 - 1140 μg g-'1), Cl (2388 - 2574 μg g-1), K (1678 - 1753 μg g-1), Ca (202 - 213 μg g-1), Cu (4,1 - 4,5 μg g-1) e Zn (2,0 - 2,2 μg g-1). Comparative study between NAA and EDXRF, both techniques showed the same performance for the analyses of biological matrices. The results contribute for the establishment of reference intervals for the Brazilian healthy population and the referred animal species. (author)

  5. Rarefaction and blood pressure in systemic and pulmonary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olufsen, Mette S; Hill, N A; Vaughan, Gareth D A; Sainsbury, Christopher; Johnson, Martin

    2012-08-01

    The effects of vascular rarefaction (the loss of small arteries) on the circulation of blood are studied using a multiscale mathematical model that can predict blood flow and pressure in the systemic and pulmonary arteries. We augmented a model originally developed for the systemic arteries (Olufsen et al. 1998, 1999, 2000, 2004) to (a) predict flow and pressure in the pulmonary arteries, and (b) predict pressure propagation along the small arteries in the vascular beds. The systemic and pulmonary arteries are modelled as separate, bifurcating trees of compliant and tapering vessels. Each tree is divided into two parts representing the `large' and `small' arteries. Blood flow and pressure in the large arteries are predicted using a nonlinear cross-sectional area-averaged model for a Newtonian fluid in an elastic tube with inflow obtained from magnetic resonance measurements. Each terminal vessel within the network of the large arteries is coupled to a vascular bed of small `resistance' arteries, which are modelled as asymmetric structured trees with specified area and asymmetry ratios between the parent and daughter arteries. For the systemic circulation, each structured tree represents a specific vascular bed corresponding to major organs and limbs. For the pulmonary circulation, there are four vascular beds supplied by the interlobar arteries. This manuscript presents the first theoretical calculations of the propagation of the pressure and flow waves along systemic and pulmonary large and small arteries. Results for all networks were in agreement with published observations. Two studies were done with this model. First, we showed how rarefaction can be modelled by pruning the tree of arteries in the microvascular system. This was done by modulating parameters used for designing the structured trees. Results showed that rarefaction leads to increased mean and decreased pulse pressure in the large arteries. Second, we investigated the impact of decreasing vessel

  6. A Sample Handling System for Mars Sample Return - Design and Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouis, E.; Renouf, I.; Deridder, M.; Vrancken, D.; Gelmi, R.; Re, E.

    2009-04-01

    A mission to return atmosphere and soil samples form the Mars is highly desired by planetary scientists from around the world and space agencies are starting preparation for the launch of a sample return mission in the 2020 timeframe. Such a mission would return approximately 500 grams of atmosphere, rock and soil samples to Earth by 2025. Development of a wide range of new technology will be critical to the successful implementation of such a challenging mission. Technical developments required to realise the mission include guided atmospheric entry, soft landing, sample handling robotics, biological sealing, Mars atmospheric ascent sample rendezvous & capture and Earth return. The European Space Agency has been performing system definition studies along with numerous technology development studies under the framework of the Aurora programme. Within the scope of these activities Astrium has been responsible for defining an overall sample handling architecture in collaboration with European partners (sample acquisition and sample capture, Galileo Avionica; sample containment and automated bio-sealing, Verhaert). Our work has focused on the definition and development of the robotic systems required to move the sample through the transfer chain. This paper presents the Astrium team's high level design for the surface transfer system and the orbiter transfer system. The surface transfer system is envisaged to use two robotic arms of different sizes to allow flexible operations and to enable sample transfer over relatively large distances (~2 to 3 metres): The first to deploy/retract the Drill Assembly used for sample collection, the second for the transfer of the Sample Container (the vessel containing all the collected samples) from the Drill Assembly to the Mars Ascent Vehicle (MAV). The sample transfer actuator also features a complex end-effector for handling the Sample Container. The orbiter transfer system will transfer the Sample Container from the capture

  7. The effect of blood sample positions in a water phantom at the time of irradiation on the dicentric yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood samples of man and rabbit, placed at various distances from the surface of a water phantom with a dosimeter were exposed to 250mGy of 60Co γ-rays. Increases in the dicentric yields in the lymphocytes were observed with increased distances from the surface of the water phantom. As a variation of the dicentric yield with increasing distance in water was found, in the experiment to obtain calibration curves for biological dosimetry, it is recommended that blood samples should be positioned at a constant distance from the surface of a water phantom at the time of irradiation. ICRU REPORT 23 recommends that the calibration measurement be carried out with an ionization chamber positioned at 5cm depth below the surface of a water phantom for 150 kV-10 MV X rays, and 137Cs and 60Co γ-rays. As the same reasons which determine a 5cm depth in the recommendation, should be applied to this case, it is desirable that the experiment be carried out with blood samples positioned at 5cm distance from the surface of a water phantom. (author)

  8. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  9. Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick, we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples ( or prostate specimens ( from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

  10. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood samples from "driving under the influence" cases as indicator for prolonged excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Hernández Redondo, Ana; Martin Fabritius, Marie; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is considered as specific biomarker of alcohol consumption. Due to accumulation after repeated drinking, PEth is suitable to monitor long-term drinking behavior. To examine the applicability of PEth in "driving under the influence of alcohol" cases, 142 blood samples with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranging from 0.0-3.12‰ were analyzed for the presence of PEth homologues 16:0/18:1 (889 ± 878 ng/mL; range analysis, PEth thresholds were evaluated to differentiate moderate and excessive alcohol consumption with acceptable sensitivity and specificity in accordance with the 1.6‰ BAC limit. With a threshold of 700 ng/mL for PEth 16:0/18:1, prolonged excessive alcohol consumption was detected in 65.9% of drunk drivers with a BAC ≥ 1.6‰ and in 31.6% of the samples with a BAC habits in 88.7% of blood samples. These results show the possibility to detect prolonged excessive alcohol consumption, even if the BAC is below the legal threshold of 1.6‰ for driving aptitude assessment. As a consequence, concentrations of PEth 16:0/18:1 ≥ 700 ng/mL and of PEth 16:0/18:2 ≥ 300 ng/mL may be considered as indicators for the necessity of driving aptitude assessment in addition to BAC. PMID:26671597

  11. Lack of leptin activity in blood samples of Adélie penguin and bar-tailed godwit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Sara; Hen, Gideon; Rosenblum, Charles I; Cerasale, David J; Beaulieu, Michaël; Criscuolo, Francois; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2010-10-01

    Unsuccessful attempts to identify the leptin gene in birds are well documented, despite the characterization of its receptor (LEPR). Since leptin and LEPR have poor sequence conservation among vertebrates, we speculated that a functional assay should represent the best way to detect leptin in birds. Using a leptin bioassay that is based on activation of the chicken LEPR in cultured cells, blood samples from wild birds with extreme seasonal variation in voluntary food intake and fat deposition (Adélie penguins and bar-tailed godwits) were tested for leptin activity. In these experiments, blood samples collected during the pre-incubation and the chick-rearing periods of Adélie penguins, and during the migratory flight and refueling stages of bar-tailed godwits, were found to contain no detectable leptin activity, while the sensitivity of the assay to activation by human blood samples from donor subjects representing a variety of body mass indices and fat contents was clearly demonstrated. These results suggest that in birds, an alternative control mechanism to that of mammals operates in the communication between the body fat tissues and the central control on energy homeostasis. PMID:20675300

  12. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  13. Cervical dilatation and grade of doctor affects the interval between decision and result of fetal scalp blood sampling in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Stephanie; Roberts, Stephen A; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-08-01

    Fetal scalp blood sampling (FSBS) is used to provide information regarding fetal acid-base status during labour. This study assessed the interval between the decision to perform the procedure and obtaining the result and evaluated whether it is affected by cervical dilatation or the experience of the doctor. The median time for FSBS was 10 min. When cervical dilatation was ≤4 cm samples took approximately 30% longer to obtain. After adjustment for dilation, there were no significant differences between different grades of doctors. FSBS is shorter than previously reported; clinicians should be aware that procedures in early labour take longer to complete. PMID:26399279

  14. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  15. ABO Blood Group System and Gastric Cancer: A Case-Control Study and Meta-Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Yingyan Yu; Zhenggang Zhu; Jun Zhang; Min Yan; Bingya Liu; Jianian Zhang; Jun Ji; Zhiwei Wang; Lei Liu

    2012-01-01

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for m...

  16. Systems biology of stored blood cells: Can it help to extend the expiration date?

    OpenAIRE

    Paglia, Giuseppe; Bernhard Ø Palsson; Sigurjonsson, Olafur E.

    2012-01-01

    With increasingly stringent regulations regarding deferral and elimination of blood donors it will become increasingly important to extend the expiration date of blood components beyond the current allowed storage periods. One reason for the storage time limit for blood components is that platelets and red blood cells develop a condition called storage lesions during their storage in plastic blood containers. Systems biology provides comprehensive bio-chemical descriptions of organisms throug...

  17. Automatic remote sampling and delivery system incorporating decontamination and disposal of sample bottles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present generation of reprocessing plants have sampling and delivery systems that have to be operated manually with its associated problems. The complete automation and remotisation of sampling system has hence been considered to reduce manual intervention and personnel exposure. As a part of this scheme an attempt to automate and remotise various steps in sampling system has been made. This paper discusses in detail the development work carried out in this area as well as the tests conducted to incorporate the same in the existing plants. (author). 3 figs

  18. Comparison of blood plasma sample preparation methods for combined LC-MS lipidomics and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rainey E; Ducrocq, Antoine J; McDougall, Danielle J; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this research was to find the most comprehensive lipid extraction of blood plasma, while also providing adequate aqueous preparation for metabolite analysis. Comparisons have been made previously of the Folch, Bligh-Dyer, and Matyash lipid extractions; furthermore, this paper provides an additional comparison of a phospholipid removal plate for analysis. This plate was used for lipid extraction rather than its intended use in lipid removal for polar analysis, and it proves to be robust for targeted lipid analysis. Folch and Matyash provided reproducible recovery over a range of lipid classes, however the Matyash aqueous layer compared well to a typical methanol preparation for polar metabolite analysis. Thus, the Matyash method is the best choice for an untargeted biphasic extraction for metabolomics and lipidomics in blood plasma. PMID:26343017

  19. Characterization of multi-drug resistant ESBL producing nonfermenter bacteria isolated from patients blood samples using phenotypic methods in Shiraz (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneli Amin Shahidi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The emergence of  nonfermenter bacteria that are resistant to multidrug resistant ESBL  are  nowadays a principal problem  for hospitalized patients. The present study aimed at surveying the emergence of nonfermenter bacteria resistant to multi-drug ESBL producing isolated from patients blood samples using BACTEC 9240 automatic system in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4825 blood specimens were collected from hospitalized patients in Shiraz (Iran, and positive samples were detected by means of  BACTEC 9240 automatic system. The isolates  containing nonfermenter bacteria were identified based on biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system. Antibiotic sensitivity  test was performed  and identification of  ESBL producing strains were done  using phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates(DDST according to CLSI(2013 guidelines.   Results: Out of 4825 blood samples, 1145 (24% specimen were gram-positive using BACTEC system. Among all isolated microorganisms, 206 isolates were non-fermenting gram- negative bacteria. The most common non-fermenter isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48%, Acinetobacter spp. (41.7% ,and Stenotrophomonas spp. (8.2%. Seventy of them (81.4% were  Acinetobacter spp. which were ESBL positive. Among &beta-lactam antibiotics, Pseudomonas spp. showed  the best sensitivity to piperacillin-tazobactam (46.5%.  Conclusion: It was found that  &beta-lactam antibiotics are not effective against more than 40% of Pseudomonas spp. infections and 78% Acinetobacter infections. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains that are resistant to most antibiotic classes is a major public health problem in Iran. To resolve this problem using of practical guidelines is critical.

  20. Biomarkers for Monitoring Pre-Analytical Quality Variation of mRNA in Blood Samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, H.; Korenková, Vlasta; Sjoback, R.; Švec, David; Bjorkman, J.; Kruhoffer, M.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, Ch.M.; Wyrich, R.; Oelmueller, U.; Kubista, Mikael; Lindahl, T.; Lonneborg, A.; Rian, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11/e111644 (2014). E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION PROFILES * HUMAN WHOLE-BLOOD * TIME RT-PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  1. Miniaturized Blood Sampling Techniques to Benefit Reduction in Mice and Refinement in Nonhuman Primates: Applications to Bioanalysis in Toxicity Studies with Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Alexis; Lelong, Christine; Pascual, Marie-Hélène; Benning, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Minimizing the number of animals in regulatory toxicity studies while achieving study objectives to support the development of future medicines contributes to good scientific and ethical practices. Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of miniaturized blood sampling methods (including microsampling and dried blood spots) applicable to toxicokinetic determinations of small-molecule drugs. Implementation of miniaturized blood sampling methods in the context of biotherapeuti...

  2. Foetal scalp blood sampling during labour for pH and lactate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonne, Bruno; Pons, Kelly; Maisonneuve, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Second-line methods of foetal monitoring have been developed in an attempt to reduce unnecessary interventions due to continuous cardiotocography (CTG), and to better identify foetuses that are at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. Very few studies directly compared CTG with foetal scalp blood (FBS) and CTG only. Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) was published in the 1970s and had limited power to assess neonatal outcome. Direct and indirect comparisons conclude that FBS could reduce the number of caesarean deliveries associated with the use of continuous CTG. The main drawbacks of FBS are its invasive and discontinuous nature and the need for a sufficient volume of foetal blood for analysis, especially for pH measurement, resulting in failure rates reaching 10%. FBS for lactate measurement became popular with the design of test-strip devices, requiring <0.5 mL of foetal blood. RCTs showed similar outcomes with the use of FBS for lactates compared with pH in terms of obstetrical interventions and neonatal outcomes. In conclusion, there is some evidence that FBS reduces the need for operative deliveries. However, the evidence is limited with regard to actual standards, and large RCTs, directly comparing CTG only with CTG with FBS, are still needed. PMID:26253238

  3. Validity of standard reference values irrespective of rest and time of day prior to blood sampling-results from albumin and thyrotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I. B.; Brasen, C. L.; Christensen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    throughout the opening hours and investigate the impact of resting time. Materials and method: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included during Nov. 2011-Jun. 2014 (opening hours: 7am-3pm). For each patient arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered...

  4. ANL small-sample calorimeter system design and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roche, C.T.; Perry, R.B.; Lewis, R.N.; Jung, E.A.; Haumann, J.R.

    1978-07-01

    The Small-Sample Calorimetric System is a portable instrument designed to measure the thermal power produced by radioactive decay of plutonium-containing fuels. The small-sample calorimeter is capable of measuring samples producing power up to 32 milliwatts at a rate of one sample every 20 min. The instrument is contained in two packages: a data-acquisition module consisting of a microprocessor with an 8K-byte nonvolatile memory, and a measurement module consisting of the calorimeter and a sample preheater. The total weight of the system is 18 kg.

  5. A programmable sampling format telemetry system. [for SAS-C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, M. R.

    1973-01-01

    This paper describes the programmable sampling format telemetry system to be used by the near-earth Small Astronomy Satellite-C (SAS-C) and possible future SAS missions. The concept of the programmable sampling format is introduced and the features of the system are illustrated by an example. The SAS-C telemetry system is described at the block diagram level and redundancy of the system is discussed briefly.

  6. Comparison of three rheological models of shear flow behavior studied on blood samples from post-infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska-Gapińska, Anna; Gapinski, Jacek; Elikowski, Waldemar; Jaroszyk, Feliks; Kubisz, Leszek

    2007-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of blood viscosity was performed on the basis of mathematical models of non-Newtonian fluid shear flow behavior (Casson, Ree-Eyring and Quemada). A total of 100 blood samples were drawn from clinically stable survivors of myocardial infarction, treated with aspirin or acenocoumarol and controls to these drugs. Whole blood and plasma viscosity were measured at a broad range of shear rates using a rotary-oscillating viscometer Contraves LS40. Numerical analysis of the experimental data was carried out by means of linear (for Casson) and non-linear regression for the remaining models. In the evaluation of the results, both the fit quality and physical interpretation of the models' parameters were considered. The Quemada model fitted most precisely with the experimental findings and, despite the controversies concerning the relationship between in vivo tissue perfusion and in vitro rheological measurements, seemed to be a valuable method enhancing investigation possibilities of cardiovascular patients. Our results suggest that aspirin does not affect blood rheological properties, while acenocoumarol may slightly alter red cell deformability and rouleaux formation. PMID:17674068

  7. Common Marker Genes Identified from Various Sample Types for Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lan; Zhang, Yong-Hong; Lei, Shu-Feng; Deng, Fei-Yan

    2016-01-01

    Objective Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a complex auto-immune disease. Gene expression studies have been conducted to identify SLE-related genes in various types of samples. It is unknown whether there are common marker genes significant for SLE but independent of sample types, which may have potentials for follow-up translational research. The aim of this study is to identify common marker genes across various sample types for SLE. Methods Based on four public microarray gene expression datasets for SLE covering three representative types of blood-born samples (monocyte; peripheral blood mononuclear cell, PBMC; whole blood), we utilized three statistics (fold-change, FC; t-test p value; false discovery rate adjusted p value) to scrutinize genes simultaneously regulated with SLE across various sample types. For common marker genes, we conducted the Gene Ontology enrichment analysis and Protein-Protein Interaction analysis to gain insights into their functions. Results We identified 10 common marker genes associated with SLE (IFI6, IFI27, IFI44L, OAS1, OAS2, EIF2AK2, PLSCR1, STAT1, RNASE2, and GSTO1). Significant up-regulation of IFI6, IFI27, and IFI44L with SLE was observed in all the studied sample types, though the FC was most striking in monocyte, compared with PBMC and whole blood (8.82–251.66 vs. 3.73–74.05 vs. 1.19–1.87). Eight of the above 10 genes, except RNASE2 and GSTO1, interact with each other and with known SLE susceptibility genes, participate in immune response, RNA and protein catabolism, and cell death. Conclusion Our data suggest that there exist common marker genes across various sample types for SLE. The 10 common marker genes, identified herein, deserve follow-up studies to dissert their potentials as diagnostic or therapeutic markers to predict SLE or treatment response. PMID:27257790

  8. 40 CFR 86.107-98 - Sampling and analytical system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sampling and analytical system. 86.107-98 Section 86.107-98 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Complete Heavy-Duty Vehicles; Test Procedures § 86.107-98 Sampling and analytical system. Section...

