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Sample records for blood sampling schedule

  1. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1997 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. In addition, Section 3.0, Biota, also reflects a rotating collection schedule identifying the year a specific sample is scheduled for collection. The purpose of these monitoring projects is to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program, and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling methods will be the same as those described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 1, US Department of Energy, Richland, Washington

  2. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control, and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling .events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site. Sampling is indicated as annual, semi-annual, quarterly, or monthly in the sampling schedule. Some samples are collected and analyzed as part of ground-water monitoring and characterization programs at Hanford (e.g. Resources Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), or Operational). The number of samples planned by other programs are identified in the sampling schedule by a number in the analysis column and a project designation in the Cosample column. Well sampling events may be merged to avoid redundancy in cases where sampling is planned by both-environmental surveillance and another program

  3. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned 1996 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project

  4. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1994-02-01

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site.

  5. Environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document contains the planned 1994 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP), Drinking Water Project, and Ground-Water Surveillance Project. Samples are routinely collected for the SESP and analyzed to determine the quality of air, surface water, soil, sediment, wildlife, vegetation, foodstuffs, and farm products at Hanford Site and surrounding communities. The responsibility for monitoring the onsite drinking water falls outside the scope of the SESP. The Hanford Environmental Health Foundation is responsible for monitoring the nonradiological parameters as defined in the National Drinking Water Standards while PNL conducts the radiological monitoring of the onsite drinking water. PNL conducts the drinking water monitoring project concurrent with the SESP to promote efficiency and consistency, utilize the expertise developed over the years, and reduce costs associated with management, procedure development, data management, quality control and reporting. The ground-water sampling schedule identifies ground-water sampling events used by PNL for environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site

  6. 40 CFR 141.702 - Sampling schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Monitoring Requirements § 141.702 Sampling schedules. (a) Systems required to conduct source water monitoring under § 141.701 must submit a sampling schedule that specifies the calendar dates when the system will...) Systems must submit sampling schedules for the second round of source water monitoring § 141.701(b) to...

  7. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2000-01-27

    This document contains the CY2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed.

  8. Hanford site environmental surveillance master sampling schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1 open-quotes General Environmental Protection Program,close quotes and DOE Order 5400.5, open-quotes Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.close quotes The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL91-50, Rev. 2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the 1998 schedules for routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section of this document describes the planned sampling schedule for a specific media (air, surface water, biota, soil and vegetation, sediment, and external radiation). Each section includes the sample location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be planned for 1998 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing sample locations

  9. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B;

    2014-01-01

    corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters......Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...

  10. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection

  11. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LE Bisping

    2000-01-27

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, General Environmental Protection Program: and DOE Order 5400.5, Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment. The sampling design is described in the Operations Office, Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY 2000 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2000 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map showing approximate sampling locations is included for each media scheduled for collection.

  12. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental protection Program,'' and DOE Order 5400.5, ''Radiation Protection of the Public and the Environment.'' The sampling methods are described in the Environmental Monitoring Plan, United States Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office, DOE/RL-91-50, Rev.2, U.S. Department of Energy, Richland, Washington. This document contains the CY1999 schedules for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes the sampling location, sample type, and analyses to be performed on the sample. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 1999 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. In addition, a map is included for each media showing approximate sampling locations

  13. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule: January--December 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, L.E.

    1989-01-01

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1989 for the Surface and Ground-Water Environmental Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. This schedule includes routine ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Westinghouse Hanford Company, but does not include samples that may be collected in 1989 to support special studies or special contractor projects, or for quality control. The sampling schedule for Site-wide chemical monitoring is not included here, because it varies each quarter as needed, based on past results and operating needs. This schedule does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Hanford Site contractors, nor does it include sampling that may be done by other DOE Hanford contractors.

  14. Environmental monitoring master sampling schedule: January--December 1989

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Environmental monitoring of the Hanford Site is conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) for the US Department of Energy (DOE). This document contains the planned schedule for routine sample collection for calendar year 1989 for the Surface and Ground-Water Environmental Monitoring Projects. This schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in Site operations, program requirements, and the nature of the observed results. Operational limitations such as weather, mechanical failures, sample availability, etc., may also require schedule modifications. Changes will be documented in the respective project files, but this plan will not be reissued. This schedule includes routine ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Westinghouse Hanford Company, but does not include samples that may be collected in 1989 to support special studies or special contractor projects, or for quality control. The sampling schedule for Site-wide chemical monitoring is not included here, because it varies each quarter as needed, based on past results and operating needs. This schedule does not include Resource Conservation and Recovery Act ground-water sampling performed by PNL for Hanford Site contractors, nor does it include sampling that may be done by other DOE Hanford contractors

  15. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during...

  16. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2011-01-21

    This document contains the calendar year 2011 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2011, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2011.

  17. Improving blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics and handling at hospitals has great potential. This research will show how a simulation model can be used to evaluate changes made to two different cases of transportation of blood samples at a hospital, by evaluating...

  18. Automated system for fractionation of blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, N. E.; Genung, R. K.; Johnson, W. F.; Mrochek, J. E.; Scott, C. D.

    1978-01-01

    A prototype system for preparing multiple fractions of blood components (plasma, washed red cells, and hemolysates) using automated techniques has been developed. The procedure is based on centrifugal separation and differential pressure-induced transfer in a rotor that has been designed to process numerous samples simultaneously. Red cells are sedimented against the outer walls of the sample chamber, and plasma is syphoned, by imposition of eithr a slight positive or negative pressure, into individual reservoirs in a collection ring. Washing of cells is performed in situ; samples of washed cells, either packed or in saline solution, can be recovered. Cellular hemolysates are prepared and automatically transferred to individual, commercially available collection vials ready for storage in liquid nitrogen or immediate analysis. The system has potential application in any biomedical area which requires high sample throughput and in which one or more of the blood fractions will be used. A separate unit has been designed and developed for the semiautomated cleaning of the blood processing vessel.

  19. Percutaneous ultrasound guided umbilical cord blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes a technique and the result of percutaneous ultrasound-guided umbilical cord blood sampling and its potential use in the management of diagnostic problems in the second and third trimester of pregnancy. This method has been employed in the prenatal assessment of 19 fetuses at risk for chromosomal disorders, fetal hypoxia and hematologic disorders. This simple and rapid procedure offers a safe access to the fetal circulation

  20. Hanford Environmental Monitoring Program schedule for samples, analyses, and measurements for calendar year 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report provides the CY 1985 schedule of data collection for the routine Hanford Surface Environmental Monitoring and Ground-Water Monitoring Programs at the Hanford Site. The purpose is to evaluate and report the levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 5484.1. The routine sampling schedule provided herein does not include samples scheduled to be collected during FY 1985 in support of special studies, special contractor support programs, or for quality control purposes. In addition, the routine program outlined in this schedule is subject to modification during the year in response to changes in site operations, program requirements, or unusual sample results

  1. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2006-01-27

    This document contains the calendar year 2006 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis and may not be collected in 2006 in which case the anticipated year for collection is provided. The project document package (PDP) for Surface Environmental Surveillance contains the milestone control log for the issuing of CY06 Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule WBS 4.2.3.21.3.03, milestone: RL00430306 (4830106-12).

  2. SOME BIOCHEMICAL BLOOD CONSTANTS EVOLUTION IN REPORT TO THE TRAINING SCHEDULE STAGE IN SPORT HORSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FLAVIA BOCHIS

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether a clinical examination was adequate to assess the fitness of horses in a fence course riding, and to characterize the relationship between a clinical assessment of the horse's fitness, training schedule stage and its blood biochemistry, 22 horses were monitored before (S1, during training, immediately after warming-up (S2 and after an E level fence obstacle course ride (S3. The blood samples were taken from the jugular vein in the above three mentioned phases, for the determination of total protein (g/dl, nitrogen (mg/dl, glucose (mg/dl, lactic acid (nmol/l, calcium (mg/dl, cholesterol (mg/dl and phosphorus (mg/dl. The intend of the paper is to present the obtained results as a reference study for the appropriate use by clinicians, sport horses owners and trainers in view to have a solid base in evaluation, for the adequate protection of health and welfare of the jumper horses competitors.

  3. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2009-01-20

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy. Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs, as required in DOE Order 450.1 and DOE Order 5400.5. This document contains the calendar year 2009 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2009, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2009.

  4. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2010-01-08

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford Site environs per regulatory requirements. This document contains the calendar year 2010 schedule for the routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project and the Drinking Water Monitoring Project. Each section includes sampling locations, sampling frequencies, sample types, and analyses to be performed. In some cases, samples are scheduled on a rotating basis. If a sample will not be collected in 2010, the anticipated year for collection is provided. Maps showing approximate sampling locations are included for media scheduled for collection in 2010.

  5. Blood samples in the neutron beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whether crocodile, platypus, man, or chicken: Always the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has the same task. It carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. In investigative manner and international team around Dr. Andreas Stadler from the Julic Research Center has deciphered in detail, how and why the hemoglobines of these creatures nevertheless differ. Their findings are among others interesting for the research on artificial blood.

  6. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.;

    2008-01-01

    whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected and...... stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7, and...

  7. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: The use of retro-orbital blood sampling is prohibited in Denmark. For this reason, alternative methods are used for obtaining larger blood samples of a good quality. The facial vein is generally recommended for this. However, we have experienced discomfort for mice subjected to facial...

  8. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...... of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. VO2max decreased towards the end of the season whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test.The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes...

  9. Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

  10. Hanford Site Environmental Surveillance Master Sampling Schedule for Calendar Year 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bisping, Lynn E.

    2005-01-19

    Environmental surveillance of the Hanford Site and surrounding areas is conducted by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Sampling is conducted to evaluate levels of radioactive and nonradioactive pollutants in the Hanford environs. This document contains the calendar year 2005 schedules for the routine and non-routine collection of samples for the Surface Environmental Surveillance Project (SESP) and Drinking Water Monitoring Project.

  11. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A.; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007–2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  12. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie;

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical feature...... number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.......Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in...

  13. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P < 0.001) was lower in hemolyzed...... samples but plasma propionate, caproate, isovalerate (P < 0.001), and isobutyrate (P < 0.05) were higher in hemolyzed samples. Plasma glucose and lactate were the only metabolites that were not affected by hemolysis. Interactions with hemolysis and other fixed effects were not found (P > 0.05). In Exp. 2...

  14. Design of Er:YAG laser blood-sampling device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhi-chao; Jin, Guang-yong; Tan, Xue-chun; Ling, Ming; Liang, Zhu

    2009-07-01

    Laser blood-sampling device is one of the foremost tasks in medicine domain. It has a lot of merits such as un-touching, avoiding infection, indolence, and fast healing etc. The Er:YAG laser with wavelength of 2.94μm which is just close to the absorbency peak of water can be strongly absorbed by water molecular, so it has very wide application value in clinical medicine. In the paper, based on the mutual action characters of the laser with 2.94μm wave length on biological tissues, such as high absorption, acting on surface, the design of a new type of laser blood-sampling device is introduced. According to the needs of practice, the main component of the blood-sampling device is the laser, which includes optical resonator, optical collector, pumping source, optical guidance and focusing system. All of them are designed in the paper, and the reflection index of output coupling mirror of laser is optimized, the laser threshold is reduced, and pumping efficiency is improved. Moreover, thermal effect of Er:YAG solid-state laser is analyzed and a reasonable cooling method is designed. As a result, an excellent laser blood- sampling is obtained, the maximum output power is about 1J, the optical to optical conversion efficiency is 1.2%. For the better production-grade, the cuprum-based conduction is adopt to eliminate heat, the precision modulation and fixing of the optical resonance is achieved by the special adjusting structure that not only improve the stability and reliability, but also reduce the size of laser bloodsampling device. The size is 110×190×320mm, the weight is about 5.8kg, and the laser blood- sampling efficiency is 100%.

  15. Vesicle-associated microRNAs are released from blood cells on incubation of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köberle, Verena; Kakoschky, Bianca; Ibrahim, Ahmed Atef; Schmithals, Christian; Peveling-Oberhag, Jan; Zeuzem, Stefan; Kronenberger, Bernd; Waidmann, Oliver; Pleli, Thomas; Piiper, Albrecht

    2016-03-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) circulating extracellularly in the blood are currently intensively studied as novel disease markers. However, the preanalytical factors influencing the levels of the extracellular miRNAs are still incompletely explored. In particular, it is unknown, whether the incubation of blood samples as occurring in clinical routine can lead to a release of miRNAs from blood cells and thus alter the extracellular miRNA levels before the preparation of serum or plasma from the blood cells. Using a set of marker miRNAs and quantitative RT-PCR, we found that the levels of extracellular miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 were increased in EDTA and serum collection tubes incubated for 1-3 hours at room temperature and declined thereafter; the levels of the liver-specific miRNA-122 declined monophasically. These events occurred in the absence of significant hemolysis. When the blood was supplemented with Ribonuclease A inhibitor, the levels of miRNA-1, miRNA-16, and miRNA-21 increased substantially during the initial 3 hours of incubation and those of miRNA-122 remained unchanged, indicating that the release of blood cell-derived miRNAs occurred during the initial 3 hours of incubation of the blood tubes, but not at later time points. Separation of 5-hour preincubated blood into vesicle and nonvesicle fractions revealed a selective increase in the portion of vesicle-associated miRNAs. Together, these data indicate that the release of vesicle-associated miRNAs from blood cells can occur in blood samples within the time elapsing in normal clinical practice until their processing without significant hemolysis. This becomes particularly visible on the inhibition of miRNA degradation by Ribonuclease A inhibitor. PMID:26608461

  16. Fault Sample Generation for Virtual Testability Demonstration Test Subject to Minimal Maintenance and Scheduled Replacement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual testability demonstration test brings new requirements to the fault sample generation. First, fault occurrence process is described by stochastic process theory. It is discussed that fault occurrence process subject to minimal repair is nonhomogeneous Poisson process (NHPP. Second, the interarrival time distribution function of the next fault event is proposed and three typical kinds of parameterized NHPP are discussed. Third, the procedure of fault sample generation is put forward with the assumptions of minimal maintenance and scheduled replacement. The fault modes and their occurrence time subject to specified conditions and time period can be obtained. Finally, an antenna driving subsystem in automatic pointing and tracking platform is taken as a case to illustrate the proposed method. Results indicate that both the size and structure of the fault samples generated by the proposed method are reasonable and effective. The proposed method can be applied to virtual testability demonstration test well.

  17. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  18. Carbon monoxide stability in stored postmortem blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunsman, G W; Presses, C L; Rodriguez, P

    2000-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning remains a common cause of both suicidal and accidental deaths in the United States. As a consequence, determination of the percent carboxyhemoglobin (%COHb) level in postmortem blood is a common analysis performed in toxicology laboratories. The blood specimens analyzed are generally preserved with either EDTA or sodium fluoride. Potentially problematic scenarios that may arise in conjunction with CO analysis are a first analysis or a reanalysis requested months or years after the initial toxicology testing is completed; both raise the issue of the stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored postmortem blood specimens. A study was conducted at the Bexar County Medical Examiner's Office to evaluate the stability of CO in blood samples collected in red-, gray-, and purple-top tubes by comparing results obtained at the time of the autopsy and after two years of storage at 3 degrees C using either an IL 282 or 682 CO-Oximeter. The results from this study suggest that carboxyhemoglobin is stable in blood specimens collected in vacutainer tubes, with or without preservative, and stored refrigerated for up to two years. PMID:11043662

  19. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  20. [Selenium determination in blood plasma samples of high performance athletes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logemann, E; Krützfeldt, B; Rokitzki, L

    1989-01-01

    Cooperating with the department "Sport- und Leistungsmedizin" of the university hospital of Freiburg/Brsg. we investigated the problem whether endurance stress leads to a significant change in the selenium blood concentration of athletes. We took blood samples of 13 test persons (11 men, 2 women) before, immediately after and 2 hours following a marathon course. The analyses of the concentration of selenium in plasma were performed by atomic absorption spectrometry AAS (molybdenum-coated graphite tube technique with L'vov platform as well as matrix modification with nickel nitrate in order to thermally stabilize the selenium). The selenium level of the plasma samples ranged between 41 and 153 micrograms/L. Our experiments have shown that running a marathon course does not lead to significant changes in the standard selenium plasma concentrations of the athletes. PMID:2818554

  1. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade; Maria Emília Cambria Guimaro Siqueira; Luciano Chaves Arantes; Larissa Silva Queiroz; Rayane Luiza Viegas Silva; Eduardo Dias Ramalho

    2014-01-01

    Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood) their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions ...

  2. Diagnosis of Carrion’s Disease by Direct Blood PCR in Thin Blood Smear Negative Samples

    OpenAIRE

    del Valle Mendoza, Juana; Silva Caso, Wilmer; Tinco Valdez, Carmen; Pons, Maria J.; del Valle, Luis J.; Oré, Verónica Casabona; Michelena, Denisse Champin; Mayra, Jorge Bazán; Gavidea, Víctor Zavaleta; Vargas, Martha; Ruiz, Joaquim

    2014-01-01

    Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion’s disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a...

  3. Noninvasive alternatives to arterial blood sampling in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Positron emission tomography is commonly employed for the quantitative assessment of regional biochemistry. The determination of glucose and oxygen utilization rates using [F-18] 2FDG and [0-15] 0/sub 2/ demand accurate measurement of the driving function producing the observed tissue response. Conventional techniques consist of an arterial or venous puncture with either discrete or continuous sampling of blood label concentrations. A time-of-flight (TOF) probe and expired gas detector have been developed as alternatives to these invasive techniques. The acquisition of serial spectra with the TOF pair (4 x 4cm BaF/sub 2/;XP2020Q;380 psec FWHM), sampling a line through the cardiac chambers, reveals the spatial distribution of activity in the heart and surrounding tissue as a function of time. Region-of-interest analysis of the temporally resolved spectra produce the activity time courses required for analysis of tissue response data. Multigated TOF acquisition using a pulsewatch (LED-phototransistor pair which detects finger-tip blood volume changes) as the gating mechanism promises to provide an easy and accurate method for positioning the TOF probe. Dynamic techniques for the measurement of oxygen utilization rates require both the arterial [0-15] 0/sub 2/ and [0-15] H/sub 2/O concentrations. A heated flow-through plastic (NE 102) beta detector was developed to measure the concentration of label in the alveolar gas which was equilibrated with the blood in the pulmonary capillaries. Combining the TOF probe and expired gas data allows the separation of the oxygen and water components of the input function

  4. Natural Antioxidants Improve Red Blood Cell “Survival” in Non-Leukoreduced Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya V Kucherenko

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Blood collected in an anticoagulant can be kept refrigerated in an unmodified state within 5 - 6 weeks. Oxidative damage is considered to be a one of the major factors contributing to the development of storage lesions. Lipid and membrane proteins oxidation results in changes in cation gradients that affect the cell survival. Aim: In the present study we used the natural antioxidants and ion channels blockers (L-carnosine, spermine, phloretin and their mixtures to prolong “survival” of red blood cells (RBCs, measured as the lack of PS exposure and cell hemolysis, in the Alsever's preservative solution upon hypothermic storage. Results: We show that the mixture of carnosine (20 mM, spermine (20 µM and phloretin (100 µM effectively blunted phosphatidylserine (PS exposure, Ca2+ accumulation and RBCs hemolysis in non-leukoreduced low (∼2% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage as well as after 1 day of post-storage incubation of the stored cells in physiological saline solution. In addition, a slight but significant decrease in PS exposure was observed in non-leukoreduced high (∼20% hematocrit samples after 36 days of storage with the mixture of substances. Conclusion: We conclude that the use of the mixture of natural antioxidants (carnosine, spermine, and phloretin as an additive to blood preservative solution provides better RBCs storage and “survival”.

  5. The prevalence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in the aortic wall and in peripheral blood of patients scheduled for coronary artery bypass grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczaj, A; Stryjewski, P J; Fudal, M; Domal-Kwiatkowska, D; Ryfiński, B; Sliupkas-Dyrda, E; Smolik, S; Węglarz, L; Mazurek, U; Nowalany-Kozielska, E

    2016-01-01

    Some reports confirm a potential role of Chlamydia pneumoniae (ChP) in atherogenesis. In order to explore possible association between ChP and atherosclerosis, investigations were carried out in which the frequency of ChP in the arterial wall and peripheral blood was assessed in a group of patients with chronic coronary artery disease (CAD). Fifty-seven patients were enrolled in the study, 13 women and 44 men aged 61.8±6.5 (47-74), with previously diagnosed CAD, scheduled for planned coronary artery bypass grafting due to clinical indications. Vessel specimens retrieved from the ascending aorta (as a part of routine proximal venous graft development procedure) and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from venous blood were evaluated for the presence of ChP DNA. Genomic DNA was extracted from PBMCs and vessel specimens. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to detect ChP DNA. A statistically more frequent occurrence of ChP was observed in aortic tissues compared to blood samples (70.2% vs 56.1%, respectively). Similarly, the number of ChP DNA genomic copies [n/1μg genomic DNA] was significantly higher in tissue specimens compared to blood samples (89±91 vs 41±77, respectively; p=0.0046). In patients without ChP in blood specimens, we observed significantly higher amounts of ChP in tissue specimens compared to patients with ChP in blood specimens (156±71 vs 107±88, respectively; p=0.0453). No correlation was found between the number of ChP DNA copies [n/1μg genomic DNA] in blood and in aortic specimens. The infection of ChP in the aortic wall was connected with hypercholesterolemia (p=0.029) and diabetes (p=0.03). We conclude that Chlamydia pneumoniae is a pathogen frequently occurring in the aortic wall of patients with CAD. The occurrence of ChP DNA in the aortic tissue is related to classic CAD risk factors such as diabetes and dyslipidemia. PMID:27358129

  6. Diagnosis of Carrion's disease by direct blood PCR in thin blood smear negative samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juana del Valle Mendoza

    Full Text Available Bartonella bacilliformis is the etiologic agent of Carrion's disease. This disease has two well established phases, the most relevant being the so called Oroya Fever, in which B. bacilliformis infect the erythrocytes resulting in severe anemia and transient immunosuppression, with a high lethality in the absence of adequate antibiotic treatment. The presence of B. bacilliformis was studied in 113 blood samples suspected of Carrion's disease based on clinical criteria, despite the absence of a positive thin blood smear, by two different PCR techniques (using Bartonella-specific and universal 16S rRNA gene primers, and by bacterial culture. The specific 16S rRNA gene primers revealed the presence of 21 B. bacilliformis and 1 Bartonella elizabethae, while universal primers showed both the presence of 3 coinfections in which a concomitant pathogen was detected plus Bartonella, in addition to the presence of infections by other microorganisms such as Agrobacterium or Bacillus firmus. These data support the need to implement molecular tools to diagnose Carrion's disease.

  7. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, T. L.; Nybo, M.

    2015-01-01

    . As suggested by the EFLM working group on the preanalytical phase we introduced continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme to monitor the quality of blood sampling performed on an everyday basis. Materials and methods: Based on our own routines...... the EFLM auditing questionnaire was altered giving an observation scheme containing 19 observation issues. Using this scheme three blood samplings from two phlebotomists was observed twice a week (at the blood sampling unit and at a hospital ward, respectively), giving a total of 12 blood drawings...

  8. Design and microfabrication of new automatic human blood sample collection and preparation devices

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Minh Nhut

    2015-01-01

    For self-sampling or collection of blood by health personal related to point-ofcare diagnostics in health rooms, it may often be necessary to perform automatic collection of blood samples. The most important operation that needs to be done when handling whole blood is to be able to combine automatic sample collection with optimal mixing of anticoagulation liquid and weak xatives. In particular before doing any transport of a sample or point-of-care nucleic acid diagnostics (PO...

  9. Action of Gaseous Nitric Oxide on Some Physical and Chemical Parameters of Human Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Andrew K. Martusevich; Anna G. Soloveva; Sergey P. Peretyagin; Vanin, Anatoly F.

    2014-01-01

    We studied the metabolic changes induced by gaseous nitric oxide in whole blood samples in vitro. Blood samples were collected from healthy donors (Nizhny Novgorod station of blood transfusion). We carried out the direct bubbling of blood samples (n = 14) with gaseous flow with NO in a special appliance. We modeled standard conditions using the apparatus “Plazon” (concentration NO 800 mcg/l). Middle power of gas flow was used. The blood sparging time was 2 min, and exposition time lasted 3 mi...

  10. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils;

    2006-01-01

    registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...... isoflurane showed lower increases in blood pressure after, and fewer fluctuations in body temperature during sampling, and the post-anaesthetic effects of isoflurane, if any, seemed to disappear immediately after sampling. It is, therefore, concluded that blood sampling in rats by jugular puncture seems to...

  11. Blood samples in the neutron beam; Blutproben im Neutronenstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Whether crocodile, platypus, man, or chicken: Always the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has the same task. It carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. In investigative manner and international team around Dr. Andreas Stadler from the Julic Research Center has deciphered in detail, how and why the hemoglobines of these creatures nevertheless differ. Their findings are among others interesting for the research on artificial blood.

  12. Development of Automatic 3D Blood Vessel Search and Automatic Blood Sampling System by Using Hybrid Stereo-Autofocus Method

    OpenAIRE

    Eiji Nakamachi; Yusuke Morita; Yoshifumi Mizuno

    2012-01-01

    We developed an accurate three-dimensional blood vessel search (3D BVS) system and an automatic blood sampling system. They were implemented into a point-of-care system designed for medical care, installed in a portable self-monitoring blood glucose (SMBG) device. The system solves problems of human error caused by complicated manual operations of conventional SMBG devices. We evaluated its accuracy of blood-vessel position detection. The 3D BVS system uses near-infrared (NIR) light imaging a...

  13. Forensic Identification of Human Blood: comparison of two one-step presumptive tests for blood screening of crime scene samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Flávia Belchior Andrade

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood is the most common body fluid found at crime scenes. One-step presumptive tests have been designed as a rapid immunological test for the qualitative detection of human hemoglobin in stool samples (faecal occult blood their usefulness for forensic purposes has been demonstrated before. In this study we compare Hexagon OBTI kit and FOB One-step Bioeasy kit sensitivity in the analysis of diluted blood samples. With Hexagon OBTI, positive test results are achieved in whole blood dilutions up to 1:1.000. Sensitivity decreased with aged samples, if samples were not stored under low temperatures regardless of which presumptive test is used. Whole blood tests must take into consideration that “hook” effect may interfere. Comparing both tests, OBTI Hexagon Kit is more sensible to detect diluted blood, showing a wider detection window in all conditions. This is interesting when analyzing forensic samples as forensic analysts usually do not know about the history of the analyzed sample before its collection.

  14. A simple and efficient method for DNA purification from samples of highly clotted blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ruyi; Ye, Ping; Luo, Leiming; Wu, Hongmei; Dong, Jin; Deng, Xinxin

    2010-11-01

    Rapid purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood is a challenging problem due to the difficulty in recovering and dispersing blood clots. We developed a new method for discarding the serum-separator gel and rapidly dispersing the blood clots. A special disposable tip was inserted into the serum-separator gel so that the serum-separator gel could be discarded. The blood clot obtained was dispersed into small pieces through a copper mesh (pore size, 250 μm) in a special dispersing instrument by centrifugation. After lysis of red blood cells and white blood cells, genomic DNA was concentrated and desalted by isopropanol precipitation. The mean yield of DNA purified from a 0.3-ml blood clot was 22.70 μg in 173 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for 1 month, and 19.02 μg in 1,372 samples of clotted blood cryopreserved for >6 months. DNA samples were successfully performed through polymerase chain reaction, real time polymerase chain reaction, and melt curve analysis. Their quality was comparable with that purified directly from EDTA-anticoagulated blood. The new method overcomes the difficulties in recovering and dispersing blood clots, allowing efficient purification of DNA from samples of highly clotted blood. PMID:20549389

  15. Popliteal Vein Blood Sampling and the Postmortem Redistribution of Diazepam, Methadone, and Morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, Eric; Schmidt, Carl; Denooz, Raphael; Charlier, Corinne; Boxho, Philippe

    2016-07-01

    Postmortem redistribution (PMR) refers to the site- and time-related blood drug concentration variations after death. We compared central blood (cardiac and subclavian) with peripheral blood (femoral and popliteal) concentrations of diazepam, methadone, and morphine. To our knowledge, popliteal blood has never been compared with other sites. Intracardiac blood (ICB), subclavian blood (SB), femoral blood (FB), and popliteal blood (PB) were sampled in 30 cases. To assess PMR, mean concentrations and ratios were compared. Influence of postmortem interval on mean ratios was also assessed. Results show that popliteal mean concentrations were lower than those for other sites for all three drugs, even lower than femoral blood; mean ratios suggested that the popliteal site was less subject to PMR, and estimated postmortem interval did not influence ratios except for diazepam and methadone FB/PB. In conclusion, our study is the first to explore the popliteal site and suggests that popliteal blood is less prone to postmortem redistribution. PMID:27364283

  16. Immunoassay of human TSH using dried blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A sensitive, semi-quantitative radioimmunoassay method to screen for elevations of TSH concentration in blood is described. The method requires two 0.32 cm dots of dried blood-impregnated filter paper (equivalent to 3 μl plasma) and a 3-day incubation. Separation of bound and free is obtained using polyethylene glycol. The method can recognize TSH concentrations as low as 22 μU/ml using a highly sensitive antiserum developed by one of us (AFP). TSH in dried cord and newborn blood from four infants with congenital hypothyroidism was clearly higher than in normal infants. The method is suitable for use in a newborn screening program to confirm the suspicion of primary hypothyroidism in specimens with low T4 concentrations

  17. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J; Hammock, Bruce D

    2012-05-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects. PMID:22273184

  18. Whole blood is the sample matrix of choice for monitoring systemic triclocarban levels

    OpenAIRE

    Schebb, Nils Helge; Ahn, Ki Chang; Dong, Hua; Gee, Shirley J.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2012-01-01

    The antibacterial triclocarban (TCC) concentrates in the cellular fraction of blood. Consequently, plasma levels are at least two-fold lower than the TCC amount present in blood. Utilizing whole blood sampling, a low but significant absorption of TCC from soap during showering is demonstrated for a small group of human subjects.

  19. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  20. Scheduling sampling to maximize information about time dependence in experiments with limited resources

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Christiansen, Lasse Engbo

    2013-01-01

    Looking for periodicity in sampled data requires that periods (lags) of different length are represented in the sampling plan. We here present a method to assist in planning of temporal studies with sparse resources, which optimizes the number of observed time lags for a fixed amount of samples w...... of simulated annealing in which we have defined an energy function to be minimized. We compare the calculated sampling plan with a random plan and a cyclic design and demonstrate how our calculated plan provides the most information about temporal autocorrelation....

  1. Minimally invasive blood sampling method for genetic studies on Gopherus tortoises

    OpenAIRE

    García–Feria, L. M.; Ureña–Aranda, C. A.; Espinosa de los Monteros, A.

    2015-01-01

    Obtaining good quality tissue samples is the first hurdle in any molecular study. This is especially true for studies involving management and conservation of wild fauna. In the case of tortoises, the most common sources of DNA are blood samples. However, only a minimal amount of blood is required for PCR assays. Samples are obtained mainly from the brachial and jugular vein after restraining the animal chemically, or from conscious individuals by severe handling methods and clamping. Herein,...

  2. The efficacy of field techniques for obtaining and storing blood samples from fishes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, T D; Donaldson, M R; Drenner, S M; Hinch, S G; Patterson, D A; Hills, J; Ives, V; Carter, J J; Cooke, S J; Farrell, A P

    2011-11-01

    Prompted by the dramatic increase in the use of blood analyses in fisheries research and monitoring, this study investigated the efficacy of common field techniques for sampling and storing blood from fishes. Three questions were addressed: (1) Do blood samples taken via rapid caudal puncture (the 'grab-and-stab' technique) yield similar results for live v. sacrificed groups of fishes? (2) Do rapidly obtained caudal blood samples accurately represent blood properties of fishes prior to capture? (3) Does storage of whole blood in an ice slurry for a working day (8·5 h) modify the properties of the plasma? It was shown that haematocrit, plasma ions, metabolites, stress hormones and sex hormones of caudal blood samples were statistically similar when taken from live v. recently sacrificed groups of adult coho salmon Oncorhynchus kisutch. Moreover, this study confirmed by using paired blood samples from cannulated O. kisutch that blood acquired through the caudal puncture technique (mean ±s.e. 142 ± 26 s after capture) was representative of fish prior to capture. Long-term (8·5 h) cold storage of sockeye salmon Oncorhynchus nerka whole blood caused significant decreases in plasma potassium and chloride, and a significant increase in plasma glucose. Previous research has suggested that these changes largely result from net movements of ions and molecules between the plasma and erythrocytes, movements that can occur within minutes of storage. Thus, blood samples from fishes should be centrifuged as quickly as practicable in the field for separation of plasma and erythrocytes to prevent potentially misleading data. PMID:22026608

  3. Detection of drugs in 275 alcohol-positive blood samples of Korean drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunmi; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Juseon; Jang, Moonhee; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS. For the detection of DUID related drugs in blood samples, a total of 49 drugs were selected and were examined by GC-MS. For a rapid detection of these drugs, an automated identification software called "DrugMan" was used. Concentrations of alcohol in 275 blood samples ranged from 0.011 to 0.249% (average 0.119%). Six specimens showed positive results by immunoassay: one methamphetamine and five benzodiazepines I. By GC-MS confirmation, only benzodiazepines in four cases were identified, while methamphetamine and benzodiazepine in two cases were not detected from the presumptive positive blood samples. Using DrugMan, four drugs were detected; chlorpheniramine (5)*, diazepam (4), dextromethorphan (1) and doxylamine (1). In addition, ibuprofen (1), lidocaine (1) and topiramate (1) were also detected as general drugs in blood samples ('*' indicates frequency). The frequency of drug abuse by Korean drivers was relatively low and a total 14 cases were positive in 275 blood samples with a ratio of 5%. However it is necessary to analyze more samples including alcohol negative blood, and to expand the range of drug lists to get the detailed information. PMID:27015372

  4. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duale Nur

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression.

  5. Minimally invasive blood sampling method for genetic studies on Gopherus tortoises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    García–Feria, L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Obtaining good quality tissue samples is the first hurdle in any molecular study. This is especially true for studies involving management and conservation of wild fauna. In the case of tortoises, the most common sources of DNA are blood samples. However, only a minimal amount of blood is required for PCR assays. Samples are obtained mainly from the brachial and jugular vein after restraining the animal chemically, or from conscious individuals by severe handling methods and clamping. Herein, we present a minimally invasive technique that has proven effective for extracting small quantities of blood, suitable for genetic analyses. Furthermore, the samples obtained yielded better DNA amplification than other cell sources, such as cloacal epithelium cells. After two years of use on wild tortoises, this technique has shown to be harmless. We suggest that sampling a small amount of blood could also be useful for other types of analyses, such as physiologic and medical monitoring.

  6. Comparison of blood chemistry values for samples collected from juvenile chinook salmon by three methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congleton, J.L.; LaVoie, W.J.

    2001-01-01

    Thirteen blood chemistry indices were compared for samples collected by three commonly used methods: caudal transection, heart puncture, and caudal vessel puncture. Apparent biases in blood chemistry values for samples obtained by caudal transection were consistent with dilution with tissue fluids: alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), triglyceride, and K+ were increased and Na+ and Cl- were decreased relative to values for samples obtained by caudal vessel puncture. Some enzyme activities (ALT, AST, LDH) and K+ concentrations were also greater in samples taken by heart puncture than in samples taken by caudal vessel puncture. Of the methods tested, caudal vessel puncture had the least effect on blood chemistry values and should be preferred for blood chemistry studies on juvenile salmonids.

  7. Comparison of three methods of sampling trout blood for measurements of hematocrit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steucke, Erwin W., Jr.; Schoettger, Richard A.

    1967-01-01

    Trout blood is frequently collected for hematocrit measurements by excising the caudal fin (Snieszko, 1960), but this technique is impractical if valuable fish are to be sampled or if repeated observations are desired. Schiffman (1959) and Snieszko (1960) collected blood from the dorsal aorta and the heart, but these methods are relatively slow and require the preparation of needles and syringes. The use of pointed capillary tubes for cardiac punctures increases the speed of sampling, but body fluids may dilute the blood (Perkins, 1957; Larsen and Snieszko, 1961; and Normandau, 1962). There is need for methods of sampling which are rapid and which neither influence hematological determinations nor harm the fish.

  8. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus...... of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood...... minutes. Furthermore, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential...

  9. Scheduling whole-air samples above the Trade Wind Inversion from SUAS using real-time sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freer, J. E.; Greatwood, C.; Thomas, R.; Richardson, T.; Brownlow, R.; Lowry, D.; MacKenzie, A. R.; Nisbet, E. G.

    2015-12-01

    Small Unmanned Air Systems (SUAS) are increasingly being used in science applications for a range of applications. Here we explore their use to schedule the sampling of air masses up to 2.5km above ground using computer controlled bespoked Octocopter platforms. Whole-air sampling is targeted above, within and below the Trade Wind Inversion (TWI). On-board sensors profiled the TWI characteristics in real time on ascent and, hence, guided the altitudes at which samples were taken on descent. The science driver for this research is investigation of the Southern Methane Anomaly and, more broadly, the hemispheric-scale transport of long-lived atmospheric tracers in the remote troposphere. Here we focus on the practical application of SUAS for this purpose. Highlighting the need for mission planning, computer control, onboard sensors and logistics in deploying such technologies for out of line-of-sight applications. We show how such a platform can be deployed successfully, resulting in some 60 sampling flights within a 10 day period. Challenges remain regarding the deployment of such platforms routinely and cost-effectively, particularly regarding training and support. We present some initial results from the methane sampling and its implication for exploring and understanding the Southern Methane Anomaly.

  10. Evaluation of different sized blood sampling tubes for thromboelastometry, platelet function, and platelet count

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Jo Bønding; Pistor-Riebold, Thea Unger; Knudsen, Ingrid Hell;

    2014-01-01

    Background: To minimise the volume of blood used for diagnostic procedures, especially in children, we investigated whether the size of sample tubes affected whole blood coagulation analyses. Methods: We included 20 healthy individuals for rotational thromboelastometry (RoTEM®) analyses and compa...

  11. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piek, C.J.; Brinkhof, B.; Rothuizen, J.; Dekker, A.; Penning, L.C.

    2011-01-01

    Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 i

  12. Measurement of effective hepatic blood flow using 99mTc-PMT SPECT and single blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective hepatic blood flow (EHBF) was measured from an uptake constant using single blood sampling and 99mTc-PMT hepatobiliary SPECT data. After intravenous injection of 3 mCi (111MBq) of 99mTc-PMT, serial 1 min SPECT data were obtained for 7 minutes. A time activity curve (TAC) over the heart, that was normalized with the 5 minutes venous sample concentration (%/dose/m1), was used as a blood clearance curve (B(t)). And a TAC of the whole liver, that was normalized with the injected dose of 99mTc-PMT (%/dose), was used as a hepatogram (L(t)). An uptake constant representing EHBF, was estimated from the Rutland's method L. (t)/B(t) was plotted against ∫otB(t)dt/B(t), and the slope of the least square fitted straight line was determined as the uptake constant. In 16 cases, significant correlation was obtained between the 99mTc-PMT hepatic uptake at 5 minutes and the EHBF estimated from the blood clearance (r=0.85,p99mTc-PMT SPECT data enables us to estimate EHBF with single venous sampling and in relatively short acquisition time. This method is thought to be very valuable in clinical practice. (author)

  13. A duplex PCR for the rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella spp. in human blood samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Reza Mirnejad; Mozafar mohamadi; Vahbeh Piranfar; Seied Mojtaba Mortazavi; Reza Kachuei

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To design a duplex PCR for rapid and simultaneous detection of Brucella species. in human blood samples. Methods: Fifty-two peripheral bloods samples were collected from suspicious patients with brucellosis. Following DNA extraction, PCR assay were performed, using three primers that could simultaneously identify and differentiate three major species of pathogenic Brucella in humans and animals. Results: Of the 52 peripheral bloods samples tested, 25 sample (48%) showed positive reactions in PCR. Twelve samples were positive for Brucella abortus (B. abortus) (23%), 13 for Brucella melitensis (B. melitensis) (25%) and 0 for Brucella ovis (B. ovis) (0%). Conclusions: This work de=monstrates that in case where specific primers were utilized, duplex PCR has proved to be a simple, fast, and relatively inexpensive method for simultaneous detection of important species of Brucella in clinical samples.

  14. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    OpenAIRE

    Williams Adam R; Mondala Tony S; Robison Elizabeth H; Head Steven R; Salomon Daniel R; Kurian Sunil M

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a veno...

  15. Effect of conditions in obtaining blood samples for ECP testing in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, J M; Rubira, N; Botey, J; Rodrigo, M J; Alonso, R; Eseverri, J L; Marín, A; Ras, R M

    1996-02-01

    Eosinophil Cationic Protein (ECP) is a basic protein found in eosinophil granules. This cell and its mediators are currently considered to be potential indicators of the severity of inflammation in the organism. ECP concentration can be reliably tested using several RIA or ELISA methods. It is well known that the conditions of sample obtention can affect the ECP values in blood. The aim of this study is to establish which parameters affect ECP testing during regular blood sample collection and how they affect it. Blood samples taken for the routine study of five children attended in our department were analysed: four were asthmatic and one child had atopic dermatitis. In the results we observed that ECP was not detected in the blood samples taken with EDTA tripotassium. In both the plasma samples taken with heparin as well as with serum, more ECP was released at a higher temperature. In the release of ECP obtained by coagulation, samples at 37 degrees showed values of between 4 and 20 higher than those obtained for an hour at 0 degrees. There is a considerable variability in the testing of ECP depending on the blood test extraction conditions, the range is bigger in the samples with eosinophils. These results imply the need to define a stricter protocol for obtaining samples than that suggested at present. PMID:8703307

  16. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days. PMID:27103895

  17. Markers infectious agent in the cord blood samples public register of donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Smoljaninov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To evaluate the distribution of markers of infectious agents in umbilical cord blood samples Pokrovskij public stem cell bank donor registry for five years (2009 – 2013.Materials and Methods. 3533 plasma samples were investigatedafter selection during cord blood processing procedure for allogeneic use in Pokrovskij stem cell bank. All plasma samples were investigated in accordance with the Order of the Ministry of Health № 325 – 2003 by enzymelinked immunoassay method. In addition, during the period from November 2011 to December 2013 1030 plasma samples of umbilical cord blood were examined for the presence of HCV RNA, the RNA of HIV and HBV DNA.Results. Markers of the agents above have not been found in the plasma of 481 samples (13.6%. During the described period, no significant change in the share of samples containing antibodies to cytomegalovirus and toxoplasmosis (cytomegalovirus – 1978 samples (56%, Toxoplasma gondii – 112 samples (3.2%, 825 samples (23.4% cytomegalovirus and Toxoplasma gondii simultaneously were registered. 137 samples (3.9% were subjected to utilization in connection with detection of antibodies to HbcorAg – 116 samples (3.3%, antibodies to HCV – five samples (0.14%, and antibodies to Treponema pallidum – 16 samples (0.45%.Conclusion. The introduction of an additional method of polymerase chain reaction for the detection of nucleic acids of hepatitis viruses B, C, human immunodeficiency virus, along with study of cord blood samples by enzyme-linked immunoassay improve the quality of the control of the transmission of blood-borne infections.

  18. Comprehensive kinetics of triiodothyronine production, distribution, and metabolism in blood and tissue pools of the rat using optimized blood-sampling protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, J J; Jang, M; Malone, T K; Broutman, M

    1982-01-01

    We have determined estimates for 24 physiological parameters of production, interpool transport, distribution, and metabolism of T3 in the major T3 pools of the unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rat, from blood-borne data and a comprehensive model and analysis of this system. Most of these indices have previously been unavailable. Whereas only 3% (2 ng/100 g BW) of the total body T3 pool (74 ng/100 g BW) is in plasma, the composite of slowly equilibrating (slow) tissue pools (e.g. muscle, skin, and brain) appears to contain most of the T3, 76% (57 ng/100 g BW) of the total. The composite of rapidly equilibrating (fast) tissue pools (e.g. liver and kidney) contains the remaining 19% (16 ng/100 g BW). The total body T3 production rate is 0.12 ng/100 g BW . min, and we estimate that about half of this emanates directly from T4 in the slow pools, whereas the remainder is derived from both thyroidal secretion and T4 to T3 conversion in the fast pools. Our results also indicate that T3 molecules spend an average of only 0.5 min in transit each time through plasma, whereas the single pass mean transit times in fast and slow tissue pools (the times available for hormone action) are 10 times and 200 times greater. In contrast, the mean residence time for T3 in the entire system is greater than 12 h despite the extremely rapid early disappearance of injected T3 from plasma. To obtain the required accuracy, we used a novel optimization approach for choosing blood-sampling schedules (1, 4, 44, 202, and 600 min), a remarkably small number of sample times, and each was adjustable by about +/- 20% without effect on optimized parameter accuracies. PMID:7053984

  19. Time impact on non-activated and kaolin-activated blood samples in thromboelastography

    OpenAIRE

    Durila, Miroslav; Lukáš, Pavel; Bronský, Jiří; Cvachovec, Karel

    2015-01-01

    Background The correct methodology of thrombelastography might be influenced by elapsing time. In our study we investigated kaolin activated citrated samples together with non-activated citrated samples in relation to the elapsed times of 0, 15 and 30 minutes to compare both methods and to find out if there is an impact of time on results of thrombelastography. Methods Blood samples obtained from 10 healthy volunteers were analyzed after 0, 15 and 30 minutes from sampling with kaolin activati...

  20. Measurement of cerebral blood flow the blood sampling method using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD. Simultaneous scintigram scanning of arterial blood samples and the brain with a gamma camera

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Inugami, Atsushi [Rehabilitation Center for Physically Disabled Persons and Medical Center for Mental Health-Akita, Kyowa (Japan); Iida, Hidehiro; Mizuta, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Inoue, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    To measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by blood sampling using {sup 99m}Tc-ECD we devised a method of measuring the radioactive concentration in arterial blood sample with a gamma camera. In this method the head and a blood sample are placed within the same visual field to record the SPECT data of both specimens simultaneously. The results of an evaluation of the counting rate performance, applying the 30 hours decaying method using {sup 99m}Tc solution showed that this method is not comparable to the well-type scintillation counter and in clinical cases the active concentration in arterial blood sample remained well within the dynamic range. In addition, examination of the influence of scattered radiation from the brain by the dilution method showed that it was negligible at a distance of more than 7.5 cm between the brain and the arterial blood sample. In the present study we placed a head-shaped phantom next to the sample. The results of the examinations suggested that this method is suitable for clinical application, and because it does not require a well-type scintillation counter, it is expected to find wide application. (author)

  1. Comparison of drug concentrations in blood and oral fluid collected with the Intercept sampling device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gjerde, Hallvard; Mordal, Jon; Christophersen, Asbjørg S; Bramness, Jørgen G; Mørland, Jørg

    2010-05-01

    The aim of the study was to determine drug concentration ratios between oral fluid collected with the Intercept device and whole blood. Samples of blood and oral fluid were obtained from patients admitted to acute psychiatric treatment and drivers suspected of drugged driving. Samples were analyzed for illegal drugs, benzodiazepines, opioids, carisoprodol, and meprobamate. Drugs were detected in samples of both blood and oral fluid from 59 subjects; altogether, 17 different drugs were found. Concentration ratios between oral fluid and blood were determined for all cases. The distributions of drug concentration ratios were wide for most drugs and do not allow reliable estimations of drug concentrations in blood using concentrations in oral fluid. The median oral fluid/blood drug concentration ratios for the most prevalent drugs were 0.036 diazepam, 0.027 nordiazepam, 7.1 amphetamine, 2.9 methamphetamine, 5.4 codeine, 1.9 morphine, and 4.7 tetrahydrocannabinol. The correlation coefficients between drug concentrations in oral fluid and blood ranged from 0.15 to 0.96 for the six most prevalent drugs. PMID:20465866

  2. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölenius Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  3. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population–based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  4. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    humans. The overall recovery of radioiron from blood is more than 90%, and the coefficient of variation, as judged by the variation in the ratio Fe-55/Fe-59 is in the order of 4%. Combined with whole-body counting of 59Fe and direct gamma -counting of Fe-59 on blood samples, this method represents a......For studies on iron absorption in man radioisotopes represent an easy and simple tool. However, measurement of the orbital electron emitting radioiron, Fe-55, in blood is difficult and insufficiently described in the literature. The present study describes a relatively simple method for...... simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable in...

  5. Effect of blood sampling on apomorphine-induced penile tumescence in erectile impotence: a case report.

    OpenAIRE

    Kiely, M E; Thavundayil, J X; Lal, S

    1995-01-01

    Apomorphine HCl (Apo) (0.5 mg sc), but not placebo, induced an erectile response (monitored with a mercury strain gauge) lasting 40 min in an impotent hyperprolactinemic patient. Serial blood sampling modified the 40 min erectile response. Prompt detumescence followed by complete or partial restoration of tumescence occurred each time blood was drawn. This observation points to the sensitivity of the Apo-erectile response to experimental procedures subjectively perceived as anxiogenic.

  6. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C15O (CO), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [11C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H215O (H2O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter β. Tracer-specific mean values of β were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ''true'' K1true, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. The rank order of the means of β was CO 2O, reflecting their different splanchnic mean transit times. Estimated K1est was not significantly different from ''true'' K1true. The hepatic dual tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. (orig.)

  7. Biomarkers for Monitoring Pre-Analytical Quality Variation of mRNA in Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Hui; Korenková, Vlasta; Sjöback, Robert; Švec, David; Björkman, Jens; Kruhøffer, Mogens; Verderio, Paolo; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Ciniselli, Chiara Maura; Wyrich, Ralf; Oelmueller, Uwe; Kubista, Mikael; Lindahl, Torbjørn; Lönneborg, Anders; Rian, Edith

    2014-01-01

    There is an increasing need for proper quality control tools in the pre-analytical phase of the molecular diagnostic workflow. The aim of the present study was to identify biomarkers for monitoring pre-analytical mRNA quality variations in two different types of blood collection tubes, K2EDTA (EDTA) tubes and PAXgene Blood RNA Tubes (PAXgene tubes). These tubes are extensively used both in the diagnostic setting as well as for research biobank samples. Blood specimens collected in the two dif...

