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Sample records for blood risk factor

  1. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Share this page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Risk Factors for High Blood Pressure Anyone can develop high blood pressure; however, age, ... Lifestyle Habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can raise your risk for high blood pressure, and they include: Eating too much sodium or ...

  2. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, Henrik

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed....

  3. [Blood groups as a risk factor in venous thrombosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández Cañete, C M; Alvarez Dieguez, R; González Sánchez M de la, C; Díaz Hernández, C; Sánchez Montiel, M E

    1993-01-01

    We report 173 patients with venous thrombosis (or post-thrombotic syndrome) demonstrated by phlebography. We show up the importance of blood groups as risk factor, being very significant the A group. Female sex is associated with a high incidence of this pathology. A frequent location is the left lower limb.

  4. Analysis of risk factors of cord blood transplantation for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Gal; Bielorai, Bella; Stein, Jerry; Stepensky, Polina; Elhasid, Ronit; Zaidman, Irena; Chetrit, Angela; Yaniv, Isaac; Nagler, Arnon; Toren, Amos

    2013-12-01

    As cord blood (CB) is being used frequently as a source for heamtopoetic stem cell transplantation defining risk factors for transplantation outcome is an important issue. The data of all single unit CB transplantation preformed in Israel from 1992 to 2011 were collected. The risk factors for myeloid engraftment, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were studied in 87 children. There were 49 children with hematological malignancies and 38 with non-malignant diseases. Cumulative rate of neutrophil recovery was 78.3%, while median time to myeloid recovery was 26 days. The incidence of platelet engraftment at 150 days was 53%, and the median time to platelet recovery was 36 days. ABO blood group matching between CB unit and recipient was associated with superior myeloid engraftment. Acute graft versus host disease of grades II-IV occurred in 33% of the patients. Chronic graft versus host disease occurred in 16% of patients. Probabilities of EFS and OS at 1 year were 45% and 57%, respectively. Factors associated with inferior OS were Rh major mismatch versus matched Rh and transplantation from unrelated donor versus related donor. These results indicate that matching of ABO blood groups is an important factor that affects engraftment, and also that Rh matching seem to have an impact on OS, which was not previously described in the setting of CB transplantation. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira,Andressa Magalhães; Tsukamoto, Rosangela; Lopes,Camila Takáo; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo e

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. Method: an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemi...

  6. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  7. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  8. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa Magalhães Teixeira

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. Method: an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. Results: altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. Conclusions: risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation.

  9. Risk Factors Associated with Elevated Blood Glucose Among Adults ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This cross-sectional study was conducted to assess the risk factors and lifestyles characteristics associated .... cover for the dropouts, 640 respondents. Data collection .... education while only 9.8% had college level of education. Males had a ...

  10. Bacillus cereus from blood cultures: virulence genes, antimicrobial susceptibility and risk factors for blood stream infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horii, Toshinobu; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji

    2011-11-01

    We characterized the profiles of virulence genes and antimicrobial susceptibility of Bacillus cereus isolates from blood cultures as well as the risk factors for blood stream infections (BSIs). The diversity of virulence gene patterns was found to be wide among 15 B. cereus isolates from BSIs and also among 11 isolates from contaminated blood cultures. The MicroScan broth microdilution method yielded results corresponding with those of the agar dilution (reference) method for levofloxacin, linezolid, and vancomycin, while the Etest results were consistent with the reference results for clindamycin, gentamicin, imipenem, levofloxacin, and linezolid. Compared with the reference values, however, some isolates showed marked differences of the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for ampicillin and clindamycin when determined using the MicroScan method, or the MICs for ampicillin, meropenem, and vancomycin when determined using the Etest method. Significantly more patients were treated with antimicrobials for more than 3 days during the 3-month period before isolation in the BSI group. Prior antimicrobial therapy may be a risk factor for BSIs due to B. cereus.

  11. Prediction of postpartum blood transfusion – risk factors and recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne J; Hjortøe, Sofie; Gerds, Thomas A;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to find clinically useful risk factors for postpartum transfusion and to assess the joint predictive value in a population of women with a first and second delivery. METHODS: All Danish women with a first and second delivery from January 2001 to September 2009 who gave birth...... at a second vaginal delivery, and may also be used as an early predictor in parallel with a history of either placental abruption, postpartum transfusion or caesarean delivery. The positive predictive values of having more than one risk factor was low (2.2%-2.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Prediction of postpartum...

  12. Blood Lipids and other Related Risk Factors of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu YAND; Hiu Lu

    2000-01-01

    Abstract To assess the ralationship between incidence of stroke and blood lipids, apolipoprolcin (apo) , 219 patients with stroke(cerebral hemorrhage 87, cerebral infarction 132) , diagnosed with the aid of CT, were examined. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerioes, apo-A, apo-B were calculatea. 160 cases with no disorder in metabolism of blood lipids or other disease of meurologic system were taken as centrol group. The results zhowed that the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low clensity lipoprotein cholesterol was iower than.that of control group(p<0. 05) . In the patients group, cases with diabetes, hypentension coronary heart disease or onesity, the levels of blood liprds. triglyceride and cholesterol were higher than those vithout above mentioned disease The condusion is, that there is certain reletionship between the contents of bliid lipids. lipoprotein and it sulqraction HDL2, HDL3 and cerebrovasculor cisease. The radis of high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprolein is the important factor in predicting of stroke

  13. hiv prevalence and demographic risk factors in blood donors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2002-02-02

    Feb 2, 2002 ... blood donors were pre-test counselled and 90% were post test counselled in 200Ö. Conclusions: HIV ... Counselling and serological methods: All potential donors ..... counselling blood donors adds an important advantage in.

  14. Risk Factors and Screening for Trypanosoma cruzi Infection of Dutch Blood Donors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ed Slot

    Full Text Available Blood donors unaware of Trypanosoma cruzi infection may donate infectious blood. Risk factors and the presence of T. cruzi antibodies in at-risk Dutch blood donors were studied to assess whether specific blood safety measures are warranted in the Netherlands.Birth in a country endemic for Chagas disease (CEC, having a mother born in a CEC, or having resided for at least six continuous months in a CEC were considered risk factors for T. cruzi infection. From March through September 2013, risk factor questions were asked to all donors who volunteered to donate blood or blood components. Serum samples were collected from donors reporting one or more risk factors, and screened for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi by EIA.Risk factors for T. cruzi infection were reported by 1,426 of 227,278 donors (0.6%. Testing 1,333 at-risk donors, none (0.0%; 95%, CI 0.0-0.4% was seroreactive for IgG antibodies to T. cruzi. A total of 472 donors were born in a CEC; 553 donors reported their mother being born in a CEC; and 1,121 donors reported a long-term stay in a CEC. The vast majority of reported risk factors were related to Suriname and Brazil. Overall, the participants resided for 7,694 years in CECs, which equals 2.8 million overnight stays. Of those, 1.9 million nights were spent in Suriname.Asymptomatic T. cruzi infection appears to be extremely rare among Dutch blood donors. Blood safety interventions to mitigate the risk of T. cruzi transmission by transfusion would be highly cost-ineffective in the Netherlands, and are thus not required.

  15. Association of ABO Blood Types With Atherosclerosis Risk Factors and Number of Involved Coronary Arteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golmohammadi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Cardiovascular disease (CVD is a common cause of morbidity and mortality. The relationship between ABO blood groups and main risk factors of CVD is unknown. So this study was designed to investigate whether there is an association between ABO blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors in otherwise healthy people. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, risk factors for CVD were screened in 300 patients with coronary artery disease (CAD who were hospitalized in Madani hospital (biggest heart center in Tabriz in 2013-2014 and evaluated by a questionnaire that aimed to extract information about age, sex, smoking, blood group type, weight, height, blood pressure, diabetes mellitus and family history of CVD. Data were analyzed with SPSS 17. Results: Of the total selected 300 patients, 69.3% were male, 35.3% were smoker, 61% were hypertensive, 30.3% were diabetic mellitus, 31% had hyperlipidemia, 70.97% were obese and 17.3% had family history of CVD. The mean age was 62.06 ± 11.40 years. Blood groups O (28%, A (43.3%, B (19% and AB (7.3% were the most frequent ones, respectively. According to our results, we found that the rate of CAD in individuals with the blood group A was higher than the other blood groups. Regarding the risk factors, however, no significant difference was observed between the blood groups. Conclusion: A correlation was found between blood group A and the incidence of CAD and there was no significant difference between the blood groups and cardiovascular risk factors and number of involved coronary arteries.

  16. Impaired blood rheology is associated with endothelial dysfunction in patients with coronary risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yagi, Hideki; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Aoki, Tomoyuki; Tsunekawa, Katsuhiko; Araki, Osamu; Kimura, Takao; Nara, Makoto; Ogiwara, Takayuki; Murakami, Masami

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the relationship between blood rheology and endothelial function in patients with coronary risk factors, brachial arterial flow-mediated vasodilatation (FMD), an index of endothelial function and blood passage time (BPT), an index of blood rheology, and fasting blood cell count, glucose metabolism, and plasma fibrinogen, lipid, C-reactive protein, and whole blood viscosity levels were measured in 95 patients with coronary risk factors and 37 healthy controls. Brachial arterial FMD after reactive hyperemia was assessed by ultrasonography. BPT was assessed using the microchannel method. In healthy controls, BPT significantly correlated with FMD (r = - 0.325, p rheology using the microchannel method may be useful in evaluating brachial arterial endothelial function as a marker of atherosclerosis in these patients.

  17. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H;

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6.......6-3.1 PCE/pry and 6.0-6.9 MCE/pry). Finally Pathology, Internal medicine, Radiology and Paediatrics had a considerable risk (0.8-1.3 PCE/pry and 1.3-2.9 MCE/pry). Potential risk factors were examined by Poisson regression. Employment as senior as compared to junior doctor was associated with a higher risk...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed....

  18. Is there association between ABO blood group and the risk factors of unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyfizadeh, Nayer; Seyfizadeh, Narges; Yousefi, Bahman; Borzoueisileh, Sajad; Majidinia, Maryam; Shanehbandi, Dariush; Jahani, Mohammad Ali

    2015-03-01

    There are four major blood groups in human based on the presence of A and B antigens. ABO gene encodes A and B antigens on the surface of red blood cells and there are reported relations between this blood phenotype and pregnancy outcomes in the women. In this study, medical records of 792 healthy pregnant women were investigated and their age and blood test results including blood group with fasting blood sugar, hemoglobin, hematocrit, urea, creatinine and red blood cell counts were analyzed in statistical package for the social sciences. The RBC count in AB blood type was significantly higher than A and O blood group, also FBS level in the people with AB blood group was meaningfully higher than A group. But the mean of HGB and HCT were not significantly different between groups. The serum urea in the AB group was higher than the three other groups and also it was significantly higher in B compared to O and A blood groups. The serum creatinine in the AB group was higher than the three other groups too. Also it was significantly higher in the B group compared to A blood groups. These results indicate that the ABO blood group may have association with some of the risk factors of the unfavorable outcomes of pregnancy and it may be one of the prognostic tools, also it addresses more extensive studies.

  19. Incidence and risk factors of occupational blood exposure: a nation-wide survey among Danish doctors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelsing, S; Nielsen, T L; Brønnum-Hansen, H

    1997-01-01

    Occupational blood exposures involves a risk of transmission of serious infections. We performed a nation-wide survey, to describe the incidence and risk factors of percutaneous (PCE) and mucocutaneous (MCE) blood exposures among hospital employed doctors in Denmark. Of 9,374 questionnaires, 6......). Only 35% adhered to the basic principles of universal precautions (UP) and non-compliance was associated with a considerably increased risk of both MCE and PCE, especially in non-surgical specialties. In conclusion, we found an unacceptably high incidence of occupational blood exposures among Danish...... doctors. Non-compliance with UP was associated with an increased risk of exposure and efforts to improve compliance with UP as well as implementation and evaluation of other preventive measures are needed....

  20. Is ABO blood group truly a risk factor for thrombosis and adverse outcomes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shan; Welsby, Ian

    2014-01-01

    ABO blood type is one of the most readily available laboratory tests, and serves as a vital determinant in blood transfusion and organ transplantation. The ABO antigens are expressed not only on red blood cell membranes, determining the compatibility of transfusion, but also on the surface of other human cells, including epithelium, platelet and vascular endothelium, therefore extending the research into other involvements of cardiovascular disease and postoperative outcomes. ABO blood group has been recognized as a risk factor of venous thrombosis embolism since the 1960’s, effects now understood to be related to ABO dependent variations are procoagulant factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (vWF) levels. Levels of vWF, mostly genetically determined, are strongly associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). It mediates platelet adhesion aggregation and stabilizes FVIII in plasma. Moreover, many studies have tried to identify the relationship between ABO blood types and ischemic heart disease. Unlike the clear and convincing associations between VTE and ABO blood type, the link between ABO blood type and ischemic heart disease is less consistent and may be confusing. Other than genetic factors, ischemic heart disease is strongly related to diet, race, lipid metabolism and economic status. In this review, we’ll summarize the data relating race and genetics, including ABO blood type, to VTE, ischemic heart disease and postoperative bleeding after cardiac surgery. PMID:25276299

  1. Changes in risk factors of HBsAg positive blood donors in Zahedan, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Alavi-Naini

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hepatitis B viral infection is a great global problem. According to high prevalence of infection in some parts of Iran, identifying etiologies and risk factors of the disease is an important issue in controlling infection in the community. The objective of this study is to compare the risk factors of HBsAg positive blood donors during a 10 year-period time-course.Materials and Method: We conducted a retrospective study in 1200 HBsAg positive blood donors referring to blood bank center in Zahedan during the years 1378, 1383 and 1387. Demographic variables and several risk factors were evaluated and compared during those years.Results: Our findings revealed significant statistical changes in age and education. Age was decreased and the disease was increased in illiterate cases during the study years. Risk factors that showed significant increasing changes during that time-period were history of dental procedures, surgery, hospitalization, endoscopy, positive family history for HBsAg, addiction to non-injectable drugs, living with positive HBsAg partners and intra-venous drug users. Conclusion: Decreasing the mean age of the patients during those years reflects increasing high risk behaviors among young people. Neonatal and family vaccination and screening family members, especially mothers could prevent this devastating disease. Following hygienic rules in the hospital is another important preventive measure. Premarital screening especially in high risk individuals is an effective preventive way to decrease the disease in the society.

  2. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise

    2015-01-01

    Aging is associated with oxidative stress-generated damage to DNA and this could be related to metabolic disturbances. This study investigated the association between levels of oxidatively damaged DNA in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and metabolic risk factors in 1,019 subjects, aged...

  3. Risk factors for unstable blood glucose level: integrative review of the risk factors related to the nursing diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teixeira, Andressa Magalhães; Tsukamoto, Rosangela; Lopes, Camila Takáo; Silva, Rita de Cassia Gengo E

    2017-06-05

    to identify evidence in the literature on the possible risk factors for the risk of unstable blood glucose diagnosis in individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus, and to compare them with the risk factors described by NANDA International. an integrative literature review guided by the question: what are the risk factors for unstable blood glucose level in people with type 2 diabetes mellitus? Primary studies were included whose outcomes were variations in glycemic levels, published in English, Portuguese or Spanish, in PubMed or CINAHL between 2010 and 2015. altered levels of glycated hemoglobin, body mass index>31 kg/m2, previous history of hypoglycemia, cognitive deficit/dementia, autonomic cardiovascular neuropathy, comorbidities and weight loss corresponded to risk factors described in NANDA International. Other risk factors identified were: advanced age, black skin color, longer length of diabetes diagnosis, daytime sleepiness, macroalbuminuria, genetic polymorphisms, insulin therapy, use of oral antidiabetics, and use of metoclopramide, inadequate physical activity and low fasting glycemia. risk factors for the diagnosis, risk for unstable blood glucose level, for persons with type 2 diabetes mellitus were identified, and 42% of them corresponded to those of NANDA International. These findings may contribute to the practice of clinical nurses in preventing the deleterious effects of glycemic variation. identificar evidências na literatura acerca de possíveis fatores de risco do diagnóstico risco de glicemia instável para pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2 e compará-los com os fatores de risco descritos pela NANDA International . revisão integrativa norteada pela pergunta: quais são os fatores de risco de glicemia instável em pessoas com diabetes mellitus tipo 2? Incluíram-se estudos primários cujos desfechos eram variações nos níveis glicêmicos, publicados em inglês, português ou espanhol no PubMed ou CINAHL entre 2010 e 2015. observou

  4. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diniz, Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva; Velho, Paulo Eduardo Neves Ferreira; Pitassi, Luiza Helena Urso; Drummond, Marina Rovani; Lania, Bruno Grosselli; Barjas-Castro, Maria Lourdes; Sowy, Stanley; Breitschwerdt, Edward B; Scorpio, Diana Gerardi

    2016-03-01

    Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6) or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4). These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion.

  5. Risk Factors for Bartonella species Infection in Blood Donors from Southeast Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Paulo Vissotto de Paiva Diniz

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Bartonella are emerging blood-borne bacteria, capable of causing long-lasting infection in marine and terrestrial mammals, including humans. Bartonella are generally well adapted to their main host, causing persistent infection without clinical manifestation. However, these organisms may cause severe disease in natural or accidental hosts. In humans, Bartonella species have been detected from sick patients presented with diverse disease manifestations, including cat scratch disease, trench fever, bacillary angiomatosis, endocarditis, polyarthritis, or granulomatous inflammatory disease. However, with the advances in diagnostic methods, subclinical bloodstream infection in humans has been reported, with the potential for transmission through blood transfusion been recently investigated by our group. The objective of this study was to determine the risk factors associated with Bartonella species infection in asymptomatic blood donors presented at a major blood bank in Southeastern Brazil. Five hundred blood donors were randomly enrolled and tested for Bartonella species infection by specialized blood cultured coupled with high-sensitive PCR assays. Epidemiological questionnaires were designed to cover major potential risk factors, such as age, gender, ethnicity, contact with companion animals, livestock, or wild animals, bites from insects or animal, economical status, among other factors. Based on multivariate logistic regression, bloodstream infection with B. henselae or B. clarridgeiae was associated with cat contact (adjusted OR: 3.4, 95% CI: 1.1-9.6 or history of tick bite (adjusted OR: 3.7, 95% CI: 1.3-13.4. These risk factors should be considered during donor screening, as bacteremia by these Bartonella species may not be detected by traditional laboratory screening methods, and it may be transmitted by blood transfusion.

  6. Risk factors from HBV infection among blood donors:A systematic review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giuseppe La Torre; Rosella Saulle

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To perform a systematic review of the scientific literature to identify risk factors associated with hepatitis B viruses(HBV) infection among blood donors.Methods:The literature search was carried out on Pub Med and Scopus databases using the keywords "risk factors" "HBV infection" and "blood donors".No date or language restrictions were applied to the search.This literature review was completed in March2014.The selection process and the reporting of the review followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses Statement.The Newcastle Ottawa scale was using to evaluate the quality of each single primary study.Results:Out of 172 records resulted in the search,5 papers were included in the final analysis because they are within acceptance criteria.Two of the selected studies were cross-sectional and three of them were case-control studies.Significant association resulted with some demographic and behavioral risk factors,such as marital status,dental treatment/procedure history,no stable relationship or multiple partners and family history of HBV infection.Conclusions:The systematic review performed encourages to conduct further research among blood donors in order to fully understand risk factors among donors in more extensive thus to provide valuable information about surveillance.

  7. Blood pressure and associated cardiovascular risk factors in adolescents of Mexico City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Rojas, Juan Gabriel; Cardoso-Saldaña, Guillermo C; Posadas-Sánchez, Rosalinda; Medina-Urrutia, Aída Xochitl; Yamamoto-Kimura, Liria; Posadas-Romero, Carlos

    2008-01-01

    To determine the prevalence of high blood pressure and associated cardiovascular risk factors in Mexican adolescents. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 770 male and 1076 female students (12 to 16 years old) from eight randomly selected high schools in Mexico City. Anthropometry, blood pressure and fasting lipids and lipoproteins were measured. Blood pressure levels were adjusted for age, gender, and height. The prevalence rates of hypertension (systolic blood pressure (SBP) and/or diastolic (DBP) > or =95th percentile), and pre-hypertension (SBP or DBP > or =90th but prevalence of obesity, overweight, and dyslipidemia. A stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that waist (18.3%), Tanner stage (4.7%), age (2.1%), gender (0.6%), and body mass index (BMI, 0.3%) accounted for 26% of the variance in SBP; whereas BMI (8.7%), age (4.8%), Tanner stage (1.7%), waist (0.4%), and gender (0.4%) accounted for 15.9% of the variance in DBP. These results reveal a high prevalence of high blood pressure in adolescents living in Mexico City. Prehypertensive and hypertensive subjects showed a higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors, suggesting that, as adults, these adolescents will be at a higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease.

  8. Risk Factors for Neonatal Sepsis and Method for Reduction of Blood Culture Contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajčinović, S S; Doronjski, A; Barišić, N; Stojanović, V

    2015-03-01

    False-positive blood cultures findings may lead to a falsely increased morbidity and increased hospital costs. The survey was conducted as retrospective - prospective study and included 239 preterm infants (born before 37 weeks of gestation) who were treated in Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) in Institute for Child and Youth Health Care of Vojvodina during one year (January 1st, 2012 to December 31st, 2012). The retrospective part of the study focused on examination of incidence of neonatal sepsis and determination of risk factors. In the prospective part of the study infants were sub-divided into two groups: Group 1- infants hospitalized in NICU during the first 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by the "clean technique" and checklists for this procedure were not taken. Group 2- neonates hospitalized in NICU during last 6 months of the study; blood cultures were taken by "sterile technique" and checklists for this procedure were taken. The main risk factors for sepsis were prelabor rupture of membranes, low gestational age, low birth weight, mechanical ventilation, umbilical venous catheter placement, and abdominal drainage. Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase negative Staphylococcus were the most frequently isolated microorganisms in false-positive blood samples. Education of employees, use of checklists and sterile sets for blood sampling, permanent control of false positive blood cultures, as well as regular and routine monthly reports are crucial for successful reduction of contamination rates.

  9. Risk Factors, Coronary Severity, Outcome and ABO Blood Group: A Large Chinese Han Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Sha; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Wu, Na-Qiong; Xu, Rui-Xia; Dong, Qian; Liu, Geng; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-10-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to have ethnic difference and to be a pivotal genetic determinant of cardiovascular risk, whereas few prospective data regarding the impact on cardiovascular outcomes are available in a large cohort of patients with angiography-proven coronary artery disease, especially from the Chinese population. The objective of this study was to assess the prognostic role of blood type in future cardiovascular events (CVEs) in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.The population of this prospective cohort study consisted of 3823 eligible patients, and followed annually to capture all CVEs. Baseline characteristics and ABO blood type were obtained. Cox proportional hazards models were used to evaluate the risk of ABO blood type on CVEs.New CVEs occurred in 348 patients [263 (10.3%) non-O and 85 (7.8%) O] during a median period of 24.6 months follow-up. Significantly, non-O blood group was related to the presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis and several risk factors including inflammatory markers. The log-rank test revealed that there was a significant difference between non-O and O blood groups in event-free survival analysis (P = 0.026). In particular, the Cox proportional hazards models revealed that non-O blood type was associated with increased CVEs risk [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) 1.320 (1.033-1.685)], even after adjusting for potential confounders [adjusted hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) non-O: 1.289 (1.003-1.656); A: 1.083 (0.797-1.472); B: 1.481 (1.122-1.955); AB: 1.249 (0.852-1.831), respectively].Non-O blood type is associated with future CVEs in Chinese Han patients undergoing coronary angiography.

  10. Hepatitis B Prevalence and Risk Factors in Blood Donors in Ghazvin, IR.Iran|

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babak Yektaparast

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: This study was done to find out the common routes of transmission of hepatitis B.Methods: We assessed 39598 volunteer blood donors for hepatitis B and C. Risk factors were obtained from 186 patients and 186 healthy donors. Independent risk factors were determined using logistic regression analysis.Results: Prevalence of HBV was 1.08%. Female sex, education level lower than secondary school, being married, and age more than 35 years old, were risk factors in univariate analysis. Logistic regression showed that only duration of marriage, close contact with an HBV infected person, extramarital sexual contact, history of sexually transmitted diseases and high risk jobs were independent risk factors for prediction of hepatitis B infection. Risk factors which were addressed in this study covered 95.7% of the patients. Conclusions: Ghazvin is one of the low prevalent regions for hepatitis B in Iran. Prevalence of hepatitis B is decreasing in comparison with past decades. Horizontal mode is more important than vertical transmission in this region of Iran.Screening programs, education and vaccination, specifically in high risk groups are essential for prevention of new cases

  11. Yoga lifestyle intervention reduces blood pressure in HIV-infected adults with cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cade, W T; Reeds, D N; Mondy, K E; Overton, E T; Grassino, J; Tucker, S; Bopp, C; Laciny, E; Hubert, S; Lassa-Claxton, S; Yarasheski, K E

    2010-07-01

    People living with HIV infection are at increased risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Safe and effective interventions for lowering CVD risk in HIV infection are high priorities. We conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled study to evaluate whether a yoga lifestyle intervention improves CVD risk factors, virological or immunological status, or quality of life (QOL) in HIV-infected adults relative to standard of care treatment in a matched control group. Sixty HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk were assigned to 20 weeks of supervised yoga practice or standard of care treatment. Baseline and week 20 measures were: 2-h oral glucose tolerance test with insulin monitoring, body composition, fasting serum lipid/lipoprotein profile, resting blood pressures, CD4 T-cell count and plasma HIV RNA, and the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form (SF)-36 health-related QOL inventory. Resting systolic and diastolic blood pressures improved more (P=0.04) in the yoga group (-5 +/- 2 and -3 +/- 1 mmHg, respectively) than in the standard of care group (+1 +/- 2 and+2 +/- 2 mmHg, respectively). However, there was no greater reduction in body weight, fat mass or proatherogenic lipids, or improvements in glucose tolerance or overall QOL after yoga. Immune and virological status was not adversely affected. Among traditional lifestyle modifications, yoga is a low-cost, simple to administer, nonpharmacological, popular behavioural intervention that can lower blood pressure in pre-hypertensive HIV-infected adults with mild-moderate CVD risk factors.

  12. Risk factors and characteristics of blood stream infections in patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chun-Teng; Liu, Chia-Jen; Ko, Po-Shen; Liu, Han-Tsung; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Yang, Muh-Hwa; Huang, Ling-Ju; Liu, Chun-Yu

    2017-01-06

    Patients with multiple myeloma are generally immune-compromised either due to pronounced depression in primary antibody responses or because of anti-myeloma therapy. Infection is a major risk factor for early deaths among these patients. The impact of blood stream infections (BSI) on newly diagnosed myeloma patients has been less studied. We aimed to study the incidence and risk factors of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis of multiple myeloma in a tertiary referral center. Between November 2002 and December 2008, consecutive patients with multiple myeloma in Taipei Veterans General Hospital were retrospectively enrolled. Characteristics of patients with or without BSI were collected. Possible factors associated with development of BSI were analyzed by Cox regression. There were a total of 222 patients. The incidence of BSI within 3 months after diagnosis is 11.7%. The patients with BSI had poorer survival outcomes than those without (mortality rate: 50% vs. 20.9%, p  2 vs. ≤ 2: OR 3.58, p = 0.005) were the independent risk factors of BSI, whereas immunoglobulin deficiency and low absolute lymphocyte count were not associated with risk of BSI development. Our study highlights the characteristic of myeloma patients with BSI and the importance of disease and host factors on risk of BSI. Myeloma patients with risks of BSI should be properly managed to reduce early mortality.

  13. Risk factors for high blood pressure in low income children aged 3-4 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitolo, Márcia Regina; da Costa Louzada, Maria Laura; Rauber, Fernanda; Campagnolo, Paula Dal Bó

    2013-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of dietary sodium intake on blood pressure among low income children aged 3-4 years. Data were collected during a randomized trial conducted in São Leopoldo, Brazil, with 500 mother-child pairs recruited from the maternity ward of a local hospital. Breastfeeding data were obtained during the children's first year of life. At 3 to 4 years of age, children's anthropometric, dietary, and blood pressure assessments were obtained. Sodium intake was estimated from two multiple-pass 24-h dietary recalls. Systolic blood pressure > 90th percentile for age, sex, and height was classified as high systolic blood pressure, according to the population-based percentiles provided by the Task Force on Hypertension Control in Children and Adolescents. Blood pressure data were obtained from 331 children at 3 to 4 years. The mean value of systolic blood pressure was 91.31 mmHg (SD = 8.30 mmHg) and 5.2% (n = 17) presented high systolic blood pressure. The results of the multivariable analyses showed that children who consumed more than 1,200 mg of sodium/day and with waist-to-height ratio higher than 0.5 presented, respectively, 3.32 (95%CI 0.98-11.22) and 8.81 (95%CI 2.13-36.31) greater risk of having high systolic blood pressure. Exclusive breastfeeding, child overweight and change in body mass index z score during the first year of life were not associated with the outcome. The results of this study suggest that at preschool age sodium intake and high waist-to-height ratio are risk factors for high systolic blood pressure.