  9. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  10. Trace element analysis of blood samples from mentally challenged children by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis method of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for analysing up to 14 elements in the blood serum of patients, collected from rehabilitation centres for the mentally retarded and from Medical College Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The experimental subjects of the different groups displayed significant variations in their levels of certain trace elements such as zinc, iron, copper, phosphorus, chlorine, and rubidium. The results are compared with those of healthy control subjects and are discussed in detail in this paper. Hence, PIXE as a method of trace element analysis can be used to determine trace element content in mentally challenged patients

  11. Initial performance of the advanced inventory verification sample system (AVIS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the requirements, design and initial performance of the Advanced Inventory Verification Sample System (AVIS) a non-destructive assay (NDA) system to measure small samples of bulk mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) materials (powders and pellets). The AVIS design has evolved from previously developed conceptual physics and engineering designs for the Inventory Sample Verification System (INVS), a safeguards system for nondestructive assay of small samples. The AVIS is an integrated gamma-neutron system. Jointly designed by the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), AVIS is intended to meet a performance specification of a total measurement uncertainty of less than 0.5% in the neutron (240Pueffective) measurement. This will allow the AVIS to replace destructive chemical analysis for many samples, with concomitant cost, exposure and waste generation savings for the facility. Data taken to date confirming the performance of the AVIS is presented.

  12. Initial performance of the advanced inventory verification sample system (AVIS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marlow, Johnna B [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Swinhoe, Martyn T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Menlove, Howard O [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Rael, Carlos D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the requirements, design and initial performance of the Advanced Inventory Verification Sample System (AVIS) a non-destructive assay (NDA) system to measure small samples of bulk mixed uranium-plutonium oxide (MOX) materials (powders and pellets). The AVIS design has evolved from previously developed conceptual physics and engineering designs for the Inventory Sample Verification System (INVS), a safeguards system for nondestructive assay of small samples. The AVIS is an integrated gamma-neutron system. Jointly designed by the Nuclear Material Control Center (NMCC) and the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), AVIS is intended to meet a performance specification of a total measurement uncertainty of less than 0.5% in the neutron ({sup 240}Pu{sub effective}) measurement. This will allow the AVIS to replace destructive chemical analysis for many samples, with concomitant cost, exposure and waste generation savings for the facility. Data taken to date confirming the performance of the AVIS is presented.

  13. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies. PMID:25700164

  14. Viscoelasticity of blood and viscoelastic blood analogues for use in polydymethylsiloxane in vitro models of the circulatory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campo-Deaño, Laura; Dullens, Roel P A; Aarts, Dirk G A L; Pinho, Fernando T; Oliveira, Mónica S N

    2013-01-01

    The non-Newtonian properties of blood are of great importance since they are closely related with incident cardiovascular diseases. A good understanding of the hemodynamics through the main vessels of the human circulatory system is thus fundamental in the detection and especially in the treatment of these diseases. Very often such studies take place in vitro for convenience and better flow control and these generally require blood analogue solutions that not only adequately mimic the viscoelastic properties of blood but also minimize undesirable optical distortions arising from vessel curvature that could interfere in flow visualizations or particle image velocimetry measurements. In this work, we present the viscoelastic moduli of whole human blood obtained by means of passive microrheology experiments. These results and existing shear and extensional rheological data for whole human blood in the literature enabled us to develop solutions with rheological behavior analogous to real whole blood and with a refractive index suited for PDMS (polydymethylsiloxane) micro- and milli-channels. In addition, these blood analogues can be modified in order to obtain a larger range of refractive indices from 1.38 to 1.43 to match the refractive index of several materials other than PDMS. PMID:24404022

  15. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty James

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and leukemia patients were exposed to 1 μM pancratistatin for up to 48 h. Irrespective of leukemia type, pancratistatin induced apoptosis in the leukemic samples, with minimal effects on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear control cells. Conclusion Our results show that pancratistatin is an effective and selective anti-cancer agent with potential for advancement to clinical trials.

  16. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit

  17. Portable real time analysis system for regional cerebral blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiernan, T.; Entine, G.; Stump, D.A.; Prough, D.S.

    1988-02-01

    A very portable, regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) analysis instrument system suitable for use in the operating theater during surgery is under development. Cadmium telluride (CdTe) solid state radiation detectors, an 8086 based data acquisition and communications module and a DEC Microvax computer are used so that the instrument is very compact, yet has the computational power to provide real time data analysis in the clinical environment. The instrument is currently being used at Bowman Gray School of Medicine to study rCBF during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery (CPB). Preliminary studies indicate that monitoring rCBF during this surgical procedure may provide insights into the mechanism that causes a significant fraction of these patients to suffer post operative neuropsychological deficit.

  18. A new donor system for the patients with thalassemia: "Blood mother and blood father"

    OpenAIRE

    Canatan Duran; Ozsancak Ahmet

    2010-01-01

    Background : Donor recruitment programs differ in countries depending on local conditions and causes. Regularly voluntary blood donation rate should be 5% of the population but it is extremely low in Turkey. In 1998, "Thalassemia flowers don′t fade" campaigning was started to get regular voluntary blood for patients with thalassemia. We would like to present results of our campaigning. Materials and Methods: The Thalassemia center was established in Antalya on the 1 st June 1994...

  19. Code development of the national hemovigilance system and expansion strategies for hospital blood banks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Jeongeun

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives : The aims of this study were to develop reportable event codes that are applicable to the national hemovigilance systems for hospital blood banks, and to present expansion strategies for the blood banks. Materials and Methods : The data were obtained from a literature review and expert consultation, followed by adding to and revising the established hemovigilance code system and guidelines to develop reportable event codes for hospital blood banks. The Medical Error Reporting System-Transfusion Medicine developed in the US and other codes of reportable events were added to the Korean version of the Biologic Products Deviation Report (BPDR developed by the Korean Red Cross Blood Safety Administration, then using these codes, mapping work was conducted. We deduced outcomes suitable for practice, referred to the results of the advisory councils, and conducted a survey with experts and blood banks practitioners. Results : We developed reportable event codes that were applicable to hospital blood banks and could cover blood safety - from blood product safety to blood transfusion safety - and also presented expansion strategies for hospital blood banks. Conclusion : It was necessary to add 10 major categories to the blood transfusion safety stage and 97 reportable event codes to the blood safety stage. Contextualized solutions were presented on 9 categories of expansion strategies of hemovigilance system for the hospital blood banks.

  20. New method for rapid Susceptibility Testing on blood culture with HB&L system: preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Rondinelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood culture, although represents the gold standard in detecting the ethiological agent of sepsis, is rather rarely required in relation to the real diagnostic importance. The result of this test depends in fact on many factors (sample volume, time of collection, accuracy, antibiotic therapy, contamination, number of drawings, drawing site, interpretation difficulties, etc. that are often considered by many clinicians so limited as to doubt about their actual value. The disadvantages are therefore represented by the lack of standardization but also by the low sensitivity and above all by the technical times too long for the clinical needs. Blood culture begins with the drawing of samples from the “septic” patient followed incubation of the bottles in automatic thermostated systems. In case of positive result (36 hours, the culture is Gram stained and streaked on solid media in order to obtain isolated colonies for the identification and the susceptibility testing (48 hours from positive result. The long time required for pathogen identification and susceptibility testing involves empirical broad spectrum antibiotic therapy that can promote the increase of bacterial resistance but also patient management costs. A clinically useful report should be available on short notice in order to guide the clinician to choose the most appropriate antibiotic. The microbiologist has therefore the hard work of reviewing the organization and the management of the procedures.We have therefore started to consider the possibility of treating the blood as an biological liquid in order to quickly determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics.

  1. On-Orbit, Immuno-Based, Label-Free White Blood Cell Counting System with Microelectromechanical Sensor Technology (OILWBCS-MEMS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonds, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Aurora Flight Sciences, in partnership with Draper Laboratory, has developed a miniaturized system to count white blood cells in microgravity environments. The system uses MEMS technology to simultaneously count total white blood cells, the five white blood cell differential subgroups, and various lymphocyte subtypes. The OILWBCS-MEMS detection technology works by immobilizing an array of white blood cell-specific antibodies on small, gold-coated membranes. When blood flows across the membranes, specific cells' surface protein antigens bind to their corresponding antibodies. This binding can be measured and correlated to cell counts. In Phase I, the partners demonstrated surface chemistry sensitivity and specificity for total white blood cells and two lymphocyte subtypes. In Phase II, a functional prototype demonstrated end-to-end operation. This rugged, miniaturized device requires minimal blood sample preparation and will be useful for both space flight and terrestrial applications.

  2. A fully integrated microfluidic genetic analysis system with sample-in-answer-out capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easley, Christopher J; Karlinsey, James M; Bienvenue, Joan M; Legendre, Lindsay A; Roper, Michael G; Feldman, Sanford H; Hughes, Molly A; Hewlett, Erik L; Merkel, Tod J; Ferrance, Jerome P; Landers, James P

    2006-12-19

    We describe a microfluidic genetic analysis system that represents a previously undescribed integrated microfluidic device capable of accepting whole blood as a crude biological sample with the endpoint generation of a genetic profile. Upon loading the sample, the glass microfluidic genetic analysis system device carries out on-chip DNA purification and PCR-based amplification, followed by separation and detection in a manner that allows for microliter samples to be screened for infectious pathogens with sample-in-answer-out results in pump delivers sample/reagents to the chip for nucleic acid purification from a biological sample. Elastomeric membrane valving isolates each distinct functional region of the device and, together with resistive flow, directs purified DNA and PCR reagents from the extraction domain into a 550-nl chamber for rapid target sequence PCR amplification. Repeated pressure-based injections of nanoliter aliquots of amplicon (along with the DNA sizing standard) allow electrophoretic separation and detection to provide DNA fragment size information. The presence of Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) in 750 nl of whole blood from living asymptomatic infected mice and of Bordetella pertussis in 1 microl of nasal aspirate from a patient suspected of having whooping cough are confirmed by the resultant genetic profile. PMID:17159153

  3. Averaging analysis for discrete time and sampled data adaptive systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Li-Chen; Bai, Er-Wei; Sastry, Shankar S.

    1986-01-01

    Earlier continuous time averaging theorems are extended to the nonlinear discrete time case. Theorems for the study of the convergence analysis of discrete time adaptive identification and control systems are used. Instability theorems are also derived and used for the study of robust stability and instability of adaptive control schemes applied to sampled data systems. As a by product, the effects of sampling on unmodeled dynamics in continuous time systems are also studied.

  4. System for Packaging Planetary Samples for Return to Earth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Backes, paul G.; Sherrit, Stewart; Bao, Xiaoqi; Scott, James S.

    2010-01-01

    A system is proposed for packaging material samples on a remote planet (especially Mars) in sealed sample tubes in preparation for later return to Earth. The sample tubes (Figure 1) would comprise (1) tubes initially having open tops and closed bottoms; (2) small, bellows-like collapsible bodies inside the tubes at their bottoms; and (3) plugs to be eventually used to close the tops of the tubes. The top inner surface of each tube would be coated with solder. The side of each plug, which would fit snugly into a tube, would feature a solder-filled ring groove. The system would include equipment for storing, manipulating, filling, and sealing the tubes. The containerization system (see Figure 2) will be organized in stations and will include: the storage station, the loading station, and the heating station. These stations can be structured in circular or linear pattern to minimize the manipulator complexity, allowing for compact design and mass efficiency. The manipulation of the sample tube between stations is done by a simple manipulator arm. The storage station contains the unloaded sample tubes and the plugs before sealing as well as the sealed sample tubes with samples after loading and sealing. The chambers at the storage station also allow for plug insertion into the sample tube. At the loading station the sample is poured or inserted into the sample tube and then the tube is topped off. At the heating station the plug is heated so the solder ring melts and seals the plug to the sample tube. The process is performed as follows: Each tube is filled or slightly overfilled with sample material and the excess sample material is wiped off the top. Then, the plug is inserted into the top section of the tube packing the sample material against the collapsible bellowslike body allowing the accommodation of the sample volume. The plug and the top of the tube are heated momentarily to melt the solder in order to seal the tube.

  5. Isotope ratio analysis of lead in blood and environmental samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognized that lead (Pb) affects children's cognitive function, even at relatively low blood lead levels (-1). The determination of the source of Pb in children is essential for effective risk management. The use of multi-collector ICPMS (MC-ICPMS) for isotope ratio measurements of Pb in environmental and biological samples was examined for this purpose. MC-ICPMS with an instrumental mass fractionation correction by Tl allowed accurate isotope ratio measurements of the Pb isotopic reference material NIST SRM 981. However, the presence of matrix elements (Al, Ca, Fe and Na) at more than 10 mg kg-1 in the sample solution significantly deteriorated the accuracy. The separation of Pb from the matrix is necessary for accurate measurements of the isotope ratio of Pb in environmental and biological samples. Bromide-complexation, followed by anion exchange was found to be satisfactory in terms of the recovery of Pb (90 to 104%) and the efficiency of matrix separation. The procedure was applied to a preliminary source analysis of Pb in the blood of Japanese children, and a significant contribution of indoor dust was demonstrated. (author)

  6. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites. PMID:25648554

  7. "PCR- Detection of Candida albicans in Blood Using a New Primer Pair to Diagnosis of Systemic Candidiasis"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SH Mirhendi

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available The opportunistic pathogen C.albicans is able to cause disseminated infections in immunocompromised patients. Microbiological methods for the diagnosis of invasive candidiasis have many problems including low sensitivity, requirement to invasive clinical sampling such as biopsies or multiple blood cultures and need to expertise laboratory stuff. Since PCR has proven to be a powerful tool in the early diagnosis of several infectious diseases, we applied this approach as a rapid and sensitive method in detection of C.albicans cells in blood samples, for establishment a clinically useful method in diagnosing systemic candidiasis. DNA were extracted from blood samples seeded by serially diluted C.albicans cells, by omitting WBC and RBC followed by enzymatic breaking of fungal cell wall and phenol – chlorophorm extraction and alcohol precipitation of DNA. A new primer pair was designed for PCR-amplification of a part of ribosomal RNA gene. The primer set was able to amplify all medically important Candida species. When PCR was performed for detection of purified DNA, the sensitivity of the method was about 1 picogram fungal DNA, whereas the sensitivity for detection of C.albicans blastospores inoculated in blood was as few as 10 cell per 0.1 ml of blood. This method could be sensitive and useful for early and rapid diagnosis of systemic Candida infections and to simultaneous detection and speciation of Candida species by PCR-RFLP method.

  8. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    OpenAIRE

    Jitendra Singh Nigam; Savitri Singh; Viplesh Kaur; Sumit Giri; Ravi Prakash Kaushal

    2014-01-01

    Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs). The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), anti hepatitis C viru...

  9. Use of robotic systems for radiochemical sample changing and for analytical sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two uses of the Perkin-Elmer (PE) robotic system will be presented. In the first, a PE robot functions as an automatic sample changer for up to five low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) detectors operated with a Nuclear Data ND 6700 system. The entire system, including the robot, is controlled by an IBM PC-AT using software written in compiled BASIC. Problems associated with the development of the system and modifications to the robot will be presented. In the second, an evaluation study was performed to assess the abilities of the PE robotic system for performing complex analytical sample preparation procedures. For this study, a robotic system based upon the PE robot and auxiliary devices was constructed and programmed to perform the preparation of final product samples (UO3) for accountability and impurity specification analyses. These procedures require sample dissolution, dilution, and liquid-liquid extraction steps. The results of an in-depth evaluation of all system components will be presented

  10. Use of robotic systems for radiochemical sample changing and for analytical sample preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delmastro, J.R.; Hartenstein, S.D.; Wade, M.A.

    1989-05-15

    Two uses of the Perkin-Elmer (PE) robotic system will be presented. In the first, a PE robot functions as an automatic sample changer for up to five low energy photon spectrometry (LEPS) detectors operated with a Nuclear Data ND 6700 system. The entire system, including the robot, is controlled by an IBM PC-AT using software written in compiled BASIC. Problems associated with the development of the system and modifications to the robot will be presented. In the second, an evaluation study was performed to assess the abilities of the PE robotic system for performing complex analytical sample preparation procedures. For this study, a robotic system based upon the PE robot and auxiliary devices was constructed and programmed to perform the preparation of final product samples (UO{sub 3}) for accountability and impurity specification analyses. These procedures require sample dissolution, dilution, and liquid-liquid extraction steps. The results of an in-depth evaluation of all system components will be presented.

