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Sample records for blood samples collected

  1. On the improvement of blood sample collection at clinical laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasas, Alex; Ramalhinho, Helena; Pessoa, Luciana S; Resende, Mauricio G C; Caballé, Imma; Barba, Nuria

    2014-01-09

    Blood samples are usually collected daily from different collection points, such hospitals and health centers, and transported to a core laboratory for testing. This paper presents a project to improve the collection routes of two of the largest clinical laboratories in Spain. These routes must be designed in a cost-efficient manner while satisfying two important constraints: (i) two-hour time windows between collection and delivery, and (ii) vehicle capacity. A heuristic method based on a genetic algorithm has been designed to solve the problem of blood sample collection. The user enters the following information for each collection point: postal address, average collecting time, and average demand (in thermal containers). After implementing the algorithm using C programming, this is run and, in few seconds, it obtains optimal (or near-optimal) collection routes that specify the collection sequence for each vehicle. Different scenarios using various types of vehicles have been considered. Unless new collection points are added or problem parameters are changed substantially, routes need to be designed only once. The two laboratories in this study previously planned routes manually for 43 and 74 collection points, respectively. These routes were covered by an external carrier company. With the implementation of this algorithm, the number of routes could be reduced from ten to seven in one laboratory and from twelve to nine in the other, which represents significant annual savings in transportation costs. The algorithm presented can be easily implemented in other laboratories that face this type of problem, and it is particularly interesting and useful as the number of collection points increases. The method designs blood collection routes with reduced costs that meet the time and capacity constraints of the problem.

  2. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A technique is described which allows automatic collection of jugular venous blood from tethered cows. In this system, blood is pumped continuously from an intravenous cannula which has a double lumen while an anticoagulant is pumped through the second opening. Diluted blood is collected in a fraction collector which ...

  3. Effects of Blood Sample Collection Pre- and Post- Slaughter, Edta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The samples were immediately subjected to Wet mount (WM), Haemotocrit centrifugation test (HCT) and Thin smear (TS) tests. The results revealed that, of the 100 samples examined, 19 (19%) were positive for the presence of Microfilaria spp while 6(6%) yielded Trypanosome spp. Of the 19 samples detected having ...

  4. Chlamydia trachomatis antibody detection in home-collected blood samples for use in epidemiological studies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoenderboom, B M; van Ess, E F; van den Broek, I V F; van Loo, I H M; Hoebe, C J P A; Ouburg, S; Morré, S A

    Capillary blood collected in serum tubes was subjected to centrifugation delay while stored at room temperature. Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) IgG concentrations in aliquoted serum of these blood samples remained stable for seven days after collection. CT IgG concentrations can reliably be measured in

  5. Human blood RNA stabilization in samples collected and transported for a large biobank

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background The Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa) is a nation-wide population-based pregnancy cohort initiated in 1999, comprising more than 108.000 pregnancies recruited between 1999 and 2008. In this study we evaluated the feasibility of integrating RNA analyses into existing MoBa protocols. We compared two different blood RNA collection tube systems – the PAXgene™ Blood RNA system and the Tempus™ Blood RNA system - and assessed the effects of suboptimal blood volumes in collection tubes and of transportation of blood samples by standard mail. Endpoints to characterize the samples were RNA quality and yield, and the RNA transcript stability of selected genes. Findings High-quality RNA could be extracted from blood samples stabilized with both PAXgene and Tempus tubes. The RNA yields obtained from the blood samples collected in Tempus tubes were consistently higher than from PAXgene tubes. Higher RNA yields were obtained from cord blood (3 – 4 times) compared to adult blood with both types of tubes. Transportation of samples by standard mail had moderate effects on RNA quality and RNA transcript stability; the overall RNA quality of the transported samples was high. Some unexplained changes in gene expression were noted, which seemed to correlate with suboptimal blood volumes collected in the tubes. Temperature variations during transportation may also be of some importance. Conclusions Our results strongly suggest that special collection tubes are necessary for RNA stabilization and they should be used for establishing new biobanks. We also show that the 50,000 samples collected in the MoBa biobank provide RNA of high quality and in sufficient amounts to allow gene expression analyses for studying the association of disease with altered patterns of gene expression. PMID:22988904

  6. Pediatric blood sample collection from a pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braniff, Heather; DeCarlo, Ann; Haskamp, Amy Corey; Broome, Marion E

    2014-01-01

    Aiming to minimize pain in a hospitalized child, the purpose of this observational study was to describe characteristics of blood samples collected from pre-existing peripheral intravenous (PIV) catheters in pediatric patients. One hundred and fifty blood samples were reviewed for number of unusable samples requiring a specimen to be re-drawn. Success of the blood draw and prevalence of the loss of the PIV following blood collection was also measured. Findings included one clotted specimen, success rate of 91.3%, and 1.3% of PIVs becoming non-functional after collection. Obtaining blood specimens from a pre-existing PIV should be considered in a pediatric patient. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Theorical and practical bases for blood sample collection from the heel of newborns for neonatal screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Vela-Amieva

    2014-07-01

    collected in a special filter paper (Guthrie’s card. Despite its apparent simplicity, NBS laboratories commonly receive a large number of samples collected incorrectly and technically unsuitable for perfor4ming biochemical determinations. The aim of the present paper is to offer recommendations based on scientific evidence, for the properly blood collection on filter paper for NBS programs.

  8. Evaluation of a novel dried blood spot collection device (HemaSpot™) to test blood samples collected from dogs for antibodies to Leishmania infantum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Pick, Leanne D; Hernandez, Jaime O Esquivel; Lindsay, David S

    2014-09-15

    Collection of blood samples from veterinary and wildlife patients is often challenging because the samples have to be collected on farm or in the wild under various environmental conditions. This poses many technical problems associated with venipuncture materials, their safe use and disposal, transportation and processing of collected samples. Dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection techniques offer a simple and practical alternative to traditional blood collection methods to obtain blood samples from animals for parasite antibody evaluation. The DBS collection devices are compact, simple to use, and are particularly useful for large number of samples. Additionally, DBS samples take up less space and they are easier to transport than traditional venipuncture-collected blood samples. Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a potentially fatal parasitic disease of dogs and humans and it is frequently diagnosed by antibody tests. Immunochromatographic tests (ICT) for antibodies to Leishmania infantum are commercially available for dogs and they produce qualitative results in minutes. Measurement of canine antibodies to L. infantum with the ICT using traditional venipuncture has been validated previously, but the use of DBS samples has not been evaluated using this method. The purpose of the present study was to determine the ability of DBS samples to detect antibodies to L. infantum in dogs using a commercial ICT assay. One hundred plasma samples from dogs experimentally infected with the LIVT-1 strain of L. infantum were collected by venipuncture and frozen. Individual samples were thawed, and then 80 μl plasma (2 drops) was aliquotted onto the 8-spoked disk pad on individual DBS sample collection devices (HemaSpot™, Spot-On Sciences, Austin, TX), dried, and stored in the dark at room temperature. After one month and six months, respectively, 2 spokes of the 8 spokes of the disk pad of each DBS sample were removed and eluted in 200 μl PBS. The eluate was used to test

  9. Blood venous sample collection: Recommendations overview and a checklist to improve quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giavarina, Davide; Lippi, Giuseppe

    2017-07-01

    The extra-analytical phases of the total testing process have substantial impact on managed care, as well as an inherent high risk of vulnerability to errors which is often greater than that of the analytical phase. The collection of biological samples is a crucial preanalytical activity. Problems or errors occurring shortly before, or soon after, this preanalytical step may impair sample quality and characteristics, or else modify the final results of testing. The standardization of fasting requirements, rest, patient position and psychological state of the patient are therefore crucial for mitigating the impact of preanalytical variability. Moreover, the quality of materials used for collecting specimens, along with their compatibility, can guarantee sample quality and persistence of chemical and physical characteristics of the analytes over time, so safeguarding the reliability of testing. Appropriate techniques and sampling procedures are effective to prevent problems such as hemolysis, undue clotting in the blood tube, draw of insufficient sample volume and modification of analyte concentration. An accurate identification of both patient and blood samples is a key priority as for other healthcare activities. Good laboratory practice and appropriate training of operators, by specifically targeting collection of biological samples, blood in particular, may greatly improve this issue, thus lowering the risk of errors and their adverse clinical consequences. The implementation of a simple and rapid check-list, including verification of blood collection devices, patient preparation and sampling techniques, was found to be effective for enhancing sample quality and reducing some preanalytical errors associated with these procedures. The use of this tool, along with implementation of objective and standardized systems for detecting non-conformities related to unsuitable samples, can be helpful for standardizing preanalytical activities and improving the quality of

  10. Effects of Storage and Type of Blood Collection Tubes on Hepatitis C Virus Level in Whole Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessler, Harald H.; Stelzl, Evelyn; Raggam, Reinhard B.; Haas, Josef; Kirchmeir, Franz; Hegenbarth, Karin; Daghofer, Elisabeth; Santner, Brigitte I.; Marth, Egon; Stauber, Rudolf E.

    2001-01-01

    In this study, we compared serum hepatitis C virus (HCV) RNA concentrations with HCV RNA concentrations in whole blood collection tubes, including two different types of EDTA tubes and nucleic acid stabilization tubes (NASTs). We also investigated the impact of a processing delay on HCV RNA concentration in these tubes. In NASTs, the mean HCV RNA concentration was comparable to the mean serum HCV RNA concentration at “date zero.” In EDTA tubes, mean baseline HCV RNA concentrations were higher. Storage at room temperature up to 96 h did not result in a decline of HCV RNA concentration in any of the whole blood collection tubes. In NASTs, HCV RNA concentrations remained stable during the whole study period, whereas a significant increase of HCV RNA was observed in both types of EDTA tubes at 96 h compared to date zero. We concluded that HCV RNA remains stable in NASTs at room temperature for at least 96 h, allowing greater flexibility in sample collection and transport. PMID:11325991

  11. Use of self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody screening in relatives: a feasibility and acceptability study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y; Rafkin, L E; Matheson, D; Henderson, C; Boulware, D; Besser, R E J; Ferrara, C; Yu, L; Steck, A K; Bingley, P J

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of using self-collected capillary blood samples for islet autoantibody testing to identify risk in relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes. Participants were recruited via the observational TrialNet Pathway to Prevention study, which screens and monitors relatives of people with Type 1 diabetes for islet autoantibodies. Relatives were sent kits for capillary blood collection, with written instructions, an online instructional video link and a questionnaire. Sera from capillary blood samples were tested for autoantibodies to glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2, insulin and zinc transporter 8. 'Successful' sample collection was defined as obtaining sufficient volume and quality to provide definitive autoantibody results, including confirmation of positive results by repeat assay. In 240 relatives who returned samples, the median (range) age was 15.5 (1-49) years and 51% were male. Of these samples, 98% were sufficient for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and zinc transporter 8 autoantibody testing and 84% for insulin autoantibody testing and complete autoantibody screen. The upper 90% confidence bound for unsuccessful collection was 4.4% for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen-2 and/or zinc transporter 8 autoantibody assays, and 19.3% for insulin autoantibodies. Despite 43% of 220 questionnaire respondents finding capillary blood collection uncomfortable or painful, 82% preferred home self-collection of capillary blood samples compared with outpatient venepuncture (90% of those aged 18 years). The perceived difficulty of collecting capillary blood samples did not affect success rate. Self-collected capillary blood sampling offers a feasible alternative to venous sampling, with the potential to facilitate autoantibody screening for Type 1 diabetes risk. © 2017 Diabetes UK.

  12. Blood sample collection and patient identification demand improvement: a questionnaire study of preanalytical practices in hospital wards and laboratories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallin, Olof; Söderberg, Johan; Van Guelpen, Bethany; Stenlund, Hans; Grankvist, Kjell; Brulin, Christine

    2010-09-01

    Scand J Caring Sci; 2010; 24; 581-591 
 Blood sample collection and patient identification demand improvement: a questionnaire study of preanalytical practices in hospital wards and laboratories   Most errors in venous blood testing result from human mistakes occurring before the sample reach the laboratory.   To survey venous blood sampling (VBS) practices in hospital wards and to compare practices with hospital laboratories.   Staff in two hospitals (all wards) and two hospital laboratories (314 respondents, response rate 94%), completed a questionnaire addressing issues relevant to the collection of venous blood samples for clinical chemistry testing.   The findings suggest that instructions for patient identification and the collection of venous blood samples were not always followed. For example, 79% of the respondents reported the undesirable practice (UDP) of not always using wristbands for patient identification. Similarly, 87% of the respondents noted the UDP of removing venous stasis after the sampling is finished. Compared with the ward staff, a significantly higher proportion of the laboratory staff reported desirable practices regarding the collection of venous blood samples. Neither education nor the existence of established sampling routines was clearly associated with VBS practices among the ward staff.   The results of this study, the first of its kind, suggest that a clinically important risk of error is associated with VBS in the surveyed wards. Most important is the risk of misidentification of patients. Quality improvement of blood sample collection is clearly needed, particularly in hospital wards. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  13. Bridging the gap between sample collection and laboratory analysis: using dried blood spots to identify human exposure to chemical agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamelin, Elizabeth I.; Blake, Thomas A.; Perez, Jonas W.; Crow, Brian S.; Shaner, Rebecca L.; Coleman, Rebecca M.; Johnson, Rudolph C.

    2016-05-01

    Public health response to large scale chemical emergencies presents logistical challenges for sample collection, transport, and analysis. Diagnostic methods used to identify and determine exposure to chemical warfare agents, toxins, and poisons traditionally involve blood collection by phlebotomists, cold transport of biomedical samples, and costly sample preparation techniques. Use of dried blood spots, which consist of dried blood on an FDA-approved substrate, can increase analyte stability, decrease infection hazard for those handling samples, greatly reduce the cost of shipping/storing samples by removing the need for refrigeration and cold chain transportation, and be self-prepared by potentially exposed individuals using a simple finger prick and blood spot compatible paper. Our laboratory has developed clinical assays to detect human exposures to nerve agents through the analysis of specific protein adducts and metabolites, for which a simple extraction from a dried blood spot is sufficient for removing matrix interferents and attaining sensitivities on par with traditional sampling methods. The use of dried blood spots can bridge the gap between the laboratory and the field allowing for large scale sample collection with minimal impact on hospital resources while maintaining sensitivity, specificity, traceability, and quality requirements for both clinical and forensic applications.

  14. [Comparison of the determination of cyclosporin-A in blood samples collected on filter paper and by the ordinary technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azevedo, L S; Manrique, R; Sabbaga, E

    1995-01-01

    Monitoring cyclosporin-A (CsA) blood levels is of utmost importance for the rational use of this drug. Although many centers perform transplants, in Brazil there are few laboratories able to measure CsA blood levels. Therefore making blood samples reach the laboratory emerged as a problem. Collection of blood on filter paper has been a technique used for a long time in special cases. PURPOSE--To confirm the usefulness of measuring CsA blood levels in blood samples collected on filter paper and in the usual way. METHOD--We studied twenty renal cadaver kidney recipients who were receiving CsA, azathioprine and prednisone. Ninety five blood samples were collected and divided into two aliquots. One of them was sent routinely to one laboratory to perform whole blood CsA measurements. From the other aliquot, 20 microliters were pipetted on filter paper. When dried they were mailed to the other laboratory, where, after elution, CsA was measured. In both cases radioimmunoassay with polyclonal antibody was used. RESULTS--Linear correlation between both measurements revealed r = 0.81 with no statistical difference. CONCLUSION--The technique showed to be useful in clinical practice. In countries with continental size, as Brazil, it may be very helpful.

  15. Peripheral blood collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franken, Carmen; Remy, Sylvie; Lambrechts, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of mRNA in the prese......A crucial challenge for gene expression analysis in human biomonitoring studies on whole blood samples is rapid sample handling and mRNA stabilization. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of short bench times (less than 30 min) on yield, quality and gene expression of m......RNA in the presence of different stabilization buffers (TempusTM Blood RNA tube and RNAlater® Stabilization Reagent). Microarray analyzes showed significant changes over short periods of time in expression of a considerate part of the transcriptome (2356 genes) with a prominent role for NFкB-, cancer......- and glucocorticoid-mediated networks, and specifically interleukin-8 (IL-8). These findings suggest that even short bench times affect gene expression, requiring to carry out blood collection in a strictly standardized way. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group....

  16. Cortisol and prolactin concentrations during repeated blood sample collection from freely moving, mouse-sized mammals (Phodopus spp.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reburn, C J; Wynne-Edwards, K E

    2000-04-01

    Validation of a method for obtaining blood samples that does not change cortisol or prolactin concentrations yet allows serial blood samples to be collected from animals under anesthesia, without prior handling, from freely interacting social groups of small mammals. Results from five experiments are reported. Male dwarf hamsters (Phodopus spp.) were housed in modified home cages under continuous flow of compressed air that could be switched to isoflurane in O2 vehicle without approaching the cages. Dwarf hamsters respond to manual restraint with behavioral distress and increase in the concentration of the dominant glucocorticoid, cortisol, and decrease in prolactin concentration. Both effects are evident within one minute. In contrast, when this new method was used, neither cortisol nor prolactin changed in response to repeated sample collection (up to 8 successive samples at 2 hour intervals), prolonged isoflurane exposure, or substantial blood volume reduction (30%). Prolactin concentration was suppressed and cortisol concentration was increased in response to stimuli from other hamsters tested without anesthesia. Suppression of prolactin concentration was graded in response to the degree of stress and equaled the pharmacologic reduction caused by bromocryptine mesylate (50 microg of CB154 x 3 days). The technique is superior to alternatives for studies of behavioral endocrinology of freely interacting small mammals.

  17. The UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol for the collection, processing and archiving of human blood and urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Peakman, Tim C

    2008-04-01

    UK Biobank is a large prospective study in the UK to investigate the role of genetic factors, environmental exposures and lifestyle in the causes of major diseases of late and middle age. Extensive data and biological samples are being collected from 500,000 participants aged between 40 and 69 years. The biological samples that are collected and how they are processed and stored will have a major impact on the future scientific usefulness of the UK Biobank resource. The aim of the UK Biobank sample handling and storage protocol is to specify methods for the collection and storage of participant samples that give maximum scientific return within the available budget. Processing or storage methods that, as far as can be predicted, will preclude current or future assays have been avoided. The protocol was developed through a review of the literature on sample handling and processing, wide consultation within the academic community and peer review. Protocol development addressed which samples should be collected, how and when they should be processed and how the processed samples should be stored to ensure their long-term integrity. The recommended protocol was extensively tested in a series of validation studies. UK Biobank collects about 45 ml blood and 9 ml of urine with minimal local processing from each participant using the vacutainer system. A variety of preservatives, anti-coagulants and clot accelerators is used appropriate to the expected end use of the samples. Collection of other material (hair, nails, saliva and faeces) was also considered but rejected for the full cohort. Blood and urine samples from participants are transported overnight by commercial courier to a central laboratory where they are processed and aliquots of urine, plasma, serum, white cells and red cells stored in ultra-low temperature archives. Aliquots of whole blood are also stored for potential future production of immortalized cell lines. A standard panel of haematology assays is

  18. Bloody Fast Blood Collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Brummelen, Samuel Pieter Josephus

    2017-01-01

    This thesis consists of four parts: The first part contains an introduction, the second presents approaches for the evaluation of waiting times at blood collection sites, the third uses these to present approaches that improve waiting times at blood collection sites. The final part shows the

  19. Isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells from blood samples collected from the jugular and cephalic veins of healthy adult horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpe, Ashley N; Seeto, Wen J; Winter, Randolph L; Zhong, Qiao; Lipke, Elizabeth A; Wooldridge, Anne A

    2016-10-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate optimal isolation of endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs) from peripheral blood of horses. SAMPLE Jugular and cephalic venous blood samples from 17 adult horses. PROCEDURES Each blood sample was divided; isolation was performed with whole blood adherence (WBA) and density gradient centrifugation (DGC). Isolated cells were characterized by uptake of 1,1'-dioctadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate-labeled acetylated low-density lipoprotein (DiI-Ac-LDL), vascular tubule formation, and expression of endothelial (CD34, CD105, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2, and von Willebrand factor) and hematopoietic (CD14) cell markers by use of indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) and flow cytometry. RESULTS Colonies with cobblestone morphology were isolated from 15 of 17 horses. Blood collected from the cephalic vein yielded colonies significantly more often (14/17 horses) than did blood collected from the jugular vein (8/17 horses). Of 14 cephalic blood samples with colonies, 13 were obtained with DGC and 8 with WBA. Of 8 jugular blood samples with colonies, 8 were obtained with DGC and 4 with WBA. Colony frequency (colonies per milliliter of blood) was significantly higher for cephalic blood samples and samples isolated with DGC. Cells formed vascular tubules, had uptake of DiI-Ac-LDL, and expressed endothelial markers by use of IFA and flow cytometry, which confirmed their identity as ECFCs. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Maximum yield of ECFCs was obtained for blood samples collected from both the jugular and cephalic veins and use of DGC to isolate cells. Consistent yield of ECFCs from peripheral blood of horses will enable studies to evaluate diagnostic and therapeutic uses.

  20. Field Evaluation of Capillary Blood Samples as a Collection Specimen for the Rapid Diagnosis of Ebola Virus Infection During an Outbreak Emergency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strecker, Thomas; Palyi, Bernadett; Ellerbrok, Heinz; Jonckheere, Sylvie; de Clerck, Hilde; Bore, Joseph Akoi; Gabriel, Martin; Stoecker, Kilian; Eickmann, Markus; van Herp, Michel; Formenty, Pierre; Di Caro, Antonino; Becker, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    Reliable reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)-based diagnosis of Ebola virus infection currently requires a blood sample obtained by intravenous puncture. During the current Ebola outbreak in Guinea, we evaluated the usability of capillary blood samples collected from fingersticks of patients suspected of having Ebola virus disease (EVD) for field diagnostics during an outbreak emergency. A total of 120 venous and capillary blood samples were collected from 53 patients admitted to the Ebola Treatment Centre in Guéckédou, Guinea, between July and August 2014. All sample specimens were analyzed by RT-PCR using the RealStar Filovirus Screen RT-PCR Kit 1.0 from altona Diagnostics (Germany). We compared samples obtained by venipuncture and those obtained by capillary blood sampling absorbed onto swab devices. The resulting sensitivity and specificity of tests performed with capillary blood samples were 86.8% (95% confidence interval [CI], 71.9%-95.6%; 33/38 patients) and 100% (95% CI, 84.6%-100%; 22/22 patients), respectively. Our data suggest that capillary blood samples could serve as an alternative to venous blood samples for the diagnosis of EVD in resource-limited settings during a crisis. This can be of particular advantage in cases when venipuncture is difficult to perform-for example, with newborns and infants or when adult patients reject venipuncture for cultural or religious reasons. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. Evaluation of Trapper-Collected Nobuto Filter-Paper Blood Samples for Distemper and Parvovirus Antibody Detection in Coyotes (Canis latrans) and Raccoons (Procyon lotor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamps, Amanda J; Dubay, Shelli A; Langenberg, Julie; Maes, Roger K

    2015-07-01

    Blood samples are often collected from free-ranging wildlife for antibody detection. However, filter-paper (FP) strips are more cost efficient and easy to collect and store. We evaluated trapper-collected FP strips and body-cavity blood for canine distemper (CDV) and parvovirus (CPV-2) antibody detection in raccoons (Procyon lotor) and coyotes (Canis latrans). From 2008 to 2010, licensed trappers near Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin, US collected paired samples from harvested animals. Canine distemper antibodies were detected using virus neutralization and parvovirus antibodies were detected using hemagglutination inhibition. Titers ≥ 1:32 for CDV and ≥ 1:25 for CPV-2 were considered evidence of exposure. Using Cohen's kappa test of agreement, FP strip titers agreed with sera for CDV in coyotes (n = 28, K = 0.772) and raccoons (n = 29, K = 0.858) and for CPV-2 in coyotes (n = 40, K = 0.775) and raccoons (n = 70, K = 0.646). However, raccoons determined to be exposed to CPV-2 from sera were unexposed by FP strips in 35% of the samples. Titer results may be affected by quality and volume of blood samples, interval between collection and processing, small sample sizes, and diagnostic testing procedures. Filter-paper strips can be useful for detecting CDV and CPV-2 exposure in coyotes and raccoons with correct field sample collection and appropriate diagnostic testing procedures.

  2. Validation and Clinical Evaluation of a Novel Method To Measure Miltefosine in Leishmaniasis Patients Using Dried Blood Spot Sample Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosing, H.; Hillebrand, M. J. X.; Blesson, S.; Mengesha, B.; Diro, E.; Hailu, A.; Schellens, J. H. M.; Beijnen, J. H.

    2016-01-01

    To facilitate future pharmacokinetic studies of combination treatments against leishmaniasis in remote regions in which the disease is endemic, a simple cheap sampling method is required for miltefosine quantification. The aims of this study were to validate a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method to quantify miltefosine in dried blood spot (DBS) samples and to validate its use with Ethiopian patients with visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Since hematocrit (Ht) levels are typically severely decreased in VL patients, returning to normal during treatment, the method was evaluated over a range of clinically relevant Ht values. Miltefosine was extracted from DBS samples using a simple method of pretreatment with methanol, resulting in >97% recovery. The method was validated over a calibration range of 10 to 2,000 ng/ml, and accuracy and precision were within ±11.2% and ≤7.0% (≤19.1% at the lower limit of quantification), respectively. The method was accurate and precise for blood spot volumes between 10 and 30 μl and for Ht levels of 20 to 35%, although a linear effect of Ht levels on miltefosine quantification was observed in the bioanalytical validation. DBS samples were stable for at least 162 days at 37°C. Clinical validation of the method using paired DBS and plasma samples from 16 VL patients showed a median observed DBS/plasma miltefosine concentration ratio of 0.99, with good correlation (Pearson's r = 0.946). Correcting for patient-specific Ht levels did not further improve the concordance between the sampling methods. This successfully validated method to quantify miltefosine in DBS samples was demonstrated to be a valid and practical alternative to venous blood sampling that can be applied in future miltefosine pharmacokinetic studies with leishmaniasis patients, without Ht correction. PMID:26787691

  3. [Sampling, storage and transport of biological materials collected from living and deceased subjects for determination of concentration levels of ethyl alcohol and similarly acting substances. A proposal of updating the blood and urine sampling protocol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiergowski, Marek; Reguła, Krystyna; Pieśniak, Dorota; Galer-Tatarowicz, Katarzyna; Szpiech, Beata; Jankowski, Zbigniew

    2007-01-01

    The present paper emphasizes the most common mistakes committed at the beginning of an analytical procedure. To shorten the time and decrease the cost of determinations of substances with similar to alcohol activity, it is postulated to introduce mass-scale screening analysis of saliva collected from a living subject at the site of the event, with all positive results confirmed in blood or urine samples. If no saliva sample is collected for toxicology, a urine sample, allowing for a stat fast screening analysis, and a blood sample, to confirm the result, should be ensured. Inappropriate storage of a blood sample in the tube without a preservative can cause sample spilling and its irretrievable loss. The authors propose updating the "Blood/urine sampling protocol", with the updated version to be introduced into practice following consultations and revisions.

  4. Sample collection and documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullings, Harry M.; Fujita, Shoichiro; Watanabe, Tadaaki; Yamashita, Tomoaki; Tanaka, Kenichi; Endo, Satoru; Shizuma, Kiyoshi; Hoshi, Masaharu; Hasai, Hiromi

    2005-01-01

    Beginning within a few weeks after the bombings and periodically during the intervening decades, investigators in Hiroshima and Nagasaki have collected samples of materials that were in the cities at the time of the bombings. Although some early efforts were not driven by specific measurement objectives, many others were. Even some of the very earliest samples collected in 1945 were based on carefully conceived research plans and detailed specifications for samples appropriate to particular retrospective measurements, i.e., of particular residual quantities remaining from exposure to the neutrons and gamma rays from the bombs. This chapter focuses mainly on the work of groups at two institutions that have actively collaborated since the 1980s in major collection efforts and have shared samples among themselves and with other investigators: the Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF) and its predecessor the Atomic Bomb Casualty Commission (ABCC), and Hiroshima University. In addition, a number of others are listed, who also contributed to the literature by their collection of samples. (J.P.N.)

  5. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B

    2014-01-01

    Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...... corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters...

  6. The post-occipital spinal venous sinus of the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus: Its anatomy and use for blood sample collection and intravenous infusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan G. Myburgh

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The post-occipital sinus of the spinal vein is often used for the collection of blood samples from crocodilians. Although this sampling method has been reported for several crocodilian species, the technique and associated anatomy has not been described in detail in any crocodilian, including the Nile crocodile (Crocodylus niloticus. The anatomy of the cranial neck region was investigated macroscopically, microscopically, radiographically and by means of computed tomography. Latex was injected into the spinal vein and spinal venous sinus of crocodiles to visualise the regional vasculature. The spinal vein ran within the vertebral canal, dorsal to and closely associated with the spinal cord and changed into a venous sinus cranially in the post-occipital region. For blood collection, the spinal venous sinus was accessed through the interarcuate space between the atlas and axis (C1 and C2 by inserting a needle angled just off the perpendicular in the midline through the craniodorsal cervical skin, just cranial to the cranial borders of the first cervical osteoderms. The most convenient method of blood collection was with a syringe and hypodermic needle. In addition, the suitability of the spinal venous sinus for intravenous injections and infusions in live crocodiles was evaluated. The internal diameter of the commercial human epidural catheters used during these investigations was relatively small, resulting in very slow infusion rates. Care should be taken not to puncture the spinal cord or to lacerate the blood vessel wall using this route for blood collection or intravenous infusions.

  7. Patient identification in blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Anne; Bolton-Maggs, Paula

    The majority of adverse reports relating to blood transfusions result from human error, including misidentification of patients and incorrect labelling of samples. This article outlines best practice in blood sampling for transfusion (but is recommended for all pathology samples) and the role of patient empowerment in improving safety.

  8. Relevance of EDTA carryover during blood collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadamuro, Janne; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Oberkofler, Hannes; Mrazek, Cornelia; Wiedemann, Helmut; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth

    2015-07-01

    The order of draw is regarded as a preanalytical issue to prevent carryover of additives during blood collection. Our objective was to prove the theory of ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) carryover for a closed vacuum system and the influence of EDTA on concentrations of selected biomarkers. To test the carryover of EDTA, a blood collection with tripotassium EDTA (K3EDTA) and subsequent non-additive tubes was simulated using distilled water as substitute for blood. EDTA concentrations were measured by tandem mass spectrometry. Then we added increasing concentrations of EDTA to heparinized blood and measured routine biomarkers, thereby simulating a carryover of EDTA whole blood and pure EDTA, respectively. Additionally, we tested for EDTA contamination and biomarker alteration in samples collected from 10 healthy volunteers by a syringe with subsequent transfer into sample tubes. No EDTA contamination was detected in samples collected subsequent to a K3EDTA tube when adhering to guidelines of blood sampling. Magnesium, calcium, and potassium levels were altered by artificial K3EDTA whole-blood contamination as well as when adding 1 μL pure K3EDTA. Iron values were altered at EDTA concentrations of 4.4 mmol/L. All other parameters remained unaffected. A slight EDTA carryover was observed in syringe collection and subsequent transfer into EDTA and heparin tubes, however, without any biomarker alteration. An EDTA carryover during blood collection using a closed vacuum system is highly unlikely. Even if carryover of EDTA whole blood occurs, an absolute volume larger than 10 μL would be necessary to alter test results. However, contamination of samples with preloaded pure K3EDTA solution by severe neglect of current recommendations in blood collection may significantly alter testing results.

  9. Application of the CometChip platform to assess DNA damage in field-collected blood samples from turtles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sykora, Peter; Chiari, Ylenia; Heaton, Andrew; Moreno, Nickolas; Glaberman, Scott; Sobol, Robert W

    2018-05-01

    DNA damage has been linked to genomic instability and the progressive breakdown of cellular and organismal homeostasis, leading to the onset of disease and reduced longevity. Insults to DNA from endogenous sources include base deamination, base hydrolysis, base alkylation, and metabolism-induced oxidative damage that can lead to single-strand and double-strand DNA breaks. Alternatively, exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation or ultra-violet light, can also contribute to exogenously derived DNA damage. We previously validated a novel, high through-put approach to measure levels of DNA damage in cultured mammalian cells. This new CometChip Platform builds on the classical single cell gel electrophoresis or comet methodology used extensively in environmental toxicology and molecular biology. We asked whether the CometChip Platform could be used to measure DNA damage in samples derived from environmental field studies. To this end, we determined that nucleated erythrocytes from multiple species of turtle could be successfully evaluated in the CometChip Platform to quantify levels of DNA damage. In total, we compared levels of DNA damage in 40 animals from two species: the box turtle (Terrapene carolina) and the red-eared slider (Trachemys scripta elegans). Endogenous levels of DNA damage were identical between the two species, yet we did discover some sex-linked differences and changes in DNA damage accumulation. Based on these results, we confirm that the CometChip Platform allows for the measurement of DNA damage in a large number of samples quickly and accurately, and is particularly adaptable to environmental studies using field-collected samples. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 59:322-333, 2018. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Collecting Samples for Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Creatinine Ratio Valproic Acid Vancomycin Vanillylmandelic Acid (VMA) VAP Vitamin A Vitamin B12 and Folate Vitamin D ... that used for CSF in that they require aspiration of a sample of the fluid through a ...

  11. Determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in blood samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction collected from cattle, sheep and goats in herds located in provinces of Iran

    OpenAIRE

    Faham Khamesipour; Shahin Nejat Dehkordi; Taghi Taktaz Hafshejani; Elahe Tajbakhsh; Shahrzad Azizi

    2014-01-01

    Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR) method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen d...

  12. Preanalytical Blood Sampling Errors in Clinical Settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zehra, N.; Malik, A. H.; Arshad, Q.; Sarwar, S.; Aslam, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Blood sampling is one of the common procedures done in every ward for disease diagnosis and prognosis. Daily hundreds of samples are collected from different wards but lack of appropriate knowledge of blood sampling by paramedical staff and accidental errors make the samples inappropriate for testing. Thus the need to avoid these errors for better results still remains. We carried out this research with an aim to determine the common errors during blood sampling; find factors responsible and propose ways to reduce these errors. Methods: A cross sectional descriptive study was carried out at the Military and Combined Military Hospital Rawalpindi during February and March 2014. A Venous Blood Sampling questionnaire (VBSQ) was filled by the staff on voluntary basis in front of the researchers. The staff was briefed on the purpose of the survey before filling the questionnaire. Sample size was 228. Results were analysed using SPSS-21. Results: When asked in the questionnaire, around 61.6 percent of the paramedical staff stated that they cleaned the vein by moving the alcohol swab from inward to outwards while 20.8 percent of the staff reported that they felt the vein after disinfection. On contrary to WHO guidelines, 89.6 percent identified that they had a habit of placing blood in the test tube by holding it in the other hand, which should actually be done after inserting it into the stand. Although 86 percent thought that they had ample knowledge regarding the blood sampling process but they did not practice it properly. Conclusion: Pre analytical blood sampling errors are common in our setup. Eighty six percent participants though thought that they had adequate knowledge regarding blood sampling, but most of them were not adhering to standard protocols. There is a need of continued education and refresher courses. (author)

  13. Acceptability of study procedures (self-collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection) by students 10-16 years for an HPV vaccine effectiveness study: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakalembe, Miriam; Mutyaba, Twaha; Mirembe, Florence

    2016-03-16

    A cohort study was planned to evaluate vaccine immunogenicity and effect of malaria and helminth co-infections on the bivalent Human papilloma virus (HPV) vaccine. The study would involve self collected introital swabs, blood draws and stool sample collection. We therefore conducted a pilot study to assess the acceptability of these procedures among the students and their parents. A cross-sectional study among forty four students from two purposively selected primary schools of Western Uganda. Exit interviews and two focus group discussions (FGD) (for parents) were conducted. Acceptability was measured by willingness to undergo the procedures again, recommending the procedures to others as well as proportion of introital swabs positive for β globulin. FGD determined acceptability of the parents and explored opinions and perceptions that would influence their decisions. HPV-16/18 and β globulin deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) were analysed using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) kit. All the students (100%) in the study were willing to provide a self- collected introital swab and a stool sample as well as recommending their friends while (86.3%) were willing for blood draws. There were 40/44 (90.1%) self collected introital swabs that had positive result for human β globulin though none of them was positive for HPV-16/18. In the FGD, it emerged that parents concerns were on the blood draws and introital swab collection which were addressed. The study procedures were highly acceptable among this study population of students and their parents. Follow-up to assess HPV vaccine effectiveness and factors that may influence the vaccine in this age group is feasible.

  14. Ion suppression from blood collection devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselstrøm, Jørgen Bo; Sejr Gothelf, Aase

    The aim of the study was to examine the variation in ion suppression in ultra high pressure liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS-MS) methods when using different blood collection devices. Three different methods measuring 18 antidepressants and antipsychotics in total were...... Terumo, S-monovette from Sarstedt, Vacuette from Greiner Bio-One and three BD Vacutainer serum tubes from BD. These seven different blood collection devices were used to withdraw blood from five healthy drug free donors (n=35) in random order. The samples were centrifuged and serum from each sample...... by UHPLC-MS-MS using three different gradients (Group I, II and III). The analytes in group I was measured on an Agilent 6460 mass spectrometer and group II and III were measured on an Agilent 6410 mass spectrometer both utilizing positive electrospray ionization. The experiments demonstrated significant...

  15. AhR- and ER-mediated activities in human blood samples collected from PCB-contaminated and background region in Slovakia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pliskova, M. [Veterinary Researcch Institute, Brno (Czech Republic); Canton, R.F.; Duursen, M.B.M. van [Utrecht Univ. (NL). Institute for Risk Assessment Sciences (IRAS)] (and others)

    2004-09-15

    Endocrine disruption mediated through activation of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and estrogen receptor (ER) by polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and other persistent organic pollutants (POPs) has been studied extensively both in vivo and in vitro. Non-ortho- and mono-ortho-substituted polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are potent AhR agonists therefore, increased dioxin-like activity of complex blood samples might reflect an increased exposure to PCBs. The induction of expression of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 in different tissues, including lymphocytes, also depends on activation of AhR and it could be useful as a potential biomarker of exposure to dioxin-like compounds. Using various in vivo and in vitro models, the exposure to PCBs or hydroxy-PCBs has been reported to lead to either induction of ER-mediated activity or to an antiestrogenic effect associated with a suppression of estradiol-induced ER-dependent gene expression. Nevertheless, relative (anti)estrogenic potencies of a large set of prevalent environmental PCBs have not been yet compared in a single bioassay. A cross-talk between AhR and ER has been suggested to lead to a suppression of ER-mediated gene expression. Therefore, presence of dioxin-like compounds in blood could potentially suppress the ER-mediated activity. Additionally, AhR-dependent induction of CYP1A1 and especially CYP1B1, two enzymes involved in oxidative metabolism of estradiol and other estrogens, might enhance the metabolism of estradiol and it has been suggested to cause a potential depression of estrogen levels in the body. The aim of the present study was to determine dioxin-like, estrogenic and antiestrogenic activities in human blood samples collected in two Eastern Slovakia regions differently polluted with PCBs using established in vitro bioassays. We also studied mRNA expression of CYP1A1 and 1B1 in lymphocytes and the genotypes of CYP1B1 as possible biomarkers of exposure for PCBs and related compounds. The biological data obtained

  16. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject`s body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  17. Urine sample collection protocols for bioassay samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    MacLellan, J.A.; McFadden, K.M.

    1992-11-01

    In vitro radiobioassay analyses are used to measure the amount of radioactive material excreted by personnel exposed to the potential intake of radioactive material. The analytical results are then used with various metabolic models to estimate the amount of radioactive material in the subject's body and the original intake of radioactive material. Proper application of these metabolic models requires knowledge of the excretion period. It is normal practice to design the bioassay program based on a 24-hour excretion sample. The Hanford bioassay program simulates a total 24-hour urine excretion sample with urine collection periods lasting from one-half hour before retiring to one-half hour after rising on two consecutive days. Urine passed during the specified periods is collected in three 1-L bottles. Because the daily excretion volume given in Publication 23 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP 1975, p. 354) for Reference Man is 1.4 L, it was proposed to use only two 1-L bottles as a cost-saving measure. This raised the broader question of what should be the design capacity of a 24-hour urine sample kit.

  18. Multidrug resistant Salmonellae isolated from blood culture samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the prevalence of R-plasmids in Salmonella sp. isolated from blood samples of suspected typhoid patients in Warri, Nigeria. A total of 136 blood samples were collected between May and December,2009 and screened for the presence of Salmonellae using standard blood culture techniques of which ...

  19. Use of a dry-plasma collection device to overcome problems with storage and transportation of blood samples for epidemiology studies in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurgalieva, Z Z; Almuchambetova, R; Machmudova, A; Kapsultanova, D; Osato, M S; Peacock, J; Zoltek, R P; Marchildon, P A; Graham, D Y; Zhangabylov, A

    2000-11-01

    Studies are difficult in areas lacking modern facilities due to the inability to reliably collect, store, and ship samples. Thus, we sought to evaluate the use of a dry plasma collection device for seroepidemiology studies. Plasma was obtained by fingerstick using a commercial dry plasma collection device (Chemcard Plasma Collection Device) and serum (venipuncture) from individuals in Kazakhstan. Plasma samples were air dried for 15 min and then stored desiccated in foil zip-lock pouches at 4 to 6 degrees C and subsequently shipped to the United States by air at ambient temperature. Serum samples remained frozen at -20 degrees C until assayed. Helicobacter pylori status was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (HM-CAP EIA) for the dry plasma and the serum samples. The results were concordant in 250 of the 289 cases (86.5%). In 25 cases (8.6%), the dry plasma samples gave indeterminate results and could not be retested because only one sample was collected. Five serum samples were positive, and the corresponding dry plasma samples were negative; one serum sample was negative, and the corresponding plasma sample was positive. The relative sensitivity and specificity of the Chemcard samples to serum were 97.6 and 97.9%, respectively, excluding those with indeterminate results. Repeated freeze-thawing had no adverse effect on the accuracy of the test. We found the dry plasma collection device to provide an accurate and practical alternative to serum when venipuncture may be difficult or inconvenient and sample storage and handling present difficulties, especially for seroepidemiologic studies in rural areas or developing countries and where freeze-thawing may be unavoidable.

  20. Analysis of the research sample collections of Uppsala biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engelmark, Malin T; Beskow, Anna H

    2014-10-01

    Uppsala Biobank is the joint and only biobank organization of the two principals, Uppsala University and Uppsala University Hospital. Biobanks are required to have updated registries on sample collection composition and management in order to fulfill legal regulations. We report here the results from the first comprehensive and overall analysis of the 131 research sample collections organized in the biobank. The results show that the median of the number of samples in the collections was 700 and that the number of samples varied from less than 500 to over one million. Blood samples, such as whole blood, serum, and plasma, were included in the vast majority, 84.0%, of the research sample collections. Also, as much as 95.5% of the newly collected samples within healthcare included blood samples, which further supports the concept that blood samples have fundamental importance for medical research. Tissue samples were also commonly used and occurred in 39.7% of the research sample collections, often combined with other types of samples. In total, 96.9% of the 131 sample collections included samples collected for healthcare, showing the importance of healthcare as a research infrastructure. Of the collections that had accessed existing samples from healthcare, as much as 96.3% included tissue samples from the Department of Pathology, which shows the importance of pathology samples as a resource for medical research. Analysis of different research areas shows that the most common of known public health diseases are covered. Collections that had generated the most publications, up to over 300, contained a large number of samples collected systematically and repeatedly over many years. More knowledge about existing biobank materials, together with public registries on sample collections, will support research collaborations, improve transparency, and bring us closer to the goals of biobanks, which is to save and prolong human lives and improve health and quality of life.

  1. Determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. in blood samples by multiplex polymerase chain reaction collected from cattle, sheep and goats in herds located in provinces of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faham Khamesipour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis and brucellosis are common zoonosis that affect many species of mammals mostly causing economical losses. Further, very important fact is huge danger for human and animal health around the world. The purpose of the study is to determine the prevalence of Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. using multiplex polymerase chain reaction (mPCR method, in blood samples collected from cattle, sheep and goats. In this study, a total number of 250 blood samples (5 cc of blood with ethilen diamin tetra asetic acid were collected randomly from 100 cattle, 80 sheep and 70 goats located on 6 herds in Chaharmahal Va Bakhtiari and Esfahan provinces, Iran. After DNA extraction and setting of mPCR for Brucella spp. and Leptospira spp. mPCR products were screened. The DNA of these microorganisms was detected by multiplex PCR from 31 and 21 out of 100 cattle, respectively. Four of 70 goat’s blood samples from goat breeding farms were positive for Leptospira spp. and 11 were positive for Brucella spp. Out of 80 sheep blood samples 23 were positive for Brucella spp. and 14 for Leptospira spp. The results of the present study show ruminant as an important reservoir for transmission of these zoonotic diseases to humans in Iran. mPCR has the ability to concurrently detect both Brucella and Leptospira species from blood samples of ruminants. The convenience and the possibility of detection of both bacteria at a time, strongly support the use of this mPCR for routine diagnostics.

  2. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    You work in a regional neonatal intensive care unit. An 8-day-old ... The baby was born at 28 weeks' gestation with a birth weight of 1. 100 g. ... and arterial blood taken from indwelling arterial lines.2-4 However, even ... tal age of 48 - 72 hours.

  3. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  4. Blood sampling from adrenal gland vein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Yong; Ni Caifang

    2009-01-01

    Adrenal gland vein sampling is an interventional method to get the blood samples from the adrenal gland vein. The blood is obtained via a catheter which is selectively inserted in the adrenal gland vein. This technique is mainly used to be diagnostic for primary hyperaldosteronism. A full knowledge of the anatomy and variations of the adrenal gland vein, serious preoperative preparation and skilled catheterization manipulation are necessary for obtaining sufficient blood sample and for reducing the occurrence of complications. Providing the physicians with definite diagnostic evidence and being technically feasible, adrenal gland vein sampling should become one of the routine examinations for clarifying the cause of primary hyperaldosteronism. (authors)

  5. Effects of blood collection conditions on ovarian cancer serum markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason D Thorpe

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating diagnostic and early detection biomarkers requires comparing serum protein concentrations among biosamples ascertained from subjects with and without cancer. Efforts are generally made to standardize blood processing and storage conditions for cases and controls, but blood sample collection conditions cannot be completely controlled. For example, blood samples from cases are often obtained from persons aware of their diagnoses, and collected after fasting or in surgery, whereas blood samples from some controls may be obtained in different conditions, such as a clinic visit. By measuring the effects of differences in collection conditions on three different markers, we investigated the potential of these effects to bias validation studies.We analyzed serum concentrations of three previously studied putative ovarian cancer serum biomarkers-CA 125, Prolactin and MIF-in healthy women, women with ovarian cancer undergoing gynecologic surgery, women undergoing surgery for benign ovary pathology, and women undergoing surgery with pathologically normal ovaries. For women undergoing surgery, a blood sample was collected either in the clinic 1 to 39 days prior to surgery, or on the day of surgery after anesthesia was administered but prior to the surgical procedure, or both. We found that one marker, prolactin, was dramatically affected by collection conditions, while CA 125 and MIF were unaffected. Prolactin levels were not different between case and control groups after accounting for the conditions of sample collection, suggesting that sample ascertainment could explain some or all of the previously reported results about its potential as a biomarker for ovarian cancer.Biomarker validation studies should use standardized collection conditions, use multiple control groups, and/or collect samples from cases prior to influence of diagnosis whenever feasible to detect and correct for potential biases associated with sample collection.

  6. Modeling and simulation of blood collection systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonso, Edgar; Xie, Xiaolan; Augusto, Vincent; Garraud, Olivier

    2012-03-01

    This paper addresses the modeling and simulation of blood collection systems in France for both fixed site and mobile blood collection with walk in whole blood donors and scheduled plasma and platelet donors. Petri net models are first proposed to precisely describe different blood collection processes, donor behaviors, their material/human resource requirements and relevant regulations. Petri net models are then enriched with quantitative modeling of donor arrivals, donor behaviors, activity times and resource capacity. Relevant performance indicators are defined. The resulting simulation models can be straightforwardly implemented with any simulation language. Numerical experiments are performed to show how the simulation models can be used to select, for different walk in donor arrival patterns, appropriate human resource planning and donor appointment strategies.

  7. Umbilical Cord Blood: Counselling, Collection, and Banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armson, B Anthony; Allan, David S; Casper, Robert F

    2015-09-01

    To review current evidence regarding umbilical cord blood counselling, collection, and banking and to provide guidelines for Canadian health care professionals regarding patient education, informed consent, procedural aspects, and options for cord blood banking in Canada. Selective or routine collection and banking of umbilical cord blood for future stem cell transplantation for autologous (self) or allogeneic (related or unrelated) treatment of malignant and non-malignant disorders in children and adults. Cord blood can be collected using in utero or ex utero techniques. Umbilical cord blood counselling, collection, and banking, education of health care professionals, indications for cord blood collection, short- and long-term risk and benefits, maternal and perinatal morbidity, parental satisfaction, and health care costs. Published literature was retrieved through searches of Medline and PubMed beginning in September 2013 using appropriate controlled MeSH vocabulary (fetal blood, pregnancy, transplantation, ethics) and key words (umbilical cord blood, banking, collection, pregnancy, transplantation, ethics, public, private). Results were restricted to systematic reviews, randomized control trials/controlled clinical trials, and observational studies. There were no date limits, but results were limited to English or French language materials. Searches were updated on a regular basis and incorporated in the guideline to September 2014. Grey (unpublished) literature was identified through searching the websites of health technology assessment and health technology-related agencies, clinical practice guideline collections, and national and international medical specialty societies. The quality of evidence in this document was rated using the criteria described in the Report of the Canadian Task Force on Preventive Health Care (Table 1). Umbilical cord blood is a readily available source of hematopoetic stem cells used with increasing frequency as an alternative to

  8. Fetal scalp blood sampling during labor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandraharan, Edwin; Wiberg, Nana

    2014-01-01

    Fetal cardiotocography is characterized by low specificity; therefore, in an attempt to ensure fetal well-being, fetal scalp blood sampling has been recommended by most obstetric societies in the case of a non-reassuring cardiotocography. The scientific agreement on the evidence for using fetal...... scalp blood sampling to decrease the rate of operative delivery for fetal distress is ambiguous. Based on the same studies, a Cochrane review states that fetal scalp blood sampling increases the rate of instrumental delivery while decreasing neonatal acidosis, whereas the National Institute of Health...... and Clinical Excellence guideline considers that fetal scalp blood sampling decreases instrumental delivery without differences in other outcome variables. The fetal scalp is supplied by vessels outside the skull below the level of the cranial vault, which is likely to be compressed during contractions...

  9. Equipment for collecting samples of radioactive solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raggenbass, A.; Fradin, J.; Joubert, G.

    1958-01-01

    The authors present an equipment aimed at collecting samples of fission products to perform radio-chemical analysis. As the sample must have a total activity between 1 and 50 micro-Curie, this installation comprises a sampling system and a dilution device which aims at bringing the sample to the suitable activity. Samples are collected by means of needles. The sample reproducibility is discussed. The dilution device is described

  10. Epidemiology of blood collection in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawson-Ayayi, S.; Salmi, L.R.

    1999-01-01

    The objectives of the cross-sectional study (EpiCoS) were to describe, at different stages, volunteers offering their blood, and to characterize various ways of collecting blood. From 15 September 1996 to 31 December 1996, individuals presenting at fixed or mobile sessions in one of 11 randomly selected blood banks were included after they had a medical examination. Variables studied were relative to type of collection, individuals, medical examination, patterns of blood letting, use of collected donations and if unused, reasons for discarding. Sixty four thousand and ninety two volunteers, aged 17-66 years old were included. The proportion of exclusion during medical examination was 10.8% (95% confidence interval (CI): 10.6-11.0%). Exclusions were more frequent among new volunteers and were mostly related to the safety of recipients. Most of the 57,003 donations were whole blood (94.0%) and collected in mobile sessions (89.9%). Five percent of collected donations were discarded; 3.5% (95% CI: 3.4-3.7%) of donations discarded for biological abnormalities, including 1.5% only for initial screen reactions to infectious disease markers (HBs antigen, anti-HBc antibodies, anti-HCV antibodies, anti-HIV antibodies, anti-HTLV antibodies, malaria antibodies and anti-syphilitic antibodies). The most frequent biological abnormality was a high alanine aminotransferase level. A follow-up of these indicators, within the French haemovigilance system, should allow further identification of risk factors and high-risk contexts, and planning means of optimizing blood collection in France

  11. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  12. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter

    2013-01-01

    of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. VO2max decreased towards the end of the season whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test.The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes......ABSTRACT: The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players, and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure.Blood samples were collected five times during a six...... months period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, players were tested for body composition, VO2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance sub-max test (IE2).Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during...

  13. Determination of blood cell subtype concentrations from frozen whole blood samples using TruCount beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langenskiöld, Cecilia; Mellgren, Karin; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Bemark, Mats

    2016-06-24

    In many studies it would be advantageous if blood samples could be collected and analyzed using flow cytometry at a later stage. Ideally, sample collection should involve little hands-on time, allow for long-term storage, and minimally influence the samples. Here we establish a flow cytometry antibody panel that can be used to determine granulocytes, monocytes, and lymphocyte subset concentrations in fresh and frozen whole blood using TruCount technology. The panel can be used on fresh whole-blood samples as well as whole-blood samples that have been frozen after mixing with 10% DMSO. Concentrations in frozen and fresh sample is highly correlated both when frozen within 4 h and the day after collection (r ≥ 0.98), and the estimated concentration in frozen samples was between 91 and 94% of that in fresh samples for all cell types. Using this method whole-blood samples can be frozen using a simple preparation method, and stored long-term before accurate determination of cell concentration. This allows for standardized analysis of the samples at a reference laboratory in multi-center studies. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society. © 2016 International Clinical Cytometry Society.

  14. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  15. Research results: preserving newborn blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michelle Huckaby; Scheurer, Michael E; Green, Robert C; McGuire, Amy L

    2012-11-07

    Retention and use, without explicit parental permission, of residual dried blood samples from newborn screening has generated public controversy over concerns about violations of family privacy rights and loss of parental autonomy. The public debate about this issue has included little discussion about the destruction of a potentially valuable public resource that can be used for research that may yield improvements in public health. The research community must advocate for policies and infrastructure that promote retention of residual dried blood samples and their use in biomedical research.

  16. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birck, Malene M; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken M; Lykkesfeldt, Jens

    2014-10-11

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e.g., the saphenous and jugular veins, each technique containing both advantages and disadvantages(4,5). Here, we present four different blood sampling techniques for either conscious or anaesthetized guinea pigs. The procedures are all non-terminal procedures provided that sample volumes and number of samples do not exceed guidelines for blood collection in laboratory animals(6). All the described methods have been thoroughly tested and applied for repeated in vivo blood sampling in studies within our research facility.

  17. Improving blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics and handling at hospitals has great potential. This research will show how a simulation model can be used to evaluate changes made to two different cases of transportation of blood samples at a hospital, by evaluating...

  18. Impact of blood collection and processing on peripheral blood gene expression profiling in type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Linda; Fuhlbrigge, Rebecca; Atkinson, Mark A; Fathman, C Garrison

    2017-08-18

    The natural history of type 1 diabetes (T1D) is challenging to investigate, especially as pre-diabetic individuals are difficult to identify. Numerous T1D consortia have been established to collect whole blood for gene expression analysis from individuals with or at risk to develop T1D. However, with no universally accepted protocol for their collection, differences in sample processing may lead to variances in the results. Here, we examined whether the choice of blood collection tube and RNA extraction kit leads to differences in the expression of genes that are changed during the progression of T1D, and if these differences could be minimized by measuring gene expression directly from the lysate of whole blood. Microarray analysis showed that the expression of 901 genes is highly influenced by sample processing using the PAXgene versus the Tempus system. These included a significant number of lymphocyte-specific genes and genes whose expression has been reported to differ in the peripheral blood of at-risk and T1D patients compared to controls. We showed that artificial changes in gene expression occur when control and T1D samples were processed differently. The sample processing-dependent differences in gene expression were largely due to loss of transcripts during the RNA extraction step using the PAXgene system. The majority of differences were not observed when gene expression was measured in whole blood lysates prepared from blood collected in PAXgene and Tempus tubes. We showed that the gene expression profile of samples processed using the Tempus system is more accurate than that of samples processed using the PAXgene system. Variation in sample processing can result in misleading changes in gene expression. However, these differences can be minimized by measuring gene expression directly in whole blood lysates.

  19. Quantification of multiple elements in dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Lise; Andersen-Ranberg, Karen; Hollergaard, Mads

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dried blood spots (DBS) is a unique matrix that offers advantages compared to conventional blood collection making it increasingly popular in large population studies. We here describe development and validation of a method to determine multiple elements in DBS. METHODS: Elements were...... in venous blood. Samples with different hematocrit were spotted onto filter paper to assess hematocrit effect. RESULTS: The established method was precise and accurate for measurement of most elements in DBS. There was a significant but relatively weak correlation between measurement of the elements Mg, K...

  20. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  1. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng; Faber, Claas; Sun, Xiuming; Qu, Yueming; Wang, Chao; Ivetic, Snjezana; Riis, Tenna; Ulrich, Uta; Fohrer, Nicola

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected

  2. Water sample-collection and distribution system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. R.

    1978-01-01

    Collection and distribution system samples water from six designated stations, filtered if desired, and delivers it to various analytical sensors. System may be controlled by Water Monitoring Data Acquisition System or operated manually.

  3. Biomonitoring of ciguatoxin exposure in mice using blood collection cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottein Dechraoui, M-Yasmine; Wang, Zhihong; Turquet, Jean; Chinain, Mireille; Darius, Taiana; Cruchet, Philippe; Radwan, Faisal F Y; Dickey, Robert W; Ramsdell, John S

    2005-09-01

    Ciguatera is a human food poisoning caused by consumption of tropical and subtropical fish that have, through their diet, accumulated ciguatoxins in their tissues. This study used laboratory mice to investigate the potential to apply blood collection cards to biomonitor ciguatoxin exposure. Quantitation by the neuroblastoma cytotoxicity assay of Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) spiked into mice blood was made with good precision and recovery. The blood collected from mice exposed to a sublethal dose of Caribbean ciguatoxic extract (0.59 ng/g C-CTX-1 equivalents) was analyzed and found to contain detectable toxin levels at least 12 h post-exposure. Calculated concentration varied from 0.25 ng/ml at 30 min post-exposure to 0.12 ng/ml at 12 h. A dose response mice exposure revealed a linear dose-dependent increase of ciguatoxin activity in mice blood, with more polar ciguatoxin congeners contributing to 89% of the total toxicity. Finally, the toxin measurement in mice blood exposed to toxic extracts from the Indian Ocean or from the Pacific Ocean showed that the blood collection card method could be extended to each of the three known ciguatoxin families (C-CTX, I-CTX and P-CTX). The low matrix effect of extracted dried-blood samples (used at 1:10 or 1:20 dilution) and the high sensitivity of the neuroblastoma assay (limit of detection 0.006 ng/ml C-CTX-1), determined that the blood collection card method is suitable to monitor ciguatoxin at sublethal doses in mice and opens the potential to be a useful procedure for fish screening, environmental risk assessment or clinical diagnosis of ciguatera fish poisoning in humans or marine mammals.