  14. Risk factors for Salmonella infection in fattening pigs - an evaluation of blood and meat juice samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hotes, S; Kemper, N; Traulsen, I; Rave, G; Krieter, J

    2010-11-01

    The main objective of this study was to analyse potential herd-level factors associated with the detection of Salmonella antibodies in fattening pigs. Two independent datasets, consisting of blood and meat juice samples respectively, were used. Additional information about husbandry, management and hygiene conditions was collected by questionnaire for both datasets. The serological analysis showed that 13.8% of the blood samples and 15.7% of the meat juice samples had to be classified as Salmonella-positive. Logistic-regression models were used to assess statistically significant risk factors associated with a positive sample result. The results of the statistical blood sample analysis showed that the application of antibiotics increased the odds ratio (OR) by a factor of 5.21 (P meat juice samples revealed the importance of feed aspects. The chance of obtaining a positive meat juice sample increased by a factor of 3.52 (P flour. It also became clear that liquid feeding should be preferred to dry feeding (OR = 0.33, P meat juice model revealed that the latter was less powerful because data structure was less detailed. The expansion of data acquisition might solve these problems and improve the suitability of QS monitoring data for risk factor analyses. © 2010 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  16. Risk Factors and Options to Improve Engraftment in Unrelated Cord Blood Transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna D. Petropoulou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Use of umbilical unrelated cord-blood (UCB cells as an alternative source of hematopoietic cell transplantation has been widely used mainly for patients lacking an HLA-matched donor. UCB present many advantages over bone marrow or mobilized peripheral blood from volunteer donors, such as rapid availability, absence of risk for the donor, and decreased incidence of acute graft-versus-host disease. However, a significant clinical problem is delayed engraftment that is directly correlated with the number of hematopoietic stem cells in a cord-blood unit. The identification of prognostic factors associated with engraftment that can be easily modified (e.g., strategies for donor choice and the development of new approaches including use of multiple donors, intrabone injection of UCB, ex vivo expansion, and cotransplantation with accessory cells are of crucial importance in order to circumvent the problem of delayed engraftment after UCB transplantation. Those approaches may increase the quality and availability of UCB for transplantation.

  17. PERSONAL AND ENVIRONMENTAL RISK FACTORS SIGNIFICANTLY ASSOCIATED WITH ELEVATED BLOOD LEAD LEVELS IN RURAL THAI CHILDREN.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swaddiwudhipong, Witaya; Kavinum, Suporn; Papwijitsil, Ratchadaporn; Tontiwattanasap, Worawit; Khunyotying, Wanlee; Umpan, Jiraporn; BoonthuM, Ratchaneekorn; Kaewnate, Yingyot; Boonmee, Sasis; Thongchub, Winai; Rodsung, Thassanee

    2014-11-01

    A community-based study was conducted to determine personal risk factors and environmental sources of lead exposure for elevated blood lead levels (≥ 10 µg/dl, EBLLs) among rural children living at the Thailand-Myanmar border in Tak Province, northwestern Thailand. Six hundred ninety-five children aged 1-14 years old were screened for BLLs. Environmental specimens for lead measurements included samples of water from the streams, taps, and household containers, house floor dust, and foods. Possible lead release from the cooking ware was determined using the leaching method with acetic acid. The overall prevalence of EBLLs was 47.1% and the geometric mean level of blood lead was 9.16 µg/dl. Personal risk factors significantly associated with EBLLs included being male, younger age, anemia, and low weight-for-age. Significant environmental risk factors were exposure to a lead-acid battery of solar energy system and use of a non-certified metal cooking pot. Some families whose children had high BLLs reported production of lead bullets from the used batteries at home. About one-third of the house dust samples taken near batteries contained lead content above the recommended value, compared with none of those taken from other areas and from the houses with no batteries. The metal pots were safe for cooking rice but might be unsafe for acidic food preparation. Both nutritional intervention and lead exposure prevention programs are essential to reduce EBLLs in this population.

  18. Factor V Leiden Is Associated with Higher Risk of Deep Venous Thrombosis of Large Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsov, Todor; Miladinova, Daniela; Spiroski, Mirko

    2006-01-01

    Aim To determine the prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation in patients with different presentation of venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Methods The retrospective case-control study involved 190 patients with venous thromboembolic disease and 200 healthy individuals, who were screened for the presence of factor V Leiden mutation, using a polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method. The prevalence of factor V Leiden was analyzed according to the localization of thrombosis, presence of risk factors, and family history of thrombosis. The odds of deep venous thrombosis were calculated with respect to the presence of factor V Leiden mutation. Results The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation among patients with venous thromboembolic disease was 21.1%, compared with 5.5% in the healthy individuals. Factor V Leiden positive patients had the first episode of deep venous thrombosis at a younger age, and the prevalence of the mutation was the highest among patients with a positive family history of thrombosis (33.9%, P = 0.003) and in patients with deep venous thrombosis affecting a large blood vessel (37.7%, P = 0.001). The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was lower in patients with calf deep venous thrombosis and primary thromboembolism (13.3% and 13.1%, respectively; P>0.05). The odds ratio for iliofemoral or femoral deep venous thrombosis in factor V Leiden carriers was 10.4 (95% confidence interval, 4.7-23.1). Conclusion The prevalence of factor V Leiden mutation was high in patients with venous thromboembolic disease and healthy individuals in the Republic of Macedonia. Factor V Leiden carriers have the highest odds of developing deep venous thrombosis affecting a large venous blood vessel. PMID:16758522

  19. The association between cardiovascular risk factors and high blood pressure in adolescents: a school-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofaro, Diego G D; Fernandes, Rômulo A; Oliveira, Arli R; Freitas Júnior, Ismael Forte; Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M

    2014-01-01

    Although previous studies have analyzed the association between cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in adolescents, few studies conducted in developing countries analyzed whether the aggregation of risk factors contributes to an increased risk of high blood pressure in adolescents. The objective of this study was to assess the association between cardiovascular risk factors (including general overweight, abdominal obesity, high consumption of foods rich in fats, and insufficient physical activity levels) and high blood pressure in adolescents. This study was carried out from 2007 to 2008 with 1021 adolescents (528 girls) from primary schools located in the city of Londrina- Brazil. Blood pressure was assessed using an oscillometric device. General overweight was obtained through body mass index, abdominal obesity was assessed using waist circumference, and the consumption of foods rich in fat and physical activity were assessed using a questionnaire. The sum of these risk factors was determined. Adolescents with three or four aggregated risk factors were more likely to have higher values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure when compared with adolescents who did not have any cardiovascular risk factors (P = 0.001 for both). Logistic regression indicated that groups of adolescents with 2 (OR= 2.46 [1.11-5.42]; P = 0.026), 3 (OR= 4.97 [2.07-11.92]; P = 0.001) or 4 risk factors (OR= 6.79 [2.24-19.9]; P = 0.001) presented an increased likelihood of high blood pressure. The number of cardiovascular risk factors was found to be related to high blood pressure in adolescents. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Blood lipids and adaptation to stress as risk factors for stroke prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anders, I; Esterbauer, E; Fink, A; Ladurner, G; Huemer, M; Wranek, U

    2000-01-01

    Do stroke prevention patients with increased blood-fat-protein compounds (total cholesterol, HDL- and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride) have a different method of coping than patients with normal blood fat? 1159 stroke prevention patients participated in the following stroke risk investigations at this hospital: biographical and risk factor-orientated anamnesis, a neurological status investigation, a laboratory investigation, a sonographic investigation and a psychological investigation. The differences in the coping strategies of those patients with normal and those with higher blood-fat-protein compounds were investigated. Patients with higher total cholesterol showed significantly higher values in the avoidance of stress situations (sig. 0.041) and a stronger tendency towards escapist behaviour (sig. 0.05). Patients with normal HDL cholesterol values indicated a tendency (sig. 0.07) to higher values in positive self-instruction in comparison to patients with reduced HDL cholesterol values. Those prevention patients with higher LDL values showed a tendency (sig. 0.08) to higher values in the intake of narcotic substances (nicotine, alcohol, tranquillisers, pharmaceutical agents). Patients with increased triglyceride indicated significantly higher values in coping by compensation (eating, shopping, reward behaviour, watching TV; sig. 0.037) and the intake of narcotic substances (sig. 0.044). Prevention patients with higher total cholesterol, LDL/HDL, or triglyceride values showed significantly different coping strategies in comparison to those patients with normal values. Increased avoidance and escapism behaviour and also compensation and the abuse of narcotic substances could be seen in connection with an increase in the risk of a stroke. In contrast, a constructive coping strategy such as positive self-instruction could reduce the risk of a stroke, which goes along with normal HDL cholesterol.

  1. Two decades of risk factors and transfusion-transmissible infections in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Janssen, Mart P.; Marijt-Van Der Kreek, Tanneke; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Van De Laar, Thijs J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Risk behavior-based donor selection procedures are widely used to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), but their effectiveness is disputed in countries with low residual risks of TTIs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In 1995 to 2014, Dutch blood donors infected with

  2. Two decades of risk factors and transfusion-transmissible infections in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slot, Ed; Janssen, Mart P.; Marijt-Van Der Kreek, Tanneke; Zaaijer, Hans L.; Van De Laar, Thijs J.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Risk behavior-based donor selection procedures are widely used to mitigate the risk of transfusion-transmissible infections (TTIs), but their effectiveness is disputed in countries with low residual risks of TTIs. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS In 1995 to 2014, Dutch blood donors infected with

  3. Effects of vitamin D on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilz, Stefan; Gaksch, Martin; Kienreich, Katharina; Grübler, Martin; Verheyen, Nicolas; Fahrleitner-Pammer, Astrid; Treiber, Gerlies; Drechsler, Christiane; Ó Hartaigh, Bríain; Obermayer-Pietsch, Barbara; Schwetz, Verena; Aberer, Felix; Mader, Julia; Scharnagl, Hubert; Meinitzer, Andreas; Lerchbaum, Elisabeth; Dekker, Jacqueline M; Zittermann, Armin; März, Winfried; Tomaschitz, Andreas

    2015-06-01

    Vitamin D deficiency is a risk factor for arterial hypertension, but randomized controlled trials showed mixed effects of vitamin D supplementation on blood pressure (BP). We aimed to evaluate whether vitamin D supplementation affects 24-hour systolic ambulatory BP monitoring values and cardiovascular risk factors. The Styrian Vitamin D Hypertension Trial is a single-center, double-blind, placebo-controlled study conducted from June 2011 to August 2014 at the endocrine outpatient clinic of the Medical University of Graz, Austria. We enrolled 200 study participants with arterial hypertension and 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels below 30 ng/mL. Study participants were randomized to receive either 2800 IU of vitamin D3 per day as oily drops (n=100) or placebo (n=100) for 8 weeks. Primary outcome measure was 24-hour systolic BP. Secondary outcome measures were 24-hour diastolic BP, N-terminal-pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, QTc interval, renin, aldosterone, 24-hour urinary albumin excretion, homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and pulse wave velocity. A total of 188 participants (mean [SD] age, 60.1 [11.3] years; 47% women; 25-hydroxyvitamin D, 21.2 [5.6] ng/mL) completed the trial. The mean treatment effect (95% confidence interval) for 24-hour systolic BP was -0.4 (-2.8 to 1.9) mm Hg (P=0.712). Triglycerides increased significantly (mean change [95% confidence interval], 17 [1-33] mg/dL; P=0.013), but no further significant effects were observed for secondary outcomes. Vitamin D supplementation in hypertensive patients with low 25-hydroxyvitamin D has no significant effect on BP and several cardiovascular risk factors, but it was associated with a significant increase in triglycerides. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02136771. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Sex, the brain and hypertension: brain oestrogen receptors and high blood pressure risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Meredith

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension is a major contributor to worldwide morbidity and mortality rates related to cardiovascular disease. There are important sex differences in the onset and rate of hypertension in humans. Compared with age-matched men, premenopausal women are less likely to develop hypertension. However, after age 60, the incidence of hypertension increases in women and even surpasses that seen in older men. It is thought that changes in levels of circulating ovarian hormones as women age may be involved in the increase in hypertension in older women. One of the key mechanisms involved in the development of hypertension in both men and women is an increase in sympathetic nerve activity (SNA). Brain regions important for the regulation of SNA, such as the subfornical organ, the paraventricular nucleus and the rostral ventral lateral medulla, also express specific subtypes of oestrogen receptors. Each of these brain regions has also been implicated in mechanisms underlying risk factors for hypertension such as obesity, stress and inflammation. The present review brings together evidence that links actions of oestrogen at these receptors to modulate some of the common brain mechanisms involved in the ability of hypertensive risk factors to increase SNA and blood pressure. Understanding the mechanisms by which oestrogen acts at key sites in the brain for the regulation of SNA is important for the development of novel, sex-specific therapies for treating hypertension. © 2016 Authors; published by Portland Press Limited.

  5. Combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls and non-chemical risk factors on blood pressure in NHANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Junenette L., E-mail: petersj@bu.edu; Patricia Fabian, M., E-mail: pfabian@bu.edu; Levy, Jonathan I., E-mail: jonlevy@bu.edu

    2014-07-15

    High blood pressure is associated with exposure to multiple chemical and non-chemical risk factors, but epidemiological analyses to date have not assessed the combined effects of both chemical and non-chemical stressors on human populations in the context of cumulative risk assessment. We developed a novel modeling approach to evaluate the combined impact of lead, cadmium, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and multiple non-chemical risk factors on four blood pressure measures using data for adults aged ≥20 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999–2008). We developed predictive models for chemical and other stressors. Structural equation models were applied to account for complex associations among predictors of stressors as well as blood pressure. Models showed that blood lead, serum PCBs, and established non-chemical stressors were significantly associated with blood pressure. Lead was the chemical stressor most predictive of diastolic blood pressure and mean arterial pressure, while PCBs had a greater influence on systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and blood cadmium was not a significant predictor of blood pressure. The simultaneously fit exposure models explained 34%, 43% and 52% of the variance for lead, cadmium and PCBs, respectively. The structural equation models were developed using predictors available from public data streams (e.g., U.S. Census), which would allow the models to be applied to any U.S. population exposed to these multiple stressors in order to identify high risk subpopulations, direct intervention strategies, and inform public policy. - Highlights: • We evaluated joint impact of chemical and non-chemical stressors on blood pressure. • We built predictive models for lead, cadmium and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). • Our approach allows joint evaluation of predictors from population-specific data. • Lead, PCBs and established non-chemical stressors were related to blood pressure.

  6. The risk factors for elevated blood pressure and how to address cardiovascular risk factors: a review in paediatric populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monyeki, Kd; Kemper, Hcg

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the epidemiology of hypertension and management strategies of cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) in paediatric populations in sub-Saharan Africa and other parts of the world in the 21st century. A computerized literature search was carried out using Medline, Evidence-Based Child Health (A Cochrane Review Journal), the Cochrane Library and Cochrane Child Health Field. A manual search in the African Journal for physical, health education, recreation and dance, the South African Journal for Research in Sports, Physical Education and Recreation and a few individuals in the area were requested to send some of their recent unpublished and published reports in the field. High prevalence rates and high odds ratios for high blood pressure (BP) were recorded in children aged 5-17 years. There is a need for health ministries to improve the public health sector so as to close the gap between the rich and the poor. Although personal and parental responsibility remain crucial, it also falls on the government to help control powerful environmental factors that are leading our children to premature ill-health and mortality. Equally, health professionals are increasingly recognized that they have a significant role to play in delivering medical treatment of hypertension in children.

  7. Risk factors of incomplete Apgar score and umbilical cord blood gas analysis: a retrospective observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Tetering, Anne A C; van de Ven, Joost; Fransen, Annemarie F; Dieleman, Jeanne P; van Runnard Heimel, Pieter J; Oei, S Guid

    2017-11-01

    To investigate whether incomplete umbilical cord blood gas (UCBG) analysis occurs more often than the incomplete reporting of the Apgar score, and risk factors associated with the incomplete values. A total of 8824 infants born alive after 26 weeks' gestation between January 2009 and April 2013 were included. We extracted data on five-minute Apgar score, UCBG analysis, gestational age, mode of delivery, time of delivery and multiple pregnancy. Univariate and multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed. Five-minute Apgar score was incomplete in 15 cases (0.2%) and UCBG analysis in 1960 cases (22.2%), p < 0.05. Incomplete UCBG analysis was significantly more likely to occur in situations with Apgar score below seven (Odds ratio (OR) 1.68, 95% CI;1.29-2.19), gestational age between 26 to 27 6/7 and 28 to 31 6/7 weeks (OR 3.14, 95% CI; 2.13-4.62 and OR 1.91, 95% CI; 1.57-2.32), cesarean section (OR 1.31, 95% CI; 1.11-1.55), and multiple pregnancy (OR 2.02, 95% CI; 1.69-2.43). Deliveries during night time had a lower risk of incomplete UCBG analysis (OR 0.78, 95% CI; 0.69-0.88). Measuring five-minute Apgar score generated less incomplete data compared with UCBG analysis. The risk factors associated with incomplete UCBG analysis were noted. Study outcomes with UCBG analysis as neonatal assessment tool should be interpreted with caution.

  8. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning among children in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albalak, Rachel; Noonan, Gary; Buchanan, Sharunda; Flanders, W. Dana; Gotway-Crawford, Carol; Blumenthal, Wendy; Curtis, Gerald; McGeehin, Michael A. [Division of Environmental Hazards and Health Effects, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop E-19, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Kim, Dennis; Tan, Regina [Epidemic Intelligence Service, Epidemiology Program Office, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop D-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Jones, Robert L. [Division of Laboratory Sciences, National Center for Environmental Health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1600 Clifton Rd. Mailstop F-18, Atlanta, GA 30333 (United States); Sulaiman, Rini [Swisscontact, Jl. Wijaya XII No. 44, Jakarta (Indonesia) 12160

    2003-01-01

    The phase-out of leaded gasoline began in Jakarta, Indonesia on July 1, 2001. We evaluated mean blood lead levels (BLLs) and the prevalence of elevated BLLs of Jakarta school children and assessed risk factors for lead exposure in these children before the beginning of the phase-out activities. The study involved a population-based, cross-sectional blood lead survey that included capillary blood lead sampling and a brief questionnaire on risk factors for lead poisoning. A cluster survey design was used. Forty clusters, defined as primary schools in Jakarta, and 15 2nd- and 3rd-grade children in each cluster were randomly selected for participation in the study. The average age of children in this study was 8.6 years (range 6-12) and the geometric mean BLL of the children was 8.6 {mu}g/dl (median: 8.6 {mu}g/dl; range: 2.6-24.1 {mu}g/dl) (n=397). Thirty-five percent of children had BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl and 2.4% had BLLs {>=}20 {mu}g/dl. Approximately one-fourth of children had BLLs 10-14.9 {mu}g/dl. In multivariate models, level of education of the child's primary caregiver, water collection method, home varnishing and occupational recycling of metals, other than lead, by a family member were predictors of log BLLs after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs of children who lived near a highway or major intersection were significantly higher than those of children who lived near a street with little or no traffic when level of education was not included in the model. Water collection method was a significant predictor of BLLs {>=}10 {mu}g/dl after adjustment for age and sex. BLLs in children in this study were moderately high and consistent with BLLs of children in other countries where leaded gasoline is used. With the phase-out of leaded gasoline, BLLs of children in Jakarta are expected to rapidly decline as they have in other countries that have phased lead out of gasoline.

  9. Blood glucose screening rates among Minnesota adults with hypertension, Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kidney, Renée S M; Peacock, James M; Smith, Steven A

    2014-11-26

    Many US adults have multiple chronic conditions, and hypertension and diabetes are among the most common dyads. Diabetes and prediabetes prevalence are increasing, and both conditions negatively affect cardiovascular health. Early diagnosis and treatment of diabetes and prediabetes can benefit people with hypertension by preventing cardiovascular complications. We analyzed 2011 Minnesota Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System data to describe the proportion of adults with hypertension screened for diabetes according to US Preventive Services Task Force Recommendations for blood glucose testing. Covariates associated with lower odds of recent screening among adults without diabetes were determined using weighted logistic regression. Of Minnesota adults with self-reported hypertension, 19.6% had a diagnosis of diabetes and 10.7% had a diagnosis of prediabetes. Nearly one-third of adults with hypertension without diabetes had not received blood glucose screening in the past 3 years. Factors associated with greater odds of not being screened in multivariable models included being aged 18 to 44 years (adjusted odds ratio [AOR], 1.77; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.23-2.55); being nonobese, with stronger effects for normal body mass index; having no check-up in the past 2 years (AOR, 2.49; 95% CI, 1.49-4.17); having hypertension treated with medication (AOR, 2.01; 95% CI, 1.49-2.71); and completing less than a college degree (AOR, 1.45; 95% CI, 1.14-1.84). Excluding respondents with prediabetes or those not receiving a check-up did not change the results. Failure to screen among providers and failure to understand the importance of screening among individuals with hypertension may mean missed opportunities for early detection, clinical management, and prevention of diabetes.

  10. Relation between Helicobacter pylori infection, thyroid hormone levels and cardiovascular risk factors on blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triantafillidis, John K; Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios; Gikas, Aristofanis; Merikas, Emmanuel; Peros, George; Sofroniadou, Kyriaki; Cheracakis, Petros; Sklavaina, Maria; Tzanidis, Georgios; Konstantellou, Evangelia

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between Helicobacter pylori (Hp) infection, serum thyroid hormone levels and certain cardiovascular risk factors in normal volunteers. In 110 blood donors (85 men, 25 women, aged 35.6 +/- 9.76) the serum levels of IgG antibodies against Hp were estimated using a sensitive immunoassay. Serum estimation of T3, T4, TSH, FT3, FT4, thyroid (microsomial) autoantibodies, C-Reactive-Protein, a1-acid-glycoprotein, vitamin B12, folic acid, cholesterol, triglycerides, total lipids, HDL, LDL, and antibodies against hepatitis A, was also carried-out. In all subjects a number of clinicoepidemiological parameters including body mass index, smoking habits, educational level, number of siblings and presence of symptoms from the digestive system were carefully recorded. Statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. Helicobacter pylori infection was found in 54 subjects (49.1%). On univariate analysis, significant differences between subjects positive and negative for Helicobacter pylori infection were found for FreeT3 (3.11 +/- 0.5 pmol/ vs. 3.42 +/- 0.8 pmol/l, P=0.025), FreeT4 (1.04 +/- 0.2 ng/dl vs. 1.17 +/- 0.3 ng/dl, P=0.025), and thyroid autoanti bodies (23.65 +/- 24 vs. 14.97 +/- 8, P=0.018). Significant differences were also found for Cholesterol (207.8 +/- 39 mg/dl vs. 193.3 +/- 40 md/dl, P=0.05), LDL (133.2 +/- 32 mg/dl vs. 119.6 +/- 40 mg/dl, P=0.05) and folic acid (7.66 +/- 3.7 ng/ml vs. 6.39 +/- 2.5 ng/ml, P=0.038). A significantly positive correlation of Hp infection with age and number of siblings and a negative one with educational level were noticed. No differences concerning the levels of acute phase proteins, vitamin B12, antibodies against hepatitis A, body mass index, and smoking habits were found. On logistic regression analysis, significant differences remained only for thyroid autoantibodies (Odds ratio for titer ?30: 7.8, P=0.012), age (Odds Ratio for those aged >40 years vs those

  11. Incidence, Risk Factors, and Outcomes for Enterococcus spp. Blood Stream Infections: A Population-Based Study

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    E.O. Billington

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: This is the second population-based study to assess the risk factors for enterococcal BSI and compare the characteristics of infection with E. faecalis and E. faecium. Results suggest that BSI with E. faecalis and E. faecium should be regarded as two clinically different entities with unique sets of risk factors and microbiologic characteristics.

  12. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten

    2013-01-01

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated...... with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population....

  13. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in a Nigerian population with impaired fasting blood glucose level and diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oguoma, Victor M; Nwose, Ezekiel U; Ulasi, Ifeoma I; Akintunde, Adeseye A; Chukwukelu, Ekene E; Bwititi, Phillip T; Richards, Ross S; Skinner, Timothy C

    2017-01-06

    Diabetes is a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and there are reports of increasing prevalence of prediabetes in Nigeria. This study therefore characterised CVDs risk factors in subjects with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and diabetes. Data from 4 population-based cross-sectional studies on 2447 apparently healthy individuals from 18 - 89 years were analysed. Anthropometric, blood pressure and biochemical parameters were collected and classified. Individuals with IFG (prediabetes) and diabetes were merged each for positive cases of dyslipidaemia, high blood pressure (HBP) or obesity. Optimal Discriminant and Hierarchical Optimal Classification Tree Analysis (HO-CTA) were employed. Overall prevalence of IFG and diabetes were 5.8% (CI: 4.9 - 6.7%) and 3.1% (CI: 2.4 - 3.8%), respectively. IFG co-morbidity with dyslipidaemia (5.0%; CI: 4.1 - 5.8%) was the highest followed by overweight/obese (3.1%; CI: 2.5 - 3.8%) and HBP (1.8%; CI: 1.3 - 2.4%). The predicted age of IFG or diabetes and their co-morbidity with other CVD risk factors were between 40 - 45 years. Elevated blood level of total cholesterol was the most predictive co-morbid risk factor among IFG and diabetes subjects. Hypertriglyceridaemia was an important risk factor among IFG-normocholesterolaemic-overweight/obese individuals. The higher prevalence of co-morbidity of CVD risk factors with IFG than in diabetes plus the similar age of co-morbidity between IFG and diabetes highlights the need for risk assessment models for prediabetes and education of individuals at risk about factors that mitigate development of diabetes and CVDs.

  14. Relationship between cardiovascular risk factors and blood adiponectin in diabetic males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Izadi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Obesity-related disorders characterized by insulin resistance such as metabolic syndrome, hypertension, coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes are associated with decreased adiponectin levels. The purpose of the present study was to determine association of lipid profile and obesity markers with serum adiponectin in type 2 diabetes adult males. Methods: For this purpose, forty one adult males with type 2 diabetes were enrolled in this study randomly. Blood samples were collected after a 10-12 hour overnight fasting for measuring serum glucose and lipid profile and adiponectin. The anthropometrical indices were measured too. A multivariate linear regression analysis used to predict relation between variables. Results: The data analysis showed that circulatory adiponectin had significant negative association with glucose, triglyceride, total cholesterol, visceral fat and cholesterol/HDL ratio (P ≤0.05. There were no significant correlation between adiponectin level and HDL and LDL. Conclusion: Our findings support negative relationship between serum adiponectin and cardiovascular risk factors in diabetic patients.

  15. Risk factors for the effect of anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akaoka, Yusuke; Yamazaki, Hiroshi; Kodaira, Hiroyuki; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2016-07-01

    To examine the effect of oral anticoagulant and antiplatelet agents on perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures and to identify the risk factors associated with perioperative blood loss.Retrospective cross-sectional study.In a retrospective cross-sectional study, we treated 334 consecutive patients with proximal femoral fractures (100 who received anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs and 234 who did not) and an overall mean age of 85.5 years (standard deviation 8.2 years). We performed retrospective multivariate analysis to determine the independent factors related to perioperative decreases in the hemoglobin (Hb) level, a proxy for blood loss.Multivariate analysis confirmed that anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs significantly affected decreases in the Hb level (regression coefficient [RC], 0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.14-1.08; P = 0.01). In addition to anticoagulant or antiplatelet drugs, multivariate analysis confirmed that the fracture type (Orthopedic Trauma Association classification A2: RC, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.71-1.67; P anticoagulants and antiplatelet agents is an independent risk factor for perioperative blood loss following proximal femoral fractures. Fracture type, platelet count, and operative time also affect perioperative blood loss. The fracture type was the greatest contributing factor to perioperative blood loss.Level of evidence grade: Prognostic level III.

  16. Are the blood groups of women with preeclampsia a risk factor for the development of hypertension postpartum?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avci D

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Deniz Avci,1 Hatice Karagoz,2 Ozerhan Ozer,1 Kubra Esmeray,1 Kadir Bulut,1 Fatma Aykas,1 Ali Cetinkaya,1 Emine Uslu,1 Samet Karahan,1 Mustafa Basak,1 Abdulsamet Erden1 1Internal Medicine Department, Kayseri Training and Research Hospital, 2Internal Medicine Department, Acibadem Kayseri Hospital, Kayseri, Turkey Introduction: Preeclampsia (PE is a pregnancy-related disorder characterized by hypertension (HT and proteinuria noticeable after 20 weeks of gestation. PE is now considered as a cardiovascular disease risk factor and a number of studies have shown that experiencing PE increases the prevalence of various cardiovascular risk factors, such as metabolic syndrome and HT. In this study, we aimed to investigate any possible relationship between the ABO/Rh blood group system and PE in Turkey. In the second part of the study, we examined the relationship between the ABO blood group system and development of HT after PE. Patients and methods: A total of 250 patients with PE from Kayseri Training and Research Hospital between 2002 and 2012 were included in the study. Patients were classified according to blood groups (A, B, AB, and O and Rh status (+/-. Results: There was a significant difference between the patients with PE and the control group in terms of distribution of ABO blood groups and the percentage of group AB was found to be higher in patients with PE compared to the control group (P=0.029. The risk of developing PE was significantly higher in group AB than other blood groups (P=0.006. The risk of developing HT after PE was significantly higher in group O than other blood groups (P=0.004. Discussion: In this study, we found that the patients with blood group AB have a higher risk for PE. The patients with PE of blood group O are at high risk of developing HT, and Rh factor was identified as another risk at this point and these patients should be closely followed postpartum. Keywords: ABO blood groups, Rh factor, preeclampsia

  17. Comparison of risk factors among blood donors, volunteers and replacement individuals, infected or not by hepatitis C virus

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    MJDB Felippe

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Hepatitis C is transmitted primarily parenterally by contaminated blood and is often associated with: intravenous drug abuse, invasive procedures, blood transfusions, acupuncture, tattooing, and alcohol and tobacco use. This study aimed to quantify and evaluate the risk factors among blood donors, volunteer blood donors and replacement individuals, infected or not by the C virus. The main transmission routes of C virus were identified in 55 men and 25 women (GI monitored by the Ambulatory Unit of the Department of Tropical Diseases, Botucatu Medical School, and in 24 men and 26 women (GII, all active blood donors at the Bauru State Hospital Transfusional Agency. Both groups were similar in: tobacco and alcohol consumption, sexual behavior, tattooing and illicit drug use. The duration of alcohol and tobacco consumption and blood transfusions in GI were longer, whereas the option for steady partners, condom use, disposable materials and piercings were predominant in GII. In conclusion, the risk factors for hepatitis C demonstrate the necessity of health policies that act on the primary and secondary prevention levels (respectively, reduction of infection incidence and hepatopathy risk.