  11. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, P. J.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1976-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants. Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This unique system includes specialized instrumentation, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituent and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  12. A Multi-Sample Standoff Multimodal Biometric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barstow, Del R [ORNL; Patlolla, Dilip Reddy [ORNL; Mann, Christopher J [ORNL; Boehnen, Chris Bensing [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    Abstract The data captured by existing standoff biometric systems typically has lower biometric recognition performance than their close range counterparts due to imaging challenges, pose challenges, and other factors. To assist in overcoming these limitations systems typically perform in a multi-modal capacity such as Honeywell s Combined Face and Iris (CFAIRS) [21] system. While this improves the systems performance, standoff systems have yet to be proven as accurate as their close range equivalents. We will present a standoff system capable of operating up to 7 meters in range. Unlike many systems such as the CFAIRS our system captures high quality 12 MP video allowing for a multi-sample as well as multi-modal comparison. We found that for standoff systems multi-sample improved performance more than multi-modal. For a small test group of 50 subjects we were able to achieve 100% rank one recognition performance with our system.

  13. A STUDY OF DISTRIBUTION OF ABO AND RH BLOOD GROUPS SYSTEM AMONG BLOOD DONORS AT A TERTIARY CARE HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Up till now about 400red cells antigen have been identified. The majority are inherited by Mendelian fashion. The ABO and Rh blood group system was first to be identified and is most important for blood transfusion purposes. OBJECTIVE: This study was conducted to determine the frequency of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in a tertiary care teaching hospital in India. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective data based study was conducted at blood bank , Chirayu Medical College and Hospital, Bhopal, Madhya Pradesh, India over a period of four years. RESULTS: Study includes a record of 3188 (28.54% voluntary and 7982 (71.46% replacement donors attending blood bank from February 2011 to January 2015. Out of 11170, 10723(95.998% were male and 447(4.002% female donors. The most common blood group was found to be B in 4013 (35.927% donors followed by O in 3462 (30.994% donors , an in 2516 (22.524% donors and AB in 1179 (10.555% donors. Out of these, 10659(95.425% donors were Rh - positive while 511 ( 4.575 % were Rh - negative.

  14. Sample heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohashi, Teruo; Motai, Kumi

    2013-08-01

    A sample-heating system for spin-polarized scanning electron microscopy (spin SEM) has been developed and used for microscopic magnetization analysis at temperatures up to 500°C. In this system, a compact ceramic heater and a preheating operation keep the ultra-high vacuum conditions while the sample is heated during spin SEM measurement. Moreover, the secondary-electron collector, which is arranged close to the sample, was modified so that it is not damaged at high temperatures. The system was used to heat a Co(1000) single-crystal sample from room temperature up to 500°C, and the magnetic-domain structures were observed. Changes of the domain structures were observed around 220 and 400°C, and these changes are considered to be due to phase transitions of this sample. PMID:23349241

  15. Isotope dilution analysis for the determination of zinc in blood samples of diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope dilution analysis (IDA) based on solvent extraction has been developed for the determination of zinc in the blood of diabetic patients and healthy adults as controls. The method using 65Zn as a tracer is based on the formation of a red colored complex with dithizone in chloroform which is measured by counting of the 1115 keV γ-rays by gamma-ray spectrometry. Various extraction parameters such as pH, nature of solvent and amount of reagent were optimized. Zinc concentration in diabetic patients (n = 10) was found in a much wider range (1.5-157 μg/ml) compared to those in healthy adults (3.1-95.9 μg/ml for n = 5). t-Test of data shows 80-90% confidence limits. A comparison of mean values, 28.5 ± 48.5 μg/ml for diabetics and 33.1 ± 34.5 μg/ml for controls shows 13.9% lower zinc concentration in diabetics. No correlation was found with eating (vegetarian/nonvegetarian)/drinking or smoking habits, but in general, females showed somewhat lower concentration compared to those in males though population size in each case was very small. (author)

  16. Sensitivity of laser light depolarization analysis for detection of malaria in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, Manuel Martínez; Subirats, Mercedes; Puente, Sabino; Lago, Mar; Crespo, Santiago; Palacios, Gonzalo; Baquero, Margarita

    2005-05-01

    Automated light depolarization analysis could be a useful tool for diagnosing malarial infections. This work discusses the results of a diagnostic efficacy study on 411 samples from patients with suspected malaria infection performed with a Cell-Dyn 4000 analyser. Light dispersed at 90 degrees and depolarized can be used for identifying and counting eosinophils. However, other cell populations with depolarizing capacity occur in malarial samples; these result from leukocytes ingesting haemozoin that is derived from the degradation of the haem group of haemoglobin performed by the parasite. A sensitivity of 72 % and specificity of 98 % were recorded, with positive and negative predictive values of 78 % and 97 %, respectively. Although the sensitivity level of the automated light depolarization analysis is not adequate to replace the existing methods for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases, it could alert clinicians to unsuspected infections by parasites, particularly those from the genus Plasmodium. PMID:15824421

  17. Circulating blood cells function as a surveillance system for damaged tissue in Drosophila larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Babcock, Daniel T.; Brock, Amanda R.; Fish, Greg S.; Wang, Yan; Perrin, Laurent; Krasnow, Mark A.; Galko, Michael J.

    2008-01-01

    Insects have an open circulatory system in which the heart pumps blood (hemolymph) into the body cavity, where it directly bathes the internal organs and epidermis. The blood contains free and tissue-bound immune cells that function in the inflammatory response. Here, we use live imaging of transgenic Drosophila larvae with fluorescently labeled blood cells (hemocytes) to investigate the circulatory dynamics of larval blood cells and their response to tissue injury. We find that, under normal...

  18. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Jaleh Barar; Sina Atashpaz; Abolfazl Barzegari; Vala Kafil; Sepideh Zununi Vahed; Farzaneh Soltanzad; Sara Samadi Shams

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA) from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for e...

  19. Measurement of Nitrite in Blood Samples Using the Ferricyanide-Based Hemoglobin Oxidation Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Piknova, Barbora; Schechter, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrite is currently recognized as a biomarker of the state of nitric oxide metabolism. Therefore, assessing nitrite levels in various organs and compartments is an important issue. As nitrite levels in most organs and tissues are low (in high nanomolar or low micromolar range) several new sensitive methods for quantifying nitrite in various biological samples have been developed. Chemiluminescence, combined with tri-iodide reducing solution, is currently considered the most sensitive method,...

  20. Automated biowaste sampling system, solids subsystem operating model, part 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fogal, G. L.; Mangialardi, J. K.; Stauffer, R. E.

    1973-01-01

    The detail design and fabrication of the Solids Subsystem were implemented. The system's capacity for the collection, storage or sampling of feces and vomitus from six subjects was tested and verified.

  1. Sample Management System for Heavy Ion Irradiation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A robotic sample management device and system for the exposure of biological and material specimens to heavy ion beams of the NASA Space Radiation Laboratory (NSRL)...

  2. International study to evaluate PCR methods for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from Chagas disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro G Schijman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU I, IV and VI (set A, human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C. Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA, 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05-0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10(-3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood. The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3-94.4%, specificity of 85

  3. International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijman, Alejandro G.; Bisio, Margarita; Orellana, Liliana; Sued, Mariela; Duffy, Tomás; Mejia Jaramillo, Ana M.; Cura, Carolina; Auter, Frederic; Veron, Vincent; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Hijar, Gisely; Zulantay, Inés; Lucero, Raúl Horacio; Velazquez, Elsa; Tellez, Tatiana; Sanchez Leon, Zunilda; Galvão, Lucia; Nolder, Debbie; Monje Rumi, María; Levi, José E.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Zorrilla, Pilar; Flores, María; Jercic, Maria I.; Crisante, Gladys; Añez, Néstor; De Castro, Ana M.; Gonzalez, Clara I.; Acosta Viana, Karla; Yachelini, Pedro; Torrico, Faustino; Robello, Carlos; Diosque, Patricio; Triana Chavez, Omar; Aznar, Christine; Russomando, Graciela; Büscher, Philippe; Assal, Azzedine; Guhl, Felipe; Sosa Estani, Sergio; DaSilva, Alexandre; Britto, Constança; Luquetti, Alejandro; Ladzins, Janis

    2011-01-01

    Background A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. Methodology/Findings An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) I, IV and VI (set A), human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B) and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C). Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA), 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA) and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05–0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10−3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood). The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3–94.4%, specificity of 85–95

  4. Analysis of Human Peripheral Blood Samples from Fatal and Nonfatal Cases of Ebola (Sudan) Hemorrhagic Fever: Cellular Responses, Virus Load, and Nitric Oxide Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Anthony; Lukwiya, Matthew; Bausch, Daniel; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Sanchez, Angela J.; Wagoner, Kent D.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral blood samples obtained from patients during an outbreak of Ebola virus (Sudan species) disease in Uganda in 2000 were used to phenotype peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), quantitate gene expression, measure antigenemia, and determine nitric oxide levels. It was determined that as the severity of disease increased in infected patients, there was a corresponding increase in antigenemia and leukopenia. Blood smears revealed thrombocytopenia, a left shift in neutrophils (in som...

  5. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Segura-Carretero; Alberto Fernández-Gutiérrez; Patricia Garcia-Salas; Aranzazu Morales-Soto

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE), which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but ...

  6. Sampling design for water distribution system models by genetic algorithms

    OpenAIRE

    Banovec, Primož; Kozelj, Daniel; Šantl, Sašo; Steinman, Franci

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we discuss sampling design for the calibration of water distribution system hydraulic models. The sampling design for the calibration of water distribution-system models is formulated as an optimisation problem consisting of two normalised objective functions. The first objective function is used to increase the calibration accuracy of the model parameters, and the second one is used to reduce the number of necessary measurement locations. The optimisation problem was solved by ...

  7. Bio-monitoring of persistent organochlorines in human milk and blood samples from sub-Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Swapnil; Dua, Virendra K; Chopra, A K

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues viz. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) in human breast milk and human blood samples, collected from several high altitude regions of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand, India viz. Devprayag, Chamoli, Uttarkashi, Joshimath, Bhatwari and Gangnani (altitude ranging from 472 to 1,982 m above sea level) were determined. Mean concentrations of HCH and DDT in human milk samples ranged from 4.53 to 34.32 mg/kg and 6.09 to 12.98 mg/kg, respectively. While the human blood showed mean values ranging from 6.64 to 281.7 μg/L and 12.37 to 104.10 μg/L for HCH and DDT, respectively. The study showed much higher concentrations of organochlorine residue contamination in the Garhwal region as compared to other parts of India. Risk assessments for infants were also calculated and were found within WHO limits. PMID:22885541

  8. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Ehrlichia canis DNA in blood samples from dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Faggion

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rickettsial bacterium Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, one of the most important canine tick-borne diseases in the world. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed for detection of E. canis DNA using LAMP primers targeting the groESL operon. Reactions were performed at 60°C for 60 min and the results were visualized by gel electrophoresis. Successful amplification was obtained using plasmid DNA containing a fragment of the groESL operon and DNA extracted from blood samples that tested positive for E. canis by real-time PCR. The specificity of amplification was confirmed by EcoRI restriction of internal sites in the LAMP primers and no cross-reactivity with blood samples positive for Babesia spp., another common tick-borne pathogen, was observed. The high cost of nucleic acid tests (NAT is one of the disadvantages for their large-scale use as routine diagnostic tests. The E. canis LAMP assay developed here is an interesting alternative to PCR since it does not require a thermocycler, thus reducing costs for the veterinary clinical laboratory.

  9. Equivalent sample theory of networked control systems and its application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    The equivalent sample theory and its application in analysis of networked control system (NCS) are presented. After analyzing NCS's scheduling in master-slave mode, the characteristics of time delay and sample are summarized. Looking on master station visiting the slave station as a special sample process, the theory of equivalent sample is presented. And based on it, the stability of a kind of NCS is analyzed. The criterion to determine the upper bound of transmission delay is introduced, which guarantees the stability. Finally, an example with simulation shows the availability and usability of this analysis method.

  10. Development of a blood extraction device for a miniature SMBG system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuura, Yoshimitsu; Uenoya, Toshiyuki; Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Uetsuji, Yasutomo; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2007-12-01

    In this study, a vacuum driven blood extraction device for the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) was newly developed. The health monitoring system (HMS) for SMBG consists of a blood extracting system and a drug delivery system (DDS). Our HMS extracts the blood through a micro-needle and measures the blood sugar level accurately. The main purpose of this work in HMS development are, 1) minimally invasive blood extraction, 2) a handy type automatic blood extraction, and 3) a continuous measurement of the blood sugar level. We adopted a vacuum driven type blood extraction mechanism. The vacuum driven blood extraction unit consists of a) a puncture part to open the vacuum part, b) an extraction part, and c) a measurement part. The puncture and extraction parts consist of a minimally invasive micro-needle, whose inner diameter is less than 100μm and made of titanium alloy, and a vacuum chamber, which is covered by a very thin membrane. A SMA spring and two bias springs are employed to penetrate the blood vessel through the skin with the micro-needle, and to execute the punctuation to slash the membrane in order to open the vacuum chamber. The blood is extracted into the vacuum chamber, seeps into the unwoven cloth according to the capillary principle, and is finally deposited on the blood sugar level sensor. Results show, our vacuum driven blood extraction device succeeded in extracting 12.7μl of human blood within 2 seconds. The blood sugar level was measured successfully by using a glucose enzyme sensor. Finally, the availability of our HMS device was confirmed.

  11. Developmental validation studies of epigenetic DNA methylation markers for the detection of blood, semen and saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Deborah S B S; Antunes, Joana; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George; Alho, Clarice S; McCord, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Determining the type and origin of body fluids in a forensic investigation can provide important assistance in reconstructing crime scenes. A set of epigenetic markers, ZC3H12D, BCAS4 and cg06379435, have been developed to produce unique and specific patterns of DNA methylation that can be used to identify semen, saliva, and blood, respectively. To ensure the efficacy of these markers, developmental validation studies were performed to determine the conditions and limitations of this new tool for forensic analysis. DNA was extracted from human samples and bisulfite modified using commercial bisulfite modification kits. Specific primers were used to amplify the region of interest and the methylation profile of the CpG sites were determined by pyrosequencing. The percent methylation values at each CpG site were determined in multiple samples and averaged for each tissue type. The versatility of these new markers is presented by showing the results of validation studies on sensitivity, human specificity, stability and mixture resolution. When testing the markers using different organisms, we did obtain positive results for certain non-human primate samples, however, all other tested species were negative. The lowest concentration consistently detected varied from 0.1 to 10ng, depending on the locus, indicating the importance of primer design and sequence in the assay. The method also proved to be effective when inhibitors were present in the samples or when samples were degraded by heat. Simulated case- samples were also tested. In the case of mixtures of different cell types, the overall methylation values varied in a consistent and predictable manner when multiple cell types were present in the same sample. Overall, the validation studies demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of this new tool for body fluid identification. PMID:27010659

  12. 78 FR 18353 - Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... validation of computer systems in the user's facility, the guidance does not address the software... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System... ``Guidance for Industry: Blood Establishment Computer System Validation in the User's Facility'' dated...

  13. Hand calculations for transport of radioactive aerosols through sampling systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogue, Mark; Thompson, Martha; Farfan, Eduardo; Hadlock, Dennis

    2014-05-01

    Workplace air monitoring programs for sampling radioactive aerosols in nuclear facilities sometimes must rely on sampling systems to move the air to a sample filter in a safe and convenient location. These systems may consist of probes, straight tubing, bends, contractions and other components. Evaluation of these systems for potential loss of radioactive aerosols is important because significant losses can occur. However, it can be very difficult to find fully described equations to model a system manually for a single particle size and even more difficult to evaluate total system efficiency for a polydispersed particle distribution. Some software methods are available, but they may not be directly applicable to the components being evaluated and they may not be completely documented or validated per current software quality assurance requirements. This paper offers a method to model radioactive aerosol transport in sampling systems that is transparent and easily updated with the most applicable models. Calculations are shown with the R Programming Language, but the method is adaptable to other scripting languages. The method has the advantage of transparency and easy verifiability. This paper shows how a set of equations from published aerosol science models may be applied to aspiration and transport efficiency of aerosols in common air sampling system components. An example application using R calculation scripts is demonstrated. The R scripts are provided as electronic attachments. PMID:24667389

  14. An automated atmospheric sampling system operating on 747 airliners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, P.; Gustafsson, U. R. C.

    1975-01-01

    An air sampling system that automatically measures the temporal and spatial distribution of selected particulate and gaseous constituents of the atmosphere has been installed on a number of commercial airliners and is collecting data on commercial air routes covering the world. Measurements of constituents related to aircraft engine emissions and other pollutants are made in the upper troposphere and lower stratosphere (6 to 12 km) in support of the Global Air Sampling Program (GASP). Aircraft operated by different airlines sample air at latitudes from the Arctic to Australia. This system includes specialized instrumentation for measuring carbon monoxide, ozone, water vapor, and particulates, a special air inlet probe for sampling outside air, a computerized automatic control, and a data acquisition system. Air constituents and related flight data are tape recorded in flight for later computer processing on the ground.

  15. Mobile Personal Health System for Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Vanessa G.; Ostos, Rodolfo; Gonzalez, Jesus A.; Cervantes, Armando; Ochoa, Armando; Ruiz, Carlos; Ramos, Roberto; Maestre, Gladys E.