  4. Adaptive control of theophylline therapy: importance of blood sampling times.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Argenio, D Z; Khakmahd, K

    1983-10-01

    A two-observation protocol for estimating theophylline clearance during a constant-rate intravenous infusion is used to examine the importance of blood sampling schedules with regard to the information content of resulting concentration data. Guided by a theory for calculating maximally informative sample times, population simulations are used to assess the effect of specific sampling times on the precision of resulting clearance estimates and subsequent predictions of theophylline plasma concentrations. The simulations incorporated noise terms for intersubject variability, dosing errors, sample collection errors, and assay error. Clearance was estimated using Chiou's method, least squares, and a Bayesian estimation procedure. The results of these simulations suggest that clinically significant estimation and prediction errors may result when using the above two-point protocol for estimating theophylline clearance if the time separating the two blood samples is less than one population mean elimination half-life.

  5. 21 CFR 868.1100 - Arterial blood sampling kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Diagnostic Devices § 868.1100 Arterial blood sampling kit. (a) Identification. An arterial blood sampling kit is a device, in kit form, used to obtain arterial blood samples... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Arterial blood sampling kit. 868.1100 Section 868...

  6. Effect of order of draw of blood samples during phlebotomy on routine biochemistry results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, Raashda A; Cornes, Michael P; Whitehead, Simon J; Othonos, Nadia; Ford, Clare; Gama, Rousseau

    2011-11-01

    To investigate whether incorrect order of draw of blood samples during phlebotomy causes in vitro potassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid EDTA (kEDTA) contamination of blood samples. Serum kEDTA, potassium, calcium, magnesium, alkaline phosphatase, zinc and iron concentrations were measured in blood samples drawn before and after collecting blood into kEDTA containing sample tubes by an experienced phlebotomist using the Sarstedt Safety Monovette system. EDTA was undetectable in all samples. The concentrations of other analytes were similar in blood samples drawn before and after collection of the EDTA blood sample. Order of draw of blood samples using the Sarstedt Safety Monovette system has no effect on serum biochemistry results, when samples are taken by an experienced phlebotomist.

  7. Automated blood-sample handling in the clinical laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godolphin, W; Bodtker, K; Uyeno, D; Goh, L O

    1990-09-01

    The only significant advances in blood-taking in 25 years have been the disposable needle and evacuated blood-drawing tube. With the exception of a few isolated barcode experiments, most sample-tracking is performed through handwritten or computer-printed labels. Attempts to reduce the hazards of centrifugation have resulted in air-tight lids or chambers, the use of which is time-consuming and cumbersome. Most commonly used clinical analyzers require serum or plasma, distributed into specialized containers, unique to that analyzer. Aliquots for different tests are prepared by handpouring or pipetting. Moderate to large clinical laboratories perform so many different tests that even multi-analyzers performing multiple analyses on a single sample may account for only a portion of all tests ordered for a patient. Thus several aliquots of each specimen are usually required. We have developed a proprietary serial centrifuge and blood-collection tube suitable for incorporation into an automated or robotic sample-handling system. The system we propose is (a) safe--avoids or prevents biological danger to the many "handlers" of blood; (b) small--minimizes the amount of sample taken and space required to adapt to the needs of satellite and mobile testing, and direct interfacing with analyzers; (c) serial--permits each sample to be treated according to its own "merits," optimizes throughput, and facilitates flexible automation; and (d) smart--ensures quality results through monitoring and intelligent control of patient identification, sample characteristics, and separation process.

  8. Extensive monitoring through multiple blood samples in professional soccer players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heisterberg, Mette F; Fahrenkrug, Jan; Krustrup, Peter; Storskov, Anders; Kjær, Michael; Andersen, Jesper L

    2013-05-01

    The aim of this study was to make a comprehensive gathering of consecutive detailed blood samples from professional soccer players and to analyze different blood parameters in relation to seasonal changes in training and match exposure. Blood samples were collected 5 times during a 6-month period and analyzed for 37 variables in 27 professional soccer players from the best Danish league. Additionally, the players were tested for body composition, V[Combining Dot Above]O2max and physical performance by the Yo-Yo intermittent endurance submax test (IE2). Multiple variations in blood parameters occurred during the observation period, including a decrease in hemoglobin and an increase in hematocrit as the competitive season progressed. Iron and transferrin were stable, whereas ferritin showed a decrease at the end of the season. The immunoglobulin A (IgA) and IgM increased in the period with basal physical training and at the end of the season. Leucocytes decreased with increased physical training. Lymphocytes decreased at the end of the season. The V[Combining Dot Above]O2max decreased toward the end of the season, whereas no significant changes were observed in the IE2 test. The regular blood samples from elite soccer players reveal significant changes that may be related to changes in training pattern, match exposure, or length of the match season. Especially the end of the preparation season and at the end of the competitive season seem to be time points were the blood-derived values indicate that the players are under excessive physical strain and might be more subjected to a possible overreaching-overtraining conditions. We suggest that regular analyses of blood samples could be an important initiative to optimize training adaptation, training load, and game participation, but sampling has to be regular, and a database has to be built for each individual player.

  9. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly

    2015-07-01

    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  10. Whole blood solubilization and discoloration before LSC of yttrium samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Marina F.; Leonardo, Lucio

    2009-01-01

    Liquid scintillation counting of whole blood and animal tissues samples could be severely impaired owing to quenching by their compounds. The objective of this previous study is preparing one protocol of 90 Y measurement to apply in biodistribution and dosimetry studies of radiopharmaceuticals labeled with this isotope and other beta emitters in in vivo and ex vivo samples. The first parameters considered to choose a method were: the largest blood sample per collection (80μl-90μl), attending the collection limit of less than 7.5% of total circulating blood volume for in vivo samples. Other parameters were the use of EDTA and cyclohexydine as solubilization and lytic agents, HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 as mineralizing agents and NH 4 OH as neutralization agent. One samples batch was tested in a water bath under the lower temperature to prevent the volume lose of the ionic phase. Other samples batch was mineralized over a hot-plate at 120 deg C following the currently largest sample amounts processing procedure in our laboratory by using HNO 3 and H 2 O 2 . Results show the contribution of the blood fragments as quenching in the region A ( 3 and/or NH 4 OH in the hot-plate digestion. As expected, the measurements in the three spectral regions show the proteins and colored fragments were completely removed by the hot-plate digestion. The rate between efficiency and 90 Sr- 90 Y concentration had not significant differences in the range between 120 Bq and 1200 Bq. (author)

  11. A 'feather-trap' for collecting DNA samples from birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurer, Golo; Beck, Nadeena; Double, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Genetic analyses of birds are usually based on DNA extracted from a blood sample. For some species, however, obtaining blood samples is difficult because they are sensitive to handling, pose a conservation or animal welfare concern, or evade capture. In such cases, feathers obtained from live birds in the wild can provide an alternative source of DNA. Here, we provide the first description and evaluation of a 'feather-trap', consisting of small strips of double-sided adhesive tape placed close to a nest with chicks, as a simple, inexpensive and minimally invasive method to collect feathers. The feather-trap was tested in tropical conditions on the Australian pheasant coucal (Centropus phasianinus). None of the 12 pairs of coucals on which the feather-trap was used abandoned the nest, and feeding rates did not differ from those of birds not exposed to a feather-trap. On average, 4.2 feathers were collected per trap over 2-5 days and, despite exposure to monsoonal rain, DNA was extracted from 71.4% of samples, albeit at low concentrations. The amount of genomic DNA extracted from each feather was sufficient to reliably genotype individuals at up to five microsatellite loci for parentage analysis. We show that a feather-trap can provide a reliable alternative for obtaining DNA in species where taking blood is difficult. It may also prove useful for collecting feather samples for other purposes, e.g. stable-isotope analysis. © 2009 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  12. Malaria PCR Detection in Cambodian Low-Transmission Settings: Dried Blood Spots versus Venous Blood Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canier, Lydie; Khim, Nimol; Kim, Saorin; Eam, Rotha; Khean, Chanra; Loch, Kaknika; Ken, Malen; Pannus, Pieter; Bosman, Philippe; Stassijns, Jorgen; Nackers, Fabienne; Alipon, SweetC; Char, Meng Chuor; Chea, Nguon; Etienne, William; De Smet, Martin; Kindermans, Jean-Marie; Ménard, Didier

    2015-01-01

    In the context of malaria elimination, novel strategies for detecting very low malaria parasite densities in asymptomatic individuals are needed. One of the major limitations of the malaria parasite detection methods is the volume of blood samples being analyzed. The objective of the study was to compare the diagnostic accuracy of a malaria polymerase chain reaction assay, from dried blood spots (DBS, 5 μL) and different volumes of venous blood (50 μL, 200 μL, and 1 mL). The limit of detection of the polymerase chain reaction assay, using calibrated Plasmodium falciparum blood dilutions, showed that venous blood samples (50 μL, 200 μL, 1 mL) combined with Qiagen extraction methods gave a similar threshold of 100 parasites/mL, ∼100-fold lower than 5 μL DBS/Instagene method. On a set of 521 field samples, collected in two different transmission areas in northern Cambodia, no significant difference in the proportion of parasite carriers, regardless of the methods used was found. The 5 μL DBS method missed 27% of the samples detected by the 1 mL venous blood method, but most of the missed parasites carriers were infected by Plasmodium vivax (84%). The remaining missed P. falciparum parasite carriers (N = 3) were only detected in high-transmission areas. PMID:25561570

  13. Blood donors and factors impacting the blood donation decision: motives for donating blood in Turkish sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karacan, Eda; Cengiz Seval, Guldane; Aktan, Zeynep; Ayli, Meltem; Palabiyikoglu, Refia

    2013-12-01

    Donations in Turkey are insufficient to cover the high transfusion needs arising from large numbers of thalassemia and sickle cell anemia patients and increasing demands for blood due to advanced surgery and cancer treatment. The most acceptable means to get blood is voluntary blood donation and the blood donor system in Turkey mostly depends on a combination of voluntary and involuntary donors. The main aim of this study is to explore the motivations of Turkish voluntary blood donors toward blood donation and to determine predictors of blood donation motivation. A cross-sectional sample survey of active blood donors in Ankara, Turkey was conducted. The sample consisted of 189 male volunteer blood donor adults. Donors filled in a self-administered questionnaire including the measures of demographic information, empathetic concern, altruism, social responsibility and blood donation motivation questionnaire during donation. Factor analysis of Blood Donation Motivation Measure with varimax rotation revealed a three-factor solution named as "values and moral duty", "positive feelings and esteem" and "self-benefit and external reasons". The results with regression analyses showed that only social responsibility had an significant effect independent of age, income, and education on blood donation motivation. These result reflects that blood donation motivation not only linked to a high degree of altruistic reasons, but also to a combination of some self-regarding motives. Additionally, feelings of empathy or altruism may be less strong at the time the decision to help, other factors may have a larger influence on helping decisions. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-05-19

    knowledge of sample collection from various matrices is crucial. Recovery and preservation of microorganisms prior to analysis are important...Another method for encapsulating bacteria for use in biodegradation of gasoline involves a complex process using gellan gum (Moslemy et al. 2002). Many...use of acacia gum in preserving microorganisms for extended periods of time without refrigeration (Krumnow et al. 2009; Sorokulova et al. 2008, 2012

  15. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  16. Collection of biological samples in forensic toxicology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinis-Oliveira, R J; Carvalho, F; Duarte, J A; Remião, F; Marques, A; Santos, A; Magalhães, T

    2010-09-01

    Forensic toxicology is the study and practice of the application of toxicology to the purposes of the law. The relevance of any finding is determined, in the first instance, by the nature and integrity of the specimen(s) submitted for analysis. This means that there are several specific challenges to select and collect specimens for ante-mortem and post-mortem toxicology investigation. Post-mortem specimens may be numerous and can endow some special difficulties compared to clinical specimens, namely those resulting from autolytic and putrefactive changes. Storage stability is also an important issue to be considered during the pre-analytic phase, since its consideration should facilitate the assessment of sample quality and the analytical result obtained from that sample. The knowledge on degradation mechanisms and methods to increase storage stability may enable the forensic toxicologist to circumvent possible difficulties. Therefore, advantages and limitations of specimen preservation procedures are thoroughfully discussed in this review. Presently, harmonized protocols for sampling in suspected intoxications would have obvious utility. In the present article an overview is given on sampling procedures for routinely collected specimens as well as on alternative specimens that may provide additional information on the route and timing of exposure to a specific xenobiotic. Last, but not least, a discussion on possible bias that can influence the interpretation of toxicological results is provided. This comprehensive review article is intented as a significant help for forensic toxicologists to accomplish their frequently overwhelming mission.

  17. Comparison of Proteins in Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples by LC/MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, Andrew G.; Percy, Andrew J.; Hardie, Darryl B.; Borchers, Christoph H.

    2013-09-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling methods are desirable for population-wide biomarker screening programs because of their ease of collection, transportation, and storage. Immunoassays are traditionally used to quantify endogenous proteins in these samples but require a separate assay for each protein. Recently, targeted mass spectrometry (MS) has been proposed for generating highly-multiplexed assays for biomarker proteins in DBS samples. In this work, we report the first comparison of proteins in whole blood and DBS samples using an untargeted MS approach. The average number of proteins identified in undepleted whole blood and DBS samples by liquid chromatography (LC)/MS/MS was 223 and 253, respectively. Protein identification repeatability was between 77 %-92 % within replicates and the majority of these repeated proteins (70 %) were observed in both sample formats. Proteins exclusively identified in the liquid or dried fluid spot format were unbiased based on their molecular weight, isoelectric point, aliphatic index, and grand average hydrophobicity. In addition, we extended this comparison to include proteins in matching plasma and serum samples with their dried fluid spot equivalents, dried plasma spot (DPS), and dried serum spot (DSS). This work begins to define the accessibility of endogenous proteins in dried fluid spot samples for analysis by MS and is useful in evaluating the scope of this new approach.

  18. Impact of blood sampling in very preterm infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, L P; Rasmussen, M K; Bjerregaard, L L

    2000-01-01

    ; the groups were then subdivided into critically ill or not. Diagnostic blood sampling and blood transfusion events were recorded. In total, 1905 blood samples (5,253 analysis) were performed, corresponding to 0.7 samples (1.9 analysis) per day per infant. The highest frequencies were found during the first....../kg. For the extremely preterm infants a significant correlation between sampled and transfused blood volume was found (mean 37.1 and 33.3 ml/kg, respectively, r = + 0.71, p = 0.0003). The most frequently requested analyses were glucose, sodium and potassium. Few blood gas analyses were requested (1.9/ infant). No blood...... losses attributable to excessive generous sampling were detected. The results show an acceptable low frequency of sampling and transfusion events for infants of GA 28-32 weeks. The study emphasizes the necessity of thorough reflection and monitoring of blood losses when ordering blood sampling...

  19. Importance of sampling frequency when collecting diatoms

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Naicheng

    2016-11-14

    There has been increasing interest in diatom-based bio-assessment but we still lack a comprehensive understanding of how to capture diatoms’ temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency (ASF). To cover this research gap, we collected and analyzed daily riverine diatom samples over a 1-year period (25 April 2013–30 April 2014) at the outlet of a German lowland river. The samples were classified into five clusters (1–5) by a Kohonen Self-Organizing Map (SOM) method based on similarity between species compositions over time. ASFs were determined to be 25 days at Cluster 2 (June-July 2013) and 13 days at Cluster 5 (February-April 2014), whereas no specific ASFs were found at Cluster 1 (April-May 2013), 3 (August-November 2013) (>30 days) and Cluster 4 (December 2013 - January 2014) (<1 day). ASFs showed dramatic seasonality and were negatively related to hydrological wetness conditions, suggesting that sampling interval should be reduced with increasing catchment wetness. A key implication of our findings for freshwater management is that long-term bio-monitoring protocols should be developed with the knowledge of tracking algal temporal dynamics with an appropriate sampling frequency.

  20. Quality standards for sample collection in coagulation testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Salvagno, Gian Luca; Montagnana, Martina; Lima-Oliveira, Gabriel; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Favaloro, Emmanuel J

    2012-09-01

    Preanalytical activities, especially those directly connected with blood sample collection and handling, are the most vulnerable steps throughout the testing process. The receipt of unsuitable samples is commonplace in laboratory practice and represents a serious problem, given the reliability of test results can be adversely compromised following analysis of these specimens. The basic criteria for an appropriate and safe venipuncture are nearly identical to those used for collecting blood for clinical chemistry and immunochemistry testing, and entail proper patient identification, use of the correct technique, as well as appropriate devices and needles. There are, however, some peculiar aspects, which are deemed to be particularly critical when collecting quality specimens for clot-based tests, and these require clearer recognition. These include prevention of prolonged venous stasis, collection of nonhemolyzed specimens, order of draw, and appropriate filling and mixing of the primary collection tubes. All of these important preanalytical issues are discussed in this article, and evidence-based suggestions as well as recommendations on how to obtain a high-quality sample for coagulation testing are also illustrated. We have also performed an investigation aimed to identify variation of test results due to underfilling of primary blood tubes, and have identified a clinically significant bias in test results when tubes are drawn at less than 89% of total fill for activated partial thromboplastin time, less than 78% for fibrinogen, and less than 67% for coagulation factor VIII, whereas prothrombin time and activated protein C resistance remain relatively reliable even in tubes drawn at 67% of the nominal volume. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Remote blood collection in reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus L: a preliminary study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wiklund

    1994-12-01

    Full Text Available Automatic blood sampling equipment (ABSE was used successfully to collect blood samples from two reindeer. During blood sampling, two methods of restraint were applied which caused no short term changes in plasma concentrations of urea, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase or total protein. Plasma Cortisol concentrations were significantly elevated by the two restraint techniques. The value of ABSE in studies of stress in reindeer is discussed.

  2. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seemann, T. L.; Nybo, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: An important preanalytical factor is the blood sampling procedure and its adherence to the guidelines, i.e. CLSI and ISO 15189, in order to ensure a consistent quality of the blood collection. Therefore, it is critically important to introduce quality control on this part of the process....... As suggested by the EFLM working group on the preanalytical phase we introduced continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme to monitor the quality of blood sampling performed on an everyday basis. Materials and methods: Based on our own routines the EFLM....... Conclusion: It is possible to establish a continuous quality control on blood sampling. It has been well accepted by the staff and we have already been able to identify critical areas in the sampling process. We find that continuous auditing increase focus on the quality of blood collection which ensures...

  3. Collection and Transfusion of Blood in Jos University Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was embarked on to investigate the pattern of blood collection and transfusion in Jos University Teaching Hospital (JUTH), Jos between 2000 and 2005 in the face of the present human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pandemic. Methodology: Blood bank records of blood donors and transfusions were ...

  4. Combination syringe provides air-free blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pool, S. L.

    1970-01-01

    Standard syringe and spinal needle are combined in unique manner to secure air-free blood samples. Combination syringe obtains air free samples because air bubbles become insignificant when samples greater than 1 cc are drawn.

  5. An international study of the performance of sample collection from patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dzik, WH; Murphy, MF; Andreu, G; Heddle, N; Hogman, C; Kekomaki, R; Murphy, S; Shimizu, M; Smit Sibinga, C.T.

    2003-01-01

    Background and Objectives Collection of a blood sample from the correct patient is the first step in the process of safe transfusion. The aim of this international collaborative study was to assess the frequency of mislabelled and miscollected samples drawn for blood grouping. Materials and Methods

  6. Studies of U in the blood of two population samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segovia, N.; Olguin, M.E.; Romero, M.

    1986-01-01

    The present work, attempts to establish the statistical distribution of blood uranium in a population of the same community, similar in age and in living patterns. U traces were evaluated by a fission track technique both in whole blood and plasma samples. Dried samples were compressed into pellets and irradiated in a nuclear reactor using the external detector method. For U quantification, standard U samples were used. A comparative sampling of U content in blood samples from a group of radiation exposed workers and another of leukemia patients was also carried out. Results from the sampling groups are reported and discussed. (author)

  7. Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacterial Isolates from Blood Samples of Patients in University of Benin Teaching Hospital Benin City, Edo State, Nigeria. ... The thioglychollate broth was sub cultured onto blood agar plate for anaerobic incubation, while the brain heart infusion broth was sub cultured onto chocolate, blood agar and McConkey agar for ...

  8. Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer show evidence of previous blood sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-01-01

    Payload specialist Reinhard Furrer shows evidence of previous blood sampling while Wubbo J. Ockels, Dutch payload specialist (only partially visible), extends his right arm after a sample has been taken. Both men show bruises on their arms.

  9. ABO and D typing and alloantibody screening in marrow samples: relevance to intraosseous blood transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bäckman, Sari; Ångerman-Haasmaa, Susanne; Jousi, Milla; Siitonen, Sanna; Salmela, Katja

    2018-03-01

    Blood transfusion through the intraosseous route is gaining popularity in emergency medicine. Pretransfusion peripheral blood (PB) samples are usually not available in these patients, leading to discrepancies in blood group typing and a possible delay in transferring to group-specific blood products. The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of ABO and D typing and red blood cell alloantibody screening in marrow (BM) samples. Direct and reverse ABO typing, D typing, and a two-cell alloantibody screen were performed in EDTA-anticoagulated BM samples with standard manual column agglutination techniques. EDTA-anticoagulated PB samples were used as controls. The mean age of the study subjects (n = 71) was 47 years (range, 1-82 years). All ABO groups and both D+ and D- types were represented. In all subjects, concordant results were observed for all analyses in BM and PB samples. In 15 (21%) of the samples, a discrepancy of one reaction strength step (1+) was observed in at least one of the analyses (Cohen's weighted κ = 0.993); this did not affect interpretation of the results. Blood group typing and alloantibody screening are feasible in BM samples, providing proof-of-concept that intraosseous samples for blood group serologic analyses can be collected from emergency patients before intraosseous blood transfusion. This will enable a timely transfer to group-specific blood products and enable conservation of the valuable universal-donor blood products. © 2018 AABB.

  10. Neonatal blood gas sampling methods | Goenka | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There is little published guidance that systematically evaluates the different methods of neonatal blood gas sampling, where each method has its individual benefits and risks. This review critically surveys the available evidence to generate a comparison between arterial and capillary blood gas sampling, focusing on their ...

  11. A femoral arteriovenous shunt facilitates arterial whole blood sampling in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, Bruno; Burger, Cyrill; Buck, Alfred; Biro, Peter

    2002-01-01

    In this study we evaluated on-line continuous blood sampling in a femoral arteriovenous (a-v) shunt for use in quantitative tracer studies using gamma-emitting radionuclides in animals. The shunt consisted of 40 cm polyethylene tubing (PE-50) guided through a coincidence probe. Two three-way valves allowed blood pressure measurements and tracer injection. Blood flow in the shunt and the impulse response function (IRF) were assessed using heparinized human blood mixed with fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG). In vivo experiments were performed in eight male rats (300-350 g) anaesthetized with halothane. In three rats, manual blood sampling was performed in parallel with on-line sampling. In another five animals, the arterial whole blood activity was recorded on-line for 40 min. For the experiments 150-180 MBq FDG was injected over 35 s. Blood flow in the shunt was 23.6, 29.2 and 42.8 ml/h at 100, 120 and 160 mmHg, respectively. The IRF was characterized by minimal dispersion (1-2 s FWHM). Deconvolution of the measured arterial input curves with the IRF changed the measured curve only minimally. Whole blood radioactivity concentration derived from manual and on-line sampling were in excellent agreement. The curves derived from on-line sampling were of high statistical quality. In conclusion, a femoral a-v shunt allows multiple manipulations such as measurement of the arterial whole blood activity, continuous blood pressure monitoring, injection of the tracer and collection of blood samples if necessary. It is not associated with blood loss if the collection of blood samples is not required. It is more convenient to use than manual sampling, the peak of the input curve is never missed and the input curves are of high statistical quality. (orig.)

  12. Blood oxygen saturation determined by transmission spectrophotometry of hemolyzed blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Use of the Lambert-Beer Transmission Law determines blood oxygen saturation of hemolyzed blood samples. This simplified method is based on the difference in optical absorption properties of hemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin.

  13. Evaluation of some toxic metals in blood samples of smokers in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To determine some toxic elements in the blood of cigarette and tobacco pipe smokers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Methods: The study setting was Riyadh, the capital city of Saudi Arabia, Riyadh City. Male volunteers, aged 20 - 58 year, whose blood samples were collected, were classified into three groups of ...

  14. Dried blood spot measurement: application in tacrolimus monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Chi Yuen; van der Heijden, Jaques; Hoogtanders, Karin; Christiaans, Maarten; Liu, Yan Lun; Chan, Yiu Han; Choi, Koon Shing; van de Plas, Afke; Shek, Chi Chung; Chau, Ka Foon; Li, Chun Sang; van Hooff, Johannes; Stolk, Leo

    2008-02-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling and high-performance liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry have been developed in monitoring tacrolimus levels. Our center favors the use of limited sampling strategy and abbreviated formula to estimate the area under concentration-time curve (AUC(0-12)). However, it is inconvenient for patients because they have to wait in the center for blood sampling. We investigated the application of DBS method in tacrolimus level monitoring using limited sampling strategy and abbreviated AUC estimation approach. Duplicate venous samples were obtained at each time point (C(0), C(2), and C(4)). To determine the stability of blood samples, one venous sample was sent to our laboratory immediately. The other duplicate venous samples, together with simultaneous fingerprick blood samples, were sent to the University of Maastricht in the Netherlands. Thirty six patients were recruited and 108 sets of blood samples were collected. There was a highly significant relationship between AUC(0-12), estimated from venous blood samples, and fingerprick blood samples (r(2) = 0.96, P AUC(0-12) strategy as drug monitoring.

  15. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Auer Lopes

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective: to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. Method: this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1 verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2 definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r and R(r. Results: while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. Conclusion: the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality.

  16. 28 CFR 28.12 - Collection of DNA samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Homeland Security, collecting DNA samples from: (1) Aliens lawfully in, or being processed for lawful... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Collection of DNA samples. 28.12 Section 28.12 Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE DNA IDENTIFICATION SYSTEM DNA Sample Collection...

  17. Long-term facial artery catheter implantation for serial arterial blood sampling and invasive arterial blood pressure measurement in horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Deborah Penteado Martins; Teixeira, Luisa Gouvêa; Canola, Paulo Aléscio; Albernaz, Raquel Mincarelli; Marques, José Antônio; Neto, José Corrêa de Lacerda

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate surgical catheter implantation in the facial artery of horses and the long-term maintenance of such arteries using heparin and ascorbic acid as filling solution. Nine horses were implanted with a polyurethane catheter. The catheters were flushed with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution every 8h and remained patent for 25 days. Arterial blood samples were collected twice a day, and one exercise test that included serial blood samples and arterial pressure recordings was performed on a treadmill. Polyurethane catheters surgically implanted in the facial artery can be kept patent by filling with a heparin/ascorbic acid solution and provide convenient invasive arterial access in horses which is suitable for use for serial blood sampling and blood pressure recordings, even during exercise on treadmill. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Designing an enhanced groundwater sample collection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schalla, R.

    1994-10-01

    As part of an ongoing technical support mission to achieve excellence and efficiency in environmental restoration activities at the Laboratory for Energy and Health-Related Research (LEHR), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided guidance on the design and construction of monitoring wells and identified the most suitable type of groundwater sampling pump and accessories for monitoring wells. The goal was to utilize a monitoring well design that would allow for hydrologic testing and reduce turbidity to minimize the impact of sampling. The sampling results of the newly designed monitoring wells were clearly superior to those of the previously installed monitoring wells. The new wells exhibited reduced turbidity, in addition to improved access for instrumentation and hydrologic testing. The variable frequency submersible pump was selected as the best choice for obtaining groundwater samples. The literature references are listed at the end of this report. Despite some initial difficulties, the actual performance of the variable frequency, submersible pump and its accessories was effective in reducing sampling time and labor costs, and its ease of use was preferred over the previously used bladder pumps. The surface seals system, called the Dedicator, proved to be useful accessory to prevent surface contamination while providing easy access for water-level measurements and for connecting the pump. Cost savings resulted from the use of the pre-production pumps (beta units) donated by the manufacturer for the demonstration. However, larger savings resulted from shortened field time due to the ease in using the submersible pumps and the surface seal access system. Proper deployment of the monitoring wells also resulted in cost savings and ensured representative samples

  19. Use of filter paper blood samples for rabies antibody detection in foxes and raccoon dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wasniewski, Marine; Barrat, Jacques; Combes, Benoit; Guiot, Anne Laure; Cliquet, Florence

    2014-08-01

    The effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in wildlife is usually evaluated by the detection of rabies antibodies. However, the assessment of rabies antibodies has several technical difficulties in the field, such as the collection, storage, transport and titration of blood samples, often of poor quality. The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of collecting blood on a filter paper (FP) coupled with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) titration of rabies antibodies in raccoon dogs and red foxes. The FP blood sampling method was found highly specific and repeatable in both species. Overall, results obtained with the FP sampling method were highly concordant with the conventional (venipuncture) sampling methods. Blood eluates from FP samples from foxes and raccoon dogs tested using ELISA showed concordance values of 92% and 95%, respectively, with serum samples tested using the seroneutralisation test and values of 95% and 91%, respectively, when the ELISA was used on both types of sample. The use of FP blood sampling coupled with the titration of rabies antibodies by ELISA provides a reliable alternative to conventional blood sampling and serum testing by seroneutralisation. This simple procedure is particularly attractive and cost-effective for assessing the effectiveness of oral rabies vaccination in field conditions. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Are They Bloody Guilty? Blood Doping with Simulated Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, Parker E.; Lees, Kelsey D.; Milanick, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    In this practice-based lab, students are provided with four Olympic athlete profiles and simulated blood and urine samples to test for illegal substances and blood-doping practices. Throughout the course of the lab, students design and conduct a testing procedure and use their results to determine which athletes won their medals fairly. All of the…

  1. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory's parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low.

  2. Stability of carboxyhemoglobin in stored and mailed blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2008-02-01

    Elevated blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels are used to confirm a clinical diagnosis of exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and, in some instances, assess severity of poisoning. However, many hospital laboratories cannot measure COHb because they do not have CO-oximeters. In such instances, blood samples are often sent to outside laboratories or with a transported patient for measurement at the receiving hospital. This study was conducted to assess the stability of COHb in stored and mailed blood samples anticoagulated with heparin. Adult human blood was drawn into standard sample tubes anticoagulated with sodium heparin. Carbon monoxide gas was infused to raise the COHb level to 25% to 35%. Samples were then refrigerated or stored at room temperature, and serial COHb determinations were performed for 28 days. Additional samples were measured after being mailed locally or across the United States and back. No significant changes in COHb levels were seen in samples stored either in refrigeration or at room temperature over a period of 28 days or in samples shipped without refrigeration locally or across the United States. Carboxyhemoglobin levels in whole blood samples anticoagulated with heparin are stable with or without refrigeration for up to 4 weeks. If COHb measurement capability is not available, such samples may be shipped or transported with patients with confidence that the COHb level will be stable when measured at a later time.

  3. The pathology of facial vein blood sampling in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ket; Harslund, Jakob le Fèvre; Bollen, Peter

    2014-01-01

    vein blood sampling. Therefore, we investigated if this technique was associated with pathological changes of the jaw region. Methods: 43 NMRI mice were subjected to facial vein blood sampling by using the lancet method during 12 months, starting at the age of 8 weeks. The mice were restrained manually......, and the tissue of the jaw was evaluated. Results: In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 2 days previously, 5 mice had no signs of gross pathological changes, whereas 12 mice had signs of minimal local subcutaneous bleeding and 6 mice had moderate local subcutaneous bleeding. No additional gross...... pathological changes were observed. In the 23 mice, from which blood samples had been taken 4 weeks earlier, no hemorrhage or signs of scar tissue formation could be observed. Histological slides are currently being processed (HE staining) and will be evaluated and discussed....

  4. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Lenicek Krleza, Jasna

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about t...

  5. Astronaut Joseph Kerwin takes blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad

    Science.gov (United States)

    1973-01-01

    Scientist-Astronaut Joseph P. Kerwin (right), Skylab 2 science pilot and a doctor of medicine, takes a blood sample from Astronaut Charles Conrad Jr., Sylab 2 commander, as seen in this reproduction taken from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab 1 and 2 space station cluster in Earth orbit. The blood sampling was part of the Skylab Hematology and Immunology Experiment M110 series.

  6. Survivability of Existing Peripheral Intravenous Access Following Blood Sampling in a Pediatric Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Neil, Sheree W; Friesen, Mary Ann; Stanger, Debra; Trickey, Amber Williams

    2018-03-07

    Although pediatric patients report venipuncture as their most feared experience during hospitalization, blood sampling from peripheral intravenous accesses (PIVs) is not standard of care. Blood sampling from PIVs has long been considered by healthcare personnel to harm the access. In an effort to minimize painful procedures, pediatric nursing staff conducted a prospective, observational study to determine if blood sampling using existing PIVs resulted in the loss of the access. The ability to obtain the sample from the PIV was measured along with patient and PIV characteristics. Specimen collection using 100 existing PIVs was attempted on pediatric inpatients. Each PIV was observed for functionality, infiltration, occlusion, and dislodgement following collection and again in 4h. Frequencies of PIV loss and successful blood sampling were calculated. Patient age, PIV gauge, access site, and PIV age were evaluated for associations with successful sampling using chi-square tests, Fisher's exact tests, and logistic regression. PIV survivability was reported at 99%. The ability to obtain a complete specimen was reported at 76% and found to be significantly related to PIV age and site. Size of PIV and patient's age were not significantly related to successful sampling. Encouraging rates of PIV survivability and collectability suggest blood sampling from PIVs to be a valuable technique to minimize painful and distressful procedures. Nursing practice was changed in this pediatric department. Patients and families are saved the pain and distress of venipuncture. Nurses reported saving time and personal distress by avoiding the venipuncture procedure. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. An automated blood sampling system used in positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eriksson, L.; Bohm, C.; Kesselberg, M.

    1988-01-01

    Fast dynamic function studies with positron emission tomography (PET), has the potential to give accurate information of physiological functions of the brain. This capability can be realised if the positron camera system accurately quantitates the tracer uptake in the brain with sufficiently high efficiency and in sufficiently short time intervals. However, in addition, the tracer concentration in blood, as a function of time, must be accurately determined. This paper describes and evaluates an automated blood sampling system. Two different detector units are compared. The use of the automated blood sampling system is demonstrated in studies of cerebral blood flow, in studies of the blood-brain barrier transfer of amino acids and of the cerebral oxygen consumption. 5 refs.; 7 figs

  8. Effects of Transport and Storage Conditions on Gene Expression in Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malentacchi, Francesca; Pizzamiglio, Sara; Wyrich, Ralf; Verderio, Paolo; Ciniselli, Chiara; Pazzagli, Mario; Gelmini, Stefania

    2016-04-01

    Inappropriate handling of blood samples might induce or repress gene expression and/or lead to RNA degradation affecting downstream analysis. In particular, sample transport is a critical step for biobanking or multicenter studies because of uncontrolled variables (i.e., unstable temperature). We report the results of a pilot study implemented within the EC funded SPIDIA project, aimed to investigate the role of transport and storage of blood samples containing and not containing an RNA stabilizer. Blood was collected from a single donor both in EDTA and in PAXgene Blood RNA tubes. Half of the samples were sent to a second laboratory both at room temperature and at 4°C, whereas the remaining samples were stored at room temperature and at 4°C. Gene expression of selected genes (c-FOS, IL-1β, IL-8, and GAPDH) known to be induced or repressed by ex vivo blood handling and of blood-mRNA quality biomarkers identified and validated within the SPIDIA project, which allow for monitoring changes in unstabilized blood samples after collection and during transport and storage, were analyzed by RT-qPCR. If the shipment of blood in tubes not containing RNA stabilizer is not performed under a stable condition, gene profile studies can be affected by the effects of transport. Moreover, also controlled temperature shipment (4°C) can influence the expression of specific genes if blood is collected in tubes not containing a stabilizer. The use of dedicated biomarkers or time course experiments should be performed in order to verify potential bias on gene expression analysis due to sample shipment and storage conditions. Alternatively, the use of RNA stabilizer containing tubes can represent a reliable option to avoid ex vivo RNA changes.

  9. Dried blood spots of pooled samples for RHD gene screening in blood donors of mixed ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  10. Collection and preparation of samples for gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pan Jingquan

    1994-01-01

    The paper presents the basic principles of sample collection and preparation: setting up unified sampling program, methods and procedures, sample packing, transportation and storage, determination of sample quantity, sample pretreatment and preparation of samples to be analysed, etc. for gamma spectrometry. And the paper also describes briefly the main methods and special issues of sampling and preparation for the same environmental and biological samples, such as, air, water, grass, soil and foods

  11. An analysis of mobile whole blood collection labor efficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, William N; Dayton, Paula J; Raife, Thomas J

    2011-07-01

    Labor efficiency is desirable in mobile blood collection. There are few published data on labor efficiency. The variability in the labor efficiency of mobile whole blood collections was analyzed. We determined to improve our labor efficiency using lean manufacturing principles. Workflow changes in mobile collections were implemented with the goal of minimizing labor expenditures. To measure success, data on labor efficiency measured by units/hour/full-time equivalent (FTE) were collected. The labor efficiency in a 6-month period before the implementation of changes, and in months 1 to 6 and 7 to 12 after implementation was analyzed and compared. Labor efficiency in the 6-month period preceding implementation was 1.06 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. In months 1 to 6, labor efficiency declined slightly to 0.92 ± 0.4 units collected/hour/FTE (p = 0.016 vs. preimplementation). In months 7 to 12, the mean labor efficiency returned to preimplementation levels of 1.09 ±0.4 units collected/hour/FTE. Regression analysis correlating labor efficiency with total units collected per drive revealed a strong correlation (R(2) = 0.48 for the aggregate data from all three periods), indicating that nearly half of labor efficiency was associated with drive size. The lean-based changes in workflow were subjectively favored by employees and donors. The labor efficiency of our mobile whole blood drives is strongly influenced by size. Larger drives are more efficient, with diminishing returns above 40 units collected. Lean-based workflow changes were positively received by employees and donors. © 2011 American Association of Blood Banks.

  12. 76 FR 48167 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Blood...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... requirements in the Agency's regulations and Form FDA 2830. DATES: Submit either electronic or written comments on the collection of information by October 7, 2011. ADDRESSES: Submit electronic comments on the... plasma donor centers, blood banks, certain transfusion services, other blood product manufacturers, and...

  13. Preanalytic Factors Associated With Hemolysis in Emergency Department Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Michael P; Reineks, Edmunds Z; Schold, Jesse D; Hustey, Frederic M; Chamberlin, Janelle; Procop, Gary W

    2018-02-01

    - Hemolysis of emergency department blood samples is a common occurrence and has a negative impact on health care delivery. - To determine the effect of preanalytic factors (straight stick, intravenous [IV] line, needle gauge, location of blood draw, syringe versus vacuum tube use, tourniquet time) on hemolysis in emergency department blood samples. - A single 65 000-visit emergency department's electronic health record was queried for emergency department potassium results and blood draw technique for all samples obtained in calendar year 2014, resulting in 54 531 potassium results. Hemolyzed potassium was measured by hemolysis index. Comparisons of hemolysis by sampling technique were conducted by χ 2 tests. - Overall hemolysis was 10.0% (5439 of 54 531). Hemolysis among samples obtained from straight stick was significantly less than among those obtained with IV line (5.4% [33 of 615] versus 10.2% [4821 of 47 266], P < .001). For IV-placed blood draws, antecubital location had a statistically significant lower overall hemolysis compared with other locations: 7.4% (2117 of 28 786) versus 14.6% (2622 of 17 960) ( P < .001). For blood drawn with a syringe compared with vacuum, hemolysis was 13.0% (92 of 705) and 11.0% (1820 of 16 590), respectively ( P = .09, not significant). For large-gauge IV blood draws versus smaller-gauge IV lines, a lower hemolysis was also observed (9.3% [3882 of 41 571] versus 16.7% [939 of 5633]) ( P < .001). For IV-drawn blood with tourniquet time less than 60 seconds, hemolysis was 10.3% (1362 of 13 162) versus 13.9% for more than 60 seconds (532 of 3832), P < .001. - This study confirmed previous findings that straight stick and antecubital location are significantly associated with reduced hemolysis and indicated that shorter tourniquet time and larger gauge for IV draws were significantly associated with lower hemolysis.

  14. The cost of blood collection in Greece: an economic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fragoulakis, Vassilis; Stamoulis, Kostas; Grouzi, Elisabeth; Maniadakis, Nikolaos

    2014-07-01

    The goal of this study was to estimate the cost of production of 1 unit of blood from a National Health Service perspective in Greece. In agreement with guidelines, the cost of blood production in this study accounted only for the resources expended for collection, processing, laboratory testing, and storage. Hence, the costs associated with donor recruitment, pretransfusion preparation, transfusion administration, follow-up management of adverse events, and other long-term relevant costs were not taken into consideration. The indirect cost of blood donations for donors (productivity loss) was also considered. A questionnaire was used to collect data regarding personnel time, annual blood quantities collected, percentage of wastage, utilization of consumables, institutional overhead, information technology expenditure, medical equipment utilized, nuclear acid tests, and other factors. Data gathered by 53 hospitals across the country were assessed. A model was constructed with economic data collected by the National School of Public Health and the Ministry of Health. All data refer to the year 2013. The weighted mean direct cost of producing 1 unit of blood was estimated at €131.49 (SD, €22.12; minimum/maximum, €94.96-€239.20). The mean total indirect cost was estimated at €34 per unit of blood. The cost distribution was positively skewed (skewness, 1.642 [0.327]). The major cost component was the cost of personnel, accounting for 32.5% of total costs, and the average of blood unit wastage was estimated at 4.90%. There were no differences between the cost of producing 1 unit of blood in Athens compared with the rest of the country (Mann-Whitney test, P = 0.341). This study suggests that the cost of producing 1 unit of blood is not insignificant. These figures need to be complemented with those concerning the cost of transfusion to have a complete picture of producing and using 1 unit of blood locally. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier HS Journals, Inc. All

  15. 21 CFR 864.6150 - Capillary blood collection tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Capillary blood collection tube. 864.6150 Section 864.6150 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Manual Hematology Devices § 864.6150 Capillary...

  16. Whole genome transcript profiling from fingerstick blood samples: a comparison and feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Adam R

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Whole genome gene expression profiling has revolutionized research in the past decade especially with the advent of microarrays. Recently, there have been significant improvements in whole blood RNA isolation techniques which, through stabilization of RNA at the time of sample collection, avoid bias and artifacts introduced during sample handling. Despite these improvements, current human whole blood RNA stabilization/isolation kits are limited by the requirement of a venous blood sample of at least 2.5 mL. While fingerstick blood collection has been used for many different assays, there has yet to be a kit developed to isolate high quality RNA for use in gene expression studies from such small human samples. The clinical and field testing advantages of obtaining reliable and reproducible gene expression data from a fingerstick are many; it is less invasive, time saving, more mobile, and eliminates the need of a trained phlebotomist. Furthermore, this method could also be employed in small animal studies, i.e. mice, where larger sample collections often require sacrificing the animal. In this study, we offer a rapid and simple method to extract sufficient amounts of high quality total RNA from approximately 70 μl of whole blood collected via a fingerstick using a modified protocol of the commercially available Qiagen PAXgene RNA Blood Kit. Results From two sets of fingerstick collections, about 70 uL whole blood collected via finger lancet and capillary tube, we recovered an average of 252.6 ng total RNA with an average RIN of 9.3. The post-amplification yields for 50 ng of total RNA averaged at 7.0 ug cDNA. The cDNA hybridized to Affymetrix HG-U133 Plus 2.0 GeneChips had an average % Present call of 52.5%. Both fingerstick collections were highly correlated with r2 values ranging from 0.94 to 0.97. Similarly both fingerstick collections were highly correlated to the venous collection with r2 values ranging from 0.88 to 0

  17. Effect of blood collection technique in mice on clinical pathology parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Michael A; Hardy, Christine; Hawley, Melanie; Propert, Kathleen Joy; Wilson, James M

    2002-01-01

    A study was conducted in normal healthy C57BL/6 mice to determine the effect of method of blood collection on clinical pathology parameters and to provide value ranges for these parameters. Males and females were used and were randomly assigned to treatment groups based upon phlebotomy method. The blood was collected using one of four methods: intracardiac (IC), a single attempt at collection from the caudal vena cava (VC), collection from the caudal vena cava with collection of any extravasated blood from the peritoneum (MC), or retroorbital phlebotomy (RO). Evaluation of blood and serum samples was conducted for a number of serum biochemistries including liver function tests and complete blood count with differentials and platelet counts. Female mice demonstrated higher values for red blood cell number, hemoglobin (p values for platelet counts, specific white blood cell numbers (total, neutrophil, lymphocyte, and eosinophil counts), globulin, amylase, and the BUN/creatinine ratio. Overall, the VC method was associated with the least variation in both sexes and appeared slightly better than the IC method for the parameters evaluated. The largest difference between groups was noted for the transaminase levels. While alanine aminotransferase (ALT) values were similar between the IC and VC groups, aspartate aminotransferase (AST) values were associated with less variation for the VC method. Transaminase levels for the MC and RO groups were associated with relatively large ranges and variation. ALT results from the RO method, the only method amenable to repetitive sample collection used in this evaluation, indicate that this is an acceptable method. The results demonstrate the substantial impact that phlebotomy method has on the assay results and that the VC or IC methods provide the most consistent results. The ranges by collection method and sex provided here can be used to select the preferred method of collection when designing a study and for comparison of data

  18. Platelet-rich fibrin prepared from stored whole-blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Kazushige; Suzuki, Masashi; Watanabe, Taisuke; Kitamura, Yutaka; Suzuki, Taiji; Kawabata, Hideo; Nakamura, Masayuki; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Okudera, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohya; Nakata, Koh; Tanaka, Takaaki; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2017-12-01

    In regenerative therapy, self-clotted platelet concentrates, such as platelet-rich fibrin (PRF), are generally prepared on-site and are immediately used for treatment. If blood samples or prepared clots can be preserved for several days, their clinical applicability will expand. Here, we prepared PRF from stored whole-blood samples and examined their characteristics. Blood samples were collected from non-smoking, healthy male donors (aged 27-67 years, N = 6), and PRF clots were prepared immediately or after storage for 1-2 days. Fibrin fiber was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Bioactivity was evaluated by means of a bioassay system involving human periosteal cells, whereas PDGF-BB concentrations were determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Addition of optimal amounts of a 10% CaCl 2 solution restored the coagulative ability of whole-blood samples that contained an anticoagulant (acid citrate dextrose) and were stored for up to 2 days at ambient temperature. In PRF clots prepared from the stored whole-blood samples, the thickness and cross-links of fibrin fibers were almost identical to those of freshly prepared PRF clots. PDGF-BB concentrations in the PRF extract were significantly lower in stored whole-blood samples than in fresh samples; however, both extracts had similar stimulatory effects on periosteal-cell proliferation. Quality of PRF clots prepared from stored whole-blood samples is not reduced significantly and can be ensured for use in regenerative therapy. Therefore, the proposed method enables a more flexible treatment schedule and choice of a more suitable platelet concentrate immediately before treatment, not after blood collection.

  19. The development of a Martian atmospheric Sample collection canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulczycki, E.; Galey, C.; Kennedy, B.; Budney, C.; Bame, D.; Van Schilfgaarde, R.; Aisen, N.; Townsend, J.; Younse, P.; Piacentine, J.

    The collection of an atmospheric sample from Mars would provide significant insight to the understanding of the elemental composition and sub-surface out-gassing rates of noble gases. A team of engineers at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), California Institute of Technology have developed an atmospheric sample collection canister for Martian application. The engineering strategy has two basic elements: first, to collect two separately sealed 50 cubic centimeter unpressurized atmospheric samples with minimal sensing and actuation in a self contained pressure vessel; and second, to package this atmospheric sample canister in such a way that it can be easily integrated into the orbiting sample capsule for collection and return to Earth. Sample collection and integrity are demonstrated by emulating the atmospheric collection portion of the Mars Sample Return mission on a compressed timeline. The test results achieved by varying the pressure inside of a thermal vacuum chamber while opening and closing the valve on the sample canister at Mars ambient pressure. A commercial off-the-shelf medical grade micro-valve is utilized in the first iteration of this design to enable rapid testing of the system. The valve has been independently leak tested at JPL to quantify and separate the leak rates associated with the canister. The results are factored in to an overall system design that quantifies mass, power, and sensing requirements for a Martian atmospheric Sample Collection (MASC) canister as outlined in the Mars Sample Return mission profile. Qualitative results include the selection of materials to minimize sample contamination, preliminary science requirements, priorities in sample composition, flight valve selection criteria, a storyboard from sample collection to loading in the orbiting sample capsule, and contributions to maintaining “ Earth” clean exterior surfaces on the orbiting sample capsule.

  20. Use of Dried Capillary Blood Sampling for Islet Autoantibody Screening in Relatives: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingley, Polly J; Rafkin, Lisa E; Matheson, Della; Steck, Andrea K; Yu, Liping; Henderson, Courtney; Beam, Craig A; Boulware, David C

    2015-12-01

    Islet autoantibody testing provides the basis for assessment of risk of progression to type 1 diabetes. We set out to determine the feasibility and acceptability of dried capillary blood spot-based screening to identify islet autoantibody-positive relatives potentially eligible for inclusion in prevention trials. Dried blood spot (DBS) and venous samples were collected from 229 relatives participating in the TrialNet Pathway to Prevention Study. Both samples were tested for glutamic acid decarboxylase, islet antigen 2, and zinc transporter 8 autoantibodies, and venous samples were additionally tested for insulin autoantibodies and islet cell antibodies. We defined multiple autoantibody positive as two or more autoantibodies in venous serum and DBS screen positive if one or more autoantibodies were detected. Participant questionnaires compared the sample collection methods. Of 44 relatives who were multiple autoantibody positive in venous samples, 42 (95.5%) were DBS screen positive, and DBS accurately detected 145 of 147 autoantibody-negative relatives (98.6%). Capillary blood sampling was perceived as more painful than venous blood draw, but 60% of participants would prefer initial screening using home fingerstick with clinic visits only required if autoantibodies were found. Capillary blood sampling could facilitate screening for type 1 diabetes prevention studies.

  1. Non-terminal blood sampling techniques in Guinea pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birck, Malene Muusfeldt; Tveden-Nyborg, Pernille; Lindblad, Maiken Marie

    2014-01-01

    Guinea pigs possess several biological similarities to humans and are validated experimental animal models(1-3). However, the use of guinea pigs currently represents a relatively narrow area of research and descriptive data on specific methodology is correspondingly scarce. The anatomical features...... of guinea pigs are slightly different from other rodent models, hence modulation of sampling techniques to accommodate for species-specific differences, e.g., compared to mice and rats, are necessary to obtain sufficient and high quality samples. As both long and short term in vivo studies often require...... repeated blood sampling the choice of technique should be well considered in order to reduce stress and discomfort in the animals but also to ensure survival as well as compliance with requirements of sample size and accessibility. Venous blood samples can be obtained at a number of sites in guinea pigs e...

  2. Stability and reliability of glycated haemoglobin measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkataraman, Vijayachandrika; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Deepa, Mohan; Jayashri, Ramamoorthy; Anbalagan, Viknesh Prabu; Akila, Bridgitte; Madhu, Sri Venkata; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan

    2016-01-01

    To validate the stability of glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) measurements in blood samples stored at -20°C for up to one month. The study group comprised 142 type 2 diabetic subjects visiting a tertiary centre for diabetes at Chennai city in south India. The HbA1c assay was done on a fasting blood sample using the Bio-Rad Variant machine on Day 0 (day of blood sample collection). Several aliquots were stored at -20°C and the assay was repeated on the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after the sample collection. Bland-Altman plots were constructed and variation in the HbA1c levels on the different days was compared with the day 0 level. The median differences between HbA1c levels measured on Day 0 and the 3rd, 7th, 15th, and 30th day after blood collection were 0.0%, 0.2%, 0.3% and 0.5% respectively. Bland-Altman plot analysis showed that the differences between the day '0' and the different time points tend to get larger with time, but these were not clinically significant. HbA1c levels are relatively stable up to 2weeks, if blood samples are stored at -20°C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Plasmodium falciparum HRP2 ELISA for analysis of dried blood spot samples in rural Zambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Lauren E; Markwalter, Christine F; Kimmel, Danielle W; Mudenda, Lwiindi; Mbambara, Saidon; Thuma, Philip E; Wright, David W

    2017-08-23

    Dried blood spots are commonly used for sample collection in clinical and non-clinical settings. This method is simple, and biomolecules in the samples remain stable for months at room temperature. In the field, blood samples for the study and diagnosis of malaria are often collected on dried blood spot cards, so development of a biomarker extraction and analysis method is needed. A simple extraction procedure for the malarial biomarker Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) from dried blood spots was optimized to achieve maximum extraction efficiency. This method was used to assess the stability of HRP2 in dried blood spots. Furthermore, 328 patient samples made available from rural Zambia were analysed for HRP2 using the developed method. These samples were collected at the initial administration of artemisinin-based combination therapy and at several points following treatment. An average extraction efficiency of 70% HRP2 with a low picomolar detection limit was achieved. In specific storage conditions HRP2 was found to be stable in dried blood spots for at least 6 months. Analysis of patient samples showed the method to have a sensitivity of 94% and a specificity of 89% when compared with microscopy, and trends in HRP2 clearance after treatment were observed. The dried blood spot ELISA for HRP2 was found to be sensitive, specific and accurate. The method was effectively used to assess biomarker clearance characteristics in patient samples, which prove it to be ideal for gaining further insight into the disease and epidemiological applications.

  4. Identification of clinical biomarkers for pre-analytical quality control of blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun Ju; Jeon, Soon Young; Park, Jae-Sun; Yun, Ji Young; Kil, Han Na; Hong, Won Kyung; Lee, Mee-Hee; Kim, Jun-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Pil; Han, Bok Ghee

    2013-04-01

    Pre-analytical conditions are key factors in maintaining the high quality of biospecimens. They are necessary for accurate reproducibility of experiments in the field of biomarker discovery as well as achieving optimal specificity of laboratory tests for clinical diagnosis. In research at the National Biobank of Korea, we evaluated the impact of pre-analytical conditions on the stability of biobanked blood samples by measuring biochemical analytes commonly used in clinical laboratory tests. We measured 10 routine laboratory analytes in serum and plasma samples from healthy donors (n = 50) with a chemistry autoanalyzer (Hitachi 7600-110). The analyte measurements were made at different time courses based on delay of blood fractionation, freezing delay of fractionated serum and plasma samples, and at different cycles (0, 1, 3, 6, 9) of freeze-thawing. Statistically significant changes from the reference sample mean were determined using the repeated-measures ANOVA and the significant change limit (SCL). The serum levels of GGT and LDH were changed significantly depending on both the time interval between blood collection and fractionation and the time interval between fractionation and freezing of serum and plasma samples. The glucose level was most sensitive only to the elapsed time between blood collection and centrifugation for blood fractionation. Based on these findings, a simple formula (glucose decrease by 1.387 mg/dL per hour) was derived to estimate the length of time delay after blood collection. In addition, AST, BUN, GGT, and LDH showed sensitive responses to repeated freeze-thaw cycles of serum and plasma samples. These results suggest that GGT and LDH measurements can be used as quality control markers for certain pre-analytical conditions (eg, delayed processing or repeated freeze-thawing) of blood samples which are either directly used in the laboratory tests or stored for future research in the biobank.

  5. Assessing human error during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper reports the assessment method of the hydrocarbon sample collection standard operation procedure (SOP) using THERP. The Performance Shaping Factors (PSF) from THERP analyzed and assessed the human errors during collecting a hydrocarbon sample of a petrochemical refinery plant. Twenty-two ...

  6. Early intraoperative blood collection does not affect complete blood counts, von Willebrand factor or factor VIII levels in normal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darwish, Hanni; Mundell, Gillianne; Engen, Dale; Lillicrap, David; Silva, Mariana; James, Paula

    2011-01-01

    Obtaining blood from children for research studies can be difficult, particularly for controls. One solution is to obtain samples during elective surgery; however, consideration must be given to the potential effects of the timing of phlebotomy. Ten children were recruited and phlebotomy was carried out during a preoperative clinic visit and intraoperatively immediately after the induction of anesthesia but before the start of surgery. CBCs, VWF, and FVIII levels were measured at both time points and no significant differences were seen. This negative result may be beneficial to pediatric research by suggesting that early intraoperative blood collection for controls does not affect the results.

  7. Scientific guidelines for preservation of samples collected from Mars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gooding, J.L.

    1990-04-01

    The maximum scientific value of Martian geologic and atmospheric samples is retained when the samples are preserved in the conditions that applied prior to their collection. Any sample degradation equates to loss of information. Based on detailed review of pertinent scientific literature, and advice from experts in planetary sample analysis, number values are recommended for key parameters in the environmental control of collected samples with respect to material contamination, temperature, head-space gas pressure, ionizing radiation, magnetic fields, and acceleration/shock. Parametric values recommended for the most sensitive geologic samples should also be adequate to preserve any biogenic compounds or exobiological relics

  8. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  9. Potentiating day-old blood samples for detection of interferon-gamma responses following infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Heidi; Nielsen, Søren Saxmose; Jungersen, Gregers

    time interval from blood sampling to culture. The objective of the study was to assess options for use of day-old blood samples for early-stage diagnosis of MAP infections. Bovine interleukin 12 (IL-12) can induce, and IL-10 reduce, IFN-γ production. Therefore, addition of IL-12 and anti-IL-10 could...... result in production of IFN-γ in samples previously exposed to MAP antigens. Whole blood samples were collected from heifers in a Danish dairy herd known to be infected with MAP. The samples were collected on three sample dates, and on each date the blood samples were stimulated with PPDj and recombinant......The interferon gamma (IFN-γ) test measuring specific cell-mediated immune responses in whole blood can be used for diagnosis at an early stage of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP) infection. A major obstacle for the practical use of IFN-γ testing is the recommended maximum 8 hour...

  10. The effects of storage temperature and duration of blood samples on DNA and RNA qualities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Lien-Hung; Lin, Pei-Hsien; Tsai, Kuo-Wang; Wang, Liang-Jen; Huang, Ying-Hsien; Kuo, Ho-Chang; Li, Sung-Chou

    2017-01-01

    DNA and RNA samples from blood are the common examination target for non-invasive physical tests and/or biomedical studies. Since high-quality DNA and RNA samples guarantee the correctness of these tests and/or studies, we investigated the effects of storage temperature and storage duration of whole blood on DNA and RNA qualities. Subjects were enrolled to donate blood samples which were stored for different durations and at different temperatures, followed by the examinations on RNA quality, qPCR, DNA quality and DNA methylation. For RNA, we observed obvious quality decline with storage duration longer than 24 hours. Storage at low temperature does not keep RNA samples from degradation. And, storing whole blood samples in freezer dramatically damage RNA. For DNA, quality decline was not observed even with storage duration for 15 days. However, DNA methylation significantly altered with storage duration longer than three days. Storage duration within 24 hours is critical for collecting high-quality RNA samples for next-generation sequencing (NGS) assays (RIN≧8). If microarray assays are expected (RIN≧7), storage duration within 32 hours is acceptable. Although DNA is resistant within 15 days when kept in whole blood, DNA quantity dramatically decreases owing to WBC lysis. In addition, duration for more than three days significantly alter DNA methylation status, globally and locally. Our result provides a reference for dealing with blood samples.