  18. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  19. Risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction associated with factor V Leiden and prothrombin mutations and blood type.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sode, Birgitte F; Allin, Kristine H; Dahl, Morten; Gyntelberg, Finn; Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2013-03-19

    ABO blood type locus has been reported to be an important genetic determinant of venous and arterial thrombosis in genome-wide association studies. We tested the hypothesis that ABO blood type alone and in combination with mutations in factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A is associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction in the general population. We used data from 2 Danish studies that followed members of the general public from 1977 through 2010. We obtained the genotype of 66 001 white participants for ABO blood type, factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A. We calculated hazard ratios (HRs) and population attributable risk. Our main outcome measures were venous thromboembolism and myocardial infarction. The multivariable adjusted HR for venous thromboembolism was 1.4 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.3-1.5) for non-O blood type (v. O blood type). For the factor V Leiden R506Q mutation, the adjusted HR was 2.2 (95% CI 2.0-2.5) for heterozygous participants and 7.0 (95%CI 4.8-10) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). For prothrombin G20210A, the adjusted HR was 1.5 (95%CI 1.2-1.9) for heterozygous participants and 11 (95% CI 2.8-44) for homozygous participants (v. participants without the mutation). When we combined ABO blood type and factor V Leiden R506Q or prothrombin G20210A genotype, there was a stepwise increase in the risk of venous thromboembolism (trend, pfactor V Leiden R506Q and 1% for prothrombin G20210A. Multivariable adjusted HRs for myocardial infarction by genotypes did not differ from 1.0. ABO blood type had an additive effect on the risk of venous thromboembolism when combined with factor V Leiden R506Q and prothrombin G20210A mutations; blood type was the most important risk factor for venous thromboembolism in the general population.

  20. Rh Factor Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  1. Birth characteristics and risk of high systolic blood pressure in early adulthood: socioeconomic factors and familial effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergvall, Niklas; Iliadou, Anastasia; Tuvemo, Torsten; Cnattingius, Sven

    2005-09-01

    Although an inverse association between size at birth and blood pressure has been found in several studies, few studies have adjusted for the influence of socioeconomic and familial effects. We investigated whether the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in young men is confounded by socioeconomic factors in adolescence or familial factors (ie, common genes and shared environment). Our population-based cohort study comprised 330,768 Swedish men born between 1973 and 1981, and conscripted for military service between 1991 and 2000. The analyses of family effects were restricted to 89,856 siblings from the initial cohort. A high systolic blood pressure at conscription was defined as a systolic blood pressure >/=140 mm Hg. Birth weight for gestational age pressure (odds ratio = 1.14; 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.22), even after adjustment for important confounders such as socioeconomic status. The increase in risk of high systolic blood pressure related to 1 standard deviation score decrease in birth weight for gestational age was similar within families (1.08; 1.04-1.12) and between families (1.05; 1.03-1.08). This study suggests that low birth weight for gestational age slightly increases the risk of high systolic blood pressure, and that the association appears not to be confounded by socioeconomic or familial effects.

  2. Demographic, risk factors and motivations among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis in São Paulo, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, S C; de Almeida-Neto, C; Nishiya, A S; Oliveira, C D L; Ferreira, J E; Alencar, C S; Levi, J E; Salles, N A; Mendrone, A; Sabino, E C

    2014-06-01

    To identify the demographic characteristics, risk factors and motivations for donating among blood donors with reactive serologic tests for syphilis. Post-donation interviews with syphilis seropositive blood donors improve recruitment and screening strategies. This case-control study compares 75 Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (VDRL) > 8, EIA+ (enzyme immunoassay) and FTA-ABS+ (fluorescent treponemal antibody); 80 VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+; and 34 VDRL- and EIA- donors between 2004 and 2009. Donors were assessed by their demographic characteristics, sexual behaviour, history of alcohol and illicit drugs use, and motivations to donate. Donors with VDRL > 8 were more likely to be divorced [AOR = 12·53; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1·30-120·81], to have had more than six sexual partners (AOR=7·1; 95% CI 1·12-44·62) and to report male-male-sex in the past 12 months (AOR=8·18; 95% CI 1·78-37·60). Donors with VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+ were less likely to be female (AOR=0·26; 95% CI 0·07-0·96), more likely to be older (AOR=10·2; 95% CI 2·45-42·58 ≥ 39 and VDRL > 8) and 12·5% (VDRL-, EIA+ and FTA-ABS+) of donors reported that they had been at risk for HIV infection (P = 0·004). One-third of donors came to the blood bank to help a friend or a relative who needed blood. Although donors exposed to syphilis reported and recognised some high risk behaviour, most were motivated by direct appeal to donate blood. Monitoring the risk profile of blood donors can benefit public health and improve blood safety. © 2014 The Authors. Transfusion Medicine © 2014 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  3. Cardiovascular disease risk factors and blood pressure response during exercise in healthy children and adolescents: The European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Niels C; Grøntved, Anders; Wedderkopp, Niels

    2010-01-01

    aerobic fitness test. Examined CVD risk factors were high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, triglyceride, homeostasis model of assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and aerobic fitness. A random effect model...... that physiological cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors would influence BP response during exercise in children and adolescents. This is a cross-sectional study of 439 Danish third-grade children and 364 ninth-grade adolescents. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured with sphygmomanometer during a maximal...

  4. Risk Factors Associated with Ebola and Marburg Viruses Seroprevalence in Blood Donors in the Republic of Congo.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanikaly Moyen

    Full Text Available Ebola and Marburg viruses (family Filoviridae, genera Ebolavirus and Marburgvirus cause haemorrhagic fevers in humans, often associated with high mortality rates. The presence of antibodies to Ebola virus (EBOV and Marburg virus (MARV has been reported in some African countries in individuals without a history of haemorrhagic fever. In this study, we present a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study conducted amongst blood donors in the Republic of Congo and the analysis of risk factors for contact with EBOV.In 2011, we conducted a MARV and EBOV seroprevalence study amongst 809 blood donors recruited in rural (75; 9.3% and urban (734; 90.7% areas of the Republic of Congo. Serum titres of IgG antibodies to MARV and EBOV were assessed by indirect double-immunofluorescence microscopy. MARV seroprevalence was 0.5% (4 in 809 without any identified risk factors. Prevalence of IgG to EBOV was 2.5%, peaking at 4% in rural areas and in Pointe Noire. Independent risk factors identified by multivariate analysis were contact with bats and exposure to birds.This MARV and EBOV serological survey performed in the Republic of Congo identifies a probable role for environmental determinants of exposure to EBOV. It highlights the requirement for extending our understanding of the ecological and epidemiological risk of bats (previously identified as a potential ecological reservoir and birds as vectors of EBOV to humans, and characterising the protection potentially afforded by EBOV-specific antibodies as detected in blood donors.

  5. BLOOD DOPING AND RISKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Vasić

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Doping is the way in which athletes misuse of chemicals and other types of medical interventions (eg, blood replacement, try to get ahead in the results of other athletes or their performance at the expense of their own health. The aim of this work is the analysis of blood doping and the display of negative consequences that this way of increasing capabilities brings. Method: The methodological work is done descriptively. Results: Even in 1972 at the Stockholm Institute for gymnastics and sport, first Dr. Bjorn Ekblom started having blood doping. Taken from the blood, athletes through centifuge separating red blood cells from blood plasma, which is after a month of storage in the fridge, every athlete back into the bloodstream. Tests aerobic capacity thereafter showed that the concerned athletes can run longer on average for 25% of the treadmill than before. Discussion: Blood doping carries with it serious risks, excessive amount of red cells “thickens the blood,” increased hematocrit, which reduces the heart’s ability to pump blood to the periphery. All this makes it difficult for blood to flow through blood vessels, and there is a great danger that comes to a halt in the circulation, which can cause cardiac arrest, stroke, pulmonary edema, and other complications that can be fatal.

  6. High Blood Pressure and Related Factors Among Individuals at High Risk for HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nam, Soohyun; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Davey-Rothwell, Melissa A; Latkin, Carl

    2016-06-01

    Data from a social network-based human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)/sexually transmitted infection (STI) prevention study with a total of 330 men and women at high risk for HIV/STIs were used to examine the relationships between substance use, depressive symptoms, general health, cardiovascular disease risk factors, sociodemographic characteristics, and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP). Approximately 60% of the participants had prehypertension to stage 2 hypertension. In the base model, older patients (Phigh SBP, whereas older age (Phigh frequency of alcohol drinking and high frequency of binge drinking remained significant for high SBP and DBP. These data suggest that future cardiovascular disease programs should target moderate alcohol consumption to improve blood pressure among individuals at high risk for HIV/STIs. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. High blood pressure and associated risk factors among women attending antenatal clinics in Tanzania

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mwanri, A.W.; Kinabo, J.L.; Ramaiya, K.; Feskens, E.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Hypertension during pregnancy (HDP) is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality worldwide. This study examined prevalence and potential risk factors for HDP among pregnant women in Tanzania. Methods: We examined 910 pregnant women, aged at least 20 years, mean gestational a

  8. Age and metabolic risk factors associated with oxidatively damaged DNA in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løhr, Mille; Jensen, Annie; Eriksen, Louise;

    2015-01-01

    , cholesterol and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c). In the group of men, there were significant positive associations between alcohol intake, HbA1c and FPG-sensitive sites in multivariate analysis. The levels of metabolic risk factors were positively associated with age, yet only few subjects fulfilled all...

  9. Are blood pressure and diabetes additive or synergistic risk factors? outcome in 8494 subjects randomly recruited from 10 populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan

    2011-01-01

    It remains unknown whether diabetes and high blood pressure (BP) are simply additive risk factors for cardiovascular outcome or whether they act synergistically and potentiate one another. We performed 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring in 8494 subjects (mean age, 54.6 years; 47.0% women; 6.9% diabeti.......Hypertension Research advance online publication, 10 February 2011; doi:10.1038/hr.2011.6....

  10. Pre-engraftment syndrome after myeloablative dual umbilical cord blood transplantation: Risk factors and response to treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Kanda, Junya; KAYNAR, LEYLAGUL; Kanda, Yoshinobu; Prasad, Vinod K.; Parikh, Suhag H.; Lan, Lan; SHEN, TONG; Rizzieri, David A.; Long, Gwynn D.; Sullivan, Keith M.; Gasparetto, Cristina; Chute, John P.; Morris, Ashley; Winkel, Scott; McPherson, Jacalyn

    2013-01-01

    High fever and/or rash prior to neutrophil engraftment are frequently observed after umbilical cord blood (UCB) transplantation, and the condition is referred to as pre-engraftment syndrome (PES). Few studies have evaluated the risk factors for and treatment response to PES. Therefore, we retrospectively characterized PES in 57 consecutive engrafted patients (≥12 years old) who received myeloablative dual UCB transplantation. All patients received TBI (≥13.2Gy)-based myeloablative conditionin...

  11. Optimistic Bias, Risk Factors, and Development of High Blood Pressure and Obesity among African American Adolescents in Mississippi (USA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Monique S; Addison, Clifton C; Jenkins, Brenda W Campbell; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; LaVigne, Donna Antoine

    2017-02-20

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities.

  12. Optimistic Bias, Risk Factors, and Development of High Blood Pressure and Obesity among African American Adolescents in Mississippi (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Monique S.; Addison, Clifton C.; Campbell Jenkins, Brenda W.; Bland, Vanessa; Clark, Adrianne; Antoine LaVigne, Donna

    2017-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities. PMID:28230728

  13. Optimistic Bias, Risk Factors, and Development of High Blood Pressure and Obesity among African American Adolescents in Mississippi (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique S. White

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions and is linked to hypertension among African American youth. Optimistic bias influences behavior of youth causing them to underestimate their susceptibility to negative health outcomes. This study explored adolescent behaviors and prevalence of high blood pressure and obesity in a school district. We examined the relationship between individual health risk practices and optimistic bias on health outcomes; 433 African American high school students were administered a survey and had their obesity and blood pressure measured by the school nurse. Canonical correlational analyses were used to examine relationships between health risk practices and descriptive statistics for optimistic bias and health outcomes. Engaging in moderate exercise for at least 30 min in the last 7 days and lower blood pressure was the only statistically significant relationship. Two-thirds of the students did not perceive themselves to be at risk of developing cardiovascular disease with males at greater risk than females, despite the presence of clinical risk factors for hypertension and obesity. Reducing health optimistic bias is an effective way of motivating young people to adopt more positive behaviors using educational institutions to implement intervention programs that promote positive health behavior as a way to reduce health disparities.

  14. Blood fluidity, fibrinogen, and cardiovascular risk factors of occlusive arterial disease: results of the Aachen study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koscielny, J; Jung, E M; Mrowietz, C; Kiesewetter, H; Latza, R

    2004-01-01

    In the Aachen study the prevalence of arterial disease was established in 346 out of a cohort of 2821 subjects between 45 and 65 years of age. Rheological variables and risk factor profile for patients with peripheral occlusive arterial disease (POAD), coronary heart disease (CHD) and cerebrovascular insufficiency (CI) in comparison to a control group are given. Significantly elevated are hematocrit in males, plasma viscosity, erythrocyte aggregation and fibrinogen. It is evident that plasma viscosity is the rheological parameter most often elevated in patients with arterial disease (70.8%). In patients with CI (80.6%) plasma viscosity is elevated about four times more often than in healthy subjects. While 85.8% of healthy volunteers show no or only one elevated rheological parameter only 44.5% of the patients have this constellation. Risk factors are bundled in patients compared to healthy volunteers. 84.2% of the healthy volunteers have no or only one risk factor whereas patients with OAD show this constellation in only 30.9% (32.4% in POAD, 16.1% in CI and 32.4% in CHD).

  15. High diastolic blood pressure is a risk factor for in-hospital mortality in complete MCA stroke patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caso, Valeria; Agnelli, Giancarlo; Alberti, Andrea; Venti, Michele; Acciarresi, Monica; Palmerini, Francesco; Paciaroni, Maurizio

    2012-06-01

    Complete middle cerebral artery (MCA) stroke is a life-threatening condition, which can lead to death in the form of "malignant MCA syndrome"; characterized by massive brain edema and cerebral herniation. Moreover, patients with complete MCA infarct have high mortality due to complications. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with complete MCA stroke. Consecutive patients with complete MCA stroke were enrolled in a prospective single center in-hospital outcome study having mortality as its end point. Among 780 ischemic stroke patients, 125 had complete MCA strokes (16%) and 44 (35.2%) of these died in hospital. A high NIHSS-score (OR 1.17 95%CI 1.03-1.34, P=0.013) and high diastolic blood pressure on admission (OR 1.05 95%CI 1.01-1.09) resulted being independent predictors of in-hospital mortality in patients with complete MCA stroke. The median value of diastolic blood pressure at admission was 90 mmHg in patients who died and 80 mmHg in survivors (P=0.01). The risk of death increased by 5% for each mmHg increase in diastolic blood pressure on admission after adjusting for other risk factors. The rate of mortality was 22% in patients with diastolic blood pressure lower than 90 mmHg, 56% for those with diastolic blood pressure between 90 and 109 mmHg and 67% for those with diastolic blood pressure higher than 110 mmHg. This study suggests that high diastolic blood pressure on admission in acute MCA stroke patients is linearly correlated with in-hospital mortality.

  16. Dose-response association of uncontrolled blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk factors with hyperuricemia and gout.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen P Juraschek

    Full Text Available First-line therapy of hypertension includes diuretics, known to exert a multiplicative increase on the risk of gout. Detailed insight into the underlying prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in persons with uncontrolled blood pressure (BP and common comorbidities is informative to practitioners initiating antihypertensive agents. We quantify the prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout in persons with uncontrolled BP and additional cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors.We performed a cross-sectional study of non-institutionalized US adults, 18 years and older, using the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys in 1988-1994 and 1999-2010. Hyperuricemia was defined as serum uric acid >6.0 mg/dL in women; >7.0 mg/dL in men. Gout was ascertained by self-report of physician-diagnosed gout. Uncontrolled BP was based on measured systolic BP≥140 mmHg and diastolic BP≥90 mmHg. Additional CVD risk factors included obesity, reduced glomerular filtration rate, and dyslipidemia. The prevalence of hyperuricemia was 6-8% among healthy US adults, 10-15% among adults with uncontrolled BP, 22-25% with uncontrolled BP and one additional CVD risk factor, and 34-37% with uncontrolled BP and two additional CVD risk factors. Similarly, the prevalence of gout was successively greater, at 1-2%, 4-5%, 6-8%, and 8-12%, respectively, across these same health status categories. In 2007-2010, those with uncontrolled BP and 2 additional CVD risk factors compared to those without CVD risk factors had prevalence ratios of 4.5 (95% CI 3.5-5.6 and 4.5 (95% CI: 3.1-6.3 for hyperuricemia and gout respectively (P<0.01.Health care providers should be cognizant of the incrementally higher prevalence of hyperuricemia and gout among patients with uncontrolled BP and additional CVD risk factors. With one in three people affected by hyperuricemia among those with several CVD risk factors, physicians should consider their anti-hypertensive regimens carefully and potentially

  17. Relationship of blood pressure with some cardiovascular disease risk factors in a rural population of Plateau State, North Central Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basil N Okeahialam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hypertension is associated with certain cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors which vary from one place to the other depending on community sophistication. We decided to obtain the situation as it affects this rural Nigerian community to be in an evidence-based position to initiate individual and group prevention strategies. Design: Cross-sectional population survey. Materials and Methods: We surveyed for CVD risk factors among subjects 15 years and above in this rural community using a questionnaire requesting personal, medical and anthropometric information. One in three of them were randomly assigned to laboratory investigations. Results: Of the 840 subjects studied, 25% were males. The population mean age was 45.5 (18.2 standard deviation (SD, with 1.8% smokers and 4.1% using alcohol. Systolic blood pressure (SBP correlated with age, body mass index (BMI, total cholesterol (TC and uric acid (UA; while diastolic blood pressure (DBP correlated with age, BMI, TC, UA and atherogenic index (AI. SBP and DBP improved with exercise but not salt intake. The local seasonings used in cooking had no impact on blood pressure. Conclusion: To reduce cardiovascular morbidity in this and probably other rural sub-Saharan African communities, BMI, TC, UA and salt intake in diet should be targeted for reduction. Physical activity should be encouraged. Interestingly, these fall into the sphere of healthy lifestyle which should be encouraged and re-inforced.

  18. Polypharmacotherapy and blood products as risk factors for venous thromboembolism in postsurgical patients: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Premuš Marušič, Alenka; Petrovič, Daniel; Mrhar, Aleš; Locatelli, Igor

    2017-04-01

    Background After surgical procedures, patients are at high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, clinically manifested as deep vein thrombosis (DVT) or pulmonary embolism (PE). Objective To evaluate the influence of polypharmacotherapy, comorbidity, drug treatments, packed red blood cells application, adequacy of thromboprophylaxis, and patient characteristics on the occurrence of DVT or PE in postsurgical patients. Setting The surgical department at Murska Sobota General Hospital, Slovenia. Methods In this retrospective case control study, the records of 286 surgical patients were analysed: DVT or PE group (n = 144) and control group (n = 142). The number of prescribed drugs and drug-drug interactions were reviewed, together with prescription of low-molecular-weight heparins. The odds ratios (OR) of risk factors for DVT or PE were calculated using a multivariable logistic regression model. Main outcome measure Risk factors assessment for the occurrence of DVT or PE in surgical patients. Results Polypharmacotherapy (OR 2.02, 95% CI 1.03-3.96, p = 0.040) and packed red blood cells application (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.46-8.10, p = 0.005) were associated with an increased risk of PE or DVT after surgery. Inadequate thromboprophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparins significantly increased the likelihood of DVT or PE (OR 2.50, 95% CI 1.41-4.43, p = 0.002). There were no differences between the groups concerning the treatment with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, benzodiazepines or antipsychotics. Conclusions Patients with polypharmacotherapy and patients receiving red blood cells should be monitored more closely after surgery as they are more likely to develop DVT or PE.

  19. Risk factors associated with the blood lead levels of children in the Community of Madrid in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José María Ordóñez-Iriarte

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Lead is a toxic element for humans, with children being the most vulnerable population.Objective: To find out the risk factors associated to the existing blood lead levels (BLLs of children in the Community of Madrid, after 9 years of lead being banned in gasoline.Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out in 2010 with a sample of 85 children, less than 15 years of age, recruited via the outpatients’ service of the Pediatrics Department of the Hospital Clínico San Carlos in Madrid. Routine blood tests provided the opportunity for determining other blood parameters. Lead levels were measured using electrothermal-atomization atomic absorption spectrometry with the Zeeman-effect background correction. In addition, a survey was undertaken directed to the parents for gathering information about a series of socioeconomic and environmental variables.Results: The arithmetic mean of the BLLs in the children was 1.1 μg/dL (SD=0.7 μg/dL with a range from 0.1 μg/dL to 3.4 μg/dL. The geometric mean was 0.9 μg/dL (SD= 1.1 μg/dL. The risk factors associated to these BLLs are the following: playing in the street; low educational level of the parents; leisure activities of one of the parents linked to lead; tobacco smoking of the father; and drinking tap water.Conclusions: The BLLs of the children in the Community of Madrid have decreased, but there are still sociodemographic and environmental risk factors associated to the present levels.

  20. Effect of red wine and red grape extract on blood lipids, haemostatic factors, and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Alice Schmidt; Marckmann, P.; Dragsted, L.O.

    2005-01-01

    . Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)- cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, very-low-density lipoprotein ( VLDL)- triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, fibrinogen, factor VII coagulant activity (FVIIc), blood pressure, and body weight were determined......: 300 ml/day, 38.3 g alcohol/day, female subjects: 200 ml/ day, 25.5 g alcohol/day), 2: water+red grape extract tablets ( wine-equivalent dose), 3: water+red grape extract tablets ( half dose), or 4: water+placebo tablets for a period of 4 weeks. No other sources of alcohol or anthocyanin were allowed...... before and after intervention. Results: Wine consumption was associated with a significant 11 - 16% increase in fasting HDL-C and 8 - 15% decrease in fasting fibrinogen relative to not drinking wine. There were no significant treatment effects on fasting LDL-C, HDL-C/LDL-C-ratio, VLDL...

  1. Comportamiento de percentiles de tensión arterial asociados a factores de riesgo en escolares Performance of blood pressure percentiles associated with risk factors in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Jesús Suárez Rivera

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available Se realizó un estudio prospectivo y descriptivo del universo de escolares desde preescolar hasta 6to. grado de la Escuela Primaria "Jesús Menéndez," de la localidad de Alamar, en el período comprendido desde septiembre de 2000 hasta febrero de 2001, con el objetivo de estimar el comportamiento de los percentiles (pc de tensión arterial, según edad y sexo, así como los factores de riesgo asociados. La muestra quedó constituida por 743 alumnos, a los cuales se les realizó un examen físico que incluyó peso, talla, toma de tensión arterial y una encuesta abierta. Con los datos obtenidos se dividió la población en 4 grupos de estudio según percentiles de tensión arterial: grupo I ( 95 pc, según la literatura extranjera consultada, y se relacionaron con factores de riesgo. El mayor número de escolares estudiados se encontraban con cifras de tensión arterial ubicadas en canales menores al 50 pc (88,83 %, y el factor de riesgo que se encontró con mayor frecuencia fue el antecedente familiar de hipertensión arterial. Solo 6 escolares presentaron cifras de tensión arterial superiores al 95 pc.A prospective descriptive study of students from kindergarten to 6th grade in "Jesús Menendez" elementary school located in Alamar was performed from September 2000 to February 2001 to find out the performance of blood pressure percentiles by age and sex as well as the associated risk factors. The sample was comprised by 743 students who were physically examined, taking into account weight, height, blood pressure and an open survey. The obtained data allowed us to divide the population into 4 groups by blood pressure percentiles; group 1(95 pc according to the reviewed foreign literature and they were related to risk factors. The blood pressure values of the highest number of studied students were under 50 pc (88,83 % and the most frequent risk factors was family history of blood hypertension. Only 6 students had blood pressure value over 95 %.

  2. Natural Honey and Cardiovascular Risk Factors; Effects on Blood Glucose, Cholesterol, Triacylglycerole, CRP, and Body Weight Compared with Sucrose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yaghoobi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been found that honey ameliorates cardiovascular risk factors in healthy individuals and in patients with elevated risk factors. The present study investigated the effect of natural honey on total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, triacylglycerole, C-reactive protein (CRP, fasting blood glucose (FBG, and body weight in overweight individuals. There were 55 patients, overweight or obese, who were randomly recruited into the study and assigned into two groups: control group (17 subjects and experimental group (38 subjects. Patients in the control group received 70 g of sucrose daily for a maximum of 30 days and patients in the experimental group received 70 g of natural honey for the same period. In the control and experimental groups, body weight, body mass index, body fat weight, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triacylglycerole, FBG, and CRP were measured before treatment and at day 31 after the commencement of treatment. Results showed that honey caused a mild reduction in body weight (1.3% and body fat (1.1%. Honey reduced total cholesterol (3%, LDL-C (5.8, triacylglycerole (11%, FBG (4.2%, and CRP (3.2%, and increased HDL-C (3.3% in subjects with normal values, while in patients with elevated variables, honey caused reduction in total cholesterol by 3.3%, LDL-C by 4.3%, triacylglycerole by 19%, and CRP by 3.3% (p < 0.05. It is our conclusion that consumption of natural honey reduces cardiovascular risk factors, particularly in subjects with elevated risk factors, and it does not increase body weight in overweight or obese subjects.

  3. Elevated Blood Pressure and Its Associated Risk Factors among Adolescents of a North Indian City - A Cross-sectional Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Senthamizh; Masood, Jamal; Srivastava, Anand Kumar; Mishra, Prabhaker

    2017-01-01

    Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP) thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. (1) To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2) To assess adolescent's knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and oral questionnaire for assessing lifestyle risk factors were used. Chi-square, unpaired t-test, and logistic regression were used. Of the 1041 participants, elevated BP (BP percentile ≥90) was prevalent in 24.2%. On regression, factors such as obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6-9.4), low fruit diet (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.1-5.4), and frequent junk food consumption (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3-2.8) raised the odds of elevated BP while it was lowered by being physically active (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46-0.97). Of 86.3% of children (n = 898) who were fathomed of BP, only less than third (33% and 21.9%) acquainted of BP raising and lowering practices, respectively. Prevalence of high BP is colossal with only a few children knowing its amendable nature. Strenuous efforts targeting detrimental behaviors and imparting the sense of healthy lifestyle enhancing practices are vital to control this epidemic.

  4. ACUTE LUNG INJURY COMPLICATING BLOOD TRANSFUSION IN POST-PARTUM HEMORRHAGE: INCIDENCE AND RISK FACTORS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Teofili

    2014-10-01

    Conclusions. Patients suffering from PPH represent a high-risk population for TRALI. In particular, patients with gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia   have the highest risk, particularly if they are not receiving anti-hypertensive therapy. A careful monitoring of these patients after transfusions is therefore recommended.

  5. Heart disease - risk factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heart disease - prevention; CVD - risk factors; Cardiovascular disease - risk factors; Coronary artery disease - risk factors; CAD - risk ... a certain health condition. Some risk factors for heart disease you cannot change, but some you can. ...

  6. Hypertension Management and Factors Associated with Blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension Management and Factors Associated with Blood Pressure Control in ... Purpose: To assess modifiable clusters of cardiovascular risk factors and ... Results: The number of concomitant medical conditions was high: diabetes ...

  7. Transfusion-associated hepatitis before the screening of blood for hepatitis risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engle, Ronald E; Bukh, Jens; Alter, Harvey J

    2014-01-01

    from 66 patients undergoing open heart surgery in the 1960s were reevaluated with modern diagnostic tests to determine the incidence of TAH and its virologic causes. RESULTS: In this heavily transfused population receiving a mean of 20 units per patient of predominantly paid-donor blood, 30 of 66 (45...

  8. A genetic risk factor for low serum ferritin levels in Danish blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Grau, Katrine; Berg, Trine;

    2012-01-01

    /or restless leg syndrome (RLS) were investigated in two groups of female blood donors. The first group had low iron stores (serum ferritin ≤ 12 µg/L, n = 657), and the second group had normal to high iron stores (serum ferritin > 30 µg/L, n = 645). Genotype distribution for each of the SNPs was compared...

  9. Very preterm birth is a risk factor for increased systolic blood pressure at a young adult age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.G. Keijzer-Veen (Mandy); A. Dülger (Arzu); F.W. Dekker (Friedo); J. Nauta (Jeroen); A.J. van der Heijden (Bert)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractChildren born very prematurely who show intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) are suggested to be at risk of developing high blood pressure as adults. Renal function may already be impaired by young adult age. To study whether very preterm birth affects blood pressure in young adults, w

  10. Heart Disease Risk Factors You Can Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... can control the following risk factors by making lifestyle changes. Your doctor might also suggest medicine to help control some risk factors, such as high blood pressure or high cholesterol. Poor blood cholesterol (koh-LESS-tur-ol) and triglyceride ( ...