  8. Determination of optimal sampling times for a two blood sample clearance method using (51)Cr-EDTA in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandermeulen, Eva; De Sadeleer, Carlos; Piepsz, Amy; Ham, Hamphrey R; Dobbeleir, André A; Vermeire, Simon T; Van Hoek, Ingrid M; Daminet, Sylvie; Slegers, Guido; Peremans, Kathelijne Y

    2010-08-01

    Estimation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is a useful tool in the evaluation of kidney function in feline medicine. GFR can be determined by measuring the rate of tracer disappearance from the blood, and although these measurements are generally performed by multi-sampling techniques, simplified methods are more convenient in clinical practice. The optimal times for a simplified sampling strategy with two blood samples (2BS) for GFR measurement in cats using plasma (51)chromium ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid ((51)Cr-EDTA) clearance were investigated. After intravenous administration of (51)Cr-EDTA, seven blood samples were obtained in 46 cats (19 euthyroid and 27 hyperthyroid cats, none with previously diagnosed chronic kidney disease (CKD)). The plasma clearance was then calculated from the seven point blood kinetics (7BS) and used for comparison to define the optimal sampling strategy by correlating different pairs of time points to the reference method. Mean GFR estimation for the reference method was 3.7+/-2.5 ml/min/kg (mean+/-standard deviation (SD)). Several pairs of sampling times were highly correlated with this reference method (r(2) > or = 0.980), with the best results when the first sample was taken 30 min after tracer injection and the second sample between 198 and 222 min after injection; or with the first sample at 36 min and the second at 234 or 240 min (r(2) for both combinations=0.984). Because of the similarity of GFR values obtained with the 2BS method in comparison to the values obtained with the 7BS reference method, the simplified method may offer an alternative for GFR estimation. Although a wide range of GFR values was found in the included group of cats, the applicability should be confirmed in cats suspected of renal disease and with confirmed CKD. Furthermore, although no indications of age-related effect were found in this study, a possible influence of age should be included in future studies. PMID:20452793

  9. Blood Samples of Peripheral Venous Catheter or The Usual Way: Do Infusion Fluid Alters the Biochemical Test Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghizadeganzadeh, Mahboobeh; Yazdankhahfard, Mohammadreza; Farzaneh, Mohammadreza; Mirzaei, Kamran

    2016-01-01

    Background: Most blood tests require venous blood samples. Puncturing the vein also causes pain, infection, or damage to the blood, and lymph flow, or long-term healing. This study aimed to determine and compare the biochemical laboratory value of the blood samples that were provided through: peripheral vein infusion (PVI) receiving continuous intravenous fluid; and the usual method of blood sampling. Methods: This is an interventional, quasi-experimental, and controlled study. The selected study sample included 60 patients, who were hospitalized during 2014, in the Internal Medicine, part of Martyrs of Persian Gulf, teaching hospital at Bushehr. Three blood samples were taken from each patient that were provided through PVI line (5 ml blood collected at beginning of IVC and then another 5 cc), and another case was prepared by common blood sampling (control). All the samples were analyzed in terms of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine using SPSS Ver.19 software, by paired t-test and Pearson’s correlation coefficients. Results: There was a statistically significant difference between the amount of sodium and potassium in the first blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. However, no significant differences were found among the biochemical amount in the second blood samples taken from the intravenous infusion line and vein puncture. Conclusions: We can use blood samples taken from peripheral intravenous infusion lines after 5cc discarding from the first part of the sample for measuring the value of sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine.

  10. Genome-wide scans using archived neonatal dried blood spot samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiuf Carsten

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of disease susceptible genes requires access to DNA from numerous well-characterised subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot samples from national newborn screening programs may provide DNA from entire populations and medical registries the corresponding clinical information. The amount of DNA available in these samples is however rarely sufficient for reliable genome-wide scans, and whole-genome amplification may thus be necessary. This study assess the quality of DNA obtained from different amplification protocols by evaluating fidelity and robustness of the genotyping of 610,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, using the Illumina Infinium HD Human610-Quad BeadChip. Whole-genome amplified DNA from 24 neonatal dried blood spot samples stored between 15 to 25 years was tested, and high-quality genomic DNA from 8 of the same individuals was used as reference. Results Using 3.2 mm disks from dried blood spot samples the optimal DNA-extraction and amplification protocol resulted in call-rates between 99.15% – 99.73% (mean 99.56%, N = 16, and conflicts with reference DNA in only three per 10,000 genotype calls. Conclusion Whole-genome amplified DNA from archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for reliable genome-wide scans and is a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new samples.

  11. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  12. Rapid microbial sample preparation from blood using a novel concentration device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boardman, Anna K; Campbell, Jennifer; Wirz, Holger; Sharon, Andre; Sauer-Budge, Alexis F

    2015-01-01

    Appropriate care for bacteremic patients is dictated by the amount of time needed for an accurate diagnosis. However, the concentration of microbes in the blood is extremely low in these patients (1-100 CFU/mL), traditionally requiring growth (blood culture) or amplification (e.g., PCR) for detection. Current culture-based methods can take a minimum of two days, while faster methods like PCR require a sample free of inhibitors (i.e., blood components). Though commercial kits exist for the removal of blood from these samples, they typically capture only DNA, thereby necessitating the use of blood culture for antimicrobial testing. Here, we report a novel, scaled-up sample preparation protocol carried out in a new microbial concentration device. The process can efficiently lyse 10 mL of bacteremic blood while maintaining the microorganisms' viability, giving a 30-μL final output volume. A suite of six microorganisms (Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Candida albicans) at a range of clinically relevant concentrations was tested. All of the microorganisms had recoveries greater than 55% at the highest tested concentration of 100 CFU/mL, with three of them having over 70% recovery. At the lowest tested concentration of 3 CFU/mL, two microorganisms had recoveries of ca. 40-50% while the other four gave recoveries greater than 70%. Using a Taqman assay for methicillin-sensitive S. aureus (MSSA)to prove the feasibility of downstream analysis, we show that our microbial pellets are clean enough for PCR amplification. PCR testing of 56 spiked-positive and negative samples gave a specificity of 0.97 and a sensitivity of 0.96, showing that our sample preparation protocol holds great promise for the rapid diagnosis of bacteremia directly from a primary sample. PMID:25675242

  13. Infrared spectroscopic approach for diagnosis of cancer via analysis of blood samples and chemometric data processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. Recently, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy has been employed to detect cancer tissues from normal ones. In most of these researches the infrared spectral characteristics have been analyzed by statistical tools to study variations in metabolites. An important analytical advantage of FT-IR is that no sample content modification is required before analysis. FTIR data can be used as molecular signatures for physiological status once the spectral patterns are correlated with biological properties. Studying the tissue samples has drawbacks such as difficult sampling, low speed sample preparation and very sensitive keeping conditions. Also sample contamination would affect the diagnosis results while the sampling procedure from human may help the malignancy to be more developed. Thus, it seems necessary to look after a substitute for tissue samples which would be easier in providing and analysis, while its results are reliable. According to our literature survey, there was no report to indicate the analysis of whole blood by spectroscopy for cancer diagnosis. In this work, first, we used whole blood sample instead of tissue because sample preparation procedure is very simple in blood study. It was tried to classify the blood samples in normal and cancer cases by chemometric techniques i.e. LDA, PCA and Cluster analysis. Initial results showed that the normal and malignant blood samples could be identified with 85% of accuracy. In order to specify our studies, basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and breast cancer were selected. Of course the metastasis of BCC is seldom reported but observations in protein content of skin would be a useful mark in order to design a new diagnosis method based on blood analysis. Soft Independent Modeling Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification method was applied for pattern recognition of blood samples in order to obtain if they are normal or cancerous. Results showed about 90% of accuracy

  14. Detection of micrometastasis in peripheral blood by multi-sampling in patients with colorectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xi-Wei Zhang; Hong-Yu Yang; Ping Fan; Li Yang; Guo-Yu Chen

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the reverse transcriptase-PCR assay and multiple sampling for detection of cytokeratin-positive cells in peripheral blood of colorectal carcinoma patients and to investigate the clinical significance of micrometastasis in peripheral blood.METHODS: The expression of CK20 mRNA by RT-PCR was investigated in bone marrow, portal vein and peripheral blood in 58 colorectal cancer patients and 12 controls without known cancer. The peripheral blood was sampled twice at intervals of 3 d before operation. All the patients were followed up for one year.RESULTS: There was no positive expression of CK20mRNA in 12 volunteers. The positive expression of CK20mRNA was 77.6% (45/58) in bone marrow, and that in portal vein was 74.1% (43/58) of colorectal carcinoma patients.The positive expression of CK20mRNA cells in peripheral blood rose from 44.8% (26/58) to 69.0% (40/58) (P<0.01).The total positivity of CK20mRNA expression in peripheral blood was similar to the positivity of CK20mRNA in bone marrow and portal vein. The positive rates became higher in later clinical stages than in early stages. The CK20mRNA positive patients had a higher relapse rate within one year than the CK20mRNA negative patients.CONCLUSION: Multiple blood sampling can increase the detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood by RT-PCR for CK20mRNA in colorectal carcinoma patients and it is as sensitive and specific as that of bone marrow and portal vein. This technique may be reliable and convenient to diagnose micrometastasis of colorectal carcinoma and has an important significance in determining the prognosis of cancer patients.

  15. [Research of Outlier Samples Elimination Methods for Near-Infrared Spectral Analysis of Blood Glucose].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yongzhong; Li, Lina; Lin, Tianliang

    2015-12-01

    For the near-infrared (NIR) spectral analysis of the concentration of blood glucose, the calibration accuracy can be affected because of the existing of outlier samples. In this research, a Monte-Carlo cross validation (MCCV) method is constructed for eliminating outlier samples. The human blood plasma experiment in vitro and the human body experiment in vivo were introduced to evaluate the MCCV method for its application effect in NIR spectral analysis of blood glucose. And the uninformative sample elimination method based on modified uninformative variable elimination (MUVE-USE) was employed in this study for the comparison with MCCV. The results indicated that, like the MUVE-USE method, the outlier samples elimination method based on MCCV could be used to eliminate the outlier samples which came from gross errors (such as bad sample) or system errors (such as baseline drift). In addition, the outlier samples from the random errors of uncertain causes which affect model accuracy can be eliminated simultaneously by MCCV. The elimination of multiple outlier samples is beneficial to the improvement of prediction accuracy of calibration model. PMID:27079108

  16. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E.; El Shebini, Salwa M.; Ahmed, Nihad H.; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. RESULTS: Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. CONCLUSION: This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity. PMID:27275219

  17. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J;

    2014-01-01

    cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities...... of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to...

  18. Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther A; Stahl, Marta; Brandslund, Ivan;

    2008-01-01

    , centrifuged and separated at the doctor's office within 45-60 min. This sample was considered as the best estimate of a comparison value. RESULTS: The pre-set quality goals were fulfilled for all the investigated components for samples transported to hospital by courier either as whole blood or as "on gel...... impact on the quality of results, we wanted to study which combination of transport conditions could fulfil our pre-defined goals for maximum allowable error. METHODS: Samples from 406 patients from nine general practitioners (GPs) in two Danish counties were sent to two hospitals for analyses, during...... whole blood if the above mentioned conditions are met. There is no need for centrifugation in the primary sector. Neither mailing of samples with plasma "on gel" nor public transport by coach bus fulfil our analytical goals....

  19. Detection of the BLV provirus from nasal secretion and saliva samples using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: Comparison with blood samples from the same cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Saito, Susumu; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Haga, Satoshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Ayumu; Murakami, Hironobu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. Sero-epidemiological studies show that BLV infection occurs worldwide. Direct contact between infected and uninfected cattle is thought to be one of the risk factors for BLV transmission. Contact transmission occurs via a mixture of natural sources, blood, and exudates. To confirm that BLV provirus is detectable in these samples, matched blood, nasal secretion, and saliva samples were collected from 50 cattle, and genomic DNA was extracted. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2, an assay developed for the highly sensitive detection of BLV, was then used to measure the proviral load in blood (n=50), nasal secretions (n=48), and saliva (n=47) samples. The results showed that 35 blood samples, 14 nasal secretion samples, and 6 saliva samples were positive for the BLV provirus. Matched blood samples from cattle that were positive for the BLV provirus (either in nasal secretion or saliva samples) were also positive in their blood. The proviral load in the positive blood samples was >14,000 (copies/1×10(5) cells). Thus, even though the proviral load in the nasal secretion and saliva samples was much lower (<380 copies/1×10(5) cells) than that in the peripheral blood, prolonged direct contact between infected and healthy cattle may be considered as a risk factor for BLV transmission. PMID:26298004

  20. Sample pretreatment microfluidic chip for DNA extraction from rat peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing; CUI Dafu; LIU Changchun; LI Hui; ZHAO Weixing

    2007-01-01

    A sample pretreatment microfluidic chip was described based on the principle of solid phase extraction and micro electro mechanical system technology.Oxidized porous silicon with the large surface area as the solid phase matrix for absorption of DNA from a biological sample can greatly improve the DNA yield.The factors that could affect the DNA yield were analyzed and the preparation technology and the experiment procedure were improved.The DNA purification process from the rat peripheral blood can be achieved and the DNA yield is 24 ng/(μL whole blood),which can reach the level of the commercial DNA purification kits.Furthermore,the DNA extracted from the whole blood can be amplified by polymerase chain reaction,which can achieve a high efficiency of the amplification.

  1. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  2. Tissue distribution, excretion and blood distribution of [3H]-acetylshikonin in mice by sample oxidizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To study the tissue distribution, excretion and blood distribution of [3H]-acetylshikonin in mice by Sample Oxidizer pretreatment technology. Methods: After 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose suspension containing [3H] - acetylshikonin was administered by gastric gavage at the dose of 120 mg/kg(2.96 x 107 Bq/kg), the tissue, feces, urine and blood samples of the mice were collected. The samples were pretreated by Sample Oxidizer. The radioactivity was determined by Liquid Scintillation Analyzer Tn-Card 29007R. Results: After oral administration of [3H]-acetylshikonin 120 mg/kg with 2.96 x 107 Bq/kg to mice, [3H]-acetylshikonin was mainly distributed in the stomach and intestine, secondarily in the gallbladder, liver, kidneys, lungs, and least in the brain and spinal cord. The cumulative radioactivity rate of the feces and urine was(68.5±3.3)% and (17.6±3.1)% within 271 h, respectively. The total excretion rate was (86.1±5.5)%. Besides, the exploratory study was carried out on acetylshikonin the existing form of in blood, allocation in plasma and blood cells, binding mode and binding rates of plasma proteins. Conclusions: Acetylshikonin has a relatively low absorption rate and wide distribution in mice, and is excreted completely more by fecal route than by urine. Acetylshikonin exits as a binding form in mouse blood. Allocation of acetylshikonin in mouse plasma and blood cells is nearly 4:1. Plasma protein binding rates of three levels (high, medium and low) are (94.7±O.44)%, (94.7±0.29)% and (95.4±0.13)%, respectively. The binding between acetylshikonin and human plasma protein is the coexistence of covalent bonding and hydrophobic interaction. (authors)

  3. Uranium concentration in blood samples of Southern Iraqi leukemia patients using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The simple and effective technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in human blood samples taken from two groups of male and female participants: leukemia patients and healthy subjects group. The blood samples of leukemia patients and healthy subjects were collected from three key southern governorates namely, Basrah, Muthanna and Dhi-Qar. These governorates were the centers of intensive military activities during the 1991 and 2003 Gulf wars, and the discarded weapons are still lying around in these regions. CR-39 track detector was used for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in the blood samples of leukemia patients was 4.71 ppb (female, 45 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 1.91 ppb (male, 3 years old, from Muthanna). For healthy group, the maximum uranium concentration was 2.15 ppb (female, 55 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 0.86 ppb (male, 5 years old, from Dhi-Qar). It has been found that the uranium concentrations in human blood samples of leukemia patients are higher than those of the healthy group. These uranium concentrations in the leukemia patients group were significantly different (P < 0.001) from those in the healthy group. (author)

  4. A blood sampling microsystem for pharmacokinetic applications: design, fabrication, and initial results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Barnett, Adam; Rogers, Karen L; Gianchandani, Yogesh B

    2009-12-21

    This paper describes a microsystem for automated blood sampling from laboratory mice used in pharmacokinetic studies. Intended to be mounted as a "backpack" on a mouse, it uses a microneedle, reservoir, and an actuator to instantaneously prick the animal for a time-point sample, eliminating the need for a tethered catheter with large dead volume. The blood is collected by capillary effect through a 31-33 gauge microneedle (250-210 microm OD) into a approximately 1 microL micromachined steel reservoir. The voice coil actuator provides a peak force of approximately 300 mN, which amply exceeds the measured piercing force of mouse skin (i.e., 60-85 mN for a 31-gauge needle with 12 degrees bevel). The sampling system was tested in vitro using a mock vessel with adjustable pressure; the reservoir was filled in electropolishing the inner surface to make it more hydrophilic or using a polymer wire insert to increase the surface area. The steel surface of the reservoir is also coated with silicon oxynitride by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition to improve its hydrophilicity. Blood from fresh bovine tissue was collected into the reservoir to simulate interstitial fluid sampling. In vivo tests on live, anesthetized mice resulted in successful collection of blood into the reservoir. The possible integration of the device in microanalytical systems and the device scalability for multisampling are discussed. PMID:20024028

  5. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker;

    2015-01-01

    ' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). DISCUSSION: After adjusting risk......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  6. Fabrication and Characterization of a Microfluidic Device to Ultrapurify Blood Samples

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Marco

    2015-05-04

    The improvement of blood cell sorting techniques in recent years have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the possible benefits that these methods can lead in biology, regenerative medicine, materials science and therapeutic area. In this work a cell sorting technique based on filtration is described. The separation occurs by means of a microfluidic device, suitably designed, manufactured and tested, that is connected to an external experimental set-up. The fabrication process can be divided in two parts: at first it is described the manufacturing process of a filtering membrane, with holes of specific size that allow the passage of only certain cell types. Following the microfluidic device is fabricated through the mechanical micromilling. The membrane and the microdevice are suitably bonded and tested by means of an external connection with syringe pumps that inject blood samples at specific flow rates. The device is designed to separate blood cells and tumor cells only by using differences in size and shape. In particular during the first experiments red blood cells and platelets are sorted from white blood cells; in the other experiments red blood cells and platelets are separated from white blood cells and tumor cells. The microdevice has proven to be very efficient, in fact a capture efficiency of 99% is achieved. For this reason it could be used in identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells, a very rare cancer cell type whose presence in the bloodstream could be symptom of future solid tumor formation. The various experiments have also demonstrated that tumor cells survive even after the separation treatment, and then the suffered stress during the sorting process does not harm the biological sample.

  7. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  8. Evaluation of a nested-pcr for Mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi Lacerda Alves da Cruz

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The polymerase chain reaction (PCR and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB. With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine, regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if not showing a good sensitivity, should be considered as a helpful tool especially in the extrapulmonary cases or in cases where confirmatory diagnosis is quite difficult to be achieved by routine methods. The performance of PCR-based techniques should be considered and tested in future works on other types of biological specimens besides sputum, like blood and urine, readily obtainable in most cases. The improving of M. tuberculosis nested-PCR detection in TB affected patients will give the possibility of an earlier detection of bacilli thus interrupting the transmission chain of the disease.

  9. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord [Aarhus University Hospital, PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Keiding, Susanne; Soerensen, Michael [Aarhus University Hospital, PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology V, Aarhus C (Denmark); Mortensen, Frank Viborg [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Surgery L, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-02-15

    Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C{sup 15}O (CO), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [{sup 11}C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H{sub 2} {sup 15}O (H{sub 2}O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter {beta}. Tracer-specific mean values of {beta} were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ''true'' K{sub 1} {sup true}, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. The rank order of the means of {beta} was CO < FDG {approx} MG < FDGal < H{sub 2}O, reflecting their different splanchnic mean transit times. Estimated K{sub 1} {sup est} was not significantly different from ''true'' K{sub 1} {sup true}. The hepatic dual tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. (orig.)

  10. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women

    OpenAIRE

    Nayera E. Hassan; Salwa M. El Shebini; Nihad H. Ahmed; Mohamed Selim Mostafa

    2015-01-01

    AIM: Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. METHODS: Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure wa...

  11. Is intrapartum fetal blood sampling a gold standard diagnostic tool for fetal distress?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahendru, Amita A; Lees, Christoph C

    2011-06-01

    Developed in 1960s, cardiotocography is a screening test and fetal blood sampling (FBS) is an adjunctive, diagnostic technique to detect fetal hypoxia. A fetal blood sample pH value of less than 7.20 has a higher specificity than a pathological CTG to predict low Apgar score at 1 min. Though with a pathological CTG and despite a normal FBS pH value the risk of delivering a hypoxic infant is 30-50%, FBS has assumed considerable importance in purportedly reducing unnecessary obstetric intervention. The evidence for this is weak: the use of FBS with CTG has been shown to reduce operative vaginal deliveries though not Caesarean sections due to fetal distress. There is no difference in the umbilical artery pH at delivery with the use of intermittent FBS with CTG compared to CTG alone. FBS is an invasive procedure: obtaining an adequate blood sample is often difficult and the pH results are affected by handling of the sample, aerobic contamination and processing. Validation of intrapartum FBS requires that the pH and other values obtained are compared to a 'gold standard' technique. Although FBS has been compared to other tests such as scalp lactate, pulse oximetry, fetal ECG waveform analysis, and central haemodynamics in labouring rhesus monkeys, none of these can be considered as 'gold standard'. In the light of the existing evidence, the role of intrapartum FBS as a gold standard diagnostic technique is unproven. PMID:21300427

  12. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaleh Barar

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for extracting of high quality DNA from blood samples. Methods: Dried, clotted and ethylene diamine tetra-acetic acid (EDTA treated fresh and frozen blood samples were extracted using this method in which the quality and integrity of the extracted DNA were corroborated by agarose gel electrophoresis, PCR reaction and DNA digestion using restricted enzyme. The UV spectrophotometric and gel electrophoresis analysis resulted in high A260/A280 ratio (>1.8 with high intactness of DNA. Results: PCR and DNA digestion experiments indicated that the final solutions of extracted DNA contained no inhibitory substances, which confirms that the isolated DNA is of good quality. Conclusion: The high quality and quantity of current method, no enzymatic processing and accordingly its low cost, make it appropriate for DNA extraction not only from human but also from animal blood samples in any molecular biology labs.

  13. Transcutaneous monitoring of blood gases: is it comparable with arterialized earlobe sampling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, S; Cave, C; Pavord, I; Potter, J F

    1998-03-01

    Researchers are increasingly looking for reliable non-invasive methods of assessing blood gas concentrations, and several new techniques have recently become available. Values derived using arterialized earlobe samples have been found to be comparable with conventional arterial samples, and recent studies have compared transcutaneous blood gas analysis with the traditional arterial samples and found a reasonable level of agreement in particular for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide. There are no data comparing oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures (pO2, pCO2) derived from arterialized samples with one of the newer transcutaneous techniques. We therefore simultaneously studied arterialized earlobe blood gas samples and values for pO2 and pCO2 obtained by a transcutaneous monitor (TINA, Radiometer, Copenhagen) in 26 subjects with varying blood gas values. There was a close agreement between the two methods for assessment of pCO2 [mean difference (95% C.I.) between transcutaneous and earlobe values 0.25 kPa (-0.004, 0.5 kPa)], but not for pO2 [1.71 kPa (0.35, 3.07 kPa)]. Similarly, the limits of agreement were narrow for pCO2 compared to those for pO2 (-0.98, 1.47 kPa and -6.44, 3.02 kPa respectively). We conclude that transcutaneous measurement of pCO2 using the TINA is acceptable in the research setting, whereas assessment of pO2 cannot reliably be made using this technique. PMID:9692127

  14. Lead and cadmium determinations by atomic absorption technique in biological samples: blood, placenta and umbilical cord

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to determine the possibility contamination of lead and cadmium in pregnant women living in the mining-smelting city of La Oroya in Peru, lead and cadmium concentrations were assessed in maternal blood (pre-birth), umbilical cord blood and placental tissue. Forty deliveries with normal evolution were evaluated between October 2002 and January 2003. Samples were analyzed by atomic absorption on a graphite furnace at the Peruvian Institute of Nuclear Energy (IPEN) laboratories. Results are summarized as follows: a) Mean lead concentrations in maternal blood (MB), umbilical cord blood (UCB) and placental tissue (PT) were 27.23 μg/dL, 18.48 μg/dL and 363.97 μg/100g, respectively; b) Mean cadmium concentrations in MB, UCB and PT were 8.82 μg/dL, 12,0 μg/dL and 104,44 μg/100g, respectively; c) The correlation coefficient between lead concentration in maternal blood and umbilical cord was 0.122; d). The correlation coefficient of cadmium concentration between MB and UCB was 0.223; e). The correlation coefficient of lead concentration between MB and PT was 0.189; f). The correlation coefficient of cadmium concentration between MB and PT was 0.633. Trans-placental transport of lead was 67.84% (27,23 μg/dL in MB vs. 18.48 μg/dL in UCB); whereas in the case of cadmium, the concentration in UC (12,00 μg/dL) was greater than in MB (8.82 μg/dL.). These results could indicate that the placenta acts as a barrier trapping lead and cadmium. This barrier is efficient for lead since the concentration in cord blood is inferior to maternal blood but it is less efficient for cadmium. (author)

  15. DETERMINATION OF LEPTIN EXPRESSION IN BEEF CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USED BY RTQ PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslava Kačániová

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to detect the presence and concentration of leptin in different breeds of cattle by PCR and Real time PCR method. Blood of different breeds of bulls was used as biological material in our experiments: Slovak pied cattle (10 samples, Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed (10 samples and Holstein breed (10 samples. The presence of leptin was detected in all samples based on the results of molecular-genetic detection of leptin gene. The average concentration of leptinin 30 samples of beef cattle was 22.1477 μg.μl-1. Differences in leptin concentrations were statistically significant between Holstein breed and Slovak pied cattle and between Slovak pied cattle and Blondaquitane × Pinzgau breed.

  16. Application of dried blood sample on FTA paper for detection of Trypanosoma evansi by PCR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi present in the dried blood on FTA Paper was developed. A simple lysis method was used to remove of the red blood cells on a 1.2 x 1.2 mm paper in 0.2 mL PCR tube. The dried paper sample was placed directly into a 25 μL PCR reaction as a DNA template. The primer set was designed and synthesized to amplify a single band of 257 bp PCR product. The sensitivity limit of test was 2.2 x 105 parasites/mL that was less than DNA templates derived from whole blood at 6.0 x 10-2 parasites/mL. The use of dried blood on FTA paper was sensitive equivalent to the determination by using the conventional wet blood film (WBF) and less sensitive than microcentrifuge heamatocrit test (MHCT) as well as mouse inoculation test (MIT). This application is not only beneficial for detection of the parasite but also useful for epidemiological study and designing Trypanosomiasis control programme. (author)

  17. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Keiichi; Shinoda, Masaki; Sakamoto, Setsu; Senda, Michio [Inst. of Biomedical Research and Innovation, Kobe (Japan); Yamamoto, Seiichi [Kobe City Coll. of Technology (Japan); Tarutani, Kazumasa; Minato, Kotaro [Nara Inst. of Science and Technology, Ikoma (Japan). Graduate School of Information Science

    2002-11-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with {sup 15}O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for {sup 68}Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was increased. The count rate characteristic of the PD and COINC was linear up to 8 kcps. The reproducibility of sensitivity for nylon tube geometry of COINC was the smallest (coefficient of variation (C.V.)=1.00%) among the three. PD was the weights the least (3.5 kg) among the three, which is convenient for clinical use. Each detector has unique characteristics derived from its own structure. Although the performance of all three detectors meets clinical requirement, PD had the highest physical performance. (author)

  18. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  19. Methods for extracting genomic DNA from whole blood samples: current perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, Lyn

    2014-01-01

    Diego Chacon-Cortes, Lyn R Griffiths Genomics Research Centre, Institute of Health and Biomedical Innovation, Queensland University of Technology, Kelvin Grove, QLD, Australia Abstract: Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction has considerably evolved since it was initially performed back in 1869. It is the first step required for many of the available downstream applications used in the field of molecular biology. Whole blood samples are one of the main sources used to obtain DNA, and there a...

  20. Detection of Streptococcus mutans Genomic DNA in Human DNA Samples Extracted from Saliva and Blood

    OpenAIRE

    weyant, Robert J.; Richard Crout; McNeil, Daniel W.; Adriana Modesto; Iêda M. Orioli; Figen Seymen; Eduardo E. Castilla; Lopez-Camelo, Jorge S.; Steven Wendell; Renato Menezes; Ariadne Letra; Mereb, Juan C.; Mine Yildirim; Poletta, Fernando A.; Christopher Rozhon

    2011-01-01

    Caries is a multifactorial disease, and studies aiming to unravel the factors modulating its etiology must consider all known predisposing factors. One major factor is bacterial colonization, and Streptococcus mutans is the main microorganism associated with the initiation of the disease. In our studies, we have access to DNA samples extracted from human saliva and blood. In this report, we tested a real-time PCR assay developed to detect copies of genomic DNA from Streptococcus mutans in 1,4...

  1. Identification of Nocardiopsis dassonvillei in a Blood Sample from a Child

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Lejbkowicz

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Nocardiopsis dassonvillei is an environmental aerobic actinomycete producing a funguslike mycelium and aerial hyphae. Here we report the first Nocardiopsis dassonvillei isolated from a blood sample from a 3-year-old child hospitalized with fever, respiratory difficulty and cough. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time this organism has been detected in the BacT/Alert system. This Nocardiopsis was designated Nocardiopsis dassonvillei based on morphological and physiological tests.

  2. TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis in skin samples and peripheral blood of mycosis fungoides patients:

    OpenAIRE

    Bašanović, Jelena; Cikota, Bojana; Kandolf Sekulović, Lidija; Magić, Zvonko; Medenica, Ljiljana; Pavlović, Miloš; Stojadinović, Olivera; Škiljević, Dušan

    2007-01-01

    Background: Diagnosing mycosis fungoides (MF) can be challenging in the early stage of the disease because histopathological features may simulate a varietyof benign inflammatory skin diseases. Assessment of T-cell clonality was found to be useful in diagnosis and follow-up of patients. Objective: In this study, PCR-based TCRgamma gene rearrangement analysis was performed in skin and peripheral blood samples of patients with MF treated at the two largest referral centers in Serbia, and the re...

  3. Metabolic phenotyping by 1H-NMR spectroscopy detects lung cancer via a simple blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis,Evelyne; MESOTTEN, Liesbet; Thomeer, Michiel; Vandeurzen, Kurt; Darquennes, Karen; Vanhove, Karolien; Reekmans, Gunter; Adriaensens, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect lung cancer. Accumulating evidence shows that the metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of normal cells. Disturbances in biochemical pathways which occur during the development of cancer provoke changes in the metabolic phenotype. Objective: To determine the metabolic phenotype of lung cancer by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Methods: Fasting venous blood samples of 78...

  4. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ida B.; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry; Nøhr-Jensen, Lene; Nielsen, Dorthe E.; Brandslund, Ivan; Madsen, Jonna S.

    2015-01-01

    impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening......: Significant diurnal variation was found for albumin (n = 15,544; p<2×10-16), TSH (n = 20,019; p<2×10-16), calcium (n = 13,588; p = 2.8×10-12) and sodium (n = 51,917; p<2×10-16). Further significant influence for resting time was found for albumin (p = 2.6×10-4), TSH (p = 0.004), calcium (p = 8.9×10-7) and...... sodium (p = 8.7×10-16). Only TSH and albumin were clinically significantly influenced by diurnal variation. Resting time had no clinically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found no need for resting 15 minutes prior to blood sampling. However, diurnal variation was found to have a significant and...

  5. ANALYSIS OF CHROMIUM BIOACCUMULATION IN BLOOD, URINE AND NAIL SAMPLES OF CHROMATE FACTORY WORKERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. JOB GOPINATH

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Industrial play a major role in country's economy. Air pollution is an occupational health problem in industries. Generaly, there are more man made pollution in the air of heavy industries and major cities around the industries, Exposure as inhalation represents one of the major routes by which the body can be exposed by accident or design to foreign materials. One having entered to the respiratory tract, inhaled materails may be readly absorbed or may react directly with the alveolar epithelium and entered in to the blood steam. These air pollution induce many changes in physiological and biochemical process. The present study was contucted on chromate industrial workers as these workers were repeatedly exposed to pollutants in chromium factors (Tamil Nadu Chromate and Chemical Ltd., Ranipet industrial Town, Tamil Nadu. The bioaccumulation of chromium was estimated from one hundred samples of blood and urine as well as twenty five samples of nails collected from TCC industrial workers and control subject. The workers and control subject were randomly selected. Estimation was carried out by Atomic Absorption spectrometry. From the results it was obeserved tha the accumulation of heavy metal chromium in the blood. urine and nail samples of chromate factory worker are above the normal ranges. Results are statistically significant.

  6. Geometric characterization of red blood cells. Differentiation of normal and pathologic samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Rodríguez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available the irregularity of abstract and natural objectswith the fractal dimension. Fractal calculationshave been applied to the structures of the humanbody and to quantifications in physiology fromthe theory of dynamic systems.Material and Methods. The fractal dimensionswere calculated, the number of occupationspaces in the space border of box counting andthe area of two red blood cells groups, 7 normalones, group A, and 7 abnormal, group B, comingfrom patient and of bags for transfusion, werecalculated using the method of box counting anda software developed for such effect. The obtainedmeasures were compared, looking for differencesbetween normal and abnormal red blood cells,with the purpose of differentiating samples.Results. The abnormality characterizes by anumber of squares of occupation of the fractalspace greater or equal to 180; values of areasbetween 25.117 and 33.548 correspond to normality.In case that the evaluation according tothe number of pictures is of normality, must beconfirmed with the value of the area applied toadjacent red blood cells within the sample, thatin case of having values by outside establishedand/or the greater or equal spaces to 180, theysuggest abnormality of the sample.Conclusions. The developed methodology iseffective to differentiate the red globules alterationsand probably useful in the analysis of bagsof transfusion for clinical use.

  7. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples

    OpenAIRE

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal ...

  8. Application of Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy for the screening of blood samples from patients with clinical variant and sporadic CJD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ironside James W

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sub-clinical variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD infection and reports of vCJD transmission through blood transfusion emphasise the need for blood screening assays to ensure the safety of blood and transplanted tissues. Most assays aim to detect abnormal prion protein (PrPSc, although achieving required sensitivity is a challenge. Methods We have used innovative Atomic Dielectric Resonance Spectroscopy (ADRS, which determines dielectric properties of materials which are established by reflectivity and penetration of radio/micro waves, to analyse blood samples from patients and controls to identify characteristic ADR signatures unique to blood from vCJD and to sCJD patients. Initial sets of blood samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors were screened as training samples to determine group-specific ADR characteristics, and provided a basis for classification of blinded sets of samples. Results Blood sample groups from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases and normal healthy adults (blood donors screened by ADRS were classified with 100% specificity and sensitivity, discriminating these by a co-variance expert analysis system. Conclusion ADRS appears capable of recognising and discriminating serum samples from vCJD, sCJD, non-CJD neurological diseases, and normal healthy adults, and might be developed to provide a system for primary screening or confirmatory assay complementary to other screening systems.

  9. Sensitivity of PCR assays for murine gammaretroviruses and mouse contamination in human blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ling Lee

    Full Text Available Gammaretroviruses related to murine leukemia virus (MLV have variously been reported to be present or absent in blood from chronic fatigue syndrome/myalgic encephalomyelitis (CFS/ME patients and healthy controls. Using subjects from New York State, we have investigated by PCR methods whether MLV-related sequences can be identified in nucleic acids isolated from whole blood or from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs or following PBMC culture. We have also passaged the prostate cancer cell line LNCaP following incubation with plasma from patients and controls and assayed nucleic acids for viral sequences. We have used 15 sets of primers that can effectively amplify conserved regions of murine endogenous and exogenous retrovirus sequences. We demonstrate that our PCR assays for MLV-related gag sequences and for mouse DNA contamination are extremely sensitive. While we have identified MLV-like gag sequences following PCR on human DNA preparations, we are unable to conclude that these sequences originated in the blood samples.

  10. Leukocyte count affects expression of reference genes in canine whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dekker Aldo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The dog is frequently used as a model for hematologic human diseases. In this study the suitability of nine potential reference genes for quantitative RT-PCR studies in canine whole blood was investigated. Findings The expression of these genes was measured in whole blood samples of 263 individual dogs, representing 73 different breeds and a group of 40 mixed breed dogs, categorized into healthy dogs and dogs with internal and hematological diseases, and dogs that underwent a surgical procedure. GeNorm analysis revealed that a combination of 5 to 6 of the most stably expressed genes constituted a stable normalizing factor. Evaluation of the expression revealed different ranking of reference genes in Normfinder and GeNorm. The disease category and the white blood cell count significantly affected reference gene expression. Conclusions The discrepancy between the ranking of reference genes in this study by Normfinder and Genorm can be explained by differences between the experimental groups such as "disease category" and "WBC count". This stresses the importance of assessing the expression stability of potential reference genes for gene experiments in canine whole blood anew for each specific experimental condition.

  11. Behavior of optical properties of coagulated blood sample at 633 nm wavelength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales Cruzado, Beatriz; Vázquez y Montiel, Sergio; Delgado Atencio, José Alberto

    2011-03-01

    Determination of tissue optical parameters is fundamental for application of light in either diagnostics or therapeutical procedures. However, in samples of biological tissue in vitro, the optical properties are modified by cellular death or cellular agglomeration that can not be avoided. This phenomena change the propagation of light within the biological sample. Optical properties of human blood tissue were investigated in vitro at 633 nm using an optical setup that includes a double integrating sphere system. We measure the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of the blood sample and compare these physical properties with those obtained by Monte Carlo Multi-Layered (MCML). The extraction of the optical parameters: absorption coefficient μa, scattering coefficient μs and anisotropic factor g from the measurements were carried out using a Genetic Algorithm, in which the search procedure is based in the evolution of a population due to selection of the best individual, evaluated by a function that compares the diffuse transmittance and diffuse reflectance of those individuals with the experimental ones. The algorithm converges rapidly to the best individual, extracting the optical parameters of the sample. We compare our results with those obtained by using other retrieve procedures. We found that the scattering coefficient and the anisotropic factor change dramatically due to the formation of clusters.

  12. An improved, PCR-based strategy for the detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro-dos-Santos, G; Nishiya, A S; Sabino, E C; Chamone, D F; Saez-Alquézar, A

    1999-10-01

    Attempts were made to improve the PCR-based detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in blood samples, primarily for screening blood donors. Samples were obtained from candidate donors who were reactive in one or two of three serological tests for Chagas disease (and therefore considered 'indeterminate') or in all three tests (3+). Each sample was then examined using three different, PCR-based techniques: 'PCR-I' (in which the target DNA is a nuclear repetitive sequence); 'PCR-II' [amplifying a conserved region of the T. cruzi kinetoplast DNA (kDNA)]; and 'PCR-III' (a new strategy in which the target kDNA is amplified by 'nested' PCR). Among the samples from 3+ individuals, PCR-I, PCR-II and PCR-III amplified two (3.8%) out of 52, four (4.5%) out of 88, and 27 (25.7%) out of 105 samples tested, respectively. Seven, 69 and 70 samples from 'indeterminate' subjects were tested by PCR-I, PCR-II and PCR-III, respectively; there was not a single positive result by PCR-I or PCR-II, but three (4.3%) of the samples tested by PCR-III were positive. In a reconstruction experiment, in conditions in which PCR-I and PCR-II could not detect 10,000 parasites/ml, PCR-III was able to detect one parasite/ml. Although all three PCR-based strategies examined had rather poor sensitivities, PCR-III was far more sensitive than PCR-I or PCR-II. PMID:10715696

  13. Physiological and Pathological Impact of Blood Sampling by Retro-Bulbar Sinus Puncture and Facial Vein Phlebotomy in Laboratory Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Nygaard Madsen, Andreas; Holst, Birgitte; Hau, Jann; Rozell, Björn; Abelson, Klas Stig Peter

    2014-01-01

    time points, and the samples were analyzed for plasma corticosterone. Body weights were measured at the day of blood sampling and the day after blood sampling, and the food consumption was recorded automatically during the 24 hours post-procedure. At the end of study, cheeks and orbital regions were...... weight following blood sampling, but the body weight loss was higher in mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy. The food consumption was not significantly different between the two groups. At gross necropsy, subcutaneous hematomas were found in both groups and the histopathological analyses revealed...

  14. [Study of molecular mechanism for a blood sample with A3 phenotype].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Wei; Yang, Liang; Mei, Chuanliang; Xu, Deyi; Deng, Gang; He, Yunlei; Liu, Yiyu; Zhang, Zhe

    2015-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To explore the molecular mechanism for a blood sample with mixed-field hemagglutination upon determination of ABO blood group. METHODS Serological techniques were employed to identify the erythrocyte phenotype. The A and B antigens were detected by flow cytometry. The preliminary genotype of ABO gene was assayed with sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP). Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were amplified with PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing. Haplotypes of the ABO gene were analyzed by cloning sequencing as well. RESULTS The serological reaction pattern has supported an O phenotype when all the tubes were centrifuged for the first time. However, a mixed-field hemagglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) with anti-A antibodies was present after the tube was centrifuged five times later. A antigens were detected on the surface of partial red blood cells of the sample by flow cytometry. PCR- SSP results have shown that the preliminary ABO genotype was A/O. Analysis of the fragments of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene has indicated that heterozygosis lied as follows: 261G/A, 425T/T, 467C/T, 646A/T, 681A/G, 745C/T, 771C/T, 829A/G, conjecturing the genotype to be A307/O02, which was confirmed by haplotype sequence analysis. Compared with A101 allele, A307 allele has two missense mutations, 467C> T and 745C> T, which have resulted in substitutions Pro156Leu and Arg249Trp in the A glycosyltransferase polypeptide chain. CONCLUSION A variant allele (A307) has been identified for the first time in mainland China, which is responsible for the formation of A3 phenotype. PMID:26418996

  15. Does volumetric absorptive microsampling eliminate the hematocrit bias for caffeine and paraxanthine in dried blood samples? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-06-30

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel sampling technique that allows the straightforward collection of an accurate volume of blood (approximately 10μL) from a drop or pool of blood by dipping an absorbent polymeric tip into it. The resulting blood microsample is dried and analyzed as a whole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of VAMS to overcome the hematocrit bias, an important issue in the analysis of dried blood microsamples. An LC-MS/MS method for analysis of the model compounds caffeine and paraxanthine in VAMS samples was fully validated and fulfilled all pre-established criteria. In conjunction with previously validated procedures for dried blood spots (DBS) and blood, this allowed us to set up a meticulous comparative study in which both compounds were determined in over 80 corresponding VAMS, DBS and liquid whole blood samples. These originated from authentic human patient samples, covering a wide hematocrit range (0.21-0.50). By calculating the differences with reference whole blood concentrations, we found that analyte concentrations in VAMS samples were not affected by a bias that changed over the evaluated hematocrit range, in contrast to DBS results. However, VAMS concentrations tend to overestimate whole blood concentrations, as a consistent positive bias was observed. A different behavior of VAMS samples prepared from incurred and spiked blood, combined with a somewhat reduced recovery of caffeine and paraxanthine from VAMS tips at high hematocrit values, an effect that was not observed for DBS using a very similar extraction procedure, was found to be at the basis of the observed VAMS-whole blood deviations. Based on this study, being the first in which the validity and robustness of VAMS is evaluated by analyzing incurred human samples, it can be concluded that VAMS effectively assists in eliminating the effect of hematocrit. PMID:26041521

  16. Identification of a suitable internal control for fluorescence analysis on canine peripheral blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riondato, F; Martini, V; Poggi, A; Rota, A; Comazzi, S; Sulce, M; Bruno, B; Borrelli, A; Miniscalco, B

    2016-04-01

    Reliable detection of fluorescence intensity (FI) by flow cytometry (FC) is fundamental. FI depends on instrument settings and sample processing procedures: thus, measurements should be done using internal controls with known FI. Commercially available beads-based standards are expensive, thus reducing their usability in the veterinary practice. Cell subsets with stable mean FI (MFI) within the population have been proposed as acceptable surrogates in human medicine. In veterinary medicine, no data exist about stability of antigen expression among different subjects or upon sample storage. The aim of the present study was to evaluate MFI variability of main lymphocytes antigens among the lymphoid cells within each subject, among different subjects, and upon 24-h storage, in order to identify the antigen most suitable as stable internal control in MFI analyses. Peripheral blood samples from 18 healthy dogs were analysed by FC within 3h from sampling to assess the expression of CD3, CD5, CD4, CD8, CD21 and cyCD79b using conjugated monoclonal antibodies. Analyses were restricted to the lymphoid population. Fluorescent microbeads were added to each tube, and antigen MFI was calculated as Relative Fluorescence Intensity RFI (CD/beads). Fluorescence histogram CV (fhCV) for each CD was regarded as an index of the variability of expression among lymphocytes within each subject (cell-to-cell variability); whereas the CV of RFI was regarded as an index of inter-subjects variability (dog-to-dog variability). In 11 cases, FC analyses were repeated after 24h storage at 4°C and RFI and CVs of fresh and stored samples were compared to assess variability linked to storage. CD4 was identified as the best antigen to be used as an internal control for MFI analyses in canine peripheral blood samples because of low cell-to-cell and dog-to-dog variability, and optimal stability upon 24-h storage. Blood samples from a second group of 21 healthy dogs were labelled only with CD4, in order

  17. Automated processing of whole blood samples for the determination of immunosuppressants by liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Vogeser, Michael; Spöhrer, Ute

    2006-01-01

    Background: Liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) is an efficient technology for routine determination of immunosuppressants in whole blood; however, time-consuming manual sample preparation remains a significant limitation of this technique. Methods: Using a commercially available robotic pipetting system (Tecan Freedom EVO), we developed an automated sample-preparation protocol for quantification of tacrolimus in whole blood by LC-MS/MS. Barcode reading, sample resuspens...

  18. Is liquid heparin comparable to dry balanced heparin for blood gas sampling in intensive care unit?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viswas Chhapola

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood gas (BG analysis is required for management of critically ill patients in emergency and intensive care units. BG parameters can be affected by the type of heparin formulations used-liquid heparin (LH or dry balanced heparin (DBH. This study was conducted to determine whether blood gas, electrolyte, and metabolite estimations performed by using DBH and LH are comparable. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted at pediatric intensive care unit (PICU of a tertiary care hospital. Paired venous samples were collected from 35 consecutive children in commercially prepared DBH syringes and custom-prepared LH syringes. Samples were immediately analyzed by blood gas analyzer and compared for pH, pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCO 3 - , Na + , K + , Cl - , and lactate. Paired comparisons were done and agreement was assessed by Bland-Altman difference plots. The 95% limits of absolute agreement (LOA were compared with the specifications for total allowable error (TEa. Results: The P values were significant for all measured parameters, with the exception of pCO 2 and K +. Bland-Altman difference plots showed wide LOA for pCO 2 , pO 2 , HCO3 - , Na + , K + , and Cl - when compared against TEa. For pCO 2 , HCO3 - , Na + , K + , and Cl - , 40%, 23%, 77%, 34%, and 54% of samples were outside the TEa limits, respectively, with LH. Conclusion: Our study showed that there is poor agreement between LH and DBH for the BG parameters pCO2, pO2, HCO3 - , K + , Na + , and Cl - and, thus, are not comparable. But for pH and lactate, LH and DBH can be used interchangeably.

  19. Trace elements in blood samples of workers in Atbara railways foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was conducted to determine trace elements and toxic substances in biological samples (blood samples) of humans. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), (Pb), lead, and zinc (Zn) in biological samples of workers employed in the industrial workshops in the River Nile state to assess the potential impact of exposure to the work environmental factors. For the purpose of comparison biological samples were collected from the same group of workers exposed to the elements of the work environment and workers not exposed to the elements of the work environment. The analysis of all elements in biological samples was done by x-ray fluorescence technique (X RF). There were no statistically significant differences between the analytical results for the exposed group and non-exposed group, using the same technique. The results showed that the concentrations of the four elements copper, lead, iron, and zinc in all biological samples from workers exposed were not much higher than those not exposed, it could be argued that there was a possible link between these elements with different causes of physiological disorder. The results also showed that need for an attention for improvements in hygiene practice in the workplace and industrial ventilation.(Author)

  20. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.D.; Hasselbalch, H.C.;

    2014-01-01

    eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing the...... tumors within the first three years following the DIFF. Using multivariable logistic regression, odds ratios (OR) were calculated and adjusted for previous eosinophilia, sex, age, year, month, C-reactive protein, previous cancer and Charlson's Comorbidity Index. RESULTS: The risk of bladder cancer was...

  1. Return of Results from Research Using Newborn Screening Dried Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Goldenberg, Aaron J

    2015-01-01

    There may be compelling reasons to return to parents a limited subset of results from research conducted using residual newborn screening dried blood samples (DBS). This article explores the circumstances under which research results might be returned, as well as the mechanisms by which state newborn screening programs might facilitate the return of research results. The scope of any responsibility to return results of research conducted using DBS should be assessed in light of the potential impact on the primary mission of state newborn screening programs. PMID:26479566

  2. Screening for genetic haemochromatosis in blood samples with raised alanine aminotransferase

    OpenAIRE

    Bhavnani, M; Lloyd, D; Bhattacharyya, A.; Marples, J; Elton, P; Worwood, M.

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—In the UK approximately 1 in 140 people are homozygous for the C282Y mutation of the HFE gene and are at risk from iron overload caused by genetic haemochromatosis (GH). Early detection can prevent organ damage secondary to iron deposition and increase life expectancy.
AIM—To screen for GH in all blood samples sent to the laboratory for routine liver function tests in which raised serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activity was detected.
METHODS—ALT was measured in sera sent to t...

  3. Quantitative Analysis of Trace Chromium in Blood Samples. Combination of the Advanced Oxidation Process with Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry

    OpenAIRE

    Yong, Li; Armstrong, Kristie C.; Dansby-Sparks, Royce N.; Carrington, Nathan A.; Chambers, James Q.; Xue, Zi-Ling

    2006-01-01

    A new method for pretreating blood samples for trace Cr analysis is described. The Advanced Oxidation Process (AOP with H2O2 and 5.5-W irradiation for 60 min) is used to remove biological/organic species for subsequent analysis. Prior to the AOP pretreatment, acid (HNO3) is used at pH 3.0 to inhibit the enzyme catalase in the blood samples. Catalytic Adsorptive Stripping Voltammetry (CAdSV) at a bismuth film electrode (BiFE) gives Cr concentration of 6.0 ± 0.3 ppb in the blood samples. This c...

  4. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu protein. The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023). Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024). No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564), lymph node involvement (p = 0.673), ER (p = 0.877), PR (p = 0.763), and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335), was observed. Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer

  5. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant...... time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... antigens as fresh samples, as day-old samples potentiated with bovine IL-12, and as day-old samples treated with anti-bovine IL-10 antibody. Day-old samples were stored overnight at -4ºC. The correlations between IFN-γ responses in the three types of samples and on different sampling dates were then...

  6. Slurry sampling in serum blood for mercury determination by CV-AFS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The heavy metal mercury (Hg) is a neurotoxin known to have a serious health impact even at relatively low concentrations. A slurry method was developed for the sensitive and precise determination of mercury in human serum blood samples by cold vapor generation coupled to atomic fluorescence spectrometry (CV-AFS). All variables related to the slurry formation were studied. The optimal hydrochloric concentration and tin(II) chloride concentration for CV generation were evaluated. Calibration within the range 0.1-10 μg L-1 Hg was performed with the standard addition method, and compared with an external calibration. Additionally, the reliability of the results obtained was evaluated by analyzing mercury in the same samples, but submitted to microwave-assisted digestion method. The limit of detection was calculated as 25 ng L-1 and the relative standard deviation was 3.9% at levels around of 0.4 μg L-1 Hg

  7. Thyroxine and thyrotropin radioimmunoassays using dried blood samples on filter paper for screening of neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine and automatized methodology for thyroxine (T4) and thyrotropin (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) using dried blood samples on filter paper is described. Five mm diameter dots were prepared. One eluted dot, corresponding to 4 μl of plasma, was used for T4-RIA while two were necessary for TSH-RIA. Reference filter papers were introduced in each assay for quality control. In a preliminary study on 1903 newborns, samples were obtained, generally between the 5th-7th day. Mean dot T4 was 7.38 +- 2.5 μg/dl. Mean dot TSH was 11.83 +- 9.1 μU/ml, the equation of the regression line between dot TSH (y) and serum TSH (x) being Y = 10.29 + 0.623x. (orig.)