    2013-01-01

    The ARVmobile v1.0 is a multiplatform mobile personal health monitor (PHM) application for ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring that has the potential to aid in the acquisition and analysis of detailed profile of ABP and heart rate (HR), improve the early detection and intervention of hypertension, and detect potential abnormal BP and HR levels for timely medical feedback. The PHM system consisted of ABP sensor to detect BP and HR signals and smartphone as receiver to collect the transmitted digital data and process them to provide immediate personalized information to the user. Android and Blackberry platforms were developed to detect and alert of potential abnormal values, offer friendly graphical user interface for elderly people, and provide feedback to professional healthcare providers via e-mail. ABP data were obtained from twenty-one healthy individuals (>51 years) to test the utility of the PHM application. The ARVmobile v1.0 was able to reliably receive and process the ABP readings from the volunteers. The preliminary results demonstrate that the ARVmobile 1.0 application could be used to perform a detailed profile of ABP and HR in an ordinary daily life environment, bedsides of estimating potential diagnostic thresholds of abnormal BP variability measured as average real variability. PMID:23762189

  16. Electrooxidation of antihistamine drug methdilazine and its analysis in human urine and blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj P. Shetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of an antihistamine drug, methdilazine, was studied in 9.2 pH with 0.2 M phosphate buffer as supporting electrolyte at 25 ± 0.2°C. Glassy carbon electrode was used to perform the experiment at cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric techniques. The dependence of the current on pH, concentration and scan rate were investigated. Differential pulse voltammetric technique was adopted to know the linear relation between peak current and methdilazine concentration. The linear response was obtained in the range of 3.0 μM–1.0 mM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM. The proposed method was also applied for the quantitative determination of methdilazine in pharmaceuticals and biological samples.

  17. Systematic assessment of reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to human blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Sun, Jihua; Wu, Honglong;

    2012-01-01

    systematically assessed the genomic coverage, coverage depth and reproducibility of this technology as well as the concordance of DNA methylation levels measured by RRBS and direct bisulfite sequencing for the detected CpG sites. Our result suggests that RRBS can cover more than half of CpG islands and promoter...... regions with a good coverage depth and the proportion of the CpG sites covered by the biological replicates reaches 80-90%, indicating good reproducibility. Given a smaller data quantity, RRBS enjoys much better coverage depth than direct bisulfite sequencing and the concordance of DNA methylation levels...... between the two methods is high. It can be concluded that RRBS is a time and cost-effective sequencing method for unbiased DNA methylation profiling of CpG islands and promoter regions in a genome-wide scale and it is the method of choice to assay certain genomic regions for multiple samples in a rapid...

  18. Multi-dimensional passive sampled port-hamiltonian systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franken, Michel; Reilink, Rob; Misra, Sarthak; Stramigioli, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    Passivity of virtual environments running in dis- crete time is a sufficient condition for stability of the system. The framework for passive sampled Port-Hamiltonian systems allows multi-dimensional virtual environments exhibiting inter- nal dynamic behavior to be computed on a discrete medium in a

  19. Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System Design Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this document is to describe the system architecture of the Chemical and Metallurgy Research (CMR) Sample Tracking System at Los Alamos National Laboratory. During the course of the document observations are made concerning the objectives, constraints and limitations, technical approaches, and the technical deliverables

  20. A sample-hold and analog multiplexer for multidetector systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new sample-hold circuit with an analog multiplexer system is described. Designed for multichannel acquistion of data from an air shower array, the system is being used for accurate measurements of pulse heights from 16 channels by the use of a single ADC. (orig.)

  1. Water vapor measurement system in global atmospheric sampling program, appendix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, D. R.; Dudzinski, T. J.

    1982-01-01

    The water vapor measurement system used in the NASA Global Atmospheric Sampling Program (GASP) is described. The system used a modified version of a commercially available dew/frostpoint hygrometer with a thermoelectrically cooled mirror sensor. The modifications extended the range of the hygrometer to enable air sample measurements with frostpoint temperatures down to -80 C at altitudes of 6 to 13 km. Other modifications were made to permit automatic, unattended operation in an aircraft environment. This report described the hygrometer, its integration with the GASP system, its calibration, and operational aspects including measurement errors. The estimated uncertainty of the dew/frostpoint measurements was + or - 1.7 Celsius.

  2. Portable point-of-care blood analysis system for global health (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dou, James J.; Aitchison, James Stewart; Chen, Lu; Nayyar, Rakesh

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we present a portable blood analysis system based on a disposable cartridge and hand-held reader. The platform can perform all the sample preparation, detection and waste collection required to complete a clinical test. In order to demonstrate the utility of this approach a CD4 T cell enumeration was carried out. A handheld, point-of-care CD4 T cell system was developed based on this system. In particular we will describe a pneumatic, active pumping method to control the on-chip fluidic actuation. Reagents for the CD4 T cell counting assay were dried on a reagent plug to eliminate the need for cold chain storage when used in the field. A micromixer based on the active fluidic actuation was designed to complete sample staining with fluorescent dyes that was dried on the reagent plugs. A novel image detection and analysis algorithm was developed to detect and track the flight of target particles and cells during each analysis. The handheld, point-of-care CD4 testing system was benchmarked against clinical cytometer. The experimental results demonstrated experimental results were closely matched with the flow cytometry. The same platform can be further expanded into a bead-array detection system where other types of biomolecules such as proteins can be detected using the same detection system.

  3. Gamma spectrometric system for measuring low and medium radioactive samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measuring radioactive samples from environment and animal sub-products which usually have low radioactivity and a mixture of a radionuclides, requires the use of complex spectrometric systems. In our Department such a system was development, currently equipped with scintillation detector. All the electronic modules (High Voltage Supply, Pulse Amplifier, ADC) in the system are fully digitally controlled by the computer via a specialized interface and a special device driver, which is a resident program. The spectrum acquisition is performed in the background by the device driver. Spectrum processing (peak search, background subtraction, radionuclide identification, energy and efficiency calibration, activity and associated error calculation) is done by a special application which has a user friendly graphic interface and includes database and reporting facilities. The next year the system will be equipped with an automatic sample changer for large volume samples. We intend to provide the possibility to use also a HPGe detector. (authors)

  4. Genetic profiling of tumours using both circulating free DNA and circulating tumour cells isolated from the same preserved whole blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Dominic G; Smith, Nigel; Morris, Daniel; Leong, Hui Sun; Li, Yaoyong; Hollebecque, Antoine; Ayub, Mahmood; Carter, Louise; Antonello, Jenny; Franklin, Lynsey; Miller, Crispin; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged

    2016-04-01

    Molecular information obtained from cancer patients' blood is an emerging and powerful research tool with immense potential as a companion diagnostic for patient stratification and monitoring. Blood, which can be sampled routinely, provides a means of inferring the current genetic status of patients' tumours via analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, accurate assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA requires all blood cells to be maintained intact until samples are processed. This dictates for ctDNA analysis EDTA blood samples must be processed with 4 h of draw, severely limiting the use of ctDNA in multi-site trials. Here we describe a blood collection protocol that is amenable for analysis of both CTCs and ctDNA up to four days after blood collection. We demonstrate that yields of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from whole blood CellSave samples are equivalent to those obtained from conventional EDTA plasma processed within 4 h of blood draw. Targeted and genome-wide NGS revealed comparable DNA quality and resultant sequence information from cfDNA within CellSave and EDTA samples. We also demonstrate that CTCs and ctDNA can be isolated from the same patient blood sample, and give the same patterns of CNA enabling direct analysis of the genetic status of patients' tumours. In summary, our results demonstrate the utility of a simple approach that enabling robust molecular analysis of CTCs and cfDNA for genotype-directed therapies in multi-site clinical trials and represent a significant methodological improvement for clinical benefit. PMID:26639657

  5. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  6. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.

  7. Evaluation of renal function in children by radionuclide renography using 99mTc-DTPA and a single blood sample method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of calculating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the single blood sample method with a gamma camera and well scintillation counter was assessed as a method of quantitative evaluation of renal function in children. The subjects were 16 children suspected of having renal dysfunction. Renography using 99mTc-DTPA with a gamma camera was performed and the radioisotope was counted. Blood samples were taken, and GFR was calculated by measuring the plasma counts with a well counter. The gamma camera values were matched with the well counter values. GFR values by the single blood sample method were compared with GFR values obtained by Gates' method (which is usually used in adults) and Schwarz' method (known as an easy method of calculation in children). GFR by the single blood sample method was conveniently calculated by using the conversion formula obtained from the regression for the relation between the gamma camera and well scintillation counter values. The results suggested that GFR can be calculated and renal function evaluated more accurately by combined use of the single blood sample method during 99mTc-DTPA renography. Renal uptake rate after correction for body surface area correlated with GFR by the single blood sample method. It was possible to establish a formula for calculating GFR in children from the gamma camera data that corresponds to the Gates method for adults. (K.H.)

  8. Evaluation of OneTouch Verio, a new blood glucose self-monitoring system for patients with diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Littman, Karin; Petersen, Eva R.B.; Pussinen, Christel;

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) is important in diabetes management. Reliable and user-friendly instruments are essential. OneTouch Verio® is a new blood glucose concentration-measuring system designed to be used by patients with diabetes and healthcare professionals. The...... objective of the present study was to evaluate the analytical performance of the OneTouch Verio®. Method. The OneTouch Verio® was evaluated by the Scandinavian evaluation of laboratory equipment for primary healthcare (SKUP) according to a protocol based on ISO 15197 and the American Diabetes Association...... (ADA) quality goals. Blood samples were collected and measured on the OneTouch Verio® by laboratory personnel and patients with diabetes (n = 91, randomized into groups receiving personal training or mail instructions for the OneTouch Verio® system). Results were compared to a validated routine method...

  9. Collecting and Storing Blood and Brain Tumor Tissue Samples From Children With Brain Tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-17

    Childhood Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Tumor; Childhood Central Nervous System Germ Cell Tumor; Childhood Choroid Plexus Tumor; Childhood Craniopharyngioma; Childhood Grade I Meningioma; Childhood Grade II Meningioma; Childhood Grade III Meningioma; Childhood High-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Infratentorial Ependymoma; Childhood Low-grade Cerebral Astrocytoma; Childhood Oligodendroglioma; Childhood Supratentorial Ependymoma; Newly Diagnosed Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebellar Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Cerebral Astrocytoma; Recurrent Childhood Ependymoma; Recurrent Childhood Medulloblastoma; Recurrent Childhood Supratentorial Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumor; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway and Hypothalamic Glioma; Recurrent Childhood Visual Pathway Glioma

  10. Test report for the Sample Transfer Canister system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flanagan, B.D.

    1998-03-04

    The Sample Transfer Canister will be used by the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility (WRAP) for the transport of small quantity liquid samples that meet the definition of a limited quantity radioactive material, and may also be corrosive and/or flammable. Transport of the system will typically be north of the Wye Barricade between WRAP and the 222-S Laboratory. The samples are intended to conform to the US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulation 49 CFR 1 73.4, ``Exceptions for small quantities.`` The regulations require prototype testing of the package to demonstrate the effectiveness of the packaging system. The test procedure consisted of one 24-hour compression test and five drop tests of various orientations onto an unyielding drop pad. The testing of the Sample Transfer Canister System was performed between February 16, 1998 and February 25, 1998. The results of the testing concluded that the Sample Transfer Canister System successfully met the testing requirements with certain modifications to the original system. The modifications included replacing the original eight flange screws which were cold rolled 316 stainless steel with greater strength grade 8 high carbon-carbon steel screws, replacing the initial two glass receptacles with a better performing single glass receptacle which proved not to leak during testing, and adding more bubble wrap as extra padding.

  11. An integrated flask sample collection system for greenhouse gas measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turnbull

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A one hour integrated flask sampling system to collect air in automated NOAA/ESRL 12-flask packages is described. The integrating compressor system uses a mass flow controller to regulate the flow of air through a 15 l volume, thus providing a mixture of air collected over an hour-long period. By beginning with a high flow rate of 3.8 standard liters per minute and gradually decreasing the flow rate over time to 0.29 standard liters per minute it is possible to obtain a nearly uniformly time averaged sample of air and collect it into a pressurized 0.7 l flask. The weighting function determining the air mixture obtained is described in detail. Laboratory and field tests demonstrate that the integrated sample approximates a simple mean of air collected during the one-hour sampling time.

  12. An integrated flask sample collection system for greenhouse gas measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turnbull, J.; Guenther, D.; Karion, A.; Sweeney, C.; Anderson, E.; Andrews, A.; Kofler, J.; Miles, N.; Newberger, T.; Richardson, S.; Tans, P.

    2012-09-01

    A one hour integrated flask sampling system to collect air in automated NOAA/ESRL 12-flask packages is described. The integrating compressor system uses a mass flow controller to regulate the flow of air through a 15 l volume, thus providing a mixture of air collected over an hour-long period. By beginning with a high flow rate of 3.8 standard liters per minute and gradually decreasing the flow rate over time to 0.29 standard liters per minute it is possible to obtain a nearly uniformly time averaged sample of air and collect it into a pressurized 0.7 l flask. The weighting function determining the air mixture obtained is described in detail. Laboratory and field tests demonstrate that the integrated sample approximates a simple mean of air collected during the one-hour sampling time.

  13. An integrated flask sample collection system for greenhouse gas measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Turnbull

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A one hour integrated flask sampling system to collect air in automated NOAA/ESRL 12-flask packages is described. The integrating compressor system uses a mass flow controller to regulate the flow of air through a 15 l volume, thus providing a mixture of air collected over an hour-long period. By beginning with a high flow rate of 3800 standard liters per minute and gradually decreasing the flow rate over time to 290 standard liters per minute it is possible to obtain a nearly uniformly time averaged sample of air and collect it into a pressurized 0.7 l flask. The weighting function determining the air mixture obtained is described in detail. Laboratory and field tests demonstrate that the integrated sample approximates a simple mean of air collected during the one-hour sampling time.

  14. Non-ABO blood group systems phenotyping in non-human primates for blood banking laboratory and xenotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramis, G; Martínez-Alarcon, L; Quereda, J J; Mrowiec, A; Funes, C; Ríos, A; Ramírez, P; Muñoz, A; Majado, M J

    2013-04-01

    Some biomedical research procedures, such as organ xenotransplantation, usually require intensive hemotherapy. Knowledge of the whole phenotype of blood donor and graft could be useful in the field of xenotransplantation. Human and simian-type categories of blood groups have been established and they can be tested by standard methods used for human blood grouping. The aim of this work was to study the incidence of non-ABO blood group systems in different species of non-human primates, which are employed in biomedical research. The phenotype of Rh, Lewis, Kidd, Kell, MNSs, Lutheran, P and Duffy antigens was investigated in olive baboon (n = 48), chacma baboon (n = 9), Guinea baboon (n = 14), Rhesus macaque (n = 38) and squirrel monkey (n = 30) by using commercial microtyping cards. Kell, Lutheran, Kidd and Duffy antigens have been detected in all species, Rh in squirrel monkey, MNSs in rhesus macaque and squirrel monkey, and Lewis in baboon and rhesus macaque. There were differences in frequency and haemagglutination scores between species regardless of their gender and age. The main differences were found in squirrel monkey when compared with baboons and macaques. This typing system provides a tool to assess the presence of antigens in animals used for experimental procedures, such as xenotransplantation and xenotransfusion. PMID:23563364

  15. ISIS: An Interactive System for Instruction and Sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This computer interactive system for instruction and sampling is designed to introduce sampling of a contaminated site or field sampling to persons new to the activity. Through a series of questions, the program determines the extent of field sampling experience the novice has previously obtained. Based on answers given to these questions, the program provides the novice information about what should be done to prepare for and initiate correct field sampling procedures. Information on the types of radioactive emissions (alpha, beta, and gamma) for which the novice will be searching is also available. Detailed instructions are presented by the program for the detection and measurements of alpha, beta, and gamma radiation. Procedures for operating the alpha counter, Geiger-Mueller counter, and scintillation counter are presented in clear and precise steps so that very few errors, if any, are expected. 4 refs

  16. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolich Beverly D

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Methods Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Results Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9 as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. Conclusions These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies.

  17. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9) as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies

  18. Design of an online spot air sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In all the alpha handling facilities spot air sampling is essential while clearing a lab consequent to week end ventilation shut down or subsequent to completion of work/operations goes inside the facility. The sampling head is designed for 5 micron particles. Following pints are noticed over a period of such operational activities: Health Physicist goes inside a lab with a half face mask whose protection factor is 10, thereby useful for lab air activity up to ten DACs. Many times HP goes inside the lab when activity is more which is highly unsafe. On many occasions simultaneously a number of samples have to be taken by HP from a large number of laboratories inside the facility or for any special job where continuous radiological protection is required. Based on this it is proposed to design a sampling system which will overcome the above limitations. The design of the sampling head has been carried out which is for 5 micron particle size. The pump which is available in the existing facilities can be utilized. An innovative way of counting for large number of samples is fabricated in the RHC wing, RMD which can count ten samples at a time. Removal and counting of the sample may be carried out in a similar sampling carousel which is being used in RHC Unit, Radiometallurgy wing successfully with a little modification. In the proposed system, three samples can be operated in-line such that health physics intervention during the active operation would be minimum and during alarm situations (i.e. on the DAC level) proper protective equipment shall be advised by health physicist or he may suggest any other protective action. This type of online monitors will help in establishing the airborne activity inside the lab where special jobs are being carried out which will provide maximum protection to the lab personnel as well as to the health physicist who supervises the entire operation

  19. Software development for estimating the concentration of radioactive cesium in the skeletal muscles of cattle from blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Hiji, Masahiro; Kino, Yasushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Jin; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Chiba, Mirei; Inoue, Kazuya; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Morimoto, Motoko; Katayama, Masafumi; Donai, Kenichiro; Shinoda, Hisashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Isogai, Emiko

    2016-06-01

    The 2011 earthquake severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), resulting in the release of large quantities of radioactive material into the environment. The deposition of these radionuclides in rice straw as livestock feed led to the circulation of contaminated beef in the market. Based on the safety concern of the consumers, a reliable method for estimating concentrations of radioactive cesium in muscle tissue is needed. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of radioactive cesium in the blood and skeletal muscle of 88 cattle, and detected a linear correlation between them. We then developed software that can be used to estimate radioactive cesium concentrations in muscle tissue from blood samples. Distribution of this software to the livestock production field would allow us to easily identify high-risk cattle, which would be beyond the safety regulation, before shipping out to the market. This software is planned to be released as freeware. This software would contribute to food safety, and aid the recovery of the livestock industry from the damage creacted by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. PMID:26420060

  20. Sampled-data models for linear and nonlinear systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yuz, Juan I

    2014-01-01

    Sampled-data Models for Linear and Nonlinear Systems provides a fresh new look at a subject with which many researchers may think themselves familiar. Rather than emphasising the differences between sampled-data and continuous-time systems, the authors proceed from the premise that, with modern sampling rates being as high as they are, it is becoming more appropriate to emphasise connections and similarities. The text is driven by three motives: ·      the ubiquity of computers in modern control and signal-processing equipment means that sampling of systems that really evolve continuously is unavoidable; ·      although superficially straightforward, sampling can easily produce erroneous results when not treated properly; and ·      the need for a thorough understanding of many aspects of sampling among researchers and engineers dealing with applications to which they are central. The authors tackle many misconceptions which, although appearing reasonable at first sight, are in fact either p...