  11. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead poisoning in children and caregivers in Chuuk State, Micronesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Lisa M; Kim, Dennis; Yomai, Anamaria; Meyer, Pamela A; Noonan, Gary P; Huff, Daniel; Flanders, W D

    2005-01-01

    Lead poisoning is a preventable environmental disease. Children and developing fetuses are especially vulnerable; even low blood lead levels (BLLs) are linked with learning and behavioral problems. We assessed children's and their caregivers' BLLs and risk factors for lead exposure in Chuuk State, Federated States of Micronesia. Children aged 2-6 years were randomly selected within 20 randomly selected villages. Children and caregivers provided venous blood, and caregivers offered information about possible risk factors for lead exposure. Mean BLLs were 39 microg/l for children and 16 microg/l for caregivers. Children with BLLs of > or = 100 microg/l (elevated) were 22.9 (95% CI: 4.5-116.0) times more likely to have a caregiver with an elevated BLL, 6.2 (95% CI: 1.4-27.3) times more likely to live on an outer island, and 3.4 (95% CI: 1.7-6.9) times more likely to have a family member who made lead fishing weights than did other children even after controlling for age and sex. For children, 61% of elevated BLLs could be attributed to making fishing weights. Caregivers with elevated BLLs were 5.9 (95% CI: 1.5-23.7) times more likely to live in a household that melted batteries than other caregivers even after controlling for age and education. For caregivers, 37% of the elevated BLLs could be attributed to melting batteries. The association of elevated BLLs in children and their caregiver suggests a common environmental exposure. Melting batteries to make fishing sinkers is a preventable source of lead exposure for children and their caregivers in Chuuk. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  12. Blood pressure variability predicts cardiovascular events independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Dahlöf, Björn; Devereux, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Assessment of antihypertensive treatment is normally based on the mean value of a number of blood pressure (BP) measurements. However, it is uncertain whether high in-treatment visit-to-visit BP variability may be harmful in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH...... high BP6-24 months SD nor wide range were related to TOD at 24 months, except for a weak association between Sokolow-Lyon voltage and DBP6-24 months SD and range (both β = 0.04, P 

  13. Systolic Blood Pressure Variability is a Novel Risk Factor for Rebleeding in Acute Subarachnoid Hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-Song; Ping-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Xiang; Lin, Zhang-Ya; Yu, Liang-Hong; Dai, Lin-Sun; Kang, De-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Rebleeding of an aneurysm is a major cause of morbidity and mortality after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Whereas numerous studies have demonstrated predictors of rebleeding and effect of systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) on stroke, few data on the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Here, we sought to identify the effect of SBPV on rebleeding in acute aneurysmal SAH. Case–control study. From January 2010 to June 2015, 612 patients with aneurysmal SAH were enrolled in our tertiary care medical center. Main outcome measures: Consecutive patients with acute (<3 days from ictus) aneurismal rebleeding or repair or death were retrospectively included. Antihypertensive therapy based on a predefined standardized protocol was prescribed to lower and maintain SBP between 120 and 160 mm Hg. SBP was measured hourly until a censoring event occurred. SBPV was determined as standard deviation (SD) and successive variation (SV). Binary logistic regression was used to assess the association between SBPV and rebleeding. Rebleeding occurred in 61 (10.0%) of the 612 patients. We identified 47 acute rebleeding as cases and 382 early repair or early death as controls. On binary logistic regression analysis, rebleeding was associated with the SD of SBP (odds ratio [OR], 1.254; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.131–1.391; P < 0.001) and the SV of SBP (OR, 1.131; 95% CI, 1.039–1.231; P = 0.004). No significant difference was seen between rebleeding and mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP). SBPV is associated with increased rates of acute aneurysmal rebleeding. Further prospective research is warranted to confirm that SBP stability prevents acute aneurysm rebleeding. PMID:26986118

  14. Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Prevented? Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention Thyroid Cancer Risk Factors A risk factor is anything that ... Cancer? Can Thyroid Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thyroid Cancer About Thyroid Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  15. Risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Catherine J; Connors, K C; Sheehan, Timothy J; Vaughan, James S

    2005-06-01

    Minimize surprises on your financial statement by adopting a model for integrated risk management that: Examines interrelationships among operations, investments, and financing. Incorporates concepts of the capital asset pricing model to manage unexpected volatility

  16. High blood pressure as a risk factor for incident stroke among very old people: a population-based cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hörnsten, Carl; Weidung, Bodil; Littbrand, Håkan; Carlberg, Bo; Nordström, Peter; Lövheim, Hugo; Gustafson, Yngve

    2016-10-01

    High blood pressure (BP) increases the risk of stroke, but there is limited evidence from studies including very old people. The aim was to investigate risk factors for incident stroke among very old people. A prospective population-based cohort study was performed among participants aged at least 85 years in northern Sweden. The 955 participants were tested at their homes. BP was measured manually after 5-min supine rest. Incident stroke data were collected from medical charts guided by hospital registry, death records, and 5-year reassessments. Cox proportional hazards models were used. The stroke incidence was 33.8/1000 person-years (94 stroke events) during a mean follow-up period of 2.9 years. In a comprehensive multivariate model, atrial fibrillation [hazard ratio 1.85, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.07-3.19] and higher SBP (hazard ratio 1.19, 95% CI 1.08-1.30 per 10-mmHg increase) were associated with incident stroke overall. However, higher SBP was not associated with incident stroke in participants with SBP less than 140 mmHg (hazard ratio 0.90, 95% CI 0.53-1.53 per 10-mmHg increase). In additional multivariate models, DBP at least 90 mmHg (hazard ratio 2.45, 95% CI 1.47-4.08) and SBP at least 160 mmHg (vs. High SBP (≥160 mmHg) and DBP (≥90 mmHg) and atrial fibrillation appeared to be risk factors for incident stroke among very old people.

  17. Preoperative, high IL-6 blood level is a risk factor of postoperative delirium onset in old patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam eCapri

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Postoperative delirium (POD is a common complication in elderly patients undergoing surgery, but the underpinning causes are not clear. We hypothesized that inflammaging, the subclinical low and chronic grade inflammation characteristic of old people, can contribute to POD onset. Accordingly, we investigated the association of preoperative and circulating cytokines in elderly patients (>65 yrs, admitted for elective and emergence surgery.Methods: This is secondary analysis of a sub-cohort of patients belonging to a previous large case-control study, where 351 patients were clinically and cognitively thoroughly characterized, together with the assessment of POD (47 patients by Confusion Assessment Method (CAM and Delirium Rating Scale (DRS. 74 preoperative plasma samples were selected from a larger bio-bank and they included 37 subjects with POD and 37 without POD. Inflammaging related cytokines, i.e. IL-1 β, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-α were assayed by ELISA in pre-operative blood samples; univariate and multivariable analyses have been applied to identify cytokines independently associated to POD. Associations of cytokine levels with functional status, cognitive decline, intra-hospital mortality and comorbidity were also analyzed independently of POD onset.Results:. High IL-6 and low IL-2 levels were significantly associated with POD. After adjustment for potential confounders in multivariate analysis, high level of preoperative IL-6 was confirmed to be significantly associated with risk of POD onset.. High level of IL-6 was also associated with several baseline features (including poor functional status, cognitive impairment, emergency admission and higher comorbidity burden and intra-hospital mortality.Conclusions: Preoperative, high plasma level of IL-6 ( ≥ 9 pg/mL was significantly associated with POD onset. We propose IL-6 as an additional risk factor of POD onset together with the previously identified factors

  18. [Preterm birth as a risk factor for high blood pressure in children: a systematic review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelli, Anna Paula; Nascimento, Larissa Rangel; Mill, Jose Geraldo; Molina, Maria del Carmen Bisi

    2011-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have suggested that arterial hypertension is a chronic disease that begins in childhood, and that prematurity (birth at less than 37 weeks' gestational age) is potentially associated with the development of hypertension in childhood and adulthood. Our objective was to identify the association between prematurity and high blood pressure in children, using a systematic literature review. Original articles related to the theme and published in English, Portuguese, or Spanish from 1998 to 2009 were selected from the MEDLINE, LILACS, and SciELO databases. We excluded articles without abstracts, review articles, and articles not related to prematurity and hypertension in childhood. Nine articles were located and analyzed: 5 case-control studies, 2 cross-sectional studies, and 2 cohort studies. The majority of the studies failed to show an association between prematurity and arterial hypertension in childhood. However, the influence of prematurity should not be ruled out, given the small number of studies on this theme and the diversity of methodological approaches in the literature.

  19. Elevated blood pressure and its associated risk factors among adolescents of a North Indian City - A cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senthamizh Prasad

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Amidst the uncertainty in childhood blood pressure (BP thresholds, besides the ambiguity in levels and duration of BP elevation causing organ damage, hypertension is present in substantial number of asymptomatic children and adolescents with only a few studies disclosing the setup. With projection of deaths due to noncommunicable diseases in 2030 rising to 52 million, it is necessary to know about the knowledge of present adolescents about BP and its modifiable risk factors. Aims: (1 To assess the prevalence of elevated BP among adolescents and to ascertain the associated risk factors. (2 To assess adolescent's knowledge about BP and its modifiable factors. Settings and Design: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on school going adolescents of Lucknow, from September 2014 to August 2015. Subjects and Methods: BP, height, and weight were measured following standard protocols, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention charts for finding respective cut-off values and oral questionnaire for assessing lifestyle risk factors were used. Statistical Analysis: Chi-square, unpaired t-test, and logistic regression were used. Results: Of the 1041 participants, elevated BP (BP percentile ≥90 was prevalent in 24.2%. On regression, factors such as obesity (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.8, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 3.6–9.4, low fruit diet (aOR = 3.3, 95% CI = 2.1–5.4, and frequent junk food consumption (aOR = 1.9, 95% CI = 1.3–2.8 raised the odds of elevated BP while it was lowered by being physically active (aOR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.46–0.97. Of 86.3% of children (n = 898 who were fathomed of BP, only less than third (33% and 21.9% acquainted of BP raising and lowering practices, respectively. Conclusions: Prevalence of high BP is colossal with only a few children knowing its amendable nature. Strenuous efforts targeting detrimental behaviors and imparting the sense of healthy lifestyle enhancing practices are vital to

  20. Do other cardiovascular risk factors influence the impact of age on the association between blood pressure and mortality?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate age-related shifts in the relative importance of SBP and DBP as predictors of cardiovascular mortality and all-cause mortality and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: Using 42 cohorts from the MORGAM Project with baseline......Hg increase in SBP/DBP by multivariate-adjusted Cox regressions, including SBP and DBP simultaneously. Because of nonlinearity, SBP and DBP were analyzed separately for blood pressure (BP) values above and below a cut-point wherein mortality risk was the lowest. For the total population, significantly...... positive associations were found between stroke mortality and SBP [hazard ratio = 1.19 (1.13-1.25)] and DBP at least 78 mmHg [hazard ratio = 1.08 (1.02-1.14)], CHD mortality and SBP at least 116 mmHg [1.20 (1.16-1.24)], and all-cause mortality and SBP at least 120 mmHg [1.09 (1.08-1.11)] and DBP at least...

  1. [Perioperative risk factors associated with allogeneic blood transfusion in patients with hip fracture surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durán-Nah, Jaime Jesús; Pastelín-Ruiz, Sofía Elisa; Miam-Viana, Emilio de Jesús

    2015-01-01

    Introducción: el objetivo es identificar los factores de riesgo asociados a la hemotransfusión alogénica en pacientes con cirugía de cadera realizada en un hospital general citadino, durante 2008 y 2009. Métodos: fueron considerados como casos 118 pacientes que recibieron sangre alogénica en el pre, el trans o en el postquirúrgico inmediato, y como controles 138 pacientes que tuvieron el mismo tipo de cirugía, pero no fueron hemotransfundidos. La relación entre variables se investigó utilizando un modelo de regresión logística del que se obtuvieron la razón de momios (RM) y los intervalos de confianza (IC) de 95 %. Resultados: se identificaron como factores de riesgo: el sangrado transquirúrgico mayor o igual a 400 ml (frente a < 400 ml, RM 5.68, IC 95 % 2.5 a 12.9, p = 0.007) y la concentración prequirúrgica de hemoglobina < 11 g/dL (frente a = 11 g/dL, RM 2.86, IC 95 % 1.5 a 5.6; p = 0.001); pero no la duración de la cirugía, el segmento femoral intervenido, la técnica quirúrgica ni la Hb postquirúrgica. Conclusiones: el sangrado transquirúrgico mayor o igual a 400 ml y la Hb prequirúrgica < 11 g/dL incrementaron el riesgo de hemotransfusión alogénica.

  2. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... atrial fibrillation has more than five times the risk of stroke.” “Because high blood pressure is so frequent, affecting tens of millions of ... is a more potent risk factor.” The two risk factors are also related to each other: High blood pressure is a risk factor for atrial fibrillation. Middle- ...

  3. White blood cell count in women: relation to inflammatory biomarkers, haematological profiles, visceral adiposity, and other cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farhangi, Mahdieh Abbasalizad; Keshavarz, Seyyed-Ali; Eshraghian, Mohammadreza; Ostadrahimi, Alireza; Saboor-Yaraghi, Ali-Akbar

    2013-03-01

    The role of white blood cell (WBC) count in pathogenesis of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and obesity-related disorders has been reported earlier. Recent studies revealed that higher WBC contributes to atherosclerotic progression and impaired fasting glucose. However, it is unknown whether variations in WBC and haematologic profiles can occur in healthy obese individuals. The aim of this study is to further evaluate the influence of obesity on WBC count, inflammatory biomarkers, and metabolic risk factors in healthy women to establish a relationship among variables analyzed. The sample of the present study consisted of 84 healthy women with mean age of 35.56 +/- 6.83 years. They were categorized into two groups based on their body mass index (BMI): obese group with BMI > 30 kg/m2 and non-obese group with BMI count (PLT) with serum interleukin 6 (IL-6), C-reactive protein (CRP), angiotensin pi (Ang pi), body fat percentage (BF %), waist-circumference (WC), and lipid profile. WBC, PLT, CRP, and IL-6 in obese subjects were significantly higher than in non-obese subjects (p count in obese subjects was 6.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) compared to 4.4 +/- 0.3 (x10(9)/L) in non-obese subjects (p = 0.035). WBC correlated with BF% (r = 0.31, p = 0.004), CRP (r = 0.25, P = 0.03), WC (r = 0.22, p = 0.04), angiotensin 11 (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), triglyceride (r = 0.24, p = 0.03), and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) levels (r = 0.3, p = 0.028) but not with IL-6. Platelet count was also associated with WC and waist-to-hip ratio (p count and inflammatory parameters. There was also a positive relationship between WBC count and several inflammatory and metabolic risk factors in healthy women.

  4. Cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in a primary care unit: Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcetic, Milica; Ilic, Katarina; Singh, Nada Majkic; Novakovic, Ivana; Vukotic, Milija; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Simeunovic, Slavko

    2006-01-01

    The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Adequate control of blood pressure is a cornerstone in atherosclerosis prevention. The aim of the Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) was to identify risk factors for elevated blood pressure in school children. The YUSAD study is a multicentre follow-up study comprised of two cross-sectional surveys conducted five years apart. At baseline, 10-year-old children (3226 boys and 3074 girls [n=6300]) were randomly selected during periodical visits to primary health care centres. The risk factors measured were heart rate, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, grade point average and current smoking status. Significant age and sex differences were identified in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and all investigated independent variables. In a multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure in 10-year-old boys was directly and significantly related to total cholesterol and height, whereas it was inversely related to weight. At follow-up, in the multivariate model, only BMI was a significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure in boys. In girls at baseline in the multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure was total cholesterol. In 15-year-old girls, diastolic blood pressure was significantly and directly related to BMI and heart rate, whereas it was inversely related to weight. For both 10- and 15-year-old male and female participants, none of the variables by multivariate analysis were a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure. Age, sex, heart rate, cholesterol and weight are the most important predictors of blood pressure in school children.

  5. Cardiovascular risk factors and blood pressure in a primary care unit: Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajcetic, Milica; Ilic, Katarina; Singh, Nada Majkic; Novakovic, Ivana; Vukotic, Milija; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Simeunovic, Slavko

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES The presence of cardiovascular risk factors in children may be important in the development of atherosclerosis in adulthood. Adequate control of blood pressure is a cornerstone in atherosclerosis prevention. The aim of the Yugoslav Study of the Precursors of Atherosclerosis in School Children (YUSAD) was to identify risk factors for elevated blood pressure in school children. METHODS The YUSAD study is a multicentre follow-up study comprised of two cross-sectional surveys conducted five years apart. At baseline, 10-year-old children (3226 boys and 3074 girls [n=6300]) were randomly selected during periodical visits to primary health care centres. The risk factors measured were heart rate, weight, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, grade point average and current smoking status. RESULTS Significant age and sex differences were identified in systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and all investigated independent variables. In a multivariate analysis, diastolic blood pressure in 10-year-old boys was directly and significantly related to total cholesterol and height, whereas it was inversely related to weight. At follow-up, in the multivariate model, only BMI was a significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure in boys. In girls at baseline in the multivariate regression analysis, the only significant predictor of diastolic blood pressure was total cholesterol. In 15-year-old girls, diastolic blood pressure was significantly and directly related to BMI and heart rate, whereas it was inversely related to weight. For both 10- and 15-year-old male and female participants, none of the variables by multivariate analysis were a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure. CONCLUSIONS Age, sex, heart rate, cholesterol and weight are the most important predictors of blood pressure in school children. PMID:18651041

  6. Cardiovascular risk factor and familial aggregation of blood pressure with respect to anthropometric variables in a scheduled caste population in Punjab, a North Indian state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badaruddoza; Kumar, Raman

    2009-06-01

    Based on anthropometric data, this study aims to detect cardiovascular risk factor and familial aggregation of blood pressure in a specific community in India. A total of 1096 adult individuals, constituting 350 families in a scheduled caste community in Punjab, India, was surveyed for blood pressure, pulse rate, pulse pressure and fifteen anthropometric measurements. Estimates of correlation among blood pressure phenotypes with other significant variables and stepwise multiple regression analysis have been carried out for both offspring and parent generations. The hypothesis for common household effects was examined by likelihood ratio tests. Almost all anthropometric variables were found to be significant with blood pressure between both generations. The percent of variance for the regression (R2) was found to be higher for the offspring generation than for the parent one. The results suggest that despite of genetic effects, common household environment for many anthropometric measurements is a significant determinant of blood pressure. The data indicate a strong familial aggregation of blood pressure and anthropometric measurements should be a useful tool for screening cardiovascular risk factor with elevated blood pressure.

  7. Risk Factors for Scleroderma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... You are here: Home For Patients Risk Factors Risk Factors for Scleroderma The cause of scleroderma is ... what biological factors contribute to scleroderma pathogenesis. Genetic Risk Scleroderma does not tend to run in families ...

  8. Risk factors associated with hepatitis B or C markers or elevated alanine aminotransferase level among blood donors on a tropical island: the Guadeloupe experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fest, T; Viel, J F; Agis, F; Coffe, C; Dupond, J L; Hervé, P

    1992-10-01

    Donated blood is currently screened for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), antibody to hepatitis B core antigen (anti-HBc), antibody to hepatitis C virus (anti-HCV), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels to prevent posttransfusion hepatitis. A prospective study of 2368 blood donors was carried out in Guadeloupe (French West Indies) with a view to determining the risk factors associated with serologic abnormalities. Blood donors included in the study had to complete a questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed on the data thus obtained: 571 donations (24%) were positive for at least one of the four analyzed markers. The results were that 3.2 percent were positive for HBsAg, 22 percent for anti-HBc, and 0.8 percent for anti-HCV, and 1.4 percent had ALT > or = 45 IU per L. A good correlation was found between anti-HCV and elevated ALT. Transfusion history and two socioeconomic categories (working class, military personnel) were found to be risk factors. Other risk factors were lifelong residence in Guadeloupe (with risk increasing with the number of years), birthplace and current residence in the southern part of the island, and the existence of gastrointestinal discomfort unrelated to viral hepatitis (odds ratio = 2.98). The results of this study illustrate the difficulty of implementing a preventive policy against posttransfusion hepatitis in a tropical area. The unique epidemiologic situation of Guadeloupe as regards hepatitis B virus has led to more restrictive criteria for the acceptance of blood donors.

  9. Waist circumference, body mass index, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal liver function tests in the Taiwanese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Meng-Hsuan; Lin, Wen-Yi; Chien, Hsu-Han; Chien, Li-Ho; Huang, Chao-Kuan; Yang, Jeng-Fu; Chang, Ning-Chia; Huang, Chung-Feng; Wang, Chao-Ling; Chuang, Wan-Long; Yu, Ming-Lung; Dai, Chia-Yen; Ho, Chi-Kung

    2012-09-01

    Several studies have found that metabolic syndrome and uric acid level are related to abnormal liver function test results. The aim of this study was to explore the associations of risk factors [including blood pressure, blood sugar, total cholesterol, triglyceride, uric acid, waist circumference and body mass index (BMI) measurements] with abnormal liver function in the Taiwanese population.In total, 11,411 Taiwanese adults were enrolled in this study. Blood pressure was assessed according to the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure criteria, fasting blood sugar level according to the Bureau of Health Promotion, Department of Health, R.O.C., criteria, total cholesterol and triglyceride levels according to the Third Report of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria, BMI according to the Asia-Pacific criteria, and waist circumference according to the Revised Diagnostic Criteria of Metabolic Syndrome in Taiwan. The prevalence of a past history of hypertension and diabetes mellitus was 17.7% and 6.5%, respectively, and the rates of abnormal measurements of blood pressure, BMI, waist circumference, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, total cholesterol, uric acid (male/female), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were 76.2%, 67.6%, 40.0%, 28.6%, 30.6%, 57.3%, 37.9%/21.9%, 14.6% and 21.3%, respectively. Multivariate analysis showed that waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels were related to abnormal AST and ALT (pwaist circumference was larger than that for BMI. In conclusion, waist circumference, BMI, serum uric acid, blood sugar, and triglyceride levels are important risk factors for abnormal AST and ALT readings in Taiwanese adults. Waist circumference might be a better indicator of risk of abnormal liver function than BMI.

  10. Abnormal blood rheology and chronic low grade inflammation: possible risk factors for accelerated atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease in Lewis negative subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexy, Tamas; Pais, Eszter; Wenby, Rosalinda B; Mack, Wendy J; Hodis, Howard N; Kono, Naoko; Wang, Jun; Baskurt, Oguz K; Fisher, Timothy C; Meiselman, Herbert J

    2015-03-01

    To test the hypothesis that abnormal hemorheology and chronic low-grade inflammation are more prevalent in Lewis negative individuals, possibly contributing to premature atherosclerosis. We enrolled 223 healthy subjects (154 females, mean age: 64yrs). Conventional risk factors, markers of inflammation and hemorheological profiles were measured; Lewis blood group was determined by serology. Conventional risk factors (age, gender, BMI, blood pressure, lipid profile, smoking habit) did not differ among Lewis phenotypes. However, markers of inflammation (WBC, hs-CRP, ESR) were significantly elevated and rheological parameters (RBC aggregation, plasma viscosity) were abnormal in Lewis negative subjects, especially when compared to the Le(a-b+) group. With a prevalence of 33% in select populations, our data support the hypothesis that Le(a-b-) represents a pro-inflammatory phenotype that may contribute to the elevated cardiovascular risk in this group. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Aspirin resistance in patients with acute coronary events: risk factors and prevalence as determined by whole blood multiple electrode aggregometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, O; Maskon, O; Darinah, Noor; Raymond, A A; Rahman, M M

    2013-11-01

    To determine the prevalence of aspirin resistance and associated risk factors based on biochemical parameters using whole blood multiple electrode aggregometry. The study was conducted at the outpatients cardiology clinic of the Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia Medical Centre (UKMMC) from August 2011 to February 2012. Subjects on aspirin therapy were divided into two groups; first-ever coronary event and recurrent coronary event. Aspirin resistance was measured by a Multiplate(®) platelet analyser. A total of 74 patients (63 male, 11 female), with a mean age of 57.93 ± 74.1years were enrolled in the study. The patients were divided into two groups -first-ever coronary event group (n=52) and recurrent coronary event group (n=22). Aspirin resistance was observed in 12 out of 74 (16%) of the study patients, which consisted of 11 patients from the first-ever coronary event group and one patient from the recurrent coronary event group. There were significant correlations between aspirin resistance and age (r = -0.627; p = 0.029), total cholesterol (r = 0.608; p = 0.036) and LDL (r = 0.694; p = 0.012). LDL was the main predictor for area under the curve (AUC) for aspirin resistance. However, there was no association between aspirin resistance and cardiovascular events in both groups in this study. Aspirin resistance was observed in 16% of the study population. LDL was the major predictor of aspirin resistance. No association was found in the study between aspirin resistance with recurrent coronary events.

  12. Risk factors for complications in donors at first and repeat whole blood donation: a cohort study with assessment of the impact on donor return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiersum-Osselton, Johanna C; Marijt-van der Kreek, Tanneke; Brand, Anneke; Veldhuizen, Ingrid; van der Bom, Johanna G; de Kort, Wim

    2014-01-01

    First-time donation is among recognised risk factors for vasovagal reactions to blood donation and reactions are known to reduce donor return. We assessed associations between potential risk factors and vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in first-time whole blood donation in comparison to repeat donation and analysed the impact of complications on donor return. We performed a cohort study on whole blood donations in The Netherlands from 1/1/2010 to 31/12/2010 using data extracted from the blood service information system. Donation data up to 31/12/2011 were used to ascertain donor return. In 2010 28,786 donors made first whole blood donations and there were 522,958 repeat donations. Vasovagal reactions occurred in 3.9% of first donations by males and 3.5% of first donations by females compared to in 0.2% and 0.6%, respectively, of repeat donations. Associations of vasovagal reactions with other factors including age, body weight, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were similar in first-time and repeat donors. Needle-related complications occurred in 0.2% of male and 0.5% of female first-time donations and in 0.1% and 0.3%, respectively, of repeat donations. Among first-time donors, the return rate within 1 year was 82% following an uncomplicated first donation, but 55% and 61% following vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications, respectively; the corresponding percentages among repeat donors were 86%, 58% and 82%. Among first-time donors, females suffered less than males from vasovagal reactions. Other risk factors had similar associations among first-time and repeat donors. Vasovagal reactions and needle-related complications in both first-time and repeat donors are followed by reduced donor return.

  13. O Blood Group as a Risk Factor for Helicobacter Pylori IgG Seropositivity Among Pregnant Sudanese Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasim, Gasim I; Elmugabil, Abdelmageed; Hamdan, Hamdan Z; Rayis, Duria A; Adam, Ishag

    2017-06-07

    The objective was to investigate the prevalence and the association between blood groups and Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women. A cross-sectional survey was carried-out at Saad Abul Ela Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period of July 2014 through December 2015. Questionnaires covering socio-demographic and obstetrics information were administered. Specific H. pylori IgG antibody was analysed using ELISA. One hundred eighty six pregnant women were enrolled. The mean (SD) of the age, parity was 28.3 (2.6) years and 2.6 (3.5), respectively. Of the 186 women, 42 (22.6%), 24 (12.9%), 11(5.9%) and 109 (58.6%) had blood group A, B, AB and O, respectively. H. pylori IgG seropositivity rate was 132/186 (71.0%). There was no significant difference in age and parity between women with H. pylori IgG seropositive and seronegative. Compared with the women with H. pylori IgG seronegative, significantly higher numbers of women with H. pylori IgG seropositive had O blood group, [84/132(63.6) versus 25/54(46.3), Ppylori IgG seropositivity. The current study showed that women with blood group O were at higher risk for H. pylori IgG seropositivity.

  14. The Risk Factors of High Blood Pressure among Young Adults in the Tujia-Nationality Settlement of China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Liu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Demographics questionnaires, and fitness tests were utilized to identify the risk factors of hypertension among younger adults in the years 2005, 2010, and 2014 in China’s southwest province of Hubei. The results demonstrated that the prevalence of hypertension was higher between 2011 and 2014 among the young people in this area. The main risk factors of developing hypertension were found to be sex (as man, individuals over 40 years old, blue collar employees who worked in rural areas, overweight/obesity, and those with the low CRF.

  15. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  16. Risk factors identified for certain lymphoma subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    In a large international collaborative analysis of risk factors for non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL), scientists were able to quantify risk associated with medical history, lifestyle factors, family history of blood or lymph-borne cancers, and occupation for 11

  17. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  18. Risk Factors and Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Factors & Prevention Back to Patient Resources Risk Factors & Prevention Even people who look healthy and free of ... as possible. Share: The Normal Heart Risk Factors & Prevention Heart Diseases & Disorders Substances & Heart Rhythm Disorders Symptoms & ...

  19. O blood group as a risk factor for Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasim I. Gasim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to investigate the prevalence and the association between blood groups and Helicobacter pylori IgG seropositivity among pregnant Sudanese women. A cross-sectional survey was carried- out at Saad Abul Ela Maternity Hospital, Khartoum, Sudan during the period of July 2014 through December 2015. Questionnaires covering socio-demographic and obstetrics information were administered. Specific H. pylori IgG antibody was analysed using ELISA. One hundred eighty six pregnant women were enrolled. The mean (SD of the age, parity was 28.3 (2.6 years and 2.6 (3.5, respectively. Of the 186 women, 42 (22.6%, 24 (12.9%, 11(5.9% and 109 (58.6% had blood group A, B, AB and O, respectively. H. pylori IgG seropositivity rate was 132/186 (71.0%. There was no significant difference in age and parity between women with H. pylori IgG seropositive and seronegative. Compared with the women with H. pylori IgG seronegative, significantly higher numbers of women with H. pylori IgG seropositive had O blood group, [84/132(63.6 versus 25/54(46.3, P<0.001]. In binary logistic regression, women with O blood group (OR= 2.084, 95% CI=1.060 -4.097, P=0.033 were at a higher H. pylori IgG seropositivity. The current study showed that women with blood group O were at higher risk for H. pylori IgG seropositivity.

  20. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus Type I (HTLV-1) Infection among Iranian Blood Donors: First Case-Control Study on the Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedayati-Moghaddam, Mohammad Reza; Tehranian, Farahnaz; Bayati, Maryam

    2015-11-04

    Human T-cell lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) infection is an endemic condition in Northeast Iran and, as such, identification of risk factors associated with the infection in this region seems to be a necessity. All the possible risk factors for HTLV-1 seropositivity among first-time blood donors were evaluated in Mashhad, Iran, during the period of 2011-2012. Blood donation volunteers were interviewed for demographic data, medical history, and behavioral characteristics and the frequencies of risk factors were compared between HTLV-1 positive (case) and HTLV-1 negative (control) donors. The data was analyzed using Chi square and t-tests. Logistic regression analysis was performed to identify independent risk factors for the infection. Assessments were carried out on 246 cases aged 17-60 and 776 controls aged 17-59, who were matched based on their ages, gender, and date and center of donation. Logistic analysis showed low income (OR = 1.53, p = 0.035), low educational level (OR = 1.64, p = 0.049), being born in the cities of either Mashhad (OR = 2.47, p = 0.001) or Neyshabour (OR = 4.30, p risk factors for HTLV-1 infection, such as prolonged breastfeeding and sexual promiscuity. Pre-donation screening of possible risk factors for transfusion-transmissible infections should also be considered as an important issue, however, a revision of the screening criteria such as a history of transfusion for more than one year prior to donation is strongly recommended.