  11. Measurement of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 after delayed separation of whole blood samples.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, H.; Graaf, W.T.A. van der; Wesseling, J.; Veer, E. van der; Boezen, H.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Epidemiological studies benefit from unbiased blood specimens collected with minimal cost and effort of blood collection and storage. We evaluated the stability of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in whole blood samples stored at room temperature to justify delays in blood processing. DESIGN AND

  12. Measurement of insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth factor binding protein-3 after delayed separation of whole blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, Hermien; van der Graaf, Winette T. A.; Wesseling, Jelle; van der Veer, Eveline; Boezen, H. Marike

    Objectives: Epidemiological studies benefit from unbiased blood specimens collected with minimal cost and effort of blood collection and storage. We evaluated the stability of IGF-1 and IGFBP-3 in whole blood samples stored at room temperature to justify delays in blood processing. Design and

  13. Na2EDTA anticoagulant impaired blood samples from the teleost Piaractus mesopotamicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Heloisa Vaz Farias

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Na heparin and Na2EDTA on blood of Piaractus mesopotamicus (360.7±42.4g, 26.4±1.0cm. Twenty fishes were sampled in two experiment trials, ten for erythrocyte fragility analysis and ten for hematologic and plasma biochemical study. The blood collected by venous-caudal puncture was fractioned and stored in anticoagulants solution: Na2EDTA 10%, Na2EDTA 3%, Na heparin 5000 IU and Na heparin 100 IU. Plasmatic levels of calcium presented in the Na2EDTA stored samples were about 80% lower than both heparin groups. Blood samples of P. mesopotamicus stored with Na2EDTA demonstrated increase in the hematocrit and MCV, and decrease in MCHC. The dose-response effect was observed in this study. The results are reinforced by the higher levels of plasmatic protein and hemolysis presented in the Na2EDTA 10% stored blood, confirming the deleterious effect of this anticoagulant treatment on the quality of blood samples. Na2EDTA is not indicated to store P. mesopotamicus blood samples, but sodium heparin at 100 IU is the most recommended anticoagulant, since this treatment presented the lower rate of alterations in the stored blood.

  14. A method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Itaru; Yamagishi, Ryoma; Sasaki, Jun; Satoh, Hiroshi; Miura, Kiyoshi; Kikuchi, Kaoru; Otani, Kumiko; Okada, Keiji

    2017-12-01

    In the region contaminated by the Fukushima nuclear accident, radioactive contamination of live cattle should be checked before slaughter. In this study, we establish a precise method for estimating radioactive cesium concentrations in cattle blood using urine samples. Blood and urine samples were collected from a total of 71 cattle on two farms in the 'difficult-to-return zone'. Urine 137 Cs, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, pH, sodium, potassium, calcium, and creatinine were measured and various estimation methods for blood 137 Cs were tested. The average error rate of the estimation was 54.2% without correction. Correcting for urine creatinine, specific gravity, electrical conductivity, or potassium improved the precision of the estimation. Correcting for specific gravity using the following formula gave the most precise estimate (average error rate = 16.9%): [blood 137 Cs] = [urinary 137 Cs]/([specific gravity] - 1)/329. Urine samples are faster to measure than blood samples because urine can be obtained in larger quantities and has a higher 137 Cs concentration than blood. These advantages of urine and the estimation precision demonstrated in our study, indicate that estimation of blood 137 Cs using urine samples is a practical means of monitoring radioactive contamination in live cattle. © 2017 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. Improved sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malik, W. M.

    1967-01-01

    Sample capsule for determination of oxygen in hemolyzed blood consists of a measured section of polytetrafluoroethylene tubing equipped at each end with a connector and a stopcock valve. This method eliminates errors from air entrainment or from the use of mercury or syringe lubricant.

  16. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-01-01

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population–based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  17. Feasibility of self-sampled dried blood spot and saliva samples sent by mail in a population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakhi, Amrit Kaur; Bastani, Nasser Ezzatkhah; Ellingjord-Dale, Merete; Gundersen, Thomas Erik; Blomhoff, Rune; Ursin, Giske

    2015-04-11

    In large epidemiological studies it is often challenging to obtain biological samples. Self-sampling by study participants using dried blood spots (DBS) technique has been suggested to overcome this challenge. DBS is a type of biosampling where blood samples are obtained by a finger-prick lancet, blotted and dried on filter paper. However, the feasibility and efficacy of collecting DBS samples from study participants in large-scale epidemiological studies is not known. The aim of the present study was to test the feasibility and response rate of collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples in a population-based study of women above 50 years of age. We determined response proportions, number of phone calls to the study center with questions about sampling, and quality of the DBS. We recruited women through a study conducted within the Norwegian Breast Cancer Screening Program. Invitations, instructions and materials were sent to 4,597 women. The data collection took place over a 3 month period in the spring of 2009. Response proportions for the collection of DBS and saliva samples were 71.0% (3,263) and 70.9% (3,258), respectively. We received 312 phone calls (7% of the 4,597 women) with questions regarding sampling. Of the 3,263 individuals that returned DBS cards, 3,038 (93.1%) had been packaged and shipped according to instructions. A total of 3,032 DBS samples were sufficient for at least one biomarker analysis (i.e. 92.9% of DBS samples received by the laboratory). 2,418 (74.1%) of the DBS cards received by the laboratory were filled with blood according to the instructions (i.e. 10 completely filled spots with up to 7 punches per spot for up to 70 separate analyses). To assess the quality of the samples, we selected and measured two biomarkers (carotenoids and vitamin D). The biomarker levels were consistent with previous reports. Collecting self-sampled DBS and saliva samples through the postal services provides a low cost, effective and feasible

  18. Characterization Of Core Sample Collected From The Saltstone Disposal Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cozzi, A.; Duncan, A.

    2010-01-01

    During the month of September 2008, grout core samples were collected from the Saltstone Disposal Facility, Vault 4, cell E. This grout was placed during processing campaigns in December 2007 from Deliquification, Dissolution and Adjustment Batch 2 salt solution. The 4QCY07 Waste Acceptance Criteria sample collected on 11/16/07 represents the salt solution in the core samples. Core samples were retrieved to initiate the historical database of properties of emplaced Saltstone and to demonstrate the correlation between field collected and laboratory prepared samples. Three samples were collected from three different locations. Samples were collected using a two-inch diameter concrete coring bit. In April 2009, the core samples were removed from the evacuated sample container, inspected, transferred to PVC containers, and backfilled with nitrogen. Samples furthest from the wall were the most intact cylindrically shaped cored samples. The shade of the core samples darkened as the depth of coring increased. Based on the visual inspection, sample 3-3 was selected for all subsequent analysis. The density and porosity of the Vault 4 core sample, 1.90 g/cm 3 and 59.90% respectively, were comparable to values achieved for laboratory prepared samples. X-ray diffraction analysis identified phases consistent with the expectations for hydrated Saltstone. Microscopic analysis revealed morphology features characteristic of cementitious materials with fly ash and calcium silicate hydrate gel. When taken together, the results of the density, porosity, x-ray diffraction analysis and microscopic analysis support the conclusion that the Vault 4, Cell E core sample is representative of the expected waste form.

  19. Awareness of cord blood collection and the impact on banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Rusha; Lindley, Amy; Bhatla, Deepika; Babic, Aleksandar; Mueckl, Kathy; Rao, Rakesh; Brooks, Paula; Geiler, Vicki; Gross, Gilad; Al-Hosni, Mohamad; Shenoy, Shalini

    2017-07-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) is an important source of hematopoietic stem cells for transplantation especially in minority populations with limited chances of finding a histocompatible volunteer donor in the registry. UCB has the advantages of early availability, successful outcomes despite some histocompatibility mismatch, and low incidence of chronic graft-versus-host disease. Public cord blood banks that disseminate UCB products for transplant depend on voluntary donation at participating hospitals and obstetrical providers for collection. Using survey questionnaires, we evaluated attitudes toward UCB donation, the frequency of donation, and provider opinions on UCB collection in the greater St. Louis metropolitan area that caters to minority ethnicities in significant numbers. Our data suggest that nervousness and lack of information regarding the donation and utility of the product were ubiquitous reasons for not donating. Additionally, irrespective of age or level of education, women relied on healthcare providers for information regarding UCB donation. Providers reported primarily time constraints to discussing UCB donation at prenatal visits (54%). Of the interviewees, 62% donated UCB. Fallout due to refusal or preferring private banking was miniscule. These results suggest that dedicated personnel focused on disseminating information, obtaining consent, and collecting the UCB product at major hospitals can enrich cord blood banks especially with minority cords. Sustained and focused efforts could improve upon a relatively high wastage rate and ensure a robust supply of UCB products at local public banks. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Analysis of the stability of urea in dried blood spots collected and stored on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quraishi, Rizwana; Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mukhopadhyay, Ashok Kumar; Jailkhani, Bansi Lal

    2013-05-01

    The ability to use dry blood spots (DBSs) on filter paper for the analysis of urea levels could be an important diagnostic tool for areas that have limited access to laboratory facilities. We developed a method for the extraction and quantification of urea from DBSs that were stored on 3M Whatman filter paper and investigated the effect of long-term storage on the level of urea in DBSs. DBSs of 4.5 mm in diameter were used for our assay, and we determined the urea levels in blood using a commercially available enzymatic kit (UV GLDH-method; Randox laboratories Ltd., UK). The DBSs on filter discs were stored at 4℃ or at 37℃ for 120 days. The mean intra- and inter-assay coefficient of variance for our method of urea extraction from dried blood was 4.2% and 6.3%, respectively. We collected 75 fresh blood samples and compared the urea content of each fresh sample with the urea content of DBSs taken from corresponding fresh blood samples. Regression analysis reported a regression coefficient (r) value of 0.97 and a recovery of urea from dried spots was 102.2%. Urea concentrations in DBSs were stable for up to 120 and 90 days when stored at 4℃ and 37℃, respectively. Our results show that urea can be stored and quantitatively recovered from small volumes of blood that was collected on filter paper.

  1. Collecting Ground Samples for Balloon-Borne Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack; Zimmerman, Wayne; Wu, Jiunn Jenq

    2009-01-01

    A proposed system in a gondola containing scientific instruments suspended by a balloon over the surface of the Saturn moon Titan would quickly acquire samples of rock or ice from the ground below. Prototypes of a sample-collecting device that would be a major part of the system have been tested under cryogenic and non-cryogenic conditions on Earth. Systems like this one could also be used in non-cryogenic environments on Earth to collect samples of rock, soil, ice, mud, or other ground material from such inaccessible or hazardous locations as sites of suspected chemical spills or biological contamination. The sample-collecting device would be a harpoonlike device that would be connected to the balloon-borne gondola by a tether long enough to reach the ground. The device would be dropped from the gondola to acquire a sample, then would be reeled back up to the gondola, where the sample would be analyzed by the onboard instruments. Each prototype of the sample-collecting device has a sharp front (lower) end, a hollow core for retaining a sample, a spring for holding the sample in the hollow core, and a rear (upper) annular cavity for retaining liquid sample material. Aerodynamic fins at the rear help to keep the front end pointed downward. In tests, these prototype devices were dropped from various heights and used to gather samples of dry sand, moist sand, cryogenic water ice, and warmer water ice.

  2. Nationwide survey of policies and practices related to capillary blood sampling in medical laboratories in Croatia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krleza, Jasna Lenicek

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Capillary sampling is increasingly used to obtain blood for laboratory tests in volumes as small as necessary and as non-invasively as possible. Whether capillary blood sampling is also frequent in Croatia, and whether it is performed according to international laboratory standards is unclear. Materials and methods: All medical laboratories that participate in the Croatian National External Quality Assessment Program (N = 204) were surveyed on-line to collect information about the laboratory’s parent institution, patient population, types and frequencies of laboratory tests based on capillary blood samples, choice of reference intervals, and policies and procedures specifically related to capillary sampling. Sampling practices were compared with guidelines from the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) and the World Health Organization (WHO). Results: Of the 204 laboratories surveyed, 174 (85%) responded with complete questionnaires. Among the 174 respondents, 155 (89%) reported that they routinely perform capillary sampling, which is carried out by laboratory staff in 118 laboratories (76%). Nearly half of respondent laboratories (48%) do not have a written protocol including order of draw for multiple sampling. A single puncture site is used to provide capillary blood for up to two samples at 43% of laboratories that occasionally or regularly perform such sampling. Most respondents (88%) never perform arterialisation prior to capillary blood sampling. Conclusions: Capillary blood sampling is highly prevalent in Croatia across different types of clinical facilities and patient populations. Capillary sampling procedures are not standardised in the country, and the rate of laboratory compliance with CLSI and WHO guidelines is low. PMID:25351353

  3. Heel blood sampling in European neonatal intensive care units: compliance with pain management guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Losacco, Valentina; Cuttini, Marina; Greisen, Gorm

    2011-01-01

    Objective To describe the use of heel blood sampling and non-pharmacological analgesia in a large representative sample of neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) in eight European countries, and compare their self-reported practices with evidence-based recommendations. Methods Information on use...... of heel blood sampling and associated procedures (oral sweet solutions, non-nutritive sucking, swaddling or positioning, topical anaesthetics and heel warming) were collected through a structured mail questionnaire. 284 NICUs (78% response rate) participated, but only 175 with >/=50 very low birth weight...... admissions per year were included in this analysis. Results Use of heel blood sampling appeared widespread. Most units in the Netherlands, UK, Denmark, Sweden and France predominantly adopted mechanical devices, while manual lance was still in use in the other countries. The two Scandinavian countries...

  4. Evaluation of Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase stability in stored blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalil, Norunaluwar; Azma, Raja Zahratul; Mohamed, Emida; Ithnin, Azlin; Alauddin, Hafiza; Baya, Siti Noor; Othman, Ainoon

    2016-01-01

    Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency is the commonest cause of neonatal jaundice in Malaysia. Recently, OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit has been introduced to quantitate the level of G6PD activity in newborns delivered in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC). As duration of sample storage prior to analysis is one of the matters of concern, this study was conducted to identify the stability of G6PD enzyme during storage. A total of 188 cord blood samples from normal term newborns delivered at UKMMC were selected for this study. The cord bloods samples were collected in ethylene-diamine-tetra-acetic acid (EDTA) tubes and refrigerated at 2-8 °C. In addition, 32 out of 188 cord blood samples were spotted on chromatography paper, air-dried and stored at room temperature. G6PD enzyme activities were measured daily for 7 days using the OSMMR2000-D G6PD Assay Kit on both the EDTA blood and dried blood samples. The mean value for G6PD activity was compared between days of analysis using Student Paired T-Test. In this study, 172 out of 188 cord blood samples showed normal enzyme levels while 16 had levels corresponding to severe enzyme deficiency. The daily mean G6PD activity for EDTA blood samples of newborns with normal G6PD activity showed a significant drop on the fourth day of storage (p samples with severely deficient G6PD activity, significant drop was seen on third day of storage (p = 0.002). Analysis of dried cord blood showed a significant reduction in enzyme activity as early as the second day of storage (p = 0.001). It was also noted that mean G6PD activity for spotted blood samples were lower compared to those in EDTA tubes for all days (p = 0.001). Thus, EDTA blood samples stored at 2-8 °C appeared to have better stability in terms of their G6PD enzyme level as compared to dried blood samples on filter paper, giving a storage time of up to 3 days.

  5. Effectiveness of a Novel Specimen Collection System in Reducing Blood Culture Contamination Rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Mary; Bogar, Catherine; Plante, Jessica; Rasmussen, Kristen; Winters, Sharon

    2018-04-20

    False-positive blood-culture results due to skin contamination of samples remain a persistent problem for health care providers. Our health system recognized that our rates of contamination across the 4 emergency department campuses were above the national average. A unique specimen collection system was implemented throughout the 4 emergency departments and became the mandatory way to collect adult blood cultures. The microbiology laboratory reported contamination rates weekly to manage potential problems; 7 months of data are presented here. There was an 82.8% reduction in false positives with the unique specimen collection system compared with the standard method (chi-squared test with Yates correction, 2-tailed, P = 0.0001). Based on the historical 3.52% rate of blood-culture contamination for our health facilities, 2.92 false positives were prevented for every 100 blood cultures drawn, resulting from adoption of the unique specimen collection system as the standard of care. This unique collection system can reduce the risk of blood culture contamination significantly and is designed to augment, rather than replace, the standard phlebotomy protocol already in use in most health care settings. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Fieldwork and catalogue of samples collected in Polan, September 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poulsen, N.; Drewniak, A.; Glowniak, E.; Ineson, J.; Matyja, B.A.; Merta, T.; Wierzbowski, A.

    1995-12-31

    This report lists the collection of samples taken during the field work of the EFP-95 Project, named `The Polish Middle to Late Jurassic Epicratonic basin, stratigraphy, facies and basin history` (short title: Jurrasic basin study, Poland) in Poland, August 7-20, 1995. The samples were collected for palynological studies, and/or sedimentaological studies, and/or source rock studies, and/or reservoir rock characteristics. Prepared samples (slides etc.) are stored in the collections of the GEUS, and remaining rock-material at the store of the GEUS. Field work with collection of samples for palynological studies has been carried earlier in 1988 and at the Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian Joint Working Groups Meeting 1992. (au)

  7. Detection of the BLV provirus from nasal secretion and saliva samples using BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2: Comparison with blood samples from the same cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Yuan; Kitamura-Muramatsu, Yuri; Saito, Susumu; Ishizaki, Hiroshi; Nakano, Miwa; Haga, Satoshi; Matoba, Kazuhiro; Ohno, Ayumu; Murakami, Hironobu; Takeshima, Shin-Nosuke; Aida, Yoko

    2015-12-02

    Bovine leukemia virus (BLV) induces enzootic bovine leukosis, which is the most common neoplastic disease in cattle. Sero-epidemiological studies show that BLV infection occurs worldwide. Direct contact between infected and uninfected cattle is thought to be one of the risk factors for BLV transmission. Contact transmission occurs via a mixture of natural sources, blood, and exudates. To confirm that BLV provirus is detectable in these samples, matched blood, nasal secretion, and saliva samples were collected from 50 cattle, and genomic DNA was extracted. BLV-CoCoMo-qPCR-2, an assay developed for the highly sensitive detection of BLV, was then used to measure the proviral load in blood (n=50), nasal secretions (n=48), and saliva (n=47) samples. The results showed that 35 blood samples, 14 nasal secretion samples, and 6 saliva samples were positive for the BLV provirus. Matched blood samples from cattle that were positive for the BLV provirus (either in nasal secretion or saliva samples) were also positive in their blood. The proviral load in the positive blood samples was >14,000 (copies/1×10(5) cells). Thus, even though the proviral load in the nasal secretion and saliva samples was much lower (blood, prolonged direct contact between infected and healthy cattle may be considered as a risk factor for BLV transmission. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluating the optimum rest period prior to blood collection for fractionated plasma free metanephrines analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    The high diagnostic accuracy of plasma metanephrines (PMets) in the di-agnosis of Phaeochromocytoma\\/Paraganglioma (PPGL) is well established. Considerable controversy exists regarding optimum sampling conditions for PMets. The use of reference intervals that do not compromise diagnostic sensitivity is recommended. However, the optimum rest period prior to sampling has yet to be clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMets concentrations in paired blood samples collected following 30 and 40 min seated-rest prior to sampling, in patients in whom it was clinically rea-sonable to suspect that PPGL may be present.

  9. The Apollo lunar samples collection analysis and results

    CERN Document Server

    Young, Anthony

    2017-01-01

    This book focuses on the specific mission planning for lunar sample collection, the equipment used, and the analysis and findings concerning the samples at the Lunar Receiving Laboratory in Texas. Anthony Young documents the collection of Apollo samples for the first time for readers of all backgrounds, and includes interviews with many of those involved in planning and analyzing the samples. NASA contracted with the U.S. Geologic Survey to perform classroom and field training of the Apollo astronauts. NASA’s Geology Group within the Manned Spacecraft Center in Houston, Texas, helped to establish the goals of sample collection, as well as the design of sample collection tools, bags, and storage containers. In this book, detailed descriptions are given on the design of the lunar sampling tools, the Modular Experiment Transporter used on Apollo 14, and the specific areas of the Lunar Rover vehicle used for the Apollo 15, 16, and 17 missions, which carried the sampling tools, bags, and other related equipment ...

  10. Comparison of Hematologic and Biochemical Test Results in Blood Samples Obtained by Jugular Venipuncture Versus Nail Clip in Moluccan Cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Tracy D; Lejnieks, Daniel V; Koepke, Hoyt; Grimson, Fiona; Szucs, Jennifer; Omaits, Kerri; Lane, Rosalie

    2015-12-01

    In birds, blood samples are often collected from the jugular, medial metatarsal, and basilic vein. Samples are sometimes collected by toe nail clip, but concerns to avoid drawing blood from the nail include pain after nail clips for blood collection, potential differences in complete blood count (CBC) results, and potential contamination with uric acid values. To compare differences in biochemical and hematologic values in blood samples obtained by jugular venipuncture versus toenail clip, blood samples were collected from Moluccan cockatoos (Cacatua moluccensis) (N = 23) and sent to a commercial laboratory for routine CBCs and serum biochemical analysis. Results showed good agreement between venipuncture and nail clip blood samples in red blood cell count, packed cell volume, heterophil count and percentage, lymphocyte count and percentage, aspartate aminotransferase, chloride, creatine phosphokinase, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase, total protein, and uric acid values. Constant bias was found in values of bile acids, cholesterol, and hemoglobin. Proportional bias toward higher values in the jugular sample were found in total white blood cell (WBC) count and inorganic phosphorus. Serum calcium plots revealed a proportional bias toward higher values in the toe nail blood when values were increased. Results suggest some differences in WBC count, bile acids, calcium, cholesterol, hemoglobin, and phosphorus values between blood samples collected by jugular venipuncture and samples collected by toe nail clip, but the differences are mostly minor and, with the possible exception of inorganic phosphorus and marginally elevated or very low WBC counts, are unlikely to affect the use or interpretation of the avian blood panel.

  11. Development of blood extraction system designed by female mosquito's blood sampling mechanism for bio-MEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchiya, Kazuyoshi; Nakanishi, Naoyuki; Nakamachi, Eiji

    2005-02-01

    A compact and wearable wristwatch type Bio-MEMS such as a health monitoring system (HMS) to detect blood sugar level for diabetic patient, was newly developed. The HMS consists of (1) a indentation unit with a microneedle to generate the skin penetration force using a shape memory alloy(SMA) actuator, (2) a pumping unit using a bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator to extract the blood and (3) a gold (Au) electrode as a biosensor immobilized GOx and attached to the gate electrode of MOSFET to detect the amount of Glucose in extracted blood. GOx was immobilized on a self assembled spacer combined with an Au electrode by the cross-link method using BSA as an additional bonding material. The device can extract blood in a few microliter through a painless microneedle with the negative pressure by deflection of the bimorph PZT piezoelectric actuator produced in the blood chamber, by the similar way the female mosquito extracts human blood with muscle motion to flex or relax. The performances of the liquid sampling ability of the pumping unit through a microneedle (3.8mm length, 100μm internal diameter) using the bimorph PZT piezoelectric microactuator were measured. The blood extraction micro device could extract human blood at the speed of 2μl/min, and it is enough volume to measure a glucose level, compared to the amount of commercial based glucose level monitor. The electrode embedded in the blood extraction device chamber could detect electrons generated by the hydrolysis of hydrogen peroxide produced by the reaction between GOx and glucose in a few microliter extracted blood, using the constant electric current measurement system of the MOSFET type hybrid biosensor. The output voltage for the glucose diluted in the chamber was increased lineally with increase of the glucose concentration.

  12. Effect of postmortem sampling technique on the clinical significance of autopsy blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hove, M; Pencil, S D

    1998-02-01

    Our objective was to investigate the value of postmortem autopsy blood cultures performed with an iodine-subclavian technique relative to the classical method of atrial heat searing and antemortem blood cultures. The study consisted of a prospective autopsy series with each case serving as its own control relative to subsequent testing, and a retrospective survey of patients coming to autopsy who had both autopsy blood cultures and premortem blood cultures. A busy academic autopsy service (600 cases per year) at University of Texas Medical Branch Hospitals, Galveston, Texas, served as the setting for this work. The incidence of non-clinically relevant (false-positive) culture results were compared using different methods for collecting blood samples in a prospective series of 38 adult autopsy specimens. One hundred eleven adult autopsy specimens in which both postmortem and antemortem blood cultures were obtained were studied retrospectively. For both studies, positive culture results were scored as either clinically relevant or false positives based on analysis of the autopsy findings and the clinical summary. The rate of false-positive culture results obtained by an iodine-subclavian technique from blood drawn soon after death were statistically significantly lower (13%) than using the classical method of obtaining blood through the atrium after heat searing at the time of the autopsy (34%) in the same set of autopsy subjects. When autopsy results were compared with subjects' antemortem blood culture results, there was no significant difference in the rate of non-clinically relevant culture results in a paired retrospective series of antemortem blood cultures and postmortem blood cultures using the iodine-subclavian postmortem method (11.7% v 13.5%). The results indicate that autopsy blood cultures obtained using the iodine-subclavian technique have reliability equivalent to that of antemortem blood cultures.

  13. On-chip sample preparation for complete blood count from raw blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, John; Wei, Yuan; Zheng, Yi; Wang, Chen; Sun, Yu

    2015-03-21

    This paper describes a monolithic microfluidic device capable of on-chip sample preparation for both RBC and WBC measurements from whole blood. For the first time, on-chip sample processing (e.g. dilution, lysis, and filtration) and downstream single cell measurement were fully integrated to enable sample preparation and single cell analysis from whole blood on a single device. The device consists of two parallel sub-systems that perform sample processing and electrical measurements for measuring RBC and WBC parameters. The system provides a modular environment capable of handling solutions of various viscosities by adjusting the length of channels and precisely controlling mixing ratios, and features a new 'offset' filter configuration for increased duration of device operation. RBC concentration, mean corpuscular volume (MCV), cell distribution width, WBC concentration and differential are determined by electrical impedance measurement. Experimental characterization of over 100,000 cells from 10 patient blood samples validated the system's capability for performing on-chip raw blood processing and measurement.

  14. Concordance of mutation detection in circulating tumor DNA in early clinical trials using different blood collection protocols

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlborn, Lise B.; Madsen, Mette; Jonson, Lars

    2017-01-01

    in a clinical setting. Here we investigate the concordance between standard blood collection for molecular analysis using immediate separation of plasma, compared to the use of collection tubes allowing for delayed processing. Methods: In this study, we measured the fractional abundance of tumor specific...... patients with advanced solid cancers enrolled in early clinical trials. Results: Concordance in the fractional abundance of mutations in ctDNA isolated from blood collected in either K3EDTA or BCT tubes from patients with different solid cancers was observed. Conclusions: This study indicates that BCT...... mutations (BRAF p.V600E and PIK3CA p.H1047R) in ctDNA isolated from blood samples collected in either cell-stabilizing Cell-Free DNA BCT tubes (delayed processing within 72 hours) or standard K3EDTA tubes (immediate processing within 15 minutes). Twenty-five blood sample pairs (EDTA/BCT) were collected from...

  15. Seroepidemiological study of human cysticercosis with blood samples collected on filter paper, in Lages, State of Santa Catarina, Brazil, 2004-2005 Estudo soroepidemiológico da cisticercose humana com amostras de sangue total coletado em papel filtro, em Lages, Estado de Santa Catarina, 2004-2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Márcia Imenes Ishida

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Human serofrequency of antibodies against Taenia solium antigens was determined and risk factors for cysticercosis transmission were identified. METHODS: Individuals (n=878 from periurban and rural locations of Lages, SC, were interviewed to gather demographic, sanitary and health information. Interviews and blood sample collections by finger prick on Whatman filter paper were performed from August 2004 to May 2005. Observation determined that 850 samples were suitable for analysis and were tested by ELISA using vesicular fluid of Taenia crassiceps heterologous antigen. To ensure the reliability of the results, 77 samples of the dried blood were matched with sera. The reactive samples were submitted to a serum confirmatory immunoblot (IB test using purified Taenia crassiceps glycoproteins. RESULTS: The ELISA results for the dried blood and serum samples were statistically consistent. ELISA was positive in 186 (21.9% out of 850 individuals. A group of 213 individuals were asked to collect vein blood for IB (186 with positive result in ELISA and 27 with inappropriate whole blood samples and 130 attended the request. The IB was positive in 29 (3.4% out of 850 individuals. A significant correlation (p = 0.0364 was determined among individuals who tested positive in the IB assay who practiced both pig rearing and kitchen gardening. CONCLUSIONS: ELISA with dried blood eluted from filter paper was suitable for cysticercosis population surveys. In Lages, human infection was associated with pig rearing and kitchen gardening. The prevalence index was compatible with other Latin American endemic areas.INTRODUÇÃO: O primeiro levantamento sobre cisticercose humana e identificação dos fatores de risco associados à transmissão, foram realizados em Lages, SC. MÉTODOS: Oitocentos e setenta e sete voluntários de regiões periurbana e rural foram entrevistados e forneceram informações demográficas e condições sanitárias e de sa

  16. Blood Sampling in Newborns: A Systematic Review of YouTube Videos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bueno, Mariana; Nishi, Érika Tihemi; Costa, Taine; Freire, Laís Machado; Harrison, Denise

    Objective of this study was to conduct a systematic review of YouTube videos showing neonatal blood sampling, and to evaluate pain management and comforting interventions used. Selected videos were consumer- or professional-produced videos showing human newborns undergoing heel lancing or venipuncture for blood sampling, videos showing the entire blood sampling procedure (from the first attempt or puncture to the time of application of a cotton ball or bandage), publication date prior to October 2014, Portuguese titles, available audio. Search terms included "neonate," "newborn," "neonatal screening," and "blood collection." Two reviewers independently screened the videos and extracted the following data. A total of 13 140 videos were retrieved, of which 1354 were further evaluated, and 68 were included. Videos were mostly consumer produced (97%). Heel lancing was performed in 62 (91%). Forty-nine infants (72%) were held by an adult during the procedure. Median pain score immediately after puncture was 4 (interquartile range [IQR] = 0-5), and median length of cry throughout the procedure was 61 seconds (IQR = 88). Breastfeeding (3%) and swaddling (1.5%) were rarely implemented. Posted YouTube videos in Portuguese of newborns undergoing blood collection demonstrate minimal use of pain treatment, and maximal distress during procedures. Knowledge translation strategies are needed to implement effective measures for neonatal pain relief and comfort.

  17. Sample collection and sample analysis plan in support of the 105-C/190-C concrete and soil sampling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marske, S.G.

    1996-07-01

    This sampling and analysis plan describes the sample collection and sample analysis in support of the 105-C water tunnels and 190-C main pumphouse concrete and soil sampling activities. These analytical data will be used to identify the radiological contamination and presence of hazardous materials to support the decontamination and disposal activities

  18. [DNA quantification of blood samples pre-treated with pyramidon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Chuan-Hong; Zheng, Dao-Li; Ni, Rao-Zhi; Wang, Hai-Sheng; Ning, Ping; Fang, Hui; Liu, Yan

    2014-06-01

    To study DNA quantification and STR typing of samples pre-treated with pyramidon. The blood samples of ten unrelated individuals were anticoagulated in EDTA. The blood stains were made on the filter paper. The experimental groups were divided into six groups in accordance with the storage time, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h and 24h after pre-treated with pyramidon. DNA was extracted by three methods: magnetic bead-based extraction, QIAcube DNA purification method and Chelex-100 method. The quantification of DNA was made by fluorescent quantitative PCR. STR typing was detected by PCR-STR fluorescent technology. In the same DNA extraction method, the sample DNA decreased gradually with times after pre-treatment with pyramidon. In the same storage time, the DNA quantification in different extraction methods had significant differences. Sixteen loci DNA typing were detected in 90.56% of samples. Pyramidon pre-treatment could cause DNA degradation, but effective STR typing can be achieved within 24 h. The magnetic bead-based extraction is the best method for STR profiling and DNA extraction.

  19. Blood collection and the labile blood components: what should the regulators ask for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniatis, A; Adamides, E

    1998-01-01

    Efforts to promote the quality and safety of blood collection are underway in most European Union (EU) member states but the level of quality management continues to differ significantly not only between countries but also among Blood Collection Establishments (BCE's) within a country. The European Commission has asked for blood safety and self-sufficiency in the Community and has initiated action in this direction. What is sought is harmonization of practices in the transfusion chain but such cannot be accomplished solely through recommendations and directives given the sociocultural and economic differences among EU member states. Active support for the development of common standards and a common quality system as well as an inspection and accreditation system would certainly help. The goal of self-sufficiency should certainly be emphasized but may be difficult to achieve, given the unpredictability of factors that may affect demand and supply. Through bipartisan initiatives however, between the USA and EU, consensus regarding the issue of blood safety, could be reached.

  20. Effect of hypergravity on catecholamine levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvetnansky, R.; Petrak, J.; Mravec, B.; Tillinger, A.; Jurani, M.; Baranovska, M.; Hapala, I.; Frollo, I.

    2005-08-01

    Hypergravity is known to activate the sympathoadrenal system (SAS). Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI) and partly also norepinephrine (NE). However, the collection of blood was performed after centrifugation finished and therefore plasma NE and EPI levels could have been affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI and NE levels in blood collected directly during the centrifugation after reaching different +G, using newly developed remote controlled equipment. Such telemetrically regulated equipment for multiple blood sampling allows us to investigate selective effects of hypergravity during centrifugation. All animals had a polyethylene tubing in the tail artery which was connected to a pre-programmed device for three blood withdrawals (0.6 ml each) into individual syringes, performed at any chosen time intervals. Plasma EPI and NE levels were measured at hypergravity between +1G - +5G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity dependent increase at the interval of 10-20 min. After the blood collection was completed, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples plasma EPI levels showed a significant reduction compared to the 20 min interval of centrifugation but the EPI levels at 4G-6G were still significantly elevated compared to pre- centrifugation levels. Plasma NE levels showed less pronounced changes (increased after 6G only) with a slower return to control levels.Thus, our data has shown completely different responses of the adrenomedullary (epinephrine) and sympathoneural (norepinephrine) systems to hypergravitation. This data shows that the increased gravitation and not the stressful situations connected with centrifugation is the factor responsible for massive activation of the adrenomedullary system. The mechanism of small activation of the

  1. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Astromaterial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler, R. A.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; McCubbin, F. M.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office at NASA Johnson Space Center (hereafter JSC curation) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. JSC presently curates 9 different astromaterials collections in seven different clean-room suites: (1) Apollo Samples (ISO (International Standards Organization) class 6 + 7); (2) Antarctic Meteorites (ISO 6 + 7); (3) Cosmic Dust Particles (ISO 5); (4) Microparticle Impact Collection (ISO 7; formerly called Space-Exposed Hardware); (5) Genesis Solar Wind Atoms (ISO 4); (6) Stardust Comet Particles (ISO 5); (7) Stardust Interstellar Particles (ISO 5); (8) Hayabusa Asteroid Particles (ISO 5); (9) OSIRIS-REx Spacecraft Coupons and Witness Plates (ISO 7). Additional cleanrooms are currently being planned to house samples from two new collections, Hayabusa 2 (2021) and OSIRIS-REx (2023). In addition to the labs that house the samples, we maintain a wide variety of infra-structure facilities required to support the clean rooms: HEPA-filtered air-handling systems, ultrapure dry gaseous nitrogen systems, an ultrapure water system, and cleaning facilities to provide clean tools and equipment for the labs. We also have sample preparation facilities for making thin sections, microtome sections, and even focused ion-beam sections. We routinely monitor the cleanliness of our clean rooms and infrastructure systems, including measurements of inorganic or organic contamination, weekly airborne particle counts, compositional and isotopic monitoring of liquid N2 deliveries, and daily UPW system monitoring. In addition to the physical maintenance of the samples, we track within our databases the current and ever changing characteristics (weight, location, etc.) of more than 250,000 individually numbered samples across our various collections, as well as more than 100,000 images, and countless "analog" records that record the sample processing records of each individual sample. JSC Curation is co-located with JSC

  2. Collection and control of tritium bioassay samples at Pantex

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fairrow, N.L.; Ivie, W.E.

    1992-01-01

    Pantex is the final assembly/disassembly point for US nuclear weapons. The Pantex internal dosimetry section monitors radiation workers once a month for tritium exposure. In order to manage collection and control of the bioassay specimens efficiently, a bar code system for collection of samples was developed and implemented to speed up the process and decrease the number of errors probable when transferring data. In the past, all the bioassay data from samples were entered manually into a computer database. Transferring the bioassay data from the liquid scintillation counter to each individual's dosimetry record required as much as two weeks of concentrated effort

  3. Colour coding for blood collection tube closures - a call for harmonisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2015-01-01

    including errors in sampling, reporting and decision-making have received much less attention. Proper sampling and additives to the samples are essential. Tubes and additives are identified not only in writing on the tubes but also by the colour of the tube closures. Unfortunately these colours have...... not been standardised, running the risk of error when tubes from one manufacturer are replaced by the tubes from another manufacturer that use different colour coding. EFLM therefore supports the worldwide harmonisation of the colour coding for blood collection tube closures and labels in order to reduce...

  4. Blood transfusion sampling and a greater role for error recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Jane

    Patient identification errors in pre-transfusion blood sampling ('wrong blood in tube') are a persistent area of risk. These errors can potentially result in life-threatening complications. Current measures to address root causes of incidents and near misses have not resolved this problem and there is a need to look afresh at this issue. PROJECT PURPOSE: This narrative review of the literature is part of a wider system-improvement project designed to explore and seek a better understanding of the factors that contribute to transfusion sampling error as a prerequisite to examining current and potential approaches to error reduction. A broad search of the literature was undertaken to identify themes relating to this phenomenon. KEY DISCOVERIES: Two key themes emerged from the literature. Firstly, despite multi-faceted causes of error, the consistent element is the ever-present potential for human error. Secondly, current focus on error prevention could potentially be augmented with greater attention to error recovery. Exploring ways in which clinical staff taking samples might learn how to better identify their own errors is proposed to add to current safety initiatives.

  5. Sex identification of polar bears from blood and tissue samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amstrup, Steven C.; Garner, G.W.; Cronin, M.A.; Patton, J.C.

    1993-01-01

    Polar bears (Ursus maritimus) can be adversely affected by hunting and other human perturbations because of low population densities and low reproduction rates. The sustainable take of adult females may be as low as 1.5% of the population. Females and accompanying young are most vulnerable to hunting, and hunters have not consistently reported the sex composition of the harvest, therefore a method to confirm the sexes of polar bears harvested in Alaska is needed. Evidence of the sex of harvested animals is often not available, but blood or other tissue samples often are. We extracted DNA from tissue and blood samples, and amplified segments of zinc finger (ZFX and ZFY) genes from both X and Y chromosomes with the polymerase chain reaction. Digestion of amplified portions of the X chromosome with the restriction enzyme HaeIII resulted in subdivision of the original amplified segment into four smaller fragments. Digestion with HaeIII did not subdivide the original segment amplified from the Y chromosome. The differing fragment sizes produced patterns in gel electrophoresis that distinguished samples from male and female bears 100% of the time. This technique is applicable to the investigation of many wildlife management and research questions.

  6. EVALUATION OF ZEBU NELLORE CATTLE BLOOD SAMPLES USING THE CELL-DYN 3500 HEMATOLOGY ANALYZER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Secorun Borges

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The Cell-dyn 3500 is a multiparameter flow cytometer, which may analyze samples from several species performing several simultaneous analyses. It is able to perform white blood cells, red blood cells and platelet counts, besides differential leukocyte counts, packed cell volume and hemoglobin determination. Cell-Dyn 3500 performs total leukocyte count both optically and by impedance. The equipment may choose one or other method, based on the reliability of the results. Erythrocyte and platelet counts are determined by impedance. Leukocyte differentiation is based on an optical principle, using separation in multiangular polarized light. The objective of this study was to compare the results of complete blood count of Zebu Nellore heifers from Celldyn 3500, with those obtained from a semi-automated cell counter (Celm CC 510 and the manual technique. Blood samples were collected from the jugular vein in 5 mL EDTA vacuum tubes from 58 Nellore heifers, at 24 months of age. Samples were processed in parallel in the three different techniques. Results were analyzed using paired t test, Pearson’s correlation and the Bland-Altmann method. There was a strong correlation for all parameters analyzed by Cell-Dyn 3500, manual method and semiautomated cell counter, except for basophils and monocytes counts. These results confirm that this analyzer is reliable for blood samples analysis of zebu cattle.

  7. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Larsen, Janne Tidselbak; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker; Sørensen, Holger Jelling; Hollegaard, Mads Villiam; Hougaard, David Michael; Mortensen, Preben Bo; Petersen, Liselotte

    2015-03-01

    The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case, matched on sex and exact date of birth. Both early and late blood sampling was associated with increased risk for schizophrenia. Compared to blood sampling at day 5, sampling at days 0 to 4 after birth was associated with an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 1.46 (95% CI 1.15-1.87) for development of schizophrenia, and sampling at days 6 to 9 and at days 10 to 53 was associated with an IRR of 1.5 (95% CI 1.13-1.98) and 3.00 (95% CI 1.59-5.67), respectively. After adjusting the estimates for place of birth, both parents' psychiatric illness, maternal and paternal age, parents' country of origin, child admission, and parental education and income, the estimates were slightly different. Thus, blood collection at 0-4days was associated with an IRR of 1.27 (95% CI 0.94-1.71), 6-9days 1.31 (95% CI 0.94-1.84) and 10+days 3.52 (95% CI 1.50 to 8.24). After adjusting risk estimates for well-known risk factors, delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening was associated with unexplained increased risk of schizophrenia. Thus, a key finding is that age at test is a proxy for unobserved risk factors

  8. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J

    2014-01-01

    , for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within...... cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities...... North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T...

  9. Fetal scalp blood sampling in labor - a review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jan Stener; Weber, Tom

    2014-01-01

    During the 1970s and 1980s, electronic fetal monitoring and fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) were introduced without robust evidence. With a methodical review of the published literature, and using one randomized controlled trial, seven controlled studies, nine randomized studies of various...... surveillance methods and data from the Danish National Birth Registry, we have assessed the usefulness of FBS as a complementary tool to improve the specificity and sensitivity of electronic cardiotocography (CTG). Based on heterogeneous studies of modest quality with somewhat inconsistent results, we conclude...

  10. An Analysis of and Recommendations for the Peruvian Blood Collection and Transfusion System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Paul E; Vidal, Julio; Garcia, Patricia J

    2016-05-01

    Peru experienced a crisis in its blood collection and supply system in the mid-2000s, as contaminated blood led to several transfusion-transmitted infections (TTI), occurring in the backdrop of extremely low voluntary donation rates and a national blood supply shortage. Thus, the Peruvian Ministry of Health (MINSA) implemented a national investigation on the safety and quality of the Peruvian blood collection/transfusion network. Every Peruvian blood bank was evaluated by MINSA from 2007-2008. These evaluations consisted of an update of the national registry of blood banks and visits to each blood bank from MINSA oversight teams. Information was collected on the condition of the blood bank personnel, equipment, supplies, and practices. Further, previously-collected blood at each blood bank was randomly selected and screened for TTI-causing pathogens. Uncovered in this investigation was a fragmented, under-equipped, and poorly-staffed blood collection and transfusion network, consisting of 241 independent blood banks and resulting in suboptimal allocation of resources. Further, blood with evidence of TTI-causing pathogens (including Hepatitis B, Hepatitis C, and syphilis) and set for transfusion was discovered at three separate blood banks as part of the random screening process. Using the successful reorganizations of national blood supply systems in other Latin American countries as examples, Peru would be well-served to form large, high-volume, regional blood collection and transfusion centers, responsible for blood collection and screening for the entire country. The small, separate blood banks would then be transformed into a network of blood transfusion centers, not responsible for blood collection. This reorganization would allow Peru to better utilize its resources, standardize the blood collection and transfusion process, and increase voluntary donation, resulting in a safer, more abundant national blood product.

  11. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L; Ershler, William B; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H

    2016-05-06

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90% viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs after

  12. A cell transportation solution that preserves live circulating tumor cells in patient blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stefansson, Steingrimur; Adams, Daniel L.; Ershler, William B.; Le, Huyen; Ho, David H.

    2016-01-01

    Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are typically collected into CellSave fixative tubes, which kills the cells, but preserves their morphology. Currently, the clinical utility of CTCs is mostly limited to their enumeration. More detailed investigation of CTC biology can be performed on live cells, but obtaining live CTCs is technically challenging, requiring blood collection into biocompatible solutions and rapid isolation which limits transportation options. To overcome the instability of CTCs, we formulated a sugar based cell transportation solution (SBTS) that stabilizes cell viability at ambient temperature. In this study we examined the long term viability of human cancer cell lines, primary cells and CTCs in human blood samples in the SBTS for transportation purposes. Four cell lines, 5 primary human cells and purified human PBMCs were tested to determine the viability of cells stored in the transportation solution at ambient temperature for up to 7 days. We then demonstrated viability of MCF-7 cells spiked into normal blood with SBTS and stored for up to 7 days. A pilot study was then run on blood samples from 3 patients with metastatic malignancies stored with or without SBTS for 6 days. CTCs were then purified by Ficoll separation/microfilter isolation and identified using CTC markers. Cell viability was assessed using trypan blue or CellTracker™ live cell stain. Our results suggest that primary/immortalized cell lines stored in SBTS remain ~90 % viable for > 72 h. Further, MCF-7 cells spiked into whole blood remain viable when stored with SBTS for up to 7 days. Finally, live CTCs were isolated from cancer patient blood samples kept in SBTS at ambient temperature for 6 days. No CTCs were isolated from blood samples stored without SBTS. In this proof of principle pilot study we show that viability of cell lines is preserved for days using SBTS. Further, this solution can be used to store patient derived blood samples for eventual isolation of viable CTCs

  13. Hematocrit, anemia, and arm preference for blood sample collection ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Anemia in pregnancy is a common cause of maternal morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Regular review of hematocrit (HCT) and anemia patterns in pregnancy is necessary in our environment. Aim: The aim was to determine the average HCT, prevalence, and pattern of anemia, as well the arm ...

  14. Automatic collection of bovine blood samples | Hale | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    South African Journal of Animal Science. Journal Home · ABOUT THIS JOURNAL · Advanced Search · Current Issue · Archives · Journal Home > Vol 4, No 1 (1974) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads. Username, Password, Remember me, or Register · Download this PDF file. The PDF file you selected ...

  15. Characteristics of the samples in the FNG fission deposit collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meadows, J.W.

    1990-12-01

    Information concerning the samples in the Fast Neutron Generator (FNG) Group's fission deposit collection has been assembled. This includes the physical dimensions, isotopic analyses, half-lives, alpha emission rates specific activities and deposit weights. 10 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  16. Trace-element measurement in human blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamidian, M.R.; Ebrahimi-Fakhar, F.

    1992-01-01

    It is conceivable that some essential elements such as zinc, iron, calcium, copper, phosphorus, selenium, etc., have a major impact on biological and metabolical functions in the human body. The concentration of these elements is normally very minute and changes within a naturally set tolerance. The accurate measurement of these elements in biological samples, such as in blood, is one of the objectives of medical physics in diagnosis. There are many sophisticated methods to measure the accurate amount of each element in biological samples. The methods used in this project are a combination of proton-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) and neutron activation analysis (NAA). The PIXE and NAA are fast and reliable techniques for multielement analysis at the level of parts per million and less

  17. Ambulatory blood pressure and blood lipids in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Gary D; Van Berge-Landry, Helene M; Morrison, Lynn A; Reza, Angela M; Nicolaisen, Nicola M; Bindon, James R; Brown, Daniel E

    2013-01-01

    Elevated blood pressure (BP), elevated serum cholesterol, and aberrant lipoprotein fractions (low levels of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and high levels of low-density lipoprotein fractions and triglycerides) have all been used as measures that assess the "metabolic syndrome" and more recently in indexes of allostatic load, which are designed to assess the degree of integrated metabolic pathology. While there are ample data regarding the interrelationships of these measures in various pathophysiological settings, there are limited data regarding the interrelationship of ambulatory BP (ABP) and blood lipids in healthy subjects. The present study evaluates ABP-blood lipid relationships in a multiethnic sample of healthy adults. The subjects were 37 men (age = 40.9 ± 10.7 years) and 42 women (age = 35.8 ± 10.4 years) who were employed as hotel workers in Hawaii. Each wore an ABP monitor for one midweek workday and had pressures averaged in three daily microenvironments (work, home, and during sleep). They also had fasting blood samples taken for lipid profiling. Multivariate analysis of covariance shows that there was a strong inverse relationship between HDL and both systolic (P act as a group in healthy adults but that higher HDL is associated with lower BP. This latter finding is consistent with research that shows that HDL promotes vasodilation via its effect on endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. A simple method for regional cerebral blood flow measurement by one-point arterial blood sampling and 123I-IMP microsphere model (part 2). A study of time correction of one-point blood sample count

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masuda, Yasuhiko; Makino, Kenichi; Gotoh, Satoshi

    1999-01-01

    In our previous paper regarding determination of the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) using the 123 I-IMP microsphere model, we reported that the accuracy of determination of the integrated value of the input function from one-point arterial blood sampling can be increased by performing correction using the 5 min: 29 min ratio for the whole-brain count. However, failure to carry out the arterial blood collection at exactly 5 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection causes errors with this method, and there is thus a time limitation. We have now revised out method so that the one-point arterial blood sampling can be performed at any time during the interval between 5 minutes and 20 minutes after 123 I-IMP injection, with addition of a correction step for the sampling time. This revised method permits more accurate estimation of the integral of the input functions. This method was then applied to 174 experimental subjects: one-point blood samples collected at random times between 5 and 20 minutes, and the estimated values for the continuous arterial octanol extraction count (COC) were determined. The mean error rate between the COC and the actual measured continuous arterial octanol extraction count (OC) was 3.6%, and the standard deviation was 12.7%. Accordingly, in 70% of the cases, the rCBF was able to be estimated within an error rate of 13%, while estimation was possible in 95% of the cases within an error rate of 25%. This improved method is a simple technique for determination of the rCBF by 123 I-IMP microsphere model and one-point arterial blood sampling which no longer shows a time limitation and does not require any octanol extraction step. (author)

  19. The effect of local heat on term neonates pain intensity during heel-blood sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. GHobadi Mohebi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Newborns are more sensitive to pain than adults and are more susceptible to the long-term complications of pain. So, it is necessary to use procedures for reducing pain in newborns. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of local heat on the pain intensity of heel-blood sampling in the term newborns. Material & Methods: In this randomized controlled clinical trial study, in 2012, 63 healthy 3 to 5-day newborns who were referred to Shahid Delkhah Health Center in Ferdows were selected by random sampling method and randomly divided into 3 groups (21 people in each group: test (heat, placebo (sound and control. The pain intensity of newborns before, during and after heel-blood sampling was evaluated. The data collection tools were demographic questionnaire and Neonatal Infant Pain Scale (NIPS. Data were analyzed by SPSS 14.5 software and chi-square test, one-way ANOVA, Tukey's post hoc test, and ANOVA with repeated observations. Finding: The mean pain intensity in the three groups was not significantly different before intervention (p=0.86, but the mean pain intensity was lower in the test group than in the other two groups (p=0.006. After heel-blood sampling, the mean pain intensity was the least in the test group and was the most in the control group (p<0.001. Conclusion: Local heat during and after heel blood sampling decreases pain intensity in the term newborns.

  20. 1-Hydroxypyrene Levels in Blood Samples of Rats After Exposure to Generator Fumes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ifegwu, Clinton; Igwo-Ezikpe, Miriam N.; Anyakora, Chimezie; Osuntoki, Akinniyi; Oseni, Kafayat A.; Alao, Eragbae O.

    2013-01-01

    Polynuclear Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major component of fuel generator fumes. Carcinogenicity of these compounds has long been established. In this study, 37 Swiss albino rats were exposed to generator fumes at varied distances for 8 hours per day for a period of 42 days and the level of 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood was evaluated. This study also tried to correlate the level of blood 1-hyroxypyrene with the distance from the source of pollution. Plasma was collected by centrifuging the whole blood sample followed by complete hydrolysis of the conjugated 1-hydroxypyrene glucuronide to yield the analyte of interest, 1-hydroxypyrene, which was achieved using beta glucuronidase. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with UV detector was used to determine the 1-hydroxypyrene concentrations in the blood samples. The mobile phase was water:methanol (12:88 v/v) isocratic run at the flow rate of 1.2 mL/min with CI8 stationary phase at 250 nm. After 42 days of exposure, blood concentration level of 1-hydroxypyrene ranged from 34 μg/mL to 26.29 μg/mL depending on the distance from source of exposure. The control group had no 1-hydroxypyrene in their blood. After the period of exposure, percentage of death correlated with the distance from the source of exposure. Percentage of death ranged from 56% to zero depending on the proximity to source of pollution. PMID:24179393

  1. Sample preparation prior to the LC-MS-based metabolomics/metabonomics of blood-derived samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gika, Helen; Theodoridis, Georgios

    2011-07-01

    Blood represents a very important biological fluid and has been the target of continuous and extensive research for diagnostic, or health and drug monitoring reasons. Recently, metabonomics/metabolomics have emerged as a new and promising 'omics' platform that shows potential in biomarker discovery, especially in areas such as disease diagnosis, assessment of drug efficacy or toxicity. Blood is collected in various establishments in conditions that are not standardized. Next, the samples are prepared and analyzed using different methodologies or tools. When targeted analysis of key molecules (e.g., a drug or its metabolite[s]) is the aim, enforcement of certain measures or additional analyses may correct and harmonize these discrepancies. In omics fields such as those performed by holistic analytical approaches, no such rules or tools are available. As a result, comparison or correlation of results or data fusion becomes impractical. However, it becomes evident that such obstacles should be overcome in the near future to allow for large-scale studies that involve the assaying of samples from hundreds of individuals. In this case the effect of sample handling and preparation becomes very serious, in order to avoid wasting months of work from experts and expensive instrument time. The present review aims to cover the different methodologies applied to the pretreatment of blood prior to LC-MS metabolomic/metabonomic studies. The article tries to critically compare the methods and highlight issues that need to be addressed.

  2. Use of standard laboratory methods to obviate routine dithiothreitol treatment of blood samples with daratumumab interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lintel, Nicholas J; Brown, Debra K; Schafer, Diane T; Tsimba-Chitsva, Farai M; Koepsell, Scott A; Shunkwiler, Sara M

    2017-01-01

    Daratumumab is an antibody currently used in the treatment of patients with refractory multiple myeloma. Blood samples from patients being treated with daratumumab may show panreactivity during pre-transfusion testing. To facilitate the provision of blood components for such patients, it is recommended that a baseline phenotype or genotype be established prior to starting treatment with daratumumab. If patient red blood cells (RBCs) require phenotyping after the start of daratumumab treatment, dithiothreitol (DTT) treatment of the patient's RBCs should be performed. The medical charts of four patients treated with daratumumab were reviewed. The individual number of doses ranged from 1 to 14; patient age ranged from 55 to 78 years; two men and two women were included in the review. Type and screen data were obtained from samples collected over 33 encounters with a range of 1 to 13 encounters per patient. All samples were tested initially by automated solid-phase testing. Any reactivity with solid phase led to tube testing with either low-ionic-strength saline, polyethylene glycol, or both. If incubation failed to eliminate the reactivity, the sample was sent to a reference laboratory for DTT treatment and phenotyping. Of the 33 samples tested, 23 (69.7%) samples had reactivity in solid-phase testing. In 8 of the 10 samples that did not react in solid-phase, testing was conducted more than four half-lives after the last dose of daratumumab. Of the 23 that had reactivity in solid-phase, 16 (69.6%) samples demonstrated loss of reactivity using common laboratory methods. For the seven patients whose sample reactivity was not initially eliminated, six were provided with phenotypically matched blood based on prior molecular testing. Only one sample was sent out for DTT treatment. These results suggest that daratumumab interference with pre-transfusion testing can be addressed using common laboratory methods. This finding could save time and money for laboratories that do

  3. Good practices in collecting umbilical cord and placental blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Lauren Auer; Bernardino, Elizabeth; Crozeta, Karla; Guimarães, Paulo Ricardo Bittencourt

    2016-08-18

    to identify the factors related to the quality of umbilical cord and placental blood specimens, and define best practices for their collection in a government bank of umbilical cord and placental blood. this was a descriptive study, quantitative approach, performed at a government umbilical cord and placental blood bank, in two steps: 1) verification of the obstetric, neonatal and operational factors, using a specific tool for gathering data as non-participant observers; 2) definition of best practices by grouping non-conformities observed before, during and after blood collection. The data was analyzed using descriptive statistics and the following statistical software: Statistica(r) and R(r). while there was a correlation with obstetrical and neonatal factors, there was a larger correlation with operational factors, resulting in the need to adjust the professional practices of the nursing staff and obstetrical team involved in collecting this type of blood. Based on these non-conformities we defined best practices for nurses before, during and after blood collection. the best practices defined in this study are an important management tool for the work of nurses in obtaining blood specimens of high cell quality. identificar fatores relacionados à qualidade das amostras do sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário e definir boas práticas para sua coleta em um banco público de sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário. pesquisa descritiva, abordagem quantitativa, realizada em um banco público de sangue de cordão umbilical e placentário, desenvolvida em duas etapas: 1) verificação dos fatores obstétricos, neonatais e operacionais, obtidos por coleta em instrumento próprio e observação não participante; 2) definição das boas práticas, por meio do agrupamento de não-conformidades observadas antes, durante e após a coleta do sangue. Os dados foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva, utilizando-se dos softwares Statistica(r) e R(r). houve

  4. Venepuncture versus heel lance for blood sampling in term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Vibhuti S; Ohlsson, Arne

    2011-10-05

    Heel lance has been the conventional method of blood sampling in neonates for screening tests. Neonates undergoing heel lance experience pain which cannot be completely alleviated. To determine whether venepuncture or heel lance is less painful and more effective for blood sampling in term neonates. Randomized or quasi-randomised controlled trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance were identified by searching the Cochrane Central Regsiter of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library), MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, and clinical trials registries in May 2011. Trials comparing pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or with out the use of a sweet tasting solution as a co-intervention in term neonates. Outcomes included pain response to venepuncture versus heel lance with or without the use of a sweet tasting solution using validated pain measures, the need of repeat sampling and cry characteristics. Analyses included typical relative risk (RR), risk difference (RD), number needed to treat (NNT), weighted mean difference (WMD) and standardized mean difference (SMD) with their 95% confidence intervals (CI). Between study heterogeneity was reported including the I squared (I(2)) test. Six studies (n = 478) of variable quality were included. A composite outcome of Infant Pain Scale (NIPS), Neonatal Facial Action Coding System (NFCS) and/or Premature Infant Pain Profile (PIPP) score was reported in 288 infants, who did not receive a sweet tasting solution. Meta-analysis showed a significant reduction in the venepuncture versus the heel lance group (SMD -0.76, 95% CI -1.00 to -0.52; I(2) = 0%). When a sweet tasting solution was provided the SMD remained significant favouring the venepuncture group (SMD - 0.38, 95% CI -0.69 to -0.07). The typical RD for requiring more than one skin puncture for venepuncture versus heel lance (reported in 4 studies; n = 254) was -0.34 (95% CI -0.43 to -0.25; I(2) = 97%). The NNT to avoid one repeat skin

  5. Characteristics of a new fully programmable blood sampling device for monitoring blood radioactivity during PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boellaard, R.; Lingen, A. van; Balen, S.C.M. van; Hoving, B.G.; Lammertsma, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The first performance tests of a new fully programmable blood sampling device for monitoring blood radioactivity during positron emission tomography (PET) are described. Blood is withdrawn through 1-mm internal diameter tubing using an infusion pump which can be operated at rates varying from 0 to 600 ml/h. Activity in blood is measured by a 6-cm-thick bismuth germanate crystal connected to a photomultiplier tube and multichannel analyser (MCA) which are positioned within 6 cm lead shielding. Positioning of the tubing is an exact and simple procedure. The minimal readout time of the MCA is 1 s. Two independent energy windows can be set. Operation of the pump and MCA is fully controlled by a PC, i.e. sampling time, interval time and pump rate can be varied at any time during the PET scan by user-defined scripts. A number of characteristics of the new system were studied, such as sensitivity, dead time, linearity, effect of background radiation and pump rate as a function of input pressure. In addition, dispersion was measured as a function of pump rate. Finally, first clinical results were compared with manual samples. The sensitivity equalled 0.7 and 0.2 cps/Bq for 511- and 1022-keV 30% energy windows, respectively, and the system dead time was 500 ns. The system remained linear within 2% with activity concentrations up to 2.5 MBq/cc. Short-term reproducibility was better than 3% for a 1-h period. Long-term reproducibility was about 5% (1SD), which was mainly caused by variation in the diameter of the tubing. If the device was positioned in such a way that maximum shielding was directed towards the patient, the effects of background radiation from the patient on the measured activity concentration for clinically relevant conditions was minimal ( -1 were observed for pump rates higher than 300 ml/h, indicating that the system dispersion is small. Clinical data showed an excellent agreement to within 3% (1SD) between the results obtained with the new system and

  6. Uranium concentration in blood samples of Southern Iraqi leukemia patients using CR-39 track detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Hamzawi, A.A.; Al-Qadisiyah University, Qadisiyah; Jaafar, M.S.; Tawfiq, N.F.