  1. Effect of volume expansion on systemic hemodynamics and central and arterial blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: Systemic vasodilatation in cirrhosis may lead to hemodynamic alterations with reduced effective blood volume and decreased arterial blood pressure. This study investigates the response of acute volume expansion on hemodynamics and regional blood volumes in patients with cirrhosis...... and in controls. METHODS: Thirty-nine patients with cirrhosis (12 patients with Child-Turcotte class A, 14 with class B, and 13 with class C) and 6 controls were studied. During hepatic vein catheterization, cardiac output, systemic vascular resistance, central and arterial blood volume, noncentral...... change was found in patients with either class B or class C. Conversely, the noncentral blood volume increased in patients with class B and C. In both patients and controls, the cardiac output increased and the systemic vascular resistance decreased, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure did not...

  2. Specimen sampling system in a BWR type nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To accurately determine the impurity concentration in primary coolants. Constitution: Gold or platinum coating is applied to the inner surface of pipeways for a condensate specimen sampling system led out between a condensator and a low pressure condensate pump, a feed water specimen sampling system branched from a feed water pipeway at the downstream of a feed water heater and a reactor water specimen sampling system connected to a reactor water clean up line lead out from a reactor pressure vessel. Since these pipeways have inner diameter of about 6 mm and length of about 100 mm, stainless steel pipeways applied with platings to the inner surface are preferably used in view of the strength. Since gold or platinum is very much stable chemically at high temperature or low temperature, it neither adsorbs metal ions in the specimen water nor erode to leach out impurities, whereby errors due to the pipeway can be eliminated. (Sekiya, K.)

  3. Research of pneumatic control transmission system for small irradiation samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to reduce the absorbed dose damage for the operator, pneumatic control has been adopted to realize the rapid transmission of small irradiation samples. On/off of pneumatic circuit and directions for the rapid transmission system are controlled by the electrical control part. The main program initializes the system and detects the location of the manual/automatic change-over switch, and call for the corresponding subprogram to achieve the automatic or manual operation. Automatic subprogram achieves the automatic sample transmission; Manual subprogram completes the deflation, and back and forth movement of the radiation samples. This paper introduces in detail the implementation of the system, in terms of both hardware and software design. (authors)

  4. Cloud point extraction for determination of lead in blood samples of children, using different ligands prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Trace levels of lead in blood samples of healthy children and with different kidney disorders → Pre-concentration of Pb+2 in acid digested blood samples after chelating with two complexing reagents. → Multivariate technique was used for screening of significant factors that influence the CPE of Pb+2 → The level of Pb+2 in diseased children was significantly higher than referents of same age group. - Abstract: The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead (Pb2+) from digested blood samples after simultaneous complexation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) separately. The complexed analyte was quantitatively extracted with octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit value of Pb2+ for the preconcentration of 10 mL of acid digested blood sample was 1.14 μg L-1. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference material (whole blood). Under the optimized conditions of both CPE methods, 10 mL of Pb2+ standards (10 μg L-1) complexed with APDC and DDTC, permitted the enhancement factors of 56 and 42, respectively. The proposed method was used for determination of Pb2+ in blood samples of children with kidney disorders and healthy controls.

  5. Determining the Bayesian optimal sampling strategy in a hierarchical system.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grace, Matthew D.; Ringland, James T.; Boggs, Paul T.; Pebay, Philippe Pierre

    2010-09-01

    Consider a classic hierarchy tree as a basic model of a 'system-of-systems' network, where each node represents a component system (which may itself consist of a set of sub-systems). For this general composite system, we present a technique for computing the optimal testing strategy, which is based on Bayesian decision analysis. In previous work, we developed a Bayesian approach for computing the distribution of the reliability of a system-of-systems structure that uses test data and prior information. This allows for the determination of both an estimate of the reliability and a quantification of confidence in the estimate. Improving the accuracy of the reliability estimate and increasing the corresponding confidence require the collection of additional data. However, testing all possible sub-systems may not be cost-effective, feasible, or even necessary to achieve an improvement in the reliability estimate. To address this sampling issue, we formulate a Bayesian methodology that systematically determines the optimal sampling strategy under specified constraints and costs that will maximally improve the reliability estimate of the composite system, e.g., by reducing the variance of the reliability distribution. This methodology involves calculating the 'Bayes risk of a decision rule' for each available sampling strategy, where risk quantifies the relative effect that each sampling strategy could have on the reliability estimate. A general numerical algorithm is developed and tested using an example multicomponent system. The results show that the procedure scales linearly with the number of components available for testing.

  6. System design description for the consolidated sludge sampling system for K Basins floor and fuel canisters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This System Design Description describes the Consolidated Sludge Sampling System used in the gathering of sludge samples from K Basin floor and fuel canisters. This document provides additional information on the need for the system, the functions and requirements of the systems, the operations of the system, and the general work plan used in its' design and development

  7. Robust stability analysis for uncertain sampled-data control systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper investigates robust stability (RS) of uncertain sampled-data (SD) control systems with generalized sampled-data hold functions (GSHF). A new sufficient condition for robust stability of such systems is developed. Unlike that of most of the previous works, it directly uses the data of tile continuous-time plant and therefore it is less conservative. The condition is expressed in terms of the spectral radius of a certain matrix and is shown to l)e a uni modal function of a free parameter. Thus standard one-dimensional optimization algorithm can be used to perform the proposed test

  8. Identification of pyrimethamine- and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 1984 and 1998: genotyping of archive blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito-Nakano Yumiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the geographical distribution of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum is important for the effective treatment of malaria. Drug resistance has previously been inferred mainly from records of clinical resistance. However, clinical resistance is not always consistent with the parasite's genetic resistance. Thus, molecular identification of the parasite's drug resistance is required. In Africa, clinical resistance to pyrimethamine (Pyr and chloroquine (CQ was evident before 1980 but few studies investigating the genetic resistance to these drugs were conducted before the late 1990s. In this study, genotyping of genes involved in resistance to Pyr and CQ was performed using archive blood samples from Africa between 1984 and 1998. Methods Parasite DNA was extracted from P. falciparum-infected blood smears collected from travellers returning to Japan from Africa between 1984 and 1998. Genotypes of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (dhfr and CQ-resistance transporter gene (pfcrt were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Results Genotyping of dhfr and pfcrt was successful in 59 and 80 samples, respectively. One wild-type and seven mutant dhfr genotypes were identified. Three dhfr genotypes lacking the S108N mutation (NRSI, ICSI, IRSI; amino acids at positions 51, 59, 108, and 164 with mutations underlined were highly prevalent before 1994 but reduced after 1995, accompanied by an increase in genotypes with the S108N mutation. The dhfr IRNI genotype was first identified in Nigeria in 1991 in the present samples, and its frequency gradually increased. However, two double mutants (ICNI and NRNI, the latter of which was exclusively found in West Africa, were more frequent than the IRNI genotype. Only two pfcrt genotypes were found, the wild-type and a Southeast Asian type (CVIET; amino acids at positions 72-76 with mutations underlined. The CVIET genotype was already present as early as

  9. Recent Results of the Investigation of a Microfluidic Sampling Chip and Sampling System for Hot Cell Aqueous Processing Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julia Tripp; Jack Law; Tara Smith

    2013-10-01

    A Fuel Cycle Research and Development project has investigated an innovative sampling method that could evolve into the next generation sampling and analysis system for metallic elements present in aqueous processing streams. Initially sampling technologies were evaluated and microfluidics sampling chip technology was selected and tested. A conceptual design for a fully automated microcapillary-based system was completed and a robotic automated sampling system was fabricated. The mechanical and sampling operation of the completed sampling system was investigated. In addition, the production of a less expensive, mass produced sampling chip was investigated to avoid chip reuse thus increasing sampling reproducibility/accuracy. The microfluidic-based robotic sampling system’s mechanical elements were tested to ensure analytical reproducibility and the optimum robotic handling of microfluidic sampling chips.

  10. Quantitative cerebral H215O perfusion PET without arterial blood sampling, a method based on washout rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative determination of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is important in certain clinical and research applications. The disadvantage of most quantitative methods using H215O positron emission tomography (PET) is the need for arterial blood sampling. In this study a new non-invasive method for rCBF quantification was evaluated. The method is based on the washout rate of H215O following intravenous injection. All results were obtained with Alpert's method, which yields maps of the washin parameter K1 (rCBFK1) and the washout parameter k2 (rCBFk2). Maps of rCBFK1 were computed with measured arterial input curves. Maps of rCBFk2* were calculated with a standard input curve which was the mean of eight individual input curves. The mean of grey matter rCBFk2* (CBFk2*) was then compared with the mean of rCBFK1 (CBFK1) in ten healthy volunteer smokers who underwent two PET sessions on day 1 and day 3. Each session consisted of three serial H215O scans. Reproducibility was analysed using the rCBF difference scan 3-scan 2 in each session. The perfusion reserve (PR = rCBFacetazolamide-rCBFbaseline) following acetazolamide challenge was calculated with rCBFk2* (PRk2*) and rCBFK1 (PRK1) in ten patients with cerebrovascular disease. The difference CBFk2*-CBFK1 was 5.90±8.12 ml/min/100 ml (mean±SD, n=55). The SD of the scan 3-scan 1 difference was 6.1% for rCBFk2* and rCBFK1, demonstrating a high reproducibility. Perfusion reserve values determined with rCBFK1 and rCBFk2* were in high agreement (difference PRk2*-PRK1=-6.5±10.4%, PR expressed in percentage increase from baseline). In conclusion, a new non-invasive method for the quantitative determination of rCBF is presented. The method is in good agreement with Alpert's original method and the reproducibility is high. It does not require arterial blood sampling, yields quantitative voxel-by-voxel maps of rCBF, and is computationally efficient and easy to implement. (orig.)

  11. A Real-Time PCR Assay Based on 5.8S rRNA Gene (5.8S rDNA) for Rapid Detection of Candida from Whole Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Yang, Jing-Xian; Liang, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of Candida in bloodstream infections (BSIs) has increased. To date, the identification of Candida in BSIs still mainly relies on blood culture and serological tests, but they have various limitations. Therefore, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Candida from whole blood is presented. The unique primers/probe system was designed on 5.8S rRNA gene (5.8S rDNA) of Candida genus. The analytical sensitivity was determined by numbers of positive PCRs in 12 repetitions. At the concentration of 10(1) CFU/ml blood, positive PCR rates of 100 % were obtained for C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. The detection rate for C. glabrata was 75 % at 10(1) CFU/ml blood. The reaction specificity was 100 % when evaluating the assay using DNA samples from clinical isolates and human blood. The maximum CVs of intra-assay and inter-assay for the detection limit were 1.22 and 2.22 %, respectively. To assess the clinical applicability, 328 blood samples from 82 patients were prospectively tested and real-time PCR results were compared with results from blood culture. Diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 100 % using as gold standard blood culture, and specificity was 98.4 %. Our data suggest that the developed assay can be used in clinical laboratories as an accurate and rapid screening test for the Candida from whole blood. Although further evaluation is warranted, our assay holds promise for earlier diagnosis of candidemia. PMID:26687075

  12. Phenolic-Compound-Extraction Systems for Fruit and Vegetable Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Segura-Carretero

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the phenolic-compound-extraction systems used to analyse fruit and vegetable samples over the last 10 years. Phenolic compounds are naturally occurring antioxidants, usually found in fruits and vegetables. Sample preparation for analytical studies is necessary to determine the polyphenolic composition in these matrices. The most widely used extraction system is liquid-liquid extraction (LLE, which is an inexpensive method since it involves the use of organic solvents, but it requires long extraction times, giving rise to possible extract degradation. Likewise, solid-phase extraction (SPE can be used in liquid samples. Modern techniques, which have been replacing conventional ones, include: supercritical fluid extraction (SFE, pressurized liquid extraction (PLE, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE and ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE. These alternative techniques reduce considerably the use of solvents and accelerate the extraction process.

  13. Authentication Assurance Level Application to the Inventory Sampling Measurement System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devaney, Mike M.; Kouzes, Richard T.; Hansen, Randy R.; Geelhood, Bruce D.

    2001-09-06

    This document concentrates on the identification of a standardized assessment approach for the verification of security functionality in specific equipment, the Inspection Sampling Measurement System (ISMS) being developed for MAYAK. Specifically, an Authentication Assurance Level 3 is proposed to be reached in authenticating the ISMS.

  14. SimFlex: Statistical Sampling of Computer System Simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Wenisch, Thomas F.; Wunderlich, Roland E.; Ferdman, Michael; Ailamaki, Anastassia; Falsafi, Babak; Hoe, James C.

    2006-01-01

    Timing-accurate full-system multiprocessor simulations can take years because of architecture and application complexity. Statistical sampling makes simulation-based studies feasibly by providing ten-thousand-fold reductions in simulation runtime and enabling thousand-way simulation parallelism.

  15. Authentication Assurance Level Application to the Inventory Sampling Measurement System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document concentrates on the identification of a standardized assessment approach for the verification of security functionality in specific equipment, the Inspection Sampling Measurement System (ISMS) being developed for MAYAK. Specifically, an Authentication Assurance Level 3 is proposed to be reached in authenticating the ISMS

  16. Homogeneous fluorescence immunoassay for whole blood analysis. Spectroscopic characterization of a red fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. The demand for fast, easy-to-use, cost-effective and miniaturized point of care (POC) systems for whole blood analysis in clinical diagnostics is huge. Potential test systems aim for separation-free whole blood assays, in which very small sample volumes ( 650 nm). The innovative FRET system absorbs (= excitation wavelength) and emits (detection wavelength) in the so-called optical window of blood. This FRET system is designed of ATTO610 as the donor and ATTO680 as the acceptor dye. Both fluorescent dyes were covalently linked to the 5'ends of single-stranded (ss) DNA oligomers with different length. Through the formation of double-stranded (ds) DNA via hybridization, both dyes are brought into defined spatial proximity in order to study the fundamental photophysical parameters of the FRET pair. In the first experiments, fluorescence quantum yield, fluorescence anisotropy and fluorescence decay time of the ssDNA-conjugated dyes were evaluated and compared with those of the free dyes in order to analyze possible effects of the labelling to DNA. The FRET efficiencies were determined from the dsDNA-conjugated donor's fluorescence quenching using steady state and time resolved fluorescence measurements and subsequently, the distance dependence was evaluated as well. The experimental data were compared with calculations based on the Foerster equations and an excellent agreement was found. The FRET efficiencies were further investigated on a single molecular level using single molecule spectroscopy (SMS). First measurements in whole blood were performed as well. Future steps will include fluorescence detection in a customized microfluidic cell system which allows for using whole blood samples of only one microliter.

  17. Modified mouse peripheral blood lymphocyte culture system for cytogenetic analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A detailed methodology is presented for culturing mouse peripheral blood lymphocytes isolated on density gradients and stimulated to divide using either phytohemagglutinin, concanavalin A, or lipopolysaccharide. The techniques described yield more than sufficient numbers of mitotic cells for analyzing sister chromatid exchange, chromosome, aberrations, and micronuclei following in vitro or in vivo exposure to chemicals or radiation

  18. Modelling of the Blood Coagulation Cascade in an In Vitro Flow System.

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Nina Marianne; Sørensen, Mads Peter; Messoud A. Efendiev; Olsen, Ole Hvilsted; Ingwersen, Steen H.

    2010-01-01

    We derive a mathematical model of a part of the blood coagulation cascade set up in a perfusion experiment. Our purpose is to simulate the influence of blood flow and diffusion on the blood coagulation pathway. The resulting model consists of a system of partial differential equations taking into account the spatial distribution of the biochemical species. An important issue is inclusion of a dynamic boundary condition describing adhesion of activated platelets on a collagen coated top lid in...