  1. Blood pressure gradients and cardiovascular risk factors in urban and rural populations in Abia State South Eastern Nigeria using the WHO STEPwise approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikechi Gareth Okpechi

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa (SSA face a double burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs and communicable diseases. As high blood pressure (BP is a common global cardiovascular (CV disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality, the relationship between gradients of BP and other CV risk factors was assessed in Abia State, Nigeria. METHODS: Using the WHO STEPwise approach to surveillance of chronic disease risk factors, we conducted a population-based cross-sectional survey in Abia state, Nigeria from August 2011 to March 2012. Data collected at various steps included: demographic and behavioral risk factors (Step 1; BP and anthropometric measurements (Step 2, and fasting blood cholesterol and glucose (Step 3. RESULTS: Of the 2983 subjects with complete data for analysis, 52.1% were females and 53.2% were rural dwellers. Overall, the distribution of selected CV disease risk factors was diabetes (3.6%, hypertension (31.4%, cigarette smoking (13.3%, use of smokeless tobacco (4.8%, physical inactivity (64.2% and being overweight or obese (33.7%. Presence of hypertension, excessive intake of alcohol, smoking (cigarette and smokeless tobacco and physical inactivity occurred more frequently in males than in females (p<0.05; while low income, lack of any formal education and use of smokeless tobacco were seen more frequently in rural dwellers than in those living in urban areas (p<0.05. The frequency of selected CV risk factors increased as BP was graded from optimal, normal to hypertension; and high BP correlated with age, gender, smokeless tobacco, overweight or obesity, annual income and level of education. CONCLUSION: Given the high prevalence of hypertension in this part of Nigeria, there is an urgent need to focus on the reduction of preventable CV risk factors we have observed to be associated with hypertension, in order to effectively reduce the burden of NCDs in Africa.

  2. High blood pressure and associated risk factors as indicator of preclinical hypertension in rural West Africa: A focus on children and adolescents in The Gambia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jobe, Modou; Agbla, Schadrac C; Prentice, Andrew M; Hennig, Branwen J

    2017-03-01

    Hypertension is fast becoming a major public health problem across sub-Saharan Africa. We sought to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and associated risk factors as indicator of preclinical hypertension in a rural Gambian population.We analyzed data on 6160 healthy Gambians cross-sectionally. Attention was given to 5 to High BP was defined as systolic blood pressure (SBP) above the 95th percentile for age-sex specific height z scores in high BP categories were applied to ≥18-year olds.In high BP prevalence ratio of 0.95 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-0.98; P = 0.002) for age and 1.13 (95% CI 1.06-1.19; P high BP. In adults age 1.05 (95% CI 1.04-1.05; P high fasting glucose 2.60 (95% CI 2.02-3.36; P risk factors for high BP prevalence; sex was not associated.The reported high BP prevalence and associated risk factors in adults are comparable to other studies conducted in the region. The observed high BP prevalence of 8.2% (95% CI 7.4-9.2) in our generally lean young Gambians (high BP tracks from childhood to adulthood. Hence there is an urgent need for further investigation into risk factors of pediatric high BP/hypertension even in rural African settings.

  3. Role of Pre-Operative Blood Transfusion and Subcutaneous Fat Thickness as Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infection after Posterior Thoracic Spine Stabilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osterhoff, Georg; Burla, Laurin; Werner, Clément M L; Jentzsch, Thorsten; Wanner, Guido A; Simmen, Hans-Peter; Sprengel, Kai

    2015-06-01

    Surgical site infections (SSIs) increase morbidity and mortality rates and generate additional cost for the healthcare system. Pre-operative blood transfusion and the subcutaneous fat thickness (SFT) have been described as risk factors for SSI in other surgical areas. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of pre-operative blood transfusion and the SFT on the occurrence of SSI in posterior thoracic spine surgery. In total, 244 patients (median age 55 y; 97 female) who underwent posterior thoracic spine fusions from 2008 to 2012 were reviewed retrospectively. Patient-specific characteristics, pre-operative hemoglobin concentration/hematocrit values, the amount of blood transfused, and the occurrence of a post-operative SSI were documented. The SFT was measured on pre-operative computed tomography scans. Surgical site infection was observed in 26 patients (11%). The SFT was 13 mm in patients without SSI and 14 mm in those with infection (p=0.195). The odds ratio for patients with pre-operative blood transfusion to present with SSI was 3.1 (confidence interval [CI] 1.4-7.2) and 2.7 (CI 1.1-6.4) when adjusted for age. There was no difference between the groups with regard to pre-operative hemoglobin concentration (p=0.519) or hematocrit (p=0.908). The SFT did not differ in the two groups. Allogeneic red blood cell transfusion within 48 h prior to surgery was an independent risk factor for SSI after posterior fusion for the fixation of thoracic spine instabilities. Pre-operative blood transfusion tripled the risk, whereas SFT had no influence on the occurrence of SSI.

  4. Alterações do nível pressórico e fatores de risco em graduandos de enfermagem Alteraciones del nível de la presión y factores de riesgo en profesionales graduandos en enfermería Risk factors and alterations in blood pressure levels in undergraduate nursing students

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Lúcia Botura Leite de Barros; Fabiana de Souza Vieira; Cinthia Calsinski de Assis; Sandra Salloum Zeitoun

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To identify risk factors and alterations in blood pressure levels in undergraduate nursing students and to examine the associations between the risk factors and blood pressure levels. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between November 2006 and May 2007. The sample consisted of 120 undergraduate nursing students from the Federal University of São Paulo. A specific questionnaire on risk factors for high blood pressure was used. Blood pressure measures were t...

  5. Prevalence of Blood-Borne Viruses in Health Care Workers of a Northern District in Pakistan: Risk Factors and Preventive Behaviors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Zuhaib Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood-borne viral infections like viral hepatitis are highly prevalent in Pakistan. There is also a potential threat of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV spread in the country. Health care workers (HCWs are a high risk population for acquiring such viral infections and potential spread to the patients. This study aimed to determine the frequency of three blood-borne viruses: HCV, HBV, and HIV in HCWs of district Malakand in northern Khyber Pakhtunkhwa (KPK province of Pakistan. Moreover, risk factors and preventive behaviors among HCWs were investigated in detail. Materials and Methods. Prevalence was investigated using serological assays followed by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR based characterization. A total of 626 health care workers working at 17 different health care units, belonging to 6 different job categories, were included in this study. Results. HIV was not detected in the HCWs while rate of prevalence of HCV and HBV was far less (0.8 % and 0.64 %, resp. as compared to general population (4.7%–38%. The majority of HCWs were aware of the mode of spread of these viruses and associated risk factors. Needle stick injury was found to be the most important risk factor for possible acquisition of these infections.

  6. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    OpenAIRE

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the reliability of blood pressure measurement for proper cardiovascular risk prediction, both in and out of the doctor’s office. We show that it is possible to obtain a reliable blood pressure without the use o...

  7. An epigenetic signature in peripheral blood associated with the haplotype on 17q21.31, a risk factor for neurodegenerative tauopathy.

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    Yun Li

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Little is known about how changes in DNA methylation mediate risk for human diseases including dementia. Analysis of genome-wide methylation patterns in patients with two forms of tau-related dementia--progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP and frontotemporal dementia (FTD--revealed significant differentially methylated probes (DMPs in patients versus unaffected controls. Remarkably, DMPs in PSP were clustered within the 17q21.31 region, previously known to harbor the major genetic risk factor for PSP. We identified and replicated a dose-dependent effect of the risk-associated H1 haplotype on methylation levels within the region in blood and brain. These data reveal that the H1 haplotype increases risk for tauopathy via differential methylation at that locus, indicating a mediating role for methylation in dementia pathophysiology.

  8. Fluctuation in systolic blood pressure is a major systemic risk factor for development of primary open-angle glaucoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Na Young; Jung, Younhea; Han, Kyungdo; Park, Chan Kee

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the risk of development of primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) in terms of variability in BP using a nationwide, population-based, 11-year longitudinal study using the Korean National Health Insurance Research Database. We included patients who underwent health care examinations more than twice between January 2002 and December 2006. We divided all subjects by the quartiles of variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the difference between SBP and DBP. Of the total of 80,021 included subjects, 910 were diagnosed with POAG between January 2007 and December 2013. Both the Kaplan-Meier survival curves and log-rank test data indicated that patients with higher-level BP variability developed POAG significantly more frequently than did patients with lower-level variability (P < 0.001). On multivariate Cox’s regression modeling including gender, age, sex, household income, smoking status, level of alcohol intake, extent of exercise, diabetes mellitus status, dyslipidemia status, SBP, and DBP; the hazard ratios among the highest and lowest quartiles of SD SBP and CV SBP were 1.256 and 1.238, respectively. Our findings suggest that subjects in the highest quartile of SBP variability were significantly more likely to develop POAG in our population-based sample of Korean adults. PMID:28262703

  9. Risk factors of infections induced by blood transfusion and prevention measures%输血感染的危险因素分析及防范

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘晓红

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To analyze the related risk factors and causes of the infections induced by the blood transfusion in the blood transfusion department and discuss the prevention countermeasures so as to ensure the safety of the clinical blood transfusion and improve the quality of the medical service.METHODS The medical records of 72 cases of patients who underwent blood transfusion from Jun 2009 to Jun 2011 were retrospectively analyzed,and the risk factors of the blood transfusion infections were analyzed.RESULTS Of 72 cases with the blood transfusion -associated diseases,there were 54 cases with hepatitis B,12 cases with hepatitis C,4 cases with mixed hepatitis B and hepatitis C,and 2 cases with syphilis infections,the incidence of the hepatitis B was the highest (75.00%),followed by the hepatitis C (16.67%),the mixed hepatitis B and hepatitis C (5.55%),and syphilis infection (2.78%) ; the incidence of the blood transfusion-associate diseases varied in the risk factors,the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05),the incidence of the blood transfusion-associated diseases induced by the window period was the highest (84.72%).CONCLUSION Only when fully understand the risk factors of the blood transfusion infections can we take the effective prevention measures and reasonably use blood so as to ensure the safety of the blood transfusion.%目的 分析医院输血科发生输血感染的相关危险因素及其原因,并探讨其防范对策,确保临床输血的安全,提高医疗服务质量.方法 采用病历信息回顾性分析2009年6月-2011年6月医院72例输血感染以及不同危险因素导致输血感染相关性疾病的分布.结果 72例输血感染相关性疾病,其中感染乙型肝炎54例,丙型肝炎12例,同时感染乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎4例,感染梅毒2例,感染乙型肝炎的发生率最高为75.00%,其次感染丙型肝炎发生率为16.67%,同时感染乙型肝炎和丙型肝炎发生率为5.55

  10. Associated risk factors for silent cerebral infarcts in sickle cell anemia: low baseline hemoglobin, sex, and relative high systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBaun, Michael R; Sarnaik, Sharada A; Rodeghier, Mark J; Minniti, Caterina P; Howard, Thomas H; Iyer, Rathi V; Inusa, Baba; Telfer, Paul T; Kirby-Allen, Melanie; Quinn, Charles T; Bernaudin, Françoise; Airewele, Gladstone; Woods, Gerald M; Panepinto, Julie Ann; Fuh, Beng; Kwiatkowski, Janet K; King, Allison A; Rhodes, Melissa M; Thompson, Alexis A; Heiny, Mark E; Redding-Lallinger, Rupa C; Kirkham, Fenella J; Sabio, Hernan; Gonzalez, Corina E; Saccente, Suzanne L; Kalinyak, Karen A; Strouse, John J; Fixler, Jason M; Gordon, Mae O; Miller, J Phillip; Noetzel, Michael J; Ichord, Rebecca N; Casella, James F

    2012-04-19

    The most common form of neurologic injury in sickle cell anemia (SCA) is silent cerebral infarction (SCI). In the Silent Cerebral Infarct Multi-Center Clinical Trial, we sought to identify risk factors associated with SCI. In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated the clinical history and baseline laboratory values and performed magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in participants with SCA (HbSS or HbSβ° thalassemia) between the ages of 5 and 15 years with no history of overt stroke or seizures. Neuroradiology and neurology committees adjudicated the presence of SCI. SCIs were diagnosed in 30.8% (251 of 814) participants who completed all evaluations and had valid data on all prespecified demographic and clinical covariates. The mean age of the participants was 9.1 years, with 413 males (50.7%). In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, lower baseline hemoglobin concentration (P blood pressure (P = .018), and male sex (P = .030) were statistically significantly associated with an increased risk of an SCI. Hemoglobin concentration and systolic blood pressure are risk factors for SCI in children with SCA and may be therapeutic targets for decreasing the risk of SCI. This study is registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT00072761.

  11. Homocysteine is a novel risk factor for suboptimal response of blood platelets to acetylsalicylic acid in coronary artery disease: a randomized multicenter study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karolczak, Kamil; Kamysz, Wojciech; Karafova, Anna; Drzewoski, Jozef; Watala, Cezary

    2013-08-01

    The incomplete inhibition of platelet function by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA), despite the patients are receiving therapeutic doses of the drug ('aspirin-resistance'), is caused by numbers of risk factors. In this study we verified the idea that plasma homocysteine (Hcy) contributes to 'aspirin-resistance' in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and with or without type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). A cross-designed randomized controlled intervention study has been performed (126 CAD pts incl. 26 with T2DM) to determine whether increasing ASA dose from 75mg to 150mg daily may result in the increased antiplatelet effect, in the course of four-week treatment. Platelet response to collagen (coll) or arachidonic acid (AA) was monitored with whole blood aggregometry, plasma thromboxane (Tx), and Hcy levels were determined immunochemically. The ASA-mediated reductions in platelet response to coll (by 12±3%) or AA (by 10±3%) and in plasma Tx (by 20±9%; p<0.02 or less) were significantly greater for higher ASA dose and significantly correlated with plasma Hcy, which was significantly lower in "good" ASA responders compared to "poor" responders (p<0.001). Higher plasma Hcy appeared a significant risk factor for blood platelet refractoriness to low ASA dose (OR=1.11; ±95%CI: 1.02-1.20, p<0.02, adjusted to age, sex and CAD risk factors). Hcy diminished in vitro antiplatelet effect of low ASA concentration and augmented platelet aggregation (by up to 62% (p<0.005) for coll and up to 15% (p<0.005) for AA), whereas its acetyl derivative acted oppositely. Otherwise, Hcy intensified antiplatelet action of high ASA. Hyperhomocysteinaemia may be a novel risk factor for the suppressed blood platelet response to ASA, and homocysteine may act as a specific sensitizer of blood platelets to some agonists. While homocysteine per se acts as a proaggregatory agent to blood platelets, its acetylated form is able to reverse this effect. Thus, these findings reveal a possibly new

  12. Associations of Sleep Quality and Awake Physical Activity with Fluctuations in Nocturnal Blood Pressure in Patients with Cardiovascular Risk Factors.

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    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Sleep quality and awake physical activity are important behavioral factors involved in the occurrence of cardiovascular diseases, potentially through nocturnal blood pressure (BP changes. However, the impacts of quantitatively measured sleep quality and awake physical activity on BP fluctuation, and their relationships with several candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension are not well elucidated.This cross-sectional study included 303 patients registered in the HSCAA study. Measurements included quantitatively determined sleep quality parameters and awake physical activity obtained by actigraph, nocturnal systolic BP (SBP fall [100 × (1- sleep SBP/awake SBP ratio], apnea hypopnea index, urinary sodium and cortisol secretion, plasma aldosterone concentration and renin activity, insulin resistance index, parameters of heart rate variability (HRV, and plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF.Simple regression analysis showed that time awake after sleep onset (r = -0.150, a parameter of sleep quality, and awake physical activity (r = 0.164 were significantly correlated with nocturnal SBP fall. Among those, time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.179 and awake physical activity (β = 0.190 were significantly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP fall in multiple regression analysis. In a subgroup of patients without taking anti-hypertensive medications, both time awake after sleep onset (β = -0.336 and awake physical activity (β = 0.489 were more strongly and independently associated with nocturnal SBP falls.Sleep quality and awake physical activity were found to be significantly associated with nocturnal SBP fall, and that relationship was not necessarily confounded by candidate causal factors for nocturnal hypertension.

  13. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated

  14. Associations between blood glucose and carotid intima-media thickness disappear after adjustment for shared risk factors: the KORA F4 study.

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    Bernd Kowall

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The association between blood glucose and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT is considered to be established knowledge. We aimed to assess whether associations between different measures of glycaemia and CIMT are actually independent of anthropometric variables and metabolic risk factors. Moreover, we checked published studies for the adjustment for shared risk factors of blood glucose and CIMT. METHODS: Fasting glucose, 2-hour glucose, HbA1c, and CIMT were measured in 31-81-years-old participants of the population-based Cooperative Health Research in the Region of Augsburg (KORA F4 study in Southern Germany (n = 2,663. CIMT was assessed according to the Rotterdam protocol. Linear and logistic regression models with adjustment for age, sex, anthropometric measures, hypertension, and dyslipidaemia were fitted to assess the association between continuous measures of glycaemia, and categories of glucose regulation, respectively, with CIMT. RESULTS: We found a 0.10 mm increase (95%-confidence interval: 0.08-0.12 in CIMT in subjects with compared to subjects without diabetes in crude analysis. This increase was not significant in age-sex adjusted models (p = 0.17. Likewise, neither impaired fasting glucose (p = 0.22 nor impaired glucose tolerance (p = 0.93 were associated with CIMT after adjustment for age, sex, and waist circumference. In multivariable adjusted models, age, sex, hypertension, waist circumference, HDL and LDL cholesterol, but neither fasting glucose nor 2-hour glucose nor HbA1c were associated with elevated CIMT. Literature findings are inconclusive regarding an independent association of glucose levels and CIMT. CONCLUSION: CIMT is highly dependent on traditional cardiovascular risk factors, but no relationships between blood glucose and CIMT were found after adjustment for age, sex, and anthropometric variables.

  15. Perindopril for control of blood pressure in patients with hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors: an open-label, observational, multicentre, general practice-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogilvie, Richard Ian; Anand, Sanjiv; Roy, Pierre; De Souza, Selwyn

    2008-01-01

    Hypertension, one of the major treatable cardiovascular (CV) risk factors, usually occurs in association with other major risk factors. As well as providing rapid blood pressure (BP) goal attainment, antihypertensive therapy should also provide reductions in CV events and mortality in a wide range of patients. For this, higher dosages and combinations of antihypertensive agents are often required. ACE inhibitors are recommended as first-line agents for control of hypertension in patients with additional CV risk factors. The PEACH (Perindopril's Effect At Controlling Hypertension) study was a community-based study performed to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of high-dose perindopril in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension and additional risk factors for CV disease. This was an open-label, multicentre observational study conducted in Canadian general practice clinics. The study assessed the efficacy and tolerability of perindopril given once daily for 10 weeks uptitrated to the maximal recommended dose of perindopril as required for BP control in newly diagnosed or previously treated patients with uncontrolled mild to moderate hypertension and >or=1 additional risk factor. Patients not achieving target BP after 2 weeks of therapy were uptitrated from perindopril 4 mg to perindopril 8 mg once daily. Efficacy endpoints included reduction in systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) BP and BP control. Tolerability assessments included adverse effects and physicians' assessment of tolerability. The number of missed doses was also recorded. Overall, 2220 patients with hypertension and >or=1 other risk factor were prescribed perindopril at 291 centres; 51.9% were male, 78.3% Caucasian, 12.8% Asian, 36.2%>or=65 years of age and 34.5% had uncontrolled BP despite previous antihypertensive treatment. Compared with previously treated patients, treatment-naive patients had fewer risk factors, and a higher proportion were Asian (prisk factors. Perindopril produced

  16. The effect of aged garlic extract on blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors in uncontrolled hypertensives: the AGE at Heart trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Travica, Nikolaj; Sali, Avni

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension affects 30% of adults worldwide. Garlic supplements have shown promise in the treatment of uncontrolled hypertension, and the mechanism of action is biologically plausible. Our trial is the first to assess the effect of aged garlic extract on central blood pressure and arterial stiffness, regarded as important risk factors for cardiovascular morbidity. A total of 88 general practice patients and community members with uncontrolled hypertension completed a double-blind randomized placebo-controlled trial of 12 weeks investigating the effect of daily intake of aged garlic extract (1.2 g containing 1.2 mg S-allylcysteine) or placebo on blood pressure, and secondary outcome measures of central-hemodynamics and other cardiovascular markers, including cholesterol, homocysteine, platelet function, and inflammatory markers. Mean blood pressure was significantly reduced by 5.0±2.1 mmHg (P=0.016) systolic, and in responders by 11.5±1.9 mmHg systolic and 6.3±1.1 mmHg diastolic compared to placebo (Pblood pressure, central pulse pressure, mean arterial pressure, augmentation pressure, pulse-wave velocity, and arterial stiffness. While changes in other cardiovascular markers did not reach significance due to small numbers in subgroups with elevated levels, trends in beneficial effects of garlic on the inflammatory markers TNFα, total cholesterol, low-density lipid cholesterol, and apolipoproteins were observed. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable and acceptable, and did not increase the risk of bleeding in patients on blood-thinning medication. Our trial suggests that aged garlic extract is effective in reducing peripheral and central blood pressure in a large proportion of patients with uncontrolled hypertension, and has the potential to improve arterial stiffness, inflammation, and other cardiovascular markers in patients with elevated levels. Aged garlic extract was highly tolerable with a high safety profile as a stand-alone or adjunctive

  17. Low fruit consumption and omission of daily meals as risk factors for increased blood pressure in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domingos, Talita Barbosa; Pereira, Avany Fernandes; Yokoo, Edna Massae; Salles-Costa, Rosana

    2016-08-01

    A population-based cross-sectional survey with cluster sampling design and with inverse sampling was conducted in 2010, in a sample of 1590 adults (19-60 years old) exposed to a high prevalence of food insecurity, in the municipality of Duque de Caxias, metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The objective of the study was to evaluate the association of socio-demographic factors, the consumption of fruits and vegetables and the number of meals with increased blood pressure (BP). A hierarchical model that considered variables related to the basic, intermediate and immediate determinants of increased BP was adopted. By using Poisson's regression, univariate models were tested to obtain the prevalence ratio (PR) and its respective 95 % CI. After fitting the model, age (age group 50-59 years) (PR 1·62; 95 % CI 1·09, 2·41), low consumption of fruits in a week (PR 1·37; 95 % CI 1·07, 1·74), fewer meals per day (PR 1·72; 95 % CI 1·21, 2·43) and overweight (PR 1·78; 95 % CI 1·31, 2·20) remained significantly associated with increased BP. Therefore, the results found here reinforce the importance of encouraging and developing strategies that ensure access to healthy foods to minimise increased BP in similar populations.

  18. Blood Pressure and Global Risk Assessment in a Swedish Population

    OpenAIRE

    Jenny Eckner; Larsson, Charlotte A.; Lennart Råstam; Ulf Lindblad

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the association between SCORE and the 2007 ESH-ESC blood pressure categories and explored achievements of blood pressure goals considering global risk. In 2001–2005, a random sample of inhabitants aged 30–74 years in southwestern Sweden was invited to a survey of cardiovascular risk factors. The study enrolled 2816 participants (participation rate 76%). Blood pressure was categorized according to the 2007 ESH-ESC guidelines. Global risk of 10-year CVD death was estimat...

  19. Transfusion of leukocyte-depleted red blood cells is not a risk factor for nosocomial infections in critically ill children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Wal, Judith; van Heerde, Marc; Markhorst, Dick G.; Kneyber, Martin C. J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Transfusion of red blood cells is increasingly linked with adverse outcomes in critically ill children. We tested the hypothesis that leukocyte-depleted red blood cell transfusions were independently associated with increased development of bloodstream infections, ventilator-associated p

  20. Risk Factors for Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包承鑫

    2002-01-01

    @@ Thrombotic disease is a multifactorial disease, multiple interactions between genetic and environmental factors contribute to the development of the disease.This review summarized some risk factors reported for arterial thrombosis and venous thrombosis in recent few years.

  1. Prevalence and risk factors of needlestick injuries, sharps injuries, and blood and body fluid exposures among operating room nurses in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatpibal, Nongyao; Whitney, JoAnne D; Katechanok, Sadubporn; Ngamsakulrat, Sukanya; Malairungsakul, Benjawan; Sirikulsathean, Pinyo; Nuntawinit, Chutatip; Muangnart, Thanisara

    2016-01-01

    Operating room nurses are at high risk for occupational exposure to bloodborne pathogens. This study examined the prevalence of and risk factors for needlestick injuries (NSIs), sharps injuries (SIs), and blood and body fluid exposures (BBFEs) among operating room nurses in Thai hospitals. A cross-sectional study was performed in 247 Thai hospitals. Questionnaires eliciting demographic data and information on injury occurrence and risk factors were distributed to 2500 operating room nurses, and 2031 usable questionnaires were returned, for a response rate of 81.2%. Adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using multiple logistic regression analysis. The prevalence of NSIs, SIs, and BBFEs was 23.7%, 9.8%, and 40.0%, respectively. Risk factors for NSIs were training without practice (OR, 1.67; 95% CI, 1.29-2.17), haste (OR, 4.81; 95% CI, 3.41-6.79), lack of awareness (OR, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.04-1.77), inadequate staffing (OR, 1.60; 95% CI, 1.21-2.11), and outdated guidelines (OR, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.04-2.74). One risk factor was identified for SIs: haste (OR, 2.43; 95% CI, 1.57-3.76). Risk factors for BBFEs were long working hours per week (OR, 2.07; 95% CI, 1.06-4.04), training without practice (OR, 1.55; 95% CI, 1.25-1.91), haste (OR, 1.66; 95% CI, 1.30-2.13), lack of awareness (OR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.22-1.95), not wearing protective equipment (OR, 1.61; 95% CI, 1.26-2.06), and inadequate staffing (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.26-2.11). This study highlights the high prevalence of NSIs, SIs, and BBFEs among Thai operating room nurses. Preventable risk factors were identified. Appropriate guidelines, adequate staffing, proper training, and self-awareness may reduce these occurrences. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. A risk factor analysis of outcomes after unrelated cord blood transplantation for children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhovtsova, Zhanna; Bonfim, Carmem; Ruggeri, Annalisa; Nichele, Samantha; Page, Kristin; AlSeraihy, Amal; Barriga, Francisco; de Toledo Codina, José Sánchez; Veys, Paul; Boelens, Jaap Jan; Mellgren, Karin; Bittencourt, Henrique; O’Brien, Tracey; Shaw, Peter J.; Chybicka, Alicja; Volt, Fernanda; Giannotti, Federica; Gluckman, Eliane; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Gennery, Andrew R.; Rocha, Vanderson

    2017-01-01

    Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome is a severe X-linked recessive immune deficiency disorder. A scoring system of Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome severity (0.5–5) distinguishes two phenotypes: X-linked thrombocytopenia and classic Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome. Hematopoietic cell transplantation is curative for Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome; however, the use of unrelated umbilical cord blood transplantation has seldom been described. We analyzed umbilical cord blood transplantation outcomes for 90 patients. The median age at umbilical cord blood transplantation was 1.5 years. Patients were classified according to clinical scores [2 (23%), 3 (30%), 4 (23%) and 5 (19%)]. Most patients underwent HLA-mismatched umbilical cord blood transplantation and myeloablative conditioning with anti-thymocyte globulin. The cumulative incidence of neutrophil recovery at day 60 was 89% and that of grade II–IV acute graft-versus-host disease at day 100 was 38%. The use of methotrexate for graft-versus-host disease prophylaxis delayed engraftment (P=0.02), but decreased acute graft-versus-host disease (P=0.03). At 5 years, overall survival and event-free survival rates were 75% and 70%, respectively. The estimated 5-year event-free survival rates were 83%, 73% and 55% for patients with a clinical score of 2, 4–5 and 3, respectively. In multivariate analysis, age <2 years at the time of the umbilical cord blood transplant and a clinical phenotype of X-linked thrombocytopenia were associated with improved event-free survival. Overall survival tended to be better in patients transplanted after 2007 (P=0.09). In conclusion, umbilical cord blood transplantation is a good alternative option for young children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome lacking an HLA identical stem cell donor. PMID:28255019

  3. Blood pressure is lower in children and adolescents with a low-saturated-fat diet since infancy: the special turku coronary risk factor intervention project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinikoski, Harri; Jula, Antti; Viikari, Jorma; Rönnemaa, Tapani; Heino, Pekka; Lagström, Hanna; Jokinen, Eero; Simell, Olli

    2009-06-01

    Blood pressure was measured in the prospective randomized Special Turku Coronary Risk Factor Intervention Project Study with an oscillometric method every year from 7 months to 15 years of age in 540 children receiving a low-saturated-fat, low-cholesterol diet and in 522 control children. Dietary intakes, family history of parental hypertension, and grandparental vascular disease were recorded. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were 1.0 mm Hg lower (95% CI for systolic: -1.7 to -0.2 mm Hg; 95% CI for diastolic: -1.5 to -0.4 mm Hg) in children receiving low-saturated-fat counseling through childhood than in control children. Intakes of saturated fat were lower (Pfat higher (Pcardiovascular or cerebrovascular disease, tended to be higher than that of children with no grandparental disease (P=0.051). We conclude that restriction of saturated fat from infancy until 15 years of age decreases childhood and adolescent blood pressure with a meaningful population-attributable amount. The importance of childhood lifestyle counseling and primary prevention of hypertension should be emphasized, especially in those children with a family history of hypertension or atherosclerotic vascular disease.