  8. A STUDY OF METALLO-BETA-LACTAMASE PRODUCING PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA IN BLOOD SAMPLES OF BURNED PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyali

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available : BACKGROUND: Septicaemia is a life threatening complication of severely burned patients. Among many organisms invading blood stream Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a well-known for its powerful antibiotic resistance mechanisms which increasingly limit the choices for treatment. Among many such resistance mechanisms it is the metallo-beta-lactamase (MBL which confers resistance to Carbapenem group of antibiotics, one of the final resorts to fight them. The present study was undertaken to detect MBL producing P. aeruginosa using phenotypic method from blood samples of burned patients as well as to know their drug sensitivity pattern. MATERIALS AND METHODS: For this purpose 67 Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates from blood samples of admitted burned patients were subjected to susceptibility testing to antipseudomonal drugs by disc diffusion test and those found to be Carbapenem resistant were subjected to Imipenem - EDTA combined disk synergy test for MBL detection. RESULT: Out of 67 isolates of P.aeruginosa, 19 (28.4% were found to be Carbapenem resistant and 11 (16.4% were MBL producers. A particularly important feature was that the MBL producers were highly resistant to the antibiotics tested than the non-producers. However all of them were susceptible to Colistin and Polymixin B. CONCLUSION: This study has made us to think that a constant vigil and careful selection of antibiotics are necessary to keep prevalence of MBL producing P.aeruginosa in check. The accurate identification and reporting of MBL producing P. aeruginosa will aid infection control practitioners in preventing the spread of these multidrug-resistant isolates

  9. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R., Jr.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  10. A comparative evaluation of four DNA extraction protocols from whole blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheri, M; Kahrizi, D; Yari, K; Babaie, A; Suthar, R S; Kazemi, E

    2016-01-01

    All organisms have Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) within their cells. DNA is a complex molecule that contains all of the information necessary to build and maintain an organism. DNA extraction is one of the most basic and essential techniques in the study of DNA that allow huge advances in molecular biology, biotechnology and bioinformatics laboratories. Whole blood samples are one of the main sources used to obtain DNA and there are many different protocols available in this issue. In current research, compared four DNA extraction protocols from blood samples; include modified phenol-chloroform protocol, two salting-out and enzyme free method and from commercial kit. The extracted DNAs by these protocols were analyzed according to their time demands, quality and quantity, toxicity and functionality in PCR method. Also the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA were surveyed by gel electrophoresis and Nanodrop spectrophotometry methods. It was observed that there are not significantly differences between these methods about DNA Purity (A260/A280), but the DNA yield (ng DNA/μl) of phenol/chloroform method was higher than other methods. In addition, phenol/chloroform was the most toxic method and it takes more time than other methods. Roche diagnostics GmbH kit was the most expensive among the four methods but the least extraction time was required and it was the safest method. PMID:27064884

  11. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  12. Concentrations of environmental contaminants in blood samples collected from Sharp-shinned hawks (Accipiter striatus) from the Eastern Flyway

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Table 1 provides the results of organochlorine and mercury analysis on plasma and whole blood samples (respectively) collected from 20 sharp-shinned hawks at HMS...

  13. Comparison of Simultaneous Splenic Sample PCR with Blood Sample PCR for Diagnosis and Treatment of Experimental Ehrlichia canis Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Harrus, Shimon; Kenny, Martin; Miara, Limor; Aizenberg, Itzhak; Waner, Trevor; Shaw, Susan

    2004-01-01

    This report presents evidence that dogs recover from acute canine monocytic ehrlichiosis (CME) after 16 days of doxycycline treatment (10 mg/kg of body weight every 24 h). Blood PCR was as valuable as splenic aspirate PCR for early diagnosis of acute CME. Splenic aspirate PCR was, however, superior to blood PCR for the evaluation of ehrlichial elimination.

  14. Determination of the presence of Babesia species in blood samples of cattle, camel and sheep in Iran by PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Khamesipour Faham; Doosti Abbas; Koohi Arman; Chehelgerdi Mohammad; Mokhtari-Farsani Abbas; Chengula Augustino Alfred

    2015-01-01

    Babesia species are protozoan parasites that parasitize the erythrocytes of domestic animals and humans, causing anemia in the host. The parasites cause a zoonotic disease known as babesiosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has proven to be very sensitive for detecting Babesia in blood samples of affected animals, particular in ruminants. The purpose of the current study was to determine the presence of Babesia spp. in blood samples obtained from 2 cattle,...

  15. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  16. DNA damage focus analysis in blood samples of minipigs reveals acute partial body irradiation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Lamkowski

    Full Text Available Radiation accidents frequently involve acute high dose partial body irradiation leading to victims with radiation sickness and cutaneous radiation syndrome that implements radiation-induced cell death. Cells that are not lethally hit seek to repair ionizing radiation (IR induced damage, albeit at the expense of an increased risk of mutation and tumor formation due to misrepair of IR-induced DNA double strand breaks (DSBs. The response to DNA damage includes phosphorylation of histone H2AX in the vicinity of DSBs, creating foci in the nucleus whose enumeration can serve as a radiation biodosimeter. Here, we investigated γH2AX and DNA repair foci in peripheral blood lymphocytes of Göttingen minipigs that experienced acute partial body irradiation (PBI with 49 Gy (± 6% Co-60 γ-rays of the upper lumbar region. Blood samples taken 4, 24 and 168 hours post PBI were subjected to γ-H2AX, 53BP1 and MRE11 focus enumeration. Peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL of 49 Gy partial body irradiated minipigs were found to display 1-8 DNA damage foci/cell. These PBL values significantly deceed the high foci numbers observed in keratinocyte nuclei of the directly γ-irradiated minipig skin regions, indicating a limited resident time of PBL in the exposed tissue volume. Nonetheless, PBL samples obtained 4 h post IR in average contained 2.2% of cells displaying a pan-γH2AX signal, suggesting that these received a higher IR dose. Moreover, dispersion analysis indicated partial body irradiation for all 13 minipigs at 4 h post IR. While dose reconstruction using γH2AX DNA repair foci in lymphocytes after in vivo PBI represents a challenge, the DNA damage focus assay may serve as a rapid, first line indicator of radiation exposure. The occurrence of PBLs with pan-γH2AX staining and of cells with relatively high foci numbers that skew a Poisson distribution may be taken as indicator of acute high dose partial body irradiation, particularly when samples are available

  17. Validation of a fully automated robotic setup for preparation of whole blood samples for LC-MS toxicology analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, David Wederkinck; Rasmussen, Brian; Linnet, Kristian

    2012-01-01

    A fully automated setup was developed for preparing whole blood samples using a Tecan Evo workstation. By integrating several add-ons to the robotic platform, the flexible setup was able to prepare samples from sample tubes to a 96-well sample plate ready for injection on liquid chromatography......-mass spectrometry using several preparation techniques, including protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction and centrifugation, without any manual intervention. Pipetting of a known aliquot of whole blood was achieved by integrating a balance and performing gravimetric measurements. The system was able to...

  18. A New Blood Collection Device Minimizes Cellular DNA Release During Sample Storage and Shipping When Compared to a Standard Device

    OpenAIRE

    Norton, Sheila E; Luna, Kristin K; Lechner, Joel M; Qin, Jianbing; Fernando, M Rohan

    2013-01-01

    Background Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) circulating in blood is currently used for noninvasive diagnostic and prognostic tests. Minimizing background DNA is vital for detection of low abundance cfDNA. We investigated whether a new blood collection device could reduce background levels of genomic DNA (gDNA) in plasma compared to K3EDTA tubes, when subjected to conditions that may occur during sample storage and shipping. Methods Blood samples were drawn from healthy donors into K3EDTA and Cell-Free D...

  19. Influence of EDTA and magnesium on DNA extraction from blood samples and specificity of polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    H. Khosravinia; Ramesha, KP

    2007-01-01

    This study consisting of two trails conducted to examine the impact of initial EDTA level added to blood samples on quantity and quality of genomic DNA isolated from avian fresh blood and the influence of initial EDTA level with various levels of $MgCl_2$ added to polymerase chain reaction (PCR) final volume on amplification pattern. EDTA level added to collected blood samples had no significant impact on quantity as well as quality of extracted genomic DNA. However, higher levels of EDTA inc...

  20. Effects of two kinds of femoral vein blood sampling methods on blood samples of newborn%两种股静脉采血方法对新生儿血标本的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋力艳; 海冬; 王彩芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective Effects of 2 kinds of methods to explore the application of disposable blood collecting needle essence of neonatal femoral vein blood sample collection and traditional syringe oblique femoral vein blood sample collection of blood samples in blood coagulation, hemolysis, blood volume in 3 aspects. Methods Our department from January to May 2014, 60 cases of the neonates were divided into observation group and control group with 30 cases in each group, the 2 group objects are the newborn, blood sampling sites were the femoral vein, the observation group used a disposable blood taking needle oblique femoral venous retention method to take blood samples, the control group used the traditional syringe inclined thorn femoral vein leaving method blood samples, will affect the 2 groups of blood sampling methods on blood samples of newborn compared. Results The observation group used a disposable blood taking needle oblique femoral venous blood specimens in anti coagulation, anti hemolysis, blood volume reached 3 aspects of statistical difference is significant. Conclusion The observation group used a disposable blood taking needle oblique femoral venous blood specimens in anti coagulation, anti hemolysis, blood volume reached 3 aspects of statistical difference is significant.%目的:探讨新生儿应用一次性采血针斜刺股静脉采集血标本与传统注射器斜刺股静脉采集血标本2种方法对血标本在凝血、溶血、采血量3个方面的影响。方法本科室将2014年1月至5月60例新生儿分为观察组和对照组各30例,2组采血对象均为新生儿,采血部位均为股静脉,观察组采用一次性采血针斜刺股静脉留取血标本的方法,对照组采用传统注射器斜刺股静脉留取血标本的方法,将2组采血方法对新生儿血标本的影响进行比较。结果观察组采用一次性采血针斜刺股静脉留取血标本在防凝血、防溶血、达到采血量3个方面统计学的

  1. Identification of malaria infected red blood samples by digital holographic quantitative phase microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Nimit R.; Chhaniwal, Vani K.; Javidi, Bahram; Anand, Arun

    2015-07-01

    Development of devices for automatic identification of diseases is desired especially in developing countries. In the case of malaria, even today the gold standard is the inspection of chemically treated blood smears through a microscope. This requires a trained technician/microscopist to identify the cells in the field of view, with which the labeling chemicals gets attached. Bright field microscopes provide only low contrast 2D images of red blood cells and cell thickness distribution cannot be obtained. Quantitative phase contrast microscopes can provide both intensity and phase profiles of the cells under study. The phase information can be used to determine thickness profile of the cell. Since cell morphology is available, many parameters pertaining to the 3D shape of the cell can be computed. These parameters in turn could be used to decide about the state of health of the cell leading to disease diagnosis. Here the investigations done on digital holographic microscope, which provides quantitative phase images, for comparison of parameters obtained from the 3D shape profile of objects leading to identification of diseased samples is described.

  2. Levels of PCBs, DDT, DDE and DDD in Italian human blood samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rocca, C. La; Abate, V.; Alivernini, S.; Iacovella, N.; Mantovani, A.; Turrio-Baldassarri, L. [Ist. Superiore di Sanita, Roma (Italy); Silvestroni, L.; Spera, G. [Dept. of Medical Pathophysiology, Univ. (Italy)

    2004-09-15

    The environmental contamination from polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) is effecting the exposure of the general population in a direct way through air inhalation, ingestion of particulate matter and dermal absorption and, most of all, in an indirect way through diet. Diet represents, in fact, the main way of human exposure to PCBs. PCBs have potential teratogenic, carcinogenic, hormonal and immunological effects. An association between endometriosis and high levels of PCB in plasma has also been reported3. Moreover, some congeners (PCB 105, PCB 118, PCB 153) have effects on thyroid hormones in animal models, although the PCB dose used in these experiments was an order of magnitude higher than the estimated human exposure. Humans are, however, exposed to a complex mixtures of PCB congeners. In this study identification and quantification of 60 PCB congeners and 3 chlorinated pesticides in human whole blood samples are presented. The subjects examined in this pilot study were a small group of patients with possible endocrine-related problems and unknown specific exposure. The aim of this study was to increase the present understanding about the distribution of the PCBs in human whole blood. The levels of DDT and metabolites were measured as well, since these compounds are consistently reported to contribute to the whole body burden of persistent chlorinated compounds, together with PCBs.

  3. Preliminary Blood Pressure Screening in a Representative Sample of Extremely Obese Kuwaiti Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rima Abdul Razzak

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between blood pressure (BP and obesity has been found in young adults, but no data are available for adolescents in Kuwait. 257 adolescent (11–19 years participants were categorized into two groups according to their BMI; 48 nonobese (21 males: 43.7% and 27 females: 56.3% with mean age of years and 209 obese (128 males: 61.25% and 81 females: 38.75% with mean age of years. The mean BMI was  kg/m2 for the nonobese group and  kg/m3 for the obese group. Most BP measures based on a single screening were significantly higher in the obese group. The prevalence of elevated BP was significantly higher in the obese subjects (nonobese: 13%; obese: 63%; . In the obese group, there was a significant positive correlation between total sample BMI and all BP measures except the pulse pressure. There was a similar rate of elevated blood pressure between males and females (64% versus 60%; . For both isolated systolic elevated BP and isolated diastolic elevated BP, the prevalences were comparable between the males (systolic: 42%; diastolic: 5% and females (systolic: 34%; diastolic: 14%. Only systolic BP was positively correlated with BMI in obese adolescent males (Spearman ; , with a significant correlation between BMI with diastolic (Spearman ; and mean BP (Spearman ; in females.

  4. Antidepressants detection and quantification in whole blood samples by GC-MS/MS, for forensic purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truta, Liliana; Castro, André L; Tarelho, Sónia; Costa, Pedro; Sales, M Goreti F; Teixeira, Helena M

    2016-09-01

    Depression is among the most prevalent psychiatric disorders of our society, leading to an increase in antidepressant drug consumption that needs to be accurately determined in whole blood samples in Forensic Toxicology Laboratories. For this purpose, this work presents a new gas chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (GC-MS/MS) method targeting the simultaneous and rapid determination of 14 common Antidepressants in whole blood: 13 Antidepressants (amitriptyline, citalopram, clomipramine, dothiepin, fluoxetine, imipramine, mianserin, mirtazapine, nortryptiline, paroxetine, sertraline, trimipramine and venlafaxine) and 1 Metabolite (N-desmethylclomipramine). Solid-phase extraction was used prior to chromatographic separation. Chromatographic and MS/MS parameters were selected to improve sensitivity, peak resolution and unequivocal identification of the eluted analyte. The detection was performed on a triple quadrupole tandem MS in selected ion monitoring (SIM) mode in tandem, using electronic impact ionization. Clomipramine-D3 and trimipramine-D3 were used as deutered internal standards. The validation parameters included linearity, limits of detection, lower limit of quantification, selectivity/specificity, extraction efficiency, carry-over, precision and robustness, and followed internationally accepted guidelines. Limits of quantification and detection were lower than therapeutic and sub-therapeutic concentration ranges. Overall, the method offered good selectivity, robustness and quick response (<16min) for typical concentration ranges, both for therapeutic and lethal levels. PMID:27376459

  5. Putative Epimutagens in Maternal Peripheral and Cord Blood Samples Identified Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshikazu Arai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The regulation of transcription and genome stability by epigenetic systems are crucial for the proper development of mammalian embryos. Chemicals that disturb epigenetic systems are termed epimutagens. We previously performed chemical screening that focused on heterochromatin formation and DNA methylation status in mouse embryonic stem cells and identified five epimutagens: diethyl phosphate (DEP, mercury (Hg, cotinine, selenium (Se, and octachlorodipropyl ether (S-421. Here, we used human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs to confirm the effects of 20 chemicals, including the five epimutagens, detected at low concentrations in maternal peripheral and cord blood samples. Of note, these individual chemicals did not exhibit epimutagenic activity in hiPSCs. However, because the fetal environment contains various chemicals, we evaluated the effects of combined exposure to chemicals (DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 on hiPSCs. The combined exposure caused a decrease in the number of heterochromatin signals and aberrant DNA methylation status at multiple gene loci in hiPSCs. The combined exposure also affected embryoid body formation and neural differentiation from hiPSCs. Therefore, DEP, Hg, cotinine, Se, and S-421 were defined as an “epimutagen combination” that is effective at low concentrations as detected in maternal peripheral and cord blood.

  6. Production of dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells from banked umbilical cord blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood (UCB is considered to be a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. All UCB banks have recently become interested in the isolation and storage of HSCs for the treatment of hematological diseases. However, UCB was also recently confirmed as a source of immune cells for immunotherapy such as dendritic cells (DCs and cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs. This study aimed to exploit this source of immune cells in banked UCB samples. After collection of UCB samples, mononuclear cells (MNCs containing stem cells, progenitor cells, and mature cells were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque-based centrifugation. The MNCs were subjected to freezing and thawing according to a previously published protocol. The banked MNCs were used to produce DCs and CIKs. To produce DCs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with GM-CSF (50 ng/ml and IL-4 (40 ng/ml for 14 days. To produce CIKs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, IL-3, and GMC-SF for 21 and ndash;28 days. Both DCs and CIKs were evaluated for their phenotypes and functions according to previously published protocols. The results showed that banked UCB samples can be successfully used to produce functional DCs and CIKs. These samples are valuable sources of immune cells for immunotherapy. The present results suggest that banked UCB samples are useful not only for stem cell isolation, but also for immune cell production. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(11.000: 402-408

  7. Final Report on Initial Samples Supplied by LLNL for Task 3.3 Binder Burnout and Sintering Schedule Optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, P

    1999-01-04

    Sixteen of the twenty-one samples have been investigated using the scanning laser dilatometer. This includes all three types of samples with different preparation routes and organic content. Cracks were observed in all samples, even those only heated to 300 C. It was concluded that the cracking was occurring in the early part of the heat treatment before the samples reached 300 C. Increase in the rate of dilation of the samples occurred above 170 C which coincided with the decomposition of the binder/wax additives as determined by differential thermal analysis. A comparison was made with SYNROC C material (Powder Run 143), samples of which had been CIPed and green machined to a similar diameter and thickness as the 089mm SRTC pucks. These samples contained neither binder nor other organic processing aids and had been kept in the same desiccator as the SRTC samples. The CIPed Synroc C samples sintered to high density with zero cracks. As the cracks made up only a small contribution to the change in diameter of the sample compared to the sintering shrinkage, useful information could still be gained from the runs. The sintering curves showed that there was much greater shrinkage of the Type III samples containing only the 5% PEG binder compared to the Type I which contained polyolefin wax as processing aid. Slight changes in gradient of the sintering curve were observed, however, due to the masking effect of the cracking, full analysis of the sintering kinetics cannot be conducted. Even heating the samples to 300 C at 1.0 or 0.5 C/min could not prevent crack formation. This indicated that heating rate was not the critical parameter causing cracking of the samples. Sectioning of green bodies revealed the inhomogeneous nature of the binder/lubricant distribution in the samples. Increased homogeneity would reduce the amount of binder/lubricant required, which should in turn, reduce the degree of cracking observed during heating to the binder burnout temperature. A

  8. Final report on initial samples supplied by LLNL for task 3.3 binder burnout and sintering schedule optimisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walls, P

    1999-01-04

    Sixteen of the twenty-one samples have been investigated using the scanning laser dilatometer. This includes all three types of samples with different preparation routes and organic content. Cracks were observed in all samples, even those only heated to 300 C. It was concluded that the cracking was occurring in the early part of the heat treatment before the samples reached 300 C. Increase in the rate of dilation of the samples occurred above 170 C which coincided with the decomposition of the binder/wax additives as determined by differential thermal analysis. A comparison was made with SYNROC C material (Powder Run 143), samples of which had been CIPed and green machined to a similar diameter and thickness as the 089 mm SRTC pucks. These samples contained neither binder nor other organic processing aids and had been kept in the same desiccator as the SRTC samples. The CIPed Synroc C samples sintered to high density with zero cracks. As the cracks made up only a small contribution to the change in diameter of the sample compared to the sintering shrinkage, useful information could still be gained from the runs. The sintering curves showed that there was much greater shrinkage of the Type III samples containing only the 5% PEG binder compared to the Type I which contained polyolefin wax as processing aid. Slight changes in gradient of the sintering curve were observed, however, due to the masking effect of the cracking, full analysis of the sintering kinetics cannot be conducted. Even heating the samples to 300 C at 1.0 or 0.5 C/min could not prevent crack formation. This indicated that heating rate was not the critical parameter causing cracking of the samples. Sectioning of green bodies revealed the inhomogeneous nature of the binder/lubricant distribution in the samples. Increased homogeneity would reduce the amount of binder/lubricant required, which should in turn, reduce the degree of cracking observed during heating to the binder burnout temperature. A

  9. Real-time PCR for detection of Trypanosoma evansi in blood samples using SYBR green fluorescent dye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A real-time PCR assay was developed for the detection of Trypanosoma evansi DNA in mouse blood samples. The PCR was performed with repetitive DNA primers targeting the 257- bp in T.evansi and with SYBR Green I fluorescent dye to monitor the amplicon accumulation. The minimal detection of purified T.evansi genomic DNA was 0.00338 pg per reaction. DNA template preparation was performed on T.evansi infected mouse blood samples using Chelex 100 resin. It was shown to be a simples and quantitative method as revealed by real-time PCR. The detection limit of the assay was as little as 0.039 Trypanosomes (0.0039 pg) per reaction corresponding to 39 Trypanosomes per mL of blood. DNA template of T.evansi from blood samples was amplified with as little as same amount of purified T.evansi genomic DNA. Similar efficiency between the real-time assay ensured quantitative results. No amplicon was obtained with samples from Babesia bovis, B. bigemina, Theileria orientalis and Anaplasma marginale infected cow blood. The results indicate that the real-time PCR assay described is a rapid and sensitive method suitable for the detection of T.evansi in blood samples in routine clinical laboratory practice. (author)

  10. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fokas Emmanouil

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA. We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Methods Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER, progesterone receptor (PR and Her-2/neu protein. Results The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023. Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024. No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564, lymph node involvement (p = 0.673, ER (p = 0.877, PR (p = 0.763, and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335, was observed. Conclusion Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer.

  11. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  12. Utility of the microculture method for Leishmania detection in non-invasive samples obtained from a blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ates, Sezen Canim; Bagirova, Malahat; Allahverdiyev, Adil M; Kocazeybek, Bekir; Kosan, Erdogan

    2013-10-01

    In recent years, the role of donor blood has taken an important place in epidemiology of Leishmaniasis. According to the WHO, the numbers of patients considered as symptomatic are only 5-20% of individuals with asymptomatic leishmaniasis. In this study for detection of Leishmania infection in donor blood samples, 343 samples from the Capa Red Crescent Blood Center were obtained and primarily analyzed by microscopic and serological methods. Subsequently, the traditional culture (NNN), Immuno-chromatographic test (ICT) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) methods were applied to 21 samples which of them were found positive with at least one method. Buffy coat (BC) samples from 343 blood donors were analyzed: 15 (4.3%) were positive by a microculture method (MCM); and 4 (1.1%) by smear. The sera of these 343 samples included 9 (2.6%) determined positive by ELISA and 7 (2%) positive by IFAT. Thus, 21 of (6.1%) the 343 subjects studied by smear, MCM, IFAT and ELISA techniques were identified as positive for leishmaniasis at least one of the techniques and the sensitivity assessed. According to our data, the sensitivity of the methods are identified as MCM (71%), smear (19%), IFAT (33%), ELISA (42%), NNN (4%), PCR (14%) and ICT (4%). Thus, with this study for the first time, the sensitivity of a MCM was examined in blood donors by comparing MCM with the methods used in the diagnosis of leishmaniasis. As a result, MCM was found the most sensitive method for detection of Leishmania parasites in samples obtained from a blood bank. In addition, the presence of Leishmania parasites was detected in donor bloods in Istanbul, a non-endemic region of Turkey, and these results is a vital importance for the health of blood recipients. PMID:23806567

  13. Project scheduling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starting with commercial service of Dresden Unit 1 in 1960, Commonwealth Edison Company has assumed a major role in the commercial development of nuclear power. Seven units are now in operation and eight additional units are scheduled for service through the mid-1980's. To manage this large volume of construction, a project oriented management information system has been developed. The major elements of this system include a Budget and Cost Reporting System, a Field Cost Reporting System, and a Project Scheduling System. The paper deals with the Scheduling System. In spite of the traditional resistance to change, the scheduling system is on the road to acceptance. Using three distinct levels of scheduling detail, schedule information is obtained from all key departments and processed through the computer and an electrostatic plotter. Schedule reports are carefully designed for specific management levels

  14. Blood sample tube transporting system versus point of care technology in an emergency department; effect on time from collection to reporting?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nørgaard, Birgitte; Mogensen, Christian Backer

    technologies (POCT) are used in emergency departments. This study assesses the hypothesis, that using Point of Care Technology in analysing blood samples versus tube transporting blood samples for laboratory analyses results in shorter time from the blood sample is collected to the result is reported in an...

  15. Serum levels of perfluoroalkyl compounds in human maternal and umbilical cord blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perfluoroalkyl compounds (PFCs) are end-stage metabolic products from industrial flourochemicals used in the manufacture of plastics, textiles, and electronics that are widely distributed in the environment. The objective of the present study was to quantify exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), perfluorodecanoic acid (PFDeA), perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS), perfluoroheptanoic acid (PFHpA), and perfluorononanoic acid (PFNA) in serum samples collected from pregnant women and the umbilical cord at delivery. Pregnant women (n=101) presenting for second trimester ultrasound were recruited and PFC residue levels were quantified in maternal serum at 24-28 weeks of pregnancy, at delivery, and in umbilical cord blood (UCB; n=105) by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Paired t-test and multiple regression analysis were performed to determine the relationship between the concentrations of each analyte at different sample collection time points. PFOA and PFOS were detectable in all serum samples analyzed including the UCB. PFOS serum levels (mean±S.D.) were significantly higher (p<0.001) in second trimester maternal serum (18.1±10.9 ng/mL) than maternal serum levels at delivery (16.2±10.4 ng/mL), which were higher than the levels found in UCB (7.3±5.8 ng/mL; p<0.001). PFHxS was quantifiable in 46/101 (45.5%) maternal and 21/105 (20%) UCB samples with a mean concentration of 4.05±12.3 and 5.05±12.9 ng/mL, respectively. There was no association between serum PFCs at any time point studied and birth weight. Taken together our data demonstrate that although there is widespread exposure to PFCs during development, these exposures do not affect birth weight

  16. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1μm) to be collected over a 30min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFUmL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFUmL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  17. Screening for neonatal hypothyroidism by thyroxine and thyrotrophin radioimmunoassays using dried blood samples on filter paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A routine and automated methodology for thyroxine (T4) and thyrotrophin (TSH) radioimmunoassay (RIA) using dried blood samples on filter paper is described. T4-RIA was performed on one single dot (5 mm diameter equivalent to 4 μl of serum) while two dots were necessary for TSH-RIA. Reference filter papers were introduced in each assay for quality control. In a preliminary study on 4,155 neonates, samples generally obtained between the 5th-7th day gave a mean 'dot-T4' of 97.95 +- 36.04 nmol/l and a mean 'dot-TSH' of 10.19 mU/l +- 8.25, corresponding to 2.47 mU/l of serum. Within an 18-month period (November 1976 - April 1978), a total of 16,522 neonates have been screened allowing detection of three cases of congenital hypothyroidism (incidence 1:5507), two cases of congenitally low TBG and thirty-three cases of transient hypothyroidism. (author)

  18. Rapid detection of Candida albicans by polymerase spiral reaction assay in clinical blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqun eJiang

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Candida albicans is the most common human yeast pathogen which causes mucosal infections and invasive fungal diseases. Early detection of this pathogen is needed to guide preventative and therapeutic treatment. The aim of this study was to establish a polymerase spiral reaction (PSR assay that rapidly and accurately detects C. albicans and to assess the clinical applicability of PSR-based diagnostic testing. Internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2, a region between 5.8S and 28S fungal ribosomal DNA, was used as the target sequence. Four primers were designed for amplification of ITS2 with the PSR method, which was evaluated using real time turbidity monitoring and visual detection using a pH indicator. Fourteen non- C. albicans yeast strains were negative for detection, which indicated the specificity of PSR assay was 100%. A 10-fold serial dilution of C. albicans genomic DNA was subjected to PSR and conventional PCR to compare their sensitivities. The detection limit of PSR was 6.9 pg/µl within 1 h, 10-fold higher than that of PCR (69.0 pg/µl. Blood samples (n=122 were collected from intensive care unit and hematological patients with proven or suspected C. albicans infection at two hospitals in Beijing, China. Both PSR assay and the culture method were used to analyze the samples. Of the 122 clinical samples, 34 were identified as positive by PSR. The result was consistent with those obtained by the culture method. In conclusion, a novel and effective C. albicans detection assay was developed that has a great potential for clinical screening and point-of-care testing.

  19. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Suzanne Miyamoto; Taylor, Sandra L.; Barupal, Dinesh K; Ayumu Taguchi; Gert Wohlgemuth; Wikoff, William R.; Yoneda, Ken Y.; Gandara, David R.; Samir M. Hanash; Kyoungmi Kim; Oliver Fiehn

    2015-01-01

    Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS) to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer ...

  20. Single blood-Hg samples can result in exposure misclassification: temporal monitoring within the Japanese community (United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuchiya Ami

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The most prominent non-occupational source of exposure to methylmercury is the consumption of fish. In this study we examine a fish consuming population to determine the extent of temporal exposure and investigate the extent to which single time estimates of methylmercury exposure based on blood-Hg concentration can provide reliable estimates of longer-term average exposure. Methods Blood-mercury levels were obtained from a portion of the Arsenic Mercury Intake Biometric Study (AMIBS cohort. Specifically, 56 Japanese women residing in the Puget Sound area of Washington State, US were sampled on three occasions across a one-year period. Results An average of 135 days separated samples, with mean blood-mercury levels for the visits being 5.1, 6.6 and 5.0 μg/l and geometric means being 2.7, 4.5 and 3.1 μg/l. The blood-mercury levels in this group exceed national averages with geometric means for two of the visits being between the 90th and 95th percentiles of nationally observed levels and the lowest geometric mean being between the 75th and 90th percentile. Group means were not significantly different across sampling periods suggesting that exposure of combined subjects remained relatively constant. Comparing intra-individual results over time did not reveal a strong correlation among visits (r = 0.19, 0.50, 0.63 between 1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd sample results, respectively. In comparing blood-mercury levels across two sampling interval combinations (1st and 2nd, 2nd and 3rd, and 1st and 3rd visits, respectively, 58% (n = 34, 53% (n = 31 and 29% (n = 17 of the individuals had at least a 100% difference in blood-Hg levels. Conclusions Point estimates of blood-mercury, when compared with three sample averages, may not reflect temporal variability and individual exposures estimated on the basis of single blood samples should be treated with caution as indicators of long-term exposure

  1. Comparative determination of methyl mercury in whole blood samples using GC-ICP-MS and GC-MS techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hippler, J; Hoppe, H W; Mosel, F; Rettenmeier, A W; Hirner, A V

    2009-08-15

    Two methods for the determination of methyl mercury (MeHg) in whole blood samples based on different mass spectrometric detection techniques are compared. The methods were employed in two studies in which the internal exposure of a group of mercury-exposed workers to total mercury and MeHg was investigated. Blood samples of these workers were analysed for MeHg independently from each other in two laboratories using similar extraction procedures but different detection techniques, viz. coupled GC-EI-MS/ICP-MS and GC-MS using D(3)-MeHg as internal standard. MeHg was detected in all blood samples in concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 9.0 microg/L. Though different detection techniques were employed, the results obtained by the two laboratories were in relatively good agreement. PMID:19560985

  2. Trace samples of human blood in mosquitoes as a forensic investigation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects. PMID:26600546

  3. Stability of HE4 and CA125 in blood samples from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Noreen; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus; Laursen, Inga A; Christensen, Ib J; Høgdall, Estrid V S

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of handling and storage on HE4 and CA125 serum and EDTA plasma levels to clarify any important consequences for a clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples from 13 ovarian cancer (OC) patients were collected and allowed to clot or sediment for up to 72 hours...... at 4 °C or 20 °C, then processed into serum and EDTA plasma. Furthermore, the effects of up to eight repetitive cycles of freeze/thaw were investigated. HE4 and CA125 were analyzed using a Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay on the Architect i2000sr System. RESULTS: No significant effect of...... processing time for HE4 could be shown. HE4 EDTA plasma levels were insignificantly lower (3%) than serum levels (p = 0.41). Similarly, no significant effect of processing time for CA125 could be demonstrated. CA125 levels at 4 °C were significantly reduced compared to levels at 20 °C (p = 0.024). No...

  4. Flow cytometric comparison of platelets from a whole blood and finger-prick sample: impact of 24 hours storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Albe C; Stander, Andre; Pretorius, Etheresia

    2013-03-01

    In this study, we investigate the validity and laboratory utility of flow cytometry when analyzing platelet activation by studying CD41, CD42b, CD62P and CD63. We compare flow cytometry results from citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples directly after collection and also after storing both a finger-prick and whole-blood sample for 24 hours. Citrated whole-blood and finger-prick samples were taken from three healthy individuals on two occasions, and a total of 60,000 cells were analyzed for each of the four phycoerythrin-labeled monoclonal antibodies. Half of each sample was analyzed immediately after sampling while the other half was kept in the fridge at 6 °C for 24 hours before analysis. No significant difference was found between the sampling methods or the period of time before analysis. Results therefore suggest that an appropriately prepared finger-prick sample can be used for platelet function analysis, and samples can be stored for 24 hours in the fridge at 6 °C before analysis. PMID:23320994

  5. Sampling blood from big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) in the field with and without anesthesia: Impacts on survival

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellison, L.E.; O'Shea, T.J.; Wimsatt, J.; Pearce, R.D.; Neubaum, D.J.; Neubaum, M.A.; Bowen, R.A.

    2006-01-01

    Blood was collected from wild big brown bats (Eptesicus fuscus) with and without anesthesia in Fort Collins, Colorado in 2004 to assess the impacts of these procedures on short-term survival and 1-yr return rates. Short-term survival and 1-yr return rates after release were passively monitored using PIT tag detection hoops placed at selected buildings. Comparison of 14-day maximum likelihood survival estimates from bats not bled (142 adult females, 62 volant juveniles), and bats sampled for blood with anesthesia (96 adult females, 23 volant juveniles) and without anesthesia (112 adult females, 22 volant juveniles) indicated no adverse effects of either treatment (juveniles: X2=53.38, df=41, P=0.09; adults: X2=39.09, df=44, P=0.68). Return rates of bats one year after sampling were similar among adult female controls (75.4%, n=142, 95% CI=67.4-82.2%), females sampled for blood with anesthesia (83.0%, n=112, 95% CI=74.8-89.5%), and females sampled without anesthesia (87.5%, n=96, 95% CI=79.2-93.4%). Lack of an effect was also noted in 1-yr return rates of juvenile females. These data suggest that the use of anesthesia during sampling of blood has no advantages in terms of enhancement of survival in big brown bats. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2006.

  6. Development of a Modular Assay for Detailed Immunophenotyping of Peripheral Human Whole Blood Samples by Multicolor Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul F. Rühle

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The monitoring of immune cells gained great significance in prognosis and prediction of therapy responses. For analyzing blood samples, the multicolor flow cytometry has become the method of choice as it combines high specificity on single cell level with multiple parameters and high throughput. Here, we present a modular assay for the detailed immunophenotyping of blood (DIoB that was optimized for an easy and direct application in whole blood samples. The DIoB assay characterizes 34 immune cell subsets that circulate the peripheral blood including all major immune cells such as T cells, B cells, natural killer (NK cells, monocytes, dendritic cells (DCs, neutrophils, eosinophils, and basophils. In addition, it evaluates their functional state and a few non-leukocytes that also have been associated with the outcome of cancer therapy. This DIoB assay allows a longitudinal and close-meshed monitoring of a detailed immune status in patients requiring only 2.0 mL of peripheral blood and it is not restricted to peripheral blood mononuclear cells. It is currently applied for the immune monitoring of patients with glioblastoma multiforme (IMMO-GLIO-01 trial, NCT02022384, pancreatic cancer (CONKO-007 trial, NCT01827553, and head and neck cancer (DIREKHT trial, NCT02528955 and might pave the way for immune biomarker identification for prediction and prognosis of therapy outcome.

  7. Liver kinetics of glucose analogs measured in pigs by PET: importance of dual-input blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munk, O L; Bass, L; Roelsgaard, K; Bender, D; Hansen, S B; Keiding, S

    2001-01-01

    parameters, because of ignorance of the dual blood supply from the hepatic artery and the portal vein to the liver. METHODS: Six pigs underwent PET after [15O]carbon monoxide inhalation, 3-O-[11C]methylglucose (MG) injection, and [18F]FDG injection. For the glucose scans, PET data were acquired for 90 min......Metabolic processes studied by PET are quantified traditionally using compartmental models, which relate the time course of the tracer concentration in tissue to that in arterial blood. For liver studies, the use of arterial input may, however, cause systematic errors to the estimated kinetic....... Hepatic arterial and portal venous blood samples and flows were measured during the scan. The dual-input function was calculated as the flow-weighted input. RESULTS: For both MG and FDG, the compartmental analysis using arterial input led to systematic underestimation of the rate constants for rapid blood...

  8. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable in...

  9. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  10. A Comparative Study of Blood Culture Sampling from Umbilical Catheter Line versus Peripheral Site

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolkarim Hamedi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is an important cause of death and morbidity in newborns and is diagnosed by isolation of organism in blood culture. In several reports,reliablity of blood cultures were done from umbi lical catheters,have been demonstrated. The objective of the present study was to determine,wether an inde welling umbilical catheter, could be an alternative site for blood culture. In a prospective study over 6 months during 2006,141 paired blood cultures from 134 infant,were done simultaneously from peripheral site and umbilical catheter (mostly U. V. C,during the first four days of life. Majority of these infants were preterm and admitted to NICU for special care. these infants had indwelling umbilical line and had indication of sepsis workup. A total of 141 pairs of blood cultures were obtained from 134 infants. In 16 infants blood culture pairs were positive for one organism in both peripheral vein and umbilical site. 71. 6% of total cultures (n=11pairs were negative in boths site. A total of 22 pairs were positive in one site only,with 5 positive from peripheral vein only and the other 17 from umblical site. Two pairs were positve in boths site with two different organism. In over all 16 infant (11%of blood were considered to be contaminated. Contamination rate were 2. 4% and 9. 2% for peripheral and umbilical catheter site. Contamination rate increased after 48 hours of age in umbilical catheter. The result showed that after 2 days contamination rate for blood culture taken from catheter line increased and specifity decreased. We recommended that blood culture via umblical catheter in first 2 days in sick neonates with indwelling catheter can be a alternate site of blood culture sampelling.

  11. Direct diagnosis ofMycobacterium tuberculosis in blood samples of HIV infected patients by polymerase chain reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Kamatchiammal, Senthilkumar; Saravanakumar, Dhashinamoorthy; Kumarasamy, Nagalingeswaran; Solomon, Sunithi; Sritharan, Manjula; Sritharan, Venkataraman

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a simple, economical and reproducible method for processing blood samples from HIV infected patients for diagnosis of tuberculosis. The procedure was validated on 55 samples selected for tuberculosis based on clinical criteria. 52 patients had radiological changes indicative of pulmonary tuberculosis of which only 28 were positive for AFB in sputum (sensitivity 54%) and 27 for tuberculin (sensitivity 52%). 26 HIV positive patients who showed positive X-ray did not react to t...

  12. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M;

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  13. Voltammetric Detection of Mn(II in Blood Sample at C60 and MWCNT Modified Glassy Carbon Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed M. Radhi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Glassy carbon electrode GCE was modified with different microparticles to increase the efficiency of analysis Mn2+ in blood samples by cyclic voltammetry and applied for the detection of trace Mn(II by oxidation process. Approach: The structure and composition of the modified GCE processed by using Carbon Nanotubes CNT and C60 to produce two modified electrodes CNT/GCE and C60/GCE, to detect a trace Mn2+ by cyclic voltammetry for mouse blood with comparison the best modified electrode for detection the ion by the sensitivity and values of Relative Standard Deviation (RSD in calibration curve. Results: A wide linear range and good repeatability were obtained for Mn2+ detection by CNT/GCE in aqueous KCl as supporting electrolyte at different ratio of KCl: Blood using CNT/GCE and C60/GCE, the relative standard deviation of two modified electrodes are good on CNT/GCE than C60/GCE. Conclusion: The two modified electrodes CNT/GCE and C60/GCE depending on the redox current of Mn(II ions were evaluated by the determination of low concentration of Mn(II in blood samples by cyclic voltammetric method, the most modified electrode to detect the Mn(II in blood is CNT/GCE.

  14. The impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples measured by the comet assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bausinger, Julia; Speit, Günter

    2016-09-01

    The comet assay is frequently used in human biomonitoring for the detection of exposure to genotoxic agents. Peripheral blood samples are most frequently used and tested either as whole blood or after isolation of lymphocytes (i.e. peripheral blood mononuclear cells, PBMC). To investigate a potential impact of lymphocyte isolation on induced DNA damage in human blood samples, we exposed blood ex vivo to mutagens with different modes of genotoxic action. The comet assay was performed either directly with whole blood at the end of the exposure period or with lymphocytes isolated directly after exposure. In addition to the recommended standard protocol for lymphocyte isolation, a shortened protocol was established to optimise the isolation procedure. The results indicate that the effects of induced DNA strand breaks and alkali-labile sites induced by ionising radiation and alkylants, respectively, are significantly reduced in isolated lymphocytes. In contrast, oxidative DNA base damage (induced by potassium bromate) and stable bulky adducts (induced by benzo[a]pyrene-7,8-dihydrodiol-9,10-epoxide; BPDE) seem to be less affected. Our findings suggest that in vivo-induced DNA damage might also be reduced in isolated lymphocytes in comparison with the whole blood depending of the types of DNA damage induced. Because only small genotoxic effects can generally be expected in human biomonitoring studies with the comet assay after occupational and environmental exposure to genotoxic agents, any loss might be relevant and should be avoided. The possibility of such effects and their potential impact on variability of comet assay results in human biomonitoring should be considered when performing or evaluating such kind of studies. PMID:27154923

  15. Thyroxine (T4) radioimmunoassay using filter paper dried blood sample: an attempt for screening of neonates for hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a sensitive but simple and less expensive method suitable for estimation of thyroxine (T4) level. Deficiency of iodine during fetal life results in neonatal hypothyroidism and critinism. Frequency of neonatal hypothyroidism is 1 in 5000 to 7000 in countries having iodine deficiency. It is therefore important to diagnose the neonatal hypothyroidism as soon as possible after birth. The estimation of thyroxine has been found to the a reliable index for diagnosis of hypothyroidism and has long been used for screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. In the present study, instead of serum sample, a 6 mm disc of filter paper containing dried blood sample was used. The test was carried out in the laboratory with 40 samples. As compared to the sensitivity of serum sample technique which is 15.19 n mol/L, the filter paper technique has the sensitivity of 17.23 n mol/L. The work revealed that the T4 concentration do not depend upon the amount of blood on the filter paper. Effect of temperature on filter paper disc was evaluated at 4o c, at 25o c and at 37o c. Results obtained showed significant variation and the best result was obtained for the sample kept at 4o c. The method is simple, rapid, less expensive and needs a small amount of blood and is, therefore, a useful technique for mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism. 6 refs., 4 tables (author)

  16. Raman spectroscopy for a rapid diagnosis of sickle cell disease in human blood samples: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filho, Antonio Carlos Bueno; Silveira, Landulfo; Yanai, Ana Leticia Sant'Anna; Fernandes, Adriana Barrinha

    2015-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy has been proposed as a tool for diagnosis of human blood diseases aiming a quick and accurate diagnosis. Sickle cell disease arises in infancy and causes a severe anemia; thus, an early diagnosis may avoid pathological complications such as vasoocclusion, hemolytic anemia, retinopathy, cardiovascular disease, and infections. This work evaluated spectral differences between hemoglobin S (HbS) and hemoglobin A (HbA) to be used in a diagnostic model based on principal components analysis. Blood samples of patients with a previous diagnosis of sickle cell disease were hemolyzed with water, centrifuged, and the pellet was collected with a pipette. Near-infrared Raman spectra (830 nm, 200 mW) were obtained from these samples, and a model based on principal components analysis and Mahalanobis distance were used to discriminate HbA from HbS. Differences were found in the spectra of HbS and HbA, mainly in the 882 and 1,373 cm(-1) (valine, HbA) and 1,547 and 1,622 cm(-1) (glutamic acid, HbS). The spectral model could correctly discriminate 100% of the samples in the correspondent groups. Raman spectroscopy was able to detect the subtle changes in the polypeptide chain (valine and glutamic acid substitution) due to the sickle cell disease and could be used to discriminate blood samples with HbS from HbA with minimum sample preparations (hemolysis with water and centrifugation). PMID:25217409

  17. Effects of music therapy on pain responses induced by blood sampling in premature infants: A randomized cross-over trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabani, Fidan; Nayeri, Nahid Dehghan; Karimi, Roghiyeh; Zarei, Khadijeh; Chehrazi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Premature infants are subjected to many painful procedures during care and treatment. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of music therapy on physiological and behavioral pain responses of premature infants during and after blood sampling. Materials and Methods: This study was a cross-over clinical trial conducted on 20 infants in a hospital affiliated to Tehran University of Medical Sciences for a 5-month period in 2011. In the experimental group, Transitions music was played from 5 min before until 10 min after blood sampling. The infants’ facial expressions and physiological measures were recorded from 10 min before until 10 min after sampling. All steps and measurements, except music therapy, were the same for the control group. Data were analyzed using SAS and SPSS software through analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Chi-square tests. Results: There were significant differences between the experimental and control groups (P = 0.022) in terms of heart rate during needle extraction and at the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). Considering the infant's sleep–wake state in the second 5 min before sampling, the statistical difference was significant (P = 0.044). Difference was significant (P = 0.045) during injection of the needle, in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.002), and in the second 5 min after sampling (P = 0.005). There were significant difference in infants’ facial expressions of pain in the first 5 min after sampling (P = 0.001). Conclusions: Music therapy reduces the physiological and behavioral responses of pain during and after blood sampling.

  18. Audit Schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Martinez Pinzon, Christian

    2014-01-01

    [CATALÀ] Audit Schedule és una aplicació web per a la gestió d'auditories al sector de l'aviació privada. Realitzada amb Salesforce per a l'empresa Puck Solutions S.L. [ANGLÈS] Audit Schedule is a web application for managing aduits of the private aviation sector. Performed with Salesforce for the Puck Solutions S.L. company.

  19. Evaluation of biomarkers in plasma, blood, and urine samples from coke oven workers: significance of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    OpenAIRE

    Ovrebø, S; Haugen, A; Farmer, P B; Anderson, D.(California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, USA)

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--The aim was to assess the significance of two biomarkers; antibody to benzo(a)pyrene DNA adducts and concentration of hydroxyethylvaline haemoglobin adducts in samples from a well studied group of coke oven workers. As a measure of exposure we have used 1-hydroxypyrene in urine. METHODS--Urine and blood samples were collected from coke oven workers and a control group. Samples from coke oven plant workers were collected in January and June. 1-Hydroxypyrene was measured in urine by ...

  20. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimori, Asami; Konnai, Satoru; Ikebuchi, Ryoyo; Okagawa, Tomohiro; Nakahara, Ayako; Murata, Shiro; Ohashi, Kazuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  1. Direct polymerase chain reaction from blood and tissue samples for rapid diagnosis of bovine leukemia virus infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    NISHIMORI, Asami; KONNAI, Satoru; IKEBUCHI, Ryoyo; OKAGAWA, Tomohiro; NAKAHARA, Ayako; MURATA, Shiro; OHASHI, Kazuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) infection induces bovine leukemia in cattle and causes significant financial harm to farmers and farm management. There is no effective therapy or vaccine; thus, the diagnosis and elimination of BLV-infected cattle are the most effective method to eradicate the infection. Clinical veterinarians need a simpler and more rapid method of diagnosing infection, because both nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR are labor intensive, time-consuming, and require specialized molecular biology techniques and expensive equipment. In this study, we describe a novel PCR method for amplifying the BLV provirus from whole blood, thus eliminating the need for DNA extraction. Although the sensitivity of PCR directly from whole blood (PCR-DB) samples as measured in bovine blood containing BLV-infected cell lines was lower than that of nested PCR, the PCR-DB technique showed high specificity and reproducibility. Among 225 clinical samples, 49 samples were positive by nested PCR, and 37 samples were positive by PCR-DB. There were no false positive samples; thus, PCR-DB sensitivity and specificity were 75.51% and 100%, respectively. However, the provirus loads of the samples detected by nested PCR and not PCR-DB were quite low. Moreover, PCR-DB also stably amplified the BLV provirus from tumor tissue samples. PCR-DB method exhibited good reproducibility and excellent specificity and is suitable for screening of thousands of cattle, thus serving as a viable alternative to nested PCR and real-time PCR. PMID:26911373

  2. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...

  3. Prevalence of Fragilysin Gene in Bacteroides fragilis Isolates from Blood and Other Extraintestinal Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Foulon, Ina; Piérard, Denis; Muyldermans, Gaëtan; Vandoorslaer, Kristof; Soetens, Oriane; Rosseel, Paul; Lauwers, Sabine

    2003-01-01

    Of 166 Bacteroides fragilis isolates, 26.2% of 103 isolates from blood and 20.6% of 63 extraintestinal isolates harbored the fragilysin gene (difference not statistically significant). Clinical characteristics and evolution were comparable in patients with B. fragilis bacteremia with or without this enterotoxin. Fragilysin seems not to be an important virulence factor in B. fragilis disease.

  4. Comparison of Chlorhexidine and Tincture of Iodine for Skin Antisepsis in Preparation for Blood Sample Collection

    OpenAIRE

    Barenfanger, Joan; Drake, Cheryl; Lawhorn, Jerry; Verhulst, Steven J.

    2004-01-01

    Rates of contamination of blood cultures obtained when skin was prepared with iodine tincture versus chlorhexidine were compared. For iodine tincture, the contamination rate was 2.7%; for chlorhexidine, it was 3.1%. The 0.41% difference is not statistically significant. Chlorhexidine has comparable effectiveness and is safer, cheaper, and preferred by staff, so it is an alternative to iodine tincture.

  5. Differentiating between intra- and extracellular chemiluminescence in diluted whole-blood samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rájecký, Michal; Lojek, Antonín; Číž, Milan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 34, č. 2 (2012), s. 136-142. ISSN 1751-5521 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) OC10044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50040507; CEZ:AV0Z50040702 Keywords : chemiluminescence * isoluminol * whole blood Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 1.293, year: 2012

  6. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  7. Pattern recognition of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in whole blood samples using new platforms based on nanostructured materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefan-van Staden, Raluca-Ioana; Gugoasa, Livia Alexandra; Biris, Alexandru Radu

    2015-09-01

    Four stochastic microsensors based on nanostructured materials (graphene, maltodextrin (MD), and diamond) integrated in miniaturized platforms were proposed. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine whose main function is to regulate cell trafficking. It is correlated with the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and obesity, and was used as the model analyte in this study. The screening of whole blood samples for MCP-1 can be done for concentrations ranging from 10-12 to 10-8 g mL-1. The method was used for both qualitative and quantitative assessments of MCP-1 in whole blood samples. The lowest quantification limits for the assay of MCP-1 (1 pg mL-1) were reached when the microsensors based on protoporphyrin IX/Graphene-Au-3 and on MD/Graphene were employed in the platform design.