  19. Validated UPLC-MS/MS assay for the determination of synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors in postmortem blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Paula; Mustra, Carla; Marcos, Mariana; Franco, João Miguel; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-08-01

    The use of synthetic phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)), tadalafil (Cialis(®)) and vardenafil hydrochloride (Levitra(®)) has increased dramatically over the past 2 years. These substances are prescription drugs and must be used under medical supervision. However, they can easily be obtained over the internet from illegal sites, being a potential for a threat to public health. The development of an electrospray ionisation (ESI) ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous identification and quantification of three PDE5 inhibitors in blood samples was desired. Samples were prepared using Oasis(®) HLB solid-phase cartridges (3 cc, 60 mg) and chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 (100 × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 μm particles) column with a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. Quantification was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two transitions per compound: m/z 475.1 > 58 e m/z 475.1 > 311.1 for sildenafil; m/z 389.9 > 267.9 e m/z 389.9 > 134.8 for tadalafil and m/z 489 > 71.9 e m/z 489 > 150.9 for vardenafil. Zolpidem-d6 (m/z 314.5 > 235.3) was used as the internal standard. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 5-1000 ng/mL, with a coefficient of determination better than 0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for these substances were ≤ 3 ng/mL and ≤ 8 ng/mL, respectively. The method showed a satisfactory sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery and selectivity. A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction was developed for the simultaneous determination and quantification of sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in blood samples. PMID:23910856

  20. Human exposure to pollutants - part: 1 blood lead and cadmium in a sample of population of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to see the blood lead and cadmium levels in fifty employees working at PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi. These employees belonged to various socio-economic groups and had their residences in different areas of Karachi. Sixty two percent staff had blood lead level between 100-200 micro g/L. The highest blood lead level(>400 micro g/L) was found in volunteers working as garage staff. No significant difference was found between the blood lead levels of volunteers belonging to different socio-economic and age groups, only 8% of the staff had blood lead levels below 100 micro g/L. Lead in the dust collected from the residences of the volunteers was also estimated for lead and correlated with blood lead levels. Blood cadmium levels were also estimated. These were found to be higher in smokers and tobacco chewers. A definite correlation was observed between blood cadmium levels and smoking habits. (author)

  1. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow contributions to upper airways in canine lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The blood flow contributions and drainage patterns of the pulmonary and systemic circulations in the upper airways (trachea and main bronchi) were assessed in anesthetized dogs by injecting 15-μm radiolabeled microspheres into the right and left heart, respectively. After the animals were killed, the tracheal cartilage, tracheal muscle-mucosa, and main bronchi were excised. The tracheal cartilage and tracheal muscle-mucosa were divided into lower, middle, and upper segments for blood flow determinations. The pulmonary contribution to tracheal blood flow was very small, being higher in the lower segments. The systemic contribution to these same tracheal regions was significantly higher, and higher in the upper segments. The pulmonary and systemic circulations each contributed ∼50% to the main bronchi blood flow. The pulmonary blood flow contribution alone to the trachea and main bronchi was also determined in subsequent experiments that utilized the isolated lung, and these blood flows were not significantly different from the pulmonary contribution measured in the intact lungs. The present results indicate that the systemic (bronchial) circulation is the primary source of tracheal blood flow and that both the pulmonary and systemic circulations may contribute ∼50% of the blood flow to the main bronchi in dog lungs

  2. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-C-107 using the vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-107. This document presents sampling data resulting from the March 26, 1996 sampling of SST 241-C-107. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory which supplied and analyzed the sample media. The team collected representative headspace samples using the In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS)

  3. Network-level analysis of metabolic regulation in the human red blood cell using random sampling and singular value decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsson Bernhard O

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme pathways (ExPas have been shown to be valuable for studying the functions and capabilities of metabolic networks through characterization of the null space of the stoichiometric matrix (S. Singular value decomposition (SVD of the ExPa matrix P has previously been used to characterize the metabolic regulatory problem in the human red blood cell (hRBC from a network perspective. The calculation of ExPas is NP-hard, and for genome-scale networks the computation of ExPas has proven to be infeasible. Therefore an alternative approach is needed to reveal regulatory properties of steady state solution spaces of genome-scale stoichiometric matrices. Results We show that the SVD of a matrix (W formed of random samples from the steady-state solution space of the hRBC metabolic network gives similar insights into the regulatory properties of the network as was obtained with SVD of P. This new approach has two main advantages. First, it works with a direct representation of the shape of the metabolic solution space without the confounding factor of a non-uniform distribution of the extreme pathways and second, the SVD procedure can be applied to a very large number of samples, such as will be produced from genome-scale networks. Conclusion These results show that we are now in a position to study the network aspects of the regulatory problem in genome-scale metabolic networks through the use of random sampling. Contact: palsson@ucsd.edu

  4. [Investigations on the usefulness of the dry chemistry blood anaylsis system SPOTCHEM SP-4410in laboratory diagnosis of cattle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, I; Aigner, M; Klee, W

    2001-01-01

    The usefulness of the dry-chemistry blood analyzer, SPOTCHEM SP-4410, for analysis of bovine blood chemistry was studied in a veterinary clinic. The control serum Precipath-U, Boehringer-Mannheim, was used to measure precision within each run and between days. The coefficients of variation (CV) ranged between 1.54% and 4.86%, with the exception of albumin and creatine phosphokinase showing a CV of 6.3% and 10.03% for between-day precision. For methodological comparison bovine serum samples were assayed with both the SPOTCHEM SP-4410 and the automated blood analyzer HITACHI 705, which served as a wet-chemistry reference system. The following analytes were measured: glucose, urea, creatinine, total protein, albumin, total bilirubin and the enzymes AST, CPK and gamma-GT. For hemoglobin, which was measured in heparinized whole blood, the CO oximeter 855, CIBA-CORNING, was used as a reference system. The comparative analysis showed very good correlation in eight of ten parameters and their correlation coefficients (r) ranged between 0.962 and 0.998. Only the correlation coefficients of the analysis of total bilirubin (r = 0.903) and albumin (r = 0.771) were less satisfactory. The recovery test was carried out with the two parameters glucose and blood urea. The recovery of glucose was 93.7% and of urea 98.8%. The SPOTCHEM SP-4410 is easy to use and proved to be reliable and accurate, and therefore it seems to be useful for analysis of bovine blood samples. PMID:11225499

  5. Collection of Stratospheric Samples using Balloon-Borne Payload System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Ajin; Safonova, Margarita; Murthy, Jayant; Sreejith, A. G.; Kumble, Sheshashayi; Mathew, Joice; Sarpotdar, Mayuresh; Kj, Nirmal; Suresh, Ambily; Chakravortty, Dipshikha; Rangarajan, Annapoorni

    2016-07-01

    Earth's atmosphere at stratospheric altitudes contains dust particles from soil lifted by weather, volcanic dust, man-made aerosols, IDP (Interplanetary Dust Particles) - remnants of comets and asteroids, and even interstellar dust. Satellite observations suggest that approximately 100--300 tons of cosmic dust enter Earth's atmosphere every day. However, very little is known about the microbial life in the upper atmosphere, where conditions are very much similar to that on Mars and possibly on some exoplanets. Stratosphere provides a good opportunity to study the existence or survival of biological life in these conditions. Despite the importance of this topic to astrobiology, stratospheric microbial diversity/survival remains largely unexplored, probably due to significant difficulties in the access and ensuring the absence of contamination of the samples. To conduct a detailed study into this, we are developing the balloon-borne payload system SAMPLE (Stratospheric Altitude Microbiology Probe for Life Existence) to collect dust samples from stratosphere and bring them in an hygienic and uncontaminated manner to a suitable laboratory environment, where further study will be conducted to establish the possibility of microbial life in the upper atmosphere. This balloon-borne payload system will rise through the atmosphere till it reaches an altitude of about 25-30 km above sea level. The payload consists of detachable pre-sterilized sampling chambers designed to collect and contain the dust samples and get them back to the surface without contamination during the flight, a microprocessor and a controller which will determine the altitude of the payload system to actively monitor the opening and closing of the sample collection chambers. For contamination control, we will have two extra chambers, one of which will fly but not open, and one will remain closed on the ground. Other onboard devices include environmental sensors, GPS tracking devices, cameras to monitor

  6. Failure analysis of Cirus FFD system sample lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A few copper tubes used in Cirus fuel failure detection (FFD) system sample lines showed leakages 3-4 mm away from the brass cap of the swage lock assemblies, resulting from fracture of some tubes after about 30 years of service. Visual and microscopic examination of the failed samples has shown over 50% wall thickness reduction due to formation of thick corrosion product film on ID side and the final fracture had occurred by fatigue. No corrosion damage occurred on brass components. (author). 4 figs

  7. Supported liquid membrane extraction coupled in-line to commercial capillary electrophoresis for rapid determination of formate in undiluted blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2013-07-19

    A cheap, disposable sample pretreatment device with planar supported liquid membrane (SLM) was proposed, assembled and placed into an autosampler carousel of a commercial capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument for automated pretreatment and analysis of formate in undiluted whole blood and serum samples. All analytical procedures except for filling the pretreatment device with donor and acceptor solutions, i.e., extraction across SLM, injection of the extracted sample and CE-UV determination of formate, were performed fully automatically. The pretreatment device required only μL volumes of blood sample and organic solvent per extraction and was disposed off after each extraction. Good repeatability of peak areas (≤7.7%) and migration times (≤1.5%), linear relationship (r(2)=0.998-0.999) and limits of detection (≤35μM) were achieved. The overall analytical process including blood withdrawal, filling the SLM device with respective solutions, extraction of blood sample, injection into separation capillary and CE separation of formate from other anions took less than 4min. The method was proved useful by direct determination of elevated formate concentrations in undiluted serum samples of a methanol intoxicated patient. Due to its compatibility with currently commercially available CE instrumentation, disposability of extraction devices, minimum sample handling/consumption, and short extraction/analysis times, the developed method might be attractive for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning in clinical and toxicological laboratories. PMID:23777836

  8. Hematocrit, Anemia, and Arm Preference for Blood Sample Collection: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in Enugu, South-Eastern, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dim, CC; Ugwu, EO; Dim, NR; Anyaehie, UB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Regular review of hematocrit (HCT) and anemia patterns in pregnancy is necessary in our environment. Aim: The aim was to determine the average HCT, prevalence, and pattern of anemia, as well the arm preferences for blood sample collection among pregnant women in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: HCT was determined using venous blood of 200 antenatal women at the Univer...

  9. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in peripheral blood samples of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    I-Hua Chen; Lien-Siang Chou; Shih-Jen Chou; Jiann-Hsiung Wang; Jeffrey Stott; Myra Blanchard; I-Fan Jen; Wei-Cheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR is often used as a research tool directed at gene transcription. Selection of optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs) as reference genes is critical to establishing sensitive and reproducible qRT-PCR-based assays. The current study was designed to identify the appropriate reference genes in blood leukocytes of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for gene transcription research. Seventy-five blood samples collected from 7 bottlenose dolphins were used to analyze 15 candidate...

  10. An integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip for bacteria detection in human whole blood and milk without a sample preparation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Jee Won; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-05-15

    We have developed an integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Direct LAMP) microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) to identify bacteria contaminated in real samples. The Direct LAMP is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique which does not require thermal cycling steps as well as any sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction for amplifying specific target genes. In addition, the resultant amplicons were colorimetrically detected on the ICS, thereby enabling the entire genetic analysis process to be simplified. The two functional units (Direct LAMP and ICS) were integrated on a single device without use of the tedious and complicated microvalve and tubing systems. The utilization of a slidable plate allows us to manipulate the fluidic control in the microchannels manually and the sequential operation of the Direct LAMP and ICS detection could be performed by switching the slidable plate to each functional unit. Thus, the combination of the direct isothermal amplification without any sample preparation and thermal cycling steps, the ICS based amplicon detection by naked eyes, and the slidable plate to eliminate the microvalves in the integrated microdevice would be an ideal platform for point-of-care DNA diaganotics. On the integrated Direct LAMP-ICS microdevice, we could analyze Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) contaminated in human whole blood or milk at a single-cell level within 1h. PMID:26710344

  11. Untargeted metabolomics applied retrospectively to UPLC-HR-TOFMS data of whole blood samples from Danish drivers exposed to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Telving, Rasmus; Andreasen, Mette Findal;

    evaluate the drug metabolism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”). Despite of the untraditional experimental setup, and a very heterogeneous population with different concentrations of MDMA/kg blood weight, as well as unknown information about amount and time of administration in relation...... to blood sampling, it was possible to extract meaningful information. Various statistical methods were tested and their predictability was validated by the positive identification of MDMA blood metabolites. In addition, endogenous metabolites that may be related to energy metabolism, the serotonergic...

  12. The prevalence of transfusion transmitted infections in ABO blood groups and Rh type system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitendra Singh Nigam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Screening of blood and blood products is important to reduce the risk of transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs. The transfusion of unscreened or inadequately screened blood and blood products are the major source of TTIs. The aim of this paper is to find out the prevalence of TTIs in ABO blood groups and Rh type system. A total of 4128 blood donors were screened from January 2010 to April 2014. Serological tests were performed for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg, anti hepatitis C virus (Anti-HCV, anti HIV-1 and 2, venereal disease research laboratory test (VDRL and malaria parasite (MP antigen. In seroreactive donors, HBsAg, Anti-HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV were positive in 40 cases, 26 cases, 19 cases, 6 cases and 2 cases, respectively. Highest percentage of HBsAg, Anti HCV, VDRL, MP antigen and anti HIV was observed in blood group A negative (2/50, O negative (1/66, B negative (1/91, AB positive (2/377 blood group respectively. In the present study, the total number of Rh-negative donors is lower when compared to Rh-positive blood donors, but Rh-negative blood donors show higher percentages of seroreactivity for TTIs. Larger scale studies at molecular level are required to improve the knowledge of this aspect.

  13. Effect of Collaborative Care System (CCS) on Blood Glucose Levels in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Outpatient

    OpenAIRE

    Nuryati Kuman; Bangunawati Rahajeng

    2016-01-01

    Some health system in various countries in the world is highly fragmented and is unable to resolve health problems. With collaborative care system, it is expected that DM patients can be managed well. We conducted a study to determine the effect of collaborative care system on blood glucose levels of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study uses a quasi-experimental design. Data was obtained by measuring random blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The samp...

  14. Research on two specimens policy with blood transfusion management system in prevention incompatible blood%二次血型制配合输血管理系统阻止不相容血液发放的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王远杰; 刘家瑞; 李红梅; 冯宁; 冯俊程; 杨晓丽

    2015-01-01

    次血型鉴定错误的血样中,如果根据这些血液样本的血型鉴定结果发放血液,其中3份可导致急性溶血性输血反应,存在输血安全风险(25%,3/12).采用2次血型制,每年可避免约1次血型不相容输血.血袋因采、供血机构已进行多次血型检测、复核,其安全风险无法用具体数据评估.结论 2次血型检测制配合输血管理系统能防止不相容血液的发放,大幅减低输血安全风险.%Objective To investigate the role and significance of two specimens policy cooperated with blood transfusion management system in the prevention of incompatible blood.Methods From March 2011 to June 2014,a total of 120 962 blood samples from outpatients and inpatients in Suining Central Hospital and 24 963 blood bags (suspended red blood cells) were collected into this study,as research objects.Inclusion criteria:no damage and leakage,no exception to the naked eye;Exclusion criteria:pollution.The study protocol was approved by the Ethical Review Board of Investigation in Human at Suining Central Hospital.Patients' blood samples were carried out twice independent blood group appraisals,respectively,as the initial blood grouping and second blood grouping.At the same time,the blood group appraisal and the irregular antibody screening of the blood bags were carried out.All data input into the blood transfusion management system,and the blood transfusion management system automatically compared these entry data.If twice blood group appraisal results were consistent,and irregular antibody screening results were negative,the blood can be extended.Otherwise,blood transfusion management system could prevent to extend blood,and issue a warning.Twice blood grouping error rates were computed and corrected.Blood samples of which twice blood group appraisals cannot match were tested again,to distinguish between initial sample error and second sample error.Blood transfusion safety risks were computed.Blood bags of which

  15. Solar System Samples for Research, Education, and Public Outreach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, J.; Luckey, M.; McInturff, B.; Kascak, A.; Tobola, K.; Galindo, C.; Allen, C.

    2011-01-01

    In the next two years, during the NASA Year of the Solar System, spacecraft from NASA and our international partners will; encounter a comet, orbit asteroid 4 Vesta, continue to explore Mars with rovers, and launch robotic explorers to the Moon and Mars. We have pieces of all these worlds in our laboratories, and their continued study provides incredibly valuable "ground truth" to complement space exploration missions. Extensive information about these unique materials, as well as actual lunar samples and meteorites, are available for display and education. The Johnson Space Center (JSC) has the unique responsibility to curate NASA's extraterrestrial samples from past and future missions. Curation includes documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach.