  4. Gender-specific prevalence and associated risk factors of high normal blood pressure and hypertension among multi-ethnic Chinese adolescents aged 8-18 years old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Zhu, Guangjin; Liu, Junting; Han, Shaomei

    2015-06-01

    To date, accurate reports about the prevalence of high normal blood pressure (BP) and hypertension among Chinese adolescents have been rare. We examine the sex-specific and age-specific prevalence of high normal BP and hypertension, and the associated risk factors among multi-ethnic Chinese adolescents from a large and representative sample. 29,997 adolescents aged 8-18 years old received blood pressure measurement on one clinical visit. The overall prevalence was 4.15% for hypertension (4.73% for boys and 3.62% for girls) and 29.85% for high normal BP (33.40% for boys and 26.65% for girls). The odds ratios (ORs) increased with age, but the absolute changes of ORs were significantly different between boys and girls. Compared with that of the Han counterparts, the risk of high normal BP was 1.960-fold, 1.283-fold and 1.618-fold for Yi boys, Mongolian boys and Yi girls, respectively, whereas the OR was 0.440 for Tibetan boys, 0.492 for Tibetan girls and 0.794 for Korean girls. Compared with those of normal weight, overweight and obese adolescents had significantly increased risk of high normal BP (OR = 3.377 for obese boys and OR = 2.009 for overweight boys; OR = 2.865 for obese girls and OR = 1.738 for overweight girls). Rural adolescents had a higher risk of hypertension than those living in urban areas. The prevalence of high normal BP and hypertension was high in Chinese adolescents. Age, ethnicity, obesity, overweight, abnormal waist circumference, family history of cardiovascular diseases and dwelling at rural districts were significantly associated with pediatric high normal BP or hypertension.

  5. Risk factors for false positive and for false negative test results in screening with fecal occult blood testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Inge; de Wijkerslooth, Thomas R; Stoop, Esther M; van Leerdam, Monique; van Ballegooijen, M; Kraaijenhagen, Roderik A; Fockens, Paul; Kuipers, Ernst J; Dekker, Evelien; Bossuyt, Patrick M

    2013-11-15

    Differences in the risk of a false negative or a false positive fecal immunochemical test (FIT) across subgroups may affect optimal screening strategies. We evaluate whether subgroups are at increased risk of a false positive or a false negative FIT result, whether such variability in risk is related to differences in FIT sensitivity and specificity or to differences in prior CRC risk. Randomly selected, asymptomatic individuals were invited to undergo colonoscopy. Participants were asked to undergo one sample FIT and to complete a risk questionnaire. We identified patient characteristics associated with a false negative and false positive FIT results using logistic regression. We focused on statistically significant differences as well as on variables influencing the false positive or negative risk for which the odds ratio exceeded 1.25. Of the 1,426 screening participants, 1,112 (78%) completed FIT and the questionnaire; 101 (9.1%) had advanced neoplasia. 102 Individuals were FIT positive, 65 (64%) had a false negative FIT result and 66 (65%) a false positive FIT result. Participants at higher age and smokers had a significantly higher risk of a false negative FIT result. Males were at increased risk of a false positive result, so were smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in females. Specificity was lower for males, smokers and regular NSAID users. FIT sensitivity was lower in women. FIT specificity was lower in males, smokers and regular NSAID users. Our results can be used for further evidence based individualization of screening strategies.

  6. The effects of household income distribution on stroke prevalence and its risk factors of high blood pressure and smoking: a cross-sectional study in Saskatchewan, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bird, Yelena; Lemstra, Mark; Rogers, Marla

    2017-03-01

    Stroke is a major chronic disease and a common cause of adult disability and mortality. Although there are many known risk factors for stroke, lower income is not one that is often discussed. To determine the unadjusted and adjusted association of income distribution on the prevalence of stroke in Saskatchewan, Canada. Information was collected from the Canadian Community Health Survey conducted by Statistics Canada for 2000-2008. In total, 178 variables were analysed for their association with stroke. Prior to statistical adjustment, stroke was seven times more common for lower income residents than higher income residents. After statistical adjustment, only four covariates were independently associated with stroke prevalence, including having high blood pressure (odds ratio (OR) = 2.62; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 2.12-3.24), having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 2.49; 95% CI = 1.88-3.29), being a daily smoker (OR = 1.36; 95% CI = 1.16-1.58) and being physically inactive (OR = 1.27; 95% CI = 1.13-1.43). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with high blood pressure prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.52; 95% CI = 1.41-1.63). After statistical adjustment, there were five covariates independently associated with daily smoking prevalence, including having a household income below CAD$30,000 per year (OR = 1.29; 95% CI = 1.25-1.33). Knowledge of disparities in the prevalence, severity, disability and mortality of stroke is critically important to medical and public health professionals. Our study found that income distribution was strongly associated with stroke, its main disease intermediary - high blood pressure - and its main risk factor - smoking. As such, income is an important variable worthy of public debate as a modifiable risk factor for stroke.

  7. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the reliabili

  8. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  9. Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke Heart Disease Risk Factors Recommend ... Hearts® WISEWOMAN Program Other Chronic Disease Topics Diabetes Nutrition Obesity Physical Activity Stroke File Formats Help: How do ...

  10. A relative difference in systolic blood pressure between arms by synchronal measurement and conventional cardiovascular risk factors are associated with the severity of coronary atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tomohiko; Miura, Shin-Ichiro; Suematsu, Yasunori; Kuwano, Takashi; Sugihara, Makoto; Ike, Amane; Iwata, Atsushi; Nishikawa, Hiroaki; Saku, Keijiro

    2016-06-01

    It is not known the relationships between a difference in systolic blood pressure (SBP) or diastolic BP (DBP) between arms by synchronal measurement and the presence of coronary artery disease (CAD), and between a difference in BP between arms and the severity of coronary atherosclerosis. We enrolled 425 consecutive patients (M/F = 286/139, 67 ± 13 year) who were admitted to our University Hospital and in whom we could measure the absolute (|rt. BP - lt. BP|) and relative (rt. BP - lt. BP) differences in SBP and DBP using a nico PS-501(®) (Parama-Tech). We divided all patients into those who did and did not have CAD. The relative differences in SBP between arms in patients with CAD were significantly lower than those in patients without CAD. However, the relative difference in SBP between arms was not a predictor of the presence of CAD. We also divided 267 patients who underwent coronary angiography into tertiles according to the Gensini score (low, middle, and high score groups). Interestingly, the middle + high score groups showed significantly lower relative differences in SBP between arms than the low score group. The mean Korotkoff sound graph in the middle + high Gensini score group was significantly higher than that in the low Gensini score group. Among conventional cardiovascular risk factors and nico parameters, the relative difference in SBP between arms in addition to the risk factors (age, gender, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes mellitus) was associated with the score by a logistic regression analysis. In conclusion, the relative difference in SBP between arms as well as conventional risk factors may be associated with the severity of coronary arteriosclerosis.

  11. The relationship between dietary intake and other cardiovascular risk factors with blood pressure in individuals without a history of a cardiovascular event: Evidence based study with 5670 subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazidi, Mohsen; Nematy, Mohsen; Heidari-Bakavoli, Ali Reza; Namadchian, Zahra; Ghayour-Mobarhan, Majid; Ferns, Gordon A

    2016-12-09

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required.We aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary intake and other cardiovascular risk factors with blood pressure in individuals without a history of a cardiovascular event in an Iranian cohort. A cross-sectional study of 5670 healthy subjects [approximately 40% (n=2179) males and 60% (n=3491) females] was undertaken in a sample from northeastern Iran. Subjects were recruited from an urban population, using a stratified-cluster method and derived from the Mashhad Stroke Heart Atherosclerosis Disorder (MASHAD) study, Mashhad, Iran. The age of the subjects was between 35 and 64 years. None of the subjects had a past history of major disease. The mean ages for the male and female subgroups were 50.1± 8.1years and 48.2 ±7.8 y respectively. Not unexpectedly, subjects without hypertension (HTN) were younger than those with established HTN. Individuals with HTN were significantly more adipose than those without (p0.05), except for crude and energy adjusted phosphorus intake (phistory of cardiovascular disease, crude or energy adjusted intake of phosphorus and total fatty acid intake were significant determinants of BP, however we found no association between sodium and potassium intake with BP. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Fatores de risco associados à pressão arterial elevada em adolescentes Risk factors associated with high blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Samara da Silva

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Níveis elevados de pressão arterial (PA na infância e adolescência têm sido freqüentemente associados a outros fatores de risco cardiovasculares, além de hipertensão arterial na fase adulta da vida. O presente estudo objetivou identificar fatores de risco associados à PA elevada em adolescentes. Participaram do estudo 674 adolescentes de escolas públicas e privadas, de ambos os sexos (303 rapazes e 371 moças, com idade de 14 a 17 anos (16,5 DP 0,9, da cidade de João Pessoa, Paraíba. Mediante aplicação de um questionário, foram levantadas informações sobre: a indicadores sociodemográficos; b nível de prática da atividade física; c hábitos alimentares; c índice de massa corporal; e fumo e bebidas alcoólicas; e foram realizadas medidas de PA. A prevalência de PA elevada foi de 7,4%, sendo maior nos rapazes (10,2% quando comparada com a das moças (5,1%, p High levels of arterial blood pressure in childhood and adolescence have been often associated with other cardiovascular risk factors apart from arterial hypertension in the adult stage of life. The present study aimed at identifying risk factors associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. The subjects were 674 adolescents from public and private schools in the city of João Pessoa, Paraíba. These subjects were of both sexes (i.e., 303 boys and 371 girls and their ages spanned from 14 to 17 years old. By means of a questionnaire, information about the following aspects was gathered: a socio-demographic status; b physical activity levels; c eating habits; d body mass index; e consumption of alcohol and smoking. Moreover, measurements of arterial pressure (AP showed that the prevalence of high AP was 7.4 %, being higher in boys (10.2% when compared with girls (5.1%, p < 0.01. The results of the multivaried analysis indicated that overweight adolescents displayed from five to six times more chance of having high AP than adolescents with light/normal weight (boys: OR

  13. Risk Factors for Tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanesan Narasimhan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The risk of progression from exposure to the tuberculosis bacilli to the development of active disease is a two-stage process governed by both exogenous and endogenous risk factors. Exogenous factors play a key role in accentuating the progression from exposure to infection among which the bacillary load in the sputum and the proximity of an individual to an infectious TB case are key factors. Similarly endogenous factors lead in progression from infection to active TB disease. Along with well-established risk factors (such as human immunodeficiency virus (HIV, malnutrition, and young age, emerging variables such as diabetes, indoor air pollution, alcohol, use of immunosuppressive drugs, and tobacco smoke play a significant role at both the individual and population level. Socioeconomic and behavioral factors are also shown to increase the susceptibility to infection. Specific groups such as health care workers and indigenous population are also at an increased risk of TB infection and disease. This paper summarizes these factors along with health system issues such as the effects of delay in diagnosis of TB in the transmission of the bacilli.

  14. Risk Factors of Perinatal Blood Transfusion%中晚期妊娠孕产妇输血的危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽; 陈锰; 张力; 高倩; 罗方媛; 张莉; 刘兴会

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨中晚期妊娠孕产妇输血的危险因素.方法 对19 456例中晚期妊娠孕产妇的临床资料进行输血相关危险因素的单因素分析和多因素logistic回归分析.结果 总输血率为1.49%(289/19 456),将单因素分析中有统计学意义的孕产妇输血的影响因素进行非条件Logistic回归分析,发现孕产妇输血的危险因素有产前红细胞压积(HCT)<25% (OR 45.3,95%CI 27.4~74.9)、前置胎盘(OR 16.8,95%CI 11.6~24.3)、产前HCT 25%~30%(OR 11.4,95%CI 6.7~19.7)、少数民族(OR 4.8,95%CI 1.6~14.0)、胎盘早剥(OR4.5,95%CI 1.7~11.5)、多胎妊娠(OR 2.8,95%CI 1.6~4.9)、子痫前期(OR 2.6,95%CI 1.5~4.4),P均<0.01.结论 虽然孕产妇总的输血率不高,但是以上因素尤其是产前严重贫血(HCT<25%)和前置胎盘明显增加了输血的危险性,临床医生应重视相关的产前筛查和围产保健.%Objective To investigate the risk factors associated with perinatal packed red blood cell transfusion. Methods We performed univariable analysis and unconditional multivarible logistic regression analysis to identify risk factors associated with perinatal packed red blood cell transfusion in 19 456 obstetrical inpatients. Results The transfusion rate was 1. 49% (289/19,456). Prenatal hematocrit (HCT) less than 25% (OR 45. 3, 95%CJ 27.4-74.9), placenta previa (OR 16.8, 95%CI 11.6-24.3), prenatal HCT 25%-3O% (OR 11.4, 95%C7 6.7-19.7), ethnic minority (OR 4.8,95%C7 1.6-14.0), placenta abruption (OR 4. 5, 95%CI 1. 7-11. 5), multiple gestation (OR 2. 8, 95%CI 1. 6-4. 9) and preeclampsia (OR 2. 6, 95%CI 1. 5-4. 4) were risk factors associated with perinatal packed red blood cell transfusion. Conclusion Although the overall perinatal transfusion rate is low, severe prenatal anemia (HCT 25%) and placenta previa can increase the risk of transfusion markedly. It is crucial for obstetricians to provide appropriate perinatal care for those patients.

  15. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol; high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol (high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of (coronary) heart disease), pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The applicant requested an extension of the conditions of use to powder...... supplements to be diluted in water at a dose of 2 g per day, which would lower blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations by “5.4-8.1 %” after six weeks of daily consumption. Plant sterol esters are sufficiently characterised. Lowering blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect...... and elevated blood LDL-cholesterol concentration is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The target population is subjects who need and want to lower their blood cholesterol. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that only one human intervention study showed a reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol...

  16. Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K; Travis, Ruth C; Appleby, Paul N; Allen, Naomi E; Lindström, Sara; Albanes, Demetrius; Ziegler, Regina G; McCullough, Marjorie L; Siddiq, Afshan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H Bas; Chanock, Stephen J; Crawford, E David; Diver, W Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M; Giovannucci, Edward; Gu, Fangyi; Haiman, Christopher A; Hayes, Richard B; Hunter, David J; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Overvad, Kim; Polidoro, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick R; Stevens, Victoria L; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C; Key, Timothy J

    2013-07-15

    It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), but none of these SNPs was associated with risk of prostate cancer. We examined whether an association between 16 SNPs associated with circulating IGF-1 or IGFBP-3 concentrations and prostate cancer exists within subgroups defined by dietary protein intake in 5,253 cases and 4,963 controls of European ancestry within the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3). The BPC3 includes nested case-control studies within large North-American and European cohorts. Per-allele odds ratios for prostate cancer for the SNPs were compared across tertiles of protein intake, which was expressed as the percentage of energy derived from total, animal, dairy or plant protein sources, using conditional logistic regression models. Total, animal, dairy and plant protein intakes were significantly positively associated with blood IGF-1 (p  0.10) or with risk of prostate cancer (p > 0.20). After adjusting for multiple testing, the SNP-prostate cancer associations did not differ by intakes of protein, although two interactions by intake of plant protein were of marginal statistical significance [SSTR5 (somatostatin receptor 5)-rs197056 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.001); SSTR5-rs197057 (uncorrected p for interaction, 0.002)]. We found no strong evidence that the associations between 16 IGF pathway SNPs and prostate cancer differed by intakes of dietary protein.

  17. Defining incidence, risk factors, and impact on survival of central line-associated blood stream infections following hematopoietic cell transplantation in acute myeloid leukemia and myelodysplastic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukenbill, Joshua; Rybicki, Lisa; Sekeres, Mikkael A; Zaman, Muhammad Omer; Copelan, Alexander; Haddad, Housam; Fraser, Thomas; DiGiorgio, Megan J; Hanna, Rabi; Duong, Hien; Hill, Brian; Kalaycio, Matt; Sobecks, Ronald; Bolwell, Brian; Copelan, Edward

    2013-05-01

    Central line-associated blood stream infections (CLABSI) commonly complicate the care of patients with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) after allogeneic stem cell transplantation (HCT). We developed a modified CLABSI (MCLABSI) definition that attempts to exclude pathogens usually acquired because of disruption of mucosal barriers during the vulnerable neutropenic period following HCT that are generally included under the original definition (OCLABSI). We conducted a retrospective study of all AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT between August 2009 and December 2011 at the Cleveland Clinic (N = 73), identifying both OCLABSI and MCLABSI incidence. The median age at transplantation was 52 years (range, 16 to 70); 34 had a high (≥3) HCT comorbidity index (HCT-CI); 34 received bone marrow (BM), 24 received peripheral stem cells (PSC), and 15 received umbilical cord blood cells (UCB). Among these 73 patients, 23 (31.5%) developed OCLABSI, of whom 16 (69.6%) died, and 8 (11%) developed MCLABSI, of whom 7 (87.5%) died. OCLABSI was diagnosed a median of 9 days from HCT: 5 days (range, 2 to 12) for UCB and 78 days (range, 7 to 211) for BM/PSC (P < .001). MCLABSI occurred a median of 12 days from HCT, with similar earlier UCB and later BM/PSC diagnosis (P = .030). Risk factors for OCLABSI in univariate analysis included CBC (P < .001), human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-mismatch (P = .005), low CD34(+) count (P = .007), low total nucleated cell dose (P = .016), and non-Caucasian race (P = .017). Risk factors for OCLABSI in multivariable analysis were UCB (P < .001) and high HCT-CI (P = .002). There was a significant increase in mortality for both OCLABSI (hazard ratio, 7.14; CI, 3.31 to 15.37; P < .001) and MCLABSI (hazard ratio, 6.44; CI, 2.28 to 18.18; P < .001). CLABSI is common and associated with high mortality in AML and MDS patients undergoing HCT, especially in UCB recipients and those with high HCT-CI. We propose

  18. Effect of combination tablets containing amlodipine 10 mg and irbesartan 100 mg on blood pressure and cardiovascular risk factors in patients with hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yagi S

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Shusuke Yagi,1 Akira Takashima,1 Minoru Mitsugi,2 Toshihiro Wada,2 Junko Hotchi,1 Ken-ichi Aihara,3 Tomoya Hara,1 Masayoshi Ishida,1 Daiju Fukuda,4 Takayuki Ise,1 Koji Yamaguchi,1 Takeshi Tobiume,1 Takashi Iwase,1 Hirotsugu Yamada,1 Takeshi Soeki,1 Tetsuzo Wakatsuki,1 Michio Shimabukuro,4 Masashi Akaike,5 Masataka Sata11Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Shikoku Central Hospital, Shikokuchuo, 3Department of Medicine and Bioregulatory Sciences, 4Department of Cardio-Diabetes Medicine, 5Department of Medical Education, Graduate School of Health Biosciences, University of Tokushima, Tokushima, JapanBackground: Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disease and mortality. Patients who receive insufficient doses of antihypertensive agents or who are poorly adherent to multidrug treatment regimens often fail to achieve adequate blood pressure (BP control. The aim of this study was to determine the efficacy of an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB and calcium channel blocker (CCB combination tablet containing a regular dose of irbesartan (100 mg and a high dose of amlodipine (10 mg with regard to lowering BP and other risk factors for cardiovascular disease.Methods: We retrospectively evaluated data from 68 patients with essential hypertension whose treatment regimen was changed either from combination treatment with an independent ARB and a low-dose or regular-dose CCB or from a combination tablet of ARB and a low-dose or regular-dose CCB to a combination tablet containing amlodipine 10 mg and irbesartan 100 mg, because of incomplete BP control. Previous treatments did not include irbesartan as the ARB.Results: The combination tablet decreased systolic and diastolic BP. In addition, it significantly decreased serum uric acid, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and increased high

  19. ABO blood group and risk of cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Hwang, Jinseub; Rostgaard, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The associations between ABO blood group and cancer risk have been studied repeatedly, but results have been variable. Consistent associations have only been reported for pancreatic and gastric cancers. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We estimated associations between different ABO blood...... groups and site-specific cancer risk in a large cohort of healthy blood donors from Sweden and Denmark. RESULTS: A total of 1.6 million donors were followed over 27 million person-years (20 million in Sweden and 7 million in Denmark). We observed 119,584 cancer cases. Blood groups A, AB and B were...... associated either with increased or decreased risk of cancer at 13 anatomical sites (p≤0.05), compared to blood group O. Consistent with assessment using a false discovery rate approach, significant associations with ABO blood group were observed for cancer of the pancreas, breast, and upper gastrointestinal...

  20. Exposure and risk factors to coxiella burnetii, spotted fever group and typhus group Rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae among volunteer blood donors in Namibia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce H Noden

    Full Text Available The role of pathogen-mediated febrile illness in sub-Saharan Africa is receiving more attention, especially in Southern Africa where four countries (including Namibia are actively working to eliminate malaria. With a high concentration of livestock and high rates of companion animal ownership, the influence of zoonotic bacterial diseases as causes of febrile illness in Namibia remains unknown.The aim of the study was to evaluate exposure to Coxiella burnetii, spotted fever and typhus group rickettsiae, and Bartonella henselae using IFA and ELISA (IgG in serum collected from 319 volunteer blood donors identified by the Blood Transfusion Service of Namibia (NAMBTS. Serum samples were linked to a basic questionnaire to identify possible risk factors. The majority of the participants (64.8% had extensive exposure to rural areas or farms. Results indicated a C. burnetii prevalence of 26.1% (screening titre 1∶16, and prevalence rates of 11.9% and 14.9% (screening titre 1∶100 for spotted fever group and typhus group rickettsiae, respectively. There was a significant spatial association between C. burnetii exposure and place of residence in southern Namibia (P0.012, especially cattle (P>0.006, were also significantly associated with C. burnetii exposure. Males were significantly more likely than females to have been exposed to spotted fever (P<0.013 and typhus (P<0.011 group rickettsiae. Three (2.9% samples were positive for B. henselae possibly indicating low levels of exposure to a pathogen never reported in Namibia.These results indicate that Namibians are exposed to pathogenic fever-causing bacteria, most of which have flea or tick vectors/reservoirs. The epidemiology of febrile illnesses in Namibia needs further evaluation in order to develop comprehensive local diagnostic and treatment algorithms.

  1. Blood lead levels and risk factors for lead exposure among pregnant women in western French Guiana: the role of manioc consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimbaud, Diane; Restrepo, Marion; Louison, Anne; Boukhari, Rachida; Ardillon, Vanessa; Carles, Gabriel; Lambert, Véronique; Jolivet, Anne

    2017-01-01

    Concerns regarding lead (Pb) poisoning in French Guiana first arose in 2011 following the discovery of excessively high levels of the metal amongst children in a small neighborhood without any apparent source of Pb. Since 2012, blood lead level (BLL) measurement has been proposed for all pregnant women in western French Guiana. The aim of this study was to determine BLL in pregnant women in this region and identify factors associated with elevated BLL. An observational study of a consecutive sample of women who delivered in the maternity ward of the hospital was conducted. Risk factors were investigated using a questionnaire administered postdelivery by midwives (N = 531). Approximately 25 and 5% of women displayed BLL of ≥50 μg/L and ≥100 µg/L, respectively. The geometric mean was 32.6 μg/L. Factors that were significantly associated with an elevated BLL after modeling (multivariate linear regression) included place of residence along the Maroni river, low level of education, daily consumption of manioc derivatives, weekly and daily consumption or personal preparation of manioc flour during pregnancy, and weekly consumption of wild game. This study provides insight into the regional and social disparities in BLL in French Guiana and potential sources of exposure. Evidence indicates that foods that are primarily produced and consumed in the Guiana Shield significantly affect BLL levels. Taken together with existing data, our results demonstrate that specific actions in terms of prevention, screening, and care are required to be adapted and put into place in order to reduce exposure.

  2. Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Towards Risk Factors for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Vihar

    Knowledge, Attitude and Practices Towards Risk Factors for. Hypertension in ... The common risk factors known were consumption of fatty food and stress. People who reported to be ..... Winter; 16(1):292-4. 6. Blood pressure survey in two.

  3. Detection of Leishmania DNA and blood meal sources in phlebotomine sand flies (Diptera: Psychodidae) in western of Spain: Update on distribution and risk factors associated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bravo-Barriga, D; Parreira, R; Maia, C; Afonso, M O; Blanco-Ciudad, J; Serrano, F J; Pérez-Martín, J E; Gómez-Gordo, L; Campino, L; Reina, D; Frontera, E

    2016-12-01

    Leishmaniosis caused by Leishmania infantum is present in Mediterranean countries, with high prevalence in areas of the center and south of Spain. However, in some regions such as Extremadura (in southwest of Spain), data has not been updated since 1997. The aim of this work was (i) to provide information about the distribution of phlebotomine sand fly species in western of Spain (Extremadura region), (ii) to determine risk factors for the presence of sand fly vectors and (iii) to detect Leishmania DNA and identify blood meal sources in wild caught females. During 2012-2013, sand flies were surveyed using CDC miniature light-traps in 13 of 20 counties in Extremadura. Specimens were identified morphologically and females were used for molecular detection of Leishmania DNA by kDNA, ITS-1 and cyt-B. In addition, blood meals origins were analyzed by a PCR based in vertebrate cyt b gene. A total of 1083 sand flies of both gender were captured and identified. Five species were collected, Phlebotomus perniciosus (60.76%), Sergentomyia minuta (29.92%), P. ariasi (7.11%), P. papatasi (1.48%) and P. sergenti (0.74%). The last three species constitute the first report in Badajoz, the most southern province of Extremadura region. Leishmania DNA was detected in three out of 435 females (one P. pernicious and two S. minuta). Characterization of obtained DNA sequences by phylogenetic analyses revealed close relatedness with Leishmania tarentolae in S. minuta and L. infantum in P. perniciosus. Haematic preferences showed a wide range of hosts, namely: swine, humans, sheep, rabbits, horses, donkeys and turkeys. The simultaneous presence of P. perniciosus and P. ariasi vectors, the analysis of blood meals, together with the detection of L. infantum and in S. minuta of L. tarentolae, confirms the ideal conditions for the transmission of this parasitosis in the western of Spain. These results improve the epidemiological knowledge of leishmaniosis and its vectors in this part of Spain

  4. ABO blood group and the risk of pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolpin, Brian M; Chan, Andrew T; Hartge, Patricia; Chanock, Stephen J; Kraft, Peter; Hunter, David J; Giovannucci, Edward L; Fuchs, Charles S

    2009-03-18

    Other than several rare, highly penetrant familial syndromes, genetic risk factors for sporadic pancreatic cancer are largely unknown. ABO blood type is an inherited characteristic that in previous small studies has been associated with the risk of gastrointestinal malignancies. We separately examined the relationship between ABO blood type and the risk of incident pancreatic cancer in two large, independent, prospective cohort studies (the Nurses' Health Study and Health Professionals Follow-up Study) that collected blood group data on 107 503 US health professionals. Hazard ratios for pancreatic cancer by ABO blood type were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models with adjustment for other known risk factors, including age, tobacco use, body mass index, physical activity, and history of diabetes mellitus. All statistical tests were two-sided. During 927 995 person-years of follow-up, 316 participants developed pancreatic cancer. ABO blood type was associated with the risk of developing pancreatic cancer (P = .004; log-rank test). Compared with participants with blood group O, those with blood groups A, AB, or B were more likely to develop pancreatic cancer (adjusted hazard ratios for incident pancreatic cancer were 1.32 [95% confidence interval {CI} = 1.02 to 1.72], 1.51 [95% CI = 1.02 to 2.23], and 1.72 [95% CI = 1.25 to 2.38], respectively). The association between blood type and pancreatic cancer risk was nearly identical in the two cohorts (P(interaction) = .97). Overall, 17% of the pancreatic cancer cases were attributable to inheriting a non-O blood group (blood group A, B, or AB). The age-adjusted incidence rates for pancreatic cancer per 100 000 person-years were 27 (95% CI = 23 to 33) for participants with blood type O, 36 (95% CI = 26 to 50) for those with blood type A, 41 (95% CI = 31 to 56) for those with blood type AB, and 46 (95% CI = 32 to 68) for those with blood type B. In two large, independent populations, ABO blood type was

  5. Breast cancer risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marzena Kamińska

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed neoplastic disease in women around menopause often leading to a significant reduction of these women’s ability to function normally in everyday life. The increased breast cancer incidence observed in epidemiological studies in a group of women actively participating in social and professional life implicates the necessity of conducting multidirectional studies in order to identify risk factors associated with the occurrence of this type of neoplasm. Taking the possibility of influencing the neoplastic transformation process in individuals as a criterion, all the risk factors initiating the process can be divided into two groups. The first group would include inherent factors such as age, sex, race, genetic makeup promoting familial occurrence of the neoplastic disease or the occurrence of benign proliferative lesions of the mammary gland. They all constitute independent parameters and do not undergo simple modification in the course of an individual’s life. The second group would include extrinsic factors conditioned by lifestyle, diet or long-term medical intervention such as using oral hormonal contraceptives or hormonal replacement therapy and their influence on the neoplastic process may be modified to a certain degree. Identification of modifiable factors may contribute to development of prevention strategies decreasing breast cancer incidence.

  6. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  7. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  8. Understand Your Risk for Excessive Blood Clotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... such as car or plane trips Use of birth control pills or hormone replacement therapy Cancer Genetic Risk Factors ... Examples of medicines that may contain estrogen include birth control pills and hormone therapy. Other Factors Many other factors ...

  9. Risk Factors for Cholelithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Mila; Lindseth, Glenda

    2016-01-01

    Gallstone disease is one of the most common public health problems in the United States. Approximately 10%-20% of the national adult populations currently carry gallstones, and gallstone prevalence is rising. In addition, nearly 750,000 cholecystectomies are performed annually in the United States; direct and indirect costs of gallbladder surgery are estimated to be $6.5 billion. Cholelithiasis is also strongly associated with gallbladder, pancreatic, and colorectal cancer occurrence. Moreover, the National Institutes of Health estimates that almost 3,000 deaths (0.12% of all deaths) per year are attributed to complications of cholelithiasis and gallbladder disease. Although extensive research has tried to identify risk factors for cholelithiasis, several studies indicate that definitive findings still remain elusive. In this review, predisposing factors for cholelithiasis are identified, the pathophysiology of gallstone disease is described, and nonsurgical preventive options are discussed. Understanding the risk factors for cholelithiasis may not only be useful in assisting nurses to provide resources and education for patients who are diagnosed with gallstones, but also in developing novel preventive measures for the disease.

  10. Modifiable risk factors for surgical site infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moucha, Calin S; Clyburn, Terry A; Evans, Richard P; Prokuski, Laura

    2011-01-01

    Multiple risk factors for orthopaedic surgical site infection have been identified. Some of these factors directly affect the wound-healing process, whereas others can lead to blood-borne sepsis or relative immunosuppression. Modifying a patient's medications; screening for comorbidities, such as HIV or diabetes mellitus; and advising the patient on options to diminish or eliminate adverse behaviors, such as smoking, should lower the risk for surgical site infections.