  8. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3H-Leu

  9. Metabolic phenotyping by 1H-NMR spectroscopy to detect lung cancer via a simple blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Louis,Evelyne; Adriaensens, Peter; MESOTTEN, Liesbet; Thomeer, Michiel; Reekmans, Gunter; Vanhove, Karolien; Vandeurzen, Kurt; Darquennes, Karen

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer death worldwide. There is an urgent need of effective methods to detect lung cancer. Accumulating evidence shows that the metabolism of cancer cells differs from that of normal cells. Disturbances in biochemical pathways which occur during the development of cancer provoke changes in the metabolic phenotype. Objective: To determine the metabolic phenotype of lung cancer by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. Methods: Fasting venous blood samples of 78...

  10. Patient-Specific Method of Generating Parametric Maps of Patlak Ki without Blood Sampling or Metabolite Correction: A Feasibility Study

    OpenAIRE

    Sayre, George A.; Franc, Benjamin L.; Youngho Seo

    2011-01-01

    Currently, kinetic analyses using dynamic positron emission tomography (PET) experience very limited use despite their potential for improving quantitative accuracy in several clinical and research applications. For targeted volume applications, such as radiation treatment planning, treatment monitoring, and cerebral metabolic studies, the key to implementation of these methods is the determination of an arterial input function, which can include time-consuming analysis of blood samples for m...

  11. Inorganic elements determination in human and animal whole blood samples by X-ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood is a suspension of cells contained in a complex liquid called plasma. The term 'whole blood' refers to samples with both solid and liquid parts. Inorganic elements are responsible for essential functions, such as osmotic regulation, cardiac frequency and contractibility, blood clotting and neuromuscular excitability. The determination of inorganic elements in corporeal fluids such as blood, serum, plasma, tissue and urine is used as a monitor for a part or the whole organism. In this work, the X-Ray fluorescence technique (EDXRF) was used for the determination of inorganic elements in whole blood samples from humans and animals (golden hamsters, Mesocricetus auratus and crioula breed horses, Equus caballus). The reference intervals of Na (1788 - 1826 μg g'-1), Mg (63 - 75 μg g-1), P (602 - 676 μg g-1), S (1519 - 1718 μg g-1), Cl (2743 - 2867 μg g-1), K (1508 - 1630 μg g-1), Ca (214 - 228 μg g'-1), Cu (4 -6 μg g-1) e Zn (1 - 3 μg g'-1) were determined for human blood. The reference intervals, for golden hamster blood were found to be: Na (1714 - 1819 μg g-1), Mg (51 - 79 μg g-1), P (970 - 1080 μg g-1), S (1231 - 1739 μg g-1), Cl (2775 - 2865 μg g-1), K (1968 - 2248 μg g-1), Ca (209 - 257 μg g-1), Cu (4 - 6 μg g-1) e Zn (3 - 5 μg g-1). The reference intervals, for crioula breed horse blood, showed to be: Na (1955 - 2013 μg g-1), Mg (51 - 75 μg g-1), P (443 - 476 μg g-1), S (1038 - 1140 μg g-'1), Cl (2388 - 2574 μg g-1), K (1678 - 1753 μg g-1), Ca (202 - 213 μg g-1), Cu (4,1 - 4,5 μg g-1) e Zn (2,0 - 2,2 μg g-1). Comparative study between NAA and EDXRF, both techniques showed the same performance for the analyses of biological matrices. The results contribute for the establishment of reference intervals for the Brazilian healthy population and the referred animal species. (author)

  12. The effect of blood sample positions in a water phantom at the time of irradiation on the dicentric yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blood samples of man and rabbit, placed at various distances from the surface of a water phantom with a dosimeter were exposed to 250mGy of 60Co γ-rays. Increases in the dicentric yields in the lymphocytes were observed with increased distances from the surface of the water phantom. As a variation of the dicentric yield with increasing distance in water was found, in the experiment to obtain calibration curves for biological dosimetry, it is recommended that blood samples should be positioned at a constant distance from the surface of a water phantom at the time of irradiation. ICRU REPORT 23 recommends that the calibration measurement be carried out with an ionization chamber positioned at 5cm depth below the surface of a water phantom for 150 kV-10 MV X rays, and 137Cs and 60Co γ-rays. As the same reasons which determine a 5cm depth in the recommendation, should be applied to this case, it is desirable that the experiment be carried out with blood samples positioned at 5cm distance from the surface of a water phantom. (author)

  13. Systemic Metabolomic Changes in Blood Samples of Lung Cancer Patients Identified by Gas Chromatography Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanne Miyamoto

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Lung cancer is a leading cause of cancer deaths worldwide. Metabolic alterations in tumor cells coupled with systemic indicators of the host response to tumor development have the potential to yield blood profiles with clinical utility for diagnosis and monitoring of treatment. We report results from two separate studies using gas chromatography time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF MS to profile metabolites in human blood samples that significantly differ from non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC adenocarcinoma and other lung cancer cases. Metabolomic analysis of blood samples from the two studies yielded a total of 437 metabolites, of which 148 were identified as known compounds and 289 identified as unknown compounds. Differential analysis identified 15 known metabolites in one study and 18 in a second study that were statistically different (p-values <0.05. Levels of maltose, palmitic acid, glycerol, ethanolamine, glutamic acid, and lactic acid were increased in cancer samples while amino acids tryptophan, lysine and histidine decreased. Many of the metabolites were found to be significantly different in both studies, suggesting that metabolomics appears to be robust enough to find systemic changes from lung cancer, thus showing the potential of this type of analysis for lung cancer detection.

  14. Vector-borne pathogens in ticks and EDTA-blood samples collected from client-owned dogs, Kiev, Ukraine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamel, Dietmar; Silaghi, Cornelia; Zapadynska, Svitlana; Kudrin, Anton; Pfister, Kurt

    2013-02-01

    Due to the availability of adequate habitats in urban environments, e.g. city parks and recreational green areas, ticks from such settings may also carry pathogens of veterinary and public health concern. Thus, tick-borne infections may readily be identified in companion animals residing in urbanised areas. To investigate the presence of vector-borne pathogens in Kiev, Ukraine, 52 engorged adult ticks, 33 Dermacentor reticulatus and 19 Ixodes ricinus, were collected from 15 dogs in the spring of 2010, and further 23 canine EDTA-blood samples were obtained in the spring of 2011 from client-owned patients presented in a veterinary clinic in Kiev. DNA of 9 pathogens was detected by PCR in ticks and canine EDTA-blood samples: Babesia canis canis, Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Rickettsia helvetica, Ri. monacensis, Ri. raoultii, and Dirofilaria repens (by proxy) were identified in engorged ticks and B. c. canis, Hepatozoon canis, Di. immitis, Di. repens, and Mycoplasma haemocanis in canine EDTA-blood samples. This is the first description of Ri. raoultii in the Ukraine. This study adds information on the occurrence of vector-borne pathogens of veterinary and public health importance in Kiev, Ukraine. PMID:23069260

  15. Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick, we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples ( or prostate specimens ( from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

  16. Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) in blood samples from "driving under the influence" cases as indicator for prolonged excessive alcohol consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröck, Alexandra; Hernández Redondo, Ana; Martin Fabritius, Marie; König, Stefan; Weinmann, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Phosphatidylethanol (PEth) is considered as specific biomarker of alcohol consumption. Due to accumulation after repeated drinking, PEth is suitable to monitor long-term drinking behavior. To examine the applicability of PEth in "driving under the influence of alcohol" cases, 142 blood samples with blood alcohol concentrations (BAC) ranging from 0.0-3.12‰ were analyzed for the presence of PEth homologues 16:0/18:1 (889 ± 878 ng/mL; range analysis, PEth thresholds were evaluated to differentiate moderate and excessive alcohol consumption with acceptable sensitivity and specificity in accordance with the 1.6‰ BAC limit. With a threshold of 700 ng/mL for PEth 16:0/18:1, prolonged excessive alcohol consumption was detected in 65.9% of drunk drivers with a BAC ≥ 1.6‰ and in 31.6% of the samples with a BAC habits in 88.7% of blood samples. These results show the possibility to detect prolonged excessive alcohol consumption, even if the BAC is below the legal threshold of 1.6‰ for driving aptitude assessment. As a consequence, concentrations of PEth 16:0/18:1 ≥ 700 ng/mL and of PEth 16:0/18:2 ≥ 300 ng/mL may be considered as indicators for the necessity of driving aptitude assessment in addition to BAC. PMID:26671597

  17. Lack of leptin activity in blood samples of Adélie penguin and bar-tailed godwit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yosefi, Sara; Hen, Gideon; Rosenblum, Charles I; Cerasale, David J; Beaulieu, Michaël; Criscuolo, Francois; Friedman-Einat, Miriam

    2010-10-01

    Unsuccessful attempts to identify the leptin gene in birds are well documented, despite the characterization of its receptor (LEPR). Since leptin and LEPR have poor sequence conservation among vertebrates, we speculated that a functional assay should represent the best way to detect leptin in birds. Using a leptin bioassay that is based on activation of the chicken LEPR in cultured cells, blood samples from wild birds with extreme seasonal variation in voluntary food intake and fat deposition (Adélie penguins and bar-tailed godwits) were tested for leptin activity. In these experiments, blood samples collected during the pre-incubation and the chick-rearing periods of Adélie penguins, and during the migratory flight and refueling stages of bar-tailed godwits, were found to contain no detectable leptin activity, while the sensitivity of the assay to activation by human blood samples from donor subjects representing a variety of body mass indices and fat contents was clearly demonstrated. These results suggest that in birds, an alternative control mechanism to that of mammals operates in the communication between the body fat tissues and the central control on energy homeostasis. PMID:20675300

  18. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  19. Cervical dilatation and grade of doctor affects the interval between decision and result of fetal scalp blood sampling in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimmer, Stephanie; Roberts, Stephen A; Heazell, Alexander E P

    2016-08-01

    Fetal scalp blood sampling (FSBS) is used to provide information regarding fetal acid-base status during labour. This study assessed the interval between the decision to perform the procedure and obtaining the result and evaluated whether it is affected by cervical dilatation or the experience of the doctor. The median time for FSBS was 10 min. When cervical dilatation was ≤4 cm samples took approximately 30% longer to obtain. After adjustment for dilation, there were no significant differences between different grades of doctors. FSBS is shorter than previously reported; clinicians should be aware that procedures in early labour take longer to complete. PMID:26399279

  20. Hepatitis B Virus DNA in Blood Samples Positive for Antibodies to Core Antigen and Negative for Surface Antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, C.; León, G.; Loureiro, C. L.; Uzcátegui, N.; Liprandi, F.; Pujol, F. H.

    1999-01-01

    Anti-hepatitis B core antigen (HBcAg)-positive hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg)-negative plasma samples from blood donors were tested by nested PCR. DNA positivity was more significantly associated with high levels of anti-HBcAg than with low levels of anti-HBsAg antibodies. Analysis of a dilution of anti-HBcAg antibodies might result in a more rational exclusion of anti-HBcAg-positive HBsAg-negative samples, reducing the number of donations discarded and enabling more countries to incorporate anti-HBcAg testing. PMID:10473534

  1. Comparison of blood plasma sample preparation methods for combined LC-MS lipidomics and metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Rainey E; Ducrocq, Antoine J; McDougall, Danielle J; Garrett, Timothy J; Yost, Richard A

    2015-10-01

    The goal of this research was to find the most comprehensive lipid extraction of blood plasma, while also providing adequate aqueous preparation for metabolite analysis. Comparisons have been made previously of the Folch, Bligh-Dyer, and Matyash lipid extractions; furthermore, this paper provides an additional comparison of a phospholipid removal plate for analysis. This plate was used for lipid extraction rather than its intended use in lipid removal for polar analysis, and it proves to be robust for targeted lipid analysis. Folch and Matyash provided reproducible recovery over a range of lipid classes, however the Matyash aqueous layer compared well to a typical methanol preparation for polar metabolite analysis. Thus, the Matyash method is the best choice for an untargeted biphasic extraction for metabolomics and lipidomics in blood plasma. PMID:26343017

  2. Analysis of tumor template from multiple compartments in a blood sample provides complementary access to peripheral tumor biomarkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strauss, William M; Carter, Chris; Simmons, Jill; Klem, Erich; Goodman, Nathan; Vahidi, Behrad; Romero, Juan; Masterman-Smith, Michael; O'Regan, Ruth; Gogineni, Keerthi; Schwartzberg, Lee; Austin, Laura K; Dempsey, Paul W; Cristofanilli, Massimo

    2016-05-01

    Targeted cancer therapeutics are promised to have a major impact on cancer treatment and survival. Successful application of these novel treatments requires a molecular definition of a patient's disease typically achieved through the use of tissue biopsies. Alternatively, allowing longitudinal monitoring, biomarkers derived from blood, isolated either from circulating tumor cell derived DNA (ctcDNA) or circulating cell-free tumor DNA (ccfDNA) may be evaluated. In order to use blood derived templates for mutational profiling in clinical decisions, it is essential to understand the different template qualities and how they compare to biopsy derived template DNA as both blood-based templates are rare and distinct from the gold-standard. Using a next generation re-sequencing strategy, concordance of the mutational spectrum was evaluated in 32 patient-matched ctcDNA and ccfDNA templates with comparison to tissue biopsy derived DNA template. Different CTC antibody capture systems for DNA isolation from patient blood samples were also compared. Significant overlap was observed between ctcDNA, ccfDNA and tissue derived templates. Interestingly, if the results of ctcDNA and ccfDNA template sequencing were combined, productive samples showed similar detection frequency (56% vs 58%), were temporally flexible, and were complementary both to each other and the gold standard. These observations justify the use of a multiple template approach to the liquid biopsy, where germline, ctcDNA, and ccfDNA templates are employed for clinical diagnostic purposes and open a path to comprehensive blood derived biomarker access. PMID:27049831

  3. Geometric characterization of red blood cells. Differentiation of normal and pathologic samples

    OpenAIRE

    Javier Rodríguez; Catalina Correa; Signed Prieto; Benjamín Ospino; Pedro Bernal; Liliana Ortiz; Ángela Munévar

    2008-01-01

    the irregularity of abstract and natural objectswith the fractal dimension. Fractal calculationshave been applied to the structures of the humanbody and to quantifications in physiology fromthe theory of dynamic systems.Material and Methods. The fractal dimensionswere calculated, the number of occupationspaces in the space border of box counting andthe area of two red blood cells groups, 7 normalones, group A, and 7 abnormal, group B, comingfrom patient and of bags for transfusion, werecalcul...

  4. Biomarkers for Monitoring Pre-Analytical Quality Variation of mRNA in Blood Samples

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zhang, H.; Korenková, Vlasta; Sjoback, R.; Švec, David; Bjorkman, J.; Kruhoffer, M.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, Ch.M.; Wyrich, R.; Oelmueller, U.; Kubista, Mikael; Lindahl, T.; Lonneborg, A.; Rian, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 11/e111644 (2014). E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Institutional support: RVO:86652036 Keywords : GENE-EXPRESSION PROFILES * HUMAN WHOLE-BLOOD * TIME RT-PCR Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.234, year: 2014

  5. Miniaturized Blood Sampling Techniques to Benefit Reduction in Mice and Refinement in Nonhuman Primates: Applications to Bioanalysis in Toxicity Studies with Antibody–Drug Conjugates

    OpenAIRE

    Caron, Alexis; Lelong, Christine; Pascual, Marie-Hélène; Benning, Véronique

    2015-01-01

    Minimizing the number of animals in regulatory toxicity studies while achieving study objectives to support the development of future medicines contributes to good scientific and ethical practices. Recent advances in technology have enabled the development of miniaturized blood sampling methods (including microsampling and dried blood spots) applicable to toxicokinetic determinations of small-molecule drugs. Implementation of miniaturized blood sampling methods in the context of biotherapeuti...

  6. Foetal scalp blood sampling during labour for pH and lactate measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbonne, Bruno; Pons, Kelly; Maisonneuve, Emeline

    2016-01-01

    Second-line methods of foetal monitoring have been developed in an attempt to reduce unnecessary interventions due to continuous cardiotocography (CTG), and to better identify foetuses that are at risk of intrapartum asphyxia. Very few studies directly compared CTG with foetal scalp blood (FBS) and CTG only. Only one randomised controlled trial (RCT) was published in the 1970s and had limited power to assess neonatal outcome. Direct and indirect comparisons conclude that FBS could reduce the number of caesarean deliveries associated with the use of continuous CTG. The main drawbacks of FBS are its invasive and discontinuous nature and the need for a sufficient volume of foetal blood for analysis, especially for pH measurement, resulting in failure rates reaching 10%. FBS for lactate measurement became popular with the design of test-strip devices, requiring <0.5 mL of foetal blood. RCTs showed similar outcomes with the use of FBS for lactates compared with pH in terms of obstetrical interventions and neonatal outcomes. In conclusion, there is some evidence that FBS reduces the need for operative deliveries. However, the evidence is limited with regard to actual standards, and large RCTs, directly comparing CTG only with CTG with FBS, are still needed. PMID:26253238

  7. Validity of standard reference values irrespective of rest and time of day prior to blood sampling-results from albumin and thyrotropin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, I. B.; Brasen, C. L.; Christensen, H.;

    2015-01-01

    throughout the opening hours and investigate the impact of resting time. Materials and method: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included during Nov. 2011-Jun. 2014 (opening hours: 7am-3pm). For each patient arrival time and time of blood sampling were registered...

  8. Comparison of three rheological models of shear flow behavior studied on blood samples from post-infarction patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcinkowska-Gapińska, Anna; Gapinski, Jacek; Elikowski, Waldemar; Jaroszyk, Feliks; Kubisz, Leszek

    2007-09-01

    Quantitative analysis of blood viscosity was performed on the basis of mathematical models of non-Newtonian fluid shear flow behavior (Casson, Ree-Eyring and Quemada). A total of 100 blood samples were drawn from clinically stable survivors of myocardial infarction, treated with aspirin or acenocoumarol and controls to these drugs. Whole blood and plasma viscosity were measured at a broad range of shear rates using a rotary-oscillating viscometer Contraves LS40. Numerical analysis of the experimental data was carried out by means of linear (for Casson) and non-linear regression for the remaining models. In the evaluation of the results, both the fit quality and physical interpretation of the models' parameters were considered. The Quemada model fitted most precisely with the experimental findings and, despite the controversies concerning the relationship between in vivo tissue perfusion and in vitro rheological measurements, seemed to be a valuable method enhancing investigation possibilities of cardiovascular patients. Our results suggest that aspirin does not affect blood rheological properties, while acenocoumarol may slightly alter red cell deformability and rouleaux formation. PMID:17674068

  9. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  10. Quantification of phenol, phenyl glucuronide, and phenyl sulfate in blood of unanesthetized rainbow trout by online microdialysis sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nichols, John W; Hoffman, Alex D; Fitzsimmons, Patrick N; Lien, Gregory J

    2008-01-01

    ABSTRACT Free concentrations of phenol (PH), phenyl glucuronide (PG), and phenyl sulfate (PS) were measured in the bloodstream of unanesthetized rainbow trout by online microdialysis (MD) sampling. Preliminary studies were conducted to optimize the MD system and evaluate three retrodialysis calibration standards: p-nitrophenyl glucuronide (PNPG), p-nitrophenyl sulfate (PNPS), and [(14)C]-phenol ((14)C-PH). PG and PNPG exhibited nearly identical dialyzing properties in vitro (saline and plasma) and in vivo (muscle tissue and dorsal aorta). A similar result was obtained for PS and PNPS. In vivo studies were therefore performed using PNPG, PNPS, and (14)C-PH as retrodialysis calibrators for PG, PS, and PH, respectively. The utility of MD sampling for kinetic studies with fish was investigated by implanting MD probes into the dorsal aorta of spinally transected rainbow trout. Each fish was then exposed to PH in water in a respirometer-metabolism chamber. The free concentration of PH in blood reached a steady-state level within 12 h of initiating the exposure. A steady state for PS was generally established within 24 h, while free concentrations of PG tended to increase throughout the exposure. Terminal plasma samples were dialyzed using the same probe employed in each experiment. Analyte concentrations determined in this manner were in good agreement with calculated in vivo values. The methods described in this study can be used to collect kinetic data sets of high temporal resolution while eliminating artifacts often associated with conventional blood sampling methods. PMID:20020864

  11. Trace element analysis of blood samples from mentally challenged children by PIXE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accelerator based ion beam analysis method of proton induced X-ray emission (PIXE) has been used for analysing up to 14 elements in the blood serum of patients, collected from rehabilitation centres for the mentally retarded and from Medical College Hospital, Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu, India. The experimental subjects of the different groups displayed significant variations in their levels of certain trace elements such as zinc, iron, copper, phosphorus, chlorine, and rubidium. The results are compared with those of healthy control subjects and are discussed in detail in this paper. Hence, PIXE as a method of trace element analysis can be used to determine trace element content in mentally challenged patients

  12. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies. PMID:25700164

  13. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McNulty James

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers and leukemia patients were exposed to 1 μM pancratistatin for up to 48 h. Irrespective of leukemia type, pancratistatin induced apoptosis in the leukemic samples, with minimal effects on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear control cells. Conclusion Our results show that pancratistatin is an effective and selective anti-cancer agent with potential for advancement to clinical trials.

  14. Assessment of the accuracy of dried blood spot (DBS sample in HIV-1 viral load as compared to plasma sample using Abbot assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prisca Benedicto

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: HIV has claimed millions of lives with the Sub-Saharan Africa being the most affected. There is a significant increase in access to antiretroviral drugs which also demands frequent monitoring to determine the drug effectiveness and efficacy. Thus there is a great need to evaluate simplified methods to monitor treatment with such antiretroviral drugs. Use of dried blood spots (DBS can be ideal if evaluated in resource limited countries such as Malawi since they are easy to collect, store and convenient. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of a dry blood spot sample in the quantification of viral particles in HIV reactive patients using the Abbott m2000rt assay. Methods: 87 participants were recruited from the ART clinic at Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital using convenience sampling method. 29 were on antiretroviral therapy and 58 had not started the therapy. HIV-1 RNA extraction and quantification was performed from DBS and plasma using Abbott m2000sp and m2000rt systems respectively. The results were statistically analyzed by Bland-Altman method using medcalc software version 12.6.1. Results: 66 paired samples with detectable viral loads were analysed. These gave a correlation of 0.98. The mean difference was 0.05 log10 copies/ml with a standard deviation of 0.17 at 95% confidence interval.The Bland-Altman plots showed limits of agreement which ranged from -0.38 to 0.28 log10 copies/ml at 95% confidence interval. Conclusion: Results showed strong agreement between the plasma and DBS samples. A slight and clinically insignificant difference was observed between the two methods. A larger sample size can give support to the study findings. Since samples were less than a week old, it is not known if the results would be different if they were to be stored for a longer period. [Int J Res Med Sci 2013; 1(4.000: 338-342

  15. Online scheduling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pruhs, K.; Torng, E.; Sgall, Jiří

    Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2004, s. 1-41 R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 103; GA MŠk ME 476; GA ČR GA201/01/1195; GA MŠk LN00A056; GA AV ČR IAA1019901 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1019905 Keywords : online algorithms * scheduling Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics

  16. Isotope ratio analysis of lead in blood and environmental samples by multi-collector inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is widely recognized that lead (Pb) affects children's cognitive function, even at relatively low blood lead levels (-1). The determination of the source of Pb in children is essential for effective risk management. The use of multi-collector ICPMS (MC-ICPMS) for isotope ratio measurements of Pb in environmental and biological samples was examined for this purpose. MC-ICPMS with an instrumental mass fractionation correction by Tl allowed accurate isotope ratio measurements of the Pb isotopic reference material NIST SRM 981. However, the presence of matrix elements (Al, Ca, Fe and Na) at more than 10 mg kg-1 in the sample solution significantly deteriorated the accuracy. The separation of Pb from the matrix is necessary for accurate measurements of the isotope ratio of Pb in environmental and biological samples. Bromide-complexation, followed by anion exchange was found to be satisfactory in terms of the recovery of Pb (90 to 104%) and the efficiency of matrix separation. The procedure was applied to a preliminary source analysis of Pb in the blood of Japanese children, and a significant contribution of indoor dust was demonstrated. (author)

  17. Estimation of the Time Interval between the Administration of Heroin and the Sampling of Blood in Chronic Inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Nathalie; Hallet, Claude; Seidel, Laurence; Demaret, Isabelle; Luppens, David; Ansseau, Marc; Rozet, Eric; Albert, Adelin; Hubert, Philippe; Charlier, Corinne

    2015-05-01

    To develop a model for estimating the time delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users. Eleven patients, all heroin inhalers undergoing detoxification, were included in the study. Several plasma samples were collected during the detoxification procedure and analyzed for the heroin metabolites 6-acetylmorphine (6AM), morphine (MOR), morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) and morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G), according to a UHPLC/MSMS method. The general linear mixed model was applied to time-related concentrations and a pragmatic four-step delay estimation approach was proposed based on the simultaneous presence of metabolites in plasma. Validation of the model was carried out using the jackknife technique on the 11 patients, and on a group of 7 test patients. Quadratic equations were derived for all metabolites except 6AM. The interval delay estimation was 2-4 days when only M3G present in plasma, 1-2 days when M6G and M3G were both present, 0-1 day when MOR, M6G and M3G were present and metabolites present. The 'jackknife' correlation between declared and actual estimated delays was 0.90. The overall precision of the delay estimates was 8-9 h. The delay between last heroin consumption and blood sampling in chronic drug users can be satisfactorily predicted from plasma heroin metabolites. PMID:25648554

  18. The Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule, Module 4: Application of the Revised Algorithms in an Independent, Well-Defined, Dutch Sample (N = 93)

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bildt, Annelies; Sytema, Sjoerd; Meffert, Harma; Bastiaansen, Jojanneke A. C. J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the discriminative ability of the revised Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule module 4 algorithm (Hus and Lord in "J Autism Dev Disord" 44(8):1996-2012, 2014) in 93 Dutch males with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), schizophrenia, psychopathy or controls. Discriminative ability of the revised algorithm ASD cut-off…

  19. Isotope dilution analysis for the determination of zinc in blood samples of diabetic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isotope dilution analysis (IDA) based on solvent extraction has been developed for the determination of zinc in the blood of diabetic patients and healthy adults as controls. The method using 65Zn as a tracer is based on the formation of a red colored complex with dithizone in chloroform which is measured by counting of the 1115 keV γ-rays by gamma-ray spectrometry. Various extraction parameters such as pH, nature of solvent and amount of reagent were optimized. Zinc concentration in diabetic patients (n = 10) was found in a much wider range (1.5-157 μg/ml) compared to those in healthy adults (3.1-95.9 μg/ml for n = 5). t-Test of data shows 80-90% confidence limits. A comparison of mean values, 28.5 ± 48.5 μg/ml for diabetics and 33.1 ± 34.5 μg/ml for controls shows 13.9% lower zinc concentration in diabetics. No correlation was found with eating (vegetarian/nonvegetarian)/drinking or smoking habits, but in general, females showed somewhat lower concentration compared to those in males though population size in each case was very small. (author)

  20. Sensitivity of laser light depolarization analysis for detection of malaria in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padial, Manuel Martínez; Subirats, Mercedes; Puente, Sabino; Lago, Mar; Crespo, Santiago; Palacios, Gonzalo; Baquero, Margarita

    2005-05-01

    Automated light depolarization analysis could be a useful tool for diagnosing malarial infections. This work discusses the results of a diagnostic efficacy study on 411 samples from patients with suspected malaria infection performed with a Cell-Dyn 4000 analyser. Light dispersed at 90 degrees and depolarized can be used for identifying and counting eosinophils. However, other cell populations with depolarizing capacity occur in malarial samples; these result from leukocytes ingesting haemozoin that is derived from the degradation of the haem group of haemoglobin performed by the parasite. A sensitivity of 72 % and specificity of 98 % were recorded, with positive and negative predictive values of 78 % and 97 %, respectively. Although the sensitivity level of the automated light depolarization analysis is not adequate to replace the existing methods for the diagnosis of parasitic diseases, it could alert clinicians to unsuspected infections by parasites, particularly those from the genus Plasmodium. PMID:15824421

  1. Highly Effective DNA Extraction Method from Fresh, Frozen, Dried and Clotted Blood Samples

    OpenAIRE

    Jaleh Barar; Sina Atashpaz; Abolfazl Barzegari; Vala Kafil; Sepideh Zununi Vahed; Farzaneh Soltanzad; Sara Samadi Shams

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: Today, with the tremendous potential of genomics and other recent advances in science, the role of science to improve reliable DNA extraction methods is more relevant than ever before. The ideal process for genomic DNA extraction demands high quantities of pure, integral and intact genomic DNA (gDNA) from the sample with minimal co-extraction of inhibitors of downstream processes. Here, we report the development of a very rapid, less-hazardous, and high throughput protocol for e...

  2. Measurement of Nitrite in Blood Samples Using the Ferricyanide-Based Hemoglobin Oxidation Assay

    OpenAIRE

    Piknova, Barbora; Schechter, Alan N.

    2011-01-01

    Nitrite is currently recognized as a biomarker of the state of nitric oxide metabolism. Therefore, assessing nitrite levels in various organs and compartments is an important issue. As nitrite levels in most organs and tissues are low (in high nanomolar or low micromolar range) several new sensitive methods for quantifying nitrite in various biological samples have been developed. Chemiluminescence, combined with tri-iodide reducing solution, is currently considered the most sensitive method,...

  3. International study to evaluate PCR methods for detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in blood samples from Chagas disease patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro G Schijman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU I, IV and VI (set A, human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C. Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA, 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05-0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10(-3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood. The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3-94.4%, specificity of 85

  4. International Study to Evaluate PCR Methods for Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schijman, Alejandro G.; Bisio, Margarita; Orellana, Liliana; Sued, Mariela; Duffy, Tomás; Mejia Jaramillo, Ana M.; Cura, Carolina; Auter, Frederic; Veron, Vincent; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Deborggraeve, Stijn; Hijar, Gisely; Zulantay, Inés; Lucero, Raúl Horacio; Velazquez, Elsa; Tellez, Tatiana; Sanchez Leon, Zunilda; Galvão, Lucia; Nolder, Debbie; Monje Rumi, María; Levi, José E.; Ramirez, Juan D.; Zorrilla, Pilar; Flores, María; Jercic, Maria I.; Crisante, Gladys; Añez, Néstor; De Castro, Ana M.; Gonzalez, Clara I.; Acosta Viana, Karla; Yachelini, Pedro; Torrico, Faustino; Robello, Carlos; Diosque, Patricio; Triana Chavez, Omar; Aznar, Christine; Russomando, Graciela; Büscher, Philippe; Assal, Azzedine; Guhl, Felipe; Sosa Estani, Sergio; DaSilva, Alexandre; Britto, Constança; Luquetti, Alejandro; Ladzins, Janis

    2011-01-01

    Background A century after its discovery, Chagas disease still represents a major neglected tropical threat. Accurate diagnostics tools as well as surrogate markers of parasitological response to treatment are research priorities in the field. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR methods in detection of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA by an external quality evaluation. Methodology/Findings An international collaborative study was launched by expert PCR laboratories from 16 countries. Currently used strategies were challenged against serial dilutions of purified DNA from stocks representing T. cruzi discrete typing units (DTU) I, IV and VI (set A), human blood spiked with parasite cells (set B) and Guanidine Hidrochloride-EDTA blood samples from 32 seropositive and 10 seronegative patients from Southern Cone countries (set C). Forty eight PCR tests were reported for set A and 44 for sets B and C; 28 targeted minicircle DNA (kDNA), 13 satellite DNA (Sat-DNA) and the remainder low copy number sequences. In set A, commercial master mixes and Sat-DNA Real Time PCR showed better specificity, but kDNA-PCR was more sensitive to detect DTU I DNA. In set B, commercial DNA extraction kits presented better specificity than solvent extraction protocols. Sat-DNA PCR tests had higher specificity, with sensitivities of 0.05–0.5 parasites/mL whereas specific kDNA tests detected 5.10−3 par/mL. Sixteen specific and coherent methods had a Good Performance in both sets A and B (10 fg/µl of DNA from all stocks, 5 par/mL spiked blood). The median values of sensitivities, specificities and accuracies obtained in testing the Set C samples with the 16 tests determined to be good performing by analyzing Sets A and B samples varied considerably. Out of them, four methods depicted the best performing parameters in all three sets of samples, detecting at least 10 fg/µl for each DNA stock, 0.5 par/mL and a sensitivity between 83.3–94.4%, specificity of 85–95

  5. Analysis of Human Peripheral Blood Samples from Fatal and Nonfatal Cases of Ebola (Sudan) Hemorrhagic Fever: Cellular Responses, Virus Load, and Nitric Oxide Levels

    OpenAIRE

    Sanchez, Anthony; Lukwiya, Matthew; Bausch, Daniel; Mahanty, Siddhartha; Sanchez, Angela J.; Wagoner, Kent D.; Rollin, Pierre E.

    2004-01-01

    Peripheral blood samples obtained from patients during an outbreak of Ebola virus (Sudan species) disease in Uganda in 2000 were used to phenotype peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), quantitate gene expression, measure antigenemia, and determine nitric oxide levels. It was determined that as the severity of disease increased in infected patients, there was a corresponding increase in antigenemia and leukopenia. Blood smears revealed thrombocytopenia, a left shift in neutrophils (in som...

  6. Optimization and Scheduling Toolbox

    OpenAIRE

    Kutil, Michal; Sucha, Premysl; Capek, Roman; Hanzalek, Zdenek

    2010-01-01

    This chapter presents the TORSCHE Scheduling Toolbox for Matlab covering: scheduling on monoprocessor/dedicated processors/parallel processors, open shop/flow shop/job shop scheduling, cyclic scheduling and real-time scheduling. The toolbox includes scheduling algorithms that have been used for various applications as scheduling of Digital Signal Processing algorithms on a hardware architecture with pipelined arithmetic units, scheduling the movements of hoists in a manufacturing environment...

  7. An experimental model for simultaneous chronic sampling of portal and systemic blood and gastrointestinal lymph via cannulae in conscious swine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manolas, K J; Farmer, H M; Cussen, M; Welbourn, R B

    1983-10-01

    Surgical techniques are described whereby safe chronic cannulations of the portal vein, the external iliac artery and vein and the cisterna chyli of pigs were performed. The pigs tolerated the operations well and there was a short recovery period. They were unrestrained during the subsequent feeding experiments, when large sequential blood and lymph samples were withdrawn readily. The experimental periods varied from 3 to 46 days (mean : 13.4 days, SE: 2.0). All of 22 arterial cannulae remained patent (mean : 16 days, SE : 2.2), nineteen of 22 portal cannulae (mean : 15 days, SE : 1.8) and eighteen of 22 venous cannulae (mean : 14 days, SE : 1.9). The lymph cannula patency varied from 2 to 7 days, but lymph samples were easily obtained through all but one of them during the third postoperative day. PMID:6627950

  8. Bio-monitoring of persistent organochlorines in human milk and blood samples from sub-Himalayan region of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Swapnil; Dua, Virendra K; Chopra, A K

    2012-09-01

    In the present study, concentrations of organochlorine pesticide residues viz. Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and its metabolites (DDTs) and Hexachlorocyclohexane isomers (HCHs) in human breast milk and human blood samples, collected from several high altitude regions of Garhwal Himalaya in Uttarakhand, India viz. Devprayag, Chamoli, Uttarkashi, Joshimath, Bhatwari and Gangnani (altitude ranging from 472 to 1,982 m above sea level) were determined. Mean concentrations of HCH and DDT in human milk samples ranged from 4.53 to 34.32 mg/kg and 6.09 to 12.98 mg/kg, respectively. While the human blood showed mean values ranging from 6.64 to 281.7 μg/L and 12.37 to 104.10 μg/L for HCH and DDT, respectively. The study showed much higher concentrations of organochlorine residue contamination in the Garhwal region as compared to other parts of India. Risk assessments for infants were also calculated and were found within WHO limits. PMID:22885541

  9. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification assay for the detection of Ehrlichia canis DNA in blood samples from dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Faggion

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The rickettsial bacterium Ehrlichia canis is the etiological agent of canine monocytic ehrlichiosis, one of the most important canine tick-borne diseases in the world. In this study, a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP assay was developed for detection of E. canis DNA using LAMP primers targeting the groESL operon. Reactions were performed at 60°C for 60 min and the results were visualized by gel electrophoresis. Successful amplification was obtained using plasmid DNA containing a fragment of the groESL operon and DNA extracted from blood samples that tested positive for E. canis by real-time PCR. The specificity of amplification was confirmed by EcoRI restriction of internal sites in the LAMP primers and no cross-reactivity with blood samples positive for Babesia spp., another common tick-borne pathogen, was observed. The high cost of nucleic acid tests (NAT is one of the disadvantages for their large-scale use as routine diagnostic tests. The E. canis LAMP assay developed here is an interesting alternative to PCR since it does not require a thermocycler, thus reducing costs for the veterinary clinical laboratory.

  10. Optimization of loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbasi, Ibrahim; Kirstein, Oscar D; Hailu, Asrat; Warburg, Alon

    2016-10-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the most important neglected tropical diseases, is caused by Leishmania donovani eukaryotic protozoan parasite of the genus Leishmania, the disease is prevalent mainly in the Indian sub-continent, East Africa and Brazil. VL can be diagnosed by PCR amplifying ITS1 and/or kDNA genes. The current study involved the optimization of Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) for the detection of Leishmania DNA in human blood or tissue samples. Three LAMP systems were developed; in two of those the primers were designed based on shared regions of the ITS1 gene among different Leishmania species, while the primers for the third LAMP system were derived from a newly identified repeated region in the Leishmania genome. The LAMP tests were shown to be sufficiently sensitive to detect 0.1pg of DNA from most Leishmania species. The green nucleic acid stain SYTO16, was used here for the first time to allow real-time monitoring of LAMP amplification. The advantage of real time-LAMP using SYTO 16 over end-point LAMP product detection is discussed. The efficacy of the real time-LAMP tests for detecting Leishmania DNA in dried blood samples from volunteers living in endemic areas, was compared with that of qRT-kDNA PCR. PMID:27288706

  11. Developmental validation studies of epigenetic DNA methylation markers for the detection of blood, semen and saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Deborah S B S; Antunes, Joana; Balamurugan, Kuppareddi; Duncan, George; Alho, Clarice S; McCord, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Determining the type and origin of body fluids in a forensic investigation can provide important assistance in reconstructing crime scenes. A set of epigenetic markers, ZC3H12D, BCAS4 and cg06379435, have been developed to produce unique and specific patterns of DNA methylation that can be used to identify semen, saliva, and blood, respectively. To ensure the efficacy of these markers, developmental validation studies were performed to determine the conditions and limitations of this new tool for forensic analysis. DNA was extracted from human samples and bisulfite modified using commercial bisulfite modification kits. Specific primers were used to amplify the region of interest and the methylation profile of the CpG sites were determined by pyrosequencing. The percent methylation values at each CpG site were determined in multiple samples and averaged for each tissue type. The versatility of these new markers is presented by showing the results of validation studies on sensitivity, human specificity, stability and mixture resolution. When testing the markers using different organisms, we did obtain positive results for certain non-human primate samples, however, all other tested species were negative. The lowest concentration consistently detected varied from 0.1 to 10ng, depending on the locus, indicating the importance of primer design and sequence in the assay. The method also proved to be effective when inhibitors were present in the samples or when samples were degraded by heat. Simulated case- samples were also tested. In the case of mixtures of different cell types, the overall methylation values varied in a consistent and predictable manner when multiple cell types were present in the same sample. Overall, the validation studies demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of this new tool for body fluid identification. PMID:27010659

  12. 16 CFR 1203.13 - Test schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test schedule. 1203.13 Section 1203.13... STANDARD FOR BICYCLE HELMETS The Standard § 1203.13 Test schedule. (a) Helmet sample 1 of the set of eight... accordance with § 1203.17. Table 1203.13 summarizes the test schedule. Table 1203.13—Test Schedule §...

  13. Electrooxidation of antihistamine drug methdilazine and its analysis in human urine and blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagaraj P. Shetti

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The electrochemical oxidation of an antihistamine drug, methdilazine, was studied in 9.2 pH with 0.2 M phosphate buffer as supporting electrolyte at 25 ± 0.2°C. Glassy carbon electrode was used to perform the experiment at cyclic voltammetry, linear sweep voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetric techniques. The dependence of the current on pH, concentration and scan rate were investigated. Differential pulse voltammetric technique was adopted to know the linear relation between peak current and methdilazine concentration. The linear response was obtained in the range of 3.0 μM–1.0 mM with a detection limit of 0.1 μM. The proposed method was also applied for the quantitative determination of methdilazine in pharmaceuticals and biological samples.

  14. Systematic assessment of reduced representation bisulfite sequencing to human blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Li; Sun, Jihua; Wu, Honglong;

    2012-01-01

    systematically assessed the genomic coverage, coverage depth and reproducibility of this technology as well as the concordance of DNA methylation levels measured by RRBS and direct bisulfite sequencing for the detected CpG sites. Our result suggests that RRBS can cover more than half of CpG islands and promoter...... regions with a good coverage depth and the proportion of the CpG sites covered by the biological replicates reaches 80-90%, indicating good reproducibility. Given a smaller data quantity, RRBS enjoys much better coverage depth than direct bisulfite sequencing and the concordance of DNA methylation levels...... between the two methods is high. It can be concluded that RRBS is a time and cost-effective sequencing method for unbiased DNA methylation profiling of CpG islands and promoter regions in a genome-wide scale and it is the method of choice to assay certain genomic regions for multiple samples in a rapid...

  15. Genetic profiling of tumours using both circulating free DNA and circulating tumour cells isolated from the same preserved whole blood sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothwell, Dominic G; Smith, Nigel; Morris, Daniel; Leong, Hui Sun; Li, Yaoyong; Hollebecque, Antoine; Ayub, Mahmood; Carter, Louise; Antonello, Jenny; Franklin, Lynsey; Miller, Crispin; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged

    2016-04-01

    Molecular information obtained from cancer patients' blood is an emerging and powerful research tool with immense potential as a companion diagnostic for patient stratification and monitoring. Blood, which can be sampled routinely, provides a means of inferring the current genetic status of patients' tumours via analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, accurate assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA requires all blood cells to be maintained intact until samples are processed. This dictates for ctDNA analysis EDTA blood samples must be processed with 4 h of draw, severely limiting the use of ctDNA in multi-site trials. Here we describe a blood collection protocol that is amenable for analysis of both CTCs and ctDNA up to four days after blood collection. We demonstrate that yields of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from whole blood CellSave samples are equivalent to those obtained from conventional EDTA plasma processed within 4 h of blood draw. Targeted and genome-wide NGS revealed comparable DNA quality and resultant sequence information from cfDNA within CellSave and EDTA samples. We also demonstrate that CTCs and ctDNA can be isolated from the same patient blood sample, and give the same patterns of CNA enabling direct analysis of the genetic status of patients' tumours. In summary, our results demonstrate the utility of a simple approach that enabling robust molecular analysis of CTCs and cfDNA for genotype-directed therapies in multi-site clinical trials and represent a significant methodological improvement for clinical benefit. PMID:26639657

  16. Sources of pre-analytical variations in yield of DNA extracted from blood samples: analysis of 50,000 DNA samples in EPIC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Caboux

    Full Text Available The European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC is a long-term, multi-centric prospective study in Europe investigating the relationships between cancer and nutrition. This study has served as a basis for a number of Genome-Wide Association Studies (GWAS and other types of genetic analyses. Over a period of 5 years, 52,256 EPIC DNA samples have been extracted using an automated DNA extraction platform. Here we have evaluated the pre-analytical factors affecting DNA yield, including anthropometric, epidemiological and technical factors such as center of subject recruitment, age, gender, body-mass index, disease case or control status, tobacco consumption, number of aliquots of buffy coat used for DNA extraction, extraction machine or procedure, DNA quantification method, degree of haemolysis and variations in the timing of sample processing. We show that the largest significant variations in DNA yield were observed with degree of haemolysis and with center of subject recruitment. Age, gender, body-mass index, cancer case or control status and tobacco consumption also significantly impacted DNA yield. Feedback from laboratories which have analyzed DNA with different SNP genotyping technologies demonstrate that the vast majority of samples (approximately 88% performed adequately in different types of assays. To our knowledge this study is the largest to date to evaluate the sources of pre-analytical variations in DNA extracted from peripheral leucocytes. The results provide a strong evidence-based rationale for standardized recommendations on blood collection and processing protocols for large-scale genetic studies.

  17. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.

  18. Evaluation of renal function in children by radionuclide renography using 99mTc-DTPA and a single blood sample method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The method of calculating the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) by the single blood sample method with a gamma camera and well scintillation counter was assessed as a method of quantitative evaluation of renal function in children. The subjects were 16 children suspected of having renal dysfunction. Renography using 99mTc-DTPA with a gamma camera was performed and the radioisotope was counted. Blood samples were taken, and GFR was calculated by measuring the plasma counts with a well counter. The gamma camera values were matched with the well counter values. GFR values by the single blood sample method were compared with GFR values obtained by Gates' method (which is usually used in adults) and Schwarz' method (known as an easy method of calculation in children). GFR by the single blood sample method was conveniently calculated by using the conversion formula obtained from the regression for the relation between the gamma camera and well scintillation counter values. The results suggested that GFR can be calculated and renal function evaluated more accurately by combined use of the single blood sample method during 99mTc-DTPA renography. Renal uptake rate after correction for body surface area correlated with GFR by the single blood sample method. It was possible to establish a formula for calculating GFR in children from the gamma camera data that corresponds to the Gates method for adults. (K.H.)

  19. Integrated Control and Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Årzén, Karl-Erik; Bernhardsson, Bo; Eker, Johan; Cervin, Anton; Nilsson, Klas; Persson, Patrik; Sha, Lui

    1999-01-01

    The report gives a state-of-the-art survey of the field of integrated control and scheduling. Subtopics discussed are implementation and scheduling of periodic control loops, scheduling under overload, control and scheduling co-design, dynamic task adaptation, feedback scheduling, and scheduling of imprecise calculations. The report also presents the background, motivation, and research topics in the ARTES project Integrated Control and Scheduling.

  20. Robust and efficient direct multiplex amplification method for large-scale DNA detection of blood samples on FTA cards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) damage arising from radiations widely occurred along with the development of nuclear weapons and clinically wide application of computed tomography (CT) scan and nuclear medicine. All ionizing radiations (X-rays, γ-rays, alpha particles, etc.) and ultraviolet (UV) radiation lead to the DNA damage. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is one of the most wildly used techniques for detecting DNA damage as the amplification stops at the site of the damage. Improvements to enhance the efficiency of PCR are always required and remain a great challenge. Here we establish a multiplex PCR assay system (MPAS) that is served as a robust and efficient method for direct detection of target DNA sequences in genomic DNA. The establishment of the system is performed by adding a combination of PCR enhancers to standard PCR buffer, The performance of MPAS was demonstrated by carrying out the direct PCR amplification on l.2 mm human blood punch using commercially available primer sets which include multiple primer pairs. The optimized PCR system resulted in high quality genotyping results without any inhibitory effect indicated and led to a full-profile success rate of 98.13%. Our studies demonstrate that the MPAS provides an efficient and robust method for obtaining sensitive, reliable and reproducible PCR results from human blood samples. (authors)

  1. Software development for estimating the concentration of radioactive cesium in the skeletal muscles of cattle from blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukuda, Tomokazu; Hiji, Masahiro; Kino, Yasushi; Abe, Yasuyuki; Yamashiro, Hideaki; Kobayashi, Jin; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Takahashi, Atsushi; Suzuki, Toshihiko; Chiba, Mirei; Inoue, Kazuya; Kuwahara, Yoshikazu; Morimoto, Motoko; Katayama, Masafumi; Donai, Kenichiro; Shinoda, Hisashi; Sekine, Tsutomu; Fukumoto, Manabu; Isogai, Emiko

    2016-06-01

    The 2011 earthquake severely damaged the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FNPP), resulting in the release of large quantities of radioactive material into the environment. The deposition of these radionuclides in rice straw as livestock feed led to the circulation of contaminated beef in the market. Based on the safety concern of the consumers, a reliable method for estimating concentrations of radioactive cesium in muscle tissue is needed. In this study, we analyzed the concentrations of radioactive cesium in the blood and skeletal muscle of 88 cattle, and detected a linear correlation between them. We then developed software that can be used to estimate radioactive cesium concentrations in muscle tissue from blood samples. Distribution of this software to the livestock production field would allow us to easily identify high-risk cattle, which would be beyond the safety regulation, before shipping out to the market. This software is planned to be released as freeware. This software would contribute to food safety, and aid the recovery of the livestock industry from the damage creacted by the 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami. PMID:26420060

  2. Cloud point extraction for determination of lead in blood samples of children, using different ligands prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Trace levels of lead in blood samples of healthy children and with different kidney disorders → Pre-concentration of Pb+2 in acid digested blood samples after chelating with two complexing reagents. → Multivariate technique was used for screening of significant factors that influence the CPE of Pb+2 → The level of Pb+2 in diseased children was significantly higher than referents of same age group. - Abstract: The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead (Pb2+) from digested blood samples after simultaneous complexation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) separately. The complexed analyte was quantitatively extracted with octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit value of Pb2+ for the preconcentration of 10 mL of acid digested blood sample was 1.14 μg L-1. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference material (whole blood). Under the optimized conditions of both CPE methods, 10 mL of Pb2+ standards (10 μg L-1) complexed with APDC and DDTC, permitted the enhancement factors of 56 and 42, respectively. The proposed method was used for determination of Pb2+ in blood samples of children with kidney disorders and healthy controls.

  3. An integrative pharmacological approach to radio telemetry and blood sampling in pharmaceutical drug discovery and safety assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamendi Harriet W

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A successful integration of the automated blood sampling (ABS and telemetry (ABST system is described. The new ABST system facilitates concomitant collection of physiological variables with blood and urine samples for determination of drug concentrations and other biochemical measures in the same rat without handling artifact. Method Integration was achieved by designing a 13 inch circular receiving antenna that operates as a plug-in replacement for the existing pair of DSI's orthogonal antennas which is compatible with the rotating cage and open floor design of the BASi Culex® ABS system. The circular receiving antenna's electrical configuration consists of a pair of electrically orthogonal half-toroids that reinforce reception of a dipole transmitter operating within the coil's interior while reducing both external noise pickup and interference from other adjacent dipole transmitters. Results For validation, measured baclofen concentration (ABST vs. satellite (μM: 69.6 ± 23.8 vs. 76.6 ± 19.5, p = NS and mean arterial pressure (ABST vs. traditional DSI telemetry (mm Hg: 150 ± 5 vs.147 ± 4, p = NS variables were quantitatively and qualitatively similar between rats housed in the ABST system and traditional home cage approaches. Conclusion The ABST system offers unique advantages over traditional between-group study paradigms that include improved data quality and significantly reduced animal use. The superior within-group model facilitates assessment of multiple physiological and biochemical responses to test compounds in the same animal. The ABST also provides opportunities to evaluate temporal relations between parameters and to investigate anomalous outlier events because drug concentrations, physiological and biochemical measures for each animal are available for comparisons.