  16. Effect of moisture, saliva, and blood contamination on the shear bond strength of brackets bonded with a conventional bonding system and self-etched bonding system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Mandava; Mohamed, Shamil; Nayak, Krishna; Shetty, Sharath Kumar; Talapaneni, Ashok Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: The success of bonding brackets to enamel with resin bonding systems is negatively affected by contamination with oral fluids such as blood and saliva. The new self-etch primer systems combine conditioning and priming agents into a single application, making the procedure more cost effective. Objective: The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of moisture, saliva and blood contamination on shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded with conventional bonding system and self-etch bonding system. Materials and Methods: Each system was examined under four enamel surface conditions (dry, water, saliva, and blood), and 80 human teeth were divided into two groups with four subgroups each of 10 according to enamel surface condition. Group 1 used conventional bonding system and Group 2 used self-etched bonding system. Subgroups 1a and 2a under dry enamel surface conditions; Subgroups 1b and 2b under moist enamel surface condition; Subgroups 3a and 3b under saliva enamel surface condition and Subgroup 4a and 4b under blood enamel surface condition. Brackets were bonded, and all the samples were then submitted to a shear bond test with a universal testing machine with a cross head speed of 1mm/sec. Results: The results showed that the contamination reduced the shear bond strength of all groups. In self-etch bonding system water and saliva had significantly higher bond strength when compared to other groups. Conclusion: It was concluded that the blood contamination showed lowest bond strength from both bonding systems. Self-etch bonding system resulted in higher bond strength than conventional bonding system under all conditions except the dry enamel surface. PMID:24678210

  17. Neuro-genetic system for optimization of GMI samples sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitta Botelho, A C O; Vellasco, M M B R; Hall Barbosa, C R; Costa Silva, E

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic sensors are largely used in several engineering areas. Among them, magnetic sensors based on the Giant Magnetoimpedance (GMI) effect are a new family of magnetic sensing devices that have a huge potential for applications involving measurements of ultra-weak magnetic fields. The sensitivity of magnetometers is directly associated with the sensitivity of their sensing elements. The GMI effect is characterized by a large variation of the impedance (magnitude and phase) of a ferromagnetic sample, when subjected to a magnetic field. Recent studies have shown that phase-based GMI magnetometers have the potential to increase the sensitivity by about 100 times. The sensitivity of GMI samples depends on several parameters, such as sample length, external magnetic field, DC level and frequency of the excitation current. However, this dependency is yet to be sufficiently well-modeled in quantitative terms. So, the search for the set of parameters that optimizes the samples sensitivity is usually empirical and very time consuming. This paper deals with this problem by proposing a new neuro-genetic system aimed at maximizing the impedance phase sensitivity of GMI samples. A Multi-Layer Perceptron (MLP) Neural Network is used to model the impedance phase and a Genetic Algorithm uses the information provided by the neural network to determine which set of parameters maximizes the impedance phase sensitivity. The results obtained with a data set composed of four different GMI sample lengths demonstrate that the neuro-genetic system is able to correctly and automatically determine the set of conditioning parameters responsible for maximizing their phase sensitivities. PMID:26775132

  18. Effects of Replenishing Qi, Promoting Blood Circulation and Resolving Phlegm on Vascular Endothelial Function and Blood Coagulation System in Senile Patients with Hyperlipemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Huimin; Han Libei; Sheng Tong; He Qiong; Liang Jinpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the curative effect of the method of replenishing qi, promoting blood circulation and resolving phlegm on senile hyperlipemia and its effects on vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system. Method: 96 patients with senile hyperlipemia were randomly divided into a treatment group and a of blood lipid, vascular endothelial function, blood coagulation system and safety. Results: After treatment,the treatment group was obviously superior to the control group (P<0.05) in reducing plasma total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) as well as in the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-keto-PGF1α), D-dimer (D-D) and fibrinogen (FIB). Conclusion: Danshen Jueming Granules have the effect of regulating metabolism of blood lipid, and improving vascular endothelial function and blood coagulation system in senile patients with hyperlipemia.

  19. Development of a robotized sample changing system for activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automatic sample changing system with a small robot has been developed and constructed for instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA). The developed system composed of a model A151 small robot (CRS Plus Inc., Canada), a NEC PC-980m2 personal computer having two of 1 Mbyte floppy-disk drivers, a NAIG NLAB-MCA multichannel analyzer (Toshiba), Ge detector settled in a low background shield and a tray stored 20 dishes containing a sample. The robot has a five-axis articulated arm (reach: 560 mm, payload: 2 kg, speed: 17 m/s, repeatability: 0.13 mm, weight: 17 kg). The robot and the multichannel analyzer (MCA) are controlled by the personal computer via RS-232C or GP-IB interface. (author)

  20. Active Chemical Sampling System for Underwater Chemical Source Localization

    OpenAIRE

    Ryuichi Takemura; Hiromi Sakata; Hiroshi Ishida

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of active water sampling to enhance chemical reception for small underwater robots. The search for a chemical source in a stagnant water environment is not an easy task because the chemical solution released from the source stays in the close vicinity of the source. No signal is obtained even if a robot with chemical sensors is placed a few centimeters from the chemical source. In the system under study, four electrochemical sensors are aligned in front of a...

  1. The OMEGA Gas Sampling System and Radiochemical Diagnostics for NIF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Mark; Sangster, Craig; Hudson, Bryant; Lougheed, Ron; Freeman, Charlie; Schwartz, Brook-Eden; Olsen, Michele

    2000-10-01

    Radiochemical diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will address important issues such as shell rho-R, mix and charged particle production in ignition and near-ignition capsules. Development of key tools for these diagnostics has been progressing on NOVA and OMEGA laser systems. A limitation of the sample collection techniques currently being used is the solid angle for collection of post-shot debris, which is maximally about 1collections at NOVA. Because of the large standoff for NIF (5 m), the solid angle subtended would be expected to be much less without development of expandable foil collection schemes. Many reaction products from charged particle reactions are noble gases. A gas sampling system for obtaining radiochemical samples following OMEGA shots is currently being assembled at LLNL. Results of benchtop tests with such a system will be discussed. A primary goal is to demonstrate reproducible collection efficiencies for this new technical capability of near 100Secondary goals include measuring collection efficiencies for certain reaction processes and to test the collection scheme for other low energy reaction products. Should high collection efficiencies be demonstrated, test reactions of 18O(alpha,n)21Ne and 79Br(p,n)79Kr will be investigated at OMEGA as mix-diagnostics for NIF. Note that it may be possible to use the 18O or Br already in most capsules, circumventing some target development issues. The gas sampling system will be designed in such a way as to not preclude the addition of carrier gas to the target chamber following an experiment for "flushing" of other, perhaps non-gaseous, reaction products.

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging (onsite) sample pig transport system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MCCOY, J.C.

    1999-03-16

    This Safety Analysis Report for Packaging (SARP) provides a technical evaluation of the Sample Pig Transport System as compared to the requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) Order 5480.1, Change 1, Chapter III. The evaluation concludes that the package is acceptable for the onsite transport of Type B, fissile excepted radioactive materials when used in accordance with this document.

  4. Evaluating the effect of sample type on American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) analyte values in a point-of-care blood analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew T; Finger, John W; Winzeler, Megan E; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of wildlife health has been enhanced by the ability of point-of-care (POC) blood analysers to provide biochemical analyses of non-domesticated animals in the field. However, environmental limitations (e.g. temperature, atmospheric humidity and rain) and lack of reference values may inhibit researchers from using such a device with certain wildlife species. Evaluating the use of alternative sample types, such as plasma, in a POC device may afford researchers the opportunity to delay sample analysis and the ability to use banked samples. In this study, we examined fresh whole blood, fresh plasma and frozen plasma (sample type) pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), oxygen saturation (sO2) and lactate concentrations in 23 juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) using an i-STAT CG4+ cartridge. Our results indicate that sample type had no effect on lactate concentration values (F 2,65 = 0.37, P = 0.963), suggesting that the i-STAT analyser can be used reliably to quantify lactate concentrations in fresh and frozen plasma samples. In contrast, the other seven blood parameters measured by the CG4+ cartridge were significantly affected by sample type. Lastly, we were able to collect blood samples from all alligators within 2 min of capture to establish preliminary reference ranges for juvenile alligators based on values obtained using fresh whole blood. PMID:27382469

  5. Non-enzymatic amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide in human blood serum samples using a modified silver nanowire electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Zhao, Duo-Han; Chen, Shen-Ming; Palanisamy, Selvakumar

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we report a highly sensitive amperometric H2O2 sensor based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) modified screen printed carbon electrode. The AgNWs were synthesized using polyol method. The synthesized AgNWs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The average diameter and length of the synthesized AgNWs were found as 86±5 and 385nm, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the AgNWs modified electrode shows a stable amperometric response for H2O2 and was linear over the concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 704.8μM. The non-enzymatic sensor showed a high sensitivity of 662.6μAmM(-1)cm(-2) with a detection limit of 29nM. The response time of the sensor was found as 2s. Furthermore, the AgNWs modified electrode exhibited a good recovery of H2O2 (94.3%) in the human blood serum samples. PMID:26939075

  6. System Accuracy Evaluation of the GlucoRx Nexus Voice TD-4280 Blood Glucose Monitoring System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of blood glucose (BG meters in the self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG significantly lowers the risk of diabetic complications. With several BG meters now commercially available, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO ensures that each BG meter conforms to a set degree of accuracy. Although adherence to ISO guidelines is a prerequisite for commercialization in Europe, several BG meters claim to meet the ISO guidelines yet fail to do so on internal validation. We conducted a study to determine whether the accuracy of the GlucoRx Nexus TD-4280 meter, utilized by our department for its cost-effectiveness, complied with ISO guidelines. 105 patients requiring laboratory blood glucose analysis were randomly selected and reference measurements were determined by the UniCel DxC 800 clinical system. Overall the BG meter failed to adhere to the ≥95% accuracy criterion required by both the 15197:2003 (overall accuracy 92.4% and 15197:2013 protocol (overall accuracy 86.7%. Inaccurate meters have an inherent risk of over- and/or underestimating the true BG concentration, thereby risking patients to incorrect therapeutic interventions. Our study demonstrates the importance of internally validating the accuracy of BG meters to ensure that its accuracy is accepted by standardized guidelines.

  7. Stripping Voltammetric Determination Of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead And Copper In Blood Samples Of Children Aged Between 3 Months And 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Mahajan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of 160 children, ranging age between 3 months and 6 years were selected from five different parts of Amritsar district of Punjab (India and were analyzed for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu using anodic stripping voltammetry. Large variations in the results have been correlated to the area inhabited, age differences and other factors. It was found that the areas, more prone to environmental stress, had shown more quantities of these metals in blood samples in comparison to those which were taken from safer sites. Similarly the younger children lesser exposed to environmental pollution had shown comparatively lesser quantity of these metals in comparison to older objects.

  8. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben;

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index in...... the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  9. System to determine present elements in oily samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the Chemistry Department of the National Institute of Nuclear Investigations of Mexico, dedicated to analyze samples of oleaginous material and of another origin, to determine the elements of the periodic table present in the samples, through the Neutron activation analysis technique (NAA). This technique has been developed to determine majority elements in any solid, aqueous, industrial and environmental sample, which consists basically on to irradiate a sample with neutrons coming from the TRIGA Mark III reactor and to carry out the analysis to obtain those gamma spectra that it emits, for finally to process the information, the quantification of the analysis it is carried out in a manual way, which requires to carry out a great quantity of calculations. The main objective of this project is the development of a software that allows to carry out the quantitative analysis of the NAA for the multielemental determination of samples in an automatic way. To fulfill the objective of this project it has been divided in four chapters: In the first chapter it is shortly presented the history on radioactivity and basic concepts that will allow us penetrate better to this work. In the second chapter the NAA is explained which is used in the sample analysis, the description of the process to be carried out, its are mentioned the characteristics of the used devices and an example of the process is illustrated. In the third chapter it is described the development of the algorithm and the selection of the programming language. The fourth chapter it is shown the structure of the system, the general form of operation, the execution of processes and the obtention of results. Later on the launched results are presented in the development of the present project. (Author)

  10. Blood Pressure Mobile Monitoring for Pregnant Woman Based Android System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Supriyanti, Retno; Erfayanto, Uji; Ramadani, Yogi; Murdyantoro, Eko; Widodo, Haris B.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, at least 18,000 women die every year in Indonesia due to pregnancy or childbirth. It means that every half hour a woman dies due to pregnancy or childbirth. As a result, every year 36,000 children became orphans. The high maternal mortality rate was put Indonesia on top in ASEAN. The main causes of maternal mortality are high-risk pregnancy. Mothers who have diseases like high blood pressure, pre-eclampsia, diabetes, hyperthyroidism, and already over 40 years old and infectious diseases such as rubella, hepatitis and HIV can be factors that lead to high-risk pregnancy. This paper will discuss the development of a blood pressure monitoring device that is suitable for pregnant women. It is based on convenience for pregnant women to get the equipment that is flexible with her presence. Results indicate that the equipment is in use daily support for pregnant women therefore, one of the causes of maternal mortality can be detected earlier.

  11. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1±0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7±0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during evaluation of Hb

  12. Automation and data processing with the immucor Galileo (R) system in a university blood bank

    OpenAIRE

    Wittmann, Georg; Frank, Josef; Schramm, Wolfgang; Spannagl, Michael

    2007-01-01

    Background: The implementation of automated techniques improves the workflow and quality of immuno-hematological results. The workflows of our university blood bank were reviewed during the implementation of an automated immunohematological testing system. Methods: Work impact of blood grouping and subgrouping, cross- matching and antibody search using the Immucor Galileo system was compared to the previous used standard manual and semi- automated methods. Results: The redesign of our workflo...

  13. Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrenko

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient of aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  14. Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Petrenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Global and local properties of atmospheric aerosols have been extensively observed and measured using both spaceborne and ground-based instruments, especially during the last decade. Unique properties retrieved by the different instruments contribute to an unprecedented availability of the most complete set of complimentary aerosol measurements ever acquired. However, some of these measurements remain underutilized, largely due to the complexities involved in analyzing them synergistically. To characterize the inconsistencies and bridge the gap that exists between the sensors, we have established a Multi-sensor Aerosol Products Sampling System (MAPSS, which consistently samples and generates the spatial statistics (mean, standard deviation, direction and rate of spatial variation, and spatial correlation coefficient of aerosol products from multiple spaceborne sensors, including MODIS (on Terra and Aqua, MISR, OMI, POLDER, CALIOP, and SeaWiFS. Samples of satellite aerosol products are extracted over Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET locations as well as over other locations of interest such as those with available ground-based aerosol observations. In this way, MAPSS enables a direct cross-characterization and data integration between Level-2 aerosol observations from multiple sensors. In addition, the available well-characterized co-located ground-based data provides the basis for the integrated validation of these products. This paper explains the sampling methodology and concepts used in MAPSS, and demonstrates specific examples of using MAPSS for an integrated analysis of multiple aerosol products.

  15. Cloud point extraction for determination of lead in blood samples of children, using different ligands prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Faheem, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Naeemullah, E-mail: khannaeemullah@ymail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Trace levels of lead in blood samples of healthy children and with different kidney disorders {yields} Pre-concentration of Pb{sup +2} in acid digested blood samples after chelating with two complexing reagents. {yields} Multivariate technique was used for screening of significant factors that influence the CPE of Pb{sup +2} {yields} The level of Pb{sup +2} in diseased children was significantly higher than referents of same age group. - Abstract: The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead (Pb{sup 2+}) from digested blood samples after simultaneous complexation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) separately. The complexed analyte was quantitatively extracted with octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit value of Pb{sup 2+} for the preconcentration of 10 mL of acid digested blood sample was 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference material (whole blood). Under the optimized conditions of both CPE methods, 10 mL of Pb{sup 2+} standards (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) complexed with APDC and DDTC, permitted the enhancement factors of 56 and 42, respectively. The proposed method was used for determination of Pb{sup 2+} in blood samples of children with kidney disorders and healthy controls.

  16. 296-B-13 stack monitoring and sampling system: Annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report presents the details of the annual system assessment of the air pollution monitoring and sampling system for the 296-13 stack at the Hanford site. Topics discussed include; system description, system status, system aging, spare parts considerations, long term maintenance plan, trends, and items requiring action

  17. 296-B-13 stack monitoring and sampling system: Annual system assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-05-16

    This report presents the details of the annual system assessment of the air pollution monitoring and sampling system for the 296-13 stack at the Hanford site. Topics discussed include; system description, system status, system aging, spare parts considerations, long term maintenance plan, trends, and items requiring action.

  18. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-B-102 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (the team) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-B-102. This document presents sampling data resulting from the April 18, 1996 sampling of SST 241-B-102. Analytical results will be presented in a separate report issued by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), which supplied and analyzed the sampling media. The team, consisting of Sampling and Mobile Laboratories (SML) and Special Analytical Studies (SAS) personnel, used the vapor sampling system (VSS) to collect representative samples of the air, gases, and vapors from the headspace of SST 241-B-102 with sorbent traps and SUMMA canisters

  19. Usefulness of quantitative buffy coat blood parasite detection system in diagnosis of malaria

    OpenAIRE

    Pinto M; Rodrigues S; Desouza R; Verenkar M

    2001-01-01

    A rapid test for diagnosis of malaria based on acridine orange staining of centrifuged blood samples in a microhematocrit tube (QBC) was compared with thick and thin peripheral blood smears in 2274 samples. Malaria was diagnosed in 239 (10.5%) patients by Leishman′s staining technique and QBC method. The QBC method allowed detection of an additional 89 (3.9%) cases. Thus the prevalence rate of malaria during the study was 14.4%. In 1946 patients who were negative b...