  11. Physical activity and cardiovascular disease risk factors among ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We assessed level physical activity and its relationship with CVD risk factors among ... Anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, fasting blood glucose and ... Conclusion: Physical activity energy expenditure was high in this population ...

  12. Social determinants of common metabolic risk factors (high blood pressure, high blood sugar, high body mass index and high waist-hip ratio) of major non-communicable diseases in South Asia region: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sudesh Raj; Mishra, Shiva Raj; Wagle, Kusum; Page, Rachel; Matheson, Anna; Lambrick, Danielle; Faulkner, James; Lounsbury, David; Vaidya, Abhinav

    2017-09-07

    Prevalence of non-communicable diseases has been increasing at a greater pace in developing countries and, in particular, the South Asia region. Various behavioral, social and environmental factors present in this region perpetuate common metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases. This study will identify social determinants of common metabolic risk factors of major non-communicable diseases in the context of the South Asian region and map their causal pathway. A systematic review of selected articles will be carried out following Cochrane guidelines. Review will be guided by Social Determinants of Health Framework developed by the World Health Organization to extract social determinants of metabolic risk factors of non-communicable diseases from studies. A distinct search strategy will be applied using key words to screen relevant studies from online databases. Primary and grey literature published from the year 2000 to 2016 and studies with discussion on proximal and distal determinants of non-communicable risk factors among adults of the South Asia region will be selected. They will be further checked for quality, and a matrix illustrating contents of selected articles will be developed. Thematic content analysis will be done to trace social determinants and their interaction with metabolic risk factors. Findings will be illustrated in causal loop diagrams with social determinants of risk factors along with their interaction (feedback mechanism). The review will describe the interplay of social determinants of common NCD metabolic risk factors in the form of causal loop diagram. Findings will be structured in two parts: the first part will explain the linkage between proximal determinants with the metabolic risk factors and the second part will describe the linkage among the risk factors, proximal determinants and distal determinants. Evidences across different regions will be discussed to compare and validate and/or contrast the findings. Possible

  13. [Cardiovascular risk factors in women].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengel, Atiye

    2010-03-01

    It is estimated that at least 80% of patients with cardiovascular disease (CVD) have conventional risk factors and optimization of these risk factors can reduce morbidity and mortality due to this disease considerably. Contemporary women have increased burden of some of these risk factors such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and smoking. Turkish women have a worse CV risk profile than Turkish men in some aspects. Risk stratification systems such as Framingham have a tendency of underestimating the risk in women. Coronary artery disease remains in vessel wall for a longer period of time in women; therefore obstructive disease appear later in their lifespan necessitating risk stratification systems for estimating their lifetime risk.

  14. Atherogenic Risk Factors and Hearing Thresholds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Thomas Winther; Ramlau-Hansen, Cecilia Høst; Stokholm, Zara Ann

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of atherogenic risk factors on hearing thresholds. In a cross-sectional study we analyzed data from a Danish survey in 2009-2010 on physical and psychological working conditions. The study included 576 white- and blue-collar workers from...... children's day care units, financial services and 10 manufacturing trades. Associations between atherogenic risk factors (blood lipids, glycosylated hemoglobin, smoking habits, body mass index (BMI), and ambulatory blood pressure) and hearing thresholds were analyzed using multiple linear regression models...

  15. Blood coagulation factor VIII: An overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G M Bhopale; R K Nanda

    2003-12-01

    Factor VIII (FVIII) functions as a co-factor in the blood coagulation cascade for the proteolytic activation of factor X by factor IXa. Deficiency of FVIII causes hemophilia A, the most commonly inherited bleeding disorder. This review highlights current knowledge on selected aspects of FVIII in which both the scientist and the clinician should be interested.

  16. Measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides from a dried blood spot in an Indian Council of Medical Research-World Health Organization multicentric survey on risk factors for noncommunicable diseases in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmy, Ramakrishnan; Mathur, Prashant; Gupta, Ruby; Shah, Bela; Anand, Krishnan; Mohan, Viswanathan; Desai, Nimesh G; Mahanta, Jagdish; Joshi, Prashant Prabhakar; Thankappan, Kavumpurathu Raman

    2012-01-01

    Dried blood may be a convenient method of sample collection in epidemiological studies; however, the method needs evaluation in a field settings. In the present study, feasibility of using dried blood for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides was evaluated in multicenter surveillance study for noncommunicable disease (NCD). Samples were collected in a cross-sectional study for NCD risk factor surveillance conducted in six centers in India. For every tenth subject recruited, a blood sample was also collected on filter paper. These 10% serum samples and dried blood spots were analyzed for cholesterol and triglycerides. The mean coefficient of variation (CV) for cholesterol was less than 10% between dried blood and serum in five of the six participating centers. Only one center showed a high CV of 14%. Similarly, the mean bias was less than 10% in five centers. The intraclass correlation between cholesterol values in dried blood and serum were greater than 0.638 in all centers, which suggests a good homogeneity of results. The mean CV for triglycerides ranged from 0.36% to 17.97%. The intraclass correlation between triglyceride values in dried blood and serum ranged from 0.756 to 0.880 in the six centers. In conclusion, dried blood would be a good method for collection of blood for measurement of cholesterol and triglycerides for population health surveys. However, the benefits of blood spot analysis should be weighed against potential sources of errors attributable to sampling and other factors, such as temperature and humidity, in a country like India. Copyright © 2012 National Lipid Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Perinatal risk factors for strabismus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torp-Pedersen, Tobias; Boyd, Heather A; Poulsen, Gry;

    2010-01-01

    Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype.......Little is known about the aetiological factors underlying strabismus. We undertook a large cohort study to investigate perinatal risk factors for strabismus, overall and by subtype....

  18. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Anabel N; Abreu, Glaucia R; Resende, Rogério S; Goncalves, Washington LS; Gouvea, Sonia Alves

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness) in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease. Sources A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012. Summary of findings Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents. Conclusions Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century. PMID:23515212

  19. Risk factors for hypertension among urban males in Mombasa Kenya

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    unveiled that physical exercise had protective effect there by decreasing the risk of having HT. High Body Mass .... ACTIVITY AS A RISK FACTOR FOR. HYPERTENSION. ... evaluation and treatment of high blood pressure. Hypertension, 2003 ...

  20. Hypertension and Risk Factors Among Traders in Enugu, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension and Risk Factors Among Traders in Enugu, Nigeria. ... by direct measurement of respondents' blood pressure, height and weight. ... Conclusion: The rate of hypertension was high among the study group while the associated risk ...

  1. Midlife Cardiovascular Risk Factors May Increase Chances of Dementia

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... This study supports the importance of controlling vascular risk factors like high blood pressure early in life in an effort to prevent ... agreement with previous studies, an analysis of vascular risk factors showed ... or high blood pressure, also called hypertension, had a higher chance of ...

  2. Insulin-like growth factor pathway genes and blood concentrations, dietary protein and risk of prostate cancer in the NCI Breast and Prostate Cancer Cohort Consortium (BPC3)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tsilidis, Konstantinos K.; Travis, Ruth C.; Appleby, Paul N.; Allen, Naomi E.; Lindstroem, Sara; Albanes, Demetrius; Ziegler, Regina G.; McCullough, Marjorie L.; Siddiq, Afshan; Barricarte, Aurelio; Berndt, Sonja I.; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. Bas; Chanock, Stephen J.; Crawford, E. David; Diver, W. Ryan; Gapstur, Susan M.; Giovannucci, Edward; Gu, Fangyi; Haiman, Christopher A.; Hayes, Richard B.; Hunter, David J.; Johansson, Mattias; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kolonel, Laurence N.; Kraft, Peter; Le Marchand, Loic; Overvad, Kim; Polidoro, Silvia; Riboli, Elio; Schumacher, Fredrick R.; Stevens, Victoria L.; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Virtamo, Jarmo; Willett, Walter C.; Key, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that a high intake of dairy protein may increase prostate cancer risk by increasing the production of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1). Several single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) have been weakly associated with circulating concentrations of IGF-1 and IGF binding pro

  3. Hipertensão arterial e alguns fatores de risco em uma capital brasileira High blood pressure and some risk factors in a brazilian capital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César B. Veiga Jardim

    2007-04-01

    substantiated by the home survey of a simple random sample (>18 years old. Standardized questionnaires were used to obtain sociodemographic information, measurements of blood pressure (2 measurements, weight, height, and abdominal circumference (AC. Microsoft Access and Epi Info 6 were used for data storage and analysis, respectively. The last blood pressure reading was used (hypertension: BP>140x90mmHg. RESULTS: The study evaluated 1,739 individuals (87% of the estimated sample. There was a predominance of females (65.4% and mean age was 39.7 years (±15.6; arterial hypertension prevalence was 36.4%, higher for the male population (41.8% when compared to females (31.8%. Correlation between Hypertension and Body Mass Index was positive, as well as with AC and age. The female gender and higher income were protective factors against hypertension. There was no correlation with schooling. Prevalence of overweight and obesity were 30.0% and 13.6%, respectively; overweight was higher among females and obesity among males. The prevalence of smoking was 20.1%, more frequent among males (27.1%, when compared to females (16.4%. A sedentary lifestyle was observed in 62.3% of the population, with no difference between the genders. Regular alcohol consumption was reported by 44.4% of the individuals, being more frequent in males. CONCLUSION: Hypertension and other cardiovascular risk factors (particularly overweight/obesity indicators are high, reinforcing the need for objective nationwide measures to fight this disease, in order to reduce CVD morbidity and mortality.

  4. Risks factoring business: accounting measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z.V. Gutsaylyuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper carried out the identification of risk factors for the development of possible accounting software management. Studied theoretical and methodological aspects of the risk classification of factoring operations in the part of the risk assessment factors. It is proposed to consider the risks factors as the risk that is acceptable controlled by accounting instruments and the risks that can not be taken into account in the accounting records. To minimize the risk factor, accounting-driven tools, a method of self-insurance, which is a factor in the creation of provision for factoring transactions designed to cover unexpected expenses and losses. Provision for factoring factor will establish more stable conditions of financial activity and avoid the fluctuations of profit factor in relation to the writing off of losses on factoring operatsіyam.Developed proposals allow for further research to improve the organizational and methodological basis of accounting and analysis of information as a basis for providing risk management factor, particularly in terms of improving the evaluation questions such risks and their qualitative and quantitative analysis.

  5. Modifiable risk factors for ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandros Gianoulakis

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Ischemic stroke is the third leading cause of death after cardiac disease and cancer in the developed countries. In patients older than 65 years old, ischemic stroke is one of the main causes of disability. They are also responsible for approximately 4.5 million deaths each year globally.The aim of the present study was to review the literature about the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.The method οf this study included bibliographic research from both reviews and researches from literature, mainly of the last 8 years. The words used in pub med data base, referred to the modifiable risk factors related to the development of ischemic stroke.Results: In the majority of research studies, responsible risk factors for ischemic stroke are classified according to their ability of modification, in modifiable and non–modifiable risk factors. Some of the modifiable risk factors have been fully documented whereas some others need further research. The main modifiable risk factor is hypertension because on the one hand it promotes atherosclerosis and, on the other hand, leads to deteriorative changes and constrictions of small brain vessels. Atrial fibrillation is the most significant risk factor for ischemic stroke, since it is responsible for more than 50% of thromboembolic cases. Also, patients with diabetes mellitus are in higher risk for developing ischemic stroke compared to healthy population, whereas the danger is increasing in insuline-depented individuals. Increase of lipids in blood and disorders of cholesterol are responsible for atherosclerosis in coronary vessels and carotid. More in detail, carotid stenosis >50% in individuals over than 65 years old consist a significant risk factor for ischemic stroke. Though, the relation of smoking to ischemic stroke is still not fully understood, however smokers are in high risk for developing ischemic stroke for the reason that smoking is significantly related to

  6. The role of red blood cell deformability and Na,K-ATPase function in selected risk factors of cardiovascular diseases in humans: focus on hypertension, diabetes mellitus and hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, J; Vrbjar, N

    2016-09-19

    Deformability of red blood cells (RBC) is the ability of RBC to change their shape in order to pass through narrow capillaries in circulation. Deterioration in deformability of RBC contributes to alterations in microcirculatory blood flow and delivery of oxygen to tissues. Several factors are responsible for maintenance of RBC deformability. One of them is the Na,K-ATPase known as crucial enzyme in maintenance of intracellular ionic homeostasis affecting thus regulation of cellular volume and consequently RBC deformability. Decreased deformability of RBC has been found to be the marker of adverse outcomes in cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and the presence of cardiovascular risk factors influences rheological properties of the blood. This review summarizes knowledge concerning the RBC deformability in connection with selected risk factors of CVD, including hypertension, hyperlipidemia, and diabetes mellitus, based exclusively on papers from human studies. We attempted to provide an update on important issues regarding the role of Na,K-ATPase in RBC deformability. In patients suffering from hypertension as well as diabetes mellitus the Na,K-ATPase appears to be responsible for the changes leading to alterations in RBC deformability. The triggering factor for changes of RBC deformability during hypercholesterolemia seems to be the increased content of cholesterol in erythrocyte membranes.

  7. EAMJ Risk Factors 10.indd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-02-02

    Feb 2, 2010 ... Several factors have been suggested as independent risk factors for their ... Conclusions: Current standard regimens in resource-limited countries are associated .... Summary of outcomes and fate of all the ADRs:The most.

  8. Prevalencia y factores de riesgo de hipertensión arterial en escolares mexicanos: caso Sabinas Hidalgo Prevalence and risk factors of high blood pressure in Mexican school children in Sabinas Hidalgo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Oliver Aregullin-Eligio

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Determinar la prevalencia de hipertensión arterial (HTA y los factores de riesgo asociados en escolares de 6 a 12 años, con la metodología aceptada. MATERIAL Y MÉTODOS: Se examinaron 329 alumnos de educación primaria para investigar asociaciones entre HTA, índice de masa corporal (IMC, edad y género, usando un estudio transversal. Se midió la presión arterial y se utilizó el percentil 95 para diagnosticar HTA. Se compararon niños con y sin HTA. Se utilizaron las razones de momios simple y ajustada con la X² de Mantel-Haenszel como medidas de asociación. RESULTADOS: Los niños con sobrepeso (IMC > 85 percentil y del grupo de 11-12 años tuvieron al menos cuatro veces más posibilidades de HTA después de controlar variables confusoras. CONCLUSIONES: Los niños que presentaron HTA ascendieron a 4.9%, con mayor prevalencia entre aquellos con sobrepeso y pertenecientes a un grupo etario mayor. Las asociaciones encontradas pueden ser marcadores de HTA en niños mexicanos.OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence and associated risk factors of high blood pressure (HBP in school children 6 to 12 years of age with the accepted methodology. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Elementary school children were examined (n=329. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, age and gender were investigated using a cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were made. The crude and X² Mantel-Haenszel adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. RESULTS: Overweight children (BMI >85th percentile and those in the age group 11-12 years were at least four times as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. CONCLUSION: A total of 4.9% of school children had HBP, with a higher prevalence occurring among overweight and the older group. The associations found here can be used as markers for an increased

  9. risk factors for hypertension among urban males in mombasa kenya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension (HT) risk factors were assessed, followed by physical examination for obesity anthropometric measurements and blood pressure measurements. ... increase in age and smoking were found to be a predisposing risk factor for HT. ... physical exercise had protective effect there by decreasing the risk of having HT ...

  10. Pancreatic Cancer Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... risks of other cancers (or other health problems). Examples of genetic syndromes that can cause exocrine pancreatic cancer include: Hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome , caused by mutations in the BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes Familial atypical ...

  11. Value of routine blood tests for prediction of mortality risk in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt, Mathias; Pedersen, Ole B; Riis, Troels

    2012-01-01

    There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission.......There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission....

  12. Cardiovascular risk factor investigation: a pediatric issue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigues AN

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Anabel N Rodrigues,1 Glaucia R Abreu,2 Rogério S Resende,1 Washington LS Goncalves,1 Sonia Alves Gouvea21School of Medicine, University Center of Espírito Santo, Colatina, Brazil; 2Postgraduate Program in Physiological Sciences, Center for Health Sciences, Federal University of Espirito Santo, Vitória, BrazilObjectives: To correlate cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperglycemia, sedentariness in childhood and adolescence with the occurrence of cardiovascular disease.Sources: A systematic review of books and selected articles from PubMed, SciELO and Cochrane from 1992 to 2012.Summary of findings: Risk factors for atherosclerosis are present in childhood, although cardiovascular disease arises during adulthood. This article presents the main studies that describe the importance of investigating the risk factors for cardiovascular diseases in childhood and their associations. Significant rates of hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, and sedentariness occur in children and adolescents. Blood pressure needs to be measured in childhood. An increase in arterial blood pressure in young people predicts hypertension in adulthood. The death rate from cardiovascular disease is lowest in children with lower cholesterol levels and in individuals who exercise regularly. In addition, there is a high prevalence of sedentariness in children and adolescents.Conclusions: Studies involving the analysis of cardiovascular risk factors should always report the prevalence of these factors and their correlations during childhood because these factors are indispensable for identifying an at-risk population. The identification of risk factors in asymptomatic children could contribute to a decrease in cardiovascular disease, preventing such diseases as hypertension, obesity, and dyslipidemia from becoming the epidemics of this century.Keywords: cardiovascular risk, children, hypertension, obesity

  13. Risk Factors Of Heart Disease in Nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Mahdi K; Hojat, Mohsen; Koshkaki, Saiede R; Nazari, Faride; Ragibnejad, Maryam

    2017-01-01

    Identifying and correcting the modifiable risk factors reduces the prevalence of coronary artery disorders (CAD). Nurses, with regards to their employment conditions, can be prone to cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors among nurses. In this cross-sectional study, census sampling was conducted among nurses of Jahrom, Iran, in 2014. Data were collected through interviews, blood pressure measurement, anthropometric parameters, and blood sample collection. To analyze the data, descriptive statistical analysis, and comparative (independent t-test) and correlation (Pearson) tests were used; the significance level was considered to be P < 0.05. In this study, 263 (89.76%) nurses participated, 79.8% of whom were women. The mean age of the participants was 31.04 (6.97). In terms of body mass index, 41.7% was the waist-to-hip ratio, 16.7% was the waist-to-height ratio, and 63.1% were in the range of obesity. In addition, 5.7% had abnormal triglyceride, 4.9% had high cholesterol, and 15.1% had high blood pressure. The mean percentage of the Framingham risk score of the participants was 1.07 (1.84). In this study, the total mean percentage of the Framingham risk score of the nurses was 1.07, which showed a low risk of CAD in the study population over the next decade.

  14. 单纯性肥胖儿童血压升高相关危险因素COX回归分析%COX regression analysis on some risk factors related to elevation of blood pressure among simple obese children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐尔迪; 尹春燕; 肖延风; 易小青; 常明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To identify high-risk factors related to elevation of blood pressure among overweight children, and to provide evidence for the early prevention. Methods Among 124 overweight children (69 male and 55 female) chosen in the department of pediatrics in the Second Affiliated Hospital of Medical College of Xi' an Jiaotong University from May to October 2010, at the age of 7-18 years (14 years on average) , the patients with elevation of blood pressure were screened out by the diagnosis based on 2010 Standards from the Task force for Development of Blood Pressure Reference Standards for Chinese Children and Adolescents. Clinical data was analyzed including some factors related to obesity and elevation of blood pressure, e. g. genetic factors, early feeding, dietary behavior, learning and exercise and home environment. Results Totally 68 overweight patients had elevation of blood pressure, accounting for 54. 84% in all the children. And it was demonstrated through COX multivariate analysis that the risk factors related to the prognosis for the overweight children with elevation of blood pressure included mother's obesity level, meat foods preference, length of sleep at night, length of midday rest, frequency of having a drink and puffed foods. Conclusion There is a very high percentage of hypertension cases in the overweight children. It is revealed that bad eating habits, mother's obesity and excessive length of sleeping are all identified as the contributors to elevation of blood pressure. Therefore, special attention should be paid to the risk factors mentioned above in the treatment and follow-up for the overweight children. In this point, reducing exposure to these risk factors helps prevent occurrence of elevation of blood pressure.%目的 筛选肥胖儿童发生血压升高的高危因素,为早期预防肥胖儿童发生高血压提供依据.方法 选择西安交通大学医学院第二附属医院儿科门诊2010年5-10月就诊的肥胖儿童124例,

  15. Risk factors for periodontal disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Genco, Robert J; Borgnakke, Wenche S

    2013-06-01

    Risk factors play an important role in an individual's response to periodontal infection. Identification of these risk factors helps to target patients for prevention and treatment, with modification of risk factors critical to the control of periodontal disease. Shifts in our understanding of periodontal disease prevalence, and advances in scientific methodology and statistical analysis in the last few decades, have allowed identification of several major systemic risk factors for periodontal disease. The first change in our thinking was the understanding that periodontal disease is not universal, but that severe forms are found only in a portion of the adult population who show abnormal susceptibility. Analysis of risk factors and the ability to statistically adjust and stratify populations to eliminate the effects of confounding factors have allowed identification of independent risk factors. These independent but modifiable, risk factors for periodontal disease include lifestyle factors, such as smoking and alcohol consumption. They also include diseases and unhealthy conditions such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, metabolic syndrome, osteoporosis, and low dietary calcium and vitamin D. These risk factors are modifiable and their management is a major component of the contemporary care of many periodontal patients. Genetic factors also play a role in periodontal disease and allow one to target individuals for prevention and early detection. The role of genetic factors in aggressive periodontitis is clear. However, although genetic factors (i.e., specific genes) are strongly suspected to have an association with chronic adult periodontitis, there is as yet no clear evidence for this in the general population. It is important to pursue efforts to identify genetic factors associated with chronic periodontitis because such factors have potential in identifying patients who have a high susceptibility for development of this disease. Many of the systemic risk factors

  16. Environmental risk factors for autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney R. Dietert

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most critical windows of developmental vulnerability is paramount to understanding when and under what circumstances a child is at elevated risk for autism. No single environmental factor explains the increased prevalence of autism. While a handful of environmental risk factors have been suggested based on data from human studies and animal research, it is clear that many more, and perhaps the most significant risk factors, remain to be identified. The most promising risk factors identified to date fall within the categories of drugs, environmental chemicals, infectious agents, dietary factors, and other physical/psychological stressors. However, the rate at which environmental risk factors for autism have been identified via research and safety testing has not kept pace with the emerging health threat posed by this condition. For the way forward, it seems clear that additional focused research is needed. But more importantly, successful risk reduction strategies for autism will require more extensive and relevant developmental safety testing of drugs and chemicals.

  17. [Preeclampsia as cardiovascular risk factor].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heida, Karst Y; Franx, Arie; Bots, Michiel L

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the primary cause of death in women. Guidelines for identifying high-risk individuals have been developed, e.g. the Dutch Guideline on Cardiovascular Risk Management. In the most recent version of this guideline, diabetes mellitus (DM) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are cited as cardiovascular risk factors; therefore, individuals with these conditions are identified as being at high risk. As with DM and RA, there is strong evidence that the experience of having a hypertensive disorder during pregnancy is a cardiovascular risk factor. This is particularly the case for early preeclampsia, which constitutes a 7-fold increased risk of ischemic heart disease. However, in the Netherlands, there are no guidelines and there is no consensus on how to screen or treat these women. Trial evidence is therefore urgently needed to substantiate the value of cardiovascular risk management for those women with a history of hypertension during pregnancy.

  18. Gangrenous cholecystitis: mortality and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Önder, Akın; Kapan, Murat; Ülger, Burak Veli; Oğuz, Abdullah; Türkoğlu, Ahmet; Uslukaya, Ömer

    2015-02-01

    As a serious complication of cholelithiasis, gangrenous cholecystitis presents greater mortality than noncomplicated cholecystitis. The aim of this study was to specify the risk factors on mortality. 107 consecutive patients who underwent surgery due to gangrenous cholecystitis between January 1997 and October 2011 were investigated retrospectively. The study included 60 (56.1%) females and 47 (43.9%) males, with a mean age of 60.7 ± 16.4 (21-88) years. Cardiovascular diseases were the most frequently accompanying medical issues (24.3%). Thirty-six complications (33.6%) developed in 29 patients, and surgical site infection was proven as the most common. Longer delay time prior to hospital admission, low white blood cell count, presence of diabetes mellitus, higher blood levels of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and total bilirubin, pericholecystic fluid in abdominal ultrasonography, and conversion from laparoscopic surgery to open surgery were identified as risk factors affecting mortality (P < 0.001, P = 0.001, P = 0.044, P = 0.005, P = 0.049, P = 0.009, P = 0.022, P = 0.011, and P = 0.004, respectively). Longer delay time prior to hospital admission and low white blood cell count were determined as independent risk factors affecting mortality.

  19. Risk factors of placental abruption

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected co...

  20. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut;

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  1. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...

  2. Clinical Risk Factors of Diabetic Nephropathy and Clinical Analysis of Blood Pressure Control Critical Values%探讨糖尿病肾病的临床风险因素及血压控制临界值分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟文渊

    2015-01-01

    目的通过观察糖尿病肾病患者的临床风险因素,总结并分析其血压控制临界值。方法选取本院2012年11月~2014年11月收治的109例糖尿病肾病患者作为观察组,同期选取86例糖尿病患者作为对照组,比较两组患者血糖、血压、血脂及基本资料,总结其临床风险因素。同时,依据糖尿病肾病24h尿蛋白标准采用ROC曲线评估患者的血压控制临界值。结果两组患者中家族史、原发病病程、收缩压、胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇及肌酐情况比较均有显著差异,具有统计学意义(<0.05)。经血压控制临界值ROC曲线分析可见糖尿病肾病患者的舒张压控制临界值为79mmHg,收缩压控制临界值为140mmHg。结论收缩压、胆固醇、高密度脂蛋白胆固醇及低密度脂蛋白胆固醇等因素均与糖尿病肾病具有密切关联,控制舒张压水平在79mmHg以下、收缩压水平在140mmHg可显著提高糖尿病肾病患者的临床安全。%Objective To observe the clinical risk factors in patients with diabetic nephropathy,summarize and analyze their blood pressure control threshold.Methods Hospital from November 2012 to November 2014 were treated 109 cases of diabetic nephropathy as the observation group,86 cases of diabetes earlier selected as a control group,two groups were compared glucose,blood pressure,blood lipids and basic information,summarize clinical risk factors.Meanwhile,according to diabetic nephropathy 24h urine protein standards using ROC curves to assess the patient's blood pressure control threshold.Results The two groups of patients with a family history of primary disease duration,systolic blood pressure,total cholesterol,high density lipoprotein cholesterol,low-density lipoprotein cholesterol,and creatinine were significantly dif erent compared to the situation,with statistical significance( <0.05).Blood pressure control by ROC curve analysis shows

  3. The risk factors for labor onset hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yasumasa; Terauchi, Mikio; Tamakoshi, Koji; Shiozaki, Arihiro; Saito, Shigeru

    2016-04-01

    Our aim was to clarify the perinatal outcomes of and risk factors for hypertension that is first detected after labor onset (labor onset hypertension, LOH), which may be a risk factor for eclampsia and stroke during labor. A total of 1349 parturient women who did not exhibit preeclampsia or gestational hypertension prior to labor were examined. The patients were classified into four groups: the normotensive (n=1023) (whose systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained below 140 mm Hg throughout labor), mild LOH (n=241) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 140 to 159 mm Hg), severe LOH (n=66) (whose maximum SBP during labor ranged from 160 to 179 mm Hg) and emergent LOH groups (n=19) (whose maximum SBP during labor was greater than 180 mm Hg). The perinatal outcomes and patient characteristics of the four groups were compared. Twenty-four percent of the pregnant women who remained normotensive throughout pregnancy developed hypertension during labor. One of the patients in the emergent LOH group developed eclampsia. The blood pressure at delivery and frequencies of hypotensor use, interventional delivery and low Apgar scores differed significantly among the four groups. The following risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were extracted: being over 35 years old, a body mass index at delivery of >30, an SBP at 36 weeks' gestation of 130-134 mm Hg, an SBP at admission of 130-139 mm Hg, proteinuria (a score of 2+ on the dipstick test) and severe edema. The risk factors for severe/emergent LOH were identified in this study. In high risk cases, repeatedly measuring maternal blood pressure during delivery might help detect critical hypertension early.

  4. Risk factors for suicidal behavior

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonova A.A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available

     

    The article presents data on risk factors that contribute to the development of suicidal behavior. The development of suicidal behavior is infuenced by a number of factors. These include — gender, age, residence, occupation, marital status, health status, etc. A number of studies indicated the impact of economic and social factors on the level of suicidal activity of the population. Observed relationship between mental disorders, substance abuse (particularly alcohol and suicide. In this case, the presence of numerous investigations in the feld of Suicidology, a number of problems still remains unsolved. Further study of issues relating to risk factors that infuence the development of suicidal behavior. Of particular note is the importance of “regional” risk factors that most infuence on the formation of suicidal behavior in a particular region.

  5. Asymptomatic malaria and associated factors among blood donors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr.Mirambo

    falciparum which poses a risk for transmission to blood recipients including ... to an infected person's blood via blood transfusion, sharing needles or syringes .... in agreement with a previous report in Nakuru, Kenya, which had a similar ...

  6. Prevalence of risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence of risk factors for sudden cardiac death in competitive South African student ... personal and family history, physical examination (including blood pressure, ... Significant correlations were found between gender and family history of ...

  7. Employees' Modifiable Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Disease: The ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal for Physical Activity and Health Sciences ... Blood pressure readings were taken and hypertension for the study was defined as ≥140/90 for ... This study confirms the high prevalence of modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular ...

  8. Assessment of risk factors that influence pregnancy outcomes in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Keywords: Pregnancy outcome, low birth weight, Apgar score, maternal age, Tanzania ... (2006) reported that, several risk factors influence neonatal mortality. ..... which is the lowest cut off point for the classification of normal blood pressure.

  9. Risk Factors for Cardiovascular Diseases among Diabetic Patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethiopian Journal of Health Sciences ... BACKGROUND: Studies on cardiovascular risk factors among diabetic persons in Ethiopia are lacking. The objective of this study ... Female gender, hypertension and fasting blood glucose . 180mg/dl ...