    2014-01-01

    The simple and effective technique of fission track etch has been applied to determine trace concentration of uranium in human blood samples taken from two groups of male and female participants: leukemia patients and healthy subjects group. The blood samples of leukemia patients and healthy subjects were collected from three key southern governorates namely, Basrah, Muthanna and Dhi-Qar. These governorates were the centers of intensive military activities during the 1991 and 2003 Gulf wars, and the discarded weapons are still lying around in these regions. CR-39 track detector was used for registration of induced fission tracks. The results show that the highest recorded uranium concentration in the blood samples of leukemia patients was 4.71 ppb (female, 45 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 1.91 ppb (male, 3 years old, from Muthanna). For healthy group, the maximum uranium concentration was 2.15 ppb (female, 55 years old, from Basrah) and the minimum concentration was 0.86 ppb (male, 5 years old, from Dhi-Qar). It has been found that the uranium concentrations in human blood samples of leukemia patients are higher than those of the healthy group. These uranium concentrations in the leukemia patients group were significantly different (P < 0.001) from those in the healthy group. (author)

  7. The gingival vein as a minimally traumatic site for multiple blood sampling in guinea pigs and hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Mariana Valotta; de Castro, Simone Oliveira; de Albuquerque, Cynthia Zaccanini; Mattaraia, Vânia Gomes de Moura; Santoro, Marcelo Larami

    2017-01-01

    Laboratory animals are still necessary in scientific investigation and vaccine testing, but while novel methodological approaches are not available for their replacement, the search for new, humane, easy, and painless methods is necessary to diminish their stress and pain. When multiple blood samples are to be collected from hamsters and guinea pigs, the number of available venipuncture sites-which are greatly diminished in these species in comparison with other rodents due to the absence of a long tail-, harasses animal caregivers and researchers. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate if gingival vein puncture could be used as an additional route to obtain multiple blood samples from anesthetized hamsters and guinea pigs in such a way that animal behavior, well-being or hematological parameters would not be altered. Thus, twelve anesthetized Syrian golden hamsters and English guinea pigs were randomly allocated in two groups: a control group, whose blood samples were not collected, and an experimental group in which blood samples (200 microliters) were collected by gingival vein puncture at weekly intervals over six weeks. Clinical assessment, body weight gain and complete blood cell count were evaluated weekly, and control and experimental animals were euthanized at week seven, when the mentolabial region was processed to histological analyses. Multiple blood sampling from the gingival vein evoked no clinical manifestations or alteration in the behavioral repertoire, nor a statistically significant difference in weight gain in both species. Guinea pigs showed no alteration in red blood cell, leukocyte or platelet parameters over time. Hamsters developed a characteristic pattern of age-related physiological changes, which were considered normal. Histological analyses showed no difference in morphological structures in the interdental gingiva, confirming that multiple blood sampling is barely traumatic. Thus, these results evidence that blood collection from multiple

  8. Optimal method for collection of umbilical cord blood: an Egyptian trial for a public cord blood bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassiouny, M R; El-Chennawi, F; Mansour, A K; Yahia, S; Darwish, A

    2015-06-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains stem cells and can be used as an alternative to bone marrow transplantation. Engraftment is dependent on the total nucleated cell (TNC) and CD34+ cell counts of the cord blood units. This study was designed to evaluate the effect of the method of collection of the UCB on the yield of the cord blood units. Informed consent was obtained from 100 eligible mothers for donation of cord blood. Both in utero and ex utero methods were used for collection. The cord blood volume was measured. The TNC and the CD34+ cell counts were enumerated. We have found that in utero collection gave significantly larger volumes of cord blood and higher TNC counts than ex utero collection. There was no significant difference between both methods regarding the CD34+ cell counts. This study revealed a significant correlation between the volume of the collected cord blood and both TNC and CD34+ cell counts. It is better to collect cord blood in utero before placental delivery to optimize the quality of the cord blood unit. © 2015 AABB.

  9. Fluid sample collection and distribution system. [qualitative analysis of aqueous samples from several points

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, R. L. (Inventor)

    1979-01-01

    A multipoint fluid sample collection and distribution system is provided wherein the sample inputs are made through one or more of a number of sampling valves to a progressive cavity pump which is not susceptible to damage by large unfiltered particles. The pump output is through a filter unit that can provide a filtered multipoint sample. An unfiltered multipoint sample is also provided. An effluent sample can be taken and applied to a second progressive cavity pump for pumping to a filter unit that can provide one or more filtered effluent samples. The second pump can also provide an unfiltered effluent sample. Means are provided to periodically back flush each filter unit without shutting off the whole system.

  10. Collection and preparation of marine samples for radionuclide analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holm, E.

    1997-01-01

    The ultimate goal of research in radioecology is to be able to predict the pathways of radioactive material in the environment and hence estimate possible doses to the population in various regions. Knowledge of levels of contamination are necessary to maintain control of operations of nuclear facilities. Correct methods of sample collection, handling and preparation are among the most important parts for a correct assessment. On basis of the final results of radionuclide concentrations, scientific, medical and political decisions are taken. (author)

  11. Measurement of regional cerebral blood flow using one-point venous blood sampling and causality model. Evaluation by comparing with conventional continuous arterial blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mimura, Hiroaki; Sone, Teruki; Takahashi, Yoshitake

    2008-01-01

    Optimal setting of the input function is essential for the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) based on the microsphere model using N-isopropyl-4-[ 123 I]iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP), and usually the arterial 123 I-IMP concentration (integral value) in the initial 5 min is used for this purpose. We have developed a new convenient method in which 123 I-IMP concentration in arterial blood sample is estimated from that in venous blood sample. Brain perfusion single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with 123 I-IMP was performed in 110 cases of central nervous system disorders. The causality was analyzed between the various parameters of SPECT data and the ratio of octanol-extracted arterial radioactivity concentration during the first 5 min (Caoct) to octanol-extracted venous radioactivity concentration at 27 min after intravenous injection of 123 I-IMP (Cvoct). A high correlation was observed between the measured and estimated values of Caoct/Cvoct (r=0.856) when the following five parameters were included in the regression formula: radioactivity concentration in venous blood sampled at 27 min (Cv), Cvoct, Cvoct/Cv, and total brain radioactivity counts that were measured by a four-head gamma camera 5 min and 28 min after 123 I-IMP injection. Furthermore, the rCBF values obtained using the input parameters estimated by this method were also highly correlated with the rCBF values measured using the continuous arterial blood sampling method (r=0.912). These results suggest that this method would serve as the new, convenient and less invasive method of rCBF measurement in clinical setting. (author)

  12. Collection and preparation of water samples for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baucom, E.I.; Ferguson, R.B.; Wallace, R.M.

    1977-01-01

    A method based on ion exchange and neutron activation analysis (NAA) was developed and field-tested to determine uranium over the range 0.02 to 10,000 ppb in natural water using a single procedure. Water samples are filtered in the field using a specially-designed one-liter filter apparatus pressurized to 40 psig with an inert gas. The filtered water is treated with a high purity, mixed cation-anion resin in the hydronium-hydroxide form. All ions are removed from solution under the strong driving force of the neutralization reaction. Anionic, cationic, and natural complexes of uranium can be concentrated with this method. Field tests showed greater than 95 percent recovery of 13 elements analyzed (including greater than 99 percent recovery of uranium) and greater than or equal to 90 percent recovery of 4 other elements. Uranium collected on the resin was quantitatively determined by NAA. Coefficient of variation for sampling plus analysis was less than 20 percent for samples containing more than 0.1 ppb uranium. Advantages of this method include: (1) wide dynamic range, (2) low detection limit for uranium (0.02 ppb), (3) high precision and accuracy, (4) relatively low cost, (5) high-yield recovery from low-level aqueous samples without risk of loss to containers, (6) decreased risk of significant sample contamination compared with other low-level methods, (7) production of stable samples suitable for retrievable storage, and(8) concentration of other ions that can be determined by NAA. This paper presents (1) background regarding development of procedures for sample collection and preparation, (2) results of development programs, (3) description of equipment and field procedures, and (4) preliminary conclusions regarding use of this technology for hydrogeochemical reconnaissance for uranium

  13. Stability of HE4 and CA125 in blood samples from patients diagnosed with ovarian cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandhu, Noreen; Karlsen, Mona A; Høgdall, Claus

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of handling and storage on HE4 and CA125 serum and EDTA plasma levels to clarify any important consequences for a clinical setting. METHODS: Blood samples from 13 ovarian cancer (OC) patients were collected and allowed to clot or sediment for up to 72 hours.......024). No significant difference between CA125 serum and plasma levels were found (p = 0.46). Serum and EDTA plasma samples were stable during the eight cycles of freezing and thawing (CA125: all p > 0.2; HE4: all p > 0.5). CONCLUSION: No systematic difference could be demonstrated for HE4. CA125 is not dependent...

  14. Experimental and Sampling Design for the INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Matzke, Brett D.

    2009-02-16

    This report describes the experimental and sampling design developed to assess sampling approaches and methods for detecting contamination in a building and clearing the building for use after decontamination. An Idaho National Laboratory (INL) building will be contaminated with BG (Bacillus globigii, renamed Bacillus atrophaeus), a simulant for Bacillus anthracis (BA). The contamination, sampling, decontamination, and re-sampling will occur per the experimental and sampling design. This INL-2 Sample Collection Operational Test is being planned by the Validated Sampling Plan Working Group (VSPWG). The primary objectives are: 1) Evaluate judgmental and probabilistic sampling for characterization as well as probabilistic and combined (judgment and probabilistic) sampling approaches for clearance, 2) Conduct these evaluations for gradient contamination (from low or moderate down to absent or undetectable) for different initial concentrations of the contaminant, 3) Explore judgment composite sampling approaches to reduce sample numbers, 4) Collect baseline data to serve as an indication of the actual levels of contamination in the tests. A combined judgmental and random (CJR) approach uses Bayesian methodology to combine judgmental and probabilistic samples to make clearance statements of the form "X% confidence that at least Y% of an area does not contain detectable contamination” (X%/Y% clearance statements). The INL-2 experimental design has five test events, which 1) vary the floor of the INL building on which the contaminant will be released, 2) provide for varying the amount of contaminant released to obtain desired concentration gradients, and 3) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. Desirable contaminant gradients would have moderate to low concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations down to zero in other rooms. Such gradients would provide a range of contamination levels to challenge the sampling

  15. Using Dried Blood Spot Sampling to Improve Data Quality and Reduce Animal Use in Mouse Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickremsinhe, Enaksha R; Perkins, Everett J

    2015-01-01

    Traditional pharmacokinetic analysis in nonclinical studies is based on the concentration of a test compound in plasma and requires approximately 100 to 200 µL blood collected per time point. However, the total blood volume of mice limits the number of samples that can be collected from an individual animal—often to a single collection per mouse—thus necessitating dosing multiple mice to generate a pharmacokinetic profile in a sparse-sampling design. Compared with traditional methods, dried blood spot (DBS) analysis requires smaller volumes of blood (15 to 20 µL), thus supporting serial blood sampling and the generation of a complete pharmacokinetic profile from a single mouse. Here we compare plasma-derived data with DBS-derived data, explain how to adopt DBS sampling to support discovery mouse studies, and describe how to generate pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic data from a single mouse. Executing novel study designs that use DBS enhances the ability to identify and streamline better drug candidates during drug discovery. Implementing DBS sampling can reduce the number of mice needed in a drug discovery program. In addition, the simplicity of DBS sampling and the smaller numbers of mice needed translate to decreased study costs. Overall, DBS sampling is consistent with 3Rs principles by achieving reductions in the number of animals used, decreased restraint-associated stress, improved data quality, direct comparison of interanimal variability, and the generation of multiple endpoints from a single study. PMID:25836959

  16. Detection of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cell samples for retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Peixuan; Stanton, Melissa L; Castle, Erik P; Joseph, Richard W; Adams, Daniel L; Li, Shuhong; Amstutz, Platte; Tang, Cha-Mei; Ho, Thai H

    2016-07-02

    Cryopreserved peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are commonly collected in biobanks. However, little data exist regarding the preservation of tumor-associated cells in cryopreserved collections. The objective of this study was to determine the feasibility of using the CellSieve™ microfiltration assay for the isolation of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating cancer-associated macrophage-like cells (CAMLs) from cryopreserved PBMC samples. Blood samples spiked with breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3), and renal (786-O) cancer cell lines were used to establish analytical accuracy, efficiency, and reproducibility after cryopreservation. The spiked samples were processed through Ficoll separation, and cryopreservation was followed by thawing and microfiltration. MCF-7 cells were successfully retrieved with recovery efficiencies of 90.5 % without cryopreservation and 87.8 and 89.0 %, respectively, on day 7 and day 66 following cryopreservation. The corresponding recovery efficiencies of PC-3 cells were 83.3 % without cryopreservation and 85.3 and 84.7 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. Recovery efficiencies of 786-O cells were 92.7 % without cryopreservation, and 82.7 and 81.3 %, respectively, after cryopreservation. The recovered cells retained the morphologic characteristics and immunohistochemical markers that had been observed before freezing. The protocols were further validated by quantitation of CAMLs in blood samples from two patients with renal cell carcinoma (RCC). The recovery rates of CTCs and CAMLs from cryopreserved samples were not statistically significant different (P > 0.05) from matched fresh samples. To our knowledge, this is the first report that CAMLs could be cryopreserved and analyzed after thawing with microfiltration technology. The application of microfiltration technology to cryopreserved samples will enable much greater retrospective study of cancer patients in relation to long-term outcomes.

  17. Dried Blood Spot Collection of Health Biomarkers to Maximize Participation in Population Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostler, Michael W.; Porter, James H.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Biomarkers are directly-measured biological indicators of disease, health, exposures, or other biological information. In population and social sciences, biomarkers need to be easy to obtain, transport, and analyze. Dried Blood Spots meet this need, and can be collected in the field with high response rates. These elements are particularly important in longitudinal study designs including interventions where attrition is critical to avoid, and high response rates improve the interpretation of results. Dried Blood Spot sample collection is simple, quick, relatively painless, less invasive then venipuncture, and requires minimal field storage requirements (i.e. samples do not need to be immediately frozen and can be stored for a long period of time in a stable freezer environment before assay). The samples can be analyzed for a variety of different analytes, including cholesterol, C-reactive protein, glycosylated hemoglobin, numerous cytokines, and other analytes, as well as provide genetic material. DBS collection is depicted as employed in several recent studies. PMID:24513728

  18. Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samira Moraes Cunha de Mesquita

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Mesquita S.M.C., Mansur F.J., Nascimento E.R., Barreto M.L. & Kimura L.M.S. [Standardization and application of indirect ELISA for diagnosis of Mycoplasma bovis in bovine blood serum samples.] Padroniza- ção e aplicação de ELISA indireto para diagnóstico de Mycoplasma bovis em amostras de soro sanguíneo bovino. Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 37(2:101-107, 2015. Universidade Federal Fluminense, Faculdade de Veteriná- ria, Rua Vital Brazil Filho, 64, Vital Brazil, Niterói, RJ 24230-340, Brasil. E-mail: samira.veterinaria@gmail.com International researchers presented results indicating frequent involvement of Mycoplasma spp. as a causative agent of mastitis in cattle, associating its presence with significant economic losses to farmers. Mycoplasma bovis is the species most reported and relevant, because it causes more severe disease. The level of antibodies against M. bovis remains high for several months and can be detected by ELISA. The aim of this work was to develop an indirect ELISA with whole cell antigen of M. bovis (strain Donetta PG 45 with subsequent application in bovine blood serum samples for detection of antibodies against M. bovis. The immunization of cows A and B by inoculating an immunogen against M. bovis to obtain hyperimmune blood serum was the first stage of this work, then the stage of standardization of ELISA was proceeded. The concentration of 2 mg of antigen/mL for coating the microtiter plates was decided by statistical analyses. The optical density value 0,2 was determined as the limit of reactivity discrimination of samples (the cut-off point. The hyperimmune blood serum sample of the cow A (collected 30 days after immunization was chosen as the positive control and, the fetal calf serum was chosen as negative control of the assay. In addition, the ideal optimal dilutions found for blood serum samples was 1:400 and for conjugate was 1:10.000 and the substrate used was the ortho

  19. Does volumetric absorptive microsampling eliminate the hematocrit bias for caffeine and paraxanthine in dried blood samples? A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Kesel, Pieter M M; Lambert, Willy E; Stove, Christophe P

    2015-06-30

    Volumetric absorptive microsampling (VAMS) is a novel sampling technique that allows the straightforward collection of an accurate volume of blood (approximately 10μL) from a drop or pool of blood by dipping an absorbent polymeric tip into it. The resulting blood microsample is dried and analyzed as a whole. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of VAMS to overcome the hematocrit bias, an important issue in the analysis of dried blood microsamples. An LC-MS/MS method for analysis of the model compounds caffeine and paraxanthine in VAMS samples was fully validated and fulfilled all pre-established criteria. In conjunction with previously validated procedures for dried blood spots (DBS) and blood, this allowed us to set up a meticulous comparative study in which both compounds were determined in over 80 corresponding VAMS, DBS and liquid whole blood samples. These originated from authentic human patient samples, covering a wide hematocrit range (0.21-0.50). By calculating the differences with reference whole blood concentrations, we found that analyte concentrations in VAMS samples were not affected by a bias that changed over the evaluated hematocrit range, in contrast to DBS results. However, VAMS concentrations tend to overestimate whole blood concentrations, as a consistent positive bias was observed. A different behavior of VAMS samples prepared from incurred and spiked blood, combined with a somewhat reduced recovery of caffeine and paraxanthine from VAMS tips at high hematocrit values, an effect that was not observed for DBS using a very similar extraction procedure, was found to be at the basis of the observed VAMS-whole blood deviations. Based on this study, being the first in which the validity and robustness of VAMS is evaluated by analyzing incurred human samples, it can be concluded that VAMS effectively assists in eliminating the effect of hematocrit. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Organic analysis of ambient samples collected near Tank 241-C-103: Results from samples collected on May 12, 1994

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, T.W.; Ligotke, M.W.; McVeety, B.D.; Lucke, R.B.; Young, J.S.; McCulloch, M.; Fruchter, J.S.; Goheen, S.C.

    1995-06-01

    This report describes organic analyses results from ambient samples collected both upwind and through the vapor sampling system (VSS) near Hanford waste storage Tank 241-C-103 (referred to as Tank C-103). The results described here were obtained to support safety and toxicological evaluations. A summary of the results for inorganic and organic analytes is listed. Quantitative results were obtained for organic compounds. Five organic tentatively identified compounds (TICS) were observed above the detection limit of (ca.) 10 ppbv, but standards for most of these were not available at the time of analysis, and the reported concentrations are semiquantitative estimates. In addition, we looked for the 40 standard TO-14 analytes. We observed 39. Of these, only one was observed above the 2-ppbv calibrated instrument detection limit. Dichloromethane was above the detection limits using both methods, but the result from the TO-14 method is traceable to a standard gas mixture and is considered more accurate. Organic analytes were found only in the sample collected through the VSS, suggesting that these compounds were residual contamination from a previous sampling job. Detailed descriptions of the results appear in the text

  1. Levels of persistent fluorinated, chlorinated and brominated compounds in human blood collected in Sweden in 1997-2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindstroem, G.; Kaerrman, A.; Bavel, B. van [MTM Research Centre, Oerebro Univ. (Sweden); Hardell, L. [Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital, Oerebro (Sweden); Hedlund, B. [Environmental Monitoring Section, Swedish EPA, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2004-09-15

    Levels of persistent fluorinated, chlorinated and brominated compounds in blood collected from the Swedish population have been determined in connection with several exposure and monitoring studies at the MTM Research Centre. A data base with 631 individual congener specific measurements on halogenated POPs such as dioxins, PCBs, HCB, DDE, chlordanes, PBDEs and PFAs including information on residency, age, BMI, diet, occupation, number of children, smoking habits, immunological status etc. has been compiled from samples collected between 1994 and 2004. A brief overview focusing on levels of some persistent chlorinated, brominated and fluorinated, compounds in blood collected in a background population group (n=83) in 1997-2000 is given here.

  2. EFFECT OF ADDING THE INTERNAL STANDARD TO BLOOD SAMPLES, PRIOR TO THE PREPARATION OF BLOOD SPOTS FOR ACYLCARNITINE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio, José Henry; Pourfarzam, Morteza

    2010-01-01

    Background: some general factors can influence when determining acylcarnitines through tandem mass spectrometry. Objective: to study the effect of adding the internal standard to blood samples before the preparation of filter paper cards compared with the addition of internal standard after having the filter paper cards prepared for determining acylcarnitines in blood for tandem mass spectrometry. Methodology: two groups of blood samples were prepared: group one without adding internal standa...

  3. Clinical and anatomic pathology effects of serial blood sampling in rat toxicology studies, using conventional or microsampling methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Alexis; Lelong, Christine; Bartels, T; Dorchies, O; Gury, T; Chalier, Catherine; Benning, Véronique

    2015-08-01

    As a general practice in rodent toxicology studies, satellite animals are used for toxicokinetic determinations, because of the potential impact of serial blood sampling on toxicological endpoints. Besides toxicological and toxicokinetic determinations, blood samples obtained longitudinally from a same animal may be used for the assessment of additional parameters (e.g., metabolism, pharmacodynamics, safety biomarkers) to maximize information that can be deduced from rodents. We investigated whether removal of up to 6 × 200 μL of blood over 24h can be applied in GLP rat toxicology studies without affecting the scientific outcome. 8 week-old female rats (200-300 g) were dosed for up to 1 month with a standard vehicle and subjected or not (controls) to serial blood sampling for sham toxicokinetic/ancillary determinations, using miniaturized methods allowing collection of 6 × 50, 100 or 200 μL over 24h. In-life endpoints, clinical pathology parameters and histopathology of organs sensitive to blood volume reduction were evaluated at several time points after completion of sampling. In sampled rats, minimal and reversible changes in red blood cell mass (maximally 15%) and subtle variations in liver enzymes, fibrinogen and neutrophils were not associated with any organ/tissue macroscopic or microscopic correlate. Serial blood sampling (up to 6 × 200 μL over 24h) is compatible with the assessment of standard toxicity endpoints in adult rats. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The subtyping of primary aldosteronism by adrenal vein sampling: sequential blood sampling causes factitious lateralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossitto, Giacomo; Battistel, Michele; Barbiero, Giulio; Bisogni, Valeria; Maiolino, Giuseppe; Diego, Miotto; Seccia, Teresa M; Rossi, Gian Paolo

    2018-02-01

    The pulsatile secretion of adrenocortical hormones and a stress reaction occurring when starting adrenal vein sampling (AVS) can affect the selectivity and also the assessment of lateralization when sequential blood sampling is used. We therefore tested the hypothesis that a simulated sequential blood sampling could decrease the diagnostic accuracy of lateralization index for identification of aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA), as compared with bilaterally simultaneous AVS. In 138 consecutive patients who underwent subtyping of primary aldosteronism, we compared the results obtained simultaneously bilaterally when starting AVS (t-15) and 15 min after (t0), with those gained with a simulated sequential right-to-left AVS technique (R ⇒ L) created by combining hormonal values obtained at t-15 and at t0. The concordance between simultaneously obtained values at t-15 and t0, and between simultaneously obtained values and values gained with a sequential R ⇒ L technique, was also assessed. We found a marked interindividual variability of lateralization index values in the patients with bilaterally selective AVS at both time point. However, overall the lateralization index simultaneously determined at t0 provided a more accurate identification of APA than the simulated sequential lateralization indexR ⇒ L (P = 0.001). Moreover, regardless of which side was sampled first, the sequential AVS technique induced a sequence-dependent overestimation of lateralization index. While in APA patients the concordance between simultaneous AVS at t0 and t-15 and between simultaneous t0 and sequential technique was moderate-to-good (K = 0.55 and 0.66, respectively), in non-APA patients, it was poor (K = 0.12 and 0.13, respectively). Sequential AVS generates factitious between-sides gradients, which lower its diagnostic accuracy, likely because of the stress reaction arising upon starting AVS.

  5. New aspects of blood collection and handling procedures for the assessment of t-PA and PAI-1 variables after the introduction of acid blood collection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, P.; Kret, R.; Bloetjes, P.T.M.; Rosen, S.; Kluft, C.

    1994-01-01

    Blood collection and handling procedures for t-PA activity have thusfar been rather strict and have restrained the use in clinical practice. We evaluated simplifications in the procedures for specifically the use of Stabilyte® vacutainers with respect to time before centrifugation of blood, storage

  6. 21 CFR 864.9100 - Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Empty container for the collection and processing of blood and blood components. 864.9100 Section 864.9100 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products...

  7. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  8. Order of draw practices in venous blood sampling at clinical biochemistry departments in the Danish health care system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Katja Kemp; Brandt, Ida; Christensen, Anne Vindahl

    2018-01-01

    the procedures in venous blood sampling among clinical biochemistry departments to assess the uniformity of order of blood draw and adherence to international guidelines in the Danish health care system. METHODS: We collected venous order of draw procedures from 49 clinical biochemistry departments at 22 public...... 15189:2012 accreditation (p = .57). CONCLUSIONS: Venous order of draw procedures is diverse at Danish clinical biochemistry departments and show moderate adherence to international guidelines....

  9. Comparative value of blood and skin samples for diagnosis of spotted fever group rickettsial infection in model animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levin, Michael L; Snellgrove, Alyssa N; Zemtsova, Galina E

    2016-07-01

    The definitive diagnosis of spotted fever group (SFG) rickettsioses in humans is challenging due to the retrospective nature and cross reactivity of the serological methods and the absence of reliable and consistent samples for molecular diagnostics. Existing data indicate the transient character of bacteremia in experimentally infected animals. The ability of arthropod vectors to acquire rickettsial infection from the laboratory animals in the absence of systemic infection and known tropism of rickettsial agents to endothelial cells of peripheral blood vessels underline the importance of local infection and consequently the diagnostic potential of skin samples. In order to evaluate the diagnostic sensitivity of rickettsial DNA detection in blood and skin samples, we compared results of PCR testing in parallel samples collected from model laboratory animals infected with Rickettsia rickettsii, Rickettsia parkeri and Rickettsia slovaca-like agent at different time points after infection. Skin samples were collected from ears - away from the site of tick placement and without eschars. Overall, testing of skin samples resulted in a higher proportion of positive results than testing of blood samples. Presented data from model animals demonstrates that testing of skin samples from sites of rickettsial proliferation can provide definitive molecular diagnosis of up to 60-70% of tick-borne SFG rickettsial infections during the acute stage of illness. Detection of pathogen DNA in cutaneous samples is a valuable alternative to blood-PCR at least in model animals. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  10. Colour coding for blood collection tube closures - a call for harmonisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simundic, Ana-Maria; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell; Lippi, Giuseppe; Nybo, Mads; Ceriotti, Ferruccio; Theodorsson, Elvar; Panteghini, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    At least one in 10 patients experience adverse events while receiving hospital care. Many of the errors are related to laboratory diagnostics. Efforts to reduce laboratory errors over recent decades have primarily focused on the measurement process while pre- and post-analytical errors including errors in sampling, reporting and decision-making have received much less attention. Proper sampling and additives to the samples are essential. Tubes and additives are identified not only in writing on the tubes but also by the colour of the tube closures. Unfortunately these colours have not been standardised, running the risk of error when tubes from one manufacturer are replaced by the tubes from another manufacturer that use different colour coding. EFLM therefore supports the worldwide harmonisation of the colour coding for blood collection tube closures and labels in order to reduce the risk of pre-analytical errors and improve the patient safety.

  11. Performance of an app measuring spot quality in dried blood spot sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veenhof, Herman

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The Dried Blood Spot sampling (DBS) method gives patients and health care workers the opportunity for remote sampling using a drop of blood from a fingerprick on a sampling card which can be send to the laboratory by mail. Laboratory analysts frequently reject DBS samples because of

  12. Gene methylation parallelisms between peripheral blood cells and oral mucosa samples in relation to overweight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; Milagro, Fermín I; Riezu-Boj, J Ignacio; Guruceaga, Elizabeth; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Livingstone, Katherine M; Brennan, Lorraine; Lovegrove, Julie A; Daniel, Hannelore; Saris, Wim H; Traczyk, Iwonna; Manios, Yannis; Gibney, Eileen R; Gibney, Michael J; Mathers, John C; Martinez, J Alfredo

    2016-08-01

    Epigenetics has an important role in the regulation of metabolic adaptation to environmental modifications. In this sense, the determination of epigenetic changes in non-invasive samples during the development of metabolic diseases could play an important role in the procedures in primary healthcare practice. To help translate the knowledge of epigenetics to public health practice, the present study aims to explore the parallelism of methylation levels between white blood cells and buccal samples in relation to obesity and associated disorders. Blood and buccal swap samples were collected from a subsample of the Spanish cohort of the Food4Me study. Infinium HumanMethylation450 DNA Analysis was carried out for the determination of methylation levels. Standard deviation for β values method and concordance correlation analysis were used to select those CpG which showed best parallelism between samples. A total of 277 CpGs met the criteria and were selected for an enrichment analysis and a correlation analysis with anthropometrical and clinical parameters. From those selected CpGs, four presented high associations with BMI (cg01055691 in GAP43; r = -0.92 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.89 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample), HOMA-IR (cg00095677 in ATP2A3; r = 0.82 and rho = -0.84 for blood; r = -0.8 and rho = -0.83 for buccal sample) and leptin (cg14464133 in ADARB2; r = -0.9182 and rho = -0.94 for blood; r = -0.893 and rho = -0.79 for buccal sample). These findings demonstrate the potential application of non-invasive buccal samples in the identification of surrogate epigenetic biomarkers and identify methylation sites in GAP43, ATP2A3 and ADARB2 genes as potential targets in relation to overweight management and insulin sensibility.

  13. A single reagent radioimmunoassay for thyroxine in blood samples absorbed on filter paper for mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nair, N.; Pillai, M.R.A.; Mani, R.S.

    1988-01-01

    A single reagent radioimmunoassay for thyroxine in blood samples absorbed on filter paper for the mass screening of neonatal hypothyroidism is described. Blood samples were collected by pricking the heel of newborn babies (3 days old) and pressing Whatman 3 filter paper against the wound. 6 mm diameter blood spots were punched out at the time of assay and incubated with 0.4 ml of a preincubated antigen-antibody complex for six hours at 37 deg C. 1 ml of 22% polyethylene glycol is used for the precipitation of antigen-antibody complex. The assay has a sensitivity of 2.2 ng/ml. 500 samples collected from newborns were analyzed in the assay and gave a mean of 117.6+-31.9 ng/ml. (author) 9 refs.; 4 figs

  14. The quantitative regional cerebral blood flow measurement with autoradiography method using 123I-IMP SPECT. Evaluation of arterialized venous blood sampling as a substitute for arterial blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohnishi, Takashi; Yano, Takao; Nakano, Shinichi; Jinnouchi, Seishi; Nagamachi, Shigeki; Flores, L. II; Nakahara, Hiroshi; Watanabe, Katsushi.

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study is validation of calibrating a standard input function in autoradiography (ARG) method by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for that by one point arterial blood sampling. Ten and 20 minutes after intravenous constant infusion of 123 I-IMP, arterialized venous blood sampling from a dorsal vein were performed on 15 patients having ischemic cerebrovascular disease. And arterial blood sampling from radial artery was performed 10 min after 123 I-IMP infusion. The mean difference rates of integrated input function between calibrated standard input function by arterial blood sampling at 10 min and that by venous blood sampling were 4.1±3% and 9.3±5.4% at 10 and 20 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The ratio of venous blood radioactivity to arterial blood radioactivity at 10 min after 123 I-IMP infusion was 0.96±0.02. There was an excellent correlation between ARG method CBF values obtained by arterial blood sampling at 10 min and those obtained by arterialized venous blood sampling at 10 min. In conclusion, a substitution by arterialized venous blood sampling from dorsal hand vein for artery can be possible. The optimized time for arterialized venous blood sampling was 10 min after 123 I-IMP infusion. (author)

  15. Miniature Blimps for Surveillance and Collection of Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jack

    2004-01-01

    Miniature blimps are under development as robots for use in exploring the thick, cold, nitrogen atmosphere of Saturn's moon, Titan. Similar blimps can also be used for surveillance and collection of biochemical samples in buildings, caves, subways, and other, similar structures on Earth. The widely perceived need for means to thwart attacks on buildings and to mitigate the effects of such attacks has prompted consideration of the use of robots. Relative to rover-type (wheeled) robots that have been considered for such uses, miniature blimps offer the advantage of ability to move through the air in any direction and, hence, to perform tasks that are difficult or impossible for wheeled robots, including climbing stairs and looking through windows. In addition, miniature blimps are expected to have greater range and to cost less, relative to wheeled robots.

  16. Validation of Marek's disease diagnosis and monitoring of Marek's disease vaccines from samples collected in FTA cards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortes, Aneg L; Montiel, Enrique R; Gimeno, Isabel M

    2009-12-01

    The use of Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) filter cards to quantify Marek's disease virus (MDV) DNA for the diagnosis of Marek's disease (MD) and to monitor MD vaccines was evaluated. Samples of blood (43), solid tumors (14), and feather pulp (FP; 36) collected fresh and in FTA cards were analyzed. MDV DNA load was quantified by real-time PCR. Threshold cycle (Ct) ratios were calculated for each sample by dividing the Ct value of the internal control gene (glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase) by the Ct value of the MDV gene. Statistically significant correlation (P FTA cards by using Pearson's correlation test. Load of serotype 1 MDV DNA was quantified in 24 FP, 14 solid tumor, and 43 blood samples. There was a statistically significant correlation between FP (r = 0.95), solid tumor (r = 0.94), and blood (r = 0.9) samples collected fresh and in FTA cards. Load of serotype 2 MDV DNA was quantified in 17 FP samples, and the correlation between samples collected fresh and in FTA cards was also statistically significant (Pearson's coefficient, r = 0.96); load of serotype 3 MDV DNA was quantified in 36 FP samples, and correlation between samples taken fresh and in FTA cards was also statistically significant (r = 0.84). MDV DNA samples extracted 3 days (t0) and 8 months after collection (t1) were used to evaluate the stability of MDV DNA in archived samples collected in FTA cards. A statistically significant correlation was found for serotype 1 (r = 0.96), serotype 2 (r = 1), and serotype 3 (r = 0.9). The results show that FTA cards are an excellent media to collect, transport, and archive samples for MD diagnosis and to monitor MD vaccines. In addition, FTA cards are widely available, inexpensive, and adequate for the shipment of samples nationally and internationally.

  17. Effect of Sample Storage Temperature and Time Delay on Blood Gases, Bicarbonate and pH in Human Arterial Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadhoseini, Elham; Safavi, Enayat; Seifi, Sepideh; Seifirad, Soroush; Firoozbakhsh, Shahram; Peiman, Soheil

    2015-03-01

    Results of arterial blood gas analysis can be biased by pre-analytical factors, such as time interval before analysis, temperature during storage and syringe type. To investigate the effects of samples storage temperature and time delay on blood gases, bicarbonate and PH results in human arterial blood samples. 2.5 mL arterial blood samples were drawn from 45 patients via an indwelling Intraarterial catheter. Each sample was divided into five equal samples and stored in multipurpose tuberculin plastic syringes. Blood gas analysis was performed on one of five samples as soon as possible. Four other samples were divided into two groups stored at 22°C and 0°C. Blood gas analyses were repeated at 30 and 60 minutes after sampling. PaO2 of the samples stored at 0°C was increased significantly after 60 minutes (P = 0.007). The PaCO2 of the samples kept for 30 and 60 minutes at 22°C was significantly higher than primary result (P = 0.04, P samples stored at 22°C, pH decreased significantly after 30 and 60 minutes (P = 0.017, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences in other results of samples stored at 0°C or 22°C after 30 or 60 minutes. In samples stored in plastic syringes, overestimation of PaO2 levels should be noted if samples cooled before analysis. In samples stored in plastic syringes, it is not necessary to store samples in iced water when analysis delayed up to one hour.

  18. Preanalytical blood sample workup for cell-free DNA analysis using Droplet Digital PCR for future molecular cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ginkel, Joost H; van den Broek, Daan A; van Kuik, Joyce; Linders, Dorothé; de Weger, Roel; Willems, Stefan M; Huibers, Manon M H

    2017-10-01

    In current molecular cancer diagnostics, using blood samples of cancer patients for the detection of genetic alterations in plasma (cell-free) circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) is an emerging practice. Since ctDNA levels in blood are low, highly sensitive Droplet Digital PCR (ddPCR) can be used for detecting rare mutational targets. In order to perform ddPCR on blood samples, a standardized procedure for processing and analyzing blood samples is necessary to facilitate implementation into clinical practice. Therefore, we assessed the technical sample workup procedure for ddPCR on blood plasma samples. Blood samples from healthy individuals, as well as lung cancer patients were analyzed. We compared different methods and protocols for sample collection, storage, centrifugation, isolation, and quantification. Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) concentrations of several wild-type targets and BRAF and EGFR-mutant ctDNA concentrations quantified by ddPCR were primary outcome measurements. Highest cfDNA concentrations were measured in blood collected in serum tubes. No significant differences in cfDNA concentrations were detected between various time points of up to 24 h until centrifugation. Highest cfDNA concentrations were detected after DNA isolation with the Quick cfDNA Serum & Plasma Kit, while plasma isolation using the QIAamp Circulating Nucleic Acid Kit yielded the most consistent results. DdPCR results on cfDNA are highly dependent on multiple factors during preanalytical sample workup, which need to be addressed during the development of this diagnostic tool for cancer diagnostics in the future. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Hematocrit, Anemia, and Arm Preference for Blood Sample ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lower cut-off of 33% or hemoglobin (Hb) concentration of. 11 gram% was ... venous blood of 200 antenatal women at the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital (UNTH). Enugu ..... and emphasis was placed on the importance of good nutrition.

  20. Radioactivity in Soil Samples Collected in Southern Serbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jankovic, M.; Nikolic, J.; Pantelic, G.; Rajacic, M.; Sarap, N.; Todorovic, D.

    2013-01-01

    In the attack on the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (the focus effect was of Kosovo and Metohija and southern Serbia) in 1999, NATO forces used ammunition containing depleted uranium. Cleaning action of depleted uranium was performed by Radiation and Environmental Protection Department of the Vinca Institute of Nuclear Science, during 2002?2007 at locations: Pljackovica, Bratoselce, Borovac and Reljan. At all locations underwent detailed dosimetric screening and decontamination was performed. Because of the loose soil, DU projectils were found to a depth of 1 m. Found missiles, contaminated soil and radioactive material has been collected and stored on radioactive waste. After cleaning the ground is leveled and another dosimetric prospecting was performed. Monitoring of radioactivity in southern Serbia included determination of gamma emitters as well as determination of gross alpha and beta activities in soil, water and plant. Sampling was carried out at Pljackovica, Borovac, Bratoselce and Reljan in July 2011. This paper presents only the results of measurement of gamma emitters in soil samples and showed the presence of natural radionuclides: 226Ra, 232Th, 40K, 235U, 238U and the produced radionuclide 137Cs (from the Chernobyl accident). Also, the ratio between the 235U and 238U is given. In order to evaluate the radiological hazard of the natural radioactivity, the radium equivalent activity, the gamma-absorbed dose rate and the external hazard index have been calculated. (author)

  1. Blood samples in the neutron beam; Blutproben im Neutronenstrahl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2012-07-01

    Whether crocodile, platypus, man, or chicken: Always the hemoglobin in the red blood cells has the same task. It carries oxygen from the lungs throughout the body. In investigative manner and international team around Dr. Andreas Stadler from the Julic Research Center has deciphered in detail, how and why the hemoglobines of these creatures nevertheless differ. Their findings are among others interesting for the research on artificial blood.

  2. Air bubbles and hemolysis of blood samples during transport by pneumatic tube systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullins, Garrett R; Bruns, David E

    2017-10-01

    Transport of blood samples through pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) generates air bubbles in transported blood samples and, with increasing duration of transport, the appearance of hemolysis. We investigated the role of air-bubble formation in PTS-induced hemolysis. Air was introduced into blood samples for 0, 1, 3 or 5min to form air bubbles. Hemolysis in the blood was assessed by (H)-index, lactate dehydrogenase (LD) and potassium in plasma. In an effort to prevent PTS-induced hemolysis, blood sample tubes were completely filled, to prevent air bubble formation, and compared with partially filled samples after PTS transport. We also compared hemolysis in anticoagulated vs clotted blood subjected to PTS transport. As with transport through PTSs, the duration of air bubble formation in blood by a gentle stream of air predicted the extent of hemolysis as measured by H-index (pair space in a blood sample prevented bubble formation and fully protected the blood from PTS-induced hemolysis (ptransport and was partially protected from hemolysis vs anticoagulated blood as indicated by lower LD (ptransport. Prevention of air bubble formation in blood samples during PTS transport protects samples from hemolysis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. The relationship between blood viscosity and blood pressure in a random sample of the population aged 55 to 74 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, F G; Lowe, G D; Rumley, A; Lennie, S E; Smith, F B; Donnan, P T

    1993-05-01

    Blood viscosity is elevated in hypertensive subjects, but the association of viscosity with arterial blood pressure in the general population, and the influence of social, lifestyle and disease characteristics on this association, are not established. In the Edinburgh Artery Study, 1592 men and women aged 55-74 years selected randomly from the general population attended a university clinic. A fasting blood sample was taken for the measurement of blood viscosity and its major determinants (haematocrit, plasma viscosity and fibrinogen). Systolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P index. Diastolic pressure was related univariately to blood viscosity (P viscosity (P viscosity and systolic pressure was confined to males. Blood viscosity was associated equally with systolic and diastolic pressures in males, and remained independently related on multivariate analysis adjusting for age, sex, body mass index, social class, smoking, alcohol intake, exercise, angina, HDL and non-HDL cholesterol, diabetes mellitus, plasma viscosity, fibrinogen, and haematocrit.

  4. Adiponectin levels measured in dried blood spot samples from neonates born small and appropriate for gestational age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klamer, A; Skogstrand, Kristin; Hougaard, D M

    2007-01-01

    Adiponectin levels measured in neonatal dried blood spot samples (DBSS) might be affected by both prematurity and being born small for gestational age (SGA). The aim of the study was to measure adiponectin levels in routinely collected neonatal DBSS taken on day 5 (range 3-12) postnatal from...

  5. 77 FR 10756 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-23

    ... with Men. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of Information Collection: The... prevalence of compliance and non-compliance with the current MSM policy and assessing motivations for blood... donate blood. Frequency of Response: Once. Affected Public: Individuals. Type of Respondents: Males 18...

  6. Comparison of blood RNA isolation methods from samples stabilized in Tempus tubes and stored at a large human biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarem, Jeanette; Brunborg, Gunnar; Aas, Kaja K; Harbak, Kari; Taipale, Miia M; Magnus, Per; Knudsen, Gun Peggy; Duale, Nur

    2016-09-01

    More than 50,000 adult and cord blood samples were collected in Tempus tubes and stored at the Norwegian Institute of Public Health Biobank for future use. In this study, we systematically evaluated and compared five blood-RNA isolation protocols: three blood-RNA isolation protocols optimized for simultaneous isolation of all blood-RNA species (MagMAX RNA Isolation Kit, both manual and semi-automated protocols; and Norgen Preserved Blood RNA kit I); and two protocols optimized for large RNAs only (Tempus Spin RNA, and Tempus 6-port isolation kit). We estimated the following parameters: RNA quality, RNA yield, processing time, cost per sample, and RNA transcript stability of six selected mRNAs and 13 miRNAs using real-time qPCR. Whole blood samples from adults (n = 59 tubes) and umbilical cord blood (n = 18 tubes) samples collected in Tempus tubes were analyzed. High-quality blood-RNAs with average RIN-values above seven were extracted using all five RNA isolation protocols. The transcript levels of the six selected genes showed minimal variation between the five protocols. Unexplained differences within the transcript levels of the 13 miRNA were observed; however, the 13 miRNAs had similar expression direction and they were within the same order of magnitude. Some differences in the RNA processing time and cost were noted. Sufficient amounts of high-quality RNA were obtained using all five protocols, and the Tempus blood RNA system therefore seems not to be dependent on one specific RNA isolation method.

  7. Evaluation Of Blood Collected From Clinically Diagnosed Typhoid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood culture revealed that 216 (42.8%) bacterial pathogens were isolated from the Widal positive patients yielded out of which 101 (46.8%) isolates were of ... fatal illness such as malaria and other parasitaemia, non-typhoid salmonellosis, endocarditis and other gastro-intestinal infections may have been responsible.

  8. A review of blood sample handling and pre-processing for metabolomics studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandes, Vinicius Veri; Barbas, Coral; Dudzik, Danuta

    2017-09-01

    Metabolomics has been found to be applicable to a wide range of clinical studies, bringing a new era for improving clinical diagnostics, early disease detection, therapy prediction and treatment efficiency monitoring. A major challenge in metabolomics, particularly untargeted studies, is the extremely diverse and complex nature of biological specimens. Despite great advances in the field there still exist fundamental needs for considering pre-analytical variability that can introduce bias to the subsequent analytical process and decrease the reliability of the results and moreover confound final research outcomes. Many researchers are mainly focused on the instrumental aspects of the biomarker discovery process, and sample related variables sometimes seem to be overlooked. To bridge the gap, critical information and standardized protocols regarding experimental design and sample handling and pre-processing are highly desired. Characterization of a range variation among sample collection methods is necessary to prevent results misinterpretation and to ensure that observed differences are not due to an experimental bias caused by inconsistencies in sample processing. Herein, a systematic discussion of pre-analytical variables affecting metabolomics studies based on blood derived samples is performed. Furthermore, we provide a set of recommendations concerning experimental design, collection, pre-processing procedures and storage conditions as a practical review that can guide and serve for the standardization of protocols and reduction of undesirable variation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Discrimination of lymphoma using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy conducted on whole blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xue; Li, Xiaohui; Yang, Sibo; Yu, Xin; Liu, Aichun

    2018-01-01

    Lymphoma is a significant cancer that affects the human lymphatic and hematopoietic systems. In this work, discrimination of lymphoma using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) conducted on whole blood samples is presented. The whole blood samples collected from lymphoma patients and healthy controls are deposited onto standard quantitative filter papers and ablated with a 1064 nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. 16 atomic and ionic emission lines of calcium (Ca), iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), potassium (K) and sodium (Na) are selected to discriminate the cancer disease. Chemometric methods, including principal component analysis (PCA), linear discriminant analysis (LDA) classification, and k nearest neighbor (kNN) classification are used to build the discrimination models. Both LDA and kNN models have achieved very good discrimination performances for lymphoma, with an accuracy of over 99.7%, a sensitivity of over 0.996, and a specificity of over 0.997. These results demonstrate that the whole-blood-based LIBS technique in combination with chemometric methods can serve as a fast, less invasive, and accurate method for detection and discrimination of human malignancies. PMID:29541503

  10. A technique for extracting blood samples from mice in fire toxicity tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucci, T. J.; Hilado, C. J.; Lopez, M. T.

    1976-01-01

    The extraction of adequate blood samples from moribund and dead mice has been a problem because of the small quantity of blood in each animal and the short time available between the animals' death and coagulation of the blood. These difficulties are particularly critical in fire toxicity tests because removal of the test animals while observing proper safety precautions for personnel is time-consuming. Techniques for extracting blood samples from mice were evaluated, and a technique was developed to obtain up to 0.8 ml of blood from a single mouse after death. The technique involves rapid exposure and cutting of the posterior vena cava and accumulation of blood in the peritoneal space. Blood samples of 0.5 ml or more from individual mice have been consistently obtained as much as 16 minutes after apparent death. Results of carboxyhemoglobin analyses of blood appeared reproducible and consistent with carbon monoxide concentrations in the exposure chamber.

  11. Validation of curve-fitting method for blood retention of 99mTc-GSA. Comparison with blood sampling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha-Kawa, Sang Kil; Suga, Yutaka; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Ikeda, Koshi; Tanaka, Yoshimasa

    1997-01-01

    We investigated a curve-fitting method for the rate of blood retention of 99m Tc-galactosyl serum albumin (GSA) as a substitute for the blood sampling method. Seven healthy volunteers and 27 patients with liver disease underwent 99m Tc-GSA scanning. After normalization of the y-intercept as 100 percent, a biexponential regression curve for the precordial time-activity curve provided the percent injected dose (%ID) of 99m Tc-GSA in the blood without blood sampling. The discrepancy between %ID obtained by the curve-fitting method and that by the multiple blood samples was minimal in normal volunteers 3.1±2.1% (mean±standard deviation, n=77 sampling). Slightly greater discrepancy was observed in patients with liver disease (7.5±6.1%, n=135 sampling). The %ID at 15 min after injection obtained from the fitted curve was significantly greater in patients with liver cirrhosis than in the controls (53.2±11.6%, n=13; vs. 31.9±2.8%, n=7, p 99m Tc-GSA and the plasma retention rate for indocyanine green (r=-0.869, p 99m Tc-GSA and could be a substitute for the blood sampling method. (author)

  12. Evaluation of two different protocols for peripheral blood stem cell collection with the Fresenius AS 104 blood cell separator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menichella, G; Lai, M; Pierelli, L; Vittori, M; Serafini, R; Ciarli, M; Foddai, M L; Salerno, G; Sica, S; Scambia, G; Leone, G; Bizzi, B

    1997-01-01

    Reconstitution of hematopoiesis by means of peripheral blood stem cells is a valid alternative to autologous bone marrow transplantation. The aim of this investigation was to increase the efficiency of collection of circulating blood progenitor cells and to obtain a purer product for transplant. We carried out leukapheresis procedures with the Fresenius AS 104 blood cell separator, using two different protocols, the previously used PBSC-LYM and a new mononuclear cell collection program. Both programs were highly effective in collecting mononuclear cells (MNC) and CD34+ cells. Some differences were found, especially regarding MNC yield and efficiencies. There are remarkable differences in the efficiency of collection of CD34+ cells (62.38% with the new program as opposed to 31.69% with the older one). Linear regression analysis showed a negative correlation between blood volume processed and MNC efficiency only for the PBSC-LYM program. Differences were also observed in the degree of inverse correlation existing in both programs between patients' white blood cell precount and MNC collection efficiency. The inverse correlation was stronger for the PBSC-LYM program. Seven patients with solid tumors and hematologic malignancies received high dose chemotherapy and were subsequently transplanted with peripheral blood stem cells collected using the new protocol. All patients obtained a complete and stable engraftment with the reinfusion product collected with one or two leukapheresis procedures. High efficiencies and yields were observed in the new protocol for MNC and CD34+ cells. These were able to effect rapid and complete bone marrow recovery after myeloablative chemotherapy.

  13. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Pelle Morten Thomas; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples......, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT...

  14. Determination of pesticide residues in blood samples of villagers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    The spray-workers, during the activity of spraying crops, are ... cholinesterase inhibitor, it was recorded as a potent neurotoxic agent ... organic pesticide poisoning, of which around 73% were males and 27% ... analysis of blood will provide evidence of exposure of the body to ...... Occupational illness from cholinesterase ...

  15. A simple method for repetitive blood sampling of cattle

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thereby minimizing disturbance to the animal. As a pre- cautionary measure, animals received I 000 000 IV long-acting penicillin intramuscularly. Using this system, one assistant/researcher has successfully drawn blood from six cows concurrently at half hourly intervals for 48 h. To compare the degree of stress experienced.

  16. Whole blood samples for adrenocorticotrophic hormone measurement can be stored at room temperature for 4 hours

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Mette; Madsen, Rikke Fogt; Møller, Line Rosengreen

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA-blood sa......INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the stability of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in whole blood stored on ice and at room temperature for up to 48 hours. This study differs from previous studies by a larger data material. MATERIALS AND METHODS: EDTA......-blood samples from 30 patients were collected, aliquoted and stored on ice or at room temperature for 0, 2, 4, 24, or 48 h before centrifugation, and the plasma was stored frozen until analysis. All samples were analyzed using an automated electrochemiluminescence immunoassay on cobas 6000 e601. The change...

  17. Calculation of Blood Dose in Patients Treated With 131I Using MIRD, Imaging, and Blood Sampling Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piruzan, Elham; Haghighatafshar, Mahdi; Faghihi, Reza; Entezarmahdi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-03-01

    Radioiodine therapy is known as the most effective treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) to ablate remnant thyroid tissue after surgery. In patients with DTC treated with radioiodine, internal radiation dosimetry of radioiodine is useful for radiation risk assessment. The aim of this study is to describe a method to estimate the absorbed dose to the blood using medical internal radiation dosimetry methods. In this study, 23 patients with DTC with different administrated activities, 3.7, 4.62, and 5.55 GBq after thyroidectomy, were randomly selected. Blood dosimetry of treated patients was performed with external whole body counting using a dual-head gamma camera imaging device and also with blood sample activity measurements using a dose calibrator. Absorbed dose to the blood was measured at 2, 6, 12, 24, 48, and 96 hours after the administration of radioiodine with the 2 methods. Based on the results of whole body counting and blood sample activity dose rate measurements, 96 hours after administration of 3.7, 4.62, and 5.55 GBq of radioiodine, absorbed doses to patients' blood were 0.65 ± 0.20, 0.67 ± 0.18, 0.79 ± 0.51 Gy, respectively. Increasing radioiodine activity from 3.7 to 5.55 GBq increased blood dose significantly, while there was no significant difference in blood dose between radioiodine dosages of 3.7 and 4.62 GBq. Our results revealed a significant correlation between the blood absorbed dose and blood sample activity and between the blood absorbed dose and whole body counts 24 to 48 hours after the administration of radioiodine.

  18. Comparison of noninvasive sample collection procedures for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis by PCR-hybridization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferreira, Sidney de Almeida; Andrade, Antero Silva Ribeiro de [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: vidasnino@yahoo.com.br; antero@cdtn.br; Ituassu, Leonardo Trindade; Melo, Maria Norma de [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)]. E-mail: melo@mono.icb.ufmg.br; ltituassu@yahoo.com.br

    2007-07-01

    The dogs are the main reservoir of the visceral leishmaniasis etiological agent Leishmania chagasi and these animals have to be systematically monitored. The aim of present work was to standardize a method for canine leishmaniasis diagnosis using DNA samples obtained by a noninvasive ways. Two kind of samples were compared: conjunctival swab and blood. The samples were analyzed by the Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) associated with the hybridization of {sup 32}P labeled DNA probes. An in vitro test was carried out using cotton swabs seeded with L. chagasi parasites at different cell numbers. After that, the PCR and hybridization sensitivity was evaluated in two groups of 23 seropositive dogs. Conjunctival swabs and 1,0 mL of blood were collected from each animal. 90 {mu}L of these blood were spotted onto filter paper and the remaining used to prepare the buffy coat. The DNA purification from cotton swabs was carried out through the phenol-chloroform (group 1) or boiling (group 2). The Wizard kit was used to DNA extraction from buffy coat. The filters were treated according to Dialab protocol. The analysis of the seeded samples showed that the PCR was able to identify until ten parasites while the following hybridization of the PCR products allows the detection of until one parasite. The PCR positivity for the conjunctival swabs were 73.9% and 52.2% respectively to the groups 1 and 2. For buffy coat the positivities were 43.5% and 56.5% respectively. The filters presented the lowest positivity. The hybridization step was not accomplished yet for these samples. (author)

  19. Study on chromosome aberrations test determinated by micro-whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Zhihong; Han Fang'an; Ge Qinjuan; Wu Xiao; Chen Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To develop an easier and efficient method of culturing the chromosome and analyzing the aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes. Methods: Micro whole was cultured for 54 hours in home-made vacuum blood collection tube, and then collection, slice-making, microscopy detection for the chromosome aberrations was done. The difference of the results was analysed by comparing with the common method. Results: For 60 radiologists and 30 contrasts, the chromosome aberrations in peripheral lymphocytes were examed by this system, the lymphocytes and chromosome were clear and alive and easier to analyse. Compared with the common method, there was no significantly difference between the two analyzing results. Conclusion: The chromosome aberrations test by micro whole blood culture in vacuum blood collection tube is easier and efficient, and is worthy of being widely popularized. (authors)

  20. The relationship between vacuum and hemolysis during catheter blood collection: a retrospective analysis of six large cohorts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrazek, Cornelia; Simundic, Ana-Maria; Wiedemann, Helmut; Krahmer, Florian; Felder, Thomas Klaus; Kipman, Ulrike; Hoppe, Uta; Haschke-Becher, Elisabeth; Cadamuro, Janne

    2017-07-26

    Blood collection through intravenous (IV) catheters is a common practice at emergency departments (EDs). This technique is associated with higher in vitro hemolysis rates and may even be amplified by the use of vacuum collection tubes. Our aim was to investigate the association of five different vacuum tubes with hemolysis rates in comparison to an aspiration system under real-life conditions and to propose an equation to estimate the amount of hemolysis, depending on the vacuum collection tube type. We retrospectively evaluated hemolysis data of plasma samples from our ED, where blood is drawn through IV catheters. Over the past 5 years, we compared 19,001 hemolysis index values amongst each other and against the respective vacuum pressure (Pv) of the collection tubes, which were used within the six observational periods. The highest hemolysis rates were associated with full-draw evacuated tubes. Significantly reduced hemolysis was observed for two kinds of partial-draw tubes. The hemolysis rate of one partial-draw blood collection tube was comparable to those of the aspiration system. Regression analysis of Pv and mean free hemoglobin (fHb) values yielded the formula fHb (g/L)=0.0082*Pv2-0.1143*Pv+ 0.5314 with an R2 of 0.99. If IV catheters are used for blood collection, hemolysis rates directly correlate with the vacuum within the tubes and can be estimated by the proposed formula. By the use of partial-draw vacuum blood collection tubes, hemolysis rates in IV catheter collections can be reduced to levels comparable with collections performed by aspiration systems.