  20. 血液标本存放时间及存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响%Influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To research and observe the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result, for providing reference for clinical detection in clinical practice. Methods 20 cases were selected randomly, and the patients were collected blood samples with empty belly. 14mL blood was collected for each patient, and 2mL once. The blood samples were stored in vacuum tubes which were marked as control(1), indoor temperature(2), 37℃thermostatic waterbath(2) and 0℃fridge(2). And the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result was analyzed. Results The influence of storage time of blood on blood glucose test is very evident. After 6h, the blood glucose level was 60%of the initial value. After 18h, he blood glucose level was 27%of initial value.And the blood glucose level after 24 h is 22%of initial value. The longer blood glucose was stored, the faster the blood glucose level reduced. After blood samples were stored in indoor temperature and 37℃thermostatic waterbath for 2.5h and 5h, the blood glucose testing result had evident difference from the initial value, which had statistical significance. Blood samples are stored in sodium fluoride potassium oxalate tube and separation gel coagulant tube, and the influence of it on blood glucose detection had no evident difference, which had no statistical significance. Conclusion In order to ensure that the result of blood glucose detection is accurate, the blood samples should be stored in the environment with low temperature, and the blood samples should be detected timely, to reduce the error of detection results and ensure that the result is reliable and accurate.%目的:研究和探讨血液标本存放时间和存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响,为日后临床检验提供参考价值。方法随机抽取20例患者,空腹采集血液标本,每位患者共采集14mL,每次2mL,存放于真空

  1. Application of mRNA Expression Analysis to Human Blood Identification in Degenerated Samples that were False-negative by Immunochromatography(,) (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shusaku; Matsusue, Aya; Waters, Brian; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Hara, Kenji; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Forensic laboratories are often faced with cases in which methamphetamine hydrochloride-mixed blood is unable to be identified as human blood by immunochromatography against human hemoglobin A0. The application of mRNA expression analysis to samples that showed a false-negative with immunochromatography was investigated as an alternative approach that did not depend on the antigen-antibody reaction. Real-time PCR was used to examine the expression levels of blood markers such as glycophorin A, spectrin beta, and hemoglobin beta. Hemoglobin beta was the only marker that was specifically detected in blood, while glycophorin A was useful for determining human specificity. Hemoglobin beta showed good detection sensitivity and was detectable in 37-year-old blood stains. Hemoglobin beta was exclusively detectable in methamphetamine hydrochloride-mixed blood stains. Detergents and disinfectants did not significantly influence mRNA markers. The proposed mRNA expression analysis was suitable for human blood identification as an alternative method to immunochromatography. PMID:27364269

  2. Continuous sampling of liquid effluents using AMCO-BP system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It was demonstrated that the principal exposure pathway to the public due to the radioactive wastes produced by the Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear-CDTN, is via liquid effluents release through Engenho Nogueira stream. To perform a better sampling of these liquid effluents, has been developed by CDTN's Environment Division, named AMCO-BP, a system formed basically by two components: one motor/reductor set with a peristaltic pump and one control board compared by timing relays and digital frequency converser. The aim of this work was to describe the design of an equipment to sample different kinds of flows of liquids at low cost and with a home made technology. (author)

  3. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O’Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-01-01

    The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  4. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianing; Gorman, Monique; O'Reilly, Bill; Chen, Yu

    2016-03-01

    The epoc(®) blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada) is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc(®) system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article "Analytical evaluation of the epoc(®) point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients" [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc(®) meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters. PMID:26937460

  5. Linearity analysis and comparison study on the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianing Chen

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The epoc® blood analysis system (Epocal Inc., Ottawa, Ontario, Canada is a newly developed in vitro diagnostic hand-held analyzer for testing whole blood samples at point-of-care, which provides blood gas, electrolytes, ionized calcium, glucose, lactate, and hematocrit/calculated hemoglobin rapidly. The analytical performance of the epoc® system was evaluated in a tertiary hospital, see related research article “Analytical evaluation of the epoc® point-of-care blood analysis system in cardiopulmonary bypass patients” [1]. Data presented are the linearity analysis for 9 parameters and the comparison study in 40 cardiopulmonary bypass patients on 3 epoc® meters, Instrumentation Laboratory GEM4000, Abbott iSTAT, Nova CCX, and Roche Accu-Chek Inform II and Performa glucose meters.

  6. 296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack

  7. 296-B-5 Stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-02-01

    The B Plant Administration Manual requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-5 at B Plant. The sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-5 is functional and performing satisfactorily. This document is an annual assessment report of the systems associated with the 296-B-5 stack.

  8. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  9. Expert system for determination of fumonisins in corn samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abramović Biljana F.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An expert system (ES to solve the problem of choosing an optimal procedure for the determination of fumonisins in corn samples was developed, having in mind that these toxins most frequently contaminate this particular cereal. In constructing the ES use was made of the deterministic approach starting from the assumption that the experts in the field have a profound knowledge about the problem in question. The ES knowledge base contains the solutions that have been published in the pertinent literature, as well as some solutions and recommendations, which we have developed and introduced. On the basis of this information, as well as on the basis of the demanded method detection limit, available equipment, chemicals, as well as the time the experimenter has at his disposal for the determination, the ES proposes a procedure for solving the given analytical problem, starting from sampling, preparation of all the necessary solutions, the appropriate apparatus, probe preparation, the mode of determining results, calculation of the results, and provides a survey of all the relevant literature references. The base of ES is a shell, which can work under a variety of Microsoft Windows operating systems. In the development of ES and its adaptation for users who are not familiar with computer techniques, different tools, which operate with Microsoft Windows operating systems, as well as the tools within Microsoft Office are used.

  10. Passive vs. Parachute System Architecture for Robotic Sample Return Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddock, Robert W.; Henning, Allen B.; Samareh, Jamshid A.

    2016-01-01

    The Multi-Mission Earth Entry Vehicle (MMEEV) is a flexible vehicle concept based on the Mars Sample Return (MSR) EEV design which can be used in the preliminary sample return mission study phase to parametrically investigate any trade space of interest to determine the best entry vehicle design approach for that particular mission concept. In addition to the trade space dimensions often considered (e.g. entry conditions, payload size and mass, vehicle size, etc.), the MMEEV trade space considers whether it might be more beneficial for the vehicle to utilize a parachute system during descent/landing or to be fully passive (i.e. not use a parachute). In order to evaluate this trade space dimension, a simplified parachute system model has been developed based on inputs such as vehicle size/mass, payload size/mass and landing requirements. This model works in conjunction with analytical approximations of a mission trade space dataset provided by the MMEEV System Analysis for Planetary EDL (M-SAPE) tool to help quantify the differences between an active (with parachute) and a passive (no parachute) vehicle concept.

  11. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature. PMID:1962281

  12. Gamma spectrometric measuring system for environmental sample analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A desk calculator controlled gamma spectrometer was installed and calibrated for routine sample analysis in the environment of the first Hungarian nuclear power plant. A combined application of high efficiency NaI(Tl) and high resolution Ge(Li) spectrometry was elaborated to process the great number of measurements. Measurement is controlled and spectrum evaluation is performed by an on-line program (MEASSYS1) developed for the EMG-71666 desk calculator. The multi-step testing procedure proved the applicability and reliability of the system. (author)

  13. Impact of grey zone sample testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in enhancing blood safety: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Solanki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA used for screening blood donors for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs can sometimes fail to detect blood donors who are recently infected or possessing the low strength of pathogen. Estimation of a grey zone in ELISA testing and repeat testing of grey zone samples can further help in reducing the risks of TTI in countries where nucleic acid amplification testing for TTIs is not feasible. Materials and Methods: Grey zone samples with optical density (OD lying between cut-off OD and 10% below the cut-off OD (cut-off OD × 0.9 were identified during routine ELISA testing. On performing repeat ELISA testing on grey zone samples in duplicate, the samples showing both OD value below grey zone were marked nonreactive, and samples showing one or both OD value in the grey zone were marked indeterminate. The samples on repeat testing showing one or both OD above cut-off value were marked positive. Results: About 119 samples (77 for hepatitis B virus [HBV], 23 for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and 19 for hepatitis C virus [HCV] were found to be in grey zone. On repeat testing of these samples in duplicate, 70 (58.8% samples (45 for HBV, 12 for HIV, and 13 for HCV were found to be reactive. Six (5% samples (four for HBV, one for HIV, and one for HCV were found to be indeterminate. Conclusion: Seventy donors initially screened negative, were found out to be potentially infectious on repeat grey zone testing. Thus, estimation of grey zone samples with repeat testing can further enhance the safety of blood transfusion.

  14. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus): Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

    OpenAIRE

    Jan G. Myburgh; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C. A.; John T. Soley; Dirk G. Booyse; Fritz W. Huchzermeyer; Russel H. Lowers; Guillette Jr, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was inject...

  15. Kinetics of Dengue Non-Structural Protein 1 Antigen and IgM and IgA Antibodies in Capillary Blood Samples from Confirmed Dengue Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection—non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA—in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the...

  16. Evaluation of a low-cost procedure for sampling, long-term storage, and extraction of RNA from blood for qPCR analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: In large clinical trials, where RNA cannot be extracted immediately after sampling, preserving RNA in whole blood is a crucial initial step in obtaining robust qPCR data. The current golden standard for RNA preservation is costly and designed for time-consuming column-based R...

  17. SPIDIA-DNA: An External Quality Assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for DNA-based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malentacchi, F.; Pazzagli, M.; Simi, L.; Orlando, C.; Wyrich, R.; Hartmann, C.C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    -, č. 424 (2013), s. 274-286. ISSN 0009-8981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * DNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.764, year: 2013

  18. PCB Concentrations and Dioxin-like Activity in Blood Samples from Danish School Children and Their Mothers living in Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai;

    2014-01-01

    R transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were...

  19. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by the polymerase chain reaction using blood, bone marrow and lymph node samples from patients from the Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M;

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool for Leishmania donovani using blood, bone marrow and lymph node samples from Sudanese patients with a confirmed infection. Forty patients were diagnosed by microscopic examination of bone marrow or lymph...

  20. SPIDIA-RNA: First external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Simi, L.; Wyrich, R.; Guenther, K.; Hartmann, C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2013), s. 20-31. ISSN 1046-2023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * RNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2013

  1. Procedures for sampling and sample reduction within quality assurance systems for solid biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this experimental study on sampling was to determine the size and number of samples of biofuels required (taken at two sampling points in each case) and to compare two methods of sampling. The first objective of the sample-reduction exercise was to compare the reliability of various sampling methods, and the second objective was to measure the variations introduced as a result of reducing the sample size to form suitable test portions. The materials studied were sawdust, wood chips, wood pellets and bales of straw, and these were analysed for moisture, ash, particle size and chloride. The sampling procedures are described. The study was conducted in Scandinavia. The results of the study were presented in Leipzig in October 2004. The work was carried out as part of the UK's DTI Technology Programme: New and Renewable Energy.

  2. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures. PMID:25973631

  3. Standard Format for Chromatographic-polarimetric System small samples assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The treatment of samples containing optically active substances to be evaluated as part of quality control of raw material entering industrial process, and also during the modifications exerted on it to obtain the desired final composition is still and unsolved problem for many industries. That is the case of sugarcane industry. Sometimes the troubles implied are enlarged because samples to be evaluated are not bigger than one milliliter. Reduction of gel beds in G-10 and G-50 chromatographic columns having an inner diameter of 16 mm, instead of 25, and bed heights adjustable to requirements by means of sliding stoppers to increase analytical power were evaluated with glucose and sucrose standards in concentrations from 1 to 10 g/dL, using aliquots of 1 ml without undesirable dilutions that could affect either detection or chromatographic profile. Assays with seaweed extracts gave good results that are shown. It is established the advantage to know concentration of a separated substance by the height of its peak and the savings in time and reagents resulting . Sample expanded uncertainty in both systems is compared. It is also presented several programs for data acquisition, storing and processing. (Author)

  4. Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C.; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H.; Williams, Redford B.

    2011-01-01

    In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

  5. Novel sample introduction system to reduce ICP-OES sample size for plutonium metal trace impurity determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new methodology for trace elemental analysis in plutonium metal samples was developed by interfacing the novel micro-FAST sample introduction system with an ICP-OES instrument. This integrated system, especially when coupled with a low flow rate nebulization technique, reduced the sample volume requirement significantly. Improvements to instrument sensitivity and measurement precision, as well as long term stability, were also achieved by this modified ICP-OES system. The sample size reduction, together with other instrument performance merits, is of great significance, especially to nuclear material analysis. (author)

  6. The OMEGA Gas Sampling System and Radiochemical Diagnostic Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoyer, Mark; Hudson, Bryant; Sangster, Craig; Freeman, Charlie; Schwartz, B.; Olsen, M.

    2001-10-01

    Radiochemical diagnostics for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) will address important issues such as shell rho-R, mix and charged particle production in ignition and near-ignition capsules. Many reaction products from charged particle reactions are noble gases. A gas sampling system for obtaining radiochemical samples following OMEGA shots has been assembled at LLNL and is being installed on the target chamber at OMEGA. Results of benchtop tests and possibly target chamber background collections with such a system will be discussed. A primary goal is to demonstrate reproducible collection efficiencies for this new technical capability of near 100include measuring collection efficiencies for certain reaction processes and to test the collection scheme for other low energy reaction products. Should high collection efficiencies be demonstrated, and the background be low and well-characterized, test reactions of 18O(alpha,n)21Ne or 80Kr(n,2n)79Kr and 38Ar(n,2n)37Ar will be investigated at OMEGA. In addition, other collection schemes are being considered for reactions that do not result in a noble gas isotope. Some simulations of expected activations from several capsule designs will be discussed. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48.

  7. Vapor and gas sampling of the single-shell tank 241-S-101 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-101. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 6, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-101. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  8. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-106 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-106. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 13, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-106. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which'supplied and analyzed the sample media

  9. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-C-202 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-202. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 25, 1996 sampling of SST 241-C-202. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  10. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-B-202 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-B-202. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 18, 1996 sampling of SST 241-B-202. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  11. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-103 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-103. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the August 1, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-103. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  12. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-S-109 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-S-109. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 4, 1996 sampling of SST 241-S-109. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  13. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-C-201 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-C-201. This document presents In Situ Vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the June 19, 1996 sampling of SST 241-C-201. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  14. Vapor and gas sampling of single-shell tank 241-BX-102 using the in situ vapor sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Vapor Issue Resolution Program tasked the Vapor Team (VT) to collect representative headspace samples from Hanford Site single-shell tank (SST) 241-BX-102. This document presents In Situ vapor Sampling System (ISVS) data resulting from the July 31, 1996 sampling of SST 241-BX-102. Analytical results will be presented in separate reports issued by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) which supplied and analyzed the sample media

  15. Integrated Systems for Rapid Point of Care (PoC) Blood Cell Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Berkel, C.; Gwyer, J.D.; Deane, S.; Hollis, V.; Holloway, J.; Green, N.; Morgan, H.M.

    2011-01-01

    Counting the different subpopulations of cells in a fingerprick of human blood is important for a number of clinical Point of Care applications. It is a challenge to demonstrate the integration of sample preparation and detection techniques in a single platform. In this article we review the applica

  16. Blood compounds irradiation process: assessment of absorbed dose using Fricke and Thermoluminescent dosimetric systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The assessment of gamma absorbed doses in irradiation facilities allows the quality assurance and control of the irradiation process. The liability of dose measurements is assign to the metrological procedures adopted including the uncertainty evaluation. Fricke and TLD 800 dosimetric systems were used to measure absorbed dose in the blood compounds using the methodology presented in this paper. The measured absorbed doses were used for evaluating the effectiveness of the irradiation procedure and the gamma dose absorption inside the irradiation room of a gamma irradiation facility. The radiation eliminates the functional and proliferative capacities of donor T-lymphocytes, preventing Transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), a possible complication of blood transfusions. The results show the applicability of such dosimetric systems in quality assurance programs, assessment of absorbed doses in blood compounds and dose uniformity assign to the blood compounds irradiation process by dose measurements in a range between 25 Gy and 100 Gy. (author)

  17. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions. PMID:24831995

  18. 296-B-10 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B Plant Administration Manual, requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-10 at B Plant. The ventilation system of WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) is designed to provide airflow patterns so that air movement throughout the building is from areas of lesser radioactivity to areas of greater radioactivity. All potentially contaminated areas are maintained at a negative pressure with respect to the atmosphere so that air flows into the building at all times. The exhaust discharging through the 296-B-10 stack is continuously monitored and sampled using a sampling and monitoring probe assembly located approximately 17.4 meters (57 feet) above the base of the stack. The probe assembly consists of 5 nozzles for the sampling probe and 2 nozzles to monitor the flow. The sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-10 is functional and performing satisfactorily

  19. 296-B-10 stack monitoring and sampling system annual system assessment report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ridge, T.M.

    1995-04-26

    B Plant Administration Manual, requires an annual system assessment to evaluate and report the present condition of the sampling and monitoring system associated with stack 296-B-10 at B Plant. The ventilation system of WESF (Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility) is designed to provide airflow patterns so that air movement throughout the building is from areas of lesser radioactivity to areas of greater radioactivity. All potentially contaminated areas are maintained at a negative pressure with respect to the atmosphere so that air flows into the building at all times. The exhaust discharging through the 296-B-10 stack is continuously monitored and sampled using a sampling and monitoring probe assembly located approximately 17.4 meters (57 feet) above the base of the stack. The probe assembly consists of 5 nozzles for the sampling probe and 2 nozzles to monitor the flow. The sampling and monitoring system associated with Stack 296-B-10 is functional and performing satisfactorily.

  20. SPIDIA-RNA: second external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malentacchi

    Full Text Available One purpose of the EC funded project, SPIDIA, is to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical handling of blood samples for RNA molecular testing. To this end, two pan-European External Quality Assessments (EQAs were implemented. Here we report the results of the second SPIDIA-RNA EQA. This second study included modifications in the protocol related to the blood collection process, the shipping conditions and pre-analytical specimen handling for participants. Participating laboratories received two identical proficiency blood specimens collected in tubes with or without an RNA stabilizer. For pre-defined specimen storage times and temperatures, laboratories were asked to perform RNA extraction from whole blood according to their usual procedure and to return extracted RNA to the SPIDIA facility for further analysis. These RNA samples were evaluated for purity, yield, integrity, stability, presence of interfering substances, and gene expression levels for the validated markers of RNA stability: FOS, IL1B, IL8, GAPDH, FOSB and TNFRSF10c. Analysis of the gene expression results of FOS, IL8, FOSB, and TNFRSF10c, however, indicated that the levels of these transcripts were significantly affected by blood collection tube type and storage temperature. These results demonstrated that only blood collection tubes containing a cellular RNA stabilizer allowed reliable gene expression analysis within 48 h from blood collection for all the genes investigated. The results of these two EQAs have been proposed for use in the development of a Technical Specification by the European Committee for Standardization.