  4. Identification of pyrimethamine- and chloroquine-resistant Plasmodium falciparum in Africa between 1984 and 1998: genotyping of archive blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saito-Nakano Yumiko

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Understanding the geographical distribution of drug resistance of Plasmodium falciparum is important for the effective treatment of malaria. Drug resistance has previously been inferred mainly from records of clinical resistance. However, clinical resistance is not always consistent with the parasite's genetic resistance. Thus, molecular identification of the parasite's drug resistance is required. In Africa, clinical resistance to pyrimethamine (Pyr and chloroquine (CQ was evident before 1980 but few studies investigating the genetic resistance to these drugs were conducted before the late 1990s. In this study, genotyping of genes involved in resistance to Pyr and CQ was performed using archive blood samples from Africa between 1984 and 1998. Methods Parasite DNA was extracted from P. falciparum-infected blood smears collected from travellers returning to Japan from Africa between 1984 and 1998. Genotypes of the dihydrofolate reductase gene (dhfr and CQ-resistance transporter gene (pfcrt were determined by polymerase chain reaction amplification and sequencing. Results Genotyping of dhfr and pfcrt was successful in 59 and 80 samples, respectively. One wild-type and seven mutant dhfr genotypes were identified. Three dhfr genotypes lacking the S108N mutation (NRSI, ICSI, IRSI; amino acids at positions 51, 59, 108, and 164 with mutations underlined were highly prevalent before 1994 but reduced after 1995, accompanied by an increase in genotypes with the S108N mutation. The dhfr IRNI genotype was first identified in Nigeria in 1991 in the present samples, and its frequency gradually increased. However, two double mutants (ICNI and NRNI, the latter of which was exclusively found in West Africa, were more frequent than the IRNI genotype. Only two pfcrt genotypes were found, the wild-type and a Southeast Asian type (CVIET; amino acids at positions 72-76 with mutations underlined. The CVIET genotype was already present as early as

  5. Quantitative cerebral H215O perfusion PET without arterial blood sampling, a method based on washout rate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The quantitative determination of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) is important in certain clinical and research applications. The disadvantage of most quantitative methods using H215O positron emission tomography (PET) is the need for arterial blood sampling. In this study a new non-invasive method for rCBF quantification was evaluated. The method is based on the washout rate of H215O following intravenous injection. All results were obtained with Alpert's method, which yields maps of the washin parameter K1 (rCBFK1) and the washout parameter k2 (rCBFk2). Maps of rCBFK1 were computed with measured arterial input curves. Maps of rCBFk2* were calculated with a standard input curve which was the mean of eight individual input curves. The mean of grey matter rCBFk2* (CBFk2*) was then compared with the mean of rCBFK1 (CBFK1) in ten healthy volunteer smokers who underwent two PET sessions on day 1 and day 3. Each session consisted of three serial H215O scans. Reproducibility was analysed using the rCBF difference scan 3-scan 2 in each session. The perfusion reserve (PR = rCBFacetazolamide-rCBFbaseline) following acetazolamide challenge was calculated with rCBFk2* (PRk2*) and rCBFK1 (PRK1) in ten patients with cerebrovascular disease. The difference CBFk2*-CBFK1 was 5.90±8.12 ml/min/100 ml (mean±SD, n=55). The SD of the scan 3-scan 1 difference was 6.1% for rCBFk2* and rCBFK1, demonstrating a high reproducibility. Perfusion reserve values determined with rCBFK1 and rCBFk2* were in high agreement (difference PRk2*-PRK1=-6.5±10.4%, PR expressed in percentage increase from baseline). In conclusion, a new non-invasive method for the quantitative determination of rCBF is presented. The method is in good agreement with Alpert's original method and the reproducibility is high. It does not require arterial blood sampling, yields quantitative voxel-by-voxel maps of rCBF, and is computationally efficient and easy to implement. (orig.)

  6. Validated UPLC-MS/MS assay for the determination of synthetic phosphodiesterase type-5 inhibitors in postmortem blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Paula; Mustra, Carla; Marcos, Mariana; Franco, João Miguel; Corte-Real, Francisco; Vieira, Duarte Nuno

    2013-08-01

    The use of synthetic phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE-5) inhibitors for the treatment of erectile dysfunction: sildenafil citrate (Viagra(®)), tadalafil (Cialis(®)) and vardenafil hydrochloride (Levitra(®)) has increased dramatically over the past 2 years. These substances are prescription drugs and must be used under medical supervision. However, they can easily be obtained over the internet from illegal sites, being a potential for a threat to public health. The development of an electrospray ionisation (ESI) ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) procedure for the simultaneous identification and quantification of three PDE5 inhibitors in blood samples was desired. Samples were prepared using Oasis(®) HLB solid-phase cartridges (3 cc, 60 mg) and chromatographic separation was achieved on an Acquity UPLC(®) HSS T3 (100 × 2.1 mm i.d., 1.8 μm particles) column with a gradient mobile phase of 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile at a 0.5 mL/min flow rate. Quantification was achieved by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of two transitions per compound: m/z 475.1 > 58 e m/z 475.1 > 311.1 for sildenafil; m/z 389.9 > 267.9 e m/z 389.9 > 134.8 for tadalafil and m/z 489 > 71.9 e m/z 489 > 150.9 for vardenafil. Zolpidem-d6 (m/z 314.5 > 235.3) was used as the internal standard. Calibration curves were linear over the concentration range of 5-1000 ng/mL, with a coefficient of determination better than 0.997. The lower limits of detection and quantification for these substances were ≤ 3 ng/mL and ≤ 8 ng/mL, respectively. The method showed a satisfactory sensitivity, precision, accuracy, recovery and selectivity. A rapid, selective and sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method using solid-phase extraction was developed for the simultaneous determination and quantification of sildenafil, vardenafil and tadalafil in blood samples. PMID:23910856

  7. Human exposure to pollutants - part: 1 blood lead and cadmium in a sample of population of Karachi

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study was carried out to see the blood lead and cadmium levels in fifty employees working at PCSIR Laboratories Complex, Karachi. These employees belonged to various socio-economic groups and had their residences in different areas of Karachi. Sixty two percent staff had blood lead level between 100-200 micro g/L. The highest blood lead level(>400 micro g/L) was found in volunteers working as garage staff. No significant difference was found between the blood lead levels of volunteers belonging to different socio-economic and age groups, only 8% of the staff had blood lead levels below 100 micro g/L. Lead in the dust collected from the residences of the volunteers was also estimated for lead and correlated with blood lead levels. Blood cadmium levels were also estimated. These were found to be higher in smokers and tobacco chewers. A definite correlation was observed between blood cadmium levels and smoking habits. (author)

  8. Bayesian Optimisation Algorithm for Nurse Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Jingpeng

    2008-01-01

    Our research has shown that schedules can be built mimicking a human scheduler by using a set of rules that involve domain knowledge. This chapter presents a Bayesian Optimization Algorithm (BOA) for the nurse scheduling problem that chooses such suitable scheduling rules from a set for each nurses assignment. Based on the idea of using probabilistic models, the BOA builds a Bayesian network for the set of promising solutions and samples these networks to generate new candidate solutions. Computational results from 52 real data instances demonstrate the success of this approach. It is also suggested that the learning mechanism in the proposed algorithm may be suitable for other scheduling problems.

  9. Widening the Schedulability Hierarchical Scheduling Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand; Mikučionis, Marius; Nyman, Ulrik; Skou, Arne

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a compositional approach for schedula-bility analysis of hierarchical systems, which enables to prove more sys-tems schedulable by having richer and more detailed scheduling models.We use a lightweight method (statistical model checking) for design ex-ploration, easily assuring high confidence in the correctness of the model.A satisfactory design can be proved schedulable using the computationcostly method (symbolic model checking). In order to analyze a hierar-chical sche...

  10. The effect of a plasma needle on bacteria in planktonic samples and on peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we study the application of a plasma needle to induce necrosis in planktonic samples containing a single breed of bacteria. Two different types of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), were covered in this study. In all experiments with bacteria, the samples were liquid suspensions of several different concentrations of bacteria prepared according to the McFarland standard. The second system studied in this paper was human peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (hPB-MSC). In the case of hPB-MSC, two sets of experiments were performed: when cells were covered with a certain amount of liquid (indirect) and when the cell sample was in direct contact with the plasma. Most importantly, the study is made with the aim to see the effects when the living cells are in a liquid medium, which normally acts as protection against the many agents that may be released by plasmas. It was found that a good effect may be expected for a wide range of initial cell densities and operating conditions causing destruction of several orders of magnitude even under the protection of a liquid. It was established independently that a temperature increase could not affect the cells under the conditions of our experiment, so the effect could originate only from the active species produced by the plasma. In the case of those hPB-MSC that were not protected by a liquid, gas flow proved to produce a considerable effect, presumably due to poor adhesion of the cells, but in a liquid the effect was only due to the plasma. Further optimization of the operation may be attempted, opening up the possibility of localized in vivo sterilization.

  11. Network-level analysis of metabolic regulation in the human red blood cell using random sampling and singular value decomposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palsson Bernhard O

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Extreme pathways (ExPas have been shown to be valuable for studying the functions and capabilities of metabolic networks through characterization of the null space of the stoichiometric matrix (S. Singular value decomposition (SVD of the ExPa matrix P has previously been used to characterize the metabolic regulatory problem in the human red blood cell (hRBC from a network perspective. The calculation of ExPas is NP-hard, and for genome-scale networks the computation of ExPas has proven to be infeasible. Therefore an alternative approach is needed to reveal regulatory properties of steady state solution spaces of genome-scale stoichiometric matrices. Results We show that the SVD of a matrix (W formed of random samples from the steady-state solution space of the hRBC metabolic network gives similar insights into the regulatory properties of the network as was obtained with SVD of P. This new approach has two main advantages. First, it works with a direct representation of the shape of the metabolic solution space without the confounding factor of a non-uniform distribution of the extreme pathways and second, the SVD procedure can be applied to a very large number of samples, such as will be produced from genome-scale networks. Conclusion These results show that we are now in a position to study the network aspects of the regulatory problem in genome-scale metabolic networks through the use of random sampling. Contact: palsson@ucsd.edu

  12. Supported liquid membrane extraction coupled in-line to commercial capillary electrophoresis for rapid determination of formate in undiluted blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pantůčková, Pavla; Kubáň, Pavel; Boček, Petr

    2013-07-19

    A cheap, disposable sample pretreatment device with planar supported liquid membrane (SLM) was proposed, assembled and placed into an autosampler carousel of a commercial capillary electrophoresis (CE) instrument for automated pretreatment and analysis of formate in undiluted whole blood and serum samples. All analytical procedures except for filling the pretreatment device with donor and acceptor solutions, i.e., extraction across SLM, injection of the extracted sample and CE-UV determination of formate, were performed fully automatically. The pretreatment device required only μL volumes of blood sample and organic solvent per extraction and was disposed off after each extraction. Good repeatability of peak areas (≤7.7%) and migration times (≤1.5%), linear relationship (r(2)=0.998-0.999) and limits of detection (≤35μM) were achieved. The overall analytical process including blood withdrawal, filling the SLM device with respective solutions, extraction of blood sample, injection into separation capillary and CE separation of formate from other anions took less than 4min. The method was proved useful by direct determination of elevated formate concentrations in undiluted serum samples of a methanol intoxicated patient. Due to its compatibility with currently commercially available CE instrumentation, disposability of extraction devices, minimum sample handling/consumption, and short extraction/analysis times, the developed method might be attractive for rapid diagnosis of methanol poisoning in clinical and toxicological laboratories. PMID:23777836

  13. Hematocrit, Anemia, and Arm Preference for Blood Sample Collection: A Cross-Sectional Study of Pregnant Women in Enugu, South-Eastern, Nigeria

    OpenAIRE

    Dim, CC; Ugwu, EO; Dim, NR; Anyaehie, UB

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Regular review of hematocrit (HCT) and anemia patterns in pregnancy is necessary in our environment. Aim: The aim was to determine the average HCT, prevalence, and pattern of anemia, as well the arm preferences for blood sample collection among pregnant women in Enugu, South East Nigeria. Subjects and Methods: HCT was determined using venous blood of 200 antenatal women at the Univer...

  14. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in peripheral blood samples of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus)

    OpenAIRE

    I-Hua Chen; Lien-Siang Chou; Shih-Jen Chou; Jiann-Hsiung Wang; Jeffrey Stott; Myra Blanchard; I-Fan Jen; Wei-Cheng Yang

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR is often used as a research tool directed at gene transcription. Selection of optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs) as reference genes is critical to establishing sensitive and reproducible qRT-PCR-based assays. The current study was designed to identify the appropriate reference genes in blood leukocytes of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for gene transcription research. Seventy-five blood samples collected from 7 bottlenose dolphins were used to analyze 15 candidate...

  15. Untargeted metabolomics applied retrospectively to UPLC-HR-TOFMS data of whole blood samples from Danish drivers exposed to 3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, Ecstasy)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Kirstine Lykke; Telving, Rasmus; Andreasen, Mette Findal;

    evaluate the drug metabolism of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, “Ecstasy”). Despite of the untraditional experimental setup, and a very heterogeneous population with different concentrations of MDMA/kg blood weight, as well as unknown information about amount and time of administration in relation...... to blood sampling, it was possible to extract meaningful information. Various statistical methods were tested and their predictability was validated by the positive identification of MDMA blood metabolites. In addition, endogenous metabolites that may be related to energy metabolism, the serotonergic...

  16. DISCRIMINATION OF VARIABLE SCHEDULES IS CONTROLLED BY INTERRESPONSE TIMES PROXIMAL TO REINFORCEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Tanno, Takayuki.; Silberberg, Alan; Sakagami, Takayuki

    2012-01-01

    In Experiment 1, food-deprived rats responded to one of two schedules that were, with equal probability, associated with a sample lever. One schedule was always variable ratio, while the other schedule, depending on the trial within a session, was: (a) a variable-interval schedule; (b) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-low-rate schedule; or (c) a tandem variable-interval, differential-reinforcement-of-high-rate schedule. Completion of a sample-lever schedule, which too...

  17. Evaluating the effect of sample type on American alligator (Alligator mississippiensis) analyte values in a point-of-care blood analyser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew T; Finger, John W; Winzeler, Megan E; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-01-01

    The assessment of wildlife health has been enhanced by the ability of point-of-care (POC) blood analysers to provide biochemical analyses of non-domesticated animals in the field. However, environmental limitations (e.g. temperature, atmospheric humidity and rain) and lack of reference values may inhibit researchers from using such a device with certain wildlife species. Evaluating the use of alternative sample types, such as plasma, in a POC device may afford researchers the opportunity to delay sample analysis and the ability to use banked samples. In this study, we examined fresh whole blood, fresh plasma and frozen plasma (sample type) pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide (PCO2), bicarbonate (HCO3 (-)), total carbon dioxide (TCO2), base excess (BE), partial pressure of oxygen (PO2), oxygen saturation (sO2) and lactate concentrations in 23 juvenile American alligators (Alligator mississippiensis) using an i-STAT CG4+ cartridge. Our results indicate that sample type had no effect on lactate concentration values (F 2,65 = 0.37, P = 0.963), suggesting that the i-STAT analyser can be used reliably to quantify lactate concentrations in fresh and frozen plasma samples. In contrast, the other seven blood parameters measured by the CG4+ cartridge were significantly affected by sample type. Lastly, we were able to collect blood samples from all alligators within 2 min of capture to establish preliminary reference ranges for juvenile alligators based on values obtained using fresh whole blood. PMID:27382469

  18. Simultaneous determination of CRP and D-dimer in human blood plasma samples with White Light Reflectance Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koukouvinos, Georgios; Petrou, Panagiota; Misiakos, Konstantinos; Drygiannakis, Dimitris; Raptis, Ioannis; Stefanitsis, Gerasimos; Martini, Spyridoula; Nikita, Dimitra; Goustouridis, Dimitrios; Moser, Isabella; Jobst, Gerhard; Kakabakos, Sotirios

    2016-10-15

    A dual-analyte assay for the simultaneous determination of C-reactive protein (CRP) and D-dimer in human blood plasma based on a white light interference spectroscopy sensing platform is presented. Measurement is accomplished in real-time by scanning the sensing surface, on which distinct antibody areas have been created, with a reflection probe used both for illumination of the surface and collection of the reflected interference spectrum. The composition of the transducer, the sensing surface chemical activation and biofunctionalization procedures were optimized with respect to signal magnitude and repeatability. The assay format involved direct detection of CRP whereas for D-dimer a two-site immunoassay employing a biotinylated reporter antibody and reaction with streptavidin was selected. The assays were sensitive with detection limits of 25ng/mL for both analytes, precise with intra- and inter-assay CV values ranging from 3.6% to 7.7%, and from 4.8% to 9.5%, respectively, for both assays, and accurate with recovery values ranging from 88.5% to 108% for both analytes. Moreover, the values determined for the two analytes in 35 human plasma samples were in excellent agreement with those received for the same samples by standard diagnostic laboratory instrumentation employing commercial kits. The excellent agreement of the results supported the validity of the proposed system for clinical application for the detection of multiple analytes since it was demonstrated that up to seven antibody areas can be created on the sensing surface and successfully interrogated with the developed optical set-up. PMID:26675113

  19. Non-enzymatic amperometric detection of hydrogen peroxide in human blood serum samples using a modified silver nanowire electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirumalraj, Balamurugan; Zhao, Duo-Han; Chen, Shen-Ming; Palanisamy, Selvakumar

    2016-05-15

    In this paper, we report a highly sensitive amperometric H2O2 sensor based on silver nanowires (AgNWs) modified screen printed carbon electrode. The AgNWs were synthesized using polyol method. The synthesized AgNWs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, UV-vis spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques. The average diameter and length of the synthesized AgNWs were found as 86±5 and 385nm, respectively. Under optimum conditions, the AgNWs modified electrode shows a stable amperometric response for H2O2 and was linear over the concentrations ranging from 0.3 to 704.8μM. The non-enzymatic sensor showed a high sensitivity of 662.6μAmM(-1)cm(-2) with a detection limit of 29nM. The response time of the sensor was found as 2s. Furthermore, the AgNWs modified electrode exhibited a good recovery of H2O2 (94.3%) in the human blood serum samples. PMID:26939075

  20. Advanced deep reactive-ion etching technology for hollow microneedles for transdermal blood sampling and drug delivery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yufei; Eng, Pay F; Guy, Owen J; Roberts, Kerry; Ashraf, Huma; Knight, Nick

    2013-06-01

    Using an SPTS Technologies Ltd. Pegasus deep reactive-ion etching (DRIE) system, an advanced two-step etching process has been developed for hollow microneedles in applications of transdermal blood sampling and drug delivery. Because of the different etching requirements of both narrow deep hollow and large open cavity, hollow etch and cavity etch steps have been achieved separately. This novel two-step etching process is assisted with a bi-layer etching mask. Results show that the etch rate of silicon during this hollow etch step was about 7.5 microm/min and the etch rate of silicon during this cavity etch step was about 8-10 microm/min, using the coil plasma etching power between 2.0 and 2.8 kW. Especially for the microneedle bores etch, the deeper it etched, the slower the etch rate was. The microneedle bores have successfully been obtained 75-150 microm in inner diametre and 700-1000 microm long with high aspect ratio DRIE, meanwhile, the vertical sidewall structures have been achieved with the high etch load exposed area over 70% for the cavity etch step. PMID:24046906

  1. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides Bechtel Hanford, Inc. (BHI) and Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) a schedule of monitoring and sampling routines for the Operational Environmental Monitoring (OEM) program during calendar year (CY) 1995. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Near-Field Monitoring. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Near-Field Monitoring and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1995

  2. Stripping Voltammetric Determination Of Zinc, Cadmium, Lead And Copper In Blood Samples Of Children Aged Between 3 Months And 6 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakesh Kumar Mahajan

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Blood samples of 160 children, ranging age between 3 months and 6 years were selected from five different parts of Amritsar district of Punjab (India and were analyzed for Zn, Cd, Pb and Cu using anodic stripping voltammetry. Large variations in the results have been correlated to the area inhabited, age differences and other factors. It was found that the areas, more prone to environmental stress, had shown more quantities of these metals in blood samples in comparison to those which were taken from safer sites. Similarly the younger children lesser exposed to environmental pollution had shown comparatively lesser quantity of these metals in comparison to older objects.

  3. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben;

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index in...... the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  4. Scheduling (Dagstuhl Seminar 13111)

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Susanne; Boxma, Onno J.; Pruhs, Kirk

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the program and the outcomes of Dagstuhl Seminar 13111 "Scheduling". The primary objective of the seminar is to facilitate dialog and collaboration between researchers in two different mathematically-oriented scheduling research communities, the stochastic scheduling and queuing community, and the worst-case approximation scheduling community.

  5. Mean hemoglobin levels in venous blood samples and prevalence of anemia in Japanese elementary and junior high school students

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Screening for anemia has been performed in schools in Japan for over 30 years. The long-term effect of the nuclear power plant disaster on the prevalence of anemia in school age children is unknown. This research was performed to evaluate the prevalence of anemia in school age children and to determine grade-level and gender-related reference hemoglobin (Hb) levels prior to the nuclear disaster. Data for this research were obtained from results of screening for anemia obtained by venous blood sampling in schools in 2002. Mean Hb levels were calculated for each grade level (elementary school grades 1-6 and junior high school years 1-3) and according to gender, and the prevalence of anemia was determined. In our research, Tokyo Health Service Association guidelines were used to determine reference Hb levels for anemia. We demonstrated that Hb levels in boys increased with age during childhood and adolescence (from 13.1±0.7 g/dL in 7 year olds to 14.9±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds); in girls, Hb levels peaked at menarche (13.7±0.8 g/dL in 12 year olds), decreasing slightly thereafter (13.4±1.1 g/dL in 15 year olds). The prevalence of anemia was 0.26% in elementary school boys, 0.27% in elementary school girls, and 1.21% in junior high school boys. The prevalence of anemia in second- and third-year junior high school girls was lower than that in first-year junior high school girls. Among all junior high school girls, 5.73% had mild anemia. Iron-deficiency anemia is the commonest type of anemia in high school girls, secondary to the relative lack of iron due to menstruation, the growth spurt and exercise. Appropriate dietary therapy and treatment of anemia, together with education about the dietary prevention of anemia, are important to reduce the prevalence of anemia in high school students. When complete blood counts are performed in regions thought to be affected by the Fukushima nuclear power plant disaster, our report can serve as a reference during evaluation of Hb

  6. Cloud point extraction for determination of lead in blood samples of children, using different ligands prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry: A multivariate study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, Faheem, E-mail: shah_ceac@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Kazi, Tasneem Gul, E-mail: tgkazi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Afridi, Hassan Imran, E-mail: hassanimranafridi@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Naeemullah, E-mail: khannaeemullah@ymail.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan); Arain, Muhammad Balal, E-mail: bilal_ku2004@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology, Bannu, KPK (Pakistan); Baig, Jameel Ahmed, E-mail: jab_mughal@yahoo.com [National Center of Excellence in Analytical Chemistry, University of Sindh, Jamshoro 76080 (Pakistan)

    2011-09-15

    Highlights: {yields} Trace levels of lead in blood samples of healthy children and with different kidney disorders {yields} Pre-concentration of Pb{sup +2} in acid digested blood samples after chelating with two complexing reagents. {yields} Multivariate technique was used for screening of significant factors that influence the CPE of Pb{sup +2} {yields} The level of Pb{sup +2} in diseased children was significantly higher than referents of same age group. - Abstract: The phase-separation phenomenon of non-ionic surfactants occurring in aqueous solution was used for the extraction of lead (Pb{sup 2+}) from digested blood samples after simultaneous complexation with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (APDC) and diethyldithiocarbamate (DDTC) separately. The complexed analyte was quantitatively extracted with octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114). The multivariate strategy was applied to estimate the optimum values of experimental factors. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometer (FAAS). The detection limit value of Pb{sup 2+} for the preconcentration of 10 mL of acid digested blood sample was 1.14 {mu}g L{sup -1}. The accuracy of the proposed methods was assessed by analyzing certified reference material (whole blood). Under the optimized conditions of both CPE methods, 10 mL of Pb{sup 2+} standards (10 {mu}g L{sup -1}) complexed with APDC and DDTC, permitted the enhancement factors of 56 and 42, respectively. The proposed method was used for determination of Pb{sup 2+} in blood samples of children with kidney disorders and healthy controls.

  7. 血液标本存放时间及存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响%Influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周正国

    2015-01-01

    Objective To research and observe the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result, for providing reference for clinical detection in clinical practice. Methods 20 cases were selected randomly, and the patients were collected blood samples with empty belly. 14mL blood was collected for each patient, and 2mL once. The blood samples were stored in vacuum tubes which were marked as control(1), indoor temperature(2), 37℃thermostatic waterbath(2) and 0℃fridge(2). And the influence of storage time and storage way of blood sample on blood glucose testing result was analyzed. Results The influence of storage time of blood on blood glucose test is very evident. After 6h, the blood glucose level was 60%of the initial value. After 18h, he blood glucose level was 27%of initial value.And the blood glucose level after 24 h is 22%of initial value. The longer blood glucose was stored, the faster the blood glucose level reduced. After blood samples were stored in indoor temperature and 37℃thermostatic waterbath for 2.5h and 5h, the blood glucose testing result had evident difference from the initial value, which had statistical significance. Blood samples are stored in sodium fluoride potassium oxalate tube and separation gel coagulant tube, and the influence of it on blood glucose detection had no evident difference, which had no statistical significance. Conclusion In order to ensure that the result of blood glucose detection is accurate, the blood samples should be stored in the environment with low temperature, and the blood samples should be detected timely, to reduce the error of detection results and ensure that the result is reliable and accurate.%目的:研究和探讨血液标本存放时间和存放方式对血糖检测结果的影响,为日后临床检验提供参考价值。方法随机抽取20例患者,空腹采集血液标本,每位患者共采集14mL,每次2mL,存放于真空

  8. Application of mRNA Expression Analysis to Human Blood Identification in Degenerated Samples that were False-negative by Immunochromatography(,) (.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumura, Shusaku; Matsusue, Aya; Waters, Brian; Kashiwagi, Masayuki; Hara, Kenji; Kubo, Shin-Ichi

    2016-07-01

    Forensic laboratories are often faced with cases in which methamphetamine hydrochloride-mixed blood is unable to be identified as human blood by immunochromatography against human hemoglobin A0. The application of mRNA expression analysis to samples that showed a false-negative with immunochromatography was investigated as an alternative approach that did not depend on the antigen-antibody reaction. Real-time PCR was used to examine the expression levels of blood markers such as glycophorin A, spectrin beta, and hemoglobin beta. Hemoglobin beta was the only marker that was specifically detected in blood, while glycophorin A was useful for determining human specificity. Hemoglobin beta showed good detection sensitivity and was detectable in 37-year-old blood stains. Hemoglobin beta was exclusively detectable in methamphetamine hydrochloride-mixed blood stains. Detergents and disinfectants did not significantly influence mRNA markers. The proposed mRNA expression analysis was suitable for human blood identification as an alternative method to immunochromatography. PMID:27364269

  9. Operating System Process Schedulers

    OpenAIRE

    ŠEKORANJA, MATEJ

    2016-01-01

    Process scheduling is one of the key tasks of every operating system. Proper implementation of a scheduler reflects itself in a system responsiveness, especially when processes require execution in real-time. Multimedia playback is one of these processes, also being one of the most common operating system tasks nowadays. In the beginning of this thesis, I present theoretical basics of scheduling: its goals, different scheduling types and basics algorithms. I cover scheduling in single-proces...

  10. Dynamic Fractional Resource Scheduling vs. Batch Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Casanova, Henri; Vivien, Frédéric

    2011-01-01

    We propose a novel job scheduling approach for homogeneous cluster computing platforms. Its key feature is the use of virtual machine technology to share fractional node resources in a precise and controlled manner. Other VM-based scheduling approaches have focused primarily on technical issues or on extensions to existing batch scheduling systems, while we take a more aggressive approach and seek to find heuristics that maximize an objective metric correlated with job performance. We derive absolute performance bounds and develop algorithms for the online, non-clairvoyant version of our scheduling problem. We further evaluate these algorithms in simulation against both synthetic and real-world HPC workloads and compare our algorithms to standard batch scheduling approaches. We find that our approach improves over batch scheduling by orders of magnitude in terms of job stretch, while leading to comparable or better resource utilization. Our results demonstrate that virtualization technology coupled with light...

  11. Chromosome aberrations induced in human lymphocytes by U-235 fission neutrons: I. Irradiation of human blood samples in the "dry cell" of the TRIGA Mark II nuclear reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fajgelj, A; Lakoski, A; Horvat, D; Remec, I; Skrk, J; Stegnar, P

    1991-11-01

    A set-up for irradiation of biological samples in the TRIGA Mark II research reactor in Ljubljana is described. Threshold activation detectors were used for characterisation of the neutron flux, and the accompanying gamma dose was measured by TLDs. Human peripheral blood samples were irradiated "in vitro" and biological effects evaluated according to the unstable chromosomal aberrations induced. Biological effects of two types of cultivation of irradiated blood samples, the first immediately after irradiation and the second after 96 h storage, were studied. A significant difference in the incidence of chromosomal aberrations between these two types of samples was obtained, while our dose-response curve fitting coefficients alpha 1 = (7.71 +/- 0.09) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (immediate cultivation) and alpha 2 = (11.03 +/- 0.08) x 10(-2) Gy-1 (96 h delayed cultivation) are in both cases lower than could be found in the literature. PMID:1962281

  12. Impact of grey zone sample testing by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in enhancing blood safety: Experience at a tertiary care hospital in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Archana Solanki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA used for screening blood donors for transfusion transmitted infections (TTIs can sometimes fail to detect blood donors who are recently infected or possessing the low strength of pathogen. Estimation of a grey zone in ELISA testing and repeat testing of grey zone samples can further help in reducing the risks of TTI in countries where nucleic acid amplification testing for TTIs is not feasible. Materials and Methods: Grey zone samples with optical density (OD lying between cut-off OD and 10% below the cut-off OD (cut-off OD × 0.9 were identified during routine ELISA testing. On performing repeat ELISA testing on grey zone samples in duplicate, the samples showing both OD value below grey zone were marked nonreactive, and samples showing one or both OD value in the grey zone were marked indeterminate. The samples on repeat testing showing one or both OD above cut-off value were marked positive. Results: About 119 samples (77 for hepatitis B virus [HBV], 23 for human immunodeficiency virus [HIV], and 19 for hepatitis C virus [HCV] were found to be in grey zone. On repeat testing of these samples in duplicate, 70 (58.8% samples (45 for HBV, 12 for HIV, and 13 for HCV were found to be reactive. Six (5% samples (four for HBV, one for HIV, and one for HCV were found to be indeterminate. Conclusion: Seventy donors initially screened negative, were found out to be potentially infectious on repeat grey zone testing. Thus, estimation of grey zone samples with repeat testing can further enhance the safety of blood transfusion.

  13. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method

    OpenAIRE

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient’s identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient’s identification and sample errors were collec...

  14. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus): Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

    OpenAIRE

    Jan G. Myburgh; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C. A.; John T. Soley; Dirk G. Booyse; Fritz W. Huchzermeyer; Russel H. Lowers; Guillette Jr, Louis J.

    2014-01-01

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was inject...

  15. Kinetics of Dengue Non-Structural Protein 1 Antigen and IgM and IgA Antibodies in Capillary Blood Samples from Confirmed Dengue Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Matheus, Séverine; Pham, Thai Binh; Labeau, Bhetty; Huong, Vu Thi Que; Lacoste, Vincent; Deparis, Xavier; Marechal, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Large-scale epidemiological surveillance of dengue in the field and dengue patient management require simple methods for sample collection, storage, and transportation as well as effective diagnostic tools. We evaluated the kinetics of three biological markers of dengue infection—non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigen, immunoglobulin M (IgM), and IgA—in sequential capillary blood samples collected from fingertips of confirmed dengue patients. The overall sensitivities and specificities of the...

  16. Evaluation of a low-cost procedure for sampling, long-term storage, and extraction of RNA from blood for qPCR analyses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mærkedahl, Rasmus Baadsgaard; Frøkiær, Hanne; Lauritzen, Lotte;

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: In large clinical trials, where RNA cannot be extracted immediately after sampling, preserving RNA in whole blood is a crucial initial step in obtaining robust qPCR data. The current golden standard for RNA preservation is costly and designed for time-consuming column-based R...

  17. SPIDIA-DNA: An External Quality Assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for DNA-based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Malentacchi, F.; Pazzagli, M.; Simi, L.; Orlando, C.; Wyrich, R.; Hartmann, C.C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    -, č. 424 (2013), s. 274-286. ISSN 0009-8981 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * DNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 2.764, year: 2013

  18. PCB Concentrations and Dioxin-like Activity in Blood Samples from Danish School Children and Their Mothers living in Urban and Rural Areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørck, Thit A; Erdmann, Simon E; Long, Manhai;

    2014-01-01

    R transactivity assay were analysed in blood samples from Danish schoolchildren and their mothers in the European framework of the DEMOCOPHES/COPHES projects. The participants were selected from an urban and a rural area, respectively. The PCB concentrations and the AhR-TEQ (TCDD toxic equivalent) were...

  19. Diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis by the polymerase chain reaction using blood, bone marrow and lymph node samples from patients from the Sudan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, K; Gasim, S; Elhassan, A M;

    1997-01-01

    We have evaluated the sensitivity of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a diagnostic tool for Leishmania donovani using blood, bone marrow and lymph node samples from Sudanese patients with a confirmed infection. Forty patients were diagnosed by microscopic examination of bone marrow or lymph...

  20. SPIDIA-RNA: First external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pazzagli, M.; Malentacchi, F.; Simi, L.; Wyrich, R.; Guenther, K.; Hartmann, C.; Verderio, P.; Pizzamiglio, S.; Ciniselli, C.M.; Tichopád, Aleš; Kubista, Mikael; Gelmini, S.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 59, č. 1 (2013), s. 20-31. ISSN 1046-2023 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520701 Keywords : Pre-analytical phase * RNA quality * Blood samples Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2013

  1. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures. PMID:25973631

  2. Systolic Blood Pressure, Socioeconomic Status, and Biobehavioral Risk Factors in a Nationally Representative U.S Young Adult Sample

    OpenAIRE

    Brummett, Beverly H.; Babyak, Michael A; Siegler, Ilene C.; Shanahan, Michael; Harris, Kathleen Mullan; Elder, Glen H.; Williams, Redford B.

    2011-01-01

    In the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, a US longitudinal study of over 15,000 young adults, we examined the extent to which socioeconomic status is linked to systolic blood pressure, and whether biobehavioral risk factors mediate the association. Over 62% of the participants had systolic blood pressure >120 mmHg and 12% with systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg. Over 66% were classified as at least overweight (Body Mass Index>25 kg/m2), with over 36% meeting criteria for at lea...

  3. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile Crocodylus niloticus: its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myburgh, Jan G; Kirberger, Robert M; Steyl, Johan C A; Soley, John T; Booyse, Dirk G; Huchzermeyer, Fritz W; Lowers, Russel H; Guillette, Louis J

    2014-01-01

    The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus). The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2) by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions. PMID:24831995

  4. SPIDIA-RNA: second external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malentacchi

    Full Text Available One purpose of the EC funded project, SPIDIA, is to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical handling of blood samples for RNA molecular testing. To this end, two pan-European External Quality Assessments (EQAs were implemented. Here we report the results of the second SPIDIA-RNA EQA. This second study included modifications in the protocol related to the blood collection process, the shipping conditions and pre-analytical specimen handling for participants. Participating laboratories received two identical proficiency blood specimens collected in tubes with or without an RNA stabilizer. For pre-defined specimen storage times and temperatures, laboratories were asked to perform RNA extraction from whole blood according to their usual procedure and to return extracted RNA to the SPIDIA facility for further analysis. These RNA samples were evaluated for purity, yield, integrity, stability, presence of interfering substances, and gene expression levels for the validated markers of RNA stability: FOS, IL1B, IL8, GAPDH, FOSB and TNFRSF10c. Analysis of the gene expression results of FOS, IL8, FOSB, and TNFRSF10c, however, indicated that the levels of these transcripts were significantly affected by blood collection tube type and storage temperature. These results demonstrated that only blood collection tubes containing a cellular RNA stabilizer allowed reliable gene expression analysis within 48 h from blood collection for all the genes investigated. The results of these two EQAs have been proposed for use in the development of a Technical Specification by the European Committee for Standardization.

  5. Automated Scheduling of Personnel to Staff Operations for the Mars Science Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knight, Russell; Mishkin, Andrew; Allbaugh, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Leveraging previous work on scheduling personnel for space mission operations, we have adapted ASPEN (Activity Scheduling and Planning Environment) [1] to the domain of scheduling personnel for operations of the Mars Science Laboratory. Automated scheduling of personnel is not new. We compare our representations to a sampling of employee scheduling systems available with respect to desired features. We described the constraints required by MSL personnel schedulers and how each is handled by the scheduling algorithm.

  6. Validation of a method to quantify chromium, cadmium, manganese, nickel and lead in human whole blood, urine, saliva and hair samples by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For biological monitoring of heavy metal exposure in occupational toxicology, usually whole blood and urine samples are the most widely used and accepted matrix to assess internal xenobiotic exposure. Hair samples and saliva are also of interest in occupational and environmental health surveys but procedures for the determination of metals in saliva and hair are very scarce and to our knowledge there is no validation of a method to quantify Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in four different human biological materials (whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair) by electrothermal atomization atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS). In the present study, quantification methods for the determination of Cr, Cd, Mn, Ni and Pb in whole blood, urine, saliva and axilary hair were validated according to the EU common standards. Pyrolisis and atomization temperatures have been determined. The main parameters evaluated were: detection and quantification limits, linearity range, repeatability, reproducibility, recovery and uncertainty. Accuracy of the methods was tested with the whole blood, urine and hair certified reference materials and recoveries of the spiked samples were acceptable ranged from 96.3 to 107.8%.

  7. Determination of total and inorganic Hg in whole blood by cold vapor inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with alkaline sample preparation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complete text of publication follows. A simple method with a fast sample preparation procedure for total and inorganic mercury determinations in blood samples is proposed based on flow injection cold vapor inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (CV-ICP-MS). Aliquots of whole blood (500 μL) are diluted 1+1 v/v with 10% v/v tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution, incubated for 3 h at room temperature and then further diluted 1 + 9 with 2% v/v HCl. The inorganic Hg was released by on-line addition of L-cysteine and then reduced to metallic Hg by SnCl2. On the other hand, total mercury was determined by on-line addition of KMnO4 and then reduced to metallic by NaBH4. Matrix-matched calibration standards are used and the method detection limit was found to be 0.8 μg/L and 0.08 μg/L, for inorganic and total mercury, respectively. Method accuracy is traceable to Standard Reference Material (SRM) 966 Toxic Metals in Bovine Blood from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). For additional validation purposes, human whole blood samples were analyzed by the proposed method and by CV AAS, with no statistical difference between the two techniques at 95% level on applying the t-test.

  8. Widening the Schedulability Hierarchical Scheduling Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun;

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a compositional approach for schedula- bility analysis of hierarchical systems, which enables to prove more sys- tems schedulable by having richer and more detailed scheduling models. We use a lightweight method (statistical model checking) for design ex- ploration, easily...... assuring high confidence in the correctness of the model. A satisfactory design can be proved schedulable using the computation costly method (symbolic model checking). In order to analyze a hierar- chical scheduling system compositionally, we introduce the notion of a stochastic supplier modeling the...... supply of resources in each component. We specifically investigate two different techniques to widen the set of provably schedulable systems: 1) a new supplier model; 2) restricting the potential task offsets. We also provide a way to estimate the minimum resource supply (budget) that a component is...

  9. Dedicated heterogeneous node scheduling including backfill scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Robert R.; Eckert, Philip D.; Hommes, Gregg

    2006-07-25

    A method and system for job backfill scheduling dedicated heterogeneous nodes in a multi-node computing environment. Heterogeneous nodes are grouped into homogeneous node sub-pools. For each sub-pool, a free node schedule (FNS) is created so that the number of to chart the free nodes over time. For each prioritized job, using the FNS of sub-pools having nodes useable by a particular job, to determine the earliest time range (ETR) capable of running the job. Once determined for a particular job, scheduling the job to run in that ETR. If the ETR determined for a lower priority job (LPJ) has a start time earlier than a higher priority job (HPJ), then the LPJ is scheduled in that ETR if it would not disturb the anticipated start times of any HPJ previously scheduled for a future time. Thus, efficient utilization and throughput of such computing environments may be increased by utilizing resources otherwise remaining idle.

  10. Activity of neutron-induced Na-24 in NaCl solution to simulate human blood: effects of the sample-source distance and the irradiation time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an accident of neutron radiation, the neutron dose can be estimated by measuring radioactivity of 24Na in blood of the patients. In this work, NaCl solution as simulated blood was irradiated by a 252Cf neutron source, and measured by a low background γ-ray measurement system. The 24Na activity was measured at different source-sample distances for different irradiation hours. The 24Na activity after decay correction decreases exponentially with increasing distance, but increases linearly with irradiation time. (authors)

  11. Quantitative analysis of human herpesvirus-6 genome in blood and bone marrow samples from Tunisian patients with acute leukemia: a follow-up study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faten Nefzi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infectious etiology in lymphoproliferative diseases has always been suspected. The pathogenic roles of human herpesvirus-6 (HHV-6 in acute leukemia have been of great interest. Discordant results to establish a link between HHV-6 activation and the genesis of acute leukemia have been observed. The objective of this study was to evaluate a possible association between HHV-6 infection and acute leukemia in children and adults, with a longitudinal follow-up at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse. Methods HHV-6 load was quantified by a quantitative real-time PCR in the blood and bone marrow samples from 37 children and 36 adults with acute leukemia: 33 B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL, 6 T acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL, 34 acute myeloid leukemia (AML. Results HHV-6 was detected in 15%, 8%, 30% and 28% of the blood samples at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. The median viral loads were 138, 244, 112 and 78 copies/million cells at diagnosis, aplasia, remission and relapse, respectively. In the bone marrow samples, HHV-6 was detected in 5%, 20% and 23% of the samples at diagnosis, remission and relapse, respectively. The median viral loads were 34, 109 and 32 copies/million cells at diagnosis, remission and relapse, respectively. According to the type of leukemia at diagnosis, HHV-6 was detected in 19% of the blood samples and in 7% of the bone marrow samples (with median viral loads at 206 and 79 copies/million cells, respectively from patients with B-ALL. For patients with AML, HHV-6 was present in 8% of the blood samples and in 4% of the bone marrow samples (with median viral loads at 68 and 12 copies/million cells, respectively. HHV-6 was more prevalent in the blood samples from children than from adults (25% and 9%, respectively and for the bone marrow (11% and 0%, respectively. All typable HHV-6 were HHV-6B species. No link was shown between neither the clinical symptoms nor the

  12. Childhood Immunization Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Why Immunize? Vaccines: The Basics Instant Childhood Immunization Schedule Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Get the ... See Disclaimer for additional details. Based on Immunization Schedule for Children 0 through 6 Years of age ...

  13. Distribution of bacteria and yeasts within the 10-ml Isolator during the processing of seeded blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, J A; Levisky, J S

    1986-02-01

    Forty-five organisms consisting of stock cultures and clinical isolates of bacteria and yeast were separately inoculated into outdated blood bank blood to achieve a concentration of approximately 100 CFU/ml. Blood with each organism was introduced into groups of four Isolators (E. I. du Pont de Nemours & Co., Inc., Wilmington, Del.), which were then processed according to the Isostat instructions of the manufacturer. The supernatant, sediment, and wash (material removed from the surface of the slanted stopper after sediment removal) were inoculated onto 5% sheep blood agar plates. Cultures were incubated aerobically (5 to 10% CO2) at 35 degrees C for 48 to 72 h. From the 180 Isolators, the mean recovery was 6% (range, 0 to 48%) for the supernatant, 87% (range, 47 to 98%) for the sediment, and 8% (range, 3 to 23%) for the wash. Neither variation among technologists nor intentional misalignment of additional Isolators in the centrifuge could explain all of the losses of microorganisms from the sediment. The manual nature of the Isolator procedure, which led to the loss of significant amounts of organisms from the sediment, may help to explain false-negative Isolator results obtained from blood of patients, particularly when small numbers of pathogens are present. PMID:3084546

  14. Scheduling in polling systems

    OpenAIRE

    Wierman, AC; Winands, EMM Erik; Boxma, OJ Onno

    2007-01-01

    We present a simple mean value analysis (MVA) framework for analyzing the effect of scheduling within queues in classical asymmetric polling systems with gated or exhaustive service. Scheduling in polling systems finds many applications in computer and communication systems. Our framework leads not only to unification but also to extension of the literature studying scheduling in polling systems. It illustrates that a large class of scheduling policies behaves similarly in the exhaustive poll...

  15. Reinforcement learning in scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietterich, Tom G.; Ok, Dokyeong; Zhang, Wei; Tadepalli, Prasad

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this research is to apply reinforcement learning methods to real-world problems like scheduling. In this preliminary paper, we show that learning to solve scheduling problems such as the Space Shuttle Payload Processing and the Automatic Guided Vehicle (AGV) scheduling can be usefully studied in the reinforcement learning framework. We discuss some of the special challenges posed by the scheduling domain to these methods and propose some possible solutions we plan to implement.

  16. A novel method for sample preparation of fresh lung cancer tissue for proteomics analysis by tumor cell enrichment and removal of blood contaminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orre Lotta

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In-depth proteomics analyses of tumors are frequently biased by the presence of blood components and stromal contamination, which leads to large experimental variation and decreases the proteome coverage. We have established a reproducible method to prepare freshly collected lung tumors for proteomics analysis, aiming at tumor cell enrichment and reduction of plasma protein contamination. We obtained enriched tumor-cell suspensions (ETS from six lung cancer cases (two adenocarcinomas, two squamous-cell carcinomas, two large-cell carcinomas and from two normal lung samples. The cell content of resulting ETS was evaluated with immunocytological stainings and compared with the histologic pattern of the original specimens. By means of a quantitative mass spectrometry-based method we evaluated the reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol and we assessed the proteome coverage by comparing lysates from ETS samples with the direct lysate of corresponding fresh-frozen samples. Results Cytological analyses on cytospin specimens showed that the percentage of tumoral cells in the ETS samples ranged from 20% to 70%. In the normal lung samples the percentage of epithelial cells was less then 10%. The reproducibility of the sample preparation protocol was very good, with coefficient of variation at the peptide level and at the protein level of 13% and 7%, respectively. Proteomics analysis led to the identification of a significantly higher number of proteins in the ETS samples than in the FF samples (244 vs 109, respectively. Albumin and hemoglobin were among the top 5 most abundant proteins identified in the FF samples, showing a high contamination with blood and plasma proteins, whereas ubiquitin and the mitochondrial ATP synthase 5A1 where among the top 5 most abundant proteins in the ETS samples. Conclusion The method is feasible and reproducible. We could obtain a fair enrichment of cells but the major benefit of the method

  17. Does the pretreatment tumor sampling location correspond with metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koolen, Bas B., E-mail: b.koolen@nki.nl [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Elshof, Lotte E. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Loo, Claudette E. [Department of Radiology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Wesseling, Jelle [Department of Pathology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vrancken Peeters, Marie-Jeanne T.F.D. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Vogel, Wouter V. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Rutgers, Emiel J.Th. [Department of Surgical Oncology, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands); Valdés Olmos, Renato A. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Netherlands Cancer Institute – Antoni van Leeuwenhoek Hospital, Plesmanlaan 121, 1066 CX Amsterdam (Netherlands)

    2013-12-01

    Purpose: To define the correlation between the core biopsy location and the area with highest metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in stage II–III breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, we would like to select a subgroup of patients in which PET/CT information may optimize tumor sampling. Methods: A PET/CT in prone position was acquired in 199 patients with 203 tumors. The distance and relative difference in standardized uptake value (SUV) between core biopsy localization (indicated by a marker) and area with highest degree of FDG uptake were evaluated. A distance ≥2 cm and a relative difference in SUV ≥25% were considered clinically relevant and a combination of both was defined as non-correspondence. Non-correspondence for different tumor characteristics (TNM stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, histology, subtype, grade, and Ki-67) was assessed. Results: Non-correspondence was found in 28 (14%) of 203 tumors. Non-correspondence was significantly associated with T-stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, tumor diameter, and histologic type. It was more often seen in tumors with a higher T-stage (p = 0.028), diffuse (non-mass) and multifocal tumors on MRI (p = 0.001), diffuse and multifocal tumors on PET/CT (p < 0.001), tumors >3 cm (p < 0.001), and lobular carcinomas (p < 0.001). No association was found with other features. Conclusion: Non-correspondence between the core biopsy location and area with highest FDG uptake is regularly seen in stage II–III breast cancer patients. PET/CT information and possibly FDG-guided biopsies are most likely to improve pretreatment tumor sampling in tumors >3 cm, lobular carcinomas, and diffuse and multifocal tumors.

  18. Does the pretreatment tumor sampling location correspond with metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in breast cancer patients scheduled for neoadjuvant chemotherapy?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: To define the correlation between the core biopsy location and the area with highest metabolic activity on 18F-FDG PET/CT in stage II–III breast cancer patients before neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Also, we would like to select a subgroup of patients in which PET/CT information may optimize tumor sampling. Methods: A PET/CT in prone position was acquired in 199 patients with 203 tumors. The distance and relative difference in standardized uptake value (SUV) between core biopsy localization (indicated by a marker) and area with highest degree of FDG uptake were evaluated. A distance ≥2 cm and a relative difference in SUV ≥25% were considered clinically relevant and a combination of both was defined as non-correspondence. Non-correspondence for different tumor characteristics (TNM stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, histology, subtype, grade, and Ki-67) was assessed. Results: Non-correspondence was found in 28 (14%) of 203 tumors. Non-correspondence was significantly associated with T-stage, lesion morphology on MRI and PET/CT, tumor diameter, and histologic type. It was more often seen in tumors with a higher T-stage (p = 0.028), diffuse (non-mass) and multifocal tumors on MRI (p = 0.001), diffuse and multifocal tumors on PET/CT (p < 0.001), tumors >3 cm (p < 0.001), and lobular carcinomas (p < 0.001). No association was found with other features. Conclusion: Non-correspondence between the core biopsy location and area with highest FDG uptake is regularly seen in stage II–III breast cancer patients. PET/CT information and possibly FDG-guided biopsies are most likely to improve pretreatment tumor sampling in tumors >3 cm, lobular carcinomas, and diffuse and multifocal tumors

  19. Scheduling PVM Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠九滨; 王勇; 等

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes a PVM task scheduler designed and implemented by the authors.The scheduler supports selecting idle workstations,scheduling pool tasks and dynamically produced subtasks.It can improve resource utilization,reduce job response time and simplify programming.

  20. Comparison of in-house and commercial sample preparation and PCR amplification systems for detection of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 DNA in blood samples from Tanzanian adults.

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamuya, E; Bredberg-Rådén, U; Albert, J.; Grankvist, O; Msangi, V; Kagoma, C.; Mhalu, F; Biberfeld, G

    1997-01-01

    This study compared the performance of several in-house nested PCR systems and the Amplicor human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) PCR kit in the detection of HIV-1 DNA in Tanzanian samples prepared by two different methods. All six of the in-house primer sets evaluated had a higher sensitivity for HIV DNA detection in samples prepared by the Amplicor PCR sample preparation method than in those prepared by the Ficoll-Isopaque (FIP) density gradient centrifugation method. A sensitivity of...