  1. The impact of different blood sampling methods on laboratory rats under different types of anaesthesia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Martin Fitzner; Petersen, Mikke Haxø; Dragsted, Nils

    2006-01-01

    for rats sampled from the tail vein, which showed fluctuations in body temperature in excess of 30 h after sampling. Increases in heart rate and blood pressure within the first hours after sampling indicated that periorbital puncture was the method that had the largest acute impact on the rats......Rats with implanted telemetry transponders were blood sampled by jugular puncture, periorbital puncture or tail vein puncture, or sampled by jugular puncture in carbon dioxide (CO?), isoflurane or without anaesthesia in a crossover design. Heart rate, blood pressure and body temperature were...... registered for three days after sampling. Initially blood pressure increased, but shortly after sampling it decreased, which led to increased heart rate. Sampling induced rapid fluctuations in body temperature, and an increase in body temperature. Generally, rats recovered from sampling within 2-3 h, except...

  2. Detection of Babesia DNA in blood and spleen samples from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartley, Paul M; Wilson, Cari; Innes, Elisabeth A; Katzer, Frank

    2017-08-01

    Babesia are intraerythrocytic parasites of importance worldwide within the fields of human and veterinary medicine, as some Babesia sp., including Babesia microti are potentially zoonotic and can cause fatal disease in both humans and animals. The aims of this study were to use a nested PCR (amplifying the 18S rRNA gene) to determine the presence and species of Babesia parasite DNA found in blood (n = 47) and spleen (n = 47) samples collected from Eurasian badgers (Meles meles) in Scotland. The results showed 28/47 (59·6%) blood and 14/47 (29·8%) spleen samples tested positive for the presence of Babesia DNA. Initial sequence analysis of the Babesia DNA identified three distinct sequence types (submitted to GenBank KX528553, KX528554 and KX528555), which demonstrated ⩾99% identity to Babesia sp. parasites previously identified in badgers in Spain (KT223484 and KT223485). Phylogenetic analysis showed that the three isolates are closely related to Babesia annae, B. microti and other Piroplasmida species found in wildlife. Further sequence analysis of the samples demonstrated that the badgers were routinely infected with more than one parasite isolate and there was also evidence of genetic recombination between the Babesia parasite isolates (submitted to GenBank KY250472 - KY250477).

  3. Detection of Salmonella typhi by nested polymerase chain reaction in blood, urine, and stool samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hatta, Mochammad; Smits, Henk L.

    2007-01-01

    A nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) specific for Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi was used for the detection of the pathogen in blood, urine, and stool samples from 131 patients with clinical suspicion of typhoid fever. The sensitivity of blood culture, the PCRs with blood, urine, and feces,

  4. Trace elements in blood samples of workers in Atbara railways foundry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mustafa, W. M.

    2013-09-01

    This study was conducted to determine trace elements and toxic substances in biological samples (blood samples) of humans. The aim of the current study was to determine the concentration of iron (Fe), copper (Cu), (Pb), lead, and zinc (Zn) in biological samples of workers employed in the industrial workshops in the River Nile state to assess the potential impact of exposure to the work environmental factors. For the purpose of comparison biological samples were collected from the same group of workers exposed to the elements of the work environment and workers not exposed to the elements of the work environment. The analysis of all elements in biological samples was done by x-ray fluorescence technique (X RF). There were no statistically significant differences between the analytical results for the exposed group and non-exposed group, using the same technique. The results showed that the concentrations of the four elements copper, lead, iron, and zinc in all biological samples from workers exposed were not much higher than those not exposed, it could be argued that there was a possible link between these elements with different causes of physiological disorder. The results also showed that need for an attention for improvements in hygiene practice in the workplace and industrial ventilation.(Author)

  5. "Center punch" and "whole spot" bioanalysis of apixaban in human dried blood spot samples by UHPLC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Naiyu; Yuan, Long; Ji, Qin C; Mangus, Heidi; Song, Yan; Frost, Charles; Zeng, Jianing; Aubry, Anne-Françoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2015-04-15

    Apixaban (Eliquis™) was developed by Bristol-Myers Squibb (BMS) and Pfizer to use as an antithrombotic/anticoagulant agent and has been recently approved for the prevention of stroke and systemic embolism in patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation. A clinical study of apixaban, sponsored by BMS and Pfizer, included a pilot exploratory portion to evaluate the potential for future drug concentration monitoring using dried blood spot (DBS) sample collection. For DBS sample collection, a fixed blood volume was dispensed onto a DBS card by either regular volumetric pipette (venous blood collection) or capillary dispenser (finger prick blood collection). A 96-well semi-automated liquid-liquid extraction sample preparation procedure was developed to provide clean extracts for UHPLC-MS/MS quantitation. Assays using both partial-spot center punch and whole spot punch were developed and validated. The linear dynamic ranges for all the analyses were from 0.5 to 500 ng/mL. The coefficient of determination (r(2)) values was >0.9944 for all the validation runs. For the center punch approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 4.4% and inter-assay precision was within 2.6%. The assay accuracy, expressed as %Dev., was within ± 5.4% of the nominal concentrations. One accuracy and precision run was performed using the whole spot approach, the intra-assay precision (%CV) was within 7.1% and the accuracy was within ± 8.0% of the nominal concentrations. In contrast to the center punch approach, the whole spot approach eliminated the effect of hematocrit and high lipids on the analysis of apixaban in human DBS when an accurate sample blood volume was collected on DBS cards. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Collection, processing and testing of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood and haematopoietic stem cells by European Blood Alliance members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Närhi, M; Natri, O; Desbois, I; Kinggaard Holm, D; Galea, G; Aranko, K; Korhonen, M; Nordstrom, K

    2013-11-01

    A questionnaire study was carried out in collaboration with the European Blood Alliance (EBA) Tissues and Cells (T&C) working group. The aim was to assess the level of involvement and commonality of processes on the procurement, testing and storage of bone, corneas, umbilical cord blood (UCB) and haematopoietic stem cells (HSC) in order to identify different practices and to explore whether recommendations can be made for harmonization. An online questionnaire was used for data collection in 2011, and 43 replies were received covering 71 product answers from 13 countries. Estimated percentages of tissue and cell banking covered by EBA member blood banks as a proportion of all collections of each individual country varied markedly. There were also major differences in the amounts of products collected and discarded and in proportions tissues provided for grafting. However, discarding of certain collections also reflects the practice of increasing the likelihood of the very best units being used for transplantation. Harmonization of possible practices should focus on matching supply with demand and on identifying the most efficient operators. This could allow for the development of practices for minimizing unnecessary collections. © 2013 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  7. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgeneTM Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Kennedy

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgeneTM RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2TM enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgeneTM blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgeneTM blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies.

  8. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgene Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Vass, J Keith; Haggart, D Ross; Moore, Steve; Burczynski, Michael E; Crowther, Dan; Miele, Gino

    2008-08-25

    Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgene() RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2() enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgene() blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgene() blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies.

  9. Hematopoietic Lineage Transcriptome Stability and Representation in PAXgene™ Collected Peripheral Blood Utilising SPIA Single-Stranded cDNA Probes for Microarray

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Laura; Vass, J. Keith; Haggart, D. Ross; Moore, Steve; Burczynski, Michael E.; Crowther, Dan; Miele, Gino

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral blood as a surrogate tissue for transcriptome profiling holds great promise for the discovery of diagnostic and prognostic disease biomarkers, particularly when target tissues of disease are not readily available. To maximize the reliability of gene expression data generated from clinical blood samples, both the sample collection and the microarray probe generation methods should be optimized to provide stabilized, reproducible and representative gene expression profiles faithfully representing the transcriptional profiles of the constituent blood cell types present in the circulation. Given the increasing innovation in this field in recent years, we investigated a combination of methodological advances in both RNA stabilisation and microarray probe generation with the goal of achieving robust, reliable and representative transcriptional profiles from whole blood. To assess the whole blood profiles, the transcriptomes of purified blood cell types were measured and compared with the global transcriptomes measured in whole blood. The results demonstrate that a combination of PAXgene™ RNA stabilising technology and single-stranded cDNA probe generation afforded by the NuGEN Ovation RNA amplification system V2™ enables an approach that yields faithful representation of specific hematopoietic cell lineage transcriptomes in whole blood without the necessity for prior sample fractionation, cell enrichment or globin reduction. Storage stability assessments of the PAXgene™ blood samples also advocate a short, fixed room temperature storage time for all PAXgene™ blood samples collected for the purposes of global transcriptional profiling in clinical studies. PMID:19578521

  10. Cost-effectiveness of alternative changes to a national blood collection service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, S; De Corte, K; Cairns, J A; Zia Sadique, M; Hawkins, N; Pennington, M; Cho, G; Roberts, D J; Miflin, G; Grieve, R

    2018-05-16

    To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of changing opening times, introducing a donor health report and reducing the minimum inter-donation interval for donors attending static centres. Evidence is required about the effect of changes to the blood collection service on costs and the frequency of donation. This study estimated the effect of changes to the blood collection service in England on the annual number of whole-blood donations by current donors. We used donors' responses to a stated preference survey, donor registry data on donation frequency and deferral rates from the INTERVAL trial. Costs measured were those anticipated to differ between strategies. We reported the cost per additional unit of blood collected for each strategy versus current practice. Strategies with a cost per additional unit of whole blood less than £30 (an estimate of the current cost of collection) were judged likely to be cost-effective. In static donor centres, extending opening times to evenings and weekends provided an additional unit of whole blood at a cost of £23 and £29, respectively. Introducing a health report cost £130 per additional unit of blood collected. Although the strategy of reducing the minimum inter-donation interval had the lowest cost per additional unit of blood collected (£10), this increased the rate of deferrals due to low haemoglobin (Hb). The introduction of a donor health report is unlikely to provide a sufficient increase in donation frequency to justify the additional costs. A more cost-effective change is to extend opening hours for blood collection at static centres. © 2018 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. On-chip acoustophoretic isolation of microflora including S. typhimurium from raw chicken, beef and blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngamsom, Bongkot; Lopez-Martinez, Maria J; Raymond, Jean-Claude; Broyer, Patrick; Patel, Pradip; Pamme, Nicole

    2016-04-01

    Pathogen analysis in food samples routinely involves lengthy growth-based pre-enrichment and selective enrichment of food matrices to increase the ratio of pathogen to background flora. Similarly, for blood culture analysis, pathogens must be isolated and enriched from a large excess of blood cells to allow further analysis. Conventional techniques of centrifugation and filtration are cumbersome, suffer from low sample throughput, are not readily amenable to automation and carry a risk of damaging biological samples. We report on-chip acoustophoresis as a pre-analytical technique for the resolution of total microbial flora from food and blood samples. The resulting 'clarified' sample is expected to increase the performance of downstream systems for the specific detection of the pathogens. A microfluidic chip with three inlets, a central separation channel and three outlets was utilized. Samples were introduced through the side inlets, and buffer solution through the central inlet. Upon ultrasound actuation, large debris particles (10-100 μm) from meat samples were continuously partitioned into the central buffer channel, leaving the 'clarified' outer sample streams containing both, the pathogenic cells and the background flora (ca. 1 μm) to be collected over a 30 min operation cycle before further analysis. The system was successfully tested with Salmonella typhimurium-spiked (ca. 10(3)CFU mL(-1)) samples of chicken and minced beef, demonstrating a high level of the pathogen recovery (60-90%). When applied to S. typhimurium contaminated blood samples (10(7)CFU mL(-1)), acoustophoresis resulted in a high depletion (99.8%) of the red blood cells (RBC) which partitioned in the buffer stream, whilst sufficient numbers of the viable S. typhimurium remained in the outer channels for further analysis. These results indicate that the technology may provide a generic approach for pre-analytical sample preparation prior to integrated and automated downstream detection of

  12. Total reflection x-ray analysis of metals in blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Takuya; Matsui, Hiroshi; Kawamata, Masaya

    2009-01-01

    The sample preparation for TXRF (total reflection X-ray fluorescence) quantitative analysis of trace elements in human blood samples was investigated. In the TXRF analysis, a solution sample is dropped and dried on a flat substrate, and then the dried residue is measured. In this case, the dried residue should be flat not to disturb X-ray total reflection on the substrate. In addition, it is required to simply measure the whole blood sample by TXRF method, although a serum is analyzed in many cases. Thus, we studied the optimum conditions of the sample preparation of the whole blood by adding the pure water to apply Hemolysis phenomenon, where blood cells are destroyed due to different of the osmotic pressure, leading to flat residue. It was found that the best S/B ratio was obtained when the whole blood was diluted 8 times with pure water. Moreover, it was investigated the influence of the surface chemical condition of the glass substrate on the shape of the dried reside of the blood sample. When the surface of the glass substrate was hydrophilic, the shape of the dried residues was not uniform, as a result, the quantitative data of TXRF analysis gave a large deviation. On the other hand, when the surface of the glass was hydrophobic, the shape of the residue was almost uniform, as a result, a good reproducibility was obtained. Another problem was an outer ring of the dried residue of the blood. This uneven ring absorbs the primary X-rays, caused to low determined quantitative data. Thus, we tried the heating way of the dropped blood sample at a high temperature of 200 degrees. In this case, the blood sample was dried immediately, and a flat homogeneous dried residue was obtained without the outer ring. Using the optimized conditions for sample preparation, human blood sample was quantitatively measured by TXRF and ICP-AES. A good agreement was obtained in TXRF and ICP-AES determinations; however, the measurement of Cl and Br will be an advantage of TXRF, because

  13. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips.

  14. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips. PMID:24089195

  15. Design of the CERN MEDICIS Collection and Sample Extraction System

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, Alexander

    MEDICIS is a new facility at CERN ISOLDE that aims to produce radio-isotopes for medical research. Possible designs for the collection and transport system for the collection of radio-isotopes was investigated. A system using readily available equipment was devised with the the aim of keeping costs to a minimum whilst maintaining the highest safety standards. FLUKA, a Monte Carlo radiation transport code, was used to simulate the radiation from the isotopes to be collected. Of the isotopes to be collected 44Sc was found to give the largest dose by simulating the collection of all isotopes of interest to CERN’s MEDICIS facility, for medical research. The simulations helped guide the amount of shielding used in the final design. Swiss Regulations stipulating allowed activity level of individual isotopes was also considered within the body of the work.

  16. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Marcos Vinicius; Criado, Paulo Ricardo; Luiz, Olinda do Carmo; Vicentini, Adriana Pardini

    2018-01-01

    Background Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients. Methodology We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I) or without AIDS (group II), uninfected (group III), and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV). All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection. Results Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S), 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS), and a 100 kDa protein (HC100) revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases. Conclusion Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis. PMID:29342162

  17. Comparison of diagnostic methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in serum and blood samples from AIDS patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katia Cristina Dantas

    Full Text Available Although early and rapid detection of histoplasmosis is essential to prevent morbidity and mortality, few diagnostic tools are available in resource-limited areas, especially where it is endemic and HIV/AIDS is also epidemic. Thus, we compared conventional and molecular methods to detect Histoplasma capsulatum in sera and blood from HIV/AIDS patients.We collected a total of 40 samples from control volunteers and patients suspected of histoplasmosis, some of whom were also infected with other pathogens. Samples were then analyzed by mycological, serological, and molecular methods, and stratified as histoplasmostic with (group I or without AIDS (group II, uninfected (group III, and infected with HIV and other pathogens only (group IV. All patients were receiving treatment for histoplasmosis and other infections at the time of sample collection.Comparison of conventional methods with nested PCR using primers against H. capsulatum 18S rRNA (HC18S, 5.8S rRNA ITS (HC5.8S-ITS, and a 100 kDa protein (HC100 revealed that sensitivity against sera was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by immunoblotting, double immunodiffusion, PCR with HC18S, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was equally high for double immunodiffusion, immunoblotting and PCR with HC100, followed for PCR with HC18S and HC5.8-ITS. Against blood, sensitivity was highest for PCR with HC5.8S-ITS, followed by PCR with HC18S, Giemsa staining, and PCR with HC100. Specificity was highest for Giemsa staining and PCR with HC100, followed by PCR with HC18S and HC5.8S-ITS. PCR was less efficient in patients with immunodeficiency due to HIV/AIDS and/or related diseases.Molecular techniques may detect histoplasmosis even in cases with negative serology and mycology, potentially enabling early diagnosis.

  18. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis of Wuchereria bancrofti from human blood samples in Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Shafi, Iman R; Shoieb, Eman Y; Attia, Samar S; Rubio, José M; Ta-Tang, Thuy-Huong; El-Badry, Ayman A

    2017-03-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a serious vector-borne health problem, and Wuchereria bancrofti (W.b) is the major cause of LF worldwide and is focally endemic in Egypt. Identification of filarial infection using traditional morphologic and immunological criteria can be difficult and lead to misdiagnosis. The aim of the present study was molecular detection of W.b in residents in endemic areas in Egypt, sequence variance analysis, and phylogenetic analysis of W.b DNA. Collected blood samples from residents in filariasis endemic areas in five governorates were subjected to semi-nested PCR targeting repeated DNA sequence, for detection of W.b DNA. PCR products were sequenced; subsequently, a phylogenetic analysis of the obtained sequences was performed. Out of 300 blood samples, W.b DNA was identified in 48 (16%). Sequencing analysis confirmed PCR results identifying only W.b species. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis indicated genetically distinct clusters of W.b among the study population. Study results demonstrated that the semi-nested PCR proved to be an effective diagnostic tool for accurate and rapid detection of W.b infections in nano-epidemics and is applicable for samples collected in the daytime as well as the night time. PCR products sequencing and phylogenitic analysis revealed three different nucleotide sequences variants. Further genetic studies of W.b in Egypt and other endemic areas are needed to distinguish related strains and the various ecological as well as drug effects exerted on them to support W.b elimination.

  19. Gene expression differences between PAXgene and Tempus blood RNA tubes are highly reproducible between independent samples and biobanks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skogholt, Anne Heidi; Ryeng, Einar; Erlandsen, Sten Even; Skorpen, Frank; Schønberg, Svanhild A; Sætrom, Pål

    2017-03-23

    Gene expression profiling from blood is sensitive to technology choices. For example, the main blood RNA collection systems-the PAXgene and Tempus tubes-differently influence RNA expression signatures. The aim of this study was to establish a common RNA isolation protocol for these two systems and investigate if it could reduce the differences in gene expression between them. We collected identical blood samples on the PAXgene and Tempus systems and retrieved blood samples from two independent biobanks-NOWAC and HUNT3-which are based on PAXgene and Tempus, respectively. High-quality RNA was extracted from both sampling systems by using their original protocols and our common modified protocol, and were profiled on Illumina microarrays. Regardless of the protocol used, we found most of the measured transcripts to be differently affected by the two sampling systems. However, our modified protocol reduced the number of transcripts that were significantly differentially expressed between PAXgene and Tempus by approximately 50%. Expression differences between PAXgene and Tempus were highly reproducible both between protocols and between different independent sample sets (Pearson correlation 0.563-0.854 across 47323 probes). Moreover, the modified protocol increased the microRNA output of the system with lowest microRNA yield, the PAXgene system. Most transcripts are affected by the choice of sampling system, but these effects are highly reproducible between independent samples. We propose that by running a control experiment with samples on both systems in parallel with biologically relevant samples, researchers may adjust for technical differences between the sampling systems.

  20. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  1. Relative Abundance of Proteins in Blood Plasma Samples from Patients with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Artur T; Ponomarenko, Elena A; Kiseleva, Olga I; Teryaeva, Nadezhda B; Potapov, Alexander A; Izotov, Alexander А; Morozov, Sergei G; Kudryavtseva, Valeria Yu; Archakov, Alexander I

    2018-03-01

    A comparative protein profile analysis of 17 blood plasma samples from patients with ischemia and 20 samples from healthy volunteers was carried out using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of measurements was performed using the proteomics search engine OMSSA. Normalized spectrum abundance factor (NSAF) in the biological samples was assessed using SearchGUI. The findings of mass spectrometry analysis of the protein composition of blood plasma samples demonstrate that the depleted samples are quite similar in protein composition and relative abundance of proteins. By comparing them with the control samples, we have found a small group of 44 proteins characteristic of the blood plasma samples from patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. These proteins contribute to the processes of homeostasis maintenance, including innate immune response unfolding, the response of a body to stress, and contribution to the blood clotting cascade.

  2. Trace samples of human blood in mosquitoes as a forensic investigation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabêlo, K C N; Albuquerque, C M R; Tavares, V B; Santos, S M; Souza, C A; Oliveira, T C; Oliveira, N C L; Crovella, S

    2015-11-23

    Investigations of any type of crime invariably starts at the crime scene by collecting evidence. Thus, the purpose of this research was to collect and analyze an entomological trace from an environment that is similar to those of indoor crime scenes. Hematophagous mosquitoes were collected from two residential units; saliva of volunteers that were residents in the units was also collected for genetic analysis as reference samples. We examined the allele frequencies of 15 short tandem repeat loci (D8S1179, D21S11, D7S820, CSF1PO, D3S1358, TH01, D13S317, D16S539, D2S1338, D19S433, vWA, TPOX, D18S51, D5S818, and FGA) and amelogenin. A total of 26 female hematophagous mosquitoes were identified as Aedes aegypti, Aedes albopictus, and Culex quinquefasciatus; we were able to obtain 11 forensically valid genetic profiles, with a minimum of 0.028203 ng/μL of human DNA. Thus, the results of this study showed that it was possible to correlate human genetic information from mosquitoes with the volunteer reference samples, which validates the use of this information as forensic evidence. Furthermore, we observed mixed genetic profiles from one mosquito. Therefore, it is clearly important to collect these insects indoors where crimes were committed, because it may be possible to find intact genetic profiles of suspects in the blood found in the digestive tract of hematophagous mosquitoes for later comparison to identify an offender and/or exclude suspects.

  3. Effect of red blood cell aggregation and sedimentation on optical coherence tomography signals from blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirillin, M Yu; Priezzhev, A V; Tuchin, V V; Wang, R K; Myllylae, R

    2005-01-01

    In this work, Monte Carlo simulation is used to obtain model optical coherence tomography (OCT) signals from a horizontally orientated blood layer at different stages of red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and sedimentation processes. The parameters for aggregating and sedimenting blood cells were chosen based on the data available from the literature and our earlier experimental studies. We consider two different cases: a suspension of washed RBCs in physiological solution (where aggregation does not take place) and RBCs in blood plasma (which provides necessary conditions for aggregation). Good agreement of the simulation results with the available experimental data shows that the chosen optical parameters are reasonable. The dependence of the numbers of photons contributing to the OCT signal on the number of experienced scattering events was analysed for each simulated signal. It was shown that the maxima of these dependences correspond to the peaks in the OCT signals related to the interfaces between the layers of blood plasma and blood cells. Their positions can be calculated from the optical thicknesses of the layers, and the absorption and scattering coefficients of the media

  4. Environmental contaminants in Texas, USA, wetland reptiles: Evaluation using blood samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D.R.; Bickham, J.W.; Baker, D.L.; Cowman, D.F.

    2000-01-01

    Four species of reptiles (diamondback water snake [Nerodia rhombifer], blotched water snake [N. erythrogaster], cottonmouth [Agkistrodon piscivorus], and red-eared slider [Trachemys scripta]) were collected at two contaminated and three reference sites in Texas, USA. Old River Slough has received intensive applications of agricultural chemicals since the 1950s. Municipal Lake received industrial arsenic wastes continuously from 1940 to 1993. Blood samples were analyzed for organochlorines, potentially toxic elements, genetic damage, and plasma cholinesterase (ChE). Dichlorodiphenyldichloroethylene (DDE) concentrations reached as high as 3.0 ppm (wet weight) in whole blood of a diamondback water snake at Old River Slough, a level probably roughly equivalent to the maximum concentration found in plasma of peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus) in 1978 to 1979 when DDE peaked in this sensitive species. Possible impacts on diamondback water snakes are unknown, but at least one diamondback water snake was gravid when captured, indicating active reproduction. Arsenic was not found in red-eared sliders (only species sampled) from Municipal Lake. Red-eared sliders of both sexes at Old River Slough showed declining levels of ChE with increasing mass, suggesting a life-long decrease of ChE levels. Possible negative population consequences are unknown, but no evidence was found in body condition (mass relative to carapace length) that red-eared sliders at either contaminated site were harmed.

  5. Namibia's transition from whole blood-derived pooled platelets to single-donor apheresis platelet collections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pitman, John P.; Basavaraju, Sridhar V.; Shiraishi, Ray W.; Wilkinson, Robert; von Finckenstein, Bjorn; Lowrance, David W.; Marfin, Anthony A.; Postma, Maarten; Mataranyika, Mary; Smit Sibinga, Cees Th.

    BACKGROUNDFew African countries separate blood donations into components; however, demand for platelets (PLTs) is increasing as regional capacity to treat causes of thrombocytopenia, including chemotherapy, increases. Namibia introduced single-donor apheresis PLT collections in 2007 to increase PLT

  6. 77 FR 35408 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request: Opinions and Perspectives About the Current Blood Donation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-13

    ... Policy for Men Who Have Sex with Men. Type of Information Collection Request: New. Need and Use of... prevalence of compliance and non-compliance with the current MSM policy and assessing motivations for blood... donate blood. Frequency of Response: Once. Affected Public: Individuals. Type of Respondents: Males 18...

  7. Rapid Fractionation and Isolation of Whole Blood Components in Samples Obtained from a Community-based Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckle, Amy; Aiello, Allison E; Uddin, Monica; Galea, Sandro; Coulborn, Rebecca M; Soliven, Richelo; Meier, Helen; Wildman, Derek E

    2015-11-30

    Collection and processing of whole blood samples in a non-clinical setting offers a unique opportunity to evaluate community-dwelling individuals both with and without preexisting conditions. Rapid processing of these samples is essential to avoid degradation of key cellular components. Included here are methods for simultaneous peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC), DNA, RNA and serum isolation from a single blood draw performed in the homes of consenting participants across a metropolitan area, with processing initiated within 2 hr of collection. We have used these techniques to process over 1,600 blood specimens yielding consistent, high quality material, which has subsequently been used in successful DNA methylation, genotyping, gene expression and flow cytometry analyses. Some of the methods employed are standard; however, when combined in the described manner, they enable efficient processing of samples from participants of population- and/or community-based studies who would not normally be evaluated in a clinical setting. Therefore, this protocol has the potential to obtain samples (and subsequently data) that are more representative of the general population.

  8. Impact of partial pressure of oxygen in blood samples on the performance of systems for self-monitoring of blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmid, Christina; Baumstark, Annette; Pleus, Stefan; Haug, Cornelia; Tesar, Martina; Freckmann, Guido

    2014-03-01

    The partial pressure of oxygen (pO2) in blood samples can affect glucose measurements with oxygen-sensitive systems. In this study, we assessed the influence of different pO2 levels on blood glucose (BG) measurements with five glucose oxidase (GOD) systems and one glucose dehydrogenase (GDH) system. All selected GOD systems were indicated by the manufacturers to be sensitive to increased oxygen content of the blood sample. Venous blood samples of 16 subjects (eight women, eight men; mean age, 52 years; three with type 1 diabetes, four with type 2 diabetes, and nine without diabetes) were collected. Aliquots of each sample were adjusted to the following pO2 values: ≤45 mm Hg, approximately 70 mm Hg, and ≥150 mm Hg. For each system, five consecutive measurements on each sample were performed using the same test strip lot. Relative differences between the mean BG value at a pO2 level of approximately 70 mm Hg, which was considered to be similar to pO2 values in capillary blood samples, and the mean BG value at pO2 levels ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg were calculated. The GOD systems showed mean relative differences between 11.8% and 44.5% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and between -14.6% and -21.2% at pO2 values ≥150 mm Hg. For the GDH system, the mean relative differences were -0.3% and -0.2% at pO2 values ≤45 mm Hg and ≥150 mm Hg, respectively. The magnitude of the pO2 impact on BG measurements seems to vary among the tested oxygen-sensitive GOD systems. The pO2 range in which oxygen-sensitive systems operate well should be provided in the product information.

  9. Decreased mitochondrial DNA content in blood samples of patients with stage I breast cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Peng; An, Han-Xiang; Dang, Cheng-Xue; Radpour, Ramin; Kohler, Corina; Fokas, Emmanouil; Engenhart-Cabillic, Rita; Holzgreve, Wolfgang; Zhong, Xiao Yan

    2009-01-01

    Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been implicated in carcinogenesis. We developed an accurate multiplex quantitative real-time PCR for synchronized determination of mtDNA and nuclear DNA (nDNA). We sought to investigate whether mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of breast cancer patients is associated with clinical and pathological parameters. Peripheral blood samples were collected from 60 patients with breast cancer and 51 age-matched healthy individuals as control. DNA was extracted from peripheral blood for the quantification of mtDNA and nDNA, using a one-step multiplex real-time PCR. A FAM labeled MGB probe and primers were used to amplify the mtDNA sequence of the ATP 8 gene, and a VIC labeled MGB probe and primers were employed to amplify the glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-dehydrogenase gene. mtDNA content was correlated with tumor stage, menstruation status, and age of patients as well as lymph node status and the expression of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and Her-2/neu protein. The content of mtDNA in stage I breast cancer patients was significantly lower than in other stages (overall P = 0.023). Reduced mtDNA was found often in post menopausal cancer group (P = 0.024). No difference in mtDNA content, in regards to age (p = 0.564), lymph node involvement (p = 0.673), ER (p = 0.877), PR (p = 0.763), and Her-2/neu expression (p = 0.335), was observed. Early detection of breast cancer has proved difficult and current detection methods are inadequate. In the present study, decreased mtDNA content in the peripheral blood of patients with breast cancer was strongly associated with stage I. The use of mtDNA may have diagnostic value and further studies are required to validate it as a potential biomarker for early detection of breast cancer

  10. The collection and field chemical analysis of water samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Korte, N.E.; Ealey, D.T.; Hollenbach, M.H.

    1984-01-01

    A successful water sampling program requires a clear understanding of appropriate measurement and sampling procedures in order to obtain reliable field data and representative samples. It is imperative that the personnel involved have a thorough knowledge of the limitations of the techniques being used. Though this seems self-evident, many sampling and field-chemical-analysis programs are still not properly conducted. Recognizing these problems, the Department of Energy contracted with Bendix Field Engineering Corporation through the Technical Measurements Center to develop and select procedures for water sampling and field chemical analysis at waste sites. The fundamental causese of poor field programs are addressed in this paper, largely through discussion of specific field-measurement techniques and their limitations. Recommendations for improvement, including quality-assurance measures, are also presented

  11. Concordance analysis of methylation biomarkers detection in self-collected and physician-collected samples in cervical neoplasm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Cheng-Chang; Huang, Rui-Lan; Liao, Yu-Ping; Su, Po-Hsuan; Hsu, Yaw-Wen; Wang, Hui-Chen; Tien, Chau-Yang; Yu, Mu-Hsien; Lin, Ya-Wen; Lai, Hung-Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Non-attendance at gynecological clinics is a major limitation of cervical cancer screening and self-collection of samples may improve this situation. Although HPV testing of self-collected vaginal samples is acceptable, the specificity is inadequate. The current focus is increasing self-collection of vaginal samples to minimize clinic visits. In this study, we analyzed the concordance and clinical performance of DNA methylation biomarker (PAX1, SOX1, and ZNF582) detection in self-collected vaginal samples and physician-collected cervical samples for the identification of cervical neoplasm. We enrolled 136 cases with paired methylation data identified from abnormal Pap smears (n = 126) and normal controls (n = 10) regardless of HPV status at gynecological clinics. The study group comprised 37 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm I (CIN1), 23 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm II (CIN2), 16 cervical intraepithelial neoplasm III (CIN3), 30 carcinoma in situ (CIS), 13 squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) and seven adenocarcinomas (ACs)/adenosquamous carcinomas (ASCs). PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 methylation in study samples was assessed by real-time quantitative methylation-specific polymerase chain reaction analysis. We generated methylation index cutoff values for the detection of CIN3+ in physician-collected cervical samples for analysis of the self-collected group. Concordance between the physician-collected and self-collected groups was evaluated by Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity and area under curve (AUC) were calculated for detection of CIN3+ lesions. Finally, we produced an optimal cutoff value with the best sensitivity from the self-collected groups. We generated a methylation index cutoff value from physician-collected samples for detection of CIN3+. There were no significant differences in sensitivity, specificity of PAX1, SOX1 and ZNF582 between the self-collected and physician-collected groups. The methylation status of all three genes in the normal control

  12. Detection of Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae by ELISA and nested PCR from blood samples and nasal swabs from pigs in Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marián Prokeš

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to map the situation of swine mycoplasmoses on four farms in the region of Eastern Slovakia. The primary agent of Enzootic pneumonia of swine is Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae. After reviewing the health status of conventional herds and evaluation of clinical symptoms, paired samples of nasal swabs and venous blood samples were collected from 38 pigs with clinical signs of respiratory disease. Nasal swab samples were tested by nested PCR, while blood samples were used to detect antibodies against M. hyopneumoniae by blocking ELISA. The presence of M. hyopneumoniae was confirmed by nested PCR in four pigs (10.5% and by blocking ELISA in 16 pigs (42.1% of all four farms. This work presents for the first time comparison of different methods to diagnose M. hyopneumoniae infection on pig farms in Eastern Slovakia.

  13. Microcapillary blood sampling for serological examinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodak, L; Smid, B; Valicek, L; Jurak, E [Vyzkumny Ustav Veterinarniho Lekarstvi, Brno-Medlanky (Czechoslovakia)

    1984-01-01

    Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples using ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC.

  14. Microcapillary blood sampling for serological examinations by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and enzyme immunoassay (ELISA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodak, L.; Smid, B.; Valicek, L.; Jurak, E.

    1984-01-01

    Methods were tested of sampling blood and blood serum for serological examinations on filtration paper and into heparinized glass capillaries with transfer into the dilution solution of the given composition. Samples were also examined for ACH virus antibodies. The suitability of the sampling was verified by an examination of samples usiOg ELISA and RIA methods. The results showed the suitability of sampling using microcapillaries. The titres of virus antibodies found using the ELISA and RIA methods were identical and the sensitivity of antibody detection was not reduced even after the sample had been stored for 60 days at a temperature of 20 degC. (B.S.)

  15. Effect of prewarming the forearm on the measurement of regional cerebral blood flow with one-point venous sampling by autoradiography method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Youko H.; Kurabe, Teruhisa; Kazaoka, Yoshiaki; Ishiguchi, Tsuneo; Kawashima, Sadao

    2004-01-01

    Autoradiography (ARG) using 123 I-iodoamphetamine ( 123 I-IMP) is widely performed as an efficient method of measuring local cerebral blood flow. Recently, ARG by a single collection of venous blood has been appreciated as a simple method. In this study, we investigated the effect of warming of the site for collecting venous blood (forearm). The coefficient of correlation of the local cerebral blood flow value obtained from arterial and venous blood samples was 0.766 (p<0.05) in the group without warming (38 patients). The coefficient of correlation similarly obtained in the group with warming (53 patients) was 0.908 (p<0.05). The difference in the correlation efficient was significant (p<0.05) between the two groups. From these results it was concluded that warming the blood-collecting site decreased the difference between the arterial and venous radioactive concentrations and increased the precision of the test. (author)

  16. Evaluation of three different DNA extraction methods from blood samples collected in dried filter paper in Plasmodium subpatent infections from the Amazon region in Brazil Avaliação de três métodos de extração de DNA obtidos de amostras de sangue coletadas em papel de filtro em infecções subpatentes de Plasmodium da região Amazônica no Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Bortolasse Miguel

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Asymptomatic Plasmodium infection is a new challenge for public health in the American region. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR is the best method for diagnosing subpatent parasitemias. In endemic areas, blood collection is hampered by geographical distances and deficient transport and storage conditions of the samples. Because DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper is an efficient method for molecular studies in high parasitemic individuals, we investigated whether the technique could be an alternative for Plasmodium diagnosis among asymptomatic and pauciparasitemic subjects. In this report we compared three different methods (Chelex®-saponin, methanol and TRIS-EDTA of DNA extraction from blood collected on filter paper from asymptomatic Plasmodium-infected individuals. Polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Plasmodium species showed the best results when the Chelex®-saponin method was used. Even though the sensitivity of detection was approximately 66% and 31% for P. falciparum and P. vivax, respectively, this method did not show the effectiveness in DNA extraction required for molecular diagnosis of Plasmodium. The development of better methods for extracting DNA from blood collected on filter paper is important for the diagnosis of subpatent malarial infections in remote areas and would contribute to establishing the epidemiology of this form of infection.Infecção assintomática por Plasmodium é um novo desafio para a saúde pública no Brasil. A reação em cadeia da polimerase (PCR é o melhor método para detectar baixas parasitemias presentes em pacientes com infecção assintomática. Nas áreas endêmicas, a coleta de sangue total é dificultada pela distancia geográfica, transporte e adequada armazenagem das amostras. A coleta de sangue em papel de filtro pode ser uma alternativa nessas áreas de difícil acesso. Neste estudo foram comparados três diferentes métodos de extração de ADN a partir de

  17. Sampling strategy to develop a primary core collection of apple ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PRECIOUS

    2010-01-11

    Jan 11, 2010 ... Physiology and Molecular Biology for Fruit, Tree, Beijing 100193, China. ... analyzed on genetic diversity to ensure their represen- .... strategy, cluster and random sampling. .... on isozyme data―A simulation study, Theor.

  18. Apollo Lunar Sample Photographs: Digitizing the Moon Rock Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, Gary E.; Todd, Nancy S.; Runco, S. K.; Stefanov, W. L.

    2011-01-01

    The Acquisition and Curation Office at JSC has undertaken a 4-year data restoration project effort for the lunar science community funded by the LASER program (Lunar Advanced Science and Exploration Research) to digitize photographs of the Apollo lunar rock samples and create high resolution digital images. These sample photographs are not easily accessible outside of JSC, and currently exist only on degradable film in the Curation Data Storage Facility

  19. Sedimentary characteristics of samples collected from some submarine canyons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouma, Arnold H.

    Oriented rectangular cores of 20.3 × 30.5 cm and 45.7 cm high have been collected in a number of submarine canyons off southern California (U.S.A.) and off the southern tip of Baja California (Mexico) for a detailed study of their sedimentary structures. By applying several methods, mainly X-ray

  20. A method to quantitate cerebral blood flow using a rotating gamma camera and iodine-123 iodoamphetamine with one blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Hidehiro; Itoh, Hiroshi; Bloomfield, P.M.; Munaka, Masahiro; Higano, Shuichi; Murakami, Matsutaro; Inugami, Atsushi; Eberl, S.; Aizawa, Yasuo; Kanno, Iwao; Uemura, Kazuo

    1994-01-01

    A method has been developed to quantitate regional cerebral blood blow (rCBF) using iodine-123-labelled N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (IMP). This technique requires only two single-photon emission tomography (SPET) scans and one blood sample. Based on a two-compartment model, radioactivity concentrations in the brain for each scan time are calculated. A standard input function has been generated by combining the input functions from 12 independent studies prior to this work to avoid frequent arterial blood sampling, and one blood sample is taken at 10 min following IMP administration for calibration of the standard arterial input function. This calibration time was determined such that the integration of the first 40 min of the calibrated, combined input function agreed best with those from 12 individual input functions (the difference was 5.3% on average). This method was applied to eight subjects (two normals and six patients with cerebral infarction), and yielded rCBF values which agreed well with those obtained by a positron emission tomography H 2 15 O autoradiography method. This method was also found to provide rCBF values that were consistent with those obtained by the non-linear least squares fitting technique and those obtained by conventional microsphere model analysis. The optimum SPET scan times were found to be 40 and 180 min for the early and delayed scans, respectively. These scan times allow the use of a conventional rotating gamma camera for clinical purposes. V d values ranged between 10 and 40 ml/g depending on the pathological condition, thereby suggesting the importance of measuring V d for each ROI. In conclusion, optimization of the blood sampling time and the scanning time enabled quantitative measurement of rCBF with two SPET scans and one blood sample. (orig.)

  1. Use of Capillary Blood Samples Leads to Higher Parasitemia Estimates and Higher Diagnostic Sensitivity of Microscopic and Molecular Diagnostics of Malaria than Venous Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mischlinger, Johannes; Pitzinger, Paul; Veletzky, Luzia; Groger, Mirjam; Zoleko-Manego, Rella; Adegnika, Ayola A; Agnandji, Selidji T; Lell, Bertrand; Kremsner, Peter G; Tannich, Egbert; Mombo-Ngoma, Ghyslain; Mordmüller, Benjamin; Ramharter, Michael

    2018-05-25

    Diagnosis of malaria is usually based on samples of peripheral blood. However, it is unclear whether capillary (CAP) or venous (VEN) blood samples provide better diagnostic performance. Quantitative differences of parasitemia between CAP and VEN blood and diagnostic performance characteristics were investigated. Patients were recruited between September 2015 and February 2016 in Gabon. Light microscopy and qPCR quantified parasitemia of paired CAP and VEN samples, whose preparation followed the exact same methodology. CAP and VEN performance characteristics using microscopy were evaluated against a qPCR gold-standard. Microscopy revealed a median (IQR) parasites/L of 495 (853,243) in CAP and 429 (524,074) in VEN samples manifesting in a +16.6% (p=0.04) higher CAPparasitemia compared with VENparasitemia. Concordantly, qPCR demonstrated that -0.278 (p=0.006) cycles were required for signal detection in CAP samples. CAPsensitivity of microscopy relative to the gold-standard was 81.5% (77.485.6%) versus VENsensitivity of 73.4% (68.878.1%), while CAPspecificity and VENspecificity were 91%. CAPsensitivity and VENsensitivity dropped to 63.3% and 45.9%, respectively for a sub-population of low-level parasitemias while specificities were 92%. CAP sampling leads to higher parasitemias compared to VEN sampling and improves diagnostic sensitivity. These findings may have important implications for routine diagnostics, research and elimination campaigns of malaria.

  2. Evaluation of standard methods for collecting and processing fuel moisture samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sally M. Haase; José Sánchez; David R. Weise

    2016-01-01

    A variety of techniques for collecting and processing samples to determine moisture content of wildland fuels in support of fire management activities were evaluated. The effects of using a chainsaw or handsaw to collect samples of largediameter wood, containers for storing and transporting collected samples, and quick-response ovens for estimating moisture content...

  3. Detection of drugs in 275 alcohol-positive blood samples of Korean drivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunmi; Choe, Sanggil; Lee, Juseon; Jang, Moonhee; Choi, Hyeyoung; Chung, Heesun

    2016-08-01

    Since driving under the influence of drugs (DUID) is as dangerous as drink-driving, many countries regulate DUID by law. However, laws against the use of drugs while driving are not yet established in Korea. In order to investigate the type and frequency of drugs used by drivers in Korea, we analyzed controlled and non-controlled drugs in alcohol-positive blood samples. Total 275 blood samples were taken from Korean drivers, which were positive in roadside alcohol testing. The following analyses were performed: blood alcohol concentrations by GC; screening for controlled drugs by immunoassay and confirmation for positive samples by GC-MS. For the detection of DUID related drugs in blood samples, a total of 49 drugs were selected and were examined by GC-MS. For a rapid detection of these drugs, an automated identification software called "DrugMan" was used. Concentrations of alcohol in 275 blood samples ranged from 0.011 to 0.249% (average 0.119%). Six specimens showed positive results by immunoassay: one methamphetamine and five benzodiazepines I. By GC-MS confirmation, only benzodiazepines in four cases were identified, while methamphetamine and benzodiazepine in two cases were not detected from the presumptive positive blood samples. Using DrugMan, four drugs were detected; chlorpheniramine (5)*, diazepam (4), dextromethorphan (1) and doxylamine (1). In addition, ibuprofen (1), lidocaine (1) and topiramate (1) were also detected as general drugs in blood samples ('*' indicates frequency). The frequency of drug abuse by Korean drivers was relatively low and a total 14 cases were positive in 275 blood samples with a ratio of 5%. However it is necessary to analyze more samples including alcohol negative blood, and to expand the range of drug lists to get the detailed information. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA detection in whole blood and spleen aspiration samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faria, Joice Lara Maia; Dagnone, Ana Sílvia; Munhoz, Thiago Demarchi; João, Carolina Franchi; Pereira, Wanderson Adriano Biscola; Machado, Rosângela Zacarias; Tinucci-Costa, Mirela

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the detection of Ehrlichia canis morulae and DNA by nPCR in whole blood and spleen aspiration. The sample included 40 dogs showing thrombocytopenia associated to clinical signs suggestive of canine ehrlichiosis. Morulae detection showed that in 35 of the dogs studied, 17 had morulae in spleen tissue, and two in buffy coat smears. E. canis DNA was detected in 29/40 blood samples. We verified that morulae detection is more efficient in cytological preparations from spleen aspiration. On the other hand, nPCR on spleen and blood samples were equally efficient for disease diagnosis.

  5. Curating NASA's Past, Present, and Future Extraterrestrial Sample Collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCubbin, F. M.; Allton, J. H.; Evans, C. A.; Fries, M. D.; Nakamura-Messenger, K.; Righter, K.; Zeigler, R. A.; Zolensky, M.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2016-01-01

    The Astromaterials Acquisition and Curation Office (henceforth referred to herein as NASA Curation Office) at NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) is responsible for curating all of NASA's extraterrestrial samples. Under the governing document, NASA Policy Directive (NPD) 7100.10E "Curation of Extraterrestrial Materials", JSC is charged with "...curation of all extra-terrestrial material under NASA control, including future NASA missions." The Directive goes on to define Curation as including "...documentation, preservation, preparation, and distribution of samples for research, education, and public outreach." Here we describe some of the past, present, and future activities of the NASA Curation Office.

  6. A novel method of selective removal of human DNA improves PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Liqing; Pollard, Andrew J

    2012-07-27

    Enteric fever is a major public health problem, causing an estimated 21million new cases and 216,000 or more deaths every year. Current diagnosis of the disease is inadequate. Blood culture only identifies 45 to 70% of the cases and is time-consuming. Serological tests have very low sensitivity and specificity. Clinical samples obtained for diagnosis of enteric fever in the field generally have blood, so that even PCR-based methods, widely used for detection of other infectious diseases, are not a straightforward option in typhoid diagnosis. We developed a novel method to enrich target bacterial DNA by selective removal of human DNA from blood samples, enhancing the sensitivity of PCR tests. This method offers the possibility of improving PCR assays directly using clinical specimens for diagnosis of this globally important infectious disease. Blood samples were mixed with ox bile for selective lysis of human blood cells and the released human DNA was then digested with addition of bile resistant micrococcal nuclease. The intact Salmonella Typhi bacteria were collected from the specimen by centrifugation and the DNA extracted with QIAamp DNA mini kit. The presence of Salmonella Typhi bacteria in blood samples was detected by PCR with the fliC-d gene of Salmonella Typhi as the target. Micrococcal nuclease retained activity against human blood DNA in the presence of up to 9% ox bile. Background human DNA was dramatically removed from blood samples through the use of ox bile lysis and micrococcal nuclease for removal of mammalian DNA. Consequently target Salmonella Typhi DNA was enriched in DNA preparations and the PCR sensitivity for detection of Salmonella Typhi in spiked blood samples was enhanced by 1,000 fold. Use of a combination of selective ox-bile blood cell lysis and removal of human DNA with micrococcal nuclease significantly improves PCR sensitivity and offers a better option for improved typhoid PCR assays directly using clinical specimens in diagnosis of

  7. Proposing an Empirically Justified Reference Threshold for Blood Culture Sampling Rates in Intensive Care Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castell, Stefanie; Schwab, Frank; Geffers, Christine; Bongartz, Hannah; Brunkhorst, Frank M.; Gastmeier, Petra; Mikolajczyk, Rafael T.

    2014-01-01

    Early and appropriate blood culture sampling is recommended as a standard of care for patients with suspected bloodstream infections (BSI) but is rarely taken into account when quality indicators for BSI are evaluated. To date, sampling of about 100 to 200 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days is recommended as the target range for blood culture rates. However, the empirical basis of this recommendation is not clear. The aim of the current study was to analyze the association between blood culture rates and observed BSI rates and to derive a reference threshold for blood culture rates in intensive care units (ICUs). This study is based on data from 223 ICUs taking part in the German hospital infection surveillance system. We applied locally weighted regression and segmented Poisson regression to assess the association between blood culture rates and BSI rates. Below 80 to 90 blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days, observed BSI rates increased with increasing blood culture rates, while there was no further increase above this threshold. Segmented Poisson regression located the threshold at 87 (95% confidence interval, 54 to 120) blood culture sets per 1,000 patient-days. Only one-third of the investigated ICUs displayed blood culture rates above this threshold. We provided empirical justification for a blood culture target threshold in ICUs. In the majority of the studied ICUs, blood culture sampling rates were below this threshold. This suggests that a substantial fraction of BSI cases might remain undetected; reporting observed BSI rates as a quality indicator without sufficiently high blood culture rates might be misleading. PMID:25520442

  8. Evaluation of dried blood spot samples for hepatitis C virus detection and quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques, Brunna Lemos Crespo; do Espírito-Santo, Márcia Paschoal; Marques, Vanessa Alves; Miguel, Juliana Custódio; da Silva, Elisangela Ferreira; Villela-Nogueira, Cristiane Alves; Lewis-Ximenez, Lia Laura; Lampe, Elisabeth; Villar, Livia Melo

    2016-09-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) could be an excellent alternative for HCV diagnosis, since it is less invasive and can be stored and transported without refrigeration. The aim of this study was to optimize quantitative and qualitative methods for HCV detection in DBS. DBS and serum samples were collected from 99 subjects (59 anti-HCV/HCV RNA positive and 40 seronegative samples). Seven extraction methods and different PCR parameters were evaluated in DBS samples in the quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) developed to amplify the 5' noncoding region of HCV. A qualitative PCR for amplification of NS5B region of HCV was also valued and the nested-PCR sequenced. The qRT-PCR showed good correlation to commercial assay for HCV viral measurement in serum. To quantify HCV RNA in DBS, it was necessary to increase reverse transcriptase and cDNA concentration. HCV RNA quantification in DBS demonstrated sensitivity of 65.9%, 100% of specificity and kappa statistic of 0.65. The median viral load of DBS samples was 5.38 log10 copies/ml (minimum value=1.76 and maximum value=10.48 log10 copies/ml). HCV RNA was detected in NS5B regions and nucleotide sequences obtained in 43 serum and 11 DBS samples. The presence of the same subtype was observed in paired serum and DBS samples. In this study, it was possible to demonstrate that, despite the low sensitivity, the optimized protocol was able to determine the viral load, as well as, the infecting HCV genotype, validating the usefulness of DBS for viral load determination and molecular epidemiology studies of HCV. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Appropriate Handling, Processing and Analysis of Blood Samples Is Essential to Avoid Oxidation of Vitamin C to Dehydroascorbic Acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pullar, Juliet M; Bayer, Simone; Carr, Anitra C

    2018-02-11

    Vitamin C (ascorbate) is the major water-soluble antioxidant in plasma and its oxidation to dehydroascorbic acid (DHA) has been proposed as a marker of oxidative stress in vivo. However, controversy exists in the literature around the amount of DHA detected in blood samples collected from various patient cohorts. In this study, we report on DHA concentrations in a selection of different clinical cohorts (diabetes, pneumonia, cancer, and critically ill). All clinical samples were collected into EDTA anticoagulant tubes and processed at 4 °C prior to storage at -80 °C for subsequent analysis by HPLC with electrochemical detection. We also investigated the effects of different handling and processing conditions on short-term and long-term ascorbate and DHA stability in vitro and in whole blood and plasma samples. These conditions included metal chelation, anticoagulants (EDTA and heparin), and processing temperatures (ice, 4 °C and room temperature). Analysis of our clinical cohorts indicated very low to negligible DHA concentrations. Samples exhibiting haemolysis contained significantly higher concentrations of DHA. Metal chelation inhibited oxidation of vitamin C in vitro, confirming the involvement of contaminating metal ions. Although EDTA is an effective metal chelator, complexes with transition metal ions are still redox active, thus its use as an anticoagulant can facilitate metal ion-dependent oxidation of vitamin C in whole blood and plasma. Handling and processing blood samples on ice (or at 4 °C) delayed oxidation of vitamin C by a number of hours. A review of the literature regarding DHA concentrations in clinical cohorts highlighted the fact that studies using colourimetric or fluorometric assays reported significantly higher concentrations of DHA compared to those using HPLC with electrochemical detection. In conclusion, careful handling and processing of samples, combined with appropriate analysis, is crucial for accurate determination of ascorbate

  10. Maternal obesity alters immune cell frequencies and responses in umbilical cord blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Randall M; Marshall, Nicole E; Jeske, Daniel R; Purnell, Jonathan Q; Thornburg, Kent; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2015-06-01

    Maternal obesity is one of the several key factors thought to modulate neonatal immune system development. Data from murine studies demonstrate worse outcomes in models of infection, autoimmunity, and allergic sensitization in offspring of obese dams. In humans, children born to obese mothers are at increased risk for asthma. These findings suggest a dysregulation of immune function in the children of obese mothers; however, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between maternal body weight and the human neonatal immune system. Umbilical cord blood samples were collected from infants born to lean, overweight, and obese mothers. Frequency and function of major innate and adaptive immune cell populations were quantified using flow cytometry and multiplex analysis of circulating factors. Compared to babies born to lean mothers, babies of obese mothers had fewer eosinophils and CD4 T helper cells, reduced monocyte and dendritic cell responses to Toll-like receptor ligands, and increased plasma levels of IFN-α2 and IL-6 in cord blood. These results support the hypothesis that maternal obesity influences programming of the neonatal immune system, providing a potential link to increased incidence of chronic inflammatory diseases such as asthma and cardiovascular disease in the offspring. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Protocol for collecting eDNA samples from streams [Version 2.3

    Science.gov (United States)

    K. J. Carim; T. Wilcox; M. K. Young; K. S. McKelvey; M. K. Schwartz

    2015-01-01

    Throughout the 2014 field season, we had over two dozen biologist throughout the western US collect over 300 samples for eDNA analysis with paired controls. Control samples were collected by filtering 0.5 L of distilled water. No samples had any evidence of field contamination. This method of sampling verifies the cleanliness of the field equipment, as well as the...

  12. PERT: A Method for Expression Deconvolution of Human Blood Samples from Varied Microenvironmental and Developmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Csaszar, Elizabeth; Yu, Mei; Morris, Quaid; Zandstra, Peter W.

    2012-01-01

    The cellular composition of heterogeneous samples can be predicted using an expression deconvolution algorithm to decompose their gene expression profiles based on pre-defined, reference gene expression profiles of the constituent populations in these samples. However, the expression profiles of the actual constituent populations are often perturbed from those of the reference profiles due to gene expression changes in cells associated with microenvironmental or developmental effects. Existing deconvolution algorithms do not account for these changes and give incorrect results when benchmarked against those measured by well-established flow cytometry, even after batch correction was applied. We introduce PERT, a new probabilistic expression deconvolution method that detects and accounts for a shared, multiplicative perturbation in the reference profiles when performing expression deconvolution. We applied PERT and three other state-of-the-art expression deconvolution methods to predict cell frequencies within heterogeneous human blood samples that were collected under several conditions (uncultured mono-nucleated and lineage-depleted cells, and culture-derived lineage-depleted cells). Only PERT's predicted proportions of the constituent populations matched those assigned by flow cytometry. Genes associated with cell cycle processes were highly enriched among those with the largest predicted expression changes between the cultured and uncultured conditions. We anticipate that PERT will be widely applicable to expression deconvolution strategies that use profiles from reference populations that vary from the corresponding constituent populations in cellular state but not cellular phenotypic identity. PMID:23284283

  13. The applying of multisensory system to assessment of blood samples by composition of equilibrium gaseous phase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kuchmenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article discussed the possibility of blood sample’s assessment with the following diagnostic characteristics: "endometriosis", "fibroids", "uterine body cancer" by the signals of multisensor system. It has been found that blood samples can be reliably ranking into groups according to their diagnostic characteristics using the geometry, square of "visual prints" and the sorption effectiveness parameters max ij А.

  14. Clinical evaluation of Statstrip(R) Lactate for use in fetal scalp blood sampling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinis, A.M.F.; Dillen, J. van; Oosting, J.D.; Rhose, S.; Vandenbussche, F.P.; Drongelen, J. van

    2017-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Point-of-care testing of fetal scalp blood lactate is used as an alternative to pH analysis in fetal scalp blood sampling (FBS) during labor. Lactate measurements are not standardized and values vary with each device used. The aim of this study was to evaluate StatStrip(R) Lactate

  15. Hemoglobin in samples with leukocytosis can be measured on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scharnhorst, V.; Laar, van der P.D.; Vader, H.

    2003-01-01

    To compare lactate, bilirubin and Hemoglobin F concentrations obtained on ABL 700 series blood gas analyzers with those from laboratory methods. Pooled neonatal plasma, cord blood and adult plasma samples were used for comparison of bilirubin, hemoglobin F and lactate concentrations respectively.

  16. Reproducibility of Serum Potassium Values in Serum From Blood Samples Stored for Increasing Times Prior to Centrifugation and Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Aaron; Lu, Chuanyong; Sun, Yi; Garcia, Rafael; Rets, Anton; Alexis, Herol; Saad, Heba; Eid, Ikram; Harris, Loretta; Marshall, Barbara; Tafani, Edlira; Pincus, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this work was to determine if immediate versus postponed centrifugation of samples affects the levels of serum potassium. Twenty participants donated normal venous blood that was collected in four serum separator tubes per donor, each of which was analyzed at 0, 1, 2, or 4 hr on the Siemens Advia 1800 autoanalyzer. Coefficients of variation (CVs) for potassium levels ranged from 0% to 7.6% with a mean of 3 ± 2%. ANOVA testing of the means for all 20 samples showed a P-value of 0.72 (>0.05) indicating that there was no statistically significant difference between the means of the samples at the four time points. Sixteen samples were found to have CVs that were ≤5%. Two samples showed increases of potassium from the reference range to levels higher than the upper reference limit, one of which had a 4-hr value that was within the reference or normal range (3.5-5 mEq/l). Overall, most samples were found to have reproducible levels of serum potassium. Serum potassium levels from stored whole blood collected in serum separator tubes are, for the most part, stable at room temperature for at least 4 hr prior to analysis. However, some samples can exhibit significant fluctuations of values. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The Effect of Pneumatic Tube Systems on the Hemolysis of Biochemistry Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakirca, Gokhan; Erdal, Huseyin

    2017-05-01

    Pneumatic tube systems (PTSs) are widely used in many hospitals because they lead to reduced turnaround times and cost efficiency. However, PTSs may affect the quality of the blood samples transported to the laboratory. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of the PTS used in our hospital on the hemolysis of the biochemical blood samples transported to the laboratory. A total of 148 samples were manually transported to the laboratory by hospital staff, 148 samples were transported with the PTS, and 113 were transported with the PTS without use of sponge-rubber inserts (PTSws). Hemolysis rates and the levels of biochemical analytes for the different transportation methods were compared. No significant difference was found between the samples transported manually and with the PTS with regard to hemolysis rate and the levels of biochemical analytes. However, the samples transported with the PTSws showed a significant difference compared with the samples transported manually and with the PTS with regard to hemolysis rate and potassium and lactate dehydrogenase levels. The percentages of the samples that exceeded the permissible threshold for the hemolysis among the samples transported manually, with the PTS, and with the PTSws were 10%, 8%, and 47%, respectively. A PTS can be used safely for transporting biochemistry blood samples to the laboratory. However, a sponge-rubber insert that holds sample tubes must be used with the PTS to prevent the hemolysis of blood samples. Copyright © 2016 Emergency Nurses Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Detection of African swine fever virus DNA in blood samples stored on FTA cards from asymptomatic pigs in Mbeya region, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braae, U C; Johansen, M V; Ngowi, H A; Rasmussen, T B; Nielsen, J; Uttenthal, Å

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA(®) cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level of viral DNA (Ct 36-45). Four pigs were positive in one of the duplicate samples only, but clear products of the expected size were obtained when the reactions were analysed by gel electrophoresis. For comparison, blood samples from pigs experimentally infected with either a pathogenic (OURT T88/1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA(®) cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels of viral DNA (Ct 39) in samples collected at 10-14 days after inoculation. © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Automated Blood Sample Preparation Unit (ABSPU) for Portable Microfluidic Flow Cytometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Akhil; Gorthi, Sai Siva

    2017-02-01

    Portable microfluidic diagnostic devices, including flow cytometers, are being developed for point-of-care settings, especially in conjunction with inexpensive imaging devices such as mobile phone cameras. However, two pervasive drawbacks of these have been the lack of automated sample preparation processes and cells settling out of sample suspensions, leading to inaccurate results. We report an automated blood sample preparation unit (ABSPU) to prevent blood samples from settling in a reservoir during loading of samples in flow cytometers. This apparatus automates the preanalytical steps of dilution and staining of blood cells prior to microfluidic loading. It employs an assembly with a miniature vibration motor to drive turbulence in a sample reservoir. To validate performance of this system, we present experimental evidence demonstrating prevention of blood cell settling, cell integrity, and staining of cells prior to flow cytometric analysis. This setup is further integrated with a microfluidic imaging flow cytometer to investigate cell count variability. With no need for prior sample preparation, a drop of whole blood can be directly introduced to the setup without premixing with buffers manually. Our results show that integration of this assembly with microfluidic analysis provides a competent automation tool for low-cost point-of-care blood-based diagnostics.