  1. Setup and validation of a convenient sampling procedure to promptly and effectively stabilize vitamin C in blood and plasma specimens stored at routine temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Barbara; Tittone, Francesca; Palleschi, Simonetta

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, AA) is very labile in nature and decays quickly after blood withdrawal. To ensure AA stability, the current procedure prescribes immediate plasma acidification followed by sample storage at ultra-low temperature. The aim of this study was to set up a pre-analytical procedure to promptly stabilize AA at routine temperatures while minimizing both specimen manipulation and instrumental requirement. Blood from healthy subjects was collected in lithium-heparin gel separator tubes containing or not different reducing agents (dithioerythritol, tris(2-carboxyethyl)phosphine, n-acetylcysteine and sodium thiosulfate). Plasma AA stability during blood and plasma storage at routine temperatures was evaluated. Plasma AA concentration was assayed by RP-HPLC-UV under ion suppression conditions. Each of the reductants tested was able to slow down the ex vivo degradation of plasma AA; dithioerythritol was the most effective. Five to 10 mmol/L dithioerythritol did not interfere with blood separation and allowed plasma AA to be stabilized up to 6 h, 24 h and 60 days at room temperature, +4 °C and -25 °C, respectively. The method worked well even in case of delayed blood separation and/or incomplete vacutainer filling. The procedure is feasible and reliable. Of special usefulness in clinical and epidemiological studies, prompt plasma manipulation after blood withdrawal or special storage equipments are not required. Graphical Abstract Collecting blood in tubes containing a reducing agent is a feasible method to promptly and effectively stabilize plasma vitamin C at routine temperature. PMID:27113458

  2. Selection of suitable reference genes for normalization of quantitative RT-PCR in peripheral blood samples of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, I-Hua; Chou, Lien-Siang; Chou, Shih-Jen; Wang, Jiann-Hsiung; Stott, Jeffrey; Blanchard, Myra; Jen, I-Fan; Yang, Wei-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative RT-PCR is often used as a research tool directed at gene transcription. Selection of optimal housekeeping genes (HKGs) as reference genes is critical to establishing sensitive and reproducible qRT-PCR-based assays. The current study was designed to identify the appropriate reference genes in blood leukocytes of bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) for gene transcription research. Seventy-five blood samples collected from 7 bottlenose dolphins were used to analyze 15 candidate HKGs (ACTB, B2M, GAPDH, HPRT1, LDHB, PGK1, RPL4, RPL8, RPL18, RPS9, RPS18, TFRC, YWHAZ, LDHA, SDHA). HKG stability in qRT-PCR was determined using geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper and comparative delta Ct algorithms. Utilization of RefFinder, which combined all 4 algorithms, suggested that PGK1, HPRT1 and RPL4 were the most stable HKGs in bottlenose dolphin blood. Gene transcription perturbations in blood can serve as an indication of health status in cetaceans as it occurs prior to alterations in hematology and chemistry. This study identified HKGs that could be used in gene transcript studies, which may contribute to further mRNA relative quantification research in the peripheral blood leukocytes in captive cetaceans. PMID:26486099

  3. Automated extraction of DNA from blood and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler for forensic genetic STR typing of reference samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Frøslev, Tobias G; Frank-Hansen, Rune;

    2011-01-01

    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler mounted with the Te-MagS magnetic separation device (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland). The protocols were validated for accredited forensic genetic work according to ISO...... automated protocols allowed for extraction and addition of PCR master mix of 96 samples within 3.5h. In conclusion, we demonstrated that (1) DNA extraction with magnetic beads and (2) PCR setup for accredited, forensic genetic short tandem repeat typing can be implemented on a simple automated liquid...... 17025 using the Qiagen MagAttract DNA Mini M48 kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) from fresh whole blood and blood from deceased individuals. The workflow was simplified by returning the DNA extracts to the original tubes minimizing the risk of misplacing samples. The tubes that originally contained the...

  4. A randomised clinical trial on cardiotocography plus fetal blood sampling versus cardiotocography plus ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (STAN®) for intrapartum monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    Rijnders Robbert JP; Porath Martina M; Oei S Guid; Nijhuis Jan G; Mol Ben WJ; van Lith Jan MM; van Geijn Herman P; Drogtrop Addy P; Bijvoet Saskia M; van Beek Erik; Moons Karel GM; Westerhuis Michelle EMH; Schuitemaker Nico WE; van der Tweel Ingeborg; Visser Gerard HA

    2007-01-01

    Abstract Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is worldwide the method for fetal surveillance during labour. However, CTG alone shows many false positive test results and without fetal blood sampling (FBS), it results in an increase in operative deliveries without improvement of fetal outcome. FBS requires additional expertise, is invasive and has often to be repeated during labour. Two clinical trials have shown that a combination of CTG and ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG) reduc...

  5. Monoclonal autoantibodies to the TSH receptor, one with stimulating activity and one with blocking activity, obtained from the same blood sample

    OpenAIRE

    Evans, Michele; Sanders, Jane; Tagami, Tetsuya; Sanders, Paul; Young, Stuart; Roberts, Emma; Wilmot, Jane; Hu, Xiaoling; Kabelis, Katarzyna; Clark, Jill; Holl, Sabrina; Richards, Tonya; Collyer, Alastair; Furmaniak, Jadwiga; Rees Smith, Bernard

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Patients who appear to have both stimulating and blocking TSHR autoantibodies in their sera have been described but the two activities have not been separated and analysed. We now describe the isolation and detailed characterisation of a blocking type TSHR monoclonal autoantibody and a stimulating type TSHR monoclonal autoantibody from a single sample of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Design, Patients and Measurements: Two heterohybridoma cell lines secreting ...

  6. Determining the Diagnostic Value of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA in the Differentiation of Blood Samples of Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Healthy Controls Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    OpenAIRE

    Abasali Niazi; Nezarali Muolai; Mosayeb Shahriar; Reza Karimian; Farzaneh Peykfalak

    2013-01-01

    Background: Tuberculosis (TB) is now a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Nowadays, different methods are used to diagnose tuberculosis. Although classical microbiological methods (such as sputum smear) are specific, they have little sensitivity and the culture is also time-consuming. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) in blood samples in terms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, this study examines diagnostic power of this test in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis c...

  7. DSN Scheduling Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Bradley; Johnston, Mark; Wax, Allan; Chouinard, Caroline

    2008-01-01

    The DSN (Deep Space Network) Scheduling Engine targets all space missions that use DSN services. It allows clients to issue scheduling, conflict identification, conflict resolution, and status requests in XML over a Java Message Service interface. The scheduling requests may include new requirements that represent a set of tracks to be scheduled under some constraints. This program uses a heuristic local search to schedule a variety of schedule requirements, and is being infused into the Service Scheduling Assembly, a mixed-initiative scheduling application. The engine resolves conflicting schedules of resource allocation according to a range of existing and possible requirement specifications, including optional antennas; start of track and track duration ranges; periodic tracks; locks on track start, duration, and allocated antenna; MSPA (multiple spacecraft per aperture); arraying/VLBI (very long baseline interferometry)/delta DOR (differential one-way ranging); continuous tracks; segmented tracks; gap-to-track ratio; and override or block-out of requirements. The scheduling models now include conflict identification for SOA(start of activity), BOT (beginning of track), RFI (radio frequency interference), and equipment constraints. This software will search through all possible allocations while providing a best-effort solution at any time. The engine reschedules to accommodate individual emergency tracks in 0.2 second, and emergency antenna downtime in 0.2 second. The software handles doubling of one mission's track requests over one week (to 42 total) in 2.7 seconds. Further tests will be performed in the context of actual schedules.

  8. Detecting a wide range of environmental contaminants in human blood samples--combining QuEChERS with LC-MS and GC-MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plassmann, Merle M; Schmidt, Magdalena; Brack, Werner; Krauss, Martin

    2015-09-01

    Exposure to environmental pollution and consumer products may result in an uptake of chemicals into human tissues. Several studies have reported the presence of diverse environmental contaminants in human blood samples. However, previously developed multi-target methods for the analysis of human blood include a fairly limited amount of compounds stemming from one or two related compound groups. Thus, the sample preparation method QuEChERS (quick easy cheap effective rugged and safe) was tested for the extraction of 64 analytes covering a broad compound domain followed by detection using liquid and gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (LC- and GC-MS). Forty-seven analytes showed absolute recoveries above 70% in the first QuEChERS step, being a simple liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) using acetonitrile and salt. The second QuEChERS step, being a dispersive solid phase extraction, did not result in an overall improvement of recoveries or removal of background signals. Using solely the LLE step, eight analytes could subsequently be detected in human blood samples from the German Environmental Specimen Bank. Using a LC-multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) method with a triple quadrupole instrument, better recoveries were achieved than with an older LC-high-resolution (HR) MS full scan orbitrap instrument, which required a higher concentration factor of the extracts. However, the application of HRMS full scan methods could be used for the detection of additional compounds retrospectively. PMID:26206704

  9. Detection of Babesia bovis in blood samples and its effect on the hematological and serum biochemical profile in large ruminants from Southern Punjab

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samreen Zulfiqar; Ali Saeed; Furhan Iqbal; Sadia Shahnawaz; Muhammad Ali; Arif Mahmood Bhutta; Shahid Iqbal; Sikandar Hayat; Shazia Qadir; Muhammad Latif; Nazia Kiran

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To determine the presence of Babesia bovis (B. bovis) in large ruminants in southern Punjab and its effect on hematological and serum biochemical profile of host animals. Methods:Blood samples were collected from 144 large ruminants, including 105 cattle and 39 buffaloes, from six districts in southern Punjab including Multan, Layyah, Muzaffar Garh, Bhakar, Bahawalnagar and Vehari. Data on the characteristics of animals and herds were collected through questionnaires. Different blood (hemoglobin, glucose) and serum (ALT, AST, LDH, cholesterol) parameters of calves and cattle were measured and compared between parasite positive and negative samples to demonstrate the effect of B. bovis on the blood and serological profile of infected animals. Results:27 out of 144 animals, from 5 out of 6 sampling districts, produced the 541-bp fragment specific for B. bovis. Age of animals (P=0.02), presence of ticks on animals (P=0.04) and presence of ticks on dogs associated with herds (P=0.5) were among the major risk factors involved in the spread of bovine babesiosis in the study area. ALT concentrations were the only serum biochemical values that significantly varied between parasite positive and negative cattle. Conclusions:This study has reported for the first time the presence of B. bovis in large ruminant and the results can lead to the prevention of babesiosis in the region to increase the livestock output.

  10. Detection and quantification of Wuchereria bancrofti and Brugia malayi DNA in blood samples and mosquitoes using duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongthawin, Jurairat; Intapan, Pewpan M; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Sanpool, Oranuch; Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Sadaow, Lakkhana; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2016-08-01

    Lymphatic filariasis, a mosquito-borne disease, is still a major public health problem in tropical and sub-tropical countries. Effective diagnostic tools are required for identification of infected individuals, for epidemiological assessment, and for monitoring of control programs. A duplex droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) was conducted to differentiate and quantify Wuchereria bancrofti DNA by targeting the long DNA repeat (LDR) element and Brugia malayi DNA by targeting the HhaI element in blood samples and mosquito vectors. The analytical sensitivity and specificity were evaluated. Our results indicated that the duplex ddPCR assay could differentiate and quantify W. bancrofti and B. malayi DNA from blood samples and mosquitoes. DNA from a single larva in 50 μl of a blood sample, or in one mosquito vector, could be detected. The analytical sensitivity and specificity for W. bancrofti are both 100 %. Corresponding values for B. malayi are 100 and 98.3 %, respectively. Therefore, duplex ddPCR is a potential tool for simultaneous diagnosis and monitoring of bancroftian and brugian filariasis in endemic areas. PMID:27085707

  11. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh; Patel, Devesh Kumar

    2010-04-15

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 microL) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 microL of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL(-1) lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL(-1). The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility. PMID:20004520

  12. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 μL) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 μL of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL-1 lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL-1. The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility.

  13. Separation and preconcentration of trace level of lead in one drop of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shrivas, Kamlesh, E-mail: shrikam@rediffmail.com [Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research, Food and Drug Administration, 8800 Rockville pike, Building 29A, 2B20, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Patel, Devesh Kumar [Department of chemistry, Govt. Science College, Rajnandgaon-491441, CG (India)

    2010-04-15

    Drop-to-drop solvent microextraction (DDSME) assisted with ultrasonication is applied for the determination of lead in one drop (30 {mu}L) of blood sample by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF-AAS). The optimum extraction efficiency of lead was observed for 10 min extraction time at pH 5.0 with 2 {mu}L of organic solvent that containing 0.5 M of Cyanex-302. The optimized methodology exhibited good linearity in the range of 0.3-30.0 ng mL{sup -1} lead with relative standard deviations (RSD) from 2.5 to 4.4%. The method is found to be simple and rapid for the analysis of lead in micro amount of blood sample with the limit of detection (LOD) of 0.08 ng mL{sup -1}. The application of the proposed method has been successfully tested for the determination of lead in blood samples. The results showed that under the optimized experimental conditions, the method showed good sensitivity and recovery %, as well as advantages such as linearity, simplicity, low cost and high feasibility.

  14. Concentrations of cadmium, lead, and zinc in fish from mining-influenced waters of northeastern Oklahoma: sampling of blood, carcass, and liver for aquatic biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G; Schmitt, Christopher J; May, Thomas W

    2005-07-01

    The Tri-States Mining District (TSMD) of Missouri (MO), Kansas (KS), and Oklahoma (OK), USA, was mined for lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) for more than a century. Mining ceased more than 30 years ago, but wastes remain widely distributed in the region, and there is evidence of surface- and groundwater contamination in the Spring River-Neosho River (SR-NR) system of northeastern OK. In October 2001, we collected a total of 74 fish from six locations in the SR-NR system that included common carp (Cyprinus carpio), channel- and flathead catfish (Ictalurus punctatus and Pylodictis olivaris), largemouth- and spotted bass (Micropterus salmoides and Micropterus punctulatus), and white crappie (Pomoxis annularis). We obtained additional fish from locations in MO that included three reference sites and one site that served as a "positive control" (heavily contaminated by Pb). Blood, carcass (headed, eviscerated, and scaled) and liver (carp only) samples were analyzed for cadmium (Cd), Pb, and Zn. Our objectives were to assess the degree to which fish from the OK portion of the SR-NR system are contaminated by these elements and to evaluate fish blood sampling for biomonitoring. Concentrations of Cd and Pb in carp and catfish from OK sites were elevated and Pb concentrations of some approached those of the highly contaminated site in MO, but concentrations in bass and crappie were relatively low. For Zn, correlations were weak among concentrations in the three tissues and none of the samples appeared to reflect site contamination. Variability was high for Cd in all three tissues of carp; differences between sites were statistically significant (p < 0.05) only for blood even though mean liver concentrations were at least 100-fold greater than those in blood. Blood concentrations of Cd and Pb were positively correlated (r2 = 0.49 to 0.84) with the concentration of the same element in carp and catfish carcasses or in carp livers, and the corresponding multiple regression models were

  15. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus: Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan G. Myburgh

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2 by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  16. Pancratistatin induces apoptosis in clinical leukemia samples with minimal effect on non-cancerous peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    OpenAIRE

    McNulty James; Hamm Caroline; Griffin Carly; Pandey Siyaram

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Pancratistatin, a natural compound extracted from Hymenocallis littoralis, can selectively induce apoptosis in several cancer cell lines. In this ex vivo study, we evaluated the effect of pancratistatin on peripheral blood mononuclear cells obtained from 15 leukemia patients prior to clinical intervention of newly diagnosed patients, as well as others of different ages in relapse and at various disease progression states. Results Mononuclear cells from healthy volunteers a...

  17. Extensive surface protein profiles of extracellular vesicles from cancer cells may provide diagnostic signatures from blood samples

    OpenAIRE

    Belov, Larissa; Matic, Kieran J.; Hallal, Susannah; Mulligan, Stephen P.; Best, O. Giles; Christopherson, Richard I

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EV) are membranous particles (30–1,000 nm in diameter) secreted by cells. Important biological functions have been attributed to 2 subsets of EV, the exosomes (bud from endosomal membranes) and the microvesicles (MV; bud from plasma membranes). Since both types of particles contain surface proteins derived from their cell of origin, their detection in blood may enable diagnosis and prognosis of disease. We have used an antibody microarray (DotScan) to compare the surfa...

  18. Na, Al, K, Mn, Mg, Br, Ca, And Cl Concentration Values in the whole Blood Samples of Human Cancer using Short Time Neutron Irradiation Facility of ETRR-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The National Cancer Institute of Egypt submit us with 18 blood samples (11 Breast),(2 Prostate),(2 Colon),(1 Pancreatic),(1 Ovarian) and one samples from random person to estimate the concentration values of Na, Al ,K , Mn , Mg ,Br and Cl. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS) built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was calculated f (169) at irradiation position. The obtained concentration was calculated using kθ standardization method. Fortran and Axel programs were constructed for the determination of neutron fluxes and for elemental concentration values .For sake of comparisons the obtained results, the elemental concentrations of the random sample using (kθ - NAA) compared with the concentrations obtained by (ICP-MS) technique.

  19. Feasibility study on blood sample investigations from former Wismut employees with respect to possible biomarkers for arsenic or radiation exposure using proteomics and cDNA microarray technologies. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The final report on the feasibility of blood sample investigations from former Wismut employees with respect to possible biomarkers for arsenic or radiation exposure using proteomics and cDNA microarray technologies covers the following topics: blood samples; methodologies: 2D gel electrophoresis; protein identification using MALDI-MS; accomplishment and evaluation of the proteomics and cDNA microarray analysis.

  20. Analytical Validation of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods for Quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina Inés; da Cruz Moreira, Otacilio; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Juiz, Natalia; Velázquez, Elsa; Ramírez, Juan David; Alberti, Anahí; Pavia, Paula; Flores-Chávez, María Delmans; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Santalla, José; Marcos da Matta Guedes, Paulo; Peneau, Julie; Marcet, Paula; Padilla, Carlos; Cruz-Robles, David; Valencia, Edward; Crisante, Gladys Elena; Greif, Gonzalo; Zulantay, Inés; Costales, Jaime Alfredo; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam; Martínez, Norma Edith; Villarroel, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Sandro; Sánchez, Zunilda; Bisio, Margarita; Parrado, Rudy; Maria da Cunha Galvão, Lúcia; Jácome da Câmara, Antonia Cláudia; Espinoza, Bertha; Alarcón de Noya, Belkisyole; Puerta, Concepción; Riarte, Adelina; Diosque, Patricio; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Guhl, Felipe; Ribeiro, Isabela; Aznar, Christine; Britto, Constança; Yadón, Zaida Estela; Schijman, Alejandro G

    2015-09-01

    An international study was performed by 26 experienced PCR laboratories from 14 countries to assess the performance of duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) strategies on the basis of TaqMan probes for detection and quantification of parasitic loads in peripheral blood samples from Chagas disease patients. Two methods were studied: Satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) qPCR. Both methods included an internal amplification control. Reportable range, analytical sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification, and precision were estimated according to international guidelines. In addition, inclusivity and exclusivity were estimated with DNA from stocks representing the different Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units and Trypanosoma rangeli and Leishmania spp. Both methods were challenged against 156 blood samples provided by the participant laboratories, including samples from acute and chronic patients with varied clinical findings, infected by oral route or vectorial transmission. kDNA qPCR showed better analytical sensitivity than SatDNA qPCR with limits of detection of 0.23 and 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively. Analyses of clinical samples revealed a high concordance in terms of sensitivity and parasitic loads determined by both SatDNA and kDNA qPCRs. This effort is a major step toward international validation of qPCR methods for the quantification of T. cruzi DNA in human blood samples, aiming to provide an accurate surrogate biomarker for diagnosis and treatment monitoring for patients with Chagas disease. PMID:26320872

  1. Analytical Validation of Quantitative Real-Time PCR Methods for Quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi DNA in Blood Samples from Chagas Disease Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez, Juan Carlos; Cura, Carolina Inés; Moreira, Otacilio da Cruz; Lages-Silva, Eliane; Juiz, Natalia; Velázquez, Elsa; Ramírez, Juan David; Alberti, Anahí; Pavia, Paula; Flores-Chávez, María Delmans; Muñoz-Calderón, Arturo; Pérez-Morales, Deyanira; Santalla, José; Guedes, Paulo Marcos da Matta; Peneau, Julie; Marcet, Paula; Padilla, Carlos; Cruz-Robles, David; Valencia, Edward; Crisante, Gladys Elena; Greif, Gonzalo; Zulantay, Inés; Costales, Jaime Alfredo; Alvarez-Martínez, Miriam; Martínez, Norma Edith; Villarroel, Rodrigo; Villarroel, Sandro; Sánchez, Zunilda; Bisio, Margarita; Parrado, Rudy; Galvão, Lúcia Maria da Cunha; da Câmara, Antonia Cláudia Jácome; Espinoza, Bertha; de Noya, Belkisyole Alarcón; Puerta, Concepción; Riarte, Adelina; Diosque, Patricio; Sosa-Estani, Sergio; Guhl, Felipe; Ribeiro, Isabela; Aznar, Christine; Britto, Constança; Yadón, Zaida Estela; Schijman, Alejandro G.

    2015-01-01

    An international study was performed by 26 experienced PCR laboratories from 14 countries to assess the performance of duplex quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) strategies on the basis of TaqMan probes for detection and quantification of parasitic loads in peripheral blood samples from Chagas disease patients. Two methods were studied: Satellite DNA (SatDNA) qPCR and kinetoplastid DNA (kDNA) qPCR. Both methods included an internal amplification control. Reportable range, analytical sensitivity, limits of detection and quantification, and precision were estimated according to international guidelines. In addition, inclusivity and exclusivity were estimated with DNA from stocks representing the different Trypanosoma cruzi discrete typing units and Trypanosoma rangeli and Leishmania spp. Both methods were challenged against 156 blood samples provided by the participant laboratories, including samples from acute and chronic patients with varied clinical findings, infected by oral route or vectorial transmission. kDNA qPCR showed better analytical sensitivity than SatDNA qPCR with limits of detection of 0.23 and 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL, respectively. Analyses of clinical samples revealed a high concordance in terms of sensitivity and parasitic loads determined by both SatDNA and kDNA qPCRs. This effort is a major step toward international validation of qPCR methods for the quantification of T. cruzi DNA in human blood samples, aiming to provide an accurate surrogate biomarker for diagnosis and treatment monitoring for patients with Chagas disease. PMID:26320872

  2. Development of CT-guided biopsy sampling for time-dependent postmortem redistribution investigations in blood and alternative matrices--proof of concept and application on two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staeheli, Sandra N; Gascho, Dominic; Fornaro, Juergen; Laberke, Patrick; Ebert, Lars C; Martinez, Rosa Maria; Thali, Michael J; Kraemer, Thomas; Steuer, Andrea E

    2016-02-01

    The postmortem redistribution (PMR) phenomenon complicates interpretation in forensic toxicology. Human data on time-dependent PMR are rare and only exist for blood so far. A new method for investigation of time-dependent PMR in blood as well as in alternative body fluids and tissues was developed and evaluated using automated biopsy sampling. At admission of the bodies, introducer needles were placed in liver, lung, kidney, muscle, spleen, adipose tissue, heart, femoral vein, and lumbar spine using a robotic arm guided by a computed tomography scanner (CT). Needle placement accuracy was analyzed and found to be acceptable for the study purpose. Tissue biopsies and small volume body fluid samples were collected in triplicate through the introducer needles. At autopsy (around 24 h after admission), samples from the same body regions were collected. After mastering of the technical challenges, two authentic cases were analyzed as a proof of concept. Drug concentrations of venlafaxine, O-desmethylvenlafaxine, bromazepam, flupentixol, paroxetine, and lorazepam were determined by LC-MS/MS, and the percentage concentration changes between the two time points were calculated. Concentration changes were observed with both increases and decreases depending on analyte and matrix. While venlafaxine, flupentixol, paroxetine, and lorazepam generally showed changes above 30% and more, O-desmethylvenlafaxine and bromazepam did not undergo extensive PMR. The presented study shows that CT-controlled biopsy collection provides a valuable tool for systematic time-dependent PMR investigation, demanding only minimal sample amount and causing minimal damage to the body. PMID:26677021

  3. Determination of nickel in blood and serum samples of oropharyngeal cancer patients consumed smokeless tobacco products by cloud point extraction coupled with flame atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Jamshed Bashir; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Kazi, Atif Gul; Nasreen, Syeda; Brahman, Kapil Dev

    2014-10-01

    Oropharyngeal cancer is a significant public health issue in the world. The incidence of oropharyngeal cancer has been increased among people who have habit of chewing smokeless tobacco (SLT) in Pakistan. The aim of present study was to evaluate the concentration of nickel (Ni) in biological samples (whole blood, serum) of oral (n = 95) and pharyngeal (n = 84) male cancer patients. For comparison purposes, the biological samples of healthy age-matched referents (n = 150), who consumed and did not consumed SLT products, were also analyzed for Ni levels. As the Ni level is very low in biological samples, a preconcentration procedure has been developed, prior to analysis of analyte by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS). The Ni in acid-digested biological samples was complexed with ammonium pyrrolidinedithio carbamate (APDC), and a resulted complex was extracted in a surfactant Triton X-114. Acidic ethanol was added to the surfactant-rich phase prior to its analysis by FAAS. The chemical variables, such as pH, amounts of reagents (APDC, Triton X-114), temperature, incubation time, and sample volume were optimized. The resulted data indicated that concentration of Ni was higher in blood and serum samples of cancer patients as compared to that of referents who have or have not consumed different SLT products (p = 0.012-0.001). It was also observed that healthy referents who consumed SLT products have two to threefold higher levels of Ni in both biological samples as compared to those who were not chewing SLT products (p < 0.01). PMID:24920259

  4. Automated telescope scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Mark D.

    1988-08-01

    With the ever increasing level of automation of astronomical telescopes the benefits and feasibility of automated planning and scheduling are becoming more apparent. Improved efficiency and increased overall telescope utilization are the most obvious goals. Automated scheduling at some level has been done for several satellite observatories, but the requirements on these systems were much less stringent than on modern ground or satellite observatories. The scheduling problem is particularly acute for Hubble Space Telescope: virtually all observations must be planned in excruciating detail weeks to months in advance. Space Telescope Science Institute has recently made significant progress on the scheduling problem by exploiting state-of-the-art artificial intelligence software technology. What is especially interesting is that this effort has already yielded software that is well suited to scheduling groundbased telescopes, including the problem of optimizing the coordinated scheduling of more than one telescope.

  5. Garbage Collection Scheduling of Aperiodic Tasks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Zhang; Guang-Ze Xiong

    2009-01-01

    In the previous work of garbage collection (GC) models, scheduling analysis was given based on an assumption that there were no aperiodic mutator tasks. However, it is not true in practical real-time systems. The GC algorithm which can schedule aperiodic tasks is proposed, and the variance of live memory is analyzed. In this algorithm, active tasks are deferred to be processed by GC until the states of tasks become inactive, and the saved sporadic server time can be used to schedule aperiodic tasks. Scheduling the sample task sets demonstrates that this algorithm in this paper can schedule aperiodic tasks and decrease GC work. Thus, the GC algorithm proposed is more flexible and portable.

  6. Ketones blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  7. Magnesium blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  8. Combinatory CPU Scheduling Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Saeeda Bibi; Farooque Azam*; Yasir Chaudhry

    2010-01-01

    Central Processing Unit (CPU) plays a significant role in computer system by transferring its control among different processes. As CPU is a central component, hence it must be used efficiently. Operating system performs an essential task that is known as CPU scheduling for efficient utilization of CPU. CPU scheduling has strong effect on resource utilization as well as overall performance of the system. In this paper, a new CPU scheduling algorithm called Combinatory is proposed that combine...

  9. Flight Crew Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Graves, Glenn W.; Richard D. McBride; Ira Gershkoff; Diane Anderson; Deepa Mahidhara

    1993-01-01

    A new crew scheduling optimization system has been developed for United Airlines. The system was developed to permit quick response to schedule changes and to reduce crew scheduling costs. It was designed to work efficiently for both the medium sized problems (300 flights daily) and the very large problems (1,700 flights daily) that United must solve. The system has two main components, a generator and an optimizer. The generator creates pairings (candidate crew trips) which are fed as variab...

  10. A sample preparation protocol for 1H nuclear magnetic resonance studies of water-soluble metabolites in blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheedy, John R; Ebeling, Peter R; Gooley, Paul R; McConville, Malcolm J

    2010-03-15

    We describe a general protocol for preparing protein-containing biofluids for (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) metabolomic studies. In this protocol, untreated samples are diluted in deuterated solvents to precipitate proteins and recover metabolites quantitated relative to standard reference compounds such as 3-trimethylsilylpropionic acid (TSP) and 2,2-dimethyl-2-silapentane-5-sulfonic acid (DSS). The efficacy of this protocol was tested using a bovine serum albumin/metabolite mix and human serum samples. This sample preparation method can be readily applied to any protein-containing biofluid for (1)H NMR studies. PMID:19941831

  11. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  12. Postmortem detection of hepatitis B, C, and human immunodeficiency virus genomes in blood samples from drug-related deaths in Denmark*

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Mette Brandt; Jakobsen, Marianne Antonius; Kringsholm, Birgitte;

    2009-01-01

    autopsy was tested for anti-HBc, anti-HBs, anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV), or anti-human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) antibodies using commercial kits. Subsets of seropositive samples were screened for viral genomes using sensitive in-house and commercial polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays. Hepatitis B......Blood-borne viral infections are widespread among injecting drug users; however, it is difficult to include these patients in serological surveys. Therefore, we developed a national surveillance program based on postmortem testing of persons whose deaths were drug related. Blood collected at....... Postmortem HIV RNA testing was less sensitive than antemortem testing. Thus, postmortem PCR analysis for HBV and HBC infection is feasible and relevant for demonstrating ongoing infections at death or for transmission analysis during outbreaks....

  13. Correlation of antigen-specific IFN-γ responses of fresh blood samples from Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infected heifers with responses of day-old samples co-cultured with IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Aagaard, Claus; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose;

    2012-01-01

    overnight with specific MAP antigens followed by quantification of IFN-γ by ELISA. It is recommended that the time interval from sampling to culture does not exceed eight hours but addition of the co-stimulating cytokine interleukin 12 (IL-12) or anti-IL-10 antibodies to culture have been demonstrated to...... enhance IFN-γ responses of cultures stimulated with Johnin purified protein derivative (PPDj). Here we examined the correlation of IFN-γ production in response to PPDj and 15 recombinant antigens in day-old blood samples from heifers 10–21 months of age from a MAP infected herd with addition of either...... recombinant bovine IL-12 or anti-bovine IL-10 antibody with IFN-γ production in sample day samples. IFN-γ responses of sample day samples showed high correlation with responses to some antigens in day-old samples with addition of IL-12 or anti-IL-10 antibodies to cultures, indicating that day-old protocols...

  14. Clinical Validation and Implications of Dried Blood Spot Sampling of Carbamazepine, Valproic Acid and Phenytoin in Patients with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Sing Teang; Lim, Shih-Hui; Lee, Wee Beng; Kumar, Pasikanthi Kishore; Wang, Hwee Yi Stella; Ng, Yan Lam Shannon; Wong, Pei Shieen; Ho, Paul C.

    2014-01-01

    To facilitate therapeutic monitoring of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) by healthcare professionals for patients with epilepsy (PWE), we applied a GC-MS assay to measure three AEDs: carbamazepine (CBZ), phenytoin (PHT) and valproic acid (VPA) levels concurrently in one dried blood spot (DBS), and validated the DBS-measured levels to their plasma levels. 169 PWE on either mono- or polytherapy of CBZ, PHT or/and VPA were included. One DBS, containing ∼15 µL of blood, was acquired for the simultaneous measurement of the drug levels using GC-MS. Simple Deming regressions were performed to correlate the DBS levels with the plasma levels determined by the conventional immunoturbimetric assay in clinical practice. Statistical analyses of the results were done using MedCalc Version 12.6.1.0 and SPSS 21. DBS concentrations (Cdbs) were well-correlated to the plasma concentrations (Cplasma): r = 0.8381, 0.9305 and 0.8531 for CBZ, PHT and VPA respectively, The conversion formulas from Cdbs to plasma concentrations were [0.89×CdbsCBZ+1.00]µg/mL, [1.11×CdbsPHT−1.00]µg/mL and [0.92×CdbsVPA+12.48]µg/mL respectively. Inclusion of the red blood cells (RBC)/plasma partition ratio (K) and the individual hematocrit levels in the estimation of the theoretical Cplasma from Cdbs of PHT and VPA further improved the identity between the observed and the estimated theoretical Cplasma. Bland-Altman plots indicated that the theoretical and observed Cplasma of PHT and VPA agreed well, and >93.0% of concentrations was within 95% CI (±2SD); and similar agreement (1∶1) was also found between the observed Cdbs and Cplasma of CBZ. As the Cplasma of CBZ, PHT and VPA can be accurately estimated from their Cdbs, DBS can therefore be used for drug monitoring in PWE on any of these AEDs. PMID:25255292

  15. Blood-Injection-Injury Phobia and Dog Phobia in Youth: Psychological Characteristics and Associated Features in a Clinical Sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oar, Ella L; Farrell, Lara J; Waters, Allison M; Ollendick, Thomas H

    2016-05-01

    Blood-Injection-Injury (BII) phobia is a particularly debilitating condition that has been largely ignored in the child literature. The present study examined the clinical phenomenology of BII phobia in 27 youths, relative to 25 youths with dog phobia-one of the most common and well-studied phobia subtypes in youth. Children were compared on measures of phobia severity, functional impairment, comorbidity, threat appraisals (danger expectancies and coping), focus of fear, and physiological responding, as well as vulnerability factors including disgust sensitivity and family history. Children and adolescents with BII phobia had greater diagnostic severity. In addition, they were more likely to have a comorbid diagnosis of a physical health condition, to report more exaggerated danger expectancies, and to report fears that focused more on physical symptoms (e.g., faintness and nausea) in comparison to youth with dog phobia. The present study advances knowledge relating to this poorly understood condition in youth. PMID:27157026

  16. Quantitative detection of epstein-barr virus DNA in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples of patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clementina E Cocuzza

    Full Text Available The presence of Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV DNA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and peripheral blood (PB samples collected from 55 patients with clinical and radiologically-active relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS and 51 subjects with other neurological diseases was determined using standardized commercially available kits for viral nucleic acid extraction and quantitative EBV DNA detection. Both cell-free and cell-associated CSF and PB fractions were analyzed, to distinguish latent from lytic EBV infection. EBV DNA was detected in 5.5% and 18.2% of cell-free and cell-associated CSF fractions of patients with RRMS as compared to 7.8% and 7.8% of controls; plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC positivity rates were 7.3% and 47.3% versus 5.8% and 31.4%, respectively. No significant difference in median EBV viral loads of positive samples was found between RRMS and control patients in all tested samples. Absence of statistically significant differences in EBV positivity rates between RRMS and control patients, despite the use of highly sensitive standardized methods, points to the lack of association between EBV and MS disease activity.

  17. Automated extraction of DNA from blood and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler for forensic genetic STR typing of reference samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stangegaard, Michael; Frøslev, Tobias G; Frank-Hansen, Rune; Hansen, Anders J; Morling, Niels

    2011-04-01

    We have implemented and validated automated protocols for DNA extraction and PCR setup using a Tecan Freedom EVO liquid handler mounted with the Te-MagS magnetic separation device (Tecan, Männedorf, Switzerland). The protocols were validated for accredited forensic genetic work according to ISO 17025 using the Qiagen MagAttract DNA Mini M48 kit (Qiagen GmbH, Hilden, Germany) from fresh whole blood and blood from deceased individuals. The workflow was simplified by returning the DNA extracts to the original tubes minimizing the risk of misplacing samples. The tubes that originally contained the samples were washed with MilliQ water before the return of the DNA extracts. The PCR was setup in 96-well microtiter plates. The methods were validated for the kits: AmpFℓSTR Identifiler, SGM Plus and Yfiler (Applied Biosystems, Foster City, CA), GenePrint FFFL and PowerPlex Y (Promega, Madison, WI). The automated protocols allowed for extraction and addition of PCR master mix of 96 samples within 3.5h. In conclusion, we demonstrated that (1) DNA extraction with magnetic beads and (2) PCR setup for accredited, forensic genetic short tandem repeat typing can be implemented on a simple automated liquid handler leading to the reduction of manual work, and increased quality and throughput. PMID:21609694

  18. Comparison of 99mTc-MAG3 plasma clearance calculating methods [Bubeck and Russell (1996) methods] by single blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was a comparison of the Bubeck and Russell (1996) methods, both of which are used to calculate 99mTc-MAG3 plasma clearance by single blood sampling in consideration of the distribution volume of patients. Quadratic polynominal approximation showed a strong correlation between the plasma clearance values obtained by the two methods. The quantitative values obtained by the Bubeck method tended to be lower than those obtained by the Russell (1996) method in the high clearance range. However, in the low to medium clearance range (below 250 ml/min/1.73 m2), there was almost no difference between the values, and the relationship between the values obtained by the two methods could be expressed by a straight regression line. A comparison of plasma clearance values according to difference in blood sampling time (35 min and 44 min sampling) in adults showed that there was no significant change in clearance regardless of the state of renal function. Correlation of the renal uptake rate obtained by the Bubeck method using a gamma camera could be expressed by a good straight regression line that passed around the origin of the coordinates. The results showed that, although the plasma clearance values obtained by the Bubeck method tended to be underestimated in the high clearance range compared with the values obtained by the Russell (1996) method, there was a very good correlation between the values obtained by the Bubeck method and renal uptake rate. (author)

  19. Characterization of multi-drug resistant ESBL producing nonfermenter bacteria isolated from patients blood samples using phenotypic methods in Shiraz (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maneli Amin Shahidi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: The emergence of  nonfermenter bacteria that are resistant to multidrug resistant ESBL  are  nowadays a principal problem  for hospitalized patients. The present study aimed at surveying the emergence of nonfermenter bacteria resistant to multi-drug ESBL producing isolated from patients blood samples using BACTEC 9240 automatic system in Shiraz. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 4825 blood specimens were collected from hospitalized patients in Shiraz (Iran, and positive samples were detected by means of  BACTEC 9240 automatic system. The isolates  containing nonfermenter bacteria were identified based on biochemical tests embedded in the API-20E system. Antibiotic sensitivity  test was performed  and identification of  ESBL producing strains were done  using phenotypic detection of extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing isolates(DDST according to CLSI(2013 guidelines.   Results: Out of 4825 blood samples, 1145 (24% specimen were gram-positive using BACTEC system. Among all isolated microorganisms, 206 isolates were non-fermenting gram- negative bacteria. The most common non-fermenter isolates were Pseudomonas spp. (48%, Acinetobacter spp. (41.7% ,and Stenotrophomonas spp. (8.2%. Seventy of them (81.4% were  Acinetobacter spp. which were ESBL positive. Among &beta-lactam antibiotics, Pseudomonas spp. showed  the best sensitivity to piperacillin-tazobactam (46.5%.  Conclusion: It was found that  &beta-lactam antibiotics are not effective against more than 40% of Pseudomonas spp. infections and 78% Acinetobacter infections. Emergence of multi-drug resistant strains that are resistant to most antibiotic classes is a major public health problem in Iran. To resolve this problem using of practical guidelines is critical.

  20. Empirical Bayes accomodation of batch-effects in microarray data using identical replicate reference samples: application to RNA expression profiling of blood from Duchenne muscular dystrophy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCulloch Charles E

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-biological experimental error routinely occurs in microarray data collected in different batches. It is often impossible to compare groups of samples from independent experiments because batch effects confound true gene expression differences. Existing methods can correct for batch effects only when samples from all biological groups are represented in every batch. Results In this report we describe a generalized empirical Bayes approach to correct for cross-experimental batch effects, allowing direct comparisons of gene expression between biological groups from independent experiments. The proposed experimental design uses identical reference samples in each batch in every experiment. These reference samples are from the same tissue as the experimental samples. This design with tissue matched reference samples allows a gene-by-gene correction to be performed using fewer arrays than currently available methods. We examine the effects of non-biological variation within a single experiment and between experiments. Conclusion Batch correction has a significant impact on which genes are identified as differentially regulated. Using this method, gene expression in the blood of patients with Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy is shown to differ for hundreds of genes when compared to controls. The numbers of specific genes differ depending upon whether between experiment and/or between batch corrections are performed.

  1. Block Scheduling Revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queen, J. Allen

    2000-01-01

    Successful block scheduling depends on provision of initial and ongoing instructional training. Teaching strategies should vary and include cooperative learning, the case method, the socratic seminar, synectics, concept attainment, the inquiry method, and simulations. Recommendations for maximizing block scheduling are outlined. (Contains 52…

  2. Range Scheduling Aid (RSA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logan, J. R.; Pulvermacher, M. K.

    1991-01-01

    Range Scheduling Aid (RSA) is presented in the form of the viewgraphs. The following subject areas are covered: satellite control network; current and new approaches to range scheduling; MITRE tasking; RSA features; RSA display; constraint based analytic capability; RSA architecture; and RSA benefits.

  3. Trimester Schedule. Research Brief

    Science.gov (United States)

    Education Partnerships, Inc., 2012

    2012-01-01

    Why do a trimester schedule? With the advent of block scheduling, many high schools conducted research on utilizing that plan in a trimester format. There appeared to be three issues that most schools faced: (1) How to provide substantive instructional time that was not fragmented?; (2) How does the school climate contribute positively to…

  4. Estimating exponential scheduling preferences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Katrine; Börjesson, Maria; Engelson, Leonid;

    2015-01-01

    Different assumptions about travelers' scheduling preferences yield different measures of the cost of travel time variability. Only few forms of scheduling preferences provide non-trivial measures which are additive over links in transport networks where link travel times are arbitrarily distribu...

  5. Scheduling: Seven Period Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    Driven by stable or declining financial resources many school districts are considering the costs and benefits of a seven-period day. While there is limited evidence that any particular scheduling model has a greater impact on student learning than any other, it is clear that the school schedule is a tool that can significantly impact teacher…

  6. Rapid Detection and Identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in Mosquito Vectors and Blood Samples by High Resolution Melting Real-Time PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M.; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Kaewkong, Worasak; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-01-01

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. ban...

  7. Detecting 22q11.2 deletions by use of multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification on DNA from neonatal dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Karina M; Agergaard, Peter; Olesen, Charlotte; Andersen, Paal S; Larsen, Lars A; Ostergaard, John R; Schouten, Jan P; Christiansen, Michael

    2010-01-01

    of 22q11.2 deletions among certain manifestations, eg, congenital heart disease, on selected Danes, a multiplex ligation-dependant probe amplification (MLPA) analysis was designed. The analysis was planned to be performed on DNA extracted from dried blood spot samples (DBSS) obtained from Guthrie...... cards collected during neonatal screening programs. However, the DNA concentration necessary for a standard MLPA analysis (20 ng) could not be attained from DBSS, and a novel MLPA design was developed to permit for analysis on limited amounts of DNA (2 ng). A pilot study is reported here that validates...

  8. The concentration of vitamin B12, transcobalamins and folate in blood in a Greenland Eskimo population sample

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concentrations of cobalamin and transcobalamin I and II in plasma and of folate in erythrocytes were determined in a Greenlander population sample. Compared with the Danish reference group, cobalamin and transcobalamin II were increased in the Eskimos, whereas there were no differences in transcobalamin I and erythrocyte folate. (author)

  9. DSN Resource Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yeou-Fang; Baldwin, John

    2007-01-01

    TIGRAS is client-side software, which provides tracking-station equipment planning, allocation, and scheduling services to the DSMS (Deep Space Mission System). TIGRAS provides functions for schedulers to coordinate the DSN (Deep Space Network) antenna usage time and to resolve the resource usage conflicts among tracking passes, antenna calibrations, maintenance, and system testing activities. TIGRAS provides a fully integrated multi-pane graphical user interface for all scheduling operations. This is a great improvement over the legacy VAX VMS command line user interface. TIGRAS has the capability to handle all DSN resource scheduling aspects from long-range to real time. TIGRAS assists NASA mission operations for DSN tracking of station equipment resource request processes from long-range load forecasts (ten years or longer), to midrange, short-range, and real-time (less than one week) emergency tracking plan changes. TIGRAS can be operated by NASA mission operations worldwide to make schedule requests for the DSN station equipment.

  10. Diagnostic potential for gold nanoparticle-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy to provide colorectal cancer screening using blood serum sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Duo; Feng, Shangyuan; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Yanping; Lin, Juqiang; Sun, Liqing; Chen, Rong

    2012-03-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a vibrational spectroscopic technique that is capable of probing the biomolecular changes associated with diseased transformation. The objective of our study was to explore gold nanoparticle based SERS to obtain blood serum biochemical information for non-invasive colorectal cancer detection. SERS measurements were performed on two groups of blood serum samples: one group from patients (n = 38) with pathologically confirmed colorectal cancer and the other group from healthy volunteers (control subjects, n = 45). Tentative assignments of the Raman bands in the measured SERS spectra suggested interesting cancer specific biomolecular changes, including an increase in the relative amounts of nucleic acid, a decrease in the percentage of saccharide and proteins contents in the blood serum of colorectal cancer patients as compared to that of healthy subjects. Principal component analysis (PCA) of the measured SERS spectra separated the spectral features of the two groups into two distinct clusters with little overlaps. Linear discriminate analysis (LDA) based on the PCA generated features differentiated the nasopharyngeal cancer SERS spectra from normal SERS spectra with high sensitivity (97.4%) and specificity (100%). The results from this exploratory study demonstrated that gold nanoparticle based SERS serum analysis combined with PCA-LDA has tremendous potential for the non-invasive detection of colorectal cancers.

  11. Essential and Toxic Elements in Blood Samples of Harbor Seals (Phoca vitulina) from the Islands Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Baltic Sea): A Comparison Study with Urbanized Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuschke, Antje; Griesel, Simone

    2016-01-01

    The harbor seals (Phoca vitulina) from Helgoland (North Sea) and Anholt (Kattegat, Baltic Sea) are top predators within the marine food web and an indicator species of the environmental contamination. Furthermore, they are a main tourist attraction. Despite these important roles, little is known about the health and pollutant contamination of these seals. The objective of this study was therefore to investigate 18 essential and nonessential/toxic elements (Al, As, Be, Ca, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mn, Mo, Ni, P, Pb, Rb, S, Se, Sr, and Zn) in blood samples using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and total X-ray-fluorescence spectrometry. Blood concentrations of mineral nutrients, such as Ca, K, P, and S, were within the reference ranges described for harbor seals. Likewise, for the trace elements, As, Be, Rb, Se, and Sr, no significant differences were observed compared with previous studies. Interestingly, blood concentrations of nine nonessential as well as essential trace metals (Al, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Zn) measured significantly lower in the offshore living seals from Helgoland and Anholt compared with results obtained from animals living close to urbanized areas, such as the Wadden Sea and Elbe estuary. This suggests that industrial emissions, sewage deposition, shipping traffic and dredging tasks might be the cause of increased metal concentrations of inshore harbor seals. PMID:26253942

  12. Detection and serotyping of pneumococci in community acquired pneumonia patients without culture using blood and urine samples

    OpenAIRE

    Elberse, K. (Karin); Mens, S.; Cremers, A.J.; Meijvis, S.C.A.; Vlaminckx, B.; de Jonge, M. I.; Meis, J. F. G. M.; Blauwendraat, C.; Pol, I. van de; Schouls, L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment of community acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients with antibiotics before laboratory-confirmed diagnosis leads to loss of knowledge on the causative bacterial pathogen. Therefore, an increasing number of pneumococcal infections is identified using non-culture based techniques. However, methods for serotyping directly on the clinical specimen remain scarce. Here we present three approaches for detection and serotyping of pneumococci using samples from patients with CAP. Metho...

  13. Detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in clinical samples including peripheral blood of immune competent and immune compromised patients by three nested amplifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Hatamoto Kawasato

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria of the genus Bartonella are emerging pathogens detected in lymph node biopsies and aspirates probably caused by increased concentration of bacteria. Twenty-three samples of 18 patients with clinical, laboratory and/or epidemiological data suggesting bartonellosis were subjected to three nested amplifications targeting a fragment of the 60-kDa heat shock protein (HSP, the internal transcribed spacer 16S-23S rRNA (ITS and the cell division (FtsZ of Bartonella henselae, in order to improve detection in clinical samples. In the first amplification 01, 04 and 05 samples, were positive by HSP (4.3%, FtsZ (17.4% and ITS (21.7%, respectively. After the second round six positive samples were identified by nested-HSP (26%, eight by nested-ITS (34.8% and 18 by nested-FtsZ (78.2%, corresponding to 10 peripheral blood samples, five lymph node biopsies, two skin biopsies and one lymph node aspirate. The nested-FtsZ was more sensitive than nested-HSP and nested-ITS (p < 0.0001, enabling the detection of Bartonella henselae DNA in 15 of 18 patients (83.3%. In this study, three nested-PCR that should be specific for Bartonella henselae amplification were developed, but only the nested-FtsZ did not amplify DNA from Bartonella quintana. We conclude that nested amplifications increased detection of B. henselae DNA, and that the nested-FtsZ was the most sensitive and the only specific to B. henselae in different biological samples. As all samples detected by nested-HSP and nested-ITS, were also by nested-FtsZ, we infer that in our series infections were caused by Bartonella henselae. The high number of positive blood samples draws attention to the use of this biological material in the investigation of bartonellosis, regardless of the immune status of patients. This fact is important in the case of critically ill patients and young children to avoid more invasive procedures such as lymph nodes biopsies and aspirates.

  14. Large volume injection of 1-octanol as sample diluent in reversed phase liquid chromatography: application in bioanalysis for assaying of indapamide in whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udrescu, Stefan; Sora, Iulia Daniela; Albu, Florin; David, Victor; Medvedovici, Andrei

    2011-04-01

    Large volume injection of samples in strong diluents immiscible with the mobile phases used in reversed phase liquid chromatography (RPLC) has been recently introduced in practice. In the present work, the potential of the technique has been evaluated for bioanalytical applications. The process consists of the liquid-liquid extraction of indapamide from whole blood into 1-octanol, followed by the direct injection from the organic layer into the LC. Detection was made through negative electrospray ionization (ESI) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS(2)). The method was developed, validated, and successfully applied to a large number of samples in two bioequivalence studies designed for indapamide 1.5mg sustained release and 2.5mg immediate release pharmaceutical formulations. The performance of the analytical method is discussed based on data resulting from the validation procedure and the completion of the bioequivalence studies. PMID:21195573

  15. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Seiichi; Imaizumi, Masao; Shimosegawa, Eku; Kanai, Yasukazu; Sakamoto, Yusuke; Minato, Kotaro; Shimizu, Keiji; Senda, Michio; Hatazawa, Jun

    2010-07-01

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front layer detects the positron and the background gamma photons, and the back layer detects the background gamma photons. By subtracting the count rate of the latter from that of the former, the count rate of the positrons can be estimated. The GSO for the front layer has a Ce concentration of 1.5 mol% (decay time of 35 ns), and that for the back layer has a Ce concentration of 0.5 mol% (decay time of 60 ns). By using the pulse shape analysis, the count rate of these two GSOs can be discriminated. The thickness is 0.5 mm, which is thick enough to detect positrons while minimizing the detection of the background gamma photons. These two types of thin GSOs were optically coupled to each other and connected to a metal photomultiplier tube (PMT) through triangular light guides. The signal from the PMT was digitized by 100 MHz free-running A-D converters in the data acquisition system and digitally integrated at two different integration times for the pulse shape analysis. We obtained good separation of the pulse shape distributions of these two GSOs. The energy threshold level was decreased to 80 keV, increasing the sensitivity of the detector. The sensitivity of a small diameter plastic tube was 8.6% and 24% for the F-18 and C-11 positrons, respectively. The count rate performance was linear up to approximately 50 kcps. The background counts from the gamma photons could be precisely corrected. The time-activity curve (TAC) of the rat artery blood was successfully obtained and showed a good correlation with that measured using a well counter. With these results, we confirmed

  16. A compact and high sensitivity positron detector using dual-layer thin GSO scintillators for a small animal PET blood sampling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For quantitative measurements of small animals such as mice or rats, a compact and high sensitivity continuous blood sampling detector is required because their blood sampling volume is limited. For this purpose we have developed and tested a new positron detector. The positron detector uses a pair of dual-layer thin gadolinium orthosilicate (GSO) scintillators with different decay times. The front layer detects the positron and the background gamma photons, and the back layer detects the background gamma photons. By subtracting the count rate of the latter from that of the former, the count rate of the positrons can be estimated. The GSO for the front layer has a Ce concentration of 1.5 mol% (decay time of 35 ns), and that for the back layer has a Ce concentration of 0.5 mol% (decay time of 60 ns). By using the pulse shape analysis, the count rate of these two GSOs can be discriminated. The thickness is 0.5 mm, which is thick enough to detect positrons while minimizing the detection of the background gamma photons. These two types of thin GSOs were optically coupled to each other and connected to a metal photomultiplier tube (PMT) through triangular light guides. The signal from the PMT was digitized by 100 MHz free-running A-D converters in the data acquisition system and digitally integrated at two different integration times for the pulse shape analysis. We obtained good separation of the pulse shape distributions of these two GSOs. The energy threshold level was decreased to 80 keV, increasing the sensitivity of the detector. The sensitivity of a small diameter plastic tube was 8.6% and 24% for the F-18 and C-11 positrons, respectively. The count rate performance was linear up to ∼50 kcps. The background counts from the gamma photons could be precisely corrected. The time-activity curve (TAC) of the rat artery blood was successfully obtained and showed a good correlation with that measured using a well counter. With these results, we confirmed that the

  17. Determination of reference interval values for inorganic elements in whole blood samples of humans and laboratory animals by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inorganic elements are responsible for essential bodily functions, such as osmotic regulation, cardiac frequency and contractibility, blood clotting and neuromuscular excitability. The determination of inorganic elements in corporeal fluids such as blood, serum, plasma and urine is used as a monitor for a part or the whole organism; their values, then, are compared with reference interval values. In this study, the energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (EDXRF), applying the Fundamental Parameters method, for the determination of inorganic elements in whole blood samples from humans and laboratory animals, was used. Peripheral blood samples were collected and, before coagulation, 100 μL of sample were deposited onto Whatman No. 41 filter paper and dried, using infrared spotlight. The reference interval values for healthy Brazilian population of Na were found to be 1,788-1,826 μg g-1, of Mg 63-75 μg g-1, of P 602-676 μg g-1, of S 1,519-1,718 μg g-1, of Cl 2,743-2,867 μg g-1, of K 1,508-1,630 μg g-1, of Ca 214-228 μg g-1, of Fe 170-184 μg g-1, of Cu 4-6 μg g-1 and of Zn 1-3 μg g-1. The reference interval values for golden hamster (Mesocricetus auratus) of Na were found to be 1,714-1,819 μg g-1, Mg 51-79 μg g-1, P 970-1,080 μg g-1, S 1,231-1,739 μg g-1, Cl 2,775-2,865 μg g-1, of K 1,968-2,248 μg g-1, of Ca 209-257 μg g-1, of Fe 145-267 μg g-1, of Cu 4-6 μg g-1 and of Zn 3-5 μg g-1. A comparative study between EDXRF and instrumental neutron activation analysis data was carried out and the results for both techniques are statistically equal (α = 0.05). The results contribute for the establishment of reference interval values for Na, Mg, P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Cu and Zn in the healthy Brazilian population and the referred laboratory animal species. (author)

  18. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smolich Beverly D

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Methods Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Results Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9 as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. Conclusions These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies.

  19. Expression profiling of blood samples from an SU5416 Phase III metastatic colorectal cancer clinical trial: a novel strategy for biomarker identification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microarray-based gene expression profiling is a powerful approach for the identification of molecular biomarkers of disease, particularly in human cancers. Utility of this approach to measure responses to therapy is less well established, in part due to challenges in obtaining serial biopsies. Identification of suitable surrogate tissues will help minimize limitations imposed by those challenges. This study describes an approach used to identify gene expression changes that might serve as surrogate biomarkers of drug activity. Expression profiling using microarrays was applied to peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) samples obtained from patients with advanced colorectal cancer participating in a Phase III clinical trial. The PBMC samples were harvested pre-treatment and at the end of the first 6-week cycle from patients receiving standard of care chemotherapy or standard of care plus SU5416, a vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor. Results from matched pairs of PBMC samples from 23 patients were queried for expression changes that consistently correlated with SU5416 administration. Thirteen transcripts met this selection criterion; six were further tested by quantitative RT-PCR analysis of 62 additional samples from this trial and a second SU5416 Phase III trial of similar design. This method confirmed four of these transcripts (CD24, lactoferrin, lipocalin 2, and MMP-9) as potential biomarkers of drug treatment. Discriminant analysis showed that expression profiles of these 4 transcripts could be used to classify patients by treatment arm in a predictive fashion. These results establish a foundation for the further exploration of peripheral blood cells as a surrogate system for biomarker analyses in clinical oncology studies

  20. Dosimetry for the therapeutic application of HMFG-1 MoAb by IP infusion using whole body profile counting and serial blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HMFG1 is an IgG1 MoAb raised against a determinant on human milk fat globule membrane which is expressed on all epithelial cells, but highly expressed on carcinoma of ovary, colon and breast. At present this antibody is in a phase 1/2 clinical trial for toxicity and efficacy in colorectal and ovarian carcinoma. HMFG1 is labeled with 131I and infused intraperitoneally (IP). Initial dosimetry was carried out in mice with and without clonic adenocarcinoma xenografts by evaluating uptake in tissue samples, whole-body counting and MIRD calculations. Based on the mouse dosimetry calculations, a human clinical trial was started. An initial test administration of 37-185 MBq was infused IP to evaluate the antibody for intraperitoneal distribution and tumor uptake by gamma camera imaging; as well as uptake, clearance and dose estimation by whole-body profile counting, serial blood samples and MIRD calculations. The activity required for therapy was then determined based on the dose to the critical organ (bone marrow). Patient dosimetry was calculated by two methods: uptake in mouse tissues and total activity injected; and activity calculated from blood and whole-body profile counting of regional uptake assuming homogeneous distribution of activity throughout organs. There was good correlation between dose estimates from mouse data and those calculated from patient data. Two problems existed for calculation of dose estimates with IP infusion: IP activity overlaps organ activity and organs could not be visualized. Estimated therapy radiation doses calculated from test infusions ranged from 0.11-0.38 mGy/MBq whole body and 0.22-0.92 mGy/MBq red marrow, but the actual therapy doses calculated retrospectively demonstrated these values to be overestimated and dependent on disease state, rate of peritoneal infusion into blood and HAMA levels for repeat infusion

  1. Determining the Diagnostic Value of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis DNA in the Differentiation of Blood Samples of Patients with Active Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Healthy Controls Using Polymerase Chain Reaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abasali Niazi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tuberculosis (TB is now a major cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. Nowadays, different methods are used to diagnose tuberculosis. Although classical microbiological methods (such as sputum smear are specific, they have little sensitivity and the culture is also time-consuming. Using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR in blood samples in terms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, this study examines diagnostic power of this test in the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis compared with other standard methods. Materials and Methods: In a cross-sectional descriptive-analytic study, blood samples were taken from 40 TB patients and 40 non-TB cases. Following DNA extraction by the commercial kit QIAGEN, the PCR assay was performed using IS6110 primer.Results: In this study, there were 80 people in two groups of TB and non-TB cases. Each group composed of 14 men (35% and 26 women (65%. Sensitivity, specificity as well as positive and negative predictive values obtained 37.5, 100, 100 and 61.5%, respectively.Conclusion: Despite high costs of using PCR for TB diagnosis, sensitivity of this method is low due to various factors and cannot replace current standard methods for TB diagnosis such as smear and culture. It can only be used as a complementary method to confirm diagnosis in strongly suspected cases of tuberculosis.

  2. AFP mRNA level in enriched circulating tumor cells from hepatocellular carcinoma patient blood samples is a pivotal predictive marker for metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Junhua; Niu, Xiaojuan; Zou, Lihui; Li, Lin; Li, Shugang; Han, Jingli; Zhang, Peiying; Song, Jinghai; Xiao, Fei

    2016-08-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) quantification may be helpful for evaluating cancer dissemination, predicting prognosis and assessing therapeutic effectiveness and safety. In the present study, CTCs from blood samples of 72 patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) were enriched with anti-EpCAM nanoparticles. AFP mRNA level was detected by nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) after enrichment of CTCs from HCC blood samples at 0, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months after hepatectomy, respectively. AFP mRNA expression in CTCs was positive in 43 patients (59.7%) and negative in 29 patients (40.3%) before hepatectomy. Among 43 patients with positive AFP mRNA expression in CTCs before hepatectomy, 10 and 11 were diagnosed as intrahepatic/extrahepatic metastasis before and after hepatectomy, respectively. In addition, these 21 patients with metastasis had persisting positive AFP mRNA of CTCs during the whole tested year. Specifically, 3 patients with AFP mRNA negative in CTCs before hepatectomy changed to be positive at 6 and 9 months, and 2 of them were diagnosed as metastasis 12 months after hepatectomy. We conclude that the positive AFP mRNA of CTCs can be a pivotal predictor for HCC metastasis before and after hepatectomy. The release of AFP expression from hepatocellular carcinoma cells into circulation must be a major source of HCC metastasis. PMID:27160647

  3. Effects of Block Scheduling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William R. Veal

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available This study examined the effects of a tri-schedule on the academic achievement of students in a high school. The tri-schedule consists of traditional, 4x4 block, and hybrid schedules running at the same time in the same high school. Effectiveness of the schedules was determined from the state mandated test of basic skills in reading, language, and mathematics. Students who were in a particular schedule their freshman year were tested at the beginning of their sophomore year. A statistical ANCOVA test was performed using the schedule types as independent variables and cognitive skill index and GPA as covariates. For reading and language, there was no statistically significant difference in test results. There was a statistical difference mathematics-computation. Block mathematics is an ideal format for obtaining more credits in mathematics, but the block format does little for mathematics achievement and conceptual understanding. The results have content specific implications for schools, administrations, and school boards who are considering block scheduling adoption.

  4. Global distribution of polymorphisms associated with delayed Plasmodium falciparum parasite clearance following artemisinin treatment: genotyping of archive blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murai, Kenji; Culleton, Richard; Hisaoka, Teruhiko; Endo, Hiroyoshi; Mita, Toshihiro

    2015-06-01

    The recent emergence and spread of artemisinin-resistant Plasmodium falciparum isolates is a growing concern for global malaria-control efforts. A recent genome-wide analysis study identified two SNPs at genomic positions MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, which are linked to delayed clearance of parasites following artemisinin combination therapy (ACT). It is expected that continuous artemisinin pressure will affect the distribution of these SNPs. Here, we investigate the worldwide distribution of these SNPs using a large number of archived samples in order to generate baseline data from the period before the emergence of ACT resistance. The presence of SNPs in MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 was assessed by nested PCR RFLP and direct DNA sequencing using 653 global P. falciparum samples obtained before the reported emergence of ACT resistance. SNPs at MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 associated with delayed parasite clearance following ACT administration were observed in 8% and 3% of parasites, respectively, mostly in Cambodia and Thailand. Parasites harbouring both SNPs were found in only eight (1%) isolates, all of which were from Cambodia and Thailand. Linkage disequilibrium was detected between MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319, suggesting that this SNP combination may have been selected by ACT drug pressure. Neither of the SNPs associated with delayed parasite clearance were observed in samples from Africa or South America. Baseline information of the geographical difference of MAL10-688956 and MAL13-1718319 SNPs provides a solid basis for assessing whether these SNPs are selected by artemisinin-based combination therapies. PMID:25449286

  5. NASA Schedule Management Handbook

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of schedule management is to provide the framework for time-phasing, resource planning, coordination, and communicating the necessary tasks within a work effort. The intent is to improve schedule management by providing recommended concepts, processes, and techniques used within the Agency and private industry. The intended function of this handbook is two-fold: first, to provide guidance for meeting the scheduling requirements contained in NPR 7120.5, NASA Space Flight Program and Project Management Requirements, NPR 7120.7, NASA Information Technology and Institutional Infrastructure Program and Project Requirements, NPR 7120.8, NASA Research and Technology Program and Project Management Requirements, and NPD 1000.5, Policy for NASA Acquisition. The second function is to describe the schedule management approach and the recommended best practices for carrying out this project control function. With regards to the above project management requirements documents, it should be noted that those space flight projects previously established and approved under the guidance of prior versions of NPR 7120.5 will continue to comply with those requirements until project completion has been achieved. This handbook will be updated as needed, to enhance efficient and effective schedule management across the Agency. It is acknowledged that most, if not all, external organizations participating in NASA programs/projects will have their own internal schedule management documents. Issues that arise from conflicting schedule guidance will be resolved on a case by case basis as contracts and partnering relationships are established. It is also acknowledged and understood that all projects are not the same and may require different levels of schedule visibility, scrutiny and control. Project type, value, and complexity are factors that typically dictate which schedule management practices should be employed.

  6. zeta-, epsilon-, and gamma-Globin mRNA in blood samples and CD71(+) cell fractions from fetuses and from pregnant and nonpregnant women, with special attention to identification of fetal erythroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgh, A M; Hviid, T V; Christensen, B;

    2001-01-01

    erythroblasts. A specific marker is necessary for isolation and identification of fetal nucleated red blood cells from maternal blood samples for use in antenatal diagnosis of fetal genetic or chromosomal abnormalities. METHODS: We used a very sensitive reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method, coamplification...

  7. Disk Scheduling: Selection of Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Yashvir, S.; Prakash, Om

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to take some aspects of disk scheduling and scheduling algorithms. The disk scheduling is discussed with a sneak peak in general and selection of algorithm in particular.

  8. Application of a Liquid Extraction Based Sealing Surface Sampling Probe for Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Dried Blood Spots and Mouse Whole-Body Thin Tissue Sections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Berkel, Gary J [ORNL; Kertesz, Vilmos [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    The utility of a liquid extraction based sealing surface sampling probe (SSSP) for the direct mass spectrometric analysis of targeted drugs and metabolites in dried blood spots (DBSs) and whole mouse thin tissue sections was demonstrated. The accuracy and precision for the quantitative analysis of a minimum of 50 ng/mL sitamaquine or acetaminophen in DBSs on paper were well within the required 15% dictated by internationally recognized acceptance criteria for assay validations. Analysis of whole-body mouse thin tissue sections from animals dosed with propranolol, adhered to an adhesive tape substrate, provided semi-quantitative information for propranolol and its hydroxyproranolol glucuronide metabolite within specific organs of the tissue. The relative abundances recorded for the two compounds in the brain, lung, kidney and liver were in nominal agreement with previously reported amounts based on analysis using a liquid microjunction surface sampling probe (LMJ-SSP), and whole-body autoradiography (WBA) and HPLC-MS analysis. The ability to sample and analyze from tape-adhered tissue samples, which are generally employed in WBA analysis, presents the possibility of consecutive WBA and SSSP-MS analysis of the same tissue section. This would facilitate assignment, and possibly quantitation, of the different molecular forms of total drug related material detected in the WBA analysis. The flexibility to sample larger or smaller spot sizes, alternative probe sealing mechanisms, and a reduction in internal volumes and associated sample carryover issues will be among the first simple improvements necessary to make the SSSP-MS method a practical DBS and/or thin tissue section analysis tool or to expand its use to other surface sampling applications.

  9. MEDICAL STAFF SCHEDULING USING SIMULATED ANNEALING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ladislav Rosocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The efficiency of medical staff is a fundamental feature of healthcare facilities quality. Therefore the better implementation of their preferences into the scheduling problem might not only rise the work-life balance of doctors and nurses, but also may result into better patient care. This paper focuses on optimization of medical staff preferences considering the scheduling problem.Methodology/Approach: We propose a medical staff scheduling algorithm based on simulated annealing, a well-known method from statistical thermodynamics. We define hard constraints, which are linked to legal and working regulations, and minimize the violations of soft constraints, which are related to the quality of work, psychic, and work-life balance of staff.Findings: On a sample of 60 physicians and nurses from gynecology department we generated monthly schedules and optimized their preferences in terms of soft constraints. Our results indicate that the final value of objective function optimized by proposed algorithm is more than 18-times better in violations of soft constraints than initially generated random schedule that satisfied hard constraints.Research Limitation/implication: Even though the global optimality of final outcome is not guaranteed, desirable solutionwas obtained in reasonable time. Originality/Value of paper: We show that designed algorithm is able to successfully generate schedules regarding hard and soft constraints. Moreover, presented method is significantly faster than standard schedule generation and is able to effectively reschedule due to the local neighborhood search characteristics of simulated annealing.

  10. Fuzzy Priority CPU Scheduling Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Bashir Alam; M.N. Doja; R. Biswas; Mansaf Alam

    2011-01-01

    There are several CPU scheduling algorithms like FCFS, SRTN,RR , priority etc. Scheduling decision of these algorithms are based on parameters which are assumed to be crisp. However, in many circumstances these parameters are vague. The vagueness of these parameters suggests that scheduler should use fuzzy logic in scheduling the jobs. A fuzzy priority CPU scheduling algorithm has been proposed. This proposed algorithm improves the priority based CPU scheduling algorithm as obvious from simul...

  11. [Testing for BTV, BVDV and BHV-1 in blood samples of new world camelids kept in middle Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locher, Lena; Nieper, Hermann; Volkery, Janine; Fürll, Manfred; Wittek, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The susceptibility of camelids for infectious agents which may result in severe economic losses or which are strictly regulated for epidemiological reasons in farm animals potentially causes a mutual risk of transmission. This study aimed to investigate the presence of antibodies against bovine herpesvirus 1 (BHV-1), bluetongue virus (BTV) and bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) as well as the presence of pestivirus antigen in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore 107 serum samples from 93 alpacas and lamas from this region which had been obtained from 2007 to 2009 were examined using ELISA, serum neutralisation test, RT-PCR and a pestivirus specific gene probe. All sample were negative for BHV-1 antibodies. Antibodies against BVDV-1 could be detected in four animals, titres reaching from 1:64 to > 1:256. One animal was positive for BTV antibodies in the year 2008. This animal had been tested negative for BTV antibodies in 2007. It can be concluded that up to now, these viruses seem to be of minor importance as pathogens in new world camelids in Central Germany. Therefore the risk of infection originating from new world camelids for production animals could be considered to be rather low in this region at the moment. However, it must be taken into consideration that these animals due to lack of antibodies are fully susceptible in case of occurrence of one of these viruses. For maintenance and improvement of the present status, general hygienic precautions should be applied; direct and indirect contact between animals from different herds must be avoided and virological diagnostic and quarantine should be required trading these animals. PMID:21141278

  12. Establishing and evaluating bar-code technology in blood sampling system: a model based on human centered human-centered design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shin-Shang; Yan, Hsiu-Fang; Huang, Hsiu-Ya; Tseng, Kuan-Jui; Kuo, Shu-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study intended to use a human-centered design study method to develop a bar-code technology in blood sampling process. By using the multilevel analysis to gather the information, the bar-code technology has been constructed to identify the patient's identification, simplify the work process, and prevent medical error rates. A Technology Acceptance Model questionnaire was developed to assess the effectiveness of system and the data of patient's identification and sample errors were collected daily. The average scores of 8 items users' perceived ease of use was 25.21(3.72), 9 items users' perceived usefulness was 28.53(5.00), and 14 items task-technology fit was 52.24(7.09), the rate of patient identification error and samples with order cancelled were down to zero, however, new errors were generated after the new system deployed; which were the position of barcode stickers on the sample tubes. Overall, more than half of nurses (62.5%) were willing to use the new system. PMID:24199057

  13. Performance testing of a semi-automatic card punch system, using direct STR profiling of DNA from blood samples on FTA™ cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogden, Samantha J; Horton, Jeffrey K; Stubbs, Simon L; Tatnell, Peter J

    2015-01-01

    The 1.2 mm Electric Coring Tool (e-Core™) was developed to increase the throughput of FTA(™) sample collection cards used during forensic workflows and is similar to a 1.2 mm Harris manual micro-punch for sampling dried blood spots. Direct short tandem repeat (STR) DNA profiling was used to compare samples taken by the e-Core tool with those taken by the manual micro-punch. The performance of the e-Core device was evaluated using a commercially available PowerPlex™ 18D STR System. In addition, an analysis was performed that investigated the potential carryover of DNA via the e-Core punch from one FTA disc to another. This contamination study was carried out using Applied Biosystems AmpflSTR™ Identifiler™ Direct PCR Amplification kits. The e-Core instrument does not contaminate FTA discs when a cleaning punch is used following excision of discs containing samples and generates STR profiles that are comparable to those generated by the manual micro-punch. PMID:25407399

  14. Aberrant methylation of PCDH10 and RASSF1A genes in blood samples for non-invasive diagnosis and prognostic assessment of gastric cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pimson, Charinya; Pientong, Chamsai; Promthet, Supannee; Putthanachote, Nuntiput; Suwanrungruang, Krittika; Wiangnon, Surapon

    2016-01-01

    Background. Assessment of DNA methylation of specific genes is one approach to the diagnosis of cancer worldwide. Early stage detection is necessary to reduce the mortality rate of cancers, including those occurring in the stomach. For this purpose, tumor cells in circulating blood offer promising candidates for non-invasive diagnosis. Transcriptional inactivation of tumor suppressor genes, like PCDH10 and RASSF1A, by methylation is associated with progression of gastric cancer, and such methylation can therefore be utilized as a biomarker. Methods. The present research was conducted to evaluate DNA methylation in these two genes using blood samples of gastric cancer cases. Clinicopathological data were also analyzed and cumulative survival rates generated for comparison. Results. High frequencies of PCDH10 and RASSF1A methylations in the gastric cancer group were noted (94.1% and 83.2%, respectively, as compared to 2.97% and 5.45% in 202 matched controls). Most patients (53.4%) were in severe stage of the disease, with a median survival time of 8.4 months after diagnosis. Likewise, the patients with metastases, or RASSF1A and PCDH10 methylations, had median survival times of 7.3, 7.8, and 8.4 months, respectively. A Kaplan–Meier analysis showed that cumulative survival was significantly lower in those cases positive for methylation of RASSF1A than in their negative counterparts. Similarly, whereas almost 100% of patients positive for PCDH10 methylation had died after five years, none of the negative cases died over this period. Notably, the methylations of RASSF1A and PCDH10 were found to be higher in the late-stage patients and were also significantly correlated with metastasis and histology. Conclusions. PCDH10 and RASSF1A methylations in blood samples can serve as potential non-invasive diagnostic indicators in blood for gastric cancer. In addition to RASSF1A methylation, tumor stage proved to be a major prognostic factor in terms of survival rates.

  15. CMS Records Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The CMS Records Schedule provides disposition authorizations approved by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) for CMS program-related records...

  16. Clinical Laboratory Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — Outpatient clinical laboratory services are paid based on a fee schedule in accordance with Section 1833(h) of the Social Security Act. The clinical laboratory fee...

  17. Fee Schedules - General Information

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A fee schedule is a complete listing of fees used by Medicare to pay doctors or other providers-suppliers. This comprehensive listing of fee maximums is used to...

  18. DMEPOS Fee Schedule

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The list contains the fee schedule amounts, floors, and ceilings for all procedure codes and payment category, jurisdication, and short description assigned to each...

  19. Physician Fee Schedule Search

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This website is designed to provide information on services covered by the Medicare Physician Fee Schedule (MPFS). It provides more than 10,000 physician services,...

  20. Childhood Vaccine Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Childhood Vaccine Schedule Past Issues / Spring 2008 Table of Contents ... please turn Javascript on. When to Vaccinate What Vaccine Why Birth (or any age if not previously ...

  1. CERN confirms LHC schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    The CERN Council held its 125th session on 20 June. Highlights of the meeting included confirmation that the LHC is on schedule for a 2007 start-up, and the announcement of a new organizational structure in 2004.

  2. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff...... scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the staff scheduling is planned decentralized for each zone. The advantage of this approach is that the staff...... work in a smaller area of the terminal and thus spends less time walking between stands. When planning decentralized the allocation of stands to flights influences the staff scheduling since the workload in a zone depends on which flights are allocated to stands in the zone. Hence solving the problem...

  3. Location-based Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Niclas; Christensen, Knud

    the predominant scheduling method since it was introduced in the late 1950s. Over the years, CPM has proven to be a very powerful technique for planning, scheduling and controlling projects, which among other things is indicated by the development of a large number of CPM-based software applications available...... on the market. However, CPM is primarily an activity based method that takes the activity as the unit of focus and there is criticism raised, specifically in the case of construction projects, on the method for deficient management of construction work and continuous flow of resources. To seek solutions...... to the identified limitations of the CPM method, an alternative planning and scheduling methodology that includes locations is tested. Location-based Scheduling (LBS) implies a shift in focus, from primarily the activities to the flow of work through the various locations of the project, i.e. the building. LBS uses...

  4. Introduction to Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Robert, Yves

    2009-01-01

    Reviewing classical methods, realistic models, and algorithms, this book offers a through introduction to scheduling. Coverage includes fundamental concepts and basic methods, recent research, and applications with a special focus on distributed systems and computational grids. Other topics include online scheduling, stochastic task-resource systems, and platform models. Examples, theorems, and pedagogical proofs create an interactive learning format. Though rigorous, the book provides enough background to be self-contained and fully accessible to computer scientists, mathematicians, and resea

  5. Business Service Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jürgen Dorn

    2010-01-01

    The management and predictive planning of the processes to create business services is more difficult than the planning of production processes, because services cannot be produced in stock and customers are involved in their creation. In this paper, the author proposes a method for service scheduling and optimization based on an ontology to describe business services and related concepts. The author schedules operations required to create a service. With each service process and its operatio...

  6. Decentralized Ground Staff Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, M. D.; Clausen, Jens

    2002-01-01

    Typically, ground staff scheduling is centrally planned for each terminal in an airport. The advantage of this is that the staff is efficiently utilized, but a disadvantage is that staff spends considerable time walking between stands. In this paper a decentralized approach for ground staff scheduling is investigated. The airport terminal is divided into zones, where each zone consists of a set of stands geographically next to each other. Staff is assigned to work in only one zone and the sta...

  7. Intelligent Feedback Scheduling of Control Tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatin I. Telchy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available an efficient feedback scheduling scheme based on the proposed Feed Forward Neural Network (FFNN scheme is employed to improve the overall control performance while minimizing the overhead of feedback scheduling which exposed using the optimal solutions obtained offline by mathematical optimization methods. The previously described FFNN is employed to adapt online the sampling periods of concurrent control tasks with respect to changes in computing resource availability. The proposed intelligent scheduler will be examined with different optimization algorithms. An inverted pendulum cost function is used in these experiments. Then, simulation of three inverted pendulums as intelligent Real Time System (RTS is described in details. Numerical simulation results demonstrates that the proposed scheme can reduce the computational overhead significantly while delivering almost the same overall control performance as compared to optimal feedback scheduling

  8. Promoter Region Hypermethylation and mRNA Expression of MGMT and p16 Genes in Tissue and Blood Samples of Human Premalignant Oral Lesions and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Bhatia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O6-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P=0.0010 and 57% (P=0.0016 of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P=0.0135 and 33% (P=0.0074 of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P=0.0001 and 82% (P=0.0001 in tissue and 57% (P=0.0002 and 70% (P=0.0001 in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC.

  9. Promoter Region Hypermethylation and mRNA Expression of MGMT and p16 Genes in Tissue and Blood Samples of Human Premalignant Oral Lesions and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Vikram; Makker, Annu; Tewari, Shikha; Yadu, Alka; Shilpi, Priyanka; Kumar, Sandeep; Agarwal, S. P.; Goel, Sudhir K.

    2014-01-01

    Promoter methylation and relative gene expression of O6-methyguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (MGMT) and p16 genes were examined in tissue and blood samples of patients with premalignant oral lesions (PMOLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methylation-specific PCR and reverse transcriptase PCR were performed in 146 tissue and blood samples from controls and patients with PMOLs and OSCC. In PMOL group, significant promoter methylation of MGMT and p16 genes was observed in 59% (P = 0.0010) and 57% (P = 0.0016) of tissue samples, respectively, and 39% (P = 0.0135) and 33% (P = 0.0074) of blood samples, respectively. Promoter methylation of both genes was more frequent in patients with OSCC, that is, 76% (P = 0.0001) and 82% (P = 0.0001) in tissue and 57% (P = 0.0002) and 70% (P = 0.0001) in blood, respectively. Significant downregulation of MGMT and p16 mRNA expression was observed in both tissue and blood samples from patients with PMOLs and OSCC. Hypermethylation-induced transcriptional silencing of MGMT and p16 genes in both precancer and cancer suggests important role of these changes in progression of premalignant state to malignancy. Results support use of blood as potential surrogate to tissue samples for screening or diagnosing PMOLs and early OSCC. PMID:24991542

  10. ATLAS construction schedule

    CERN Multimedia

    Kotamaki, M

    The goal during the last few months has been to freeze and baseline as much as possible the schedules of various ATLAS systems and activities. The main motivations for the re-baselining of the schedules have been the new LHC schedule aiming at first collisions in early 2006 and the encountered delays in civil engineering as well as in the production of some of the detectors. The process was started by first preparing a new installation schedule that takes into account all the new external constraints and the new ATLAS staging scenario. The installation schedule version 3 was approved in the March EB and it provides the Ready For Installation (RFI) milestones for each system, i.e. the date when the system should be available for the start of the installation. TCn is now interacting with the systems aiming at a more realistic and resource loaded version 4 before the end of the year. Using the new RFI milestones as driving dates a new summary schedule has been prepared, or is under preparation, for each system....

  11. Number of Persistent Organic Pollutants Detected at High Concentrations in Blood Samples of the United States Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pumarega, José; Gasull, Magda; Lee, Duk-Hee; López, Tomàs; Porta, Miquel

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is usually assessed considering each pollutant individually, with little attention to concentrations of mixtures in individuals or social groups. Yet, it may be relatively common for humans to have low and high concentrations of numerous POPs. The study objectives were to analyze the number of POPs detected per person at high concentrations in the U.S. population, and the associations between such type of indicators and socioeconomic factors as gender, race / ethnicity, education, and poverty level. From 91 POPs analyzed in serum samples of 4,739 individuals in three subsamples of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003-2004 (the last period with valid updated individual data for the compounds considered in the present study), we computed the number of POPs whose serum concentrations were above selected cutoff points. POPs included were 13 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) 153, 38 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), and 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Over 13% of participants had ≥10 of the 37 most detected POPs each at a concentration in the top decile (P90). Over 30% of subjects with total toxic equivalency (TEQ) ≥P75, had ≥10 of 24 POPs not included in TEQ calculations at concentrations ≥P90. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, the adjusted odds ratio of having ≥10 of the 37 POPs at P90 was 9.2 for non-Hispanic blacks and 0.18 for Mexican Americans. Poverty, body mass index, age, and gender were also independently associated with having ≥10 POPs in the top decile. More than one tenth of the US population may have ≥10 POPs each at concentrations in the top decile. Such pattern is nine times more frequent in Non-Hispanic blacks and four times less frequent in Mexican Americans than in non-Hispanic whites

  12. Number of Persistent Organic Pollutants Detected at High Concentrations in Blood Samples of the United States Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasull, Magda; Lee, Duk-Hee; López, Tomàs

    2016-01-01

    Human exposure to environmental chemicals as persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is usually assessed considering each pollutant individually, with little attention to concentrations of mixtures in individuals or social groups. Yet, it may be relatively common for humans to have low and high concentrations of numerous POPs. The study objectives were to analyze the number of POPs detected per person at high concentrations in the U.S. population, and the associations between such type of indicators and socioeconomic factors as gender, race / ethnicity, education, and poverty level. From 91 POPs analyzed in serum samples of 4,739 individuals in three subsamples of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 (the last period with valid updated individual data for the compounds considered in the present study), we computed the number of POPs whose serum concentrations were above selected cutoff points. POPs included were 13 organochlorine compounds (OCs), 10 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), the polybrominated biphenyl (PBB) 153, 38 polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), 17 polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs), and 12 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs). Over 13% of participants had ≥10 of the 37 most detected POPs each at a concentration in the top decile (P90). Over 30% of subjects with total toxic equivalency (TEQ) ≥P75, had ≥10 of 24 POPs not included in TEQ calculations at concentrations ≥P90. Compared to non-Hispanic whites, the adjusted odds ratio of having ≥10 of the 37 POPs at P90 was 9.2 for non-Hispanic blacks and 0.18 for Mexican Americans. Poverty, body mass index, age, and gender were also independently associated with having ≥10 POPs in the top decile. More than one tenth of the US population may have ≥10 POPs each at concentrations in the top decile. Such pattern is nine times more frequent in Non-Hispanic blacks and four times less frequent in Mexican Americans than in non

  13. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray structural studies of hemoglobin A2 and hemoglobin E, isolated from the blood samples of β-thalassemic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemoglobin A2 (α2δ2), a minor (2-3%) component of circulating red blood cells, acts as an anti-sickling agent and its elevated concentration in β-thalassemia is a useful clinical diagnostic. In β-thalassemia major, where there is a failure of β-chain production, HbA2 acts as the predominant oxygen deliverer. Hemoglobin E, is another common abnormal hemoglobin, caused by splice site mutation in exon 1 of β globin gene, when combines with β-thalassemia, causes severe microcytic anemia. The purification, crystallization, and preliminary structural studies of HbA2 and HbE are reported here. HbA2 and HbE are purified by cation exchange column chromatography in presence of KCN from the blood samples of individuals suffering from β-thalassemia minor and Eβ-thalassemia. X-ray diffraction data of HbA2 and HbE were collected upto 2.1 and 1.73 A, respectively. HbA2 crystallized in space group P21 with unit cell parameters a=54.33 A, b=83.73 A, c=62.87 A, and β=99.80 degree sign whereas HbE crystallized in space group P212121 with unit cell parameters a=60.89 A, b=95.81 A, and c=99.08 A. Asymmetric unit in each case contains one Hb tetramer in R2 state

  14. An integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip for bacteria detection in human whole blood and milk without a sample preparation step.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dohwan; Kim, Yong Tae; Lee, Jee Won; Kim, Do Hyun; Seo, Tae Seok

    2016-05-15

    We have developed an integrated direct loop-mediated isothermal amplification (Direct LAMP) microdevice incorporated with an immunochromatographic strip (ICS) to identify bacteria contaminated in real samples. The Direct LAMP is a novel isothermal DNA amplification technique which does not require thermal cycling steps as well as any sample preparation steps such as cell lysis and DNA extraction for amplifying specific target genes. In addition, the resultant amplicons were colorimetrically detected on the ICS, thereby enabling the entire genetic analysis process to be simplified. The two functional units (Direct LAMP and ICS) were integrated on a single device without use of the tedious and complicated microvalve and tubing systems. The utilization of a slidable plate allows us to manipulate the fluidic control in the microchannels manually and the sequential operation of the Direct LAMP and ICS detection could be performed by switching the slidable plate to each functional unit. Thus, the combination of the direct isothermal amplification without any sample preparation and thermal cycling steps, the ICS based amplicon detection by naked eyes, and the slidable plate to eliminate the microvalves in the integrated microdevice would be an ideal platform for point-of-care DNA diaganotics. On the integrated Direct LAMP-ICS microdevice, we could analyze Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli O157:H7 (E. coli O157:H7) contaminated in human whole blood or milk at a single-cell level within 1h. PMID:26710344

  15. Simplifying sample preparation using fabric phase sorptive extraction technique for the determination of benzodiazepines in blood serum by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samanidou, Victoria; Kaltzi, Ioanna; Kabir, Abuzar; Furton, Kenneth G

    2016-06-01

    Fabric phase sorptive extraction (FPSE), a recently introduced novel sample preparation technology, has been evaluated for the extraction of benzodiazepines from human blood serum. FPSE utilizes a flexible fabric surface as the substrate platform for creating sol-gel hybrid organic-inorganic sorbent coatings. FPSE media can be introduced directly into the sample containing the target analyte(s), requiring no need for prior sample pretreatment or clean-up. Benzodiazepines were selected as model analytes because they represent one of the most widely used therapeutic drugs in psychiatry and are also amongst the most frequently encountered drugs in forensic toxicology. The chromatographic separation of target analytes was performed on a LiChroCART-LiChrospher®100 RP-18e (5 µm, 250 × 4 mm) analytical column, operated at room temperature. Ternary gradient elution was applied with a mobile phase that consisted of acetonitrile, methanol and ammonium acetate (0.05 M), which was delivered at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Diode array detection was performed with monitoring at 240 nm. FPSE was performed using cellulose fabric extraction media coated with sol-gel poly(ethylene glycol) (sol-gel PEG). Absolute recovery values in the equilibrium state for the examined benzodiazepines were found to be 27% for bromazepam, 63% for lorazepam, 42 % for diazepam and 39% for alprazolam. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26378746

  16. Independent Determinants of Maternal and Fetal Outcomes in a Sample of Pregnant Outpatients With Normal Blood Pressure, Chronic Hypertension, Gestational Hypertension, and Preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cicero, Arrigo F G; Degli Esposti, Daniela; Immordino, Vincenzo; Morbini, Martino; Baronio, Cristina; Rosticci, Martina; Borghi, Claudio

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the main independent prognostic factors of negative maternal and fetal outcomes in a relatively large sample of pregnant outpatients (N=906) who were normotensive or affected by chronic hypertension, gestational hypertension, or preeclampsia. Among the studied parameters, the ones significantly associated with negative maternal outcomes were a diagnosis of preeclampsia (vs other forms of hypertension or normotension) and higher serum uric acid level, while antihypertensive treatment, number of previous deliveries, and blood pressure (BP) control at deliveries seemed to be protective. Regarding negative fetal outcomes, the parameters significantly associated with a negative maternal outcome were a diagnosis of preeclampsia (vs other forms of hypertension or normotension) and mother pre-pregnancy body mass index, while antihypertensive treatment and BP control at delivery seemed to be protective. Specific patient characteristics should help to predict the risk of negative maternal and fetal outcomes. PMID:26173048

  17. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purpose: The radioligand 11C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of 11C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [11C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent phase of the ID

  18. Image-derived and arterial blood sampled input functions for quantitative PET imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feng, Tao; Tsui, Benjamin M. W.; Li, Xin; Vranesic, Melin; Lodge, Martin A.; Gulaldi, Nedim C. M.; Szabo, Zsolt, E-mail: zszabo@jhmi.edu [Russell H. Morgan Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, The Johns Hopkins School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland 21287 (United States)

    2015-11-15

    Purpose: The radioligand {sup 11}C-KR31173 has been introduced for positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of the angiotensin II subtype 1 receptor in the kidney in vivo. To study the biokinetics of {sup 11}C-KR31173 with a compartmental model, the input function is needed. Collection and analysis of arterial blood samples are the established approach to obtain the input function but they are not feasible in patients with renal diseases. The goal of this study was to develop a quantitative technique that can provide an accurate image-derived input function (ID-IF) to replace the conventional invasive arterial sampling and test the method in pigs with the goal of translation into human studies. Methods: The experimental animals were injected with [{sup 11}C]KR31173 and scanned up to 90 min with dynamic PET. Arterial blood samples were collected for the artery derived input function (AD-IF) and used as a gold standard for ID-IF. Before PET, magnetic resonance angiography of the kidneys was obtained to provide the anatomical information required for derivation of the recovery coefficients in the abdominal aorta, a requirement for partial volume correction of the ID-IF. Different image reconstruction methods, filtered back projection (FBP) and ordered subset expectation maximization (OS-EM), were investigated for the best trade-off between bias and variance of the ID-IF. The effects of kidney uptakes on the quantitative accuracy of ID-IF were also studied. Biological variables such as red blood cell binding and radioligand metabolism were also taken into consideration. A single blood sample was used for calibration in the later phase of the input function. Results: In the first 2 min after injection, the OS-EM based ID-IF was found to be biased, and the bias was found to be induced by the kidney uptake. No such bias was found with the FBP based image reconstruction method. However, the OS-EM based image reconstruction was found to reduce variance in the subsequent

  19. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  20. Analytical performance of a multiplex Real-Time PCR assay using TaqMan probes for quantification of Trypanosoma cruzi satellite DNA in blood samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomas Duffy

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The analytical validation of sensitive, accurate and standardized Real-Time PCR methods for Trypanosoma cruzi quantification is crucial to provide a reliable laboratory tool for diagnosis of recent infections as well as for monitoring treatment efficacy. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We have standardized and validated a multiplex Real-Time quantitative PCR assay (qPCR based on TaqMan technology, aiming to quantify T. cruzi satellite DNA as well as an internal amplification control (IAC in a single-tube reaction. IAC amplification allows rule out false negative PCR results due to inhibitory substances or loss of DNA during sample processing. The assay has a limit of detection (LOD of 0.70 parasite equivalents/mL and a limit of quantification (LOQ of 1.53 parasite equivalents/mL starting from non-boiled Guanidine EDTA blood spiked with T. cruzi CL-Brener stock. The method was evaluated with blood samples collected from Chagas disease patients experiencing different clinical stages and epidemiological scenarios: 1- Sixteen Venezuelan patients from an outbreak of oral transmission, 2- Sixty three Bolivian patients suffering chronic Chagas disease, 3- Thirty four Argentinean cases with chronic Chagas disease, 4- Twenty seven newborns to seropositive mothers, 5- A seronegative receptor who got infected after transplantation with a cadaveric kidney explanted from an infected subject. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The performing parameters of this assay encourage its application to early assessment of T. cruzi infection in cases in which serological methods are not informative, such as recent infections by oral contamination or congenital transmission or after transplantation with organs from seropositive donors, as well as for monitoring Chagas disease patients under etiological treatment.

  1. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Edition Abstracts Collections Submit to Blood View all Annual Meeting Abstracts 2016 Call for Abstracts 2016 Abstract Review ... Abstracts Registration Housing Schedule and Program 58th ASH ® Annual Meeting & Exposition December 3-6, 2016, San Diego, CA ...

  2. Preservation in 70% ethanol solution does not affect δ13C and δ15N values of reindeer blood samples – relevance for stable isotope studies of diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duncan J. Halley

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available We compared duplicate samples of whole blood samples from 18 reindeer that were preserved either by immediate freezing or by immersion in 70 % ethanol. All samples were dried at 60 °C, powdered, treated with 1:1 chloroform: methanol, and dried again before isotope analysis. There were no differences in the values of δ13C and δ15N between the methods of preservation. Isotopic differences were absolutely small (δ13C = 0.1±0.10/00; δ15N=0.2±0.20/00, random in direction, and within the limits of analytical precision for the mass spectrometer. Preservation in ethanol thus appears to be an effective and efficient method for preserving blood samples for stable isotope analysis under field conditions. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Konservering av blodprøver fra rein i 70% etanolløsning påvirker ikke verdiene av δ13C and δ15N–verdiene og er en fullgod metode for analyse av stabile isotoperVi sammenlignet to og to prøver av blodprøver fra 18 reinsdyr. Prøvene var enten konservert ved umiddelbar frysing eller ved bruk av 70% etanol. Alle prøver ble tørket ved 60 °C, pulverisert og behandlet med kloroform:metanol i forholdet 1:1. Til slutt ble de tørket på nytt før gjennomføring av isotopanalysen. Vi fant ingen forskjell i verdiene av δ13C and δ15N mellom de to konserveringsmetodene. I absolutte verdier var isotopforskjellene små (δ13C = 0.1±0.1 0/00; δ15N=0.2±0.2 0/00. Forskjellene var tilfeldige og innenfor grensene for massespektrometerets presisjon. Bruk av etanol framstår som en effektiv og fullgod metode til konservering av blodprøver for analyse av stabile isotoper under feltforhold.

  3. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  4. BUN - blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  5. Planning and scheduling - A schedule's performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planning and scheduling is a process whose time has come to PSI Energy. With an awareness of the challenges ahead, individuals must look for ways to enhance the corporate competitiveness. Working toward this goal means that each individual has to dedicate themselves to this more competitive corporate environment. Being competitive may be defined as the ability of each employee to add value to the corporation's economic well being. The timely and successful implementation of projects greatly enhances competitiveness. Those projects that do not do well often suffer from lack of proper execution - not for lack of talent or strategic vision. Projects are consumers of resources such as cash and people. They produce a return when completed and will generate a better return when properly completed utilizing proven project management techniques. Completing projects on time, within budget and meeting customer expectations is the way a corporation builds it's future. This paper offers suggestions on implementing planning and scheduling and provides a review of results in the form of management reports

  6. Automated Scheduling Via Artificial Intelligence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biefeld, Eric W.; Cooper, Lynne P.

    1991-01-01

    Artificial-intelligence software that automates scheduling developed in Operations Mission Planner (OMP) research project. Software used in both generation of new schedules and modification of existing schedules in view of changes in tasks and/or available resources. Approach based on iterative refinement. Although project focused upon scheduling of operations of scientific instruments and other equipment aboard spacecraft, also applicable to such terrestrial problems as scheduling production in factory.

  7. Static Scheduling Strategies for Heterogeneous Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Olivier Beaumont; Arnaud Legrand; Yves Robert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we consider static scheduling techniques for heterogeneous systems, such as clusters and grids. We successively deal with minimum makespan scheduling, divisible load scheduling and steady-state scheduling. Finally, we discuss the limitations of static scheduling approaches.

  8. Rostering and Task Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohn, Anders Høeg

    rostering process is non-trivial and especially when service is required around the clock, rostering may involve considerable effort from a designated planner. Therefore, in order to minimize costs and overstaffing, to maximize the utilization of available staff, and to ensure a high level of satisfaction...... among the employees, sophisticated scheduling methods are required. When approaching the day of operation, the detail level of the planning becomes finer. With a given allocation of shifts to employees, the focus is turned to tasks scheduling within those shifts. The objective is to assign as much work...... as possible to the available staff, while respecting various requirements and rules and while including possible transportation time between tasks. This thesis presents a number of industrial applications in rostering and task scheduling. The applications exist within various contexts in health care...

  9. Scheduling with genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fennel, Theron R.; Underbrink, A. J., Jr.; Williams, George P. W., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    In many domains, scheduling a sequence of jobs is an important function contributing to the overall efficiency of the operation. At Boeing, we develop schedules for many different domains, including assembly of military and commercial aircraft, weapons systems, and space vehicles. Boeing is under contract to develop scheduling systems for the Space Station Payload Planning System (PPS) and Payload Operations and Integration Center (POIC). These applications require that we respect certain sequencing restrictions among the jobs to be scheduled while at the same time assigning resources to the jobs. We call this general problem scheduling and resource allocation. Genetic algorithms (GA's) offer a search method that uses a population of solutions and benefits from intrinsic parallelism to search the problem space rapidly, producing near-optimal solutions. Good intermediate solutions are probabalistically recombined to produce better offspring (based upon some application specific measure of solution fitness, e.g., minimum flowtime, or schedule completeness). Also, at any point in the search, any intermediate solution can be accepted as a final solution; allowing the search to proceed longer usually produces a better solution while terminating the search at virtually any time may yield an acceptable solution. Many processes are constrained by restrictions of sequence among the individual jobs. For a specific job, other jobs must be completed beforehand. While there are obviously many other constraints on processes, it is these on which we focussed for this research: how to allocate crews to jobs while satisfying job precedence requirements and personnel, and tooling and fixture (or, more generally, resource) requirements.

  10. Detection of Alpha-Methylacyl-CoA Racemase (AMACR, a Biomarker of Prostate Cancer, in Patient Blood Samples Using a Nanoparticle Electrochemical Biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung Chiun Liu

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Although still commonly used in clinical practice to screen and diagnose prostate cancer, there are numerous weaknesses of prostate-specific antigen (PSA testing, including lack of specificity and the inability to distinguish between aggressive and indolent cancers. A promising prostate cancer biomarker, alpha-methylacyl-CoA racemase (AMACR, has been previously demonstrated to distinguish cancer from healthy and benign prostate cells with high sensitivity and specificity. However, no accurate clinically useful assay has been developed. This study reports the development of a single use, disposable biosensor for AMACR detection. Human blood samples were used to verify its validity, reproducibility and reliability. Plasma samples from 9 healthy males, 10 patients with high grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN, and 5 prostate cancer patients were measured for AMACR levels. The average AMACR levels in the prostate cancer patients was 10 fold higher (mean(SD = 0.077 (0.10 than either the controls (mean(SD = 0.005 (0.001 or HGPIN patients (mean(SD = 0.004 (0.0005. At a cutoff of between 0.08 and 0.9, we are able to achieve 100% accuracy in separating prostate cancer patients from controls. Our results provide strong evidence demonstrating that this biosensor can perform as a reliable assay for prostate cancer detection and diagnosis.

  11. Customer Appeasement Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Nikseresht, Mohammad R; Somayaji, Anil; Maheshwari, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the current process scheduling algorithms which are used in modern operating systems (OS) have their roots in the classical scheduling paradigms which were developed during the 1970's. But modern computers have different types of software loads and user demands. We think it is important to run what the user wants at the current moment. A user can be a human, sitting in front of a desktop machine, or it can be another machine sending a request to a server through a network connec...

  12. Pharmacodynamic model of interleukin-21 effects on red blood cells in cynomolgus monkeys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, Rune Viig; Karlsson, M.; Ingwersen, S.H.

    2007-01-01

    of treatment. The present analysis investigates the observed pharmacodynamics effects on red blood cells following various treatment schedules of human IL-21 administrated to cynomolgus monkeys. These effects are described by a novel non-linear mixed-effects model that enabled separation of drug effects...... and sampling effects, the latter believed to be due partly to blood loss and partly to stress induced haemolysis in connection with blood sampling. Two different studies with a total of 9 different treatment groups of cynomolgus monkeys were used for model development. In conclusion, the model describes the IL......-21 induced drop in red blood cells to be (1) caused by removal rather than suppression of production, consistent with increased reticulocyte concentration, and (2) considerably delayed compared to dosing, i.e. not related to the drop in red blood cells observed immediately post dose. It is believed...

  13. Genetics Blood Card Use

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  14. Clinical application and experience of continuous improvement of heel blood sampling methods%持续性改进足跟采血方法在临床中的应用与体会

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙丽娟; 王志敏; 胡国丽

    2015-01-01

    Objective:to discuss the sustainability of improved heel blood sampling methods in clinical applications. Methods:Comprehensive introduction to improve neonatal heel blood after collection. Blood sampling timing, separately from the posture in neonates, needle position, selection of blood collection needles, blood collection, blood smear drying room environment, wound treatment, and many other improvements, summarized comparison. Results:using the improved heel blood collection, blood and wound treatment, improves blood quality and patient satisfaction. Conclusions:continuity improved heel blood collection meth-ods to improve the quality and efficiency of work, worth.%目的:讨论持续性改进足跟采血方法在临床中的应用。全面介绍改进后新生儿足跟血采集。方法:分别从采血时机、新生儿体位、针刺部位、采血针选择、采血室环境、血片的晾晒、创口的处理等多方面进行改进、总结对比。结果:运用改进后足跟血采集方法、血片及创口的处理,提高了血片质量和患者满意度。结论:持续性改进足跟采血方法提高了工作质量和效率,值得推广应用。

  15. The Effectiveness of Performance Incentives under Continuous and Variable Ration Schedules of Reinforcement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yukl, Gary A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Results of this study indicate that sample group of unskilled laborers were more productive working under a schedule of continuous reinforcement than under a varied schedule, despite higher average earnings during the latter program. (RW)

  16. Personnel Scheduling in Laboratories

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Franses, Philip; Post, Gerhard; Burke, Edmund; De Causmaecker, Patrick

    2003-01-01

    We describe an assignment problem particular to the personnel scheduling of organisations such as laboratories. Here we have to assign tasks to employees. We focus on the situation where this assignment problem reduces to constructing maximal matchings in a set of interrelated bipartite graphs. We d

  17. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio; Hernández, Jose; Holzman, Burt; Majewski, Krista; McCrea, Alison; Cms Collaboration

    2014-06-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue "Moore's Law" style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  18. Routing and scheduling problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander

    to a destination on a predefined network, the routing and scheduling of vessels in a liner shipping network given a demand forecast to be covered, the routing of manpower and vehicles transporting disabled passengers in an airport and the vehicle routing with time windows where one version studied includes edge...