  20. Acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling for HPV DNA testing among women in rural El Salvador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenbaum, Alan J; Gage, Julia C; Alfaro, Karla M; Ditzian, Lauren R; Maza, Mauricio; Scarinci, Isabel C; Felix, Juan C; Castle, Philip E; Villalta, Sofia; Miranda, Esmeralda; Cremer, Miriam L

    2014-08-01

    To determine the acceptability of self-collected versus provider-collected sampling among women participating in public sector HPV-based cervical cancer screening in El Salvador. Two thousand women aged 30-49 years underwent self-collected and provider-collected sampling with careHPV between October 2012 and March 2013 (Qiagen, Gaithersburg, MD, USA). After sample collection, a random sample of women (n=518) were asked about their experience. Participants were questioned regarding sampling method preference, previous cervical cancer screening, HPV and cervical cancer knowledge, HPV risk factors, and demographic information. All 518 women approached to participate in this questionnaire study agreed and were enrolled, 27.8% (142 of 511 responding) of whom had not received cervical cancer screening within the past 3 years and were considered under-screened. Overall, 38.8% (n=201) preferred self-collection and 31.9% (n=165) preferred provider collection. Self-collection preference was associated with prior tubal ligation, HPV knowledge, future self-sampling preference, and future home-screening preference (P<0.05). Reasons for self-collection preference included privacy/embarrassment, ease, and less pain; reasons cited for provider-collection preference were result accuracy and provider knowledge/experience. Self-sampling was found to be acceptable, therefore screening programs could consider offering this option either in the clinic or at home. Self-sampling at home may increase coverage in low-resource countries and reduce the burden that screening places upon clinical infrastructure. Copyright © 2014 International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics. All rights reserved.

  1. Continuous quality control of the blood sampling procedure using a structured observation scheme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seemann, Tine Lindberg; Nybo, Mads

    2016-10-15

    An observational study was conducted using a structured observation scheme to assess compliance with the local phlebotomy guideline, to identify necessary focus items, and to investigate whether adherence to the phlebotomy guideline improved. The questionnaire from the EFLM Working Group for the Preanalytical Phase was adapted to local procedures. A pilot study of three months duration was conducted. Based on this, corrective actions were implemented and a follow-up study was conducted. All phlebotomists at the Department of Clinical Biochemistry and Pharmacology were observed. Three blood collections by each phlebotomist were observed at each session conducted at the phlebotomy ward and the hospital wards, respectively. Error frequencies were calculated for the phlebotomy ward and the hospital wards and for the two study phases. A total of 126 blood drawings by 39 phlebotomists were observed in the pilot study, while 84 blood drawings by 34 phlebotomists were observed in the follow-up study. In the pilot study, the three major error items were hand hygiene (42% error), mixing of samples (22%), and order of draw (21%). Minor significant differences were found between the two settings. After focus on the major aspects, the follow-up study showed significant improvement for all three items at both settings (P < 0.01, P < 0.01, and P = 0.01, respectively). Continuous quality control of the phlebotomy procedure revealed a number of items not conducted in compliance with the local phlebotomy guideline. It supported significant improvements in the adherence to the recommended phlebotomy procedures and facilitated documentation of the phlebotomy quality.

  2. Automated dried blood spots standard and QC sample preparation using a robotic liquid handler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Long; Zhang, Duxi; Aubry, Anne-Francoise; Arnold, Mark E

    2012-12-01

    A dried blood spot (DBS) bioanalysis assay involves many steps, such as the preparation of standard (STD) and QC samples in blood, the spotting onto DBS cards, and the cutting-out of the spots. These steps are labor intensive and time consuming if done manually, which, therefore, makes automation very desirable in DBS bioanalysis. A robotic liquid handler was successfully applied to the preparation of STD and QC samples in blood and to spot the blood samples onto DBS cards using buspirone as the model compound. This automated preparation was demonstrated to be accurate and consistent. However the accuracy and precision of automated preparation were similar to those from manual preparation. The effect of spotting volume on accuracy was evaluated and a trend of increasing concentrations of buspirone with increasing spotting volumes was observed. The automated STD and QC sample preparation process significantly improved the efficiency, robustness and safety of DBS bioanalysis.

  3. Standardised Resting Time Prior to Blood Sampling and Diurnal Variation Associated with Risk of Patient Misclassification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøgh Andersen, Ida; Brasen, Claus L.; Christensen, Henry

    2015-01-01

    .9×10-7) and sodium (p = 8.7×10-16). Only TSH and albumin were clinically significantly influenced by diurnal variation. Resting time had no clinically significant effect. CONCLUSIONS: We found no need for resting 15 minutes prior to blood sampling. However, diurnal variation was found to have a significant......BACKGROUND: According to current recommendations, blood samples should be taken in the morning after 15 minutes' resting time. Some components exhibit diurnal variation and in response to pressures to expand opening hours and reduce waiting time, the aims of this study were to investigate...... the impact of resting time prior to blood sampling and diurnal variation on biochemical components, including albumin, thyrotropin (TSH), total calcium and sodium in plasma. METHODS: All patients referred to an outpatient clinic for blood sampling were included in the period Nov 2011 until June 2014 (opening...

  4. Equipment for collecting samples of radioactive solutions; Installation de prelevements d'echantillons de solutions radioactives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raggenbass, A.; Fradin, J.; Joubert, G.

    1958-12-03

    The authors present an equipment aimed at collecting samples of fission products to perform radio-chemical analysis. As the sample must have a total activity between 1 and 50 micro-Curie, this installation comprises a sampling system and a dilution device which aims at bringing the sample to the suitable activity. Samples are collected by means of needles. The sample reproducibility is discussed. The dilution device is described.

  5. Milk samples collected with filter paper for progesterone radioimmunoassay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiahua, Zhang; Guoxia, Geng; Huaiyu, Zhang

    1985-09-01

    The cow milk was collected with filter paper treated with ethanol during eastrus-day (0 day) and 22th and 24th day after mating. Then it was dried and stored in room temprature until analysis for progesterone by means of radioimmunoassay. The sensitivity is 13.62 pg/bule (n = 4), the coefficients of variation within a group and between groups are 8.8% (n = 10) and 16.65% (n = 8) respectively, and the recovery is 91.23% (n = 4). The average progesterone level for 22th and 24th day in the pregnant cows (6.28 +- 1.28 ng/ml) was much higher than that in the non-pregnant cow (2.00 +- 1.18 ng/ml), the difference being significant (P < 0.001). The judgement based on progesterone level (5 pregnant and 5 non-pregnant cows) faily agreed with the clinical diagnosis.

  6. 40 CFR 761.283 - Determination of the number of samples to collect and sample collection locations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) MANUFACTURING, PROCESSING, DISTRIBUTION IN COMMERCE, AND USE PROHIBITIONS Sampling To Verify Completion of Self... cleanup verification conducted in accordance with § 761.61(a)(6), follow the procedures in paragraph (b... verification conducted in accordance with § 761.61(a)(6), follow the procedures in this section for locating...

  7. The Autism Simplex Collection : an international, expertly phenotyped autism sample for genetic and phenotypic analyses

    OpenAIRE

    Buxbaum, Joseph D.; Bolshakova, Nadia; Brownfeld, Jessica M.; Anney, Richard J. L.; Bender, Patrick; Bernier, Raphael; Cook, Edwin H.; Coon, Hilary; Cuccaro, Michael L.; Freitag, Christine M.; Hallmayer, Joachim; Geschwind, Daniel H.; Klauck, Sabine M.; Nurnberger, John I.; Oliveira, Guiomar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is an urgent need for expanding and enhancing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) samples, in order to better understand causes of ASD. Methods: In a unique public-private partnership, 13 sites with extensive experience in both the assessment and diagnosis of ASD embarked on an ambitious, 2-year program to collect samples for genetic and phenotypic research and begin analyses on these samples. The program was called The Autism Simplex Collection (TASC). TASC sample collection ...

  8. High-throughput miRNA profiling of human melanoma blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rass Knuth

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background MicroRNA (miRNA signatures are not only found in cancer tissue but also in blood of cancer patients. Specifically, miRNA detection in blood offers the prospect of a non-invasive analysis tool. Methods Using a microarray based approach we screened almost 900 human miRNAs to detect miRNAs that are deregulated in their expression in blood cells of melanoma patients. We analyzed 55 blood samples, including 20 samples of healthy individuals, 24 samples of melanoma patients as test set, and 11 samples of melanoma patients as independent validation set. Results A hypothesis test based approch detected 51 differentially regulated miRNAs, including 21 miRNAs that were downregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients and 30 miRNAs that were upregulated in blood cells of melanoma patients as compared to blood cells of healthy controls. The tets set and the independent validation set of the melanoma samples showed a high correlation of fold changes (0.81. Applying hierarchical clustering and principal component analysis we found that blood samples of melanoma patients and healthy individuals can be well differentiated from each other based on miRNA expression analysis. Using a subset of 16 significant deregulated miRNAs, we were able to reach a classification accuracy of 97.4%, a specificity of 95% and a sensitivity of 98.9% by supervised analysis. MiRNA microarray data were validated by qRT-PCR. Conclusions Our study provides strong evidence for miRNA expression signatures of blood cells as useful biomarkers for melanoma.

  9. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Craig; Jones, Rachael; McClure, Myra; Taylor, Graham

    2015-02-01

    Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum), is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene) and RNA (16S rRNA) quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53). The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84). From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56) after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  10. Using CF11 cellulose columns to inexpensively and effectively remove human DNA from Plasmodium falciparum-infected whole blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatesan Meera

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genome and transcriptome studies of Plasmodium nucleic acids obtained from parasitized whole blood are greatly improved by depletion of human DNA or enrichment of parasite DNA prior to next-generation sequencing and microarray hybridization. The most effective method currently used is a two-step procedure to deplete leukocytes: centrifugation using density gradient media followed by filtration through expensive, commercially available columns. This method is not easily implemented in field studies that collect hundreds of samples and simultaneously process samples for multiple laboratory analyses. Inexpensive syringes, hand-packed with CF11 cellulose powder, were recently shown to improve ex vivo cultivation of Plasmodium vivax obtained from parasitized whole blood. This study was undertaken to determine whether CF11 columns could be adapted to isolate Plasmodium falciparum DNA from parasitized whole blood and achieve current quantity and purity requirements for Illumina sequencing. Methods The CF11 procedure was compared with the current two-step standard of leukocyte depletion using parasitized red blood cells cultured in vitro and parasitized blood obtained ex vivo from Cambodian patients with malaria. Procedural variations in centrifugation and column size were tested, along with a range of blood volumes and parasite densities. Results CF11 filtration reliably produces 500 nanograms of DNA with less than 50% human DNA contamination, which is comparable to that obtained by the two-step method and falls within the current quality control requirements for Illumina sequencing. In addition, a centrifuge-free version of the CF11 filtration method to isolate P. falciparum DNA at remote and minimally equipped field sites in malaria-endemic areas was validated. Conclusions CF11 filtration is a cost-effective, scalable, one-step approach to remove human DNA from P. falciparum-infected whole blood samples.

  11. Dried blood spots on carboxymethyl cellulose sheets: Rapid sample preparation based on dissolution and precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skoglund Ask, Kristine; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2016-01-01

    This short communication describes the use of carboxymethyl cellulose sheets as sampling material for dried blood spots. Whole blood, spiked with quetiapine, a hydrophobic and basic small molecule drug substance, was spotted on the sheet and subsequently dried. The dried spot was then almost...... completely dissolved in acidified aqueous solution. It was shown that the dissolved polymer, together with major blood components can easily be precipitated and removed with acetonitrile. The presented sampling on a water-soluble biopolymer derivative followed by precipitation resulted in a simple protocol...

  12. Improved removal of blood contamination from ThinPrep cervical cytology samples for Raman spectroscopic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traynor, Damien; Duraipandian, Shiyamala; Martin, Cara M; O'Leary, John J; Lyng, Fiona M

    2018-05-01

    There is an unmet need for methods to help in the early detection of cervical precancer. Optical spectroscopy-based techniques, such as Raman spectroscopy, have shown great potential for diagnosis of different cancers, including cervical cancer. However, relatively few studies have been carried out on liquid-based cytology (LBC) pap test specimens and confounding factors, such as blood contamination, have been identified. Previous work reported a method to remove blood contamination before Raman spectroscopy by pretreatment of the slides with hydrogen peroxide. The aim of the present study was to extend this work to excessively bloody samples to see if these could be rendered suitable for Raman spectroscopy. LBC ThinPrep specimens were treated by adding hydrogen peroxide directly to the vial before slide preparation. Good quality Raman spectra were recorded from negative and high grade (HG) cytology samples with no blood contamination and with heavy blood contamination. Good classification between negative and HG cytology could be achieved for samples with no blood contamination (sensitivity 92%, specificity 93%) and heavy blood contamination (sensitivity 89%, specificity 88%) with poorer classification when samples were combined (sensitivity 82%, specificity 87%). This study demonstrates for the first time the improved potential of Raman spectroscopy for analysis of ThinPrep specimens regardless of blood contamination. (2018) COPYRIGHT Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers (SPIE).

  13. Elimination of heparin interference during microarray processing of fresh and biobank-archived blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; van Herwijnen, Marcel H M; Brauers, Karen J J; de Kok, Theo M C M; Chalkiadaki, Georgia; Kyrtopoulos, Soterios A; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2014-07-01

    In the context of environmental health research, biobank blood samples have recently been identified as suitable for high-throughput omics analyses enabling the identification of new biomarkers of exposure and disease. However, blood samples containing the anti-coagulant heparin could complicate transcriptomic analysis because heparin may inhibit RNA polymerase causing inefficient cRNA synthesis and fluorophore labelling. We investigated the inhibitory effect of heparin and the influence of storage conditions (0 or 3 hr bench times, storage at room temperature or -80°C) on fluorophore labelling in heparinized fresh human buffy coat and whole blood biobank samples during the mRNA work-up protocol for microarray analysis. Subsequently, we removed heparin by lithium chloride (LiCl) treatment and performed a quality control analysis of LiCl-treated biobank sample microarrays to prove their suitability for downstream data analysis. Both fresh and biobank samples experienced varying degrees of heparin-induced inhibition of fluorophore labelling, making most samples unusable for microarray analysis. RNA derived from EDTA and citrate blood was not inhibited. No effect of bench time was observed but room temperature storage gave slightly better results. Strong correlations were observed between original blood sample RNA yield and the amount of synthesized cRNA. LiCl treatment restored sample quality to normal standards in both fresh and biobank samples and the previously identified correlations disappeared. Microarrays hybridized with LiCl-treated biobank samples were of excellent quality with no identifiable influence of heparin. We conclude that, to obtain high quality results, in most cases heparin removal is essential in blood-derived RNA samples intended for microarray analysis. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Fast egg collection method greatly improves randomness of egg sampling in Drosophila melanogaster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Mads Fristrup

    2013-01-01

    When obtaining samples for population genetic studies, it is essential that the sampling is random. For Drosophila, one of the crucial steps in sampling experimental flies is the collection of eggs. Here an egg collection method is presented, which randomizes the eggs in a water column...... and diminishes environmental variance. This method was compared with a traditional egg collection method where eggs are collected directly from the medium. Within each method the observed and expected standard deviations of egg-to-adult viability were compared, whereby the difference in the randomness...... and to obtain a representative collection of genotypes, the method presented here is strongly recommended when collecting eggs from Drosophila....

  15. Blood meal identification and feeding habits of uranotaenia species collected in the ryukyu archipelago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Takako; Miyagi, Ichiro; Tamashiro, Mikako

    2014-09-01

    To know the blood meal in the stomach of Uranotaenia species, blood-fed mosquitoes were collected by 4 methods at different sites in the mountain forest of 3 islands, Amamioshima, Okinawajima, and Iriomotejima in the Ryukyu Archipelago, Japan from 2005 to 2012. One hundred twenty-four blood-fed Uranotaenia mosquitoes of 7 species (Ur. jacksoni, nivipleura, ohamai, yaeyamana, annandalei, lateralis, and macfarlanei) were collected. The collection rates are 0.26, 0.6, 0.31, and 0.66 by black light trap, black light blue with dry ice trap, frog call trap, and sweeping net, respectively. The blood meals of 107 females (86.3%) were successfully identified by a polymerase chain reaction-based method. All Uranotaenia species fed on cold-blooded animals, especially amphibians (99.1%), and notably on frogs. They would feed readily on available frogs in a given region having no close connection with the breeding (calling) season of each frog. They also fed on reptiles (0.9%), but not on warm-blooded animals.

  16. The prevalence of toxoplasmosis in Imam Reza Hospital blood bank samples, Tehran, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaddel, M; Mirzaii Dizgah, I; Sharif, F

    2014-10-01

    The prevalence of toxoplasma gondii (T.g) infection in blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products. A total of 223 blood products (101 fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and 122 packed cells (PC)) in Imam Reza hospital blood bank, Tehran, Iran were tested for specific T.g antibodies (IgG and IgM) by ELISA method. Positive IgG anti-T.g samples were further tested for IgM anti-T.g. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis respectively. Of 223 samples 38.6% and 0.45% were positive for IgG anti-T.g and IgM anti-T.g levels respectively. Therefore, one and 85 samples were involved acute and chronic toxoplasmosis respectively. Twenty-six of fresh frozen plasma samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g and one of them was positive for IgM anti-T.g. Sixty packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T.g. Our study showed that there were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T.g antibodies may be considered. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Simplifying sample pretreatment: application of dried blood spot (DBS) method to blood samples, including postmortem, for UHPLC-MS/MS analysis of drugs of abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odoardi, Sara; Anzillotti, Luca; Strano-Rossi, Sabina

    2014-10-01

    The complexity of biological matrices, such as blood, requires the development of suitably selective and reliable sample pretreatment procedures prior to their instrumental analysis. A method has been developed for the analysis of drugs of abuse and their metabolites from different chemical classes (opiates, methadone, fentanyl and analogues, cocaine, amphetamines and amphetamine-like substances, ketamine, LSD) in human blood using dried blood spot (DBS) and subsequent UHPLC-MS/MS analysis. DBS extraction required only 100μL of sample, added with the internal standards and then three droplets (30μL each) of this solution were spotted on the card, let dry for 1h, punched and extracted with methanol with 0.1% of formic acid. The supernatant was evaporated and the residue was then reconstituted in 100μL of water with 0.1% of formic acid and injected in the UHPLC-MS/MS system. The method was validated considering the following parameters: LOD and LOQ, linearity, precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity. LODs were 0.05-1ng/mL and LOQs were 0.2-2ng/mL. The method showed satisfactory linearity for all substances, with determination coefficients always higher than 0.99. Intra and inter day precision, accuracy, matrix effect and dilution integrity were acceptable for all the studied substances. The addition of internal standards before DBS extraction and the deposition of a fixed volume of blood on the filter cards ensured the accurate quantification of the analytes. The validated method was then applied to authentic postmortem blood samples. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A simple method for measurement of cerebral blood flow using 123I-IMP SPECT with calibrated standard input function by one point blood sampling. Validation of calibration by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for arterial blood sampling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Hiroshi; Akaizawa, Takashi; Goto, Ryoui

    1994-01-01

    In a simplified method for measurement of cerebral blood flow using one 123 I-IMP SPECT scan and one point arterial blood sampling (Autoradiography method), input function is obtained by calibrating a standard input function by one point arterial blood sampling. A purpose of this study is validation of calibration by one point venous blood sampling as a substitute for one point arterial blood sampling. After intravenous infusion of 123 I-IMP, frequent arterial and venous blood sampling were simultaneously performed on 12 patients of CNS disease without any heart and lung disease and 5 normal volunteers. The radioactivity ratio of venous whole blood which obtained from cutaneous cubital vein to arterial whole blood were 0.76±0.08, 0.80±0.05, 0.81±0.06, 0.83±0.11 at 10, 20, 30, 50 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The venous blood radioactivities were always 20% lower than those of arterial blood radioactivity during 50 min. However, the ratio which obtained from cutaneous dorsal hand vein to artery were 0.93±0.02, 0.94±0.05, 0.98±0.04, 0.98±0.03, at 10, 20, 30, 50 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, respectively. The venous blood radioactivity was consistent with artery. These indicate that arterio-venous difference of radioactivity in a peripheral cutaneous vein like a dorsal hand vein is minimal due to arteriovenous shunt in palm. Therefore, a substitution by blood sampling from cutaneous dorsal hand vein for artery will be possible. Optimized time for venous blood sampling evaluated by error analysis was 20 min after 123 I-IMP infusion, which is 10 min later than that of arterial blood sampling. (author)

  19. Determination of degree of RBC agglutination for blood typing using a small quantity of blood sample in a microfluidic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yaw-Jen; Ho, Ching-Yuan; Zhou, Xin-Miao; Yen, Hsiu-Rong

    2018-04-15

    Blood typing assay is a critical test to ensure the serological compatibility of a donor and an intended recipient prior to a blood transfusion. This paper presents a microfluidic blood typing system using a small quantity of blood sample to determine the degree of agglutination of red blood cell (RBC). Two measuring methods were proposed: impedimetric measurement and electroanalytical measurement. The charge transfer resistance in the impedimetric measurement and the power parameter in the electroanalytical measurement were used for the analysis of agglutination level. From the experimental results, both measuring methods provide quantitative results, and the parameters are linearly and monotonically related to the degree of RBC agglutination. However, the electroanalytical measurement is more reliable than the impedimetric technique because the impedimetric measurement may suffer from many influencing factors, such as chip conditions. Five levels from non-agglutination (level 0) to strong agglutination (level 4+) can be discriminated in this study, conforming to the clinical requirement to prevent any risks in transfusion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana; Bech, Bodil Hammer; Fuglsang, Jens; Olsen, Jørn; Nohr, Ellen Aagaard

    2015-01-01

    In studies of perfluoroalkyl acids, the validity and comparability of measured concentrations may be affected by differences in the handling of biospecimens. We aimed to investigate whether measured plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl acids differed between blood samples subjected to delay and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. For samples taken in the winter, relative differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate there was no difference between the two setups [corresponding estimate 1% (0, 3)]. Differences were negligible in the summer for all compounds. Transport of blood samples and processing delay, similar to conditions applied in some large, population-based studies, may affect measured perfluoroalkyl acid concentrations, mainly when outdoor temperatures are low. Attention to processing conditions is needed in studies of perfluoroalkyl acid exposure in humans.

  1. Maternal red blood cell alloantibodies identified in blood samples obtained from Iranian pregnant women: the first population study in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahverdi, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Mostafa; Gorzin, Fateme

    2017-01-01

    The objective was to determine the frequency of occurrence of alloantibodies among pregnant women in Iran. This was a prospective cross-sectional study, which was carried out in the immunohematology reference laboratory of the Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization in Tehran, Iran, in 2008 to 2015. Screening and identification of red blood cell (RBC) alloantibodies was done on the sera of 7340 pregnant females using the standard tube method and gel column agglutination technique. Alloantibodies were identified in the serum of 332 of the 7340 (4.5%) pregnant women. A total of 410 antibodies were detected in 332 positive maternal serum samples with no previous history of blood transfusion. Anti-D was the most common antibody accounting for 70.5% of all the antibodies formed in D- women. The incidence of specific alloimmunization other than Rh group was 14.4%. We concluded that the alloimmunization rate was high in comparison with wide pattern in previous studies. In Iran, like other developing countries, alloimmunization screening tests are performed only to detect anti-D in pregnant D- women. This high rate of alloimmunization, quite possibly, is due to the fact that the majority of blood samples came from pregnant women known to have previous obstetric problems. However, we suggest that RBC antibody screening tests should be extended to all D+ women. © 2016 AABB.

  2. Self-Collected versus Clinician-Collected Sampling for Chlamydia and Gonorrhea Screening: A Systemic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunny, Carole; Taylor, Darlene; Hoang, Linda; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Ogilvie, Gina

    2015-01-01

    Background The increases in STI rates since the late 1990s in Canada have occurred despite widespread primary care and targeted public health programs and in the setting of universal health care. More innovative interventions are required that would eliminate barriers to STI testing such as internet-based or mail-in home and community service testing for patients that are hard to reach, who refuse to go for clinician-based testing, or who decline an examination. Jurisdictions such as New Zealand and some American states currently use self-collected sampling, but without the required evidence to determine whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens in terms of chlamydia and gonorrhea diagnostic accuracy. The objective of the review is to compare self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal samples to our reference standard - clinician-collected cervical, urethral, pharyngeal and rectal sampling techniques to identify a positive specimen using nucleic acid amplification test assays. Methods The hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic and the fixed effect models were used to assess the accuracy of comparable specimens that were collected by patients compared to clinicians. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were reported as our main outcome measures. Findings We included 21 studies based on over 6100 paired samples. Fourteen included studies examined chlamydia only, 6 compared both gonorrhea and chlamydia separately in the same study, and one examined gonorrhea. The six chlamydia studies comparing self-collection by vaginal swab to a clinician-collected cervical swab had the highest sensitivity (92%, 95% CI 87-95) and specificity (98%, 95% CI 97-99), compared to other specimen-types (urine/urethra or urine/cervix). Six studies compared urine self-samples to urethra clinician-collected samples in males and produced a sensitivity of 88% (95% CI 83-93) and a specificity of

  3. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podestà, Marina; Bruschettini, Matteo; Cossu, Claudia; Sabatini, Federica; Dagnino, Monica; Romantsik, Olga; Spaggiari, Grazia Maria; Ramenghi, Luca Antonio; Frassoni, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups. Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8) vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23) p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA) compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8) and 0.36% (0.15-3.2) respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term) and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP) did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL) resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004) and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017). The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168). We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs) from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144)The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  4. Preterm Cord Blood Contains a Higher Proportion of Immature Hematopoietic Progenitors Compared to Term Samples.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Podestà

    Full Text Available Cord blood contains high number of hematopoietic cells that after birth disappear. In this paper we have studied the functional properties of the umbilical cord blood progenitor cells collected from term and preterm neonates to establish whether quantitative and/or qualitative differences exist between the two groups.Our results indicate that the percentage of total CD34+ cells was significantly higher in preterm infants compared to full term: 0.61% (range 0.15-4.8 vs 0.3% (0.032-2.23 p = 0.0001 and in neonates <32 weeks of gestational age (GA compared to those ≥32 wks GA: 0.95% (range 0.18-4.8 and 0.36% (0.15-3.2 respectively p = 0.0025. The majority of CD34+ cells co-expressed CD71 antigen (p<0.05 preterm vs term and grew in vitro large BFU-E, mostly in the second generation. The subpopulations CD34+CD38- and CD34+CD45- resulted more represented in preterm samples compared to term, conversely, Side Population (SP did not show any difference between the two group. The absolute number of preterm colonies (CFCs/10microL resulted higher compared to term (p = 0.004 and these progenitors were able to grow until the third generation maintaining an higher proportion of CD34+ cells (p = 0.0017. The number of colony also inversely correlated with the gestational age (Pearson r = -0.3001 p<0.0168.We found no differences in the isolation and expansion capacity of Endothelial Colony Forming Cells (ECFCs from cord blood of term and preterm neonates: both groups grew in vitro large number of endothelial cells until the third generation and showed a transitional phenotype between mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitors (CD73, CD31, CD34 and CD144The presence, in the cord blood of preterm babies, of high number of immature hematopoietic progenitors and endothelial/mesenchymal stem cells with high proliferative potential makes this tissue an important source of cells for developing new cells therapies.

  5. Intraosseous blood samples for point-of-care analysis: agreement between intraosseous and arterial analyses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jousi, Milla; Saikko, Simo; Nurmi, Jouni

    2017-09-11

    Point-of-care (POC) testing is highly useful when treating critically ill patients. In case of difficult vascular access, the intraosseous (IO) route is commonly used, and blood is aspirated to confirm the correct position of the IO-needle. Thus, IO blood samples could be easily accessed for POC analyses in emergency situations. The aim of this study was to determine whether IO values agree sufficiently with arterial values to be used for clinical decision making. Two samples of IO blood were drawn from 31 healthy volunteers and compared with arterial samples. The samples were analysed for sodium, potassium, ionized calcium, glucose, haemoglobin, haematocrit, pH, blood gases, base excess, bicarbonate, and lactate using the i-STAT® POC device. Agreement and reliability were estimated by using the Bland-Altman method and intraclass correlation coefficient calculations. Good agreement was evident between the IO and arterial samples for pH, glucose, and lactate. Potassium levels were clearly higher in the IO samples than those from arterial blood. Base excess and bicarbonate were slightly higher, and sodium and ionised calcium values were slightly lower, in the IO samples compared with the arterial values. The blood gases in the IO samples were between arterial and venous values. Haemoglobin and haematocrit showed remarkable variation in agreement. POC diagnostics of IO blood can be a useful tool to guide treatment in critical emergency care. Seeking out the reversible causes of cardiac arrest or assessing the severity of shock are examples of situations in which obtaining vascular access and blood samples can be difficult, though information about the electrolytes, acid-base balance, and lactate could guide clinical decision making. The analysis of IO samples should though be limited to situations in which no other option is available, and the results should be interpreted with caution, because there is not yet enough scientific evidence regarding the agreement of IO

  6. The impact of preapheresis white blood cell count on autologous peripheral blood stem cell collection efficiency and HSC infusion side effect rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakashita, Araci M; Kondo, Andrea T; Yokoyama, Ana Paula H; Lira, Sanny M C; Bub, Carolina B; Souza, Aline M; Cipolletta, Andrea N F; Alvarez, Kelen C; Hamerschlak, Nelson; Kutner, Jose M; Chiattone, Carlos S

    2018-01-19

    Autologous peripheral blood hematopoietic stem cell (PBSC) collection efficiency (CE) is reportedly affected by the patient's blood properties; however, studies to identify factors correlated with CE have shown inconsistent results. Additionally, variables such as stem cell graft granulocyte content and patient age, sex, and underlying disease, may be associated with hematopietic stem cell (HSC) infusion-related adverse reactions. In this study, we evaluated the correlation of preleukapheresis PB granulocyte count and PBSC harvest variables with CD34 + collection yield and efficiency, and thawed HSC infusion side effect occurrence. We evaluated data from 361 patients who had undergone autologous PBSC transplant. Large volume leukapheresis was the method for PBSC collection. Complete Blood Count and CD34 + cell enumeration were performed in the preapheresis PB and the apheresis product sample. The PBSC grafts were submitted to non-controlled rate freezing after addition of 5% DMSO plus 6% hidroxyethylstarch as a cryoprotectant solution. The cryopreserved graft was thawed in a 37°C water bath and then infused without further manipulation. The CD34 + yield was associated with preapheresis PB CD34 + count and immature granulocyte count. The PBSC CE was negatively correlated with preapheresis white blood cell (WBC), immature granulocyte and granulocyte count. The leukapheresis product total nucleated cell (TNC) and granulocyte content was correlated with the thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. This study has shown that preapheresis PB WBC and granulocyte counts were associated with leukapheresis CE. Additionally, the leukapheresis product TNC and granulocyte content was correlated with thawed graft infusion side effect occurrence. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Challenges in collecting clinical samples for research from pregnant women of South Asian origin: evidence from a UK study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neelotpol, Sharmind; Hay, Alastair W M; Jolly, A Jim; Woolridge, Mike W

    2016-08-31

    To recruit South Asian pregnant women, living in the UK, into a clinicoepidemiological study for the collection of lifestyle survey data and antenatal blood and to retain the women for the later collection of cord blood and meconium samples from their babies for biochemical analysis. A longitudinal study recruiting pregnant women of South Asian and Caucasian origin living in the UK. Recruitment of the participants, collection of clinical samples and survey data took place at the 2 sites within a single UK Northern Hospital Trust. Pregnant women of South Asian origin (study group, n=98) and of Caucasian origin (comparison group, n=38) living in Leeds, UK. Among the participants approached, 81% agreed to take part in the study while a 'direct approach' method was followed. The retention rate of the participants was a remarkable 93.4%. The main challenges in recruiting the ethnic minority participants were their cultural and religious conservativeness, language barrier, lack of interest and feeling of extra 'stress' in taking part in research. The chief investigator developed an innovative participant retention method, associated with the women's cultural and religious practices. The method proved useful in retaining the participants for about 5 months and in enabling successful collection of clinical samples from the same mother-baby pairs. The collection of clinical samples and lifestyle data exceeded the calculated sample size required to give the study sufficient power. The numbers of samples obtained were: maternal blood (n=171), cord blood (n=38), meconium (n=176), lifestyle questionnaire data (n=136) and postnatal records (n=136). Recruitment and retention of participants, according to the calculated sample size, ensured sufficient power and success for a clinicoepidemiological study. Results suggest that development of trust and confidence between the participant and the researcher is the key to the success of a clinical and epidemiological study involving

  8. Perfluoroalkyl Acid Concentrations in Blood Samples Subjected to Transportation and Processing Delay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Cathrine Carlsen; Henriksen, Tine Brink; Bossi, Rossana

    2015-01-01

    and transportation prior to processing and samples with immediate processing and freezing. METHODS: Pregnant women recruited at Aarhus University Hospital, Denmark, (n = 88) provided paired blood samples. For each pair of samples, one was immediately processed and plasma was frozen, and the other was delayed...... and transported as whole blood before processing and freezing of plasma (similar to the Danish National Birth Cohort). We measured 12 perfluoroalkyl acids and present results for compounds with more than 50% of samples above the lower limit of quantification. RESULTS: For samples taken in the winter, relative...... differences between the paired samples ranged between -77 and +38% for individual perfluoroalkyl acids. In most cases concentrations were lower in the delayed and transported samples, e.g. the relative difference was -29% (95% confidence interval -30; -27) for perfluorooctane sulfonate. For perfluorooctanoate...

  9. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bölenius, Karin; Brulin, Christine; Grankvist, Kjell; Lindkvist, Marie; Söderberg, Johan

    2012-01-19

    Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  10. A content validated questionnaire for assessment of self reported venous blood sampling practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bölenius Karin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Venous blood sampling is a common procedure in health care. It is strictly regulated by national and international guidelines. Deviations from guidelines due to human mistakes can cause patient harm. Validated questionnaires for health care personnel can be used to assess preventable "near misses"--i.e. potential errors and nonconformities during venous blood sampling practices that could transform into adverse events. However, no validated questionnaire that assesses nonconformities in venous blood sampling has previously been presented. The aim was to test a recently developed questionnaire in self reported venous blood sampling practices for validity and reliability. Findings We developed a questionnaire to assess deviations from best practices during venous blood sampling. The questionnaire contained questions about patient identification, test request management, test tube labeling, test tube handling, information search procedures and frequencies of error reporting. For content validity, the questionnaire was confirmed by experts on questionnaires and venous blood sampling. For reliability, test-retest statistics were used on the questionnaire answered twice. The final venous blood sampling questionnaire included 19 questions out of which 9 had in total 34 underlying items. It was found to have content validity. The test-retest analysis demonstrated that the items were generally stable. In total, 82% of the items fulfilled the reliability acceptance criteria. Conclusions The questionnaire could be used for assessment of "near miss" practices that could jeopardize patient safety and gives several benefits instead of assessing rare adverse events only. The higher frequencies of "near miss" practices allows for quantitative analysis of the effect of corrective interventions and to benchmark preanalytical quality not only at the laboratory/hospital level but also at the health care unit/hospital ward.

  11. Measurement of cerebral blood flow the blood sampling method using 99mTc-ECD. Simultaneous scintigram scanning of arterial blood samples and the brain with a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Inugami, Atsushi; Iida, Hidehiro; Mizuta, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Inoue, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    To measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by blood sampling using 99m Tc-ECD we devised a method of measuring the radioactive concentration in arterial blood sample with a gamma camera. In this method the head and a blood sample are placed within the same visual field to record the SPECT data of both specimens simultaneously. The results of an evaluation of the counting rate performance, applying the 30 hours decaying method using 99m Tc solution showed that this method is not comparable to the well-type scintillation counter and in clinical cases the active concentration in arterial blood sample remained well within the dynamic range. In addition, examination of the influence of scattered radiation from the brain by the dilution method showed that it was negligible at a distance of more than 7.5 cm between the brain and the arterial blood sample. In the present study we placed a head-shaped phantom next to the sample. The results of the examinations suggested that this method is suitable for clinical application, and because it does not require a well-type scintillation counter, it is expected to find wide application. (author)

  12. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  13. Sampling methods to the statistical control of the production of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Paulo; Seghatchian, Jerard; Caldeira, Beatriz; Santos, Paula; Castro, Rosa; Fernandes, Teresa; Xavier, Sandra; de Sousa, Gracinda; de Almeida E Sousa, João Paulo

    2017-12-01

    The control of blood components specifications is a requirement generalized in Europe by the European Commission Directives and in the US by the AABB standards. The use of a statistical process control methodology is recommended in the related literature, including the EDQM guideline. The control reliability is dependent of the sampling. However, a correct sampling methodology seems not to be systematically applied. Commonly, the sampling is intended to comply uniquely with the 1% specification to the produced blood components. Nevertheless, on a purely statistical viewpoint, this model could be argued not to be related to a consistent sampling technique. This could be a severe limitation to detect abnormal patterns and to assure that the production has a non-significant probability of producing nonconforming components. This article discusses what is happening in blood establishments. Three statistical methodologies are proposed: simple random sampling, sampling based on the proportion of a finite population, and sampling based on the inspection level. The empirical results demonstrate that these models are practicable in blood establishments contributing to the robustness of sampling and related statistical process control decisions for the purpose they are suggested for. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Trace element analysis of whole blood and urine samples of diabetic patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodhi, A S; Rashiduzzaman Khan, M [Atomic Energy Organization of Iran, Teheran. Nuclear Research Centre

    1979-01-01

    A number of samples of whole blood, and urine from diabetic and non-diabetic persons have been analyzed for their trace elemental contents using the proton-induced X-ray emission. The elemental contents of the diabetic and non-diabetic samples are compared.

  15. Wuchereria bancrofti in Tanzania: microfilarial periodicity and effect of blood sampling time on microfilarial intensities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Poul Erik; Niemann, L.; Meyrowitsch, Dan Wolf

    1997-01-01

    The circadian periodicity of Wuchereria bancrofti microfilarial (mf) intensities in peripheral blood was analysed in a group of infected individuals from an endemic community in north-eastern Tanzania. The mf density was quantified at two-hourly intervals for 24 hours. A clear nocturnal periodic...... of blood sampling before peak time is discussed, and the importance of taking sampling time into consideration when analysing data from epidemiological studies is emphasized. A simple method is devised which can be used to adjust for the influence of time on mf intensities, in studies where accurate...... information on mf intensities is necessary, and where it is impossible to obtain all samples at peak time....

  16. Paper membrane-based SERS platform for the determination of glucose in blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torul, Hilal; Çiftçi, Hakan; Çetin, Demet; Suludere, Zekiye; Boyacı, Ismail Hakkı; Tamer, Uğur

    2015-11-01

    In this report, we present a paper membrane-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) platform for the determination of blood glucose level using a nitrocellulose membrane as substrate paper, and the microfluidic channel was simply constructed by wax-printing method. The rod-shaped gold nanorod particles were modified with 4-mercaptophenylboronic acid (4-MBA) and 1-decanethiol (1-DT) molecules and used as embedded SERS probe for paper-based microfluidics. The SERS measurement area was simply constructed by dropping gold nanoparticles on nitrocellulose membrane, and the blood sample was dropped on the membrane hydrophilic channel. While the blood cells and proteins were held on nitrocellulose membrane, glucose molecules were moved through the channel toward the SERS measurement area. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to confirm the effective separation of blood matrix, and total analysis is completed in 5 min. In SERS measurements, the intensity of the band at 1070 cm(-1) which is attributed to B-OH vibration decreased depending on the rise in glucose concentration in the blood sample. The glucose concentration was found to be 5.43 ± 0.51 mM in the reference blood sample by using a calibration equation, and the certified value for glucose was 6.17 ± 0.11 mM. The recovery of the glucose in the reference blood sample was about 88 %. According to these results, the developed paper-based microfluidic SERS platform has been found to be suitable for use for the detection of glucose in blood samples without any pretreatment procedure. We believe that paper-based microfluidic systems may provide a wide field of usage for paper-based applications.

  17. Multispectral Imaging Analysis of Circulating Tumor Cells in Negatively Enriched Peripheral Blood Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Brandon; Lustberg, Maryam; Summers, Thomas A; Chalmers, Jeffrey J

    2017-01-01

    A variety of biomarkers are present on cells in peripheral blood of patients with a variety of disorders, including solid tumor malignancies. While rare, characterization of these cells for specific protein levels with the advanced technology proposed, will lead to future validation studies of blood samples as "liquid biopsies" for the evaluation of disease status and therapeutic response. While circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been isolated in the blood samples of patients with solid tumors, the exact role of CTCs as clinically useful predictive markers is still debated. Current commercial technology has significant bias in that a positive selection technology is used that preassumes specific cell surface markers (such as EpCAM) are present on CTCs. However, CTCs with low EpCAM expression have been experimentally demonstrated to be more likely to be missed by this method. In contrast, this application uses a previously developed, technology that performs a purely negative enrichment methodology on peripheral blood, yielding highly enriched blood samples that contain CTCs as well as other, undefined cell types. The focus of this contribution is the use of multispectral imaging of epifluorescent, microscopic images of these enriched cells in order to help develop clinically relevant liquid biopsies from peripheral blood samples.

  18. Determination of the optional time for taking blood samples by single intravenous injection of 3H-leucine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meng Delian; Yao Junhu; Lu Jinyin; Wu Xiaobin; Liu Jun

    2003-01-01

    Twenty four young hens (1.5 kg of body weight, BW) were randomly divided into 4 groups. Every group was diet free (FAS) or force-fed a nitrogen-free diet (NFD) or the diet with 20% crude protein in which soybean meal or cotton seed meal was the sole nitrogen source (30 g DM/kg BW). 30 μCi 3 H-Leu/kg BW was intravenously injected into all birds just after force-fed or on fasting. Venous blood samples were taken at 5, 30 min, 4,24,36 and 48h after injection. The excreta during the whole period of 48h after injection was collected. Special radioactivities of nonprotein plasma at every time point and excreta were measured. The optional time of taking blood samples was 20-24 hours after injected 3 H-Leu

  19. Delay in blood sampling for routine newborn screening is associated with increased risk of schizophrenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordentoft, Merete; Tidselbak Larsen, Janne; Pedersen, Carsten Bøcker

    2015-01-01

    for this association. Therefore, we investigated whether the increased risk can be explained by other risk factors for schizophrenia. METHODS: A case-control design was applied. A total of 846 cases with schizophrenia were selected from the Danish Psychiatric Case Register. One control was selected for each case......BACKGROUND: The Danish Neonatal Screening Biobank, containing dried blood spot samples from all newborn in Denmark, is a unique source of data that can be utilized for analyses of genetic and environmental exposures related to schizophrenia and other mental disorders. In previous analyses, we have...... found that early and late blood sampling, compared to sampling at day 5, was associated with increased risk of schizophrenia. As delay in sampling of blood for neonatal screening cannot in itself influence the risk of schizophrenia, it must be seen as a proxy for unknown underlying causes responsible...

  20. DNA cards: determinants of DNA yield and quality in collecting genetic samples for pharmacogenetic studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mas, Sergi; Crescenti, Anna; Gassó, Patricia; Vidal-Taboada, Jose M; Lafuente, Amalia

    2007-08-01

    As pharmacogenetic studies frequently require establishment of DNA banks containing large cohorts with multi-centric designs, inexpensive methods for collecting and storing high-quality DNA are needed. The aims of this study were two-fold: to compare the amount and quality of DNA obtained from two different DNA cards (IsoCode Cards or FTA Classic Cards, Whatman plc, Brentford, Middlesex, UK); and to evaluate the effects of time and storage temperature, as well as the influence of anticoagulant ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid on the DNA elution procedure. The samples were genotyped by several methods typically used in pharmacogenetic studies: multiplex PCR, PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism, single nucleotide primer extension, and allelic discrimination assay. In addition, they were amplified by whole genome amplification to increase genomic DNA mass. Time, storage temperature and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid had no significant effects on either DNA card. This study reveals the importance of drying blood spots prior to isolation to avoid haemoglobin interference. Moreover, our results demonstrate that re-isolation protocols could be applied to increase the amount of DNA recovered. The samples analysed were accurately genotyped with all the methods examined herein. In conclusion, our study shows that both DNA cards, IsoCode Cards and FTA Classic Cards, facilitate genetic and pharmacogenetic testing for routine clinical practice.

  1. Blood groups and human groups: collecting and calibrating genetic data after World War Two.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bangham, Jenny

    2014-09-01

    Arthur Mourant's The Distribution of the Human Blood Groups (1954) was an "indispensable" reference book on the "anthropology of blood groups" containing a vast collection of human genetic data. It was based on the results of blood-grouping tests carried out on half-a-million people and drew together studies on diverse populations around the world: from rural communities, to religious exiles, to volunteer transfusion donors. This paper pieces together sequential stages in the production of a small fraction of the blood-group data in Mourant's book, to examine how he and his colleagues made genetic data from people. Using sources from several collecting projects, I follow how blood was encountered, how it was inscribed, and how it was turned into a laboratory resource. I trace Mourant's analytical and representational strategies to make blood groups both credibly 'genetic' and understood as relevant to human ancestry, race and history. In this story, 'populations' were not simply given, but were produced through public health, colonial and post-colonial institutions, and by the labour and expertise of subjects, assistants and mediators. Genetic data were not self-evidently 'biological', but were shaped by existing historical and geographical identities, by political relationships, and by notions of kinship and belonging. Copyright © 2014 The Author. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  2. Top-Down Proteomics and Direct Surface Sampling of Neonatal Dried Blood Spots: Diagnosis of Unknown Hemoglobin Variants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, Rebecca L.; Griffiths, Paul; Bunch, Josephine; Cooper, Helen J.

    2012-11-01

    We have previously shown that liquid microjunction surface sampling of dried blood spots coupled with high resolution top-down mass spectrometry may be used for screening of common hemoglobin variants HbS, HbC, and HbD. In order to test the robustness of the approach, we have applied the approach to unknown hemoglobin variants. Six neonatal dried blood spot samples that had been identified as variants, but which could not be diagnosed by current screening methods, were analyzed by direct surface sampling top-down mass spectrometry. Both collision-induced dissociation and electron transfer dissociation mass spectrometry were employed. Four of the samples were identified as β-chain variants: two were heterozygous Hb D-Iran, one was heterozygous Hb Headington, and one was heterozygous Hb J-Baltimore. The fifth sample was identified as the α-chain variant heterozygous Hb Phnom Penh. Analysis of the sixth sample suggested that it did not in fact contain a variant. Adoption of the approach in the clinic would require speed in both data collection and interpretation. To address that issue, we have compared manual data analysis with freely available data analysis software (ProsightPTM). The results demonstrate the power of top-down proteomics for hemoglobin variant analysis in newborn samples.

  3. The effectiveness of cooling conditions on temperature of canine EDTA whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobias, Karen M; Serrano, Leslie; Sun, Xiaocun; Flatland, Bente

    2016-01-01

    Preanalytic factors such as time and temperature can have significant effects on laboratory test results. For example, ammonium concentration will increase 31% in blood samples stored at room temperature for 30 min before centrifugation. To reduce preanalytic error, blood samples may be placed in precooled tubes and chilled on ice or in ice water baths; however, the effectiveness of these modalities in cooling blood samples has not been formally evaluated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of various cooling modalities on reducing temperature of EDTA whole blood samples. Pooled samples of canine EDTA whole blood were divided into two aliquots. Saline was added to one aliquot to produce a packed cell volume (PCV) of 40% and to the second aliquot to produce a PCV of 20% (simulated anemia). Thirty samples from each aliquot were warmed to 37.7 °C and cooled in 2 ml allotments under one of three conditions: in ice, in ice after transfer to a precooled tube, or in an ice water bath. Temperature of each sample was recorded at one minute intervals for 15 min. Within treatment conditions, sample PCV had no significant effect on cooling. Cooling in ice water was significantly faster than cooling in ice only or transferring the sample to a precooled tube and cooling it on ice. Mean temperature of samples cooled in ice water was significantly lower at 15 min than mean temperatures of those cooled in ice, whether or not the tube was precooled. By 4 min, samples cooled in an ice water bath had reached mean temperatures less than 4 °C (refrigeration temperature), while samples cooled in other conditions remained above 4.0 °C for at least 11 min. For samples with a PCV of 40%, precooling the tube had no significant effect on rate of cooling on ice. For samples with a PCV of 20%, transfer to a precooled tube resulted in a significantly faster rate of cooling than direct placement of the warmed tube onto ice. Canine EDTA whole blood samples cool most

  4. Self-collected versus clinician-collected sampling for sexually transmitted infections: a systematic review and meta-analysis protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Darlene; Lunny, Carole; Wong, Tom; Gilbert, Mark; Li, Neville; Lester, Richard; Krajden, Mel; Hoang, Linda; Ogilvie, Gina

    2013-10-10

    Three meta-analyses and one systematic review have been conducted on the question of whether self-collected specimens are as accurate as clinician-collected specimens for STI screening. However, these reviews predate 2007 and did not analyze rectal or pharyngeal collection sites. Currently, there is no consensus on which sampling method is the most effective for the diagnosis of genital chlamydia (CT), gonorrhea (GC) or human papillomavirus (HPV) infection. Our meta-analysis aims to be comprehensive in that it will examine the evidence of whether self-collected vaginal, urine, pharyngeal and rectal specimens provide as accurate a clinical diagnosis as clinician-collected samples (reference standard). Eligible studies include both randomized and non-randomized controlled trials, pre- and post-test designs, and controlled observational studies. The databases that will be searched include the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Web of Science, Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE), EMBASE and PubMed/Medline. Data will be abstracted independently by two reviewers using a standardized pre-tested data abstraction form. Heterogeneity will be assessed using the Q2 test. Sensitivity and specificity estimates with 95% confidence intervals as well as negative and positive likelihood ratios will be pooled and weighted using random effects meta-analysis, if appropriate. A hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristics curve for self-collected specimens will be generated. This synthesis involves a meta-analysis of self-collected samples (urine, vaginal, pharyngeal and rectal swabs) versus clinician-collected samples for the diagnosis of CT, GC and HPV, the most prevalent STIs. Our systematic review will allow patients, clinicians and researchers to determine the diagnostic accuracy of specimens collected by patients compared to those collected by clinicians in the detection of chlamydia, gonorrhea and HPV.

  5. A simplified method for determination of radioactive iron in whole-blood samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bukhave, Klaus; Sørensen, Anne Dorthe; Hansen, M.

    2001-01-01

    in humans. The overall recovery of radioiron from blood is more than 90%, and the coefficient of variation, as judged by the variation in the ratio Fe-55/Fe-59 is in the order of 4%. Combined with whole-body counting of 59Fe and direct gamma -counting of Fe-59 on blood samples, this method represents......For studies on iron absorption in man radioisotopes represent an easy and simple tool. However, measurement of the orbital electron emitting radioiron, Fe-55, in blood is difficult and insufficiently described in the literature. The present study describes a relatively simple method...... for simultaneous determination of Fe-55 and Fe-59 in blood, using a dry-ashing procedure and recrystallization of the remaining iron. The detection Limit of the method permits measurements of 0.1 Bq/ml blood thus allowing detection of Less than 1% absorption from a 40 kBq dose, which is ethically acceptable...

  6. Blood collection from the facial (maxillary)/musculo-cutaneous vein in true frogs (family Ranidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzán, María J; Vanderstichel, Raphaël V; Ogbuah, Christopher T; Barta, John R; Smith, Todd G

    2012-01-01

    Collection of blood from amphibians, as in other classes of vertebrate animals, is essential to evaluate parameters of health, diagnose hemoparasitism, identify viral and bacterial pathogens, and measure antibodies. Various methods of blood collection have been described for amphibians. Most can be cumbersome (venipucture of femoral vein, ventral abdominal vein or lingual venus plexus) or result in pain or deleterious health consequences (cardiac puncture and toe-clipping). We describe an easy and practical technique to collect blood from frogs and toads that can be used in multiple species and is minimally invasive. The technique consists of puncturing either the facial or, less commonly, the musculo-cutaneous vein and collecting the blood with a capillary tube. These veins run dorsal and parallel to the maxillary bone and can be accessed by quick insertion and withdrawal of a needle through the skin between the upper jawline and the rostral or caudal side of the tympanum. The needle should be of 27 or 30 gauge for anurans weighing more or less than 25 g, respectively. Although the technique has been used by some amphibian researchers for years, it is little known by others and has never been fully described in a peer-reviewed publication.

  7. 21 CFR 864.9125 - Vacuum-assisted blood collection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Vacuum-assisted blood collection system. 864.9125 Section 864.9125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  8. Molecular DNA identification of blood sources fed on, for Culicine mosquitoes (Diptera: Culicidae collected in the Songkhla province, southern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theerakamol Pengsakul

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Culicine mosquitoes are medically important vectors. Therefore, mosquito control measures are a crucial strategy to interrupt disease transmission. Collection of data on mosquito feeding patterns is crucial for developing an effective vector control strategy. The objective of this study was to use molecular biology methods to identify the sources of DNA in mosquito blood meals. The DNA from blood meals in the mosquito stomachs was extracted and amplified with multiplex PCR, using specific primer sets based on the mitochondrial cytochrome b gene, to identify the DNA sources among human, pig, goat, dog, cow, and chicken. Among the 297 mosquito samples collected in the Songkhla province of Thailand, in Aedes spp. mosquitoes the percentages positive for human, dog, pig, chicken, cow, a mixture of 2 vertebrate DNAs, or of 3, and negative (no identified DNA were 61.90, 2.38, 2.38, 0.60, 0.60, 4.18, 1.20 and 26.79% respectively. In Culex spp. blood meals the rank order was different: fractions positive for chicken, human, dog, cow, goat, pig, a mixture of 2 or 3 vertebrate DNAs, and negative were 40.83, 10.00, 5.00, 4.17, 1.67, 0.83, 8.32, 3.32 and 25.83% respectively. This study shows that feeding behaviors of the two species differ, with most Aedes spp. blood meals containing human blood, while Culex spp. had primarily consumed chicken blood. An improved understanding of the feeding behaviors of mosquitoes could contribute to new, more effective strategies for the control of mosquito populations.

  9. Comparison of equine platelet function and survival in whole blood collected in acid-citrate-dextrose solution or citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozorgmanesh, Rana; Sutton-Burges, Julie W; Tablin, Fern

    2017-06-01

    Equine whole blood collection and storage methods have been evaluated to assess red blood cell viability; however, platelet (PLT) viability has not been comprehensively assessed. The purpose of the study was to compare viability of PLTs collected in whole blood into 2 different anticoagulants. Whole blood from 6 healthy adult Thoroughbred horses was collected into citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine (CPDA) or acid-citrate-dextrose (ACD). Platelet count, pH, and concentrations of glucose, lactate, carbon dioxide, oxygen, bicarbonate, sodium, potassium, and chloride were measured within 10 minutes of collection and then again one hour later at which time PLT aggregometry was performed to assess PLT function. Aggregometry mean amplitudes were significantly higher in CPDA compared to ACD. Blood glucose, pH, bicarbonate, sodium, and lactate concentrations were significantly higher in CPDA compared to ACD. Lactate concentration was higher following one hour in either anticoagulant. Potassium, oxygen, and carbon dioxide concentrations were significantly higher in ACD compared to CPDA at collection. Platelet aggregometry results suggest that CPDA is superior to ACD for maintaining PLT viability following whole blood collection. This may be associated with the higher, more neutral pH as well as an increase in glucose available for metabolism. Although lactate was increased in the CPDA samples it was not high enough to decrease pH and therefore may not have been high enough to cause morphologic lesions and loss of PLT viability. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  10. [Logistics of collection and transportation of biological samples and the organization of the central laboratory in the ELSA-Brasil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedeli, Ligia G; Vidigal, Pedro G; Leite, Claudia Mendes; Castilhos, Cristina D; Pimentel, Robércia Anjos; Maniero, Viviane C; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Lotufo, Paulo A; Pereira, Alexandre C; Bensenor, Isabela M

    2013-06-01

    The ELSA (Estudo Longitudinal de Saúde do Adulto - Brazilian Longitudinal Study for Adult Health) is a multicenter cohort study which aims at the identification of risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular diseases in the Brazilian population. The paper describes the strategies for the collection, processing, transportation, and quality control of blood and urine tests in the ELSA. The study decided to centralize the tests at one single laboratory. The processing of the samples was performed at the local laboratories, reducing the weight of the material to be transported, and diminishing the costs of transportation to the central laboratory at the Universidade de São Paulo Hospital. The study included tests for the evaluation of diabetes, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, electrolyte abnormalities, thyroid hormones, uric acid, hepatic enzyme abnormalities, inflammation, and total blood cell count. In addition, leukocyte DNA, urine, plasma and serum samples were stored. The central laboratory performed approximately 375,000 tests.

  11. Level of confidence in venepuncture and knowledge in determining causes of blood sample haemolysis among clinical staff and phlebotomists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makhumula-Nkhoma, Nellie; Whittaker, Vicki; McSherry, Robert

    2015-02-01

    To investigate the association between confidence level in venepuncture and knowledge in determining causes of blood sample haemolysis among clinical staff and phlebotomists. Various collection methods are used to perform venepuncture, also called phlebotomy, the act of drawing blood from a patient using a needle. The collection method used has an impact on preanalytical blood sample haemolysis. Haemolysis is the breakdown of red blood cells, which makes the sample unsuitable. Despite available evidence on the common causes, extensive literature search showed a lack of published evidence on the association of haemolysis with staff confidence and knowledge. A quantitative primary research design using survey method. A purposive sample of 290 clinical staff and phlebotomists conducting venepuncture in one North England hospital participated in this quantitative survey. A three-section web-based questionnaire comprising demographic profile, confidence and competence levels, and knowledge sections was used to collect data in 2012. The chi-squared test for independence was used to compare the distribution of responses for categorical data. anova was used to determine mean difference in the knowledge scores of staff with different confidence levels. Almost 25% clinical staff and phlebotomists participated in the survey. There was an increase in confidence at the last venepuncture among staff of all categories. While doctors' scores were higher compared with healthcare assistants', p ≤ 0·001, nurses' were of wide range and lowest. There was no statistically significant difference (at the 5% level) in the total knowledge scores and confidence level at the last venepuncture F(2,4·690) = 1·67, p = 0·31 among staff of all categories. Evidence-based measures are required to boost staff knowledge base of preanalytical blood sample haemolysis for standardised and quality service. Monitoring and evaluation of the training, conducting and monitoring haemolysis rate are

  12. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiwa, Yuh; Hachiya, Tsuyoshi; Furukawa, Ryohei; Ohmomo, Hideki; Ono, Kanako; Kudo, Hisaaki; Hata, Jun; Hozawa, Atsushi; Iwasaki, Motoki; Matsuda, Koichi; Minegishi, Naoko; Satoh, Mamoru; Tanno, Kozo; Yamaji, Taiki; Wakai, Kenji; Hitomi, Jiro; Kiyohara, Yutaka; Kubo, Michiaki; Tanaka, Hideo; Tsugane, Shoichiro; Yamamoto, Masayuki; Sobue, Kenji; Shimizu, Atsushi

    2016-01-01

    Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS) using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03) when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50) when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14) by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45) and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17). These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  13. Adjustment of Cell-Type Composition Minimizes Systematic Bias in Blood DNA Methylation Profiles Derived by DNA Collection Protocols.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuh Shiwa

    Full Text Available Differences in DNA collection protocols may be a potential confounder in epigenome-wide association studies (EWAS using a large number of blood specimens from multiple biobanks and/or cohorts. Here we show that pre-analytical procedures involved in DNA collection can induce systematic bias in the DNA methylation profiles of blood cells that can be adjusted by cell-type composition variables. In Experiment 1, whole blood from 16 volunteers was collected to examine the effect of a 24 h storage period at 4°C on DNA methylation profiles as measured using the Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadChip array. Our statistical analysis showed that the P-value distribution of more than 450,000 CpG sites was similar to the theoretical distribution (in quantile-quantile plot, λ = 1.03 when comparing two control replicates, which was remarkably deviated from the theoretical distribution (λ = 1.50 when comparing control and storage conditions. We then considered cell-type composition as a possible cause of the observed bias in DNA methylation profiles and found that the bias associated with the cold storage condition was largely decreased (λ adjusted = 1.14 by taking into account a cell-type composition variable. As such, we compared four respective sample collection protocols used in large-scale Japanese biobanks or cohorts as well as two control replicates. Systematic biases in DNA methylation profiles were observed between control and three of four protocols without adjustment of cell-type composition (λ = 1.12-1.45 and no remarkable biases were seen after adjusting for cell-type composition in all four protocols (λ adjusted = 1.00-1.17. These results revealed important implications for comparing DNA methylation profiles between blood specimens from different sources and may lead to discovery of disease-associated DNA methylation markers and the development of DNA methylation profile-based predictive risk models.

  14. Radioimmunoassay screening and GC/MS confirmation of whole blood samples for drugs of abuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spiehler, V.R.; Sedgwick, P.

    From 1981 to 1984, an average of 300 radioimmunoassay screens on whole blood were performed each week in the authors laboratory. Most samples were screened for opiates phencyclidine and its analogs, barbiturates, and cocaine or its metabolite benzoylecgonine. A commercially available radioimmunoassay was used with modifications to facilitate screening of whole blood. Increasing sample size increased the sensitivity of the assay. Changing reagent concentration (1:1 dilution), incubation time, sample matrix (water, urine, or blood), or fraction counted (precipitate or supernatant) did not affect the utility of the standard curve or the sensitivity of the assay. All positive results for phencyclidine, opiates, cocaine, and related compounds were confirmed by GC/MA. Barbiturate positives were confirmed by UV spectrophotometry.

  15. Identifying the potential of changes to blood sample logistics using simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Pelle; Jacobsen, Peter; Poulsen, Jørgen Hjelm

    2013-01-01

    Using simulation as an approach to display and improve internal logistics at hospitals has great potential. This study shows how a simulation model displaying the morning blood-taking round at a Danish public hospital can be developed and utilized with the aim of improving the logistics. The focus of the simulation was to evaluate changes made to the transportation of blood samples between wards and the laboratory. The average- (AWT) and maximum waiting time (MWT) from a blood sample was drawn at the ward until it was received at the laboratory, and the distribution of arrivals of blood samples in the laboratory were used as the evaluation criteria. Four different scenarios were tested and compared with the current approach: (1) Using AGVs (mobile robots), (2) using a pneumatic tube system, (3) using porters that are called upon, or (4) using porters that come to the wards every 45 minutes. Furthermore, each of the scenarios was tested in terms of what amount of resources would give the optimal result. The simulations showed a big improvement potential in implementing a new technology/mean for transporting the blood samples. The pneumatic tube system showed the biggest potential lowering the AWT and MWT with approx. 36% and 18%, respectively. Additionally, all of the scenarios had a more even distribution of arrivals except for porters coming to the wards every 45 min. As a consequence of the results obtained in the study, the hospital decided to implement a pneumatic tube system.

  16. Hybrid image and blood sampling input function for quantification of small animal dynamic PET data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shoghi, Kooresh I.; Welch, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    We describe and validate a hybrid image and blood sampling (HIBS) method to derive the input function for quantification of microPET mice data. The HIBS algorithm derives the peak of the input function from the image, which is corrected for recovery, while the tail is derived from 5 to 6 optimally placed blood sampling points. A Bezier interpolation algorithm is used to link the rightmost image peak data point to the leftmost blood sampling point. To assess the performance of HIBS, 4 mice underwent 60-min microPET imaging sessions following a 0.40-0.50-mCi bolus administration of 18 FDG. In total, 21 blood samples (blood-sampled plasma time-activity curve, bsPTAC) were obtained throughout the imaging session to compare against the proposed HIBS method. MicroPET images were reconstructed using filtered back projection with a zoom of 2.75 on the heart. Volumetric regions of interest (ROIs) were composed by drawing circular ROIs 3 pixels in diameter on 3-4 transverse planes of the left ventricle. Performance was characterized by kinetic simulations in terms of bias in parameter estimates when bsPTAC and HIBS are used as input functions. The peak of the bsPTAC curve was distorted in comparison to the HIBS-derived curve due to temporal limitations and delay in blood sampling, which affected the rates of bidirectional exchange between plasma and tissue. The results highlight limitations in using bsPTAC. The HIBS method, however, yields consistent results, and thus, is a substitute for bsPTAC

  17. Stability of heparin blood samples during transport based on defined pre-analytical quality goals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Esther A; Stahl, Marta; Brandslund, Ivan

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In many countries and especially in Scandinavia, blood samples drawn in primary healthcare are sent to a hospital laboratory for analysis. The samples are exposed to various conditions regarding storage time, storage temperature and transport form. As these factors can have a severe...... impact on the quality of results, we wanted to study which combination of transport conditions could fulfil our pre-defined goals for maximum allowable error. METHODS: Samples from 406 patients from nine general practitioners (GPs) in two Danish counties were sent to two hospitals for analyses, during......, centrifuged and separated at the doctor's office within 45-60 min. This sample was considered as the best estimate of a comparison value. RESULTS: The pre-set quality goals were fulfilled for all the investigated components for samples transported to hospital by courier either as whole blood or as "on gel...

  18. 77 FR 38323 - Proposed Extension of Existing Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-27

    ... Information Collection; Respirable Coal Mine Dust Sampling AGENCY: Mine Safety and Health Administration... Sampling'' to more accurately reflect the type of information that is collected. Chronic exposure to... dust levels since 1970 and, consequently, the prevalence rate of black lung among coal miners, severe...

  19. Pneumatic tube-transported blood samples in lithium heparinate gel separator tubes may be more susceptible to haemolysis than blood samples in serum tubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Böckel-Frohnhöfer, Nicole; Hübner, Ulrich; Hummel, Björn; Geisel, Jürgen

    2014-10-01

    Pneumatic tube systems are widely used in hospitals. Advantages are high speed and rapid availability of the samples. However, the transportation by pneumatic tube promotes haemolysis. Haemolysis interferes with many spectrophotometric assays and is a common problem in clinical laboratories. The haemolysis index (HI) as a semi-quantitative representation of the level of haemolysis was compared in unpaired tube-transported and hand-delivered routine lithium heparinate plasma samples (n = 1368 and n = 837, respectively). Additionally, the HI distribution was measured in lithium heparinate plasma samples with a HI above the threshold value of 20 and in paired serum samples after transportation by pneumatic tube system. HI values above 20 can interfere with the selected assays: Creatine kinase (CK), creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) activities. These parameters were determined to demonstrate how haemolysis affects the results. 17.5% of the tube-transported plasma samples and 2.6% of the hand-delivered plasma samples had a HI above 20. The median HI in pneumatic tube-transported lithium heparinate plasma was 85 and 33 in the paired serum samples. The median HI difference between paired plasma and serum was 46. Blood samples in lithium heparinate tubes may be substantially more susceptible to haemolysis by pneumatic tube transportation than serum tube samples. Although our results cannot be universally applied to laboratories with different pneumatic tube systems, it is recommended that each laboratory evaluate carefully the degree of haemolysis after the transportation by the own pneumatic tube system and in terms of the sample type.

  20. Application of gelatin zymography for evaluating low levels of contaminating neutrophils in red blood cell samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Achilli, Cesare; Ciana, Annarita; Balduini, Cesare; Risso, Angela; Minetti, Giampaolo

    2011-02-15

    Supposedly "homogeneous" red blood cell (RBC) samples are commonly obtained by "washing" whole blood free of plasma, platelets, and white cells with physiological solutions, a procedure that does not result, however, in sufficient removal of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs), leading to possible artifactual results. Pure RBC samples can be obtained only by leukodepletion procedures. Proposed here is a version of gelatin zymography adapted to detect matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), selectively expressed by PMNs, in heterogeneous mixtures of RBCs and PMNs that can reveal contamination at levels as low as 1 PMN/10⁶ RBCs. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Isotopic analysis of calcium in blood plasma and bone from mouse samples by multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Takafumi; Tanoshima, Mina; Suga, Akinobu; Tanaka, Yu-ki; Nagata, Yuichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Chiba, Momoko

    2008-01-01

    The biological processing of Ca produces significant stable isotope fractionation. The level of isotopic fractionation can provide key information about the variation in dietary consumption or Ca metabolism. To investigate this, we measured the 43 Ca/ 42 Ca and 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for bone and blood plasma samples collected from mice of various ages using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratio in bones was significantly (0.44 - 0.84 per mille) lower than the corresponding ratios in the diet, suggesting that Ca was isotopically fractionated during Ca metabolism for bone formation. The resulting 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for blood plasma showed almost identical, or slightly higher, values (0.03 - 0.2 per mille) than found in a corresponding diet. This indicates that a significant amount of Ca in the blood plasma was from dietary sources. Unlike that discovered for Fe, there were not significant differences in the measured 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios between female and male specimens (for either bone or blood plasma samples). Similarity, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios suggests that there were no significant differences in Ca dietary consumption or Ca metabolism between female and male specimens. In contrast, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios of blood plasma from mother mice during the lactation period were significantly higher than those for all other adult specimens. This suggests that Ca supplied to infants through lactation was isotopically lighter, and the preferential supply of isotropically lighter Ca resulted in isotopically heavier Ca in blood plasma of mother mice during the lactation period. The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the Ca isotopic ratio has a potential to become a new tool for evaluating changes in dietary consumption, or Ca metabolism of animals. (author)

  2. Comparative evaluation of blood and serum samples in rapid immunochromatographic tests for visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Dinesh; Khanal, Basudha; Tiwary, Puja; Mudavath, Shyam Lal; Tiwary, Narendra K; Singh, Rupa; Koirala, Kanika; Boelaert, Marleen; Rijal, Suman; Sundar, Shyam

    2013-12-01

    Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) based on the detection of specific antibodies in serum are commonly used for the diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). Several commercial kits are available, and some of them allow the use of whole-blood samples instead of serum. An RDT is much more user-friendly for blood samples than for serum samples. In this study, we examined the sensitivities and specificities of six different commercially available immunochromatographic tests for their accuracy in detecting Leishmania infection in whole blood and serum of parasitologically confirmed VL cases. This study was performed in areas of India and Nepal where VL is endemic. A total of 177 confirmed VL cases, 208 healthy controls from areas of endemicity (EHCs), 26 malaria patients (MP), and 37 tuberculosis (TB) patients were enrolled. The reproducibilities of the blood and serum results and between-reader and between-laboratory results were tested. In India, the sensitivities of all the RDTs ranged between 94.7 and 100.0%, with no significant differences between whole blood and serum. The specificities ranged between 92.4 and 100.0%, except for the specificity of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB kit, which was lower (33.6 to 42.0%). No differences in specificities were observed for blood and serum. In Nepal, the sensitivities of all the test kits, for whole-blood as well as serum samples, ranged between 96.3 and 100.0%, and the specificities ranged between 90.1 and 96.1%, again with the exception of that of the Onsite Leishmania Ab RevB test, which was markedly lower (48.7 to 49.3%). The diagnostic accuracies of all the tests, except for one brand, were excellent for the whole-blood and serum samples. We conclude that whole blood is an adequate alternative for serum in RDTs for VL, with sensitivities and specificities comparable to those obtained in serum samples, provided that the test kit is of overall good quality.

  3. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C.A.; Johnson, W.F.; Walker, W.A.

    1985-08-05

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises: (1) a whole blood sample disc; (2) a serum sample disc; (3) a sample preparation rotor; and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analyticaly rotor for conventional methods. 5 figs.

  4. Method and apparatus for automated processing and aliquoting of whole blood samples for analysis in a centrifugal fast analyzer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, Carl A.; Johnson, Wayne F.; Walker, William A.

    1988-01-01

    A rotor and disc assembly for use in a centrifugal fast analyzer. The assembly is designed to process multiple samples of whole blood followed by aliquoting of the resultant serum into precisely measured samples for subsequent chemical analysis. The assembly requires minimal operator involvement with no mechanical pipetting. The system comprises (1) a whole blood sample disc, (2) a serum sample disc, (3) a sample preparation rotor, and (4) an analytical rotor. The blood sample disc and serum sample disc are designed with a plurality of precision bore capillary tubes arranged in a spoked array. Samples of blood are loaded into the blood sample disc in capillary tubes filled by capillary action and centrifugally discharged into cavities of the sample preparation rotor where separation of serum and solids is accomplished. The serum is loaded into the capillaries of the serum sample disc by capillary action and subsequently centrifugally expelled into cuvettes of the analytical rotor for analysis by conventional methods.

  5. Direct analysis of site-specific N-glycopeptides of serological proteins in dried blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Na Young; Hwang, Heeyoun; Ji, Eun Sun; Park, Gun Wook; Lee, Ju Yeon; Lee, Hyun Kyoung; Kim, Jin Young; Yoo, Jong Shin

    2017-08-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) samples have a number of advantages, especially with respect to ease of collection, transportation, and storage and to reduce biohazard risk. N-glycosylation is a major post-translational modification of proteins in human blood that is related to a variety of biological functions, including metastasis, cell-cell interactions, inflammation, and immunization. Here, we directly analyzed tryptic N-glycopeptides from glycoproteins in DBS samples using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) without centrifugation of blood samples, depletion of major proteins, desalting of tryptic peptides, and enrichment of N-glycopeptides. Using this simple method, we identified a total of 41 site-specific N-glycopeptides from 16 glycoproteins in the DBS samples, from immunoglobulin gamma 1 (IgG-1, 10 mg/mL) down to complement component C7 (50 μg/mL). Of these, 32 N-glycopeptides from 14 glycoproteins were consistently quantified over 180 days stored at room temperature. The major abundant glycoproteins in the DBS samples were IgG-1 and IgG-2, which contain nine asialo-fucosylated complex types of 16 different N-glycopeptide isoforms. Sialo-non-fucosylated complex types were primarily detected in the other glycoproteins such as alpha-1-acid glycoprotein 1, 2, alpha-1-antitypsin, alpha-2-macroglobulin, haptoglobin, hemopexin, Ig alpha 1, 2 chain C region, kininogen-1, prothrombin, and serotransferrin. We first report the characterization of site-specific N-glycoproteins in DBS samples by LC-MS/MS with minimal sample preparation.

  6. Trace Elements Analysis of Archeological Brick Samples Collected from Different Historical Placs in Rajshahi Division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Begum, Bilkis A.; Biswas, Shapan K.; Matin, Mohammed A.; Hoque, Mohammed M.; Hopke, Philip K.

    2007-01-01

    Twenty-nine brick samples were collected from different temples and palaces, namely Paharpur, Kumarpur, Gaurbari, Puthia and Natore in Rajshahi Division in Bangladesh. The samples were analyzed by X-ray Fluorescence (XRF) method. The elemental data sets have been analyzed in order to find out the general characteristics and any significant differences among the collected samples and identify the origin of these brick samples. Most of the crustal elements have enrichment factor (EF) values close to unity. Only Cu and Pb have high values that may come from painting as these have been collected from temples and palaces.(author)

  7. Ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the ground-water surveillance project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bryce, R.W.; Evans, J.C.; Olsen, K.B.

    1991-12-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory performs ground-water sampling activities at the US Department of Energy's (DOE's) Hanford Site in support of DOE's environmental surveillance responsibilities. The purpose of this document is to translate DOE's General Environmental Protection Program (DOE Order 5400.1) into a comprehensive ground-water sample collection and analysis plan for the Hanford Site. This sample collection and analysis plan sets forth the environmental surveillance objectives applicable to ground water, identifies the strategy for selecting sample collection locations, and lists the analyses to be performed to meet those objectives

  8. Direct and long-term detection of gene doping in conventional blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiter, T; Zimmermann, M; Fragasso, A; Hudemann, J; Niess, A M; Bitzer, M; Lauer, U M; Simon, P

    2011-03-01

    The misuse of somatic gene therapy for the purpose of enhancing athletic performance is perceived as a coming threat to the world of sports and categorized as 'gene doping'. This article describes a direct detection approach for gene doping that gives a clear yes-or-no answer based on the presence or absence of transgenic DNA in peripheral blood samples. By exploiting a priming strategy to specifically amplify intronless DNA sequences, we developed PCR protocols allowing the detection of very small amounts of transgenic DNA in genomic DNA samples to screen for six prime candidate genes. Our detection strategy was verified in a mouse model, giving positive signals from minute amounts (20 μl) of blood samples for up to 56 days following intramuscular adeno-associated virus-mediated gene transfer, one of the most likely candidate vector systems to be misused for gene doping. To make our detection strategy amenable for routine testing, we implemented a robust sample preparation and processing protocol that allows cost-efficient analysis of small human blood volumes (200 μl) with high specificity and reproducibility. The practicability and reliability of our detection strategy was validated by a screening approach including 327 blood samples taken from professional and recreational athletes under field conditions.

  9. Association between Macronutrients Intake, Visceral Obesity and Blood Pressure in a Sample of Obese Egyptian Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Nayera E; El Shebini, Salwa M; Ahmed, Nihad H; Selim Mostafa, Mohamed

    2015-03-15

    Study the association between the total caloric intake, protein, lipid, and some classes of fatty acids of the diet, and their effects on blood pressure in a sample of Egyptian obese women with and without visceral obesity. Five hundred forty-nine obese women were included in the study with mean age of 38.1 ± 11.56 years and mean Body mass index [BMI] of 36.17 ± 7.23. They enrolled in a program for losing weight. Visceral fat was determined using ultrasound. Blood pressure was measured 3 times and the mean was recorded. Twenty four hours dietary recall was reported. Thirty point four percentages of samples has visceral obesity ≥ 7cm; they were the older, showed higher values of BMI, visceral obesity and blood pressure. Significant difference was found between groups regarding mean value of BMI, visceral obesity, both systolic blood pressure SBP and diastolic blood pressure DBP and most of the daily macronutrients intake. In groups (2&3) positive significant correlation was recorded between (SBP) & (DBP) and total daily intake of total calories, carbohydrate, total fat, saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and negative significant correlation with total daily intake of total protein, animal and vegetable protein, linolenic and linoleic fatty acids, while oleic fatty acid showed negative correlation with SBP&DBP in all groups. This study emphasizes the hypothesis that the macronutrients composition of diet influences blood pressure in different ways, in obese patients with visceral obesity.

  10. Identification of hybrids of painted and milky storks using FTA card-collected blood, molecular markers, and morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Elsie Yoke Sim; Zainuddin, Zainal Zahari; Ismail, Ahmad; Yap, Chee Kong; Tan, Soon Guan

    2013-10-01

    Suspicious hybrids of painted storks and milky storks were found in a Malaysian zoo. Blood of these birds was sampled on FTA cards for DNA fingerprinting. Of 44 optimized primers, 6 produced diagnostic markers that could identify hybrids. The markers were based on simple, direct PCR-generated multilocus banding patterns that provided two sets of genetic data, one for each of the two stork species and another for the hybrids. It also revealed that large DNA fragments (3,000 bp) could be amplified from blood collected on FTA cards. When the results of each individual bird's DNA fingerprint were compared with plumage characters, the hybrids were found to express a range of intermediate phenotypic traits of the pure breeds with no dominant plumage characteristic from either parental species.

  11. Detection of Merkel Cell Polyomavirus DNA in Serum Samples of Healthy Blood Donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoni, Elisa; Rotondo, John C.; Marracino, Luisa; Selvatici, Rita; Bononi, Ilaria; Torreggiani, Elena; Touzé, Antoine; Martini, Fernanda; Tognon, Mauro G.

    2017-01-01

    Merkel cell polyomavirus (MCPyV) has been detected in 80% of Merkel cell carcinomas (MCC). In the host, the MCPyV reservoir remains elusive. MCPyV DNA sequences were revealed in blood donor buffy coats. In this study, MCPyV DNA sequences were investigated in the sera (n = 190) of healthy blood donors. Two MCPyV DNA sequences, coding for the viral oncoprotein large T antigen (LT), were investigated using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) methods and DNA sequencing. Circulating MCPyV sequences were detected in sera with a prevalence of 2.6% (5/190), at low-DNA viral load, which is in the range of 1–4 and 1–5 copies/μl by real-time PCR and droplet digital PCR, respectively. DNA sequencing carried out in the five MCPyV-positive samples indicated that the two MCPyV LT sequences which were analyzed belong to the MKL-1 strain. Circulating MCPyV LT sequences are present in blood donor sera. MCPyV-positive samples from blood donors could represent a potential vehicle for MCPyV infection in receivers, whereas an increase in viral load may occur with multiple blood transfusions. In certain patient conditions, such as immune-depression/suppression, additional disease or old age, transfusion of MCPyV-positive samples could be an additional risk factor for MCC onset. PMID:29238698

  12. Quality Assessment of Platelet-Rich Fibrin-Like Matrix Prepared from Whole Blood Samples after Extended Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideo Kawabata

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The platelet-rich fibrin–like matrix (PRFM is usually prepared onsite and immediately used for regenerative therapy. Nonetheless, to meet the clinical necessity of preserving the PRFM without quality deterioration, we developed a method for preparation of PRFMs from short-term-stored whole blood (WB samples. In this study, to evaluate the practical expiration date of storage, we extended the storage time of WB samples from 2 to 7 days and assessed the quality of the resulting PRFMs. WB samples collected with acid-citrate-dextrose were stored with gentle agitation at ambient temperature. To prepare PRFMs, the stored WB samples were mixed with CaCl2 in glass tubes and centrifuged. Fibrin fiber networks, CD41 and CD62P expression, and Platelet Derived Growth Factor-BB (PDGF-BB levels were examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM, flow cytometry, and an Enzyme-Linked ImmunoSorbent Assay (ELISA, respectively. Long-term storage had no significant effect on either blood cell counts or platelet functions tested. The resulting PRFMs were visually identical to freshly prepared ones. PDGF-BB levels did not markedly decrease in a time-dependent manner. However, fibrin fibers gradually became thinner after storage. Although the coagulation activity may diminish, we propose that PRFMs can be prepared—without evident loss of quality—from WB samples stored for up to 7 days by our previously developed method.

  13. Determination of reference intervals and comparison of venous blood gas parameters using standard and non-standard collection methods in 24 cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachmann, Karin; Kutter, Annette Pn; Schefer, Rahel Jud; Marly-Voquer, Charlotte; Sigrist, Nadja

    2017-08-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to determine in-house reference intervals (RIs) for venous blood analysis with the RAPIDPoint 500 blood gas analyser using blood gas syringes (BGSs) and to determine whether immediate analysis of venous blood collected into lithium heparin (LH) tubes can replace anaerobic blood sampling into BGSs. Methods Venous blood was collected from 24 healthy cats and directly transferred into a BGS and an LH tube. The BGS was immediately analysed on the RAPIDPoint 500 followed by the LH tube. The BGSs and LH tubes were compared using paired t-test or Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed-rank test, Bland-Altman and Passing-Bablok analysis. To assess clinical relevance, bias or percentage bias between BGSs and LH tubes was compared with the allowable total error (TEa) recommended for the respective parameter. Results Based on the values obtained from the BGSs, RIs were calculated for the evaluated parameters, including blood gases, electrolytes, glucose and lactate. Values derived from LH tubes showed no significant difference for standard bicarbonate, whole blood base excess, haematocrit, total haemoglobin, sodium, potassium, chloride, glucose and lactate, while pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, actual bicarbonate, extracellular base excess, ionised calcium and anion gap were significantly different to the samples collected in BGSs ( P glucose and lactate can be made based on blood collected in LH tubes and analysed within 5 mins. For pH, partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen, extracellular base excess, anion gap and ionised calcium the clinically relevant alterations have to be considered if analysed in LH tubes.

  14. Creatinine measurement on dry blood spot sample for chronic kidney disease screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Alan Castro Azevedo E; Gómez, Juan Fidel Bencomo; Lugon, Jocemir Ronaldo; Graciano, Miguel Luis

    2016-03-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) screening is advisable due to its high morbidity and mortality and is usually performed by sampling blood and urine. Here we present an innovative and simpler method, by measuring creatinine on a dry blood spot on filter paper. One-hundred and six individuals at high risk for CKD were enrolled. The creatinine values obtained using both tests and the demographic data of each participant allowed us to determinate the eGFR. The adopted cutoff for CKD was an eGFR creatinine values differences (+ 0.68mg/dl to -0.55mg/dl) inside the ± 1.96 SD, without systematic differences. Measurement of creatinine on dry blood sample is an easily feasible non-invasive diagnostic test with good accuracy that may be useful to screen chronic kidney disease.

  15. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Koltay, E.; Laszlo, S.; Szabo, Gy.

    1984-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  16. Gram-negative and -positive bacteria differentiation in blood culture samples by headspace volatile compound analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolch, Michael E; Janitza, Silke; Boulesteix, Anne-Laure; Graßmann-Lichtenauer, Carola; Praun, Siegfried; Denzer, Wolfgang; Schelling, Gustav; Schubert, Sören

    2016-12-01

    Identification of microorganisms in positive blood cultures still relies on standard techniques such as Gram staining followed by culturing with definite microorganism identification. Alternatively, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry or the analysis of headspace volatile compound (VC) composition produced by cultures can help to differentiate between microorganisms under experimental conditions. This study assessed the efficacy of volatile compound based microorganism differentiation into Gram-negatives and -positives in unselected positive blood culture samples from patients. Headspace gas samples of positive blood culture samples were transferred to sterilized, sealed, and evacuated 20 ml glass vials and stored at -30 °C until batch analysis. Headspace gas VC content analysis was carried out via an auto sampler connected to an ion-molecule reaction mass spectrometer (IMR-MS). Measurements covered a mass range from 16 to 135 u including CO2, H2, N2, and O2. Prediction rules for microorganism identification based on VC composition were derived using a training data set and evaluated using a validation data set within a random split validation procedure. One-hundred-fifty-two aerobic samples growing 27 Gram-negatives, 106 Gram-positives, and 19 fungi and 130 anaerobic samples growing 37 Gram-negatives, 91 Gram-positives, and two fungi were analysed. In anaerobic samples, ten discriminators were identified by the random forest method allowing for bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive (error rate: 16.7 % in validation data set). For aerobic samples the error rate was not better than random. In anaerobic blood culture samples of patients IMR-MS based headspace VC composition analysis facilitates bacteria differentiation into Gram-negative and -positive.

  17. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbely-Kiss, I; Koltay, E; Laszlo, S; Szabo, Gy [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete; Goedeny, S [Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Szueleszeti es Noegyogyaszati Klinika; Seif El-Nasr, S [Teachers' Coll. for Women, Samia (Kuwait)

    1984-07-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. 11 refs.

  18. Manual versus automated streaking system in clinical microbiology laboratory: Performance evaluation of Previ Isola for blood culture and body fluid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Qute; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kim, Jong Wan; Kwon, Gye Cheol; Koo, Sun Hoe

    2018-01-04

    The process of plate streaking has been automated to improve routine workflow of clinical microbiology laboratories. Although there were many evaluation reports about the inoculation of various body fluid samples, few evaluations have been reported for blood. In this study, we evaluated the performance of automated inoculating system, Previ Isola for various routine clinical samples including blood. Blood culture, body fluid, and urine samples were collected. All samples were inoculated on both sheep blood agar plate (BAP) and MacConkey agar plate (MCK) using Previ Isola and manual method. We compared two methods in aspect of quality and quantity of cultures, and sample processing time. To ensure objective colony counting, an enumeration reading reference was made through a preliminary experiment. A total of 377 nonduplicate samples (102 blood culture, 203 urine, 72 body fluid) were collected and inoculated. The concordance rate of quality was 100%, 97.0%, and 98.6% in blood, urine, and other body fluids, respectively. In quantitative aspect, it was 98.0%, 97.0%, and 95.8%, respectively. The Previ Isola took a little longer to inoculate the specimen than manual method, but the hands-on time decreased dramatically. The shortened hands-on time using Previ Isola was about 6 minutes per 10 samples. We demonstrated that the Previ Isola showed high concordance with the manual method in the inoculation of various body fluids, especially in blood culture sample. The use of Previ Isola in clinical microbiology laboratories is expected to save considerable time and human resources. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Comparison of three methods for recovery of Brucella canis DNA from canine blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batinga, Maria Cryskely A; Dos Santos, Jaíne C; Lima, Julia T R; Bigotto, Maria Fernanda D; Muner, Kerstin; Faita, Thalita; Soares, Rodrigo M; da Silva, David A V; Oliveira, Trícia M F S; Ferreira, Helena L; Diniz, Jaqueline A; Keid, Lara B

    2017-12-01

    Brucella canis, a gram-negative, facultative intracellular and zoonotic bacterium causes canine brucellosis. Direct methods are the most appropriate for the detection of canine brucellosis and bacterial isolation from blood samples has been employed as gold-standard method. However, due to the delay in obtaining results and the biological risk of the bacterial culturing, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been successfully used as an alternative method for the diagnosis of the infection. Sample preparation is a key step for successful PCR and protocols that provide high DNA yield and purity are recommended to ensure high diagnostic sensitivity. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of PCR for the diagnosis of B. canis infection in 36 dogs by testing DNA of whole blood obtained through different extraction and purification protocols. Methods 1 and 2 were based on a commercial kit, using protocols recommended for DNA purification of whole blood and tissue samples, respectively. Method 3 was an in-house method based on enzymatic lysis and purification using organic solvents. The results of the PCR on samples obtained through three different DNA extraction protocols were compared to the blood culture. Of the 36 dogs, 13 (36.1%) were positive by blood culturing, while nine (25.0%), 14 (38.8%), and 15 (41.6%) were positive by PCR after DNA extraction using methods 1, 2 and 3, respectively. PCR performed on DNA purified by Method 2 was as efficient as blood culturing and PCR performed on DNA purified with in-house method, but had the advantage of being less laborious and, therefore, a suitable alternative for the direct B. canis detection in dogs. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. Large-scale prospective T cell function assays in shipped, unfrozen blood samples: experiences from the multicenter TRIGR trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadley, David; Cheung, Roy K; Becker, Dorothy J; Girgis, Rose; Palmer, Jerry P; Cuthbertson, David; Krischer, Jeffrey P; Dosch, Hans-Michael

    2014-02-01

    Broad consensus assigns T lymphocytes fundamental roles in inflammatory, infectious, and autoimmune diseases. However, clinical investigations have lacked fully characterized and validated procedures, equivalent to those of widely practiced biochemical tests with established clinical roles, for measuring core T cell functions. The Trial to Reduce Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus in the Genetically at Risk (TRIGR) type 1 diabetes prevention trial used consecutive measurements of T cell proliferative responses in prospectively collected fresh heparinized blood samples shipped by courier within North America. In this article, we report on the quality control implications of this simple and pragmatic shipping practice and the interpretation of positive- and negative-control analytes in our assay. We used polyclonal and postvaccination responses in 4,919 samples to analyze the development of T cell immunocompetence. We have found that the vast majority of the samples were viable up to 3 days from the blood draw, yet meaningful responses were found in a proportion of those with longer travel times. Furthermore, the shipping time of uncooled samples significantly decreased both the viabilities of the samples and the unstimulated cell counts in the viable samples. Also, subject age was significantly associated with the number of unstimulated cells and T cell proliferation to positive activators. Finally, we observed a pattern of statistically significant increases in T cell responses to tetanus toxin around the timing of infant vaccinations. This assay platform and shipping protocol satisfy the criteria for robust and reproducible long-term measurements of human T cell function, comparable to those of established blood biochemical tests. We present a stable technology for prospective disease-relevant T cell analysis in immunological diseases, vaccination medicine, and measurement of herd immunity.

  1. Workup of Human Blood Samples for Deep Sequencing of HIV-1 Genomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, Marion; Gall, Astrid; van der Kuyl, Antoinette; Wymant, Chris; Blanquart, François; Fraser, Christophe; Berkhout, Ben

    2018-01-01

    We describe a detailed protocol for the manual workup of blood (plasma/serum) samples from individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) for deep sequence analysis of the viral genome. The study optimizing the assay was performed in the context of the BEEHIVE (Bridging

  2. Transcutaneous bilirubinometry reduces the need for blood sampling in neonates with visible jaundice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, S; Chawla, D; Agarwal, R; Deorari, A K; Paul, V K; Bhutani, V K

    2009-12-01

    We determined usefulness of transcutaneous bilirubinometry to decrease the need for blood sampling to assay serum total bilirubin (STB) in the management of jaundiced healthy Indian neonates. Newborns, > or =35 weeks' gestation, with clinical evidence of jaundice were enrolled in an institutional approved randomized clinical trial. The severity of hyperbilirubinaemia was determined by two non-invasive methods: i) protocol-based visual assessment of bilirubin (VaB) and ii) transcutaneous bilirubin (TcB) determination (BiliCheck). By a random allocation, either method was used to decide the need for blood sampling, which was defined to be present if assessed STB by allocated method exceeded 80% of hour-specific threshold values for phototherapy (2004 AAP Guidelines). A total of 617 neonates were randomized to either TcB (n = 314) or VaB (n = 303) groups with comparable gestation, birth weight and postnatal age. Need for blood sampling to assay STB was 34% lower (95% CI: 10% to 51%) in the TcB group compared with VaB group (17.5% vs 26.4% assessments; risk difference: -8.9%, 95% CI: -2.4% to -15.4%; p = 0.008). Routine use of transcutaneous bilirubinometry compared with systematic visual assessment of bilirubin significantly reduced the need for blood sampling to assay STB in jaundiced term and late-preterm neonates. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00653874).

  3. [Automated serial diagnosis of donor blood samples. Ergonomic and economic organization structure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoll, T; Fischer-Fröhlich, C L; Mayer, G; Hanfland, P

    1990-01-01

    A comprehensive computer-aided administration-system for blood-donors is presented. Ciphered informations of barcode-labels allow the automatic and nevertheless selective pipetting of samples by pipetting-robots. Self-acting analysis-results are transferred to a host-computer in order to actualize a donor data-base.

  4. Levels of metals in blood samples from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos) from urban areas in Poland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkowski, Łukasz J.; Meissner, Włodzimierz

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present the studies conducted on blood samples taken from Mallards (Anas platyrhynchos). Birds were captured for ringing purposes (n = 43) in two small and two big towns (including highly urbanized areas). For comparison samples of blood from birds shot on fish ponds were used (n = 26). Based on the body mass all sampled individuals can be assessed as being in good condition. Levels of cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) in blood samples were measured with AAS. Concentrations of metals did not differ statistically between sexes and made up a following order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr ≈ Ni > Pb > Cd. Mallards from towns revealed lower concentrations of Zn and Cu but higher concentration of Fe. There was no difference in exposition to Pb between birds from towns and fish ponds. -- Highlights: •Concentrations of seven metals were measured in blood of Mallards. •Birds represent different kind of areas: urban (towns) and non-urban ones (fish ponds). •Concentrations of studied metals made up a following order: Fe > Zn > Cu > Cr ≈ Ni > Pb > Cd. •Birds from towns revealed higher amount of Fe and lower concentrations of Zn and Cu. •There was no difference in exposition to Pb between birds from towns and fish ponds. -- Exposition to iron is higher on industrialized areas in towns, but exposition to zinc and copper on such areas is lower in comparison to country fish ponds

  5. 78 FR 79009 - Proposed Information Collection; Radiation Sampling and Exposure Records (Pertains to Underground...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-27

    ... soliciting comments concerning the proposed information collection for updating Radiation Sampling and... exposed with no adverse effects have been established and are expressed as working levels (WL). The... mandatory samplings. Records must include the sample date, location, and results, and must be retained at...

  6. Novel genotype of Ehrlichia canis detected in samples of human blood bank donors in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouza-Mora, Laura; Dolz, Gaby; Solórzano-Morales, Antony; Romero-Zuñiga, Juan José; Salazar-Sánchez, Lizbeth; Labruna, Marcelo B; Aguiar, Daniel M

    2017-01-01

    This study focuses on the detection and identification of DNA and antibodies to Ehrlichia spp. in samples of blood bank donors in Costa Rica using molecular and serological techniques. Presence of Ehrlichia canis was determined in 10 (3.6%) out of 280 blood samples using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) targeting the ehrlichial dsb conserved gene. Analysis of the ehrlichial trp36 polymorphic gene in these 10 samples revealed substantial polymorphism among the E. canis genotypes, including divergent tandem repeat sequences. Nucleotide sequences of dsb and trp36 amplicons revealed a novel genotype of E. canis in blood bank donors from Costa Rica. Indirect immunofluorescence assay (IFA) detected antibodies in 35 (35%) of 100 serum samples evaluated. Thirty samples showed low endpoint titers (64-256) to E. canis, whereas five sera yielded high endpoint titers (1024-8192); these five samples were also E. canis-PCR positive. These findings represent the first report of the presence of E. canis in humans in Central America. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative Analysis of Clinical Samples Showing Weak Serum Reaction on AutoVue System Causing ABO Blood Typing Discrepancies

    OpenAIRE

    Jo, Su Yeon; Lee, Ju Mi; Kim, Hye Lim; Sin, Kyeong Hwa; Lee, Hyeon Ji; Chang, Chulhun Ludgerus; Kim, Hyung-Hoi

    2016-01-01

    Background ABO blood typing in pre-transfusion testing is a major component of the high workload in blood banks that therefore requires automation. We often experienced discrepant results from an automated system, especially weak serum reactions. We evaluated the discrepant results by the reference manual method to confirm ABO blood typing. Methods In total, 13,113 blood samples were tested with the AutoVue system; all samples were run in parallel with the reference manual method according to...

  8. Assembly for collecting samples for purposes of identification or analysis and method of use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Cyril V [Knoxville, TN; Smith, Rob R [Knoxville, TN

    2010-02-02

    An assembly and an associated method for collecting a sample of material desired to be characterized with diagnostic equipment includes or utilizes an elongated member having a proximal end with which the assembly is manipulated by a user and a distal end. In addition, a collection tip which is capable of being placed into contact with the material to be characterized is supported upon the distal end. The collection tip includes a body of chemically-inert porous material for binding a sample of material when the tip is placed into contact with the material and thereby holds the sample of material for subsequent introduction to the diagnostic equipment.

  9. [Establishment and Management of Multicentral Collection Bio-sample Banks of Malignant Tumors from Digestive System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Si; Shen, Junwei; Zhu, Liang; Wu, Chaoqun; Li, Dongliang; Yu, Hongyu; Qiu, Yuanyuan; Zhou, Yi

    2015-11-01

    To establish and manage of multicentral collection bio-sample banks of malignant tumors from digestive system, the paper designed a multicentral management system, established the standard operation procedures (SOPs) and leaded ten hospitals nationwide to collect tumor samples. The biobank has been established for half a year, and has collected 695 samples from patients with digestive system malignant tumor. The clinical data is full and complete, labeled in a unified way and classified to be managed. The clinical and molecular biology researches were based on the biobank, and obtained achievements. The biobank provides a research platform for malignant tumor of digestive system from different regions and of different types.

  10. Direct RNA-based detection of CTX-M β-lactamases in human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Claudia; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Brandt, Christian; Pletz, Mathias W

    2015-05-01

    Bloodstream infections with ESBL-producers are associated with increased mortality, which is due to delayed appropriate treatment resulting in clinical failure. Current routine diagnostics for detection of bloodstream infections consists of blood culture followed by species identification and susceptibility testing. In attempts to improve and accelerate diagnostic procedures, PCR-based methods have been developed. These methods focus on species identification covering only a limited number of ESBL coding genes. Therefore, they fail to cover the steadily further evolving genetic diversity of clinically relevant β-lactamases. We have recently designed a fast and novel RNA targeting method to detect and specify CTX-M alleles from bacterial cultures, based on an amplification-pyrosequencing approach. We further developed this assay towards a diagnostic tool for clinical use and evaluated its sensitivity and specificity when applied directly to human blood samples. An optimized protocol for mRNA isolation allows detection of specific CTX-M groups from as little as 100 CFU/mL blood via reverse transcription, amplification, and pyrosequencing directly from human EDTA blood samples as well as from pre-incubated human blood cultures with a turnaround time for test results of <7 h. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Alcohol intoxication at Swedish football matches: A study using biological sampling to assess blood alcohol concentration levels among spectators.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalie Durbeej

    Full Text Available Alcohol use and alcohol-related problems, including accidents, vandalism and violence, at sporting events are of increased concern in Sweden and other countries. The relationship between alcohol use and violence has been established and can be explained by the level of intoxication. Given the occurrence of alcohol use and alcohol-related problems at sporting events, research has assessed intoxication levels measured through biological sampling among spectators. This cross-sectional study aimed to assess the level of alcohol intoxication among spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League. Spectators were randomly selected and invited to participate in the study. Alcohol intoxication was measured with a breath analyser for Blood Alcohol Concentration levels, and data on gender, age, and recent alcohol use were gathered through a face-to-face interview. Blood Alcohol Concentration samples from 4420 spectators were collected. Almost half (46.8% had a positive Blood Alcohol Concentration level, with a mean value of 0.063%, while 8.9% had a Blood Alcohol Concentration level ≥ 0.1%, with a mean value of 0.135%. Factors that predicted a higher Blood Alcohol Concentration level included male gender (p = 0.005, lower age (p < 0.001, attending a local derby (p < 0.001, alcohol use prior to having entered the arena (p < 0.001, attending a weekend match (p < 0.001, and being a spectator at supporter sections (p < 0.001. About half of all spectators at football matches in the Swedish Premier Football League drink alcohol in conjunction with the match. Approximately one tenth have a high level of alcohol intoxication.

  12. Point-of-care blood gases, electrolytes, chemistries, hemoglobin, and hematocrit measurement in venous samples from pet rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selleri, Paolo; Di Girolamo, Nicola

    2014-01-01

    Point-of-care testing is an attractive option in rabbit medicine, because it permits rapid analysis of a panel of electrolytes, chemistries, blood gases, hemoglobin, and hematocrit, requiring only 65 μL of blood. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the performance of a portable clinical analyzer for measurement of pH, partial pressure of CO2, Na, chloride, potassium, blood urea nitrogen, glucose, hematocrit, and hemoglobin in healthy and diseased rabbits. Blood samples obtained from 30 pet rabbits were analyzed immediately after collection by the portable clinical analyzer (PCA) and immediately thereafter (time <20 sec) by a reference analyzer. Bland-Altman plots and Passing-Bablok regression analysis were used to compare the results. Limits of agreement were wide for all the variables studied, with the exception of pH. Most variables presented significant proportional and/or constant bias. The current study provides sufficient evidence that the PCA presents reliability for pH, although its low agreement with a reference analyzer for the other variables does not support their interchangeability. Limits of agreement provided for each variable allow researchers to evaluate if the PCA is reliable enough for their scope. To the authors' knowledge, the present is the first report evaluating a PCA in the rabbit.

  13. In Vitro Evaluation of Evacuated Blood Collection Tubes as a Closed-Suction Surgical Drain Reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiser, Brian; Okrasinski, E B; Murray, Rebecca; McCord, Kelly

    The initial negative pressures of evacuated blood collection tubes (EBCT) and their in vitro performance as a rigid closed-suction surgical drain (CSSD) reservoir has not been evaluated in the scientific literature despite being described in both human and veterinary texts and journals. The initial negative pressures of EBCT sized 3, 6, 10, and 15 mL were measured and the stability of the system monitored. The pressure-to-volume curve as either air or water was added and maximal filling volumes were measured. Evacuated blood collection tubes beyond the manufacture's expiration date were evaluated for initial negative pressures and maximal filling volumes. Initial negative pressure ranged from -214 mm Hg to -528 mm Hg for EBCT within the manufacturer's expiration date. Different pressure-to-volume curves were found for air versus water. Optimal negative pressures of CSSD are debated in the literature. Drain purpose and type of exudates are factors that should be considered when deciding which EBCT size to implement. Evacuated blood collection tubes have a range of negative pressures and pressure-to-volume curves similar to previously evaluated CSSD rigid reservoirs. Proper drain management and using EBCT within labeled expiration date are important to ensure that expected negative pressures are generated.

  14. Rapid Treponema pallidum clearance from blood and ulcer samples following single dose benzathine penicillin treatment of early syphilis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig Tipple

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the efficacy of syphilis treatment is measured with anti-lipid antibody tests. These can take months to indicate cure and, as a result, syphilis treatment trials require long periods of follow-up. The causative organism, Treponema pallidum (T. pallidum, is detectable in the infectious lesions of early syphilis using DNA amplification. Bacteraemia can likewise be identified, typically in more active disease. We hypothesise that bacterial clearance from blood and ulcers will predict early the standard serology-measured treatment response and have developed a qPCR assay that could monitor this clearance directly in patients with infectious syphilis. Patients with early syphilis were given an intramuscular dose of benzathine penicillin. To investigate the appropriate sampling timeframe samples of blood and ulcer exudate were collected intensively for T. pallidum DNA (tpp047 gene and RNA (16S rRNA quantification. Sampling ended when two consecutive PCRs were negative. Four males were recruited. The mean peak level of T. pallidum DNA was 1626 copies/ml whole blood and the mean clearance half-life was 5.7 hours (std. dev. 0.53. The mean peak of 16S rRNA was 8879 copies/ml whole blood with a clearance half-life of 3.9 hours (std. dev. 0.84. From an ulcer, pre-treatment, 67,400 T. pallidum DNA copies and 7.08 x 107 16S rRNA copies were detected per absorbance strip and the clearance half-lives were 3.2 and 4.1 hours, respectively. Overall, T. pallidum nucleic acids were not detected in any sample collected more than 56 hours (range 20-56 after treatment. All patients achieved serologic cure. In patients with active early syphilis, measuring T. pallidum levels in blood and ulcer exudate may be a useful measure of treatment success in therapeutic trials. These laboratory findings need confirmation on a larger scale and in patients receiving different therapies.

  15. Allogenic blood transfusion following total hip arthroplasty: results from the nationwide inpatient sample, 2000 to 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, Anas; Small, Travis; Chandran Pillai, Aiswarya Lekshmi Pillai; Schiltz, Nicholas K; Klika, Alison K; Barsoum, Wael K

    2014-09-17

    The large-scale utilization of allogenic blood transfusion and its associated outcomes have been described in critically ill patients and those undergoing high-risk cardiac surgery but not in patients undergoing elective total hip arthroplasty. The objective of this study was to determine the trends in utilization and outcomes of allogenic blood transfusion in patients undergoing primary total hip arthroplasty in the United States from 2000 to 2009. An observational cohort of 2,087,423 patients who underwent primary total hip arthroplasty from 2000 to 2009 was identified in the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification procedure codes 99.03 and 99.04 were used to identify patients who received allogenic blood products during their hospital stay. Risk factors for allogenic transfusions were identified with use of multivariable logistic regression models. We used propensity score matching to estimate the adjusted association between transfusion and surgical outcomes. The rate of allogenic blood transfusion increased from 11.8% in 2000 to 19.0% in 2009. Patient-related risk factors for receiving an allogenic blood transfusion include an older age, female sex, black race, and Medicaid insurance. Hospital-related risk factors include rural location, smaller size, and non-academic status. After adjusting for confounders, allogenic blood transfusion was associated with a longer hospital stay (0.58 ± 0.02 day; p conservation methods. Copyright © 2014 by The Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery, Incorporated.

  16. IMPROVEMENT OF METHODS FOR HYDROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH AND MODIFICATION OF STANDARD TOOLS FOR SAMPLE COLLECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. M. Aligadjiev

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The paper discusses the improvement of methods of hydrobiological studies by modifying tools for plankton and benthic samples collecting. Methods. In order to improve the standard methods of hydro-biological research, we have developed tools for sampling zooplankton and benthic environment of the Caspian Sea. Results. Long-term practice of selecting hydrobiological samples in the Caspian Sea shows that it is required to complete the modernization of the sampling tools used to collect hydrobiological material. With the introduction of Azov and Black Sea invasive comb jelly named Mnemiopsis leidyi A. Agassiz to the Caspian Sea there is a need to collect plankton samples without disturbing its integrity. Tools for collecting benthic fauna do not always give a complete picture of the state of benthic ecosystems because of the lack of visual site selection for sampling. Moreover, while sampling by dredge there is a probable loss of the samples, especially in areas with difficult terrain. Conclusion. We propose to modify a small model of Upstein net (applied in shallow water to collect zooplankton samples with an upper inverted cone that will significantly improve the catchability of the net in theCaspian Sea. Bottom sampler can be improved by installing a video camera for visual inspection of the bottom topography, and use sensors to determine tilt of the dredge and the position of the valves of the bucket. 

  17. Standardized Method for Measuring Collection Efficiency from Wipe-sampling of Trace Explosives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkouteren, Jennifer R; Lawrence, Jeffrey A; Staymates, Matthew E; Sisco, Edward

    2017-04-10

    One of the limiting steps to detecting traces of explosives at screening venues is effective collection of the sample. Wipe-sampling is the most common procedure for collecting traces of explosives, and standardized measurements of collection efficiency are needed to evaluate and optimize sampling protocols. The approach described here is designed to provide this measurement infrastructure, and controls most of the factors known to be relevant to wipe-sampling. Three critical factors (the applied force, travel distance, and travel speed) are controlled using an automated device. Test surfaces are chosen based on similarity to the screening environment, and the wipes can be made from any material considered for use in wipe-sampling. Particle samples of the explosive 1,3,5-trinitroperhydro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) are applied in a fixed location on the surface using a dry-transfer technique. The particle samples, recently developed to simulate residues made after handling explosives, are produced by inkjet printing of RDX solutions onto polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) substrates. Collection efficiency is measured by extracting collected explosive from the wipe, and then related to critical sampling factors and the selection of wipe material and test surface. These measurements are meant to guide the development of sampling protocols at screening venues, where speed and throughput are primary considerations.

  18. Fabrication and Characterization of a Microfluidic Device to Ultrapurify Blood Samples

    KAUST Repository

    Tallerico, Marco

    2015-05-04

    The improvement of blood cell sorting techniques in recent years have attracted the attention of many researchers due to the possible benefits that these methods can lead in biology, regenerative medicine, materials science and therapeutic area. In this work a cell sorting technique based on filtration is described. The separation occurs by means of a microfluidic device, suitably designed, manufactured and tested, that is connected to an external experimental set-up. The fabrication process can be divided in two parts: at first it is described the manufacturing process of a filtering membrane, with holes of specific size that allow the passage of only certain cell types. Following the microfluidic device is fabricated through the mechanical micromilling. The membrane and the microdevice are suitably bonded and tested by means of an external connection with syringe pumps that inject blood samples at specific flow rates. The device is designed to separate blood cells and tumor cells only by using differences in size and shape. In particular during the first experiments red blood cells and platelets are sorted from white blood cells; in the other experiments red blood cells and platelets are separated from white blood cells and tumor cells. The microdevice has proven to be very efficient, in fact a capture efficiency of 99% is achieved. For this reason it could be used in identification and isolation of circulating tumor cells, a very rare cancer cell type whose presence in the bloodstream could be symptom of future solid tumor formation. The various experiments have also demonstrated that tumor cells survive even after the separation treatment, and then the suffered stress during the sorting process does not harm the biological sample.

  19. Deficits in knowledge, attitude, and practice towards blood culture sampling: results of a nationwide mixed-methods study among inpatient care physicians in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raupach-Rosin, Heike; Duddeck, Arne; Gehrlich, Maike; Helmke, Charlotte; Huebner, Johannes; Pletz, Mathias W; Mikolajczyk, Rafael; Karch, André

    2017-08-01

    Blood culture (BC) sampling rates in Germany are considerably lower than recommended. Aim of our study was to assess knowledge, attitudes, and practice of physicians in Germany regarding BC diagnostics. We conducted a cross-sectional mixed-methods study among physicians working in inpatient care in Germany. Based on the results of qualitative focus groups, a questionnaire-based quantitative study was conducted in 2015-2016. In total, 706 medical doctors and final-year medical students from 11 out of 16 federal states in Germany participated. BC sampling was considered an important diagnostic tool by 95% of the participants. However, only 23% of them would collect BCs in three scenarios for which BC ordering is recommended by present guidelines in Germany; almost one out of ten physicians would not have taken blood cultures in any of the three scenarios. The majority of participants (74%) reported not to adhere to the guideline recommendation that blood culture sampling should include at least two blood culture sets from two different injection sites. High routine in blood culture sampling, perceived importance of blood culture diagnostics, the availability of an in-house microbiological lab, and the department the physician worked in were identified as predictors for good blood culture practice. Our study suggests that there are substantial deficits in BC ordering and the application of guidelines for good BC practice in Germany. Based on these findings, multimodal interventions appear necessary for improving BC diagnostics.

  20. Evaluation of a nested-PCR for mycobacterium tuberculosis detection in blood and urine samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cruz, Heidi Lacerda Alves; de Albuquerque Montenegro, Rosana; de Araújo Lima, Juliana Falcão; da Rocha Poroca, Diogo; da Costa Lima, Juliana Figueirêdo; Maria Lapa Montenegro, Lílian; Crovella, Sergio; Charifker Schindler, Haiana

    2011-01-01

    The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its variations, such as the nested-PCR, have been described as promising techniques for rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB). With the aim of evaluating the usefulness of a nested-PCR method on samples of blood and urine of patients suspected of tuberculosis we analyzed 192 clinical samples, using as a molecular target the insertion element IS6110 specific of M. tuberculosis genome. Nested-PCR method showed higher sensitivity in patients with extrapulmonary tuberculosis (47.8% and 52% in blood and urine) when compared to patients with the pulmonary form of the disease (sensitivity of 29% and 26.9% in blood and urine), regardless of the type of biological sample used. The nested-PCR is a rapid technique that, even if not showing a good sensitivity, should be considered as a helpful tool especially in the extrapulmonary cases or in cases where confirmatory diagnosis is quite difficult to be achieved by routine methods. The performance of PCR-based techniques should be considered and tested in future works on other types of biological specimens besides sputum, like blood and urine, readily obtainable in most cases. The improving of M. tuberculosis nested-PCR detection in TB affected patients will give the possibility of an earlier detection of bacilli thus interrupting the transmission chain of the disease.

  1. Use of serum and blood samples on filter paper to improve the surveillance of Dengue in Pacific Island Countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aubry, Maite; Roche, Claudine; Dupont-Rouzeyrol, Myrielle; Aaskov, John; Viallon, Jérôme; Marfel, Maria; Lalita, Paul; Elbourne-Duituturaga, Salanieta; Chanteau, Suzanne; Musso, Didier; Pavlin, Boris I; Harrison, Dustin; Kool, Jacob L; Cao-Lormeau, Van-Mai

    2012-09-01

    In Pacific Island Countries (PICs) the epidemiology of dengue is characterized by long-term transmission of a single dengue virus (DENV) serotype. The emergence of a new serotype in one island country often indicates major outbreaks with this serotype will follow in other PICs. Filter paper (FP) cards on which whole blood or serum from dengue suspected patients had been dried was evaluated as a method for transportation of this material by standard mail delivery throughout the Pacific. Twenty-two FP-dried whole blood samples collected from patients in New Caledonia and Wallis & Futuna Islands, during DENV-1 and DENV-4 transmission, and 76 FP-dried sera collected from patients in Yap State, Majuro (Republic of Marshall Islands), Tonga and Fiji, before and during outbreaks of DENV-2 in Yap State and DENV-4 in Majuro, were tested for the presence of DENV RNA, by serotype specific RT-PCR, at the Institut Louis Malardé in French Polynesia. The serotype of DENV could be determined, by a variety of RT-PCR procedures, in the FP-dried samples after more than three weeks of transport at ambient temperatures. In most cases, the sequencing of the envelope gene to genotype the viruses also was possible. The serotype and genotype of DENV can be determined from FP-dried serum or whole blood samples transported over thousands of kilometers at ambient, tropical, temperatures. This simple and low-cost approach to virus identification should be evaluated in isolated and resource poor settings for surveillance for a range of significant viral diseases. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Suitability of small diagnostic peripheral-blood samples for cell-therapy studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephanou, Coralea; Papasavva, Panayiota; Zachariou, Myria; Patsali, Petros; Epitropou, Marilena; Ladas, Petros; Al-Abdulla, Ruba; Christou, Soteroulla; Antoniou, Michael N; Lederer, Carsten W; Kleanthous, Marina

    2017-02-01

    Primary hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) are key components of cell-based therapies for blood disorders and are thus the authentic substrate for related research. We propose that ubiquitous small-volume diagnostic samples represent a readily available and as yet untapped resource of primary patient-derived cells for cell- and gene-therapy studies. In the present study we compare isolation and storage methods for HSPCs from normal and thalassemic small-volume blood samples, considering genotype, density-gradient versus lysis-based cell isolation and cryostorage media with different serum contents. Downstream analyses include viability, recovery, differentiation in semi-solid media and performance in liquid cultures and viral transductions. We demonstrate that HSPCs isolated either by ammonium-chloride potassium (ACK)-based lysis or by gradient isolation are suitable for functional analyses in clonogenic assays, high-level HSPC expansion and efficient lentiviral transduction. For cryostorage of cells, gradient isolation is superior to ACK lysis, and cryostorage in freezing media containing 50% fetal bovine serum demonstrated good results across all tested criteria. For assays on freshly isolated cells, ACK lysis performed similar to, and for thalassemic samples better than, gradient isolation, at a fraction of the cost and hands-on time. All isolation and storage methods show considerable variation within sample groups, but this is particularly acute for density gradient isolation of thalassemic samples. This study demonstrates the suitability of small-volume blood samples for storage and preclinical studies, opening up the research field of HSPC and gene therapy to any blood diagnostic laboratory with corresponding bioethics approval for experimental use of surplus material. Copyright © 2017 International Society for Cellular Therapy. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Blood Collection from Local Abattoirs for Mass Production of Tsetse Flies to be used in the Sterile Insect Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Byamungu, M B; Kiimbisa, B; Matembo, S; Mashenga, G [Tsetse and Trypanosomiasis Research Institute, P.O. Box 1026, Tanga (Tanzania, United Republic of)

    2012-07-15

    The mass production of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires a supply of quality blood. For some years already cattle blood has been used as food for laboratory reared flies. The blood is collected from an abattoir using standard procedures. The collection procedures, handling and storage require aseptic conditions to avoid contamination of the blood, which could be fatal to the flies. Fly mortality caused by low quality blood endangers the success of mass rearing. To rear healthy flies with good survival and production the blood should be of good quality - free of contamination and with a packed cell volume (PCV) above 25%. The present work involved the seasonal collection of blood from abattoirs in the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanga, Arusha, Dodoma, Dar-es-salaam). Dodoma was identified as having the best conditions for blood collection. To assess the quality of the blood as a diet for tsetse, blood was screened for the presence of bacteria, and the pathogens were identified. Protocols were developed for blood quality assurance. (author)

  4. The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS)—A master catalog and collections management plan for U.S. Geological Survey geologic samples and sample collections

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is widely recognized in the earth science community as possessing extensive collections of earth materials collected by research personnel over the course of its history. In 2006, a Geologic Collections Inventory was conducted within the USGS Geology Discipline to determine the extent and nature of its sample collections, and in 2008, a working group was convened by the USGS National Geologic and Geophysical Data Preservation Program to examine ways in which these collections could be coordinated, cataloged, and made available to researchers both inside and outside the USGS. The charge to this working group was to evaluate the proposition of creating a Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS), a centralized database that would (1) identify all existing USGS geologic collections, regardless of size, (2) create a virtual link among the collections, and (3) provide a way for scientists and other researchers to obtain access to the samples and data in which they are interested. Additionally, the group was instructed to develop criteria for evaluating current collections and to establish an operating plan and set of standard practices for handling, identifying, and managing future sample collections. Policies and procedures promoted by the GCMS would be based on extant best practices established by the National Science Foundation and the Smithsonian Institution. The resulting report—USGS Circular 1410, “The U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Collections Management System (GCMS): A Master Catalog and Collections Management Plan for U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Samples and Sample Collections”—has been developed for sample repositories to be a guide to establishing common practices in the collection, retention, and disposal of geologic research materials throughout the USGS.