  19. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perez-Calero Yzquierdo, Antonio [Madrid, CIEMAT; Hernandez, Jose [Madrid, CIEMAT; Holzman, Burt [Fermilab; Majewski, Krista [Fermilab; McCrea, Alison [UC, San Diego

    2014-01-01

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  20. Schedulers are no Prophets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmanns, Arnd; Hermanns, Holger; Krčál, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Several formalisms for concurrent computation have been proposed in recent years that incorporate means to express stochastic continuous-time dynamics and non-determinism. In this setting, some obscure phenomena are known to exist, related to the fact that schedulers may yield too pessimistic verifi

  1. CMS multicore scheduling strategy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the next years, processor architectures based on much larger numbers of cores will be most likely the model to continue 'Moore's Law' style throughput gains. This not only results in many more jobs in parallel running the LHC Run 1 era monolithic applications, but also the memory requirements of these processes push the workernode architectures to the limit. One solution is parallelizing the application itself, through forking and memory sharing or through threaded frameworks. CMS is following all of these approaches and has a comprehensive strategy to schedule multicore jobs on the GRID based on the glideinWMS submission infrastructure. The main component of the scheduling strategy, a pilot-based model with dynamic partitioning of resources that allows the transition to multicore or whole-node scheduling without disallowing the use of single-core jobs, is described. This contribution also presents the experiences made with the proposed multicore scheduling schema and gives an outlook of further developments working towards the restart of the LHC in 2015.

  2. "Creative" Work Schedules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blai, Boris

    Many creative or flexible work scheduling options are becoming available to the many working parents, students, handicapped persons, elderly individuals, and others who are either unable or unwilling to work a customary 40-hour work week. These options may be broadly categorized as either restructured or reduced work time options. The three main…

  3. 同卵双生子外周血DNA甲基化谱的差异%Differences of DNA Methylation Profiles in Monozygotic Twins' Blood Samples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵书民; 张素华; 陈金中; 李士林; 李成涛

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the potential usefulness of DNA methylation in individual discrimination of monozygotic twins by investigating the differences of DNA methylation profiles in monozygotic twins' blood samples. Methods Blood samples from 22 pairs of monozygotic twins were obtained with informed consent. Genomic DNA extracts were bisulfite treated followed by detection with Infinium (R) HumanMethyla-tion27 BeadChip Assays(Hlumina, USA). Epigenetic distances between each pair of monozygotic twins and each pair of unrelated individuals of same gender were calculated with Euclidean distance algorithms. Distribution of epigenetic distance in monozygotic twin group was statistically compared with that in unrelated individuals. Results Difference of epigenetic distance between male and female pairs was not statistically significant in unrelated individual group or in monozygotic twin group(P=0.0695 and 0.4825, respectively). Epigenetic distance of monozygotic twins was significantly lower than that of unrelated individual pair of same gender (Median: 6.02 vs 7.20, P=0.0002). However, all the epigenetic distance in monozygotic twin group or in unrelated individuals were significantly higher than 4.00(P<0.000 1). Conclusion DNA methylation profiles of monozygotic twin's blood samples were significandy different with each other, which was similar to that in unrelated individuals of same gender. These results indicated that DNA methylation was a useful biomarker in individual discrimination of monozygotic twins.%目的 通过比较不同个体外周血DNA甲基化谱的差异,评估DNA甲基化在同卵双生子个体甄别中的应用价值.方法 在知情同意基础上获得22对同卵双生子外周血样.抽提基因组DNA后进行重亚硫酸盐转化,采用Illumina公司的人27k甲基化微珠芯片检测基因组27578个CpG位点的甲基化程度(β值).依据常染色体CpG住点的β值,采用欧氏距离计算方法计算同卵双生子间以及同性别的

  4. 75 FR 42831 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-22

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Form 1065, Schedule C, Schedule D, Schedule K-1, Schedule L, Schedule M-1, Schedule M-2, and Schedule M-3 AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service...)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Form 1065 (U.S. Return of Partnership Income),...

  5. Schedulability analysis for linear transactions under fixed priority hybrid scheduling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-gang GAO; Zhao-hui WU

    2008-01-01

    In hard real-time systems, schedulability analysis is not only one of the important means of guaranteeing the timelines of embedded software but also one of the fundamental theories of applying other new techniques, such as energy savings and fault tolerance. However, most of the existing schedulability analysis methods assume that schedulers use preemptive scheduling or non-preemptive scheduling. In this paper, we present a schedulability analysis method, i.e., the worst-case hybrid scheduling (WCHS) algorithm, which considers the influence of release jitters of transactions and extends schedulability analysis theory to timing analysis of linear transactions under fixed priority hybrid scheduling. To the best of our knowledge, this method is the first one on timing analysis of linear transactions under hybrid scheduling. An example is employed to demonstrate the use of this method. Experiments show that this method has lower computational complexity while keeping correctness, and that hybrid scheduling has little influence on the average worst-case response time (WCRT), but a negative impact on the schedulability of systems.

  6. Routine environmental monitoring schedule, calendar year 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document provides the Environmental Restorations Contractor (ERC) and the Project Hanford Management Contractor (PHMC) a schedule in accordance with the HNF-PRO-454, Inactive Waste Sites' HNF-PRO-455, Solid Waste 3 Management4 and BHI-EE-02, Environmental Requirements, of monitoring and sampling, routines for the near-facility environmental monitoring program during calendar year (CY) 1998. Every attempt will be made to consistently follow this schedule; any deviation from this schedule will be documented by an internal memorandum (DSI) explaining the reason for the deviation. The DSI will be issued by the scheduled performing organization and directed to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. The survey frequencies for particular sites are determined by the technical judgment of Environmental Monitoring and investigations and may depend on the site history, radiological status, use, and general conditions. Additional surveys may be requested at irregular frequencies if conditions warrant. All radioactive wastes sites are scheduled to be surveyed at least annually. Any newly discovered wastes sites not documented by this schedule will be included in the revised schedule for CY 1999. The outside perimeter road surveys of 200 East and West Area and the rail survey from the 300 Area to Columbia Center will be performed in the year 2000 per agreement with Department of Energy, Richland Field Office. This schedule does not discuss staffing needs, nor does it list the monitoring equipment to be used in completing specific routines. Personnel performing routines to meet this schedule shall communicate any need for 1332 assistance in completing these routines to Radiological Control management and Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. After each routine survey is completed, a copy of the survey record, maps, and data sheets will be forwarded to Environmental Monitoring and Investigations. These routine surveys will not be considered complete until this

  7. Molecular detection of Treponema pallidum sp. pallidum in blood samples of VDRL-seroreactive women with lethal pregnancy outcomes: a retrospective observational study in northern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charliana Aragão Damasceno Casal

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Although control measures of maternal and congenital syphilis are available in Brazil, difficulties exist within the healthcare network in providing a laboratory diagnosis of the infection during the prenatal period. The objective of this study was to confirm the presence of Treponema pallidum by PCR in women with positive VDRL serology and lethal pregnancy outcomes, i.e., abortion, stillbirth and neonatal death. METHODS: A retrospective study was conducted on VDRLseroreactive women with lethal pregnancy outcomes admitted to the Fundação Santa Casa de Misericórdia do Pará (FSCM-PA between January and July 2004. Serum samples and DNA from whole blood were obtained at the time of screening by the VDRL test. These samples were analyzed by IgG ELISA, IgM FTA-Abs and simple PCR (polA. RESULTS: During the study period, 0.7% (36/4,912 of women with lethal pregnancy outcomes presented a positive VDRL test. The polAgene was amplified in 72.7% (24/33 of these women, with 55.6% (20/36 and 94.4% (34/36 presenting IgM and IgG antibodies against T. pallidum, respectively. Comparison of these results showed a significant difference, with agreement between the PCR and IgM FTA-Abs results, suggesting that maternal syphilis was an active infection. No basic cause of death of the conceptus was reported in 97.2% (35/36 of cases. Among women who were submitted to the VDRL test during the prenatal period, only four of the nine seroreactive patients underwent treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The high frequency of syphilis in the group studied indicates the fragility of the service of infection diagnosis, treatment and monitoring, compromising epidemiological control.

  8. The influence of tube voltage and phantom size in computed tomography on the dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to investigate the dose response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes after CT scans at tube voltages of 80 and 140 kV. Blood samples from a healthy donor placed in tissue equivalent abdomen phantoms of standard, pediatric and adipose sizes were exposed at dose levels up to 0.1 Gy using a 64-slice CT scanner. It was found that both the tube voltage and the phantom size significantly influenced the CT scan-induced linear dose-response relationship of dicentrics in human lymphocytes. Using the same phantom (standard abdomen), 80 kV CT x-rays were biologically more effective than 140 kV CT x-rays. However, it could also be determined that the applied phantom size had much more influence on the biological effectiveness. Obviously, the increasing slopes of the CT scan-induced dose response relationships of dicentrics in human lymphocytes obtained in a pediatric, a standard and an adipose abdomen have been induced by scattering effects of photons, which strongly increase with increasing phantom size.

  9. Oral pathology follow-up by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy on tissue and blood serum samples: an application of wavelet and multivariate data analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delfino, I.; Camerlingo, C.; Zenone, F.; Perna, G.; Capozzi, V.; Cirillo, N.; Gaeta, G. M.; De Mol, E.; Lepore, M.

    2009-02-01

    Pemphigus vulgaris (PV) is a potentially fatal autoimmune disease that cause blistering of the skin and oral cavity. It is characterized by disruption of cell-cell adhesion within the suprabasal layers of epithelium, a phenomenon termed acantholysis Patients with PV develop IgG autoantibodies against normal constituents of the intercellular substance of keratinocytes. The mechanisms by which such autoantibodies induce blisters are not clearly understood. The qualitative analysis of such effects provides important clues in the search for a specific diagnosis, and the quantitative analysis of biochemical abnormalities is important in measuring the extent of the disease process, designing therapy and evaluating the efficacy of treatment. Improved diagnostic techniques could permit the recognition of more subtle forms of disease and reveal incipient lesions clinically unapparent, so that progression of potentially severe forms could be reversed with appropriate treatment. In this paper, we report the results of our micro-Raman spectroscopy study on tissue and blood serum samples from ill, recovered and under therapy PV patients. The complexity of the differences among their characteristic Raman spectra has required a specific strategy to obtain reliable information on the illness stage of the patients For this purpose, wavelet techniques and advanced multivariate analysis methods have been developed and applied to the experimental Raman spectra. Promising results have been obtained.

  10. Rapid detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, B. pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples by high resolution melting real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanchomnang, Tongjit; Intapan, Pewpan M; Tantrawatpan, Chairat; Lulitanond, Viraphong; Chungpivat, Sudchit; Taweethavonsawat, Piyanan; Kaewkong, Worasak; Sanpool, Oranuch; Janwan, Penchom; Choochote, Wej; Maleewong, Wanchai

    2013-12-01

    A simple, rapid, and high-throughput method for detection and identification of Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, and Dirofilaria immitis in mosquito vectors and blood samples was developed using a real-time PCR combined with high-resolution melting (HRM) analysis. Amplicons of the 4 filarial species were generated from 5S rRNA and spliced leader sequences by the real-time PCR and their melting temperatures were determined by the HRM method. Melting of amplicons from W. bancrofti, B. malayi, D. immitis, and B. pahangi peaked at 81.5±0.2℃, 79.0±0.3℃, 76.8±0.1℃, and 79.9±0.1℃, respectively. This assay is relatively cheap since it does not require synthesis of hybridization probes. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100%. It is a rapid and technically simple approach, and an important tool for population surveys as well as molecular xenomonitoring of parasites in vectors. PMID:24516268

  11. Highly sensitive tITP-CZE determination of l-histidine and creatinine in human blood plasma using field-amplified sample injection with mobility-boost effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hattori, Takanari; Fukushi, Keiichi

    2016-01-01

    2D computer simulation revealed that amino acids and weak electrolytes were cationized because of the migration of counter-ion from a BGE zone to a sample zone, which encouraged electrokinetic injection (EKI) of these analytes (by the mobility-boost (MB) effect). To investigate the effects of kinds and concentrations of counter-ions on the MB effect and the analyte amount injected into the capillary, experiments, and 1D computer simulations were performed. When acetate was used as the counter-ion, the LODs (S/N = 3) of l-histidine and creatinine, respectively, reached 0.10 and 0.25 nM because of the concentration effect by transient ITP (tITP). The concentrations of l-histidine and creatinine in human blood plasma obtained using the proposed method were agreed with those obtained using the conventional methods. The proposed method can be applied to the analysis of amino acids and weak bases that have similar pI and pKa to l-histidine and creatinine. PMID:26454141

  12. A Real-Time PCR Assay Based on 5.8S rRNA Gene (5.8S rDNA) for Rapid Detection of Candida from Whole Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Yang, Jing-Xian; Liang, Guo-Wei

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of Candida in bloodstream infections (BSIs) has increased. To date, the identification of Candida in BSIs still mainly relies on blood culture and serological tests, but they have various limitations. Therefore, a real-time PCR assay for the detection of Candida from whole blood is presented. The unique primers/probe system was designed on 5.8S rRNA gene (5.8S rDNA) of Candida genus. The analytical sensitivity was determined by numbers of positive PCRs in 12 repetitions. At the concentration of 10(1) CFU/ml blood, positive PCR rates of 100 % were obtained for C. albicans, C. parapsilosis, C. tropicalis, and C. krusei. The detection rate for C. glabrata was 75 % at 10(1) CFU/ml blood. The reaction specificity was 100 % when evaluating the assay using DNA samples from clinical isolates and human blood. The maximum CVs of intra-assay and inter-assay for the detection limit were 1.22 and 2.22 %, respectively. To assess the clinical applicability, 328 blood samples from 82 patients were prospectively tested and real-time PCR results were compared with results from blood culture. Diagnostic sensitivity of the PCR was 100 % using as gold standard blood culture, and specificity was 98.4 %. Our data suggest that the developed assay can be used in clinical laboratories as an accurate and rapid screening test for the Candida from whole blood. Although further evaluation is warranted, our assay holds promise for earlier diagnosis of candidemia. PMID:26687075

  13. CPU Scheduling Algorithms: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Imran Qureshi

    2014-01-01

    Scheduling is the fundamental function of operating system. For scheduling, resources of system shared among processes which are going to be executed. CPU scheduling is a technique by which processes are allocating to the CPU for a specific time quantum. In this paper the review of different scheduling algorithms are perform with different parameters, such as running time, burst time and waiting times etc. The reviews algorithms are first come first serve, Shortest Job First, Round Robin, ...

  14. Immunization Schedules for Infants and Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Immunization Schedules Recommended Child and Adolescent Immunization Schedules History of the Vaccine Schedule Children's Hospital of Philadelphia's Vaccine Education Center Get Email Updates To receive email updates ...

  15. Observation Scheduling System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chien, Steve A.; Tran, Daniel Q.; Rabideau, Gregg R.; Schaffer, Steven R.

    2011-01-01

    Software has been designed to schedule remote sensing with the Earth Observing One spacecraft. The software attempts to satisfy as many observation requests as possible considering each against spacecraft operation constraints such as data volume, thermal, pointing maneuvers, and others. More complex constraints such as temperature are approximated to enable efficient reasoning while keeping the spacecraft within safe limits. Other constraints are checked using an external software library. For example, an attitude control library is used to determine the feasibility of maneuvering between pairs of observations. This innovation can deal with a wide range of spacecraft constraints and solve large scale scheduling problems like hundreds of observations and thousands of combinations of observation sequences.

  16. RESCON: Educational project scheduling software

    OpenAIRE

    Deblaere, Filip; Demeulemeester, Erik; Herroelen, Willy

    2011-01-01

    In this article we discuss a freely downloadable educational software tool for illustrating project scheduling and project management concepts. The tool features exact and heuristic scheduling procedures and visualizes project networks, project schedules, resource profiles, activity slacks, and project duration distributions.

  17. Continuous Media Tasks Scheduling Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myungryun Yoo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the authors propose modified proportional share scheduling algorithm considering the characteristics of continuous media such as its continuity and time dependency. Proposed scheduling algorithm shows graceful degradation of performance in overloaded situation and decreases the number of context switching. Proposed scheduling algorithm is evaluated using several numerical tests under various conditions, especially overloaded situation.

  18. Flexible Scheduling: Making the Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creighton, Peggy Milam

    2008-01-01

    Citing literature that supports the benefits of flexible scheduling on student achievement, the author exhorts readers to campaign for flexible scheduling in their library media centers. She suggests tips drawn from the work of Graziano (2002), McGregor (2006) and Stripling (1997) for making a smooth transition from fixed to flexible scheduling:…

  19. Surprise Benefits of Arena Scheduling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surloff, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    One of the most challenging tasks a principal must accomplish every year is the construction of the master schedule. Free from the magnetic scheduling boards and wall charts of yesteryear, principals now have technological tools--such as programs that offer schools solutions for their scheduling needs--that can save time and enable them to work…

  20. Scheduling a C-Section

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Pregnancy > Labor & birth > Scheduling a c-section Scheduling a c-section E-mail to a friend Please fill in all fields. Please enter ... and develop before she’s born. Why can scheduling a c-section for non-medical reasons be a ...

  1. RT Level Test Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    J. Blatný; Z. Kotásek; J. Hlavička

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes a new model of exploiting parallelism in testing of VLSI circuits. A circuit at the register transfer level is denoted as an RTL circuit. The model utilizes the concept of TACG (Test Application Conflict Graph). For the testing process the resource utilization model is defined and used for the TACG construction.  Different conflicts that must be taken into account during an RTL circuit test scheduling are presented. The problem of concurrent test application is transf...

  2. University employees work schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Basagoiti Alcázar, Javier

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this project is to create a website which is useful both employees and students of a university, so employees can add information, if they log in with username and password access, and students can view this information . Employees may modify and display information such as title, room, or their faculty (from a list defined by the administrator), and most importantly, their schedule, whether class, tutoring, free time, or any of tasks that the administrator define. There will be a ...

  3. Scheduled denoising autoencoders

    OpenAIRE

    Geras, Krzysztof J.; Sutton, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We present a representation learning method that learns features at multiple different levels of scale. Working within the unsupervised framework of denoising autoencoders, we observe that when the input is heavily corrupted during training, the network tends to learn coarse-grained features, whereas when the input is only slightly corrupted, the network tends to learn fine-grained features. This motivates the scheduled denoising autoencoder, which starts with a high level of noise that lower...

  4. Scheduled Denoising Autoencoders

    OpenAIRE

    Geras, Krzysztof; Sutton, Charles

    2015-01-01

    We present a representation learning method that learns features at multiple different levels of scale. Working within the unsupervised framework of denoising autoencoders, we observe that when the input is heavily corrupted during training, the network tends to learn coarse-grained features, whereas when the input is only slightly corrupted, the network tends to learn fine-grained features. This motivates the scheduled denoising autoencoder, which starts with a high level of noise that lower...

  5. 08071 Abstracts Collection -- Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Jane W. S. Liu; Rolf H. Möhring; Pruhs, Kirk

    2008-01-01

    From 10.02. to 15.02., the Dagstuhl Seminar 08071 ``Scheduling'' was held in the International Conference and Research Center (IBFI), Schloss Dagstuhl. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in gen...

  6. 10071 Abstracts Collection -- Scheduling

    OpenAIRE

    Albers, Susanne; Baruah, Sanjoy K; Rolf H. Möhring; Pruhs, Kirk

    2010-01-01

    From 14.02. to 19.02.2010, the Dagstuhl Seminar 10071 ``Scheduling '' was held in Schloss Dagstuhl-Leibniz Center for Informatics. During the seminar, several participants presented their current research, and ongoing work and open problems were discussed. Abstracts of the presentations given during the seminar as well as abstracts of seminar results and ideas are put together in this paper. The first section describes the seminar topics and goals in general. Links to ext...

  7. Customer Appeasement Scheduling

    CERN Document Server

    Nikseresht, Mohammad R; Maheshwari, Anil

    2010-01-01

    Almost all of the current process scheduling algorithms which are used in modern operating systems (OS) have their roots in the classical scheduling paradigms which were developed during the 1970's. But modern computers have different types of software loads and user demands. We think it is important to run what the user wants at the current moment. A user can be a human, sitting in front of a desktop machine, or it can be another machine sending a request to a server through a network connection. We think that OS should become intelligent to distinguish between different processes and allocate resources, including CPU, to those processes which need them most. In this work, as a first step to make the OS aware of the current state of the system, we consider process dependencies and interprocess communications. We are developing a model, which considers the need to satisfy interactive users and other possible remote users or customers, by making scheduling decisions based on process dependencies and interproce...

  8. Determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in blood samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction collected from cattle, sheep and goats in herds located in provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faham Khamesipour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen diamin tetra asetic acid were collected randomly from 100 cattle, 80 sheep and 70 goats located on 6 herds in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Esfahan provinces, Iran. After DNA extraction and setting of mPCR for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. mPCR products were screened. The DNA of these microorganisms was detected by multiplex PCR from 31 and 21 out of 100 cattle, respectively. Four of 70 goat’s blood samples from goat breeding farms were positive for Leptospira spp. and 11 were positive for Brucella spp. Out of 80 sheep blood samples 23 were positive for Brucella spp. and 14 for Leptospira spp. The results of the present study show ruminant as an important reservoir for transmission of these zoonotic diseases to humans in Iran. mPCR has the ability to concurrently detect both Brucella and Leptospira species from blood samples of ruminants. The convenience and the possibility of detection of both bacteria at a time, strongly support the use of this mPCR for routine diagnostics.

  9. Linking ciguatera poisoning to spatial ecology of fish: a novel approach to examining the distribution of biotoxin levels in the great barracuda by combining non-lethal blood sampling and biotelemetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Toole, Amanda C; Dechraoui Bottein, Marie-Yasmine; Danylchuk, Andy J; Ramsdell, John S; Cooke, Steven J

    2012-06-15

    Ciguatera in humans is typically caused by the consumption of reef fish that have accumulated Ciguatoxins (CTXs) in their flesh. Over a six month period, we captured 38 wild adult great barracuda (Sphyraena barracuda), a species commonly associated with ciguatera in The Bahamas. We sampled three tissues (i.e., muscle, liver, and blood) and analysed them for the presence of ciguatoxins using a functional in vitro N2A bioassay. Detectable concentrations of ciguatoxins found in the three tissue types ranged from 2.51 to 211.74pg C-CTX-1 equivalents/g. Blood and liver toxin concentrations were positively correlated (ρ=0.86, P=0.003), indicating that, for the first time, blood sampling provides a non-lethal method of detecting ciguatoxin in wild fish. Non-lethal blood sampling also presents opportunities to couple this approach with biotelemetry and biologging techniques that enable the study of fish distribution and movement. To demonstrate the potential for linking ciguatoxin occurrence with barracuda spatial ecology, we also present a proof-of-concept case study where blood samples were obtained from 20 fish before releasing them with acoustic transmitters and tracking them in the coastal waters using a fixed acoustic telemetry array covering 44km(2). Fish that tested positive for CTX may have smaller home ranges than non-toxic fish (median distance travelled, U=2.21, P=0.03). Results presented from this study may help identify high risk areas and source-sink dynamics of toxins, potentially reducing the incidence and human health risk of ciguatera fish poisoning. Moreover, development of the non-lethal sampling approach and measurement of ciguatera from blood provide future opportunities to understand the mechanistic relationship between toxins and the spatial ecology of a broad range of marine fish species. PMID:22560748

  10. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effective January 1, 1982, NRC will institute records retention and disposal practices in accordance with the approved Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule (CRDS). CRDS is comprised of NRC Schedules (NRCS) 1 to 4 which apply to the agency's program or substantive records and General Records Schedules (GRS) 1 to 22 which apply to housekeeping or facilitative records. The schedules are assembled functionally/organizationally to facilitate their use. Preceding the records descriptions and disposition instructions for both NRCS and GRS, there are brief statements on the organizational units which accumulate the records in each functional area, and other information regarding the schedules' applicability

  11. 一例A3血型样本的分子机制%Study of molecular mechanism for a blood sample with A3 phenotype

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁伟; 杨亮; 梅传亮; 许德义; 邓刚; 贺芸蕾; 刘奕宇; 张哲

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the molecular mechanism for a blood sample with mixed-field hemagglutination upon determination of ABO blood group.Methods Serological techniques were employed to identify the erythrocyte phenotype.The A and B antigens were detected by flow cytometry.The preliminary genotype of ABO gene was assayed with sequence-specific primer-polymerase chain reaction (PCR-SSP).Exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene were amplified with PCR and analyzed by direct sequencing.Haplotypes of the ABO gene were analyzed by cloning sequencing as well.Results The serological reaction pattern has supported an O phenotype when all the tubes were centrifuged for the first time.However, a mixed-field hemagglutination of red blood cells (RBCs) with anti-A antibodies was present after the tube was centrifuged five times later.A antigens were detected on the surface of partial red blood cells of the sample by flow cytometry.PCR-SSP results have shown that the preliminary ABO genotype was A/O.Analysis of the fragments of exons 6 and 7 of the ABO gene has indicated that heterozygosis lied as follows:261G/A, 425T/T, 467C/T, 646A/T, 681A/G, 745C/T, 771C/T, 829A/G, conjecturing the genotype to be A307/O02, which was confirmed by haplotype sequence analysis.Compared with A101 allele, A307 allele has two missense mutations, 467C> T and 745C> T, which have resulted in substitutions Pro156Leu and Arg249Trp in the A glycosyltransferase polypeptide chain.Conclusion A variant allele (A307) has been identified for the first time in mainland China, which is responsible for the formation of A3 phenotype.%目的 研究1例ABO定型时出现混合外观凝集特征个体的分子遗传机制.方法 应用血清学方法和流式细胞术鉴定其ABO红细胞表型,序列特异性引物聚合酶链反应(sequence-specific primerpolymerase chain reaction,PCR-SSP)方法进行ABO基因型的初步检测,对ABO基因第6、7外显子进行聚合酶链反应和DNA序列分析,并进一步通过克隆

  12. Scheduling theory, algorithms, and systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pinedo, Michael L

    2016-01-01

    This new edition of the well-established text Scheduling: Theory, Algorithms, and Systems provides an up-to-date coverage of important theoretical models in the scheduling literature as well as important scheduling problems that appear in the real world. The accompanying website includes supplementary material in the form of slide-shows from industry as well as movies that show actual implementations of scheduling systems. The main structure of the book, as per previous editions, consists of three parts. The first part focuses on deterministic scheduling and the related combinatorial problems. The second part covers probabilistic scheduling models; in this part it is assumed that processing times and other problem data are random and not known in advance. The third part deals with scheduling in practice; it covers heuristics that are popular with practitioners and discusses system design and implementation issues. All three parts of this new edition have been revamped, streamlined, and extended. The reference...

  13. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin HESHMAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on family assets and parents’ job and education using principle component analysis method. SES was considered as “low”, “intermediate” and “high” in the statistical analysis.Results: Overall, 13486 children and adolescents out of 14,880 invited students (response rate 90.6% participated in this study. They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ±3.36 years. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and also mean of all anthropometric measures increased linearly with increasing SES. Inversely, underweight decreased linearly with increasing SES. Association of BP measures with SES was not statistically significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, association of anthropometric measures and BP with SES did not change significantly.Conclusion: We found that obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity was prevalent in high SES group and underweight in low SES group. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence that contrary to developed countries, in developing countries childhood obesity is more prevalent in families with higher SES. Keywords: Anthropometric measures, Blood pressure, Socio-economic status, Children and adolescents, Iran

  14. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry determination of pharmacologically active substances in urine and blood samples by use of a continuous solid-phase extraction system and microwave-assisted derivatization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azzouz, Abdelmonaim; Ballesteros, Evaristo

    2012-04-01

    A sensitive method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to determine 22 pharmacologically active substances (frequently used in the treatment of human and animal's diseases) including analgesics, antibacterials, anti-epileptics, antiseptics, β-blockers, hormones, lipid regulators and non-steroidal anti-inflammatories in blood and urine samples. Samples were subjected to continuous solid-phase extraction in a sorbent column (Oasis HLB), and then the target analytes were eluted with ethyl acetate and derivatized in a household microwave oven at 350 W for 3 min. Finally, these products were determined in a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a DB-5 fused silica capillary column. The analyte detection limits thus obtained ranged from 0.2 to 1.3 ng L⁻¹ for urine samples and 0.8-5.6 ng L⁻¹ for blood samples. Recoveries from both blood and urine ranged from 85 to 102%, and within-day and between-day relative standard deviations were all less than 7.5%. The proposed method offers advantages in reduction of the exposure danger to toxic solvents used in conventional sample pretreatment, simplicity of the extraction processes, rapidity, and sensitivity enhancement. The method was successfully used to quantify pharmacologically active substances in human and animal (lamb, veal and pig) blood and urine. The hormones estrone and 17β-estradiol were detected in virtually all samples, and so were other analytes such as acetylsalicylic acid, ibuprofen, ketoprofen and triclosan in human samples, and florfenicol, pyrimethamine and phenylbutazone in animal samples. PMID:22391330

  15. Airport Ground Staff Scheduling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Tommy

    Modern airports are centers of transportation that service a large number of aircraft and passengers every day. To facilitate this large volume of transportation, airports are subject to many logistical and decision problems that must continuously be solved to make sure each flight and passenger...... ownership. As airports are in competition to attract airline routes, efficient and reliable ground handling operations are imperative for the viability and continued growth of both airports and airlines. The increasing liberalization of the ground handling market prompts ground handling operators to...... planning, to highly detailed scheduling problems arising in the highly dynamic environment of airports....

  16. SCHEDULING PROBLEMS-AN OVERVIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asmuliardi MULUK; Hasan AKPOLAT; Jichao XU

    2003-01-01

    There seems to be a significant gap between the theoretical and the practical aspects of scheduling problems in the job shop environment. Theoretically, scheduling systems are designed on the basis of an optimum approach to the scheduling model. However in the practice, the optimum that is built into the scheduling applications seems to face some challenges when dealing with the dynamic character of a scheduling system, for instance machine breakdown or change of orders. Scheduling systems have become quite complex in the past few years. Competitive business environments and shorter product life cycles are the imminent challenges being faced by many companies these days.These challenges push companies to anticipate a demand driven supply chain in their business environment. A demand-driven supply chain incorporates the customer view into the supply chain processes. As a consequence of this, scheduling as a core process of the demand-driven supply chain must also reflect the customer view. In addition, other approaches to solving scheduling problems, for instance approaches based on human factors, prefer the scheduling system to be more flexible in both design and implementation. After discussion of these factors, the authors propose the integration of a different set of criteria for the development of scheduling systems which not only appears to have a better flexibility but also increased customer-focus.

  17. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedules : 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2006-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  18. A Feedback Macro- Scheduler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SamuelT.Chanson; PromS.Sinha

    1989-01-01

    A multi-class macro-scheduler is described in this paper. The scheduler periodicaily determines the number of jobs from each class that should be activated to minircdze a weighted som of the mean system residence time without satvrating the .systern. The compatation is based on the estimated system workload in the next interval. Thus it is adaptive to workload variation. The service provided to each class (specifically, the mean response time) may be adjusted by changing the weight associated with the job class. The schere is based on. mathematical modelling. The solution is obtained through the use of queuing theory, operational analysis and optimization theory. Exponential smoothing techniqne is employed to reduce the error of estimating the value of the model pararneters. Simulation resuflts show the scheme to be both stable and robust. Performanee iutprovemeat over some of the eristing schemes (the 50%, L=S and the Knee criteria) is significant under some workloads. The overhead involved in its implementation is aoceptable and the errors due to some of the assumptions used in the formalation and solution of the model are discussed.

  19. Effect of alternative temozolomide schedules on glioblastoma O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase activity and survival

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, C G; Palomo, J M; Rahmathulla, G; McGraw, M; Donze, J; L. Liu; Vogelbaum, M A

    2010-01-01

    Background: O 6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) expression in glioblastoma correlates with temozolomide resistance. Dose-intense temozolomide schedules deplete MGMT activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells; however, no published data exist evaluating the effect of temozolomide schedules on intracranial tumour MGMT activity. Methods: Human glioblastoma cells (GBM43) with an unmethylated MGMT promoter were implanted intracranially in immunodeficient rodents. Three weeks later, ...

  20. Program cost and schedule baseline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The overall purpose of cost and schedule baseline management is to ensure that the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Program's cost and schedule plan are controlled in an orderly, efficient, and documented manner. Baseline control of the Program's cost and schedule will result in changes that only take place with OCRWM senior management approval, by way of the change control process. The Program Management System (PMS) Manual describes how the Program Cost and Schedule Baseline (PCSB) is integrated into the OCRWM management system. This PCSB document identifies the components of Program cost and schedule that will be subject to change control by DOE-Headquarters and establishes their baseline values. This document also summarizes the management components of the cost and schedule baseline, including reporting, monitoring, and corrective action. Detailed PCSB reporting, monitoring, and corrective action procedures will be issued as an Office of Program Administration and Resource Management (OPARM) administrative procedure. 9 figs

  1. Behavior disparities towards blood donation in Sikkim, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shenga Namgay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the current research was to determine disparities in blood donation motives among the general mass of Sikkim. Aims: To identify the reasons for people donating and not donating blood voluntarily. Settings and Design: Population based cross-sectional study in Gangtok, East Sikkim. Materials and Methods: PARTICIPANTS: 300 adults by two-stage cluster sampling technique. INTERVENTIONS: None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Correlates of attitudes towards blood donation. DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE: The data collection tool used for the study was a pre-tested structured interview schedule by which the principal investigator collected the data using interview technique. Statistical Analysis Used: Percentages and ODDS ratio were used in this study. Results and Conclusions: Out of 300 respondents, overwhelming majority (78.7% of the respondents in the present study felt that people donate blood to save a friend or a relative. On the contrary, minority respondents (46% were ready to donate blood voluntarily. Only 12.7% of the respondents had ever donated blood while 87.3% had never donated. Among ever donors, gender wise men donors were found to be more; 89% were married, half were from the 30 to 39 years age group. As the per-capita income or level of education increased, so did the percent of blood donors.

  2. Complete genome sequence, lifestyle, and multi-drug resistance of the human pathogen Corynebacterium resistens DSM 45100 isolated from blood samples of a leukemia patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schröder Jasmin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Corynebacterium resistens was initially recovered from human infections and recognized as a new coryneform species that is highly resistant to antimicrobial agents. Bacteremia associated with this organism in immunocompromised patients was rapidly fatal as standard minocycline therapies failed. C. resistens DSM 45100 was isolated from a blood culture of samples taken from a patient with acute myelocytic leukemia. The complete genome sequence of C. resistens DSM 45100 was determined by pyrosequencing to identify genes contributing to multi-drug resistance, virulence, and the lipophilic lifestyle of this newly described human pathogen. Results The genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 consists of a circular chromosome of 2,601,311 bp in size and the 28,312-bp plasmid pJA144188. Metabolic analysis showed that the genome of C. resistens DSM 45100 lacks genes for typical sugar uptake systems, anaplerotic functions, and a fatty acid synthase, explaining the strict lipophilic lifestyle of this species. The genome encodes a broad spectrum of enzymes ensuring the availability of exogenous fatty acids for growth, including predicted virulence factors that probably contribute to fatty acid metabolism by damaging host tissue. C. resistens DSM 45100 is able to use external L-histidine as a combined carbon and nitrogen source, presumably as a result of adaptation to the hitherto unknown habitat on the human skin. Plasmid pJA144188 harbors several genes contributing to antibiotic resistance of C. resistens DSM 45100, including a tetracycline resistance region of the Tet W type known from Lactobacillus reuteri and Streptococcus suis. The tet(W gene of pJA144188 was cloned in Corynebacterium glutamicum and was shown to confer high levels of resistance to tetracycline, doxycycline, and minocycline in vitro. Conclusions The detected gene repertoire of C. resistens DSM 45100 provides insights into the lipophilic lifestyle and virulence functions of

  3. Correlation of MLH1 and MGMT methylation levels between peripheral blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue DNA samples in colorectal cancer patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, XIA; WANG, YIBAINA; ZHANG, ZUOMING; YAO, XIAOPING; GE, JIE; ZHAO, YASHUANG

    2013-01-01

    CpG island methylation in the promoter regions of the DNA mismatch repair gene mutator L homologue 1 (MLH1) and DNA repair gene O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) genes has been shown to occur in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissue. However, it is unclear whether the methylation levels in the blood leukocytes and colorectal tissue are correlated. The present study analyzed and compared the levels of MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation in the leukocytes of peripheral blood and colorectal tissues obtained from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were examined using methylation-sensitive high-resolution melting (MS-HRM) analysis. A total of 44 patients with CRC were selected based on the MLH1 and MGMT gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood. Corresponding colorectal tumor and normal tissues were obtained from each patient and the DNA methylation levels were determined. The correlation coefficients were evaluated using Spearman’s rank test. Agreement was determined by generalized κ-statistics. Spearman’s rank correlation coefficients (r) for the methylation levels of the MGMT and MLH1 genes in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were 0.475 and 0.362, respectively (P=0.001 and 0.016, respectively). The agreement of the MGMT and MLH1 gene methylation levels in the leukocytes of the peripheral blood and normal colorectal tissue were graded as fair and poor (κ=0.299 and 0.126, respectively). The methylation levels of MGMT and MLH1 were moderately and weakly correlated between the patient-matched leukocytes and the normal colorectal tissue, respectively. Blood-derived DNA methylation measurements may not always represent the levels of normal colorectal tissue methylation. PMID:24179526

  4. Schedulability Analysis for Java Finalizers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgholm, Thomas; Hansen, Rene Rydhof; Ravn, Anders P.;

    2010-01-01

    the schedulability analysis. In this paper we show that a controlled scoped memory model results in a structured and predictable execution of finalizers, more reminiscent of C++ destructors than Java finalizers. Furthermore, we incorporate finalizers into a (conservative) schedulability analysis for...... Predictable Java programs. Finally, we extend the SARTS tool for automated schedulability analysis of Java bytecode programs to handle finalizers in a fully automated way....

  5. Probabilistic Bisimulation for Realistic Schedulers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eisentraut, Christian; Godskesen, Jens Christian; Hermanns, Holger;

    2015-01-01

    distribution equivalence is implied for partial information schedulers, and compositionality is preserved by distributed schedulers. The intersection of the two scheduler classes thus spans a coarser and still reasonable compositional theory of behavioral semantics.......Weak distribution bisimilarity is an equivalence notion on probabilistic automata, originally proposed for Markov automata. It has gained some popularity as the coarsest behavioral equivalence enjoying valuable properties like preservation of trace distribution equivalence and compositionality...

  6. NRC comprehensive records disposition schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Title 44 United States Code, ''Public Printing and Documents,'' regulations cited in the General Services Administration's (GSA) ''Federal Information Resources Management Regulations'' (FIRMR), Part 201-9, ''Creation, Maintenance, and Use of Records,'' and regulation issued by the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) in 36 CFR Chapter XII, Subchapter B, ''Records Management,'' require each agency to prepare and issue a comprehensive records disposition schedule that contains the NARA approved records disposition schedules for records unique to the agency and contains the NARA's General Records Schedules for records common to several or all agencies. The approved records disposition schedules specify the appropriate duration of retention and the final disposition for records created or maintained by the NRC. NUREG-0910, Rev. 2, contains ''NRC's Comprehensive Records Disposition Schedule,'' and the original authorized approved citation numbers issued by NARA. Rev. 2 totally reorganizes the records schedules from a functional arrangement to an arrangement by the host office. A subject index and a conversion table have also been developed for the NRC schedules to allow staff to identify the new schedule numbers easily and to improve their ability to locate applicable schedules

  7. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  8. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  9. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  10. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  11. Effect of the data sampling rate on accuracy of indices for heart rate and blood pressure variability and baroreflex function in resting rats and mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to determine the minimal sampling rate (SR) required for blood pressure (BP) waveform recordings to accurately determine BP and heart rate (HR) variability indices and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity in rats and mice. We also determined if an 8-bit (versus 12-bit) analog-to-digital converter (ADC) resolution is sufficient to accurately determine these hemodynamic parameters and if spline interpolation to 1000 Hz of BP waveforms sampled at lower SRs can improve accuracy. BP and ECG recordings (1000 Hz SR, 12-bit ADC resolution) from two strains of rats and BP recordings (1000 Hz SR, 12-bit ADC resolution) from two strains of mice were mathematically converted to lower SRs and/or 8-bit ADC resolution. Time-domain HR variability and frequency-domain HR and BP variability indices and baroreflex sensitivity (using the sequence technique) were determined and the results obtained from the original files were compared to the results obtained from the mathematically altered files. Our results demonstrate that an ADC resolution of 8 bit is not sufficient to determine HR and BP variability in rats and mice and baroreceptor reflex sensitivity in mice. Average values for systolic, mean and diastolic BP and HR can be accurately derived from BP waveforms recorded at a minimal SR of 200 Hz in rats and mice. Spline interpolation of BP waveforms to 1000 Hz prior to extracting derived parameters reduces this minimal SR to 50 Hz in rats but still requires 200 Hz in mice. Frequency-domain BP variability (very low and low frequency spectral powers) can be estimated accurately at a minimum SR of 100 Hz in rats and mice and spline interpolation of BP waveforms to 1000 Hz reduces this minimal SR to 50 Hz in rats but does not reduce the minimal SR in mice. Time- and frequency-domain HR variability parameters require at least a SR of 1000 Hz in rats and mice. Spline interpolation of BP waveforms to 1000 Hz reduces this minimal SR to 100 Hz in rats and to 200 Hz in

  12. Toxicology evaluation of radiotracer doses of 3'-deoxy-3'-[18F]fluorothymidine (18F-FLT) for human PET imaging: Laboratory analysis of serial blood samples and comparison to previously investigated therapeutic FLT doses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18F-FLT is a novel PET radiotracer which has demonstrated a strong potential utility for imaging cellular proliferation in human tumors in vivo. To facilitate future regulatory approval of 18F-FLT for clinical use, we wished to demonstrate the safety of radiotracer doses of 18F-FLT administered to human subjects, by: 1) performing an evaluation of the toxicity of 18F-FLT administered in radiotracer amounts for PET imaging, 2) comparing a radiotracer dose of FLT to clinical trial doses of FLT. Twenty patients gave consent to a 18F-FLT injection, subsequent PET imaging, and blood draws. For each patient, blood samples were collected at multiple times before and after 18F-FLT PET. These samples were assayed for a comprehensive metabolic panel, total bilirubin, complete blood and platelet counts. 18F-FLT doses of 2.59 MBq/Kg with a maximal dose of 185 MBq (5 mCi) were used. Blood time-activity curves were generated for each patient from dynamic PET data, providing a measure of the area under the FLT concentration curve for 12 hours (AUC12). No side effects were reported. Only albumin, red blood cell count, hematocrit and hemoglobin showed a statistically significant decrease over time. These changes are attributed to IV hydration during PET imaging and to subsequent blood loss at surgery. The AUC12 values estimated from imaging data are not significantly different from those found from serial measures of FLT blood concentrations (p = 0.66). The blood samples-derived AUC12 values range from 0.232 ng*h/mL to 1.339 ng*h/mL with a mean of 0.802 ± 0.303 ng*h/mL. This corresponds to 0.46% to 2.68% of the lowest and least toxic clinical trial AUC12 of 50 ng*h/mL reported by Flexner et al (1994). This single injection also corresponds to a nearly 3,000-fold lower cumulative dose than in Flexner's twice daily trial. This study shows no evidence of toxicity or complications attributable to 18F-FLT injected intravenously

  13. Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae type B by real-time PCR from dried blood spot samples among children with pneumonia: a useful approach for developing countries.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Selva

    Full Text Available Dried blood spot (DBS is a reliable blood collection method for storing samples at room temperature and easily transporting them. We have previously validated a Real-Time PCR for detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae in DBS. The objective of this study was to apply this methodology for the diagnosis of S. pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae b (Hib in DBS samples of children with pneumonia admitted to two hospitals in Mozambique and Morocco.Ply and wzg genes of S. pneumoniae and bexA gene of Hib, were used as targets of Real-Time PCR. 329 DBS samples of children hospitalized with clinical diagnosis of pneumonia were tested.Real-Time PCR in DBS allowed for a significant increase in microbiological diagnosis of S. pneumoniae and Hib. When performing blood bacterial culture, only ten isolates of S. pneumoniae and none of Hib were detected (3·0% positivity rate, IC95% 1·4-5·5%. Real-Time PCR from DBS samples increased the detection yield by 4x fold, as 30 S. pneumoniae and 11 Hib cases were detected (12·4% positivity rate, IC95% 9·0-16·5%; P<0·001.Real-Time PCR applied in DBS may be a valuable tool for improving diagnosis and surveillance of pneumonia caused by S. pneumoniae or Hib in developing countries.

  14. Scheduling Results for the THEMIS Observation Scheduling Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mclaren, David; Rabideau, Gregg; Chien, Steve; Knight, Russell; Anwar, Sadaat; Mehall, Greg; Christensen, Philip

    2011-01-01

    We describe a scheduling system intended to assist in the development of instrument data acquisitions for the THEMIS instrument, onboard the Mars Odyssey spacecraft, and compare results from multiple scheduling algorithms. This tool creates observations of both (a) targeted geographical regions of interest and (b) general mapping observations, while respecting spacecraft constraints such as data volume, observation timing, visibility, lighting, season, and science priorities. This tool therefore must address both geometric and state/timing/resource constraints. We describe a tool that maps geometric polygon overlap constraints to set covering constraints using a grid-based approach. These set covering constraints are then incorporated into a greedy optimization scheduling algorithm incorporating operations constraints to generate feasible schedules. The resultant tool generates schedules of hundreds of observations per week out of potential thousands of observations. This tool is currently under evaluation by the THEMIS observation planning team at Arizona State University.

  15. Comparison of different blood sample processing methods for sensitive detection of low level chimerism by RHD real-time PCR assay

    OpenAIRE

    Javadi, Ahmad; Verduin, Esther P.; Brand, Anneke; Schonewille, Henk

    2013-01-01

    The rhesus D blood group, which is expressed on the red blood cells (RBC) of 85% of the Caucasian population, is one of the most immunogenic RBC antigens, inducing D antibody formation in up to 20–80% of D-negative transfusion recipients and about 10% of pregnancies at risk. Pregnancy-induced D-antibodies can persist for many years, but the mechanisms underlying this persistence are unclear. The LOTUS study, a long-term follow-up study of mothers from severely affected children with hemolytic...

  16. Design of microalloyed steel hot rolling schedule by torsion testing: average schedule vs. real schedule

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Muñoz, Jessica; Collins, Laurie; Yue, S.

    2010-01-01

    The hot torsion simulator has been extensively used as a means to understand the microstructure evolution of different steel grades during hot rolling. The test is suitable to simulate ‘real’ industrial schedules as well as schedules designed to obtain information regarding the intrinsic properties of the materials. For example, it is common to apply ‘average’ schedules, in which deformation per pass, interpass time, strain rate and cooling rate are kept constant, to determine the...

  17. Cytokine response in peripheral blood indicates different pathophysiological mechanisms behind anastomotic leakage after low anterior resection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mark Ellebæk; Baatrup, G; Gjedsted, J; Fristrup, C; Qvist, N

    2014-01-01

    after low anterior resection for rectosigmoid cancer. METHODS: Fifty patients scheduled for resection of rectosigmoid cancer had blood samples taken the day before surgery and on post-operative days 1, 3 and 5. Four patients with symptomatic AL were identified. Twenty-two age- and disease......BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leakage (AL) after rectosigmoid resection is a serious complication associated with high morbidity and mortality. This case-control pilot study investigated the changes in blood concentration of 10 different cytokines and 2 complement factors in relation to symptomatic AL...

  18. Long-term storage of authentic postmortem forensic blood samples at -20°C: measured concentrations of benzodiazepines, central stimulants, opioids and certain medicinal drugs before and after storage for 16-18 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karinen, Ritva; Andresen, Wenche; Smith-Kielland, Anne; Mørland, Jørg

    2014-01-01

    The long-term stability of benzodiazepines, opioids, central stimulants and medicinal drugs in authentic postmortem blood samples was studied. All together, 73 samples were reanalyzed after storage at -20°C for 16-18 years. At reanalysis samples containing diazepam, nordiazepam and flunitrazepam demonstrated only small changes during long-term storage when mean and median drug concentrations were compared, while clonazepam concentrations tended to decrease. Samples containing amphetamine, morphine, codeine and 'acidic' medicinal drugs as paracetamol and meprobamate also showed small changes over 16-18 years in mean and median drug concentrations at a group level. For many drugs, however, single samples could demonstrate marked concentration changes, both increases and decreases during storage. For 'alkaline' medicinal drugs, concentration losses were observed in most cases. PMID:25015743

  19. Scheduling participants of Assessment Centres

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lysgaard, Jens; Løber, Janni

    assessors. The scheduling problem amounts to determining the allocation of participants to groups in each round. We have developed a model and solution approach for this particular scheduling problem, which may be viewed as a rather extensive generalization of the Social Golfer Problem....

  20. A randomised clinical trial on cardiotocography plus fetal blood sampling versus cardiotocography plus ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (STAN® for intrapartum monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rijnders Robbert JP

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cardiotocography (CTG is worldwide the method for fetal surveillance during labour. However, CTG alone shows many false positive test results and without fetal blood sampling (FBS, it results in an increase in operative deliveries without improvement of fetal outcome. FBS requires additional expertise, is invasive and has often to be repeated during labour. Two clinical trials have shown that a combination of CTG and ST-analysis of the fetal electrocardiogram (ECG reduces the rates of metabolic acidosis and instrumental delivery. However, in both trials FBS was still performed in the ST-analysis arm, and it is therefore still unknown if the observed results were indeed due to the ST-analysis or to the use of FBS in combination with ST-analysis. Methods/Design We aim to evaluate the effectiveness of non-invasive monitoring (CTG + ST-analysis as compared to normal care (CTG + FBS, in a multicentre randomised clinical trial setting. Secondary aims are: 1 to judge whether ST-analysis of fetal electrocardiogram can significantly decrease frequency of performance of FBS or even replace it; 2 perform a cost analysis to establish the economic impact of the two treatment options. Women in labour with a gestational age ≥ 36 weeks and an indication for CTG-monitoring can be included in the trial. Eligible women will be randomised for fetal surveillance with CTG and, if necessary, FBS or CTG combined with ST-analysis of the fetal ECG. The primary outcome of the study is the incidence of serious metabolic acidosis (defined as pH ecf > 12 mmol/L in the umbilical cord artery. Secondary outcome measures are: instrumental delivery, neonatal outcome (Apgar score, admission to a neonatal ward, incidence of performance of FBS in both arms and cost-effectiveness of both monitoring strategies across hospitals. The analysis will follow the intention to treat principle. The incidence of metabolic acidosis will be compared across both groups