  5. Variability and reliability of POP concentrations in multiple breast milk samples collected from the same mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakimoto, Risa; Ichiba, Masayoshi; Matsumoto, Akiko; Nakai, Kunihiko; Tatsuta, Nozomi; Iwai-Shimada, Miyuki; Ishiyama, Momoko; Ryuda, Noriko; Someya, Takashi; Tokumoto, Ieyasu; Ueno, Daisuke

    2018-01-13

    Risk assessment of infant using a realistic persistent organic pollutant (POP) exposure through breast milk is essential to devise future regulation of POPs. However, recent investigations have demonstrated that POP levels in breast milk collected from the same mother showed a wide range of variation daily and monthly. To estimate the appropriate sample size of breast milk from the same mother to obtain reliable POP concentrations, breast milk samples were collected from five mothers living in Japan from 2006 to 2012. Milk samples from each mother were collected 3 to 6 times a day through 3 to 7 days consecutively. Food samples as the duplicated method were collected from two mothers during the period of breast milk sample collection. Those were employed for POP (PCBs, DDTs, chlordanes, and HCB) analysis. PCB concentrations detected in breast milk samples showed a wide range of variation which was maximum 63 and 60% of relative standard deviation (RSD) in lipid and wet weight basis, respectively. The time course trend of those variations among the mothers did not show any typical pattern. A larger amount of PCB intake through food seemed to affect 10 h after those concentrations in breast milk in lipid weight basis. Intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) analyses indicated that the appropriate sample size for good reproducibility of POP concentrations in breast milk required at least two samples for lipid and wet weight basis.

  6. Evaluation of the effects of insufficient blood volume samples on the performance of blood glucose self-test meters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfützner, Andreas; Schipper, Christina; Ramljak, Sanja; Flacke, Frank; Sieber, Jochen; Forst, Thomas; Musholt, Petra B

    2013-11-01

    Accuracy of blood glucose readings is (among other things) dependent on the test strip being completely filled with sufficient sample volume. The devices are supposed to display an error message in case of incomplete filling. This laboratory study was performed to test the performance of 31 commercially available devices in case of incomplete strip filling. Samples with two different glucose levels (60-90 and 300-350 mg/dl) were used to generate three different sample volumes: 0.20 µl (too low volume for any device), 0.32 µl (borderline volume), and 1.20 µl (low but supposedly sufficient volume for all devices). After a point-of-care capillary reference measurement (StatStrip, NovaBiomedical), the meter strip was filled (6x) with the respective volume, and the response of the meters (two devices) was documented (72 determinations/meter type). Correct response was defined as either an error message indicating incomplete filling or a correct reading (±20% compared with reference reading). Only five meters showed 100% correct responses [BGStar and iBGStar (both Sanofi), ACCU-CHEK Compact+ and ACCU-CHEK Mobile (both Roche Diagnostics), OneTouch Verio (LifeScan)]. The majority of the meters (17) had up to 10% incorrect reactions [predominantly incorrect readings with sufficient volume; Precision Xceed and Xtra, FreeStyle Lite, and Freedom Lite (all Abbott); GlucoCard+ and GlucoMen GM (both Menarini); Contour, Contour USB, and Breeze2 (all Bayer); OneTouch Ultra Easy, Ultra 2, and Ultra Smart (all LifeScan); Wellion Dialog and Premium (both MedTrust); FineTouch (Terumo); ACCU-CHEK Aviva (Roche); and GlucoTalk (Axis-Shield)]. Ten percent to 20% incorrect reactions were seen with OneTouch Vita (LifeScan), ACCU-CHEK Aviva Nano (Roche), OmniTest+ (BBraun), and AlphaChek+ (Berger Med). More than 20% incorrect reactions were obtained with Pura (Ypsomed), GlucoCard Meter and GlucoMen LX (both Menarini), Elite (Bayer), and MediTouch (Medisana). In summary, partial and

  7. Use of the polymerase chain reaction to directly detect malaria parasites in blood samples from the Venezuelan Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laserson, K F; Petralanda, I; Hamlin, D M; Almera, R; Fuentes, M; Carrasquel, A; Barker, R H

    1994-02-01

    We have examined the reproducibility, sensitivity, and specificity of detecting Plasmodium falciparum using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and the species-specific probe pPF14 under field conditions in the Venezuelan Amazon. Up to eight samples were field collected from each of 48 consenting Amerindians presenting with symptoms of malaria. Sample processing and analysis was performed at the Centro Amazonico para la Investigacion y Control de Enfermedades Tropicales Simon Bolivar. A total of 229 samples from 48 patients were analyzed by PCR methods using four different P. falciparum-specific probes. One P. vivax-specific probe and by conventional microscopy. Samples in which results from PCR and microscopy differed were reanalyzed at a higher sensitivity by microscopy. Results suggest that microscopy-negative, PCR-positive samples are true positives, and that microscopy-positive and PCR-negative samples are true negatives. The sensitivity of the DNA probe/PCR method was 78% and its specificity was 97%. The positive predictive value of the PCR method was 88%, and the negative predictive value was 95%. Through the analysis of multiple blood samples from each individual, the DNA probe/PCR methodology was found to have an inherent reproducibility that was highly statistically significant.

  8. Planning for the Collection and Analysis of Samples of Martian Granular Materials Potentially to be Returned by Mars Sample Return

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrier, B. L.; Beaty, D. W.

    2017-12-01

    NASA's Mars 2020 rover is scheduled to land on Mars in 2021 and will be equipped with a sampling system capable of collecting rock cores, as well as a specialized drill bit for collecting unconsolidated granular material. A key mission objective is to collect a set of samples that have enough scientific merit to justify returning to Earth. In the case of granular materials, we would like to catalyze community discussion on what we would do with these samples if they arrived in our laboratories, as input to decision-making related to sampling the regolith. Numerous scientific objectives have been identified which could be achieved or significantly advanced via the analysis of martian rocks, "regolith," and gas samples. The term "regolith" has more than one definition, including one that is general and one that is much more specific. For the purpose of this analysis we use the term "granular materials" to encompass the most general meaning and restrict "regolith" to a subset of that. Our working taxonomy includes the following: 1) globally sourced airfall dust (dust); 2) saltation-sized particles (sand); 3) locally sourced decomposed rock (regolith); 4) crater ejecta (ejecta); and, 5) other. Analysis of martian granular materials could serve to advance our understanding areas including habitability and astrobiology, surface-atmosphere interactions, chemistry, mineralogy, geology and environmental processes. Results of these analyses would also provide input into planning for future human exploration of Mars, elucidating possible health and mechanical hazards caused by the martian surface material, as well as providing valuable information regarding available resources for ISRU and civil engineering purposes. Results would also be relevant to matters of planetary protection and ground-truthing orbital observations. We will present a preliminary analysis of the following, in order to generate community discussion and feedback on all issues relating to: What are the

  9. Tritium concentrations in environmental water and food samples collected around the vicinity of the PNPP-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, T.Y.; Enriquez, S.O.; Duran, E.B.

    1986-01-01

    The natural radioactivity levels of tritium in environmental samples collected around the vicinity and more distant environment of the first Philippine Nuclear Power Plant (PNPP-1) in Bataan were assessed. The samples analyzed consisted of water samples such as seawater, freshwater, drinking water, groundwater and rainwater; and food samples such as cereals, vegetables, fruits; meat, milk fish and crustaceans. Tritium concentrations in water samples were determined by distillation and liquid scintillation counting techniques. The food samples were analyzed for tissue-free water tritium by the freezing-drying method followed by liquid scintillation counting techniques. (Auth.) 13 refs

  10. Effect of blood contamination on results of dipstick evaluation and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio for urine samples from dogs and cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vientós-Plotts, Aida I; Behrend, Ellen N; Welles, Elizabeth G; Chew, Dennis J; Gaillard, Philippe R; Busler, Jessica N; Lee, Hollie P

    2018-05-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate effects of blood contamination on dipstick results, specific gravity (SG), and urine protein-to-urine creatinine ratio (UPCR) for urine samples from dogs and cats. SAMPLE Urine samples collected from 279 dogs and 120 cats. PROCEDURES Urine pools were made for each species (dogs [n = 60] and cats [30]). Blood was added to an aliquot of a pool, and serial dilutions were prepared with the remaining urine. Color and dipstick variables were recorded, and SG and UPCR were measured. For cats, 1 set of pools was used; for dogs, 2 sets were used. Comparisons were made between undiluted urine and spiked urine samples for individual colors. Repeated-measures ANOVA on ranks was used to compare dipstick scores and UPCR results; χ 2 tests were used to compare proteinuria categorizations (nonproteinuric, borderline, or proteinuric). RESULTS Any blood in the urine resulted in significantly increased dipstick scores for blood. In both species, scores for bilirubin and ketones, pH, and SG were affected by visible blood contamination. No significant difference for the dipstick protein reagent results was evident until a sample was visibly hematuric. The UPCR was significantly increased in dark yellow samples of both species. Proteinuria categorizations differed significantly between undiluted urine and urine of all colors, except light yellow. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Any degree of blood contamination affected results of dipstick analysis. Effects depended on urine color and the variable measured. Microscopic blood contamination may affect the UPCR; thus, blood contamination may be a differential diagnosis for proteinuria in yellow urine samples.

  11. Staphylococcus aureus detection in blood samples by silica nanoparticle-oligonucleotides conjugates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsa, Baris A; Tuna, Bilge G; Hernandez, Frank J; Hernandez, Luiza I; Bayramoglu, Gulay; Arica, M Yakup; Ozalp, V Cengiz

    2016-12-15

    A fast, specific and sensitive homogeneous assay for Staphylococcus aureus detection was developed by measuring the activity of secreted nuclease from the bacteria via a modified DNA oligonucleotide. As biosensor format, an effective system, Nanokeepers as previously reported, were used for triggered release of confined fluorophores, and hence specific detection of S. aureus on nuclease activity was obtained. The interference from blood components for fluorescent quantification was eliminated by a pre-purification by aptamer-functionalized silica magnetic nanoparticles. The reported assay system was exclusively formed by nucleic acid oligos and magnetic or mesoporous silica nanoparticles, that can be used on blood samples in a stepwise manner. The assay was successfully used as a sensing platform for the specific detection of S. aureus cells as low as 682 CFU in whole blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Normalisation of spot urine samples to 24-h collection for assessment of exposure to uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marco, R.; Katorza, E.; Gonen, R.; German, U.; Tshuva, A.; Pelled, O.; Paz-tal, O.; Adout, A.; Karpas, Z.

    2008-01-01

    For dose assessment of workers at Nuclear Research Center Negev exposed to natural uranium, spot urine samples are analysed and the results are normalised to 24-h urine excretion based on 'standard' man urine volume of 1.6 l d -1 . In the present work, the urine volume, uranium level and creatinine concentration were determined in two or three 24-h urine collections from 133 male workers (319 samples) and 33 female workers (88 samples). Three volunteers provided urine spot samples from each voiding during a 24-h period and a good correlation was found between the relative level of creatinine and uranium in spot samples collected from the same individual. The results show that normalisation of uranium concentration to creatinine in a spot sample represents the 24-h content of uranium better than normalisation to the standard volume and may be used to reduce the uncertainty of dose assessment based on spot samples. (authors)

  13. OSIRIS-REx Touch-and-Go (TAG) Mission Design for Asteroid Sample Collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Alexander; Sutter, Brian; Linn, Timothy; Bierhaus, Beau; Berry, Kevin; Mink, Ron

    2014-01-01

    The Origins Spectral Interpretation Resource Identification Security Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx) mission is a NASA New Frontiers mission launching in September 2016 to rendezvous with the near-Earth asteroid Bennu in October 2018. After several months of proximity operations to characterize the asteroid, OSIRIS-REx flies a Touch-And-Go (TAG) trajectory to the asteroid's surface to collect at least 60 g of pristine regolith sample for Earth return. This paper provides mission and flight system overviews, with more details on the TAG mission design and key events that occur to safely and successfully collect the sample. An overview of the navigation performed relative to a chosen sample site, along with the maneuvers to reach the desired site is described. Safety monitoring during descent is performed with onboard sensors providing an option to abort, troubleshoot, and try again if necessary. Sample collection occurs using a collection device at the end of an articulating robotic arm during a brief five second contact period, while a constant force spring mechanism in the arm assists to rebound the spacecraft away from the surface. Finally, the sample is measured quantitatively utilizing the law of conservation of angular momentum, along with qualitative data from imagery of the sampling device. Upon sample mass verification, the arm places the sample into the Stardust-heritage Sample Return Capsule (SRC) for return to Earth in September 2023.

  14. Distribution of blood types in a sample of 245 New Zealand non-purebred cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cattin, R P

    2016-05-01

    To determine the distribution of feline blood types in a sample of non-pedigree, domestic cats in New Zealand, whether a difference exists in this distribution between domestic short haired and domestic long haired cats, and between the North and South Islands of New Zealand; and to calculate the risk of a random blood transfusion causing a severe transfusion reaction, and the risk of a random mating producing kittens susceptible to neonatal isoerythrolysis. The results of 245 blood typing tests in non-pedigree cats performed at the New Zealand Veterinary Pathology (NZVP) and Gribbles Veterinary Pathology laboratories between the beginning of 2009 and the end of 2014 were retrospectively collated and analysed. Cats that were identified as domestic short or long haired were included. For the cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology 62 were from the North Island, and 27 from the South Island. The blood type distribution differed between samples from the two laboratories (p=0.029), but not between domestic short and long haired cats (p=0.50), or between the North and South Islands (p=0.76). Of the 89 cats tested at Gribbles Veterinary Pathology, 70 (79%) were type A, 18 (20%) type B, and 1 (1%) type AB; for NZVP 139/156 (89.1%) cats were type A, 16 (10.3%) type B, and 1 (0.6%) type AB. It was estimated that 18.3-31.9% of random blood transfusions would be at risk of a transfusion reaction, and neonatal isoerythrolysis would be a risk in 9.2-16.1% of random matings between non-pedigree cats. The results from this study suggest that there is a high risk of complications for a random blood transfusion between non-purebred cats in New Zealand. Neonatal isoerythrolysis should be considered an important differential diagnosis in illness or mortality in kittens during the first days of life.

  15. SPIDIA-RNA: second external quality assessment for the pre-analytical phase of blood samples used for RNA based analyses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Malentacchi

    Full Text Available One purpose of the EC funded project, SPIDIA, is to develop evidence-based quality guidelines for the pre-analytical handling of blood samples for RNA molecular testing. To this end, two pan-European External Quality Assessments (EQAs were implemented. Here we report the results of the second SPIDIA-RNA EQA. This second study included modifications in the protocol related to the blood collection process, the shipping conditions and pre-analytical specimen handling for participants. Participating laboratories received two identical proficiency blood specimens collected in tubes with or without an RNA stabilizer. For pre-defined specimen storage times and temperatures, laboratories were asked to perform RNA extraction from whole blood according to their usual procedure and to return extracted RNA to the SPIDIA facility for further analysis. These RNA samples were evaluated for purity, yield, integrity, stability, presence of interfering substances, and gene expression levels for the validated markers of RNA stability: FOS, IL1B, IL8, GAPDH, FOSB and TNFRSF10c. Analysis of the gene expression results of FOS, IL8, FOSB, and TNFRSF10c, however, indicated that the levels of these transcripts were significantly affected by blood collection tube type and storage temperature. These results demonstrated that only blood collection tubes containing a cellular RNA stabilizer allowed reliable gene expression analysis within 48 h from blood collection for all the genes investigated. The results of these two EQAs have been proposed for use in the development of a Technical Specification by the European Committee for Standardization.

  16. Comparing identified and statistically significant lipids and polar metabolites in 15-year old serum and dried blood spot samples for longitudinal studies: Comparing lipids and metabolites in serum and DBS samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyle, Jennifer E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Casey, Cameron P. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Stratton, Kelly G. [National Security Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zink, Erika M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Kim, Young-Mo [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Zheng, Xueyun [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Monroe, Matthew E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Weitz, Karl K. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Bloodsworth, Kent J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Orton, Daniel J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Ibrahim, Yehia M. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Moore, Ronald J. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Lee, Christine G. [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Research Service, Portland Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Portland OR USA; Pedersen, Catherine [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Orwoll, Eric [Department of Medicine, Bone and Mineral Unit, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland OR USA; Smith, Richard D. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Burnum-Johnson, Kristin E. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA; Baker, Erin S. [Earth and Biological Sciences Directorate, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland WA USA

    2017-02-05

    The use of dried blood spots (DBS) has many advantages over traditional plasma and serum samples such as smaller blood volume required, storage at room temperature, and ability for sampling in remote locations. However, understanding the robustness of different analytes in DBS samples is essential, especially in older samples collected for longitudinal studies. Here we analyzed DBS samples collected in 2000-2001 and stored at room temperature and compared them to matched serum samples stored at -80°C to determine if they could be effectively used as specific time points in a longitudinal study following metabolic disease. Four hundred small molecules were identified in both the serum and DBS samples using gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), liquid chromatography-MS (LC-MS) and LC-ion mobility spectrometry-MS (LC-IMS-MS). The identified polar metabolites overlapped well between the sample types, though only one statistically significant polar metabolite in a case-control study was conserved, indicating degradation occurs in the DBS samples affecting quantitation. Differences in the lipid identifications indicated that some oxidation occurs in the DBS samples. However, thirty-six statistically significant lipids correlated in both sample types indicating that lipid quantitation was more stable across the sample types.

  17. Sample to answer visualization pipeline for low-cost point-of-care blood cell counting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Suzanne; Naidoo, Thegaran; Davies, Emlyn; Fourie, Louis; Nxumalo, Zandile; Swart, Hein; Marais, Philip; Land, Kevin; Roux, Pieter

    2015-03-01

    We present a visualization pipeline from sample to answer for point-of-care blood cell counting applications. Effective and low-cost point-of-care medical diagnostic tests provide developing countries and rural communities with accessible healthcare solutions [1], and can be particularly beneficial for blood cell count tests, which are often the starting point in the process of diagnosing a patient [2]. The initial focus of this work is on total white and red blood cell counts, using a microfluidic cartridge [3] for sample processing. Analysis of the processed samples has been implemented by means of two main optical visualization systems developed in-house: 1) a fluidic operation analysis system using high speed video data to determine volumes, mixing efficiency and flow rates, and 2) a microscopy analysis system to investigate homogeneity and concentration of blood cells. Fluidic parameters were derived from the optical flow [4] as well as color-based segmentation of the different fluids using a hue-saturation-value (HSV) color space. Cell count estimates were obtained using automated microscopy analysis and were compared to a widely accepted manual method for cell counting using a hemocytometer [5]. The results using the first iteration microfluidic device [3] showed that the most simple - and thus low-cost - approach for microfluidic component implementation was not adequate as compared to techniques based on manual cell counting principles. An improved microfluidic design has been developed to incorporate enhanced mixing and metering components, which together with this work provides the foundation on which to successfully implement automated, rapid and low-cost blood cell counting tests.

  18. Performance evaluation of continuous blood sampling system for PET study. Comparison of three detector-systems

    CERN Document Server

    Matsumoto, K; Sakamoto, S; Senda, M; Yamamoto, S; Tarutani, K; Minato, K

    2002-01-01

    To measure cerebral blood flow with sup 1 sup 5 O PET, it is necessary to measure the time course of arterial blood radioactivity. We examined the performance of three different types of continuous blood sampling system. Three kinds of continuous blood sampling system were used: a plastic scintillator-based beta detector (conventional beta detector (BETA)), a bismuth germinate (BGO)-based coincidence gamma detector (Pico-count flow-through detector (COINC)) and a Phoswich detector (PD) composed by a combination of plastic scintillator and BGO scintillator. Performance of these systems was evaluated for absolute sensitivity, count rate characteristic, sensitivity to background gamnra photons, and reproducibility for nylon tube geometry. The absolute sensitivity of the PD was 0.21 cps/Bq for sup 6 sup 8 Ga positrons at the center of the detector. This was approximately three times higher than BETA, two times higher than COINC. The value measured with BETA was stable, even when background radioactivity was incre...

  19. Assessment of lead in blood samples of children residing in the vicinity of industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shah, F.; Kazi, T.G.; Afridi, H.I.; Brahaman, K.D.; Arain, S.S.; Panhwar, A.H.

    2013-01-01

    The aim of present study was to determine the lead (Pb) distributions in blood and prevalence of elevated Pb exposure among children, age ranged (5-10 years), residing near industrialized region of Hyderabad city, Pakistan. For comparison, biological samples of children of same age group from non-industrial area were also analyzed. The Pb concentration in blood samples was determined by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry, prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. The results showed that significantly higher proportion of children living in the vicinity of industrial area, had blood Pb levels (BLL) in the range of 15.4-35.6 micro g/dL, and 8.51-16.7 micro g/dL for those of non-industrial area. The blood Pb level was higher in boys of both groups as compared to girls of same age group, but the difference was not significant (p=0.178). Negative correlation was observed between BLL and hemoglobin levels (p<0.001), while positive correlation was observed between BLL and age. (author)

  20. Evaluation of maternal serum alpha-foetoprotein assay using dry blood spot samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, C; Guerrero, J M; Elorza, F L; Molinero, P; Goberna, R

    1988-02-01

    The quantification of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots from pregnant women was evaluated, using a conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) with a monospecific antibody. The stability of alpha-foetoprotein in dry blood spots on filter paper was evaluated with respect to mailing, distances travelled, and the existence of high summer temperatures in our region. The results obtained show that the blood alpha-foetoprotein is stable on dry filter spots sent by mail and is stable for up to four weeks at 4, 25 and 37 degrees C. The analytical method used has a minimal detectable concentration of 10 +/- 1.9 international kilo-units/l. Both inter- and intra-assay variabilities are smaller than 10% and this method can provide results comparable with those of conventional serum assays. Results from dry blood spots and serum samples (the latter analysed by both RIA and two-site enzyme immunoassay) exhibited a good correlation (r = 0.98 and r = 0.97, p less than 0.001). The design of the assay and the nature of the samples make this method suitable for a screening programmes for the antenatal detection of open neural tube defects.

  1. The concentration of glucose, insuline, thyroxine (T4), triiodthyronine (T3) and gastrine in the maternal blood, in the umbilical cord blood of their outcomes in the neonatal blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osuch-Jaczewska, R.; Tomala, J.; Adamska, S.; Bielecka, W.; Mikulska, M.; Kalacinska, M.; Sieron, G.

    1978-01-01

    In the blood samples collected from the mothers, from the umbilical cord of their outcomes and from these neonates after 24 hours of life following estimations were performed collaterally: The concentration of insulin in 50 mothers and their fetuses and in 34 neonates, concentration of thyroxine (T 4 ) in 70 mothers and their fetuses and in 32 neonates, triiodothyronine binding coefficient (WWT 3 ) in 60 mothers and their fetuses and neonates, concentration of gastrine in 23 mothers and their fetuses and in 5 neonates. Besides that the concentration of glucose in total blood was established in 300 mothers - their fetuses and neonates. The insuline, WWT 3 and gastrine were estimated by radioimmune techniques and T 4 by radiocompetitive technique. The glucose concentration - with the aid of o-toluidine method. Basing on the results, the paper suggests that the fetus and the newborn represent independent unit in the aspect of regulation of the glucose concentration, secretion of insuline, T 3 , T 4 and gastrine, notwithstanding the possibility of transplacental passage of these hormones exists the correlation coefficients between the maternal and fetal blood concentrations of insuline, T 4 and WWT 3 were significant. The cord-blood glucose concentration exhibits a marked correlation with the maternal glicemia. Physiologic, asymptomatic hyperinsulinemia and hyperthyreosis and an increase of gastrine concentration demonstrate the presence, in the fetal and neonatal organisms, of certain compensatory-regulating mechanisms stimulating and inhibiting with feed-back properties, which guarantee the environmental homeostasis. (author)

  2. Successful collection of peripheral blood stem cells upon VIDE chemomobilization in sarcoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriegsmann, Katharina; Heilig, Christoph; Cremer, Martin; Novotny, Philipp; Kriegsmann, Mark; Bruckner, Thomas; Müller-Tidow, Carsten; Egerer, Gerlinde; Wuchter, Patrick

    2017-11-01

    In patients with Ewing sarcoma and some distinct subgroups of soft tissue sarcoma (STS), a quantitatively sufficient autologous peripheral blood stem cell (PBSC) collection for stem cell support might facilitate treatment continuation, dose-intensification, and high-dose chemotherapy. Here, we provide a detailed evaluation of PBSC collection upon vincristine, ifosfamide, doxorubicin, and etoposide (VIDE) chemomobilization. Mobilization and collection parameters of 42 sarcoma patients (Ewing sarcoma n = 35, other STS n = 7) were analyzed retrospectively. Data were evaluated with regard to the number of previous VIDE therapy cycles. All patients reached the collection goal of ≥2.0 × 10 6 CD34 + cells/kg body weight (bw) upon VIDE/G-CSF mobilization, in the majority of cases with one single leukapheresis (LP) session (n = 29, 69%). No significant differences were identified with regard to mobilization and collection variables or the number of previous induction VIDE therapy cycles. However, upon 5 cycles of VIDE, we found the highest relative proportion of patients who required two or three LP sessions. Our data demonstrate the feasibility of successful PBSC collection upon VIDE chemomobilization even after up to five cycles of induction therapy, while at the same time the increasing risk of bone marrow exhaustion with every consecutive cycle is outlined. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Aflatoxin B1-lysine adduct in dried blood spot samples of animals and humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Kathy S; Cai, Wenjie; Tang, Lili; Wang, Jia-Sheng

    2016-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) were proposed as potentially viable method for exposure assessment of environmental toxicants in infant and young children. For this study, we validated an experimental protocol to quantify AFB 1 -lysine adduct in DBS samples of AFB 1 -treated F344 rats, as well as samples from human field study. Significant dose-response relationships in AFB 1 -lysine adduct formation were found in DBS samples of rats treated with single- and repeated-dose AFB 1 . AFB 1 -lysine levels in DBS samples were highly correlated with corresponding serum sample levels. The Person coefficients were 0.997 for the single-dose exposure, and 0.996 for the repeated-dose exposure. Levels of AFB 1 -lysine adduct had also good agreement between DBS and serum samples as shown by Bland-Altman plot analysis. For human field study samples (n = 36), a Pearson correlation coefficient of 0.784 was found between AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels of DBS and corresponding serum samples. Bland-Altman plots showed the distribution of the log differences between DBS and serum AFB 1 -lysine levels are within 95% confidence intervals. These results showed AFB 1 -lysine adduct levels in DBS cards and serum samples from animals and human samples are comparable, and the DBS technique and analytical protocol is a good means to assess AFB 1 exposure in infant and children populations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA®cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Welburn Susan C

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6% than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%. Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3% although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3% and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%. Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.

  5. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA®cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Heba A; MacLeod, Ewan T; Hide, Geoff; Welburn, Susan C; Picozzi, Kim

    2011-05-07

    Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach.

  6. The best practice for preparation of samples from FTA®cards for diagnosis of blood borne infections using African trypanosomes as a model system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Diagnosis of blood borne infectious diseases relies primarily on the detection of the causative agent in the blood sample. Molecular techniques offer sensitive and specific tools for this although considerable difficulties exist when using these approaches in the field environment. In large scale epidemiological studies, FTA®cards are becoming increasingly popular for the rapid collection and archiving of a large number of samples. However, there are some difficulties in the downstream processing of these cards which is essential for the accurate diagnosis of infection. Here we describe recommendations for the best practice approach for sample processing from FTA®cards for the molecular diagnosis of trypanosomiasis using PCR. Results A comparison of five techniques was made. Detection from directly applied whole blood was less sensitive (35.6%) than whole blood which was subsequently eluted from the cards using Chelex®100 (56.4%). Better apparent sensitivity was achieved when blood was lysed prior to application on the FTA cards (73.3%) although this was not significant. This did not improve with subsequent elution using Chelex®100 (73.3%) and was not significantly different from direct DNA extraction from blood in the field (68.3%). Conclusions Based on these results, the degree of effort required for each of these techniques and the difficulty of DNA extraction under field conditions, we recommend that blood is transferred onto FTA cards whole followed by elution in Chelex®100 as the best approach. PMID:21548975

  7. Detection of African Swine Fever Virus DNA in Blood Samples Stored on FTA Cards from Asymptomatic Pigs in Mbeya Region, Tanzania

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, U. C.; Johansen, M. V.; Ngowi, H. A.

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the study was to assess whether blood samples collected onto FTA® cards could be used in combination with real-time PCR for the detection of African swine fever virus (ASFV) DNA in samples from resource-poor settings under the assumption that asymptomatically (sub-clinically) infected...... pigs may be present. Blood samples were collected from clinically healthy pigs from Mbeya Region, Tanzania. The blood samples were stored on FTA® cards and analysed by real-time PCR assays in duplicate; three pigs had high levels of viral DNA (Ct values of 27-29), and three pigs had a low level....../1) or a non-pathogenic (OURT T88/3) isolate of ASFV were collected, stored on FTA® cards and analysed in the same way. The blood from pigs infected with the OURT T88/1 isolate showed high levels of viral DNA (Ct 22-33), whereas infection with non-pathogenic OURT T88/3 isolate resulted in only low levels...

  8. Eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a biomarker for solid tumor development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christen Bertel L; Siersma, V.D.; Hasselbalch, H.C.

    2014-01-01

    eosinophilia in routine blood samples as a potential biomarker of solid tumor development in a prospective design. MATERIAL AND METHODS: From the Copenhagen Primary Care Differential Count (CopDiff) Database, we identified 356 196 individuals with at least one differential cell count (DIFF) encompassing...... was increased with mild eosinophilia [OR 1.93 (CI 1.29-2.89), p = 0.0013]. No associations with eosinophilia were observed for the remaining solid cancers. CONCLUSION: We demonstrate that eosinophilia in routine blood samples associates with an increased risk of bladder cancer. Our data emphasize...... that additional preclinical studies are needed in order to shed further light on the role of eosinophils in carcinogenesis, where it is still unknown whether the cells contribute to tumor immune surveillance or neoplastic evolution....

  9. Soil sample collection and analysis for the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbaugh, Lowell L.; Carvacho, Omar F.; Brown, Michael S.; Chow, Judith C.; Watson, John G.; Magliano, Karen C.

    A unique set of soil samples was collected as part of the Fugitive Dust Characterization Study. The study was carried out to establish whether or not source profiles could be constructed using novel analytical methods that could distinguish soil dust sources from each other. The soil sources sampled included fields planted in cotton, almond, tomato, grape, and safflower, dairy and feedlot facilities, paved and unpaved roads (both urban and rural), an agricultural staging area, disturbed land with salt buildup, and construction areas where the topsoil had been removed. The samples were collected using a systematic procedure designed to reduce sampling bias, and were stored frozen to preserve possible organic signatures. For this paper the samples were characterized by particle size (percent sand, silt, and clay), dry silt content (used in EPA-recommended fugitive dust emission factors), carbon and nitrogen content, and potential to emit both PM 10 and PM 2.5. These are not the "novel analytical methods" referred to above; rather, it was the basic characterization of the samples to use in comparing analytical methods by other scientists contracted to the California Air Resources Board. The purpose of this paper is to document the methods used to collect the samples, the collection locations, the analysis of soil type and potential to emit PM 10, and the sample variability, both within field and between fields of the same crop type.

  10. Acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To evaluate the acceptability of self-collected vaginal samples for HPV testing in women living in rural and urban areas of ... Conclusion: Acceptability of self-sampling for HPV testing was similarly excellent in both groups despite their difference in terms ... cancer is the leading cause of death caused by cancer in.

  11. Methods for the collection of subsurface samples during environmental site assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weinstock, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses numerous sample collection techniques that have been successfully employed during Phase 2 Assessments and presents case histories of their application. Pollutants of concern include PCE and petroleum. The collection of shallow soil samples is described using commercially available hand augers and hand-driven core samplers. These devices are modified with extensions to collect deeper samples from storm drains and leaching pools. The performance of soil gas surveys are described using both hand-driven sample probes and vehicle-mounted, hydraulically driven vapor probes. Once the soil vapor is collected at the ground surface, a sample of the media is either analyzed on-site using a field-operated detection device or delivered to a laboratory for analysis. Application and case histories of the Geoprobe(trademark)sampling system, a form of direct push technology, are described. This device uses vehicle-mounted, hydraulically-driven sample probes. The probe can be advanced to depths as great as 100 feet below grade and can retrieve soil, soil gas and groundwater samples

  12. [Influence of an observer in the haemolysis produced during the extraction of blood samples in primary care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bel-Peña, N; Mérida-de la Torre, F J

    2015-01-01

    To check whether an intervention based on direct observation and complementary information to nurses helps reduce haemolysis when drawing blood specimens. Random sampling study in primary care centres in the serrania de Málaga health management area, using a cross-sectional, longitudinal pre- and post-intervention design. The study period was from August 2012 to January 2015. The level of free haemoglobin was measured by direct spectrophotometry in the specimens extracted. It was then checked whether the intervention influenced the level of haemolysis, and if this was maintained over time. The mean haemolysis measured pre-intervention was 17%, and after intervention it was 6.1%. A year later and under the same conditions, the frequency of haemolysis was measured again the samples analysed, and the percentage was 9% These results are low when compared to the level obtained pre-intervention, but are higher when compared to the levels obtained immediately after the intervention. The transport and analysis conditions were the same. An intervention based on a direct and informative observation in the process of collecting blood samples contributes significantly to reduce the level of haemolysis. This effect is maintained in time. This intervention needs to be repeated to maintain its effectiveness. Audits and continuing education programs are useful for quality assurance procedures, and maintain the level of care needed for a good quality of care. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  13. Collecting Comet Samples by ER-2 Aircraft: Cosmic Dust Collection During the Draconid Meteor Shower in October 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastien, Ron; Burkett, P. J.; Rodriquez, M.; Frank, D.; Gonzalez, C.; Robinson, G.-A.; Zolensky, M.; Brown, P.; Campbell-Brown, M.; Broce, S.; hide

    2014-01-01

    Many tons of dust grains, including samples of asteroids and comets, fall from space into the Earth's atmosphere each day. NASA periodically collects some of these particles from the Earth's stratosphere using sticky collectors mounted on NASA's high-flying aircraft. Sometimes, especially when the Earth experiences a known meteor shower, a special opportunity is presented to associate cosmic dust particles with a known source. NASA JSC's Cosmic Dust Collection Program has made special attempts to collect dust from particular meteor showers and asteroid families when flights can be planned well in advance. However, it has rarely been possible to make collections on very short notice. In 2012, the Draconid meteor shower presented that opportunity. The Draconid meteor shower, originating from Comet 21P/Giacobini-Zinner, has produced both outbursts and storms several times during the last century, but the 2012 event was not predicted to be much of a show. Because of these predictions, the Cosmic Dust team had not targeted a stratospheric collection effort for the Draconids, despite the fact that they have one of the slowest atmospheric entry velocities (23 km/s) of any comet shower, and thus offer significant possibilities of successful dust capture. However, radar measurements obtained by the Canadian Meteor Orbit Radar during the 2012 Draconids shower indicated a meteor storm did occur October 8 with a peak at 16:38 (+/-5 min) UTC for a total duration of approximately 2 hours.

  14. Comparison of hematologic values in blood samples with lithium heparin or dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulants in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzman, David Sanchez-Migallon; Mitchell, Mark A; Gaunt, Stephen D; Beaufrère, Hugues; Tully, Thomas N

    2008-06-01

    Blood samples were collected from 20 Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis) and were divided into tubes that contained dipotassium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (K2EDTA) and lithium heparin. Complete blood cell counts were determined in each sample within 2 hours of collection. The level of agreement in results was moderate for plasma protein, packed cell volume (PCV), and leukocyte, monocyte, and lymphocyte counts between the anticoagulants. Plasma protein and PCV values were significantly lower in samples with lithium heparin than in those with K2EDTA, whereas lymphocyte numbers were significantly higher in lithium heparin samples than in K2EDTA samples. The level of agreement was good for the other cell types (heterophils, eosinophils, and basophils) when comparing the different anticoagulants. The poor level of agreement between anticoagulants with the increase in thrombocyte clumping in lithium heparin samples indicates that the use of lithium heparin as anticoagulant may affect thrombocyte count. No negative effects on morphology and staining of blood cells were apparent in smears from heparin samples compared with K2EDTA samples. Within the different values compared, the limits of agreement are small enough to be confident that lithium heparin can be used for routine CBC counts in a clinical setting. The use of the same anticoagulant should be recommended to follow trends within the same patient, especially when considering plasma protein concentration, PCV, and lymphocyte count.

  15. Detection of Theileria annulata in blood samples of carrier cattle by PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Oliveira, C; van der Weide, M; Habela, M A; Jacquiet, P; Jongejan, F

    1995-01-01

    We report the detection of Theileria annulata, the causative agent of tropical theileriosis, by PCR in blood samples obtained from carrier cattle. The assay employs primers specific for the gene encoding the 30-kDa major merozoite surface antigen of T. annulata. A 721-bp fragment was amplified from blood samples taken monthly from calves experimentally infected with one of four different stocks of T. annulata originating in either Mauritania, Portugal, Spain, or Turkey. At the end of the experiment, five animals carried the infection for 12 months and two animals remained infected for 15 months. DNAs from six other Theileria species, T. parva, T. mutans, T. sergenti, T. buffeli, T. velifera, and T. taurotragi, were not amplified. Moreover, DNAs from four other hemoparasites (Anaplasma centrale, Anaplasma marginale, Babesia bovis, and Babesia bigemina) were also not amplified. As a control, primers derived from the small subunit rRNA gene of Theileria spp. amplified a 1.1-kb DNA fragment from all Theileria species examined but not from the other four hemoparasites. As few as two to three parasites per microliter of infected blood in a 50-microliters sample volume were detected by Southern or microplate hybridization with a T. annulata-specific cDNA probe. In addition, 92 field samples obtained from cattle in Spain were tested; 22% were positive in blood smears, 40% were positive by immunofluorescent antibody test, and 75% were positive for T. annulata by PCR. The method provides a useful diagnostic tool for detecting T. annulata carrier cattle. PMID:8567902

  16. Thixotropic gel-like composition and sterile blood-collecting and separating device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Semersky, F.E.

    1980-01-01

    A thixotropic gel-like composition comprising liquid polybutadiene and an inorganic inert filler dispersed therein is adapted for use as a sealing barrier between separated phases of differing densities of a fluid in which said composition has at rest a density intermediate said differing densities, said gel-like composition being substantially resistant to sterilizing radiation. There is also disclosed a pre-packaged blood collecting and separating device which contains a mixture of liquid polybutadiene and an inorganic, inert filler, such as silica, as a thixotropic gel adapted at rest to form a sealing barrier between separated blood phases. The device and gel are subjected to sterilizing radiation to form a substantially sterile device, substantially free of backflow contamination without degradation of the physical properties of the gel. (author)

  17. Comparison of semen parameters in samples collected by masturbation at a clinic and at home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elzanaty, Saad; Malm, Johan

    2008-06-01

    To investigate differences in semen quality between samples collected by masturbation at a clinic and at home. Cross-sectional study. Fertility center. Three hundred seventy-nine men assessed for infertility. None. Semen was analyzed according to World Health Organization guidelines. Seminal markers of epididymal (neutral alpha-glucosidase), prostatic (prostate-specific antigen and zinc), and seminal vesicle (fructose) function were measured. Two patient groups were defined according to sample collection location: at a clinic (n = 273) or at home (n = 106). Compared with clinic-collected semen, home-collected samples had statistically significantly higher values for sperm concentration, total sperm count, rapid progressive motility, and total count of progressive motility. Semen volume, proportion of normal sperm morphology, neutral alpha-glucosidase, prostate-specific antigen, zinc, and fructose did not differ significantly between groups. An abnormal sperm concentration (masturbation at home compared with at a clinic. This should be taken into consideration in infertility investigations.

  18. Measuring Blood Glucose Concentrations in Photometric Glucometers Requiring Very Small Sample Volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demitri, Nevine; Zoubir, Abdelhak M

    2017-01-01

    Glucometers present an important self-monitoring tool for diabetes patients and, therefore, must exhibit high accuracy as well as good usability features. Based on an invasive photometric measurement principle that drastically reduces the volume of the blood sample needed from the patient, we present a framework that is capable of dealing with small blood samples, while maintaining the required accuracy. The framework consists of two major parts: 1) image segmentation; and 2) convergence detection. Step 1 is based on iterative mode-seeking methods to estimate the intensity value of the region of interest. We present several variations of these methods and give theoretical proofs of their convergence. Our approach is able to deal with changes in the number and position of clusters without any prior knowledge. Furthermore, we propose a method based on sparse approximation to decrease the computational load, while maintaining accuracy. Step 2 is achieved by employing temporal tracking and prediction, herewith decreasing the measurement time, and, thus, improving usability. Our framework is tested on several real datasets with different characteristics. We show that we are able to estimate the underlying glucose concentration from much smaller blood samples than is currently state of the art with sufficient accuracy according to the most recent ISO standards and reduce measurement time significantly compared to state-of-the-art methods.

  19. A rapid and efficient DNA extraction protocol from fresh and frozen human blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guha, Pokhraj; Das, Avishek; Dutta, Somit; Chaudhuri, Tapas Kumar

    2018-01-01

    Different methods available for extraction of human genomic DNA suffer from one or more drawbacks including low yield, compromised quality, cost, time consumption, use of toxic organic solvents, and many more. Herein, we aimed to develop a method to extract DNA from 500 μL of fresh or frozen human blood. Five hundred microliters of fresh and frozen human blood samples were used for standardization of the extraction procedure. Absorbance at 260 and 280 nm, respectively, (A 260 /A 280 ) were estimated to check the quality and quantity of the extracted DNA sample. Qualitative assessment of the extracted DNA was checked by Polymerase Chain reaction and double digestion of the DNA sample. Our protocol resulted in average yield of 22±2.97 μg and 20.5±3.97 μg from 500 μL of fresh and frozen blood, respectively, which were comparable to many reference protocols and kits. Besides yielding bulk amount of DNA, our protocol is rapid, economical, and avoids toxic organic solvents such as Phenol. Due to unaffected quality, the DNA is suitable for downstream applications. The protocol may also be useful for pursuing basic molecular researches in laboratories having limited funds. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. A new voluntary blood collection method for the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otaki, Yusuke; Kido, Nobuhide; Omiya, Tomoko; Ono, Kaori; Ueda, Miya; Azumano, Akinori; Tanaka, Sohei

    2015-01-01

    Various training methods have been developed for animal husbandry and health care in zoos and one of these trainings is blood collection. One training method, recently widely used for blood collection in Ursidae, requires setting up a sleeve outside the cage and gives access to limited blood collection sites. A new voluntary blood collection method without a sleeve was applied to the Andean bear (Tremarctos ornatus) and Asiatic black bear (Ursus thibetanus) with access to various veins at the same time. The present study evaluated the effectiveness of this new method and suggests improvements. Two Andean and two Asiatic black bears in Yokohama and Nogeyama Zoological Gardens, respectively, were trained to hold a bamboo pipe outside their cages. We could, thereby, simultaneously access superficial dorsal veins, the dorsal venous network of the hand, the cephalic vein from the carpal joint, and an area approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint. This allowed us to evaluate which vein was most suitable for blood collection. We found that the cephalic vein, approximately 10 cm proximal to the carpal joint, was the most suitable for blood collection. This new method requires little or no modification of zoo facilities and provides a useful alternative method for blood collection. It could be adapted for use in other clinical examinations such as ultrasound examination. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  2. JSC Advanced Curation: Research and Development for Current Collections and Future Sample Return Mission Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fries, M. D.; Allen, C. C.; Calaway, M. J.; Evans, C. A.; Stansbery, E. K.

    2015-01-01

    Curation of NASA's astromaterials sample collections is a demanding and evolving activity that supports valuable science from NASA missions for generations, long after the samples are returned to Earth. For example, NASA continues to loan hundreds of Apollo program samples to investigators every year and those samples are often analyzed using instruments that did not exist at the time of the Apollo missions themselves. The samples are curated in a manner that minimizes overall contamination, enabling clean, new high-sensitivity measurements and new science results over 40 years after their return to Earth. As our exploration of the Solar System progresses, upcoming and future NASA sample return missions will return new samples with stringent contamination control, sample environmental control, and Planetary Protection requirements. Therefore, an essential element of a healthy astromaterials curation program is a research and development (R&D) effort that characterizes and employs new technologies to maintain current collections and enable new missions - an Advanced Curation effort. JSC's Astromaterials Acquisition & Curation Office is continually performing Advanced Curation research, identifying and defining knowledge gaps about research, development, and validation/verification topics that are critical to support current and future NASA astromaterials sample collections. The following are highlighted knowledge gaps and research opportunities.

  3. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE

  4. Methods for collecting algal samples as part of the National Water-Quality Assessment Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Stephen D.; Cuffney, Thomas F.; Gurtz, Martin E.; Meador, Michael R.

    1993-01-01

    Benthic algae (periphyton) and phytoplankton communities are characterized in the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program as part of an integrated physical, chemical, and biological assessment of the Nation's water quality. This multidisciplinary approach provides multiple lines of evidence for evaluating water-quality status and trends, and for refining an understanding of the factors that affect water-quality conditions locally, regionally, and nationally. Water quality can be characterized by evaluating the results of qualitative and quantitative measurements of the algal community. Qualitative periphyton samples are collected to develop of list of taxa present in the sampling reach. Quantitative periphyton samples are collected to measure algal community structure within selected habitats. These samples of benthic algal communities are collected from natural substrates, using the sampling methods that are most appropriate for the habitat conditions. Phytoplankton samples may be collected in large nonwadeable streams and rivers to meet specific program objectives. Estimates of algal biomass (chlorophyll content and ash-free dry mass) also are optional measures that may be useful for interpreting water-quality conditions. A nationally consistent approach provides guidance on site, reach, and habitat selection, as well as information on methods and equipment for qualitative and quantitative sampling. Appropriate quality-assurance and quality-control guidelines are used to maximize the ability to analyze data locally, regionally, and nationally.

  5. Collection and preparation of bottom sediment samples for analysis of radionuclides and trace elements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    The publication is the first in a series of TECDOCs on sampling and sample handling as part of the IAEA support to improve reliability of nuclear analytical techniques (NATs) in Member State laboratories. The purpose of the document is to provide information on the methods for collecting sediments, the equipment used, and the sample preparation techniques for radionuclide and elemental analysis. The most appropriate procedures for defining the strategies and criteria for selecting sampling locations, for sample storage and transportation are also given. Elements of QA/QC and documentation needs for sampling and sediment analysis are discussed. Collection and preparation of stream and river bottom sediments, lake bottom sediments, estuary bottom sediments, and marine (shallow) bottom sediments are covered. The document is intended to be a comprehensive manual for the collection and preparation of bottom sediments as a prerequisite to obtain representative and meaningful results using NATs. Quality assurance and quality control (QA/QC) is emphasized as an important aspect to ensure proper collection, transportation, preservation, and analysis since it forms the basis for interpretation and legislation. Although there are many approaches and methods available for sediment analyses, the scope of the report is limited to sample preparation for (1) analysis of radionuclides (including sediment dating using radionuclides such as Pb-210 and Cs-137) and (2) analysis of trace, minor and major elements using nuclear and related analytical techniques such as NAA, XRF and PIXE.

  6. Planning Considerations Related to Collecting and Analyzing Samples of the Martian Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Mellon, Mike T.; Ming, Douglas W.; Morris, Richard V.; Noble, Sarah K.; Sullivan, Robert J.; Taylor, Lawrence A.; Beaty, David W.

    2014-01-01

    The Mars Sample Return (MSR) End-to-End International Science Analysis Group (E2E-iSAG [1]) established scientific objectives associ-ated with Mars returned-sample science that require the return and investigation of one or more soil samples. Soil is defined here as loose, unconsolidated materials with no implication for the presence or absence of or-ganic components. The proposed Mars 2020 (M-2020) rover is likely to collect and cache soil in addition to rock samples [2], which could be followed by future sample retrieval and return missions. Here we discuss key scientific consid-erations for sampling and caching soil samples on the proposed M-2020 rover, as well as the state in which samples would need to be preserved when received by analysts on Earth. We are seeking feedback on these draft plans as input to mission requirement formulation. A related planning exercise on rocks is reported in an accompanying abstract [3].

  7. Establishment of a cervical cancer bio-bank for the Chinese population: from project-based sample collection to routine management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ru; Li, Xiong; Zhou, Hang; Jia, Yao; Zhou, Jin; Huang, Kecheng; Tang, Fangxu; Hu, Ting; Shen, Jian; Chen, Zhilan; Wang, Shaoshuai; Sun, Haiying; Guo, Lili; Wang, Lin; Wang, Hui; Ma, Ding; Li, Shuang

    2015-08-01

    There is an increasing need for the establishment of a cervical cancer bio-bank that will facilitate both clinical and basic research. The cervical cancer bio-bank was first established in January 1999 and included two stages. First, a GWAS-based sample collection was conducted with special emphasis on the diagnosis and the retrieval of the corresponding bio-specimens, especially blood samples. Second, clinical data and their corresponding bio-specimens were routinely collected and handled. Notably, these bio-specimens also included samples from Wufeng Tujia Autonomous County, which has the highest incidence of cervical cancer in China. The specimens were collected from patients with cervical cancer and those with cervical intraepithelial neoplasia, while the control samples were collected from normal individuals. With special emphasis on clinical data and blood samples for the GWAS analysis, the collection of other bio-specimens was slow, and the pairing of specimens and clinical data was poor during the first stage. However, in the second stage, the pairing of the clinical data and its corresponding bio-specimens improved. At present, the samples procured and preserved in the bio-bank cover most regions of China and different ethnic groups for both the normal controls and cervical cancer patients of different pathological categories. This bio-bank of cervical cancer specimens from the Chinese population will greatly promote the studies of cervical cancer in China.

  8. Protein expression profiling by antibody array analysis with use of dried blood spot samples on filter paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weidong; Mao, Ying Qing; Huang, Ruochun; Duan, Chaohui; Xi, Yun; Yang, Kai; Huang, Ruo-Pan

    2014-01-31

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper offer several advantages compared to conventional serum/plasma samples: they do not require any phlebotomy or separation of blood by centrifugation; they are less invasive; they allow sample stability and shipment at room temperature; and they pose a negligible risk of infection with blood-borne viruses, such as HIV, HBV and HCV, to those who handle them. Therefore dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper can be a quick, convenient and inexpensive means of obtaining blood samples for biomarker discovery, disease screening, diagnosis and treatment monitoring in non-hospitalized, public health settings. In this study, we investigated for the first time the potential application of dried blood spot samples (DBSS) in protein expression profiling using antibody array technology. First, optimal conditions for array assay performance using dried blood spot samples (DBSS) was established, including sample elution buffer, elution time, elution temperature and assay blocking buffer. Second, we analyzed dried blood spot samples (DBSS) using three distinct antibody array platforms, including sandwich-based antibody arrays, quantitative antibody arrays and biotin-label-based antibody arrays. In comparison with paired serum samples, detection of circulating proteins in dried blood spot samples (DBSS) correlated well for both low- and high-abundance proteins on all three antibody array platforms. In conclusion, our study strongly indicates the novel application of multiplex antibody array platforms to analyze dried blood spot samples (DBSS) on filter paper represents a viable, cost-effective method for protein profiling, biomarker discovery and disease screening in a large, population-based survey. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Classical and additional antiphospholipid antibodies in blood samples of ischemic stroke patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmel-Neiderman, Narin-Nard; Tanne, David; Goren, Idan; Rotman-Pikielny, Pnina; Levy, Yair

    2017-04-01

    Classical antiphospholipid antibodies (aPLa) are found in 6-25% of blood samples from stroke patients. The frequency of novel aPLa antibodies in blood samples of CVA patients is not known. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA) were performed on blood samples from 209 CVA patients (170 samples were obtained during the acute phase and 39 samples were from patients with complete carotid stenosis) and compared to 54 healthy controls. Subjects were tested for the presence of the classical aPL antibodies anticardiolipin (aCL) and anti-beta2-glycoprotein (aβ2gI), in addition to antiphosphatidylethanolamine (aPE), anti-phosphatidylserine (aPS), and Annexin V. All antibodies were tested for both IgM and IgG subclasses. Numeric analysis of the antibody titer levels (μ/ml) revealed a significantly higher subclinical titer by two standard deviations of many aPL autoantibodies among CVA patients (Pv < 0.05). However, according to the kit manufacturer's cutoff value, no positive antibodies were found except a trend toward higher percentage of positive aPS IgG titer in the CVA group compared to controls (6.2 vs. %0; P = 0.077). According to the manufacturer's cutoff, significantly higher levels of positive antibodies were not found among stroke patients. However, the absolute ELISA values of stroke patients were significantly higher. These results suggest that lower cutoff values than those used for APS diagnosis should be used for risk stratification of CVA among healthy individuals.

  10. Archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for accurate whole genome and exome-targeted next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollegaard, Mads Vilhelm; Grauholm, Jonas; Nielsen, Ronni

    2013-01-01

    Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) have been collected and stored for decades as part of newborn screening programmes worldwide. Representing almost an entire population under a certain age and collected with virtually no bias, the Newborn Screening Biobanks are of immense value in medical studies......, for example, to examine the genetics of various disorders. We have previously demonstrated that DNA extracted from a fraction (2×3.2mm discs) of an archived DBSS can be whole genome amplified (wgaDNA) and used for accurate array genotyping. However, until now, it has been uncertain whether wgaDNA from DBSS...... can be used for accurate whole genome sequencing (WGS) and exome sequencing (WES). This study examined two individuals represented by three different types of samples each: whole-blood (reference samples), 3-year-old DBSS spotted with reference material (refDBSS), and 27- to 29-year-old archived...

  11. The Importance of Meteorite Collections to Sample Return Missions: Past, Present, and Future Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welzenbach, L. C.; McCoy, T. J.; Glavin, D. P.; Dworkin, J. P.; Abell, P. A.

    2012-01-01

    While much of the scientific community s current attention is drawn to sample return missions, it is the existing meteorite and cosmic dust collections that both provide the paradigms to be tested by these missions and the context for interpreting the results. Recent sample returns from the Stardust and Hayabusa missions provided us with new materials and insights about our Solar System history and processes. As an example, Stardust sampled CAIs among the population of cometary grains, requiring extensive and unexpected radial mixing in the early solar nebula. This finding would not have been possible, however, without extensive studies of meteoritic CAIs that established their high-temperature, inner Solar System formation. Samples returned by Stardust also revealed the first evidence of a cometary amino acid, a discovery that would not have been possible with current in situ flight instrument technology. The Hayabusa mission provided the final evidence linking ordinary chondrites and S asteroids, a hypothesis that developed from centuries of collection and laboratory and ground-based telescopic studies. In addition to these scientific findings, studies of existing meteorite collections have defined and refined the analytical techniques essential to studying returned samples. As an example, the fortuitous fall of the Allende CV3 and Murchison CM2 chondrites within months before the return of Apollo samples allowed testing of new state-of-the-art analytical facilities. The results of those studies not only prepared us to better study lunar materials, but unanticipated discoveries changed many of our concepts about the earliest history and processes of the solar nebula. This synergy between existing collections and future space exploration is certainly not limited to sample return missions. Laboratory studies confirmed the existence of meteorites from Mars and raised the provocative possibility of preservation of ancient microbial life. The laboratory studies in

  12. Comparison of two blood sampling techniques for the determination of coagulation parameters in the horse: Jugular venipuncture and indwelling intravenous catheter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackenzie, C J; McGowan, C M; Pinchbeck, G; Carslake, H B

    2018-05-01

    Evaluation of coagulation status is an important component of critical care. Ongoing monitoring of coagulation status in hospitalised horses has previously been via serial venipuncture due to concerns that sampling directly from the intravenous catheter (IVC) may alter the accuracy of the results. Adverse effects such as patient anxiety and trauma to the sampled vessel could be avoided by the use of an indwelling IVC for repeat blood sampling. To compare coagulation parameters from blood obtained by jugular venipuncture with IVC sampling in critically ill horses. Prospective observational study. A single set of paired blood samples were obtained from horses (n = 55) admitted to an intensive care unit by direct jugular venipuncture and, following removal of a presample, via an indwelling IVC. The following coagulation parameters were measured on venipuncture and IVC samples: whole blood prothrombin time (PT), fresh plasma PT and activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and stored plasma antithrombin activity (AT) and fibrinogen concentration. D-dimer concentration was also measured in some horses (n = 22). Comparison of venipuncture and IVC results was performed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient. Agreement between paired results was assessed using Bland Altman analysis. Correlation was substantial and agreement was good between sample methods for all parameters except AT and D-dimers. Each coagulation parameter was tested using only one assay. Sampling was limited to a convenience sample and timing of sample collectio