  10. Metabolic syndrome as a risk factor for hypertension after preeclampsia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spaan, J.J.; Sep, S.J.; Balen, V.L. van; Spaanderman, M.E.A.; Peeters, L.L.

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To identify metabolic and obstetric risk factors associated with hypertension after preeclampsia. METHODS: We analyzed demographic and clinical data from a postpartum screening (blood pressure, microalbuminuria and fasting plasma levels of glucose, insulin, and lipid profile) from 683 pri

  11. SEROPREVALENCE AND RISK FACTORS OF HEPATITIS C VIRUS ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Oboro VO

    Key words: Hepatitis C virus, seroprevalence, patients, blood donors, risk factors. INTRODUCTION .... this regard that will aid HCV control measures and prevent associated .... Hepatitis Band C in doctors and dentists in. Nigeria Qt. J. Med.

  12. Factors That Predict Blood Loss After Bernese Periacetabular Osteotomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novais, Eduardo N; Carry, Patrick M; Kestel, Lauryn A; Koerner, Jason; Tan, Gee Mei

    2016-11-01

    Although strategies to reduce bleeding and avoid allogeneic transfusion have been described, there is controversy about the factors associated with blood loss after Bernese periacetabular osteotomy. This study was conducted to determine risk factors for postoperative blood loss. After institutional review board approval was obtained, a retrospective review was conducted of 41 young patients who underwent periacetabular osteotomy for symptomatic acetabular dysplasia over a 3-year period. Of these patients, two-thirds donated blood before surgery. A Cell Saver Elite autotransfusion system (Haemonetics, Braintree, Massachusetts) was used intraoperatively in all cases. Hemoglobin and hematocrit were obtained before surgery and during the hospital stay. The primary outcome variable was the percentage of total blood volume lost during surgery. Univariate analysis was performed to test the association between potential predictors of blood volume loss. Candidate variables that were significant at alpha=0.15 were tested with multivariate analysis. The average percentage of blood volume lost during surgery was 30.3% (95% confidence interval, 25.1%-35.5%). Univariate analysis showed that operative time, arthrotomy, femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty, labral procedure, male sex, and age were prognostic factors associated with increased blood volume loss. However, operative time (average, 294.6 minutes; range, 204-444 minutes) was the only independent predictor of increased blood loss in the final model. Additional procedures, such as femoral head-neck osteochondroplasty and labral repair or debridement performed through an anterior hip arthrotomy at the time of periacetabular osteotomy, were associated with increased operative time. The findings suggest that all patients undergoing periacetabular osteotomy, including those having concomitant procedures, may benefit from pre- and intraoperative strategies to conserve blood and avoid allogeneic transfusion. [Orthopedics. 2016

  13. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Severely Obese Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalsky, Marc P.; Inge, Thomas H.; Simmons, Mark; Jenkins, Todd M.; Buncher, Ralph; Helmrath, Michael; Brandt, Mary L.; Harmon, Carroll M.; Courcoulas, Anita; Chen, Michael; Horlick, Mary; Daniels, Stephen R.; Urbina, Elaine M.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severe obesity is increasingly common in the adolescent population but, as of yet, very little information exists regarding cardiovascular disease (CVD) risks in this group. OBJECTIVE To assess the baseline prevalence and predictors of CVD risks among severely obese adolescents undergoing weight-loss surgery. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study was conducted from February 28, 2007, to December 30, 2011, at the following 5 adolescent weight-loss surgery centers in the United States: Nationwide Children’s Hospital in Columbus, Ohio; Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in Cincinnati, Ohio; Texas Children’s Hospital in Houston; University of Pittsburgh Medical Center in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania; and Children’s Hospital of Alabama in Birmingham. Consecutive patients aged 19 years or younger were offered enrollment in a long-term outcome study; the final analysis cohort consisted of 242 participants. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES This report examined the preoperative prevalence of CVD risk factors (ie, fasting hyperinsulinemia, elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels, impaired fasting glucose levels, dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, and diabetes mellitus) and associations between risk factors and body mass index (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared), age, sex, and race/ethnicity. Preoperative data were collected within 30 days preceding bariatric surgery. RESULTS The mean (SD) age was 17 (1.6) years and median body mass index was 50.5. Cardiovascular disease risk factor prevalence was fasting hyperinsulinemia (74%), elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels (75%), dyslipidemia (50%), elevated blood pressure (49%), impaired fasting glucose levels (26%), and diabetes mellitus (14%). The risk of impaired fasting glucose levels, elevated blood pressure, and elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels increased by 15%, 10%, and 6%, respectively, per 5-unit

  14. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosme Alvarado-Esquivel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77±9.52; range 18–60 years old studied, 55 (13.5% were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8% of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03–2.94; P=0.03 and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02–4.29; P=0.04. Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed.

  15. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Velasquez-Vega, Edgar; Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Navarro-Henze, José Luis; Badell-Luzardo, Joel Alberto; Gastélum-Cano, José María; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77 ± 9.52; range 18–60 years old) studied, 55 (13.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03–2.94; P = 0.03) and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02–4.29; P = 0.04). Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed. PMID:27446960

  16. Seroprevalence and Associated Risk Factors for Toxoplasma gondii Infection in Healthy Blood Donors: A Cross-Sectional Study in Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alvarado-Esquivel, Cosme; Rascón-Careaga, Antonio; Hernández-Tinoco, Jesús; Corella-Madueño, María Alba Guadalupe; Sánchez-Anguiano, Luis Francisco; Aldana-Madrid, María Lourdes; Velasquez-Vega, Edgar; Quizán-Plata, Trinidad; Navarro-Henze, José Luis; Badell-Luzardo, Joel Alberto; Gastélum-Cano, José María; Liesenfeld, Oliver

    2016-01-01

    Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) can be transmitted by blood transfusion. We determined the prevalence of T. gondii infection in healthy blood donors in Hermosillo city, Mexico, and the association of infection with T. gondii with the sociodemographic, clinical, and behavioral characteristics of blood donors. Four hundred and eight blood donors who attended two public blood banks in Hermosillo city were examined for anti-T. gondii IgG and IgM antibodies by using enzyme-linked immunoassays. Of the 408 blood donors (mean age 31.77 ± 9.52; range 18-60 years old) studied, 55 (13.5%) were positive for anti-T. gondii IgG antibodies, and 12 (21.8%) of them were also positive for anti-T. gondii IgM antibodies. Multivariate analysis showed that seropositivity to T. gondii was associated with age (OR = 1.74; 95% CI: 1.03-2.94; P = 0.03) and tobacco use (OR = 2.09; 95% CI: 1.02-4.29; P = 0.04). Seropositivity to T. gondii was correlated with the number of pregnancies, deliveries, and cesarean sections. The seroprevalence of T. gondii infection in blood donors in Sonora is the highest reported in blood donors in northern Mexico so far. This is the first report of an association of T. gondii exposure and tobacco use. Further research to confirm this association is needed.

  17. Ongoing graft-versus-host disease is a risk factor for azoospermia after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation: a survey of the Late Effects Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rovó, Alicia; Aljurf, Mahmoud; Chiodi, Sandra; Spinelli, Simonetta; Salooja, Nina; Sucak, Gülsan; Hunter, Ann; Kim, Tan Swee; Socié, Gérard; van Lint, Maria Teresa; Passweg, Jakob R; Arat, Mutlu; Badoglio, Manuela; Tichelli, André

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the degree of spermatogenesis defects in sperm analysis in long-term male survivors after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in order to identify the risk factors related to potential infertility after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation and to provide data on longitudinal sperm recovery after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Here, the Late Effects Working Party of the European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation reports data of sperm analysis from 224 males who underwent hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Median time between transplantation and sperm analysis was 63 months (8-275 months). At last sperm analysis, presence of any degree of spermatozoa was reported in 70 (31%) and complete azoospermia in 154 (69%) patients. In multivariate analysis, being conditioned with total body irradiation (RR 7.1; 95% CI: 3.4-14.8) and age over 25 years at transplantation (RR 2.4; 95% CI: 1.09-5.2) were significantly associated with higher risk for azoospermia. In patients not conditioned with total body irradiation, ongoing chronic graft-versus-host disease is the main adverse factor for sperm recovery (RR of 3.11; 95% CI: 1.02-9.47; P=0.045). Already established risk factors, such as total body irradiation and age older than 25 years at hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, were seen to be the most relevant adverse risk factor for sperm production after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Furthermore, for the first time, ongoing graft-versus-host disease has been shown to be the most relevant adverse factor for sperm recovery, particularly in patients conditioned without total body irradiation. We also introduce a useful scoring system to predict the probability of male long-term survivors' azoospermia.

  18. Childhood risk factors predict cardiovascular disease, impaired fasting glucose plus type 2 diabetes mellitus, and high blood pressure 26 years later at a mean age of 38 years: the Princeton-lipid research clinics follow-up study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, John A; Glueck, Charles J; Wang, Ping

    2012-04-01

    The objective was to assess whether pediatric risk factors predict cardiovascular disease (CVD), impaired fasting glucose (IFG) + type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and high blood pressure (HBP) in young adulthood. We performed a prospective follow-up of 909 public-parochial suburban schoolchildren first studied at ages 6 to 18 years and 26 years later at a mean age of 38 years. Pediatric triglycerides (TGs), blood pressure, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, body mass index, and glucose above and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol below established pediatric cutoffs, along with race, cigarette smoking, family history of CVD, T2DM, and HBP, were assessed as determinants of young adult CVD, a composite variable including IFG + T2DM and HBP. By stepwise logistic regression, adult CVD (19 yes, 862 no) was associated with pediatric high TG (odds ratio [OR], 5.85; 95% confidence interval [CI], 2.3-14.7). High TG in pediatric probands with young adult CVD was familial and was associated with early CVD in their high-TG parents. Adult IFG + T2DM (114 yes, 535 no) was associated with parental T2DM (OR, 2.2; 95% CI, 1.38-3.6), high childhood glucose (OR, 4.43; 95% CI, 2-9.7), and childhood cigarette smoking (OR, 1.64; 95% CI, 1.03-2.61). Adult HBP (133 yes, 475 no) was associated with pediatric high body mass index (OR, 2.7; 95% CI, 1.7-4.3) and HBP (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.5-4.3). Pediatric risk factors are significantly, independently related to young adult CVD, IFG + T2DM, and HBP. Identification of pediatric risk factors for CVD, IFG + T2DM, and HBP facilitates initiation of primary prevention programs to reduce development of adult CVD, IFG + T2DM, and HBP. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Risk factors for thyroid cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikiforov, Y E; Fagin, J A

    1997-01-01

    The potential risk factors for thyroid carcinoma development include genetic predisposition, exposure to therapeutic or environmental ionizing radiation, residence in areas of iodine deficiency or excess, history of preexisting benign thyroid disease, as well as hormonal and reproductive factors. In this review, we analyze some of the epidemiological data, as well as the possible molecular mechanisms by which certain environmental and genetic factors might predispose to thyroid tumorigenesis. (c) 1997, Elsevier Science Inc. (Trends Endocrinol Metab 1997; 8:20-25).

  20. Mitochondrial DNA copy number in peripheral blood and melanoma risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Shen

    Full Text Available Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood has been suggested as risk modifier in various types of cancer. However, its influence on melanoma risk is unclear. We evaluated the association between mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood and melanoma risk in 500 melanoma cases and 500 healthy controls from an ongoing melanoma study. The mtDNA copy number was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction. Overall, mean mtDNA copy number was significantly higher in cases than in controls (1.15 vs 0.99, P<0.001. Increased mtDNA copy number was associated with a 1.45-fold increased risk of melanoma (95% confidence interval: 1.12-1.97. Significant joint effects between mtDNA copy number and variables related to pigmentation and history of sunlight exposure were observed. This study supports an association between increased mtDNA copy number and melanoma risk that is independent on the known melanoma risk factors (pigmentation and history of sunlight exposure.

  1. Blood pressure level and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in male hypertensive patients without clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F

    2000-01-01

    was independently associated with DBP. Office SBP was above 140 mmHg in 83% and above 160 mmHg in 44% of patients. During ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (AMBP), SBP was above 135 mmHg in 40% and above 155 mmHg in 15% of patients. In addition to male sex and hypertension there was a high percentage of other...... and the blood pressure (BP), and to evaluate the percentage of patients who had achieved a BP level as recommended by the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). BP was evaluated in relation to age, body mass index......, duration of hypertension, cholesterol and triglyceride level, smoking status, information of regular exercise, a family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and drug treatment, in 220 men treated for arterial hypertension. In the univariate analyses we found a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP...

  2. Investigation of risk factors of blood donors infected with HBV and HCV%献血人群感染乙肝、丙肝病毒的血液接触危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈雪; 何翠; 席光湘; 张杰; 田莉; 邓小倩; 罗利平; 万浬科; 何毅

    2013-01-01

    目的 通过对献血者感染乙型肝炎以及丙型肝炎病毒危险因素的研究,探讨血液接触行为的危险性.方法 对485例HBsAg检测阳性、305例抗-HCV抗体检测阳性的献血者及1 581例两者检测阴性的献血者进行病例对照研究,应用多因素条件Logistic回归模型分析与感染乙肝病毒、丙肝病毒有关的血液接触危险行为,并对危险行为的人群归因危险度(PAR)进行估计.结果 筛选出6个与乙肝病毒感染有关的血液接触危险行为:10年前肌肉注射史、乙肝家族史、使用共用剃刀、穿耳环孔史、牙科治疗史、针灸史,其人群归因危险度分别是0.449,0.066,0.251,0.092,0.129,0.038,综合人群归因危险度为68%;7个与丙肝病毒感染有关的危险行为:使用共用剃刀、输血史、乙肝家族史、纹身史、牙科治疗史、穿耳环孔史、10年前肌肉注射史,其人群归因危险度分别是0.351,0.024,0.089,0.063,0.163,0.078,0.149,综合人群归因危险度是62%.结论 献血人群感染乙肝、丙肝病毒的血液接触危险行为有使用共用剃刀、乙肝家族史、输血史、10年前肌肉注射史、纹身史、牙科治疗史等,避免以上血液接触危险行为,可减少感染乙肝、丙肝病毒的几率.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the relationship of risk factors of blood contact and blood donors infected with HBV and HCV virus.METHODS A case-control study was carried out,which included 484 HBsAg positive blood donors,305 anti-HCV positive blood donors and 1 581 negative blood donors.The data were analyzed by means of logistic regression method,and population attributable risk (PAR) was estimated.RESULTS According to the multiple condition logistic regression model,intramuscular injections before 10 years,hepatitis B family history,sharing a razor,ear piercing,dental care and acupuncture increased the risk of HBV infection,and the OR values for the items were 0.449,0.066,0.251,0.092,0.129 and 0

  3. [Risk factors for arterial disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madoery, Roberto; Rubin, Graciela; Luquez, Hugo; Luquez, Cecilia; Cravero, Cecilia

    2004-01-01

    The risk factors of arterial disease (FREA) predict a future damage over the vascular system of the human body. Its detection are considered a key for the diagnostic as well as for the preventive and even curative strategies. For a long time, scientist considered those factors originated as a consecuence of large studies during the middle of the last century, with current validity up to our days. A simple classification spoke of them as traditionals. Further investigations described the so called new or emergents.factors that where joint together accordingly to their actions: coagulation factors, psicosocial, inflamatories and infectious. A recent classification, taking into account the type of impact, divided them into; causatives, predisposals and conditionals. Also, it was described a mechanism, the oxidative power, with consecuences over the endothelium, in the last part of the process. Before, another mechanism was described: the insulin resistance and the hiperinsulinism, bases for the Metabolic Syndrome, that includes a number of traditional risk factors.

  4. Prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in grade nine students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prentice, Dawn; Kilty, Heather Lee; Stearne, Karen; Dobbin, Stafford W

    2008-01-01

    The Niagara Schools' Healthy Heart Program (NSHHP) is a health education and intervention program offered to students enrolled in a grade nine physical education course. The program involves completion of a family history and a self-report lifestyle survey, measurements of height, weight, blood pressure, and random total cholesterol levels, a heart education class, and CPR training. The purpose of this study was to report the prevalence of cardiovascular risk for adolescents enrolled in the program. A secondary analysis was conducted using data collected by the NSHHP staff to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in grade nine students for the school year 2006. Specific risk factors studied were smoking, body mass index, total cholesterol level and blood pressure. A total of 3,639 students from 30 schools participated. Almost 14% of students had at least one cardiovascular risk factor. Body mass index was found to be the highest risk factor (13.7%) and total random cholesterol level (5%) was found to be the lowest risk factor in this sample. There were differences in prevalence rates between male and female students for all risk factors except elevated blood pressure. Five per cent of the students were referred to a family physician for follow-up, mostly for high cholesterol readings. The findings suggest that adolescents do have cardiovascular risk factors and prevention could be targeted to this population. These risk factors were already established by the time the students reached adolescence. The findings support conducting early prevention with younger children and adolescents.

  5. Capsaicinoids Modulating Cardiometabolic Syndrome Risk Factors: Current Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaya Juturu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Capsaicinoids are bioactive nutrients present within red hot peppers reported to cut ad libitum food intake, to increase energy expenditure (thermogenesis and lipolysis, and to result in weight loss over time. In addition it has shown more benefits such as improvement in reducing oxidative stress and inflammation, improving vascular health, improving endothelial function, lowering blood pressure, reducing endothelial cytokines, cholesterol lowering effects, reducing blood glucose, improving insulin sensitivity, and reducing inflammatory risk factors. All these beneficial effects together help to modulate cardiometabolic syndrome risk factors. The early identification of cardiometabolic risk factors can help try to prevent obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease.

  6. Risk Factors for Wound Complications Following Abdominoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir K. Jabaiti

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem Statement: Abdominoplasty has become an increasingly popular procedure. Risk factors affecting wound complications of abdominoplasty are not adequately defined in literature. Identification of these risk factors is crucial for better patient’s selection and counseling. The objectives of this study were to determine wound complication rate following abdominoplasty and to examine the relationship of a set of possible risk factors with the incidence of complications. Approach: We studied 116 patients (107 women and 9 men who underwent abdominoplasty at Jordan University Hospital, between June 1997 and June 2007. Data were collected from patients’ medical records and analyzed to determine types and rates of surgical wound complications. Fourteen possible risk factors were investigated using logistic regression analysis to evaluate their relationship with the occurrence of wound complications. Risk factors examined were: age, sex, body mass index, parity number, smoking history, history of diabetes mellitus, previous gastroplasty for morbid obesity, previous abdominal surgical scars, type of abdominoplasty, plication of recti, hernia repair, operative time and operative blood loss. Results: A total of 29 patients (two males and 27 females (25% had wound complications. The most common complication was seroma. It was encountered in 15 cases (12.9%. Six patients (5.2% had wound infection. Partial skin necrosis was encountered in four cases (3.4 %. Two patients (1.7% developed wound dehiscence and two patients (1.7% had hematoma. The only factors significantly increased the complication rate were: increased body mass index (p = 0.002 and history of smoking (p = 0.004. Conclusions and Recommendations: This study confirms the adverse effect of overweight and cigarette smoking on the incidence of wound complication rate following abdominoplasty. We recommend that overweight patients and smokers undergoing abdominoplasty should be adequately

  7. Blood coagulation and the risk of atherothrombosis: a complex relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van der Voort Danielle

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The principles of Virchov's triad appear to be operational in atherothrombosis or arterial thrombosis: local flow changes and particularly vacular wall damage are the main pathophysiological elements. Furthermore, alterations in arterial blood composition are also involved although the specific role and importance of blood coagulation is an ongoing matter of debate. In this review we provide support for the hypothesis that activated blood coagulation is an essential determinant of the risk of atherothrombotic complications. We distinguish two phases in atherosclerosis: In the first phase, atherosclerosis develops under influence of "classical" risk factors, i.e. both genetic and acquired forces. While fibrinogen/fibrin molecules participate in early plaque lesions, increased activity of systemic coagulation is of no major influence on the risk of arterial thrombosis, except in rare cases where a number of specific procoagulant forces collide. Despite the presence of tissue factorfactor VII complex it is unlikely that all fibrin in the atherosclerotic plaque is the direct result from local clotting activity. The dominant effect of coagulation in this phase is anticoagulant, i.e. thrombin enhances protein C activation through its binding to endothelial thrombomodulin. The second phase is characterized by advancing atherosclerosis, with greater impact of inflammation as indicated by an elevated level of plasma C-reactive protein, the result of increased production influenced by interleukin-6. Inflammation overwhelms protective anticoagulant forces, which in itself may have become less efficient due to down regulation of thrombomodulin and endothelial cell protein C receptor (EPCR expression. In this phase, the inflammatory drive leads to recurrent induction of tissue factor and assembly of catalytic complexes on aggregated cells and on microparticles, maintaining a certain level of thrombin production and fibrin formation. In advanced

  8. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Sep ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  9. 空腹血糖受损人群高血压伴随状况及危险因素分析%Analysis on the high blood pressure and its risk factors in impaired fasting glucose population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小云; 王宁; 严利君; 谢自敬; 蒋升

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨IFG人群高血压(HP)伴随状况及相关危险因素. 方法 对3828名40岁以上汉族居民进行横断面调查,分析筛查出的IFG者血压异常状况及相关危险因素. 结果 在该人群中,HP的患病率为32.03%,男性(35.42%)高于女性(29.84%)(P<0.05);高血压前期(PHP)患病率为47.55%,男性(52.50%)高于女性(44.35%)(P<0.05).Logistic回归分析显示,IFG人群血压升高的危险因素为HP家族史、WC、TC升高和HDL-C降低. 结论 IFG阶段HP和PHP总患病率为79.58%,其危险因素主要是向心性肥胖和血脂代谢紊乱.%Objective To discuss the high blood pressure and its risk factors in impaired fasting glucose population. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted on 3828 residents above 40 years old to analyze their high blood pressure and its risk factors in impaired fasting glucose population. Results In impaired fasting glucose population, the incidence of hypertension was 32.03%, higher in male (35. 42%) than in female (29. 84%) (P<0. 05). The incidence of pre-hypertension was 47. 55%, higher in male (52. 50%) than in female (44. 35%) (P<0. 05). Logistic regression analysis revealed that the family history of hypertension, WC, increase of TC, and decrease of HDL-C are the risk factors for hypertension in this very population. Conclusion The total incidence of hypertension and pre-hypertension in impaired fasting glucose population was 79. 58%, and its main risk factors are central obesity and lipid metabolic disorder.

  10. The particular interactions of the traditional cardiovascular risk factors with different circulating specific leukocyte subtype counts in blood: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kocaman, Sinan Altan; Sahinarslan, Asife; Kunak, Tolga; Balcioğlu, Serhat; Cetin, Mustafa; Cemri, Mustafa; Timurkaynak, Timur; Boyaci, Bülent; Cengel, Atiye

    2011-11-01

    The pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is multifactorial, however the impact of inflammatory cells in this process is well known. Different traditional cardiovascular risk factors (CVRFs) may have specifically different effects on leukocyte subtype. Thus, these special interactions may induce different vascular involvement forms due to the altered endothelial damage and vascular repair mechanisms. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether there is any specific relationship between the leukocyte subtypes and the traditional CVRFs and to evaluate the independency of possible relationships. The study had a cross-sectional observational design. The study population consisted of the patients who underwent coronary angiography with a suspicion of coronary artery disease (CAD) at our institution in an outpatient manner. We enrolled 677 consecutive eligible patients with CAD or normal coronary arteries (NCA) and investigated the associations of traditional CVRFs, demographic properties and biochemical parameters including fasting plasma glucose (FPG), creatinine, serum uric acid level (SUA) and lipids with total circulating inflammatory cell (WBC, leukocytes) and subtype counts including neutrophils (N), lymphocytes (L) and monocytes (M). As a dependent variable, total leukocyte count and subtypes, and neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio (N/L ratio) which has been found to being related with increased vascular risk and events were investigated in the groups determined by the presence or absence of CVRFs and CAD by the univariate analyses and then multiple linear regression analyses. When we performed multiple linear regression analyses to determine the independent associations of inflammatory cell subtypes, we have found that FPG had an independent incremental association with WBC (β±SE:4.2±1.4, p=0.004) and N (β±SE:4.2±1.2, p=0.001). Current smoking had an independent incremental association with WBC and all cell subtypes (for WBC, N, L, and M: β±SE: 748±161

  11. 血液病患者合并真菌感染45例危险因素分析%ANALYSIS ON RISK FACTORS OF FUNGAL INFECTION IN 45 CASES WITH BLOOD DISEASES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑玉荣

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究分析血液病患者发生真菌感染的危险因素,提高对真菌感染的认识.[方法]对收治的45例血液病患者化疗后发生真菌感染的诊治资料进行回顾性分析,主要调查其临床特征、化疗情况、抗生素、抗真菌药物、免疫抑制剂和激素药物的使用等情况,并记录病原菌培养结果、治疗方案、感染部位、真菌学疗效等.[结果]根据细菌培养和药敏试验结果,所有病例均确诊为合并真菌感染,确诊后均进行抗真菌治疗.分析发现接受化疗、抗生素治疗、免疫抑制剂治疗均是血液病患者发生真菌感染的危险因素.[结论]血液病患者面临着真菌感染的多种危险因素,具有病原体复杂和感染部位多等特点.%[Objective] To analyze risk factors of fungal infection in 45 cases with blood diseases, so as to improve the understanding of fungal infection. [Methods] 45 patients with fungal infection after chemotherapy were retrospectively analyzed in the terms of clinical characteristics, chemotherapy, antihiotics, antifungal agents, immunosuppressive agents and hormonal drug use. etc., and the results of pathogen culture, treatment programs, the site of infection, mycological efficacy and so on were recorded. [Resuits] According to the results of bacterial culture and sensitivity test, all cases were diagnosed as fungal infections and had the anti-fungal treatment. Analysis found that chemotherapy, antibiotic therapy, immunosuppressive therapy were risk factors of fungal infection in blood disease patients. [Conclusion] Patients with blood diseases face multiple risk factors of fungal infection. Pathogens and infection sites are more complex than other infections.

  12. Risk factors for Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppedè, Fabio

    2016-12-01

    Down syndrome (DS) originates, in most of the cases (95 %), from a full trisomy of chromosome 21. The remaining cases are due to either mosaicism for chromosome 21 or the inheritance of a structural rearrangement leading to partial trisomy of the majority of its content. Full trisomy 21 and mosaicism are not inherited, but originate from errors in cell divisions during the development of the egg, sperm or embryo. In addition, full trisomy for chromosome 21 should be further divided into cases of maternal origin, the majority, and cases of paternal origin, less than 10 %. Among cases of maternal origin, a further stratification should be performed into errors that have occurred or originated during the first meiotic division in the maternal grandmother's body and errors that occurred later in life during the second maternal meiotic division. This complex scenario suggests that our understanding of the risk factors for trisomy 21 should take into account the above stratification as it reflects different individuals and generations in which the first error has occurred. Unfortunately, most of the available literature is focused on maternal risk factors, and the only certain risk factors for the birth of a child with DS are advanced maternal age at conception and recombination errors, even though the molecular mechanisms leading to chromosome 21 nondisjunction are still a matter of debate. This article critically reviews the hypotheses and the risk factors which have been suggested to contribute to the birth of a child with DS, including folate metabolism, dietary, lifestyle, environmental, occupational, genetic and epigenetic factors, with focus on maternal and paternal risk factors, and taking into account the possible contribution of the maternal grandmother and that of the developing trisomic embryo, in a complex scenario depicting the birth of a child with DS as the result of complex gene-environment interactions and selection processes involving different

  13. Knowledge of risk factors for diabetes or cardiovascular disease (CVD) is poor among individuals with risk factors for CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilkenny, Monique F; Dunstan, Libby; Busingye, Doreen; Purvis, Tara; Reyneke, Megan; Orgill, Mary; Cadilhac, Dominique A

    2017-01-01

    There is limited evidence on whether having pre-existing cardiovascular disease (CVD) or risk factors for CVD such as diabetes, ensures greater knowledge of risk factors important for motivating preventative behaviours. Our objective was to compare knowledge among the Australian public participating in a health check program and their risk status. Data from the Stroke Foundation 'Know your numbers' program were used. Staff in community pharmacies provided opportunistic health checks (measurement of blood pressure and diabetes risk assessment) among their customers. Participants were categorised: 1) CVD ± risk of CVD: history of stroke, heart disease or kidney disease, and may have risk factors; 2) risk of CVD only: reported having high blood pressure, high cholesterol, diabetes or atrial fibrillation; and 3) CVD risk free (no CVD or risk of CVD). Multivariable logistic regression analyses were performed including adjustment for age and sex. Among 4,647 participants, 12% had CVD (55% male, 85% aged 55+ years), 47% were at risk of CVD (40% male, 72% 55+ years) and 41% were CVD risk free (33% male, 27% 55+ years). Participants with CVD (OR: 0.66; 95% CI: 0.55, 0.80) or risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.65; 95% CI: 0.57, 0.73) had poorer knowledge of the risk factors for diabetes/CVD compared to those who were CVD risk free. After adjustment, only participants with risk factors for CVD (OR: 0.80; 95% CI: 0.69, 0.93) had poorer knowledge. Older participants (55+ years) and men had poorer knowledge of diabetes/CVD risk factors and complications of diabetes. Participants with poorer knowledge of risk factors were older, more often male or were at risk of developing CVD compared with those who were CVD risk free. Health education in these high risk groups should be a priority, as diabetes and CVD are increasing in prevalence throughout the world.

  14. Parkinson's disease: evidence for environmental risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kieburtz, Karl; Wunderle, Kathryn B

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) has no known cause. Although recent research has focused particularly on genetic causes of PD, environmental causes also play a role in developing the disease. This article reviews environmental factors that may increase the risk of PD, as well as the evidence behind those factors. Enough evidence exists to suggest that age has a causal relationship to PD. Significant evidence exists that gender, tobacco use, and caffeine consumption are also associated with the development of PD. Other environmental factors (pesticide exposure, occupation, blood urate levels, NSAID use, brain injury, and exercise) have limited or conflicting evidence of a relationship to PD. Future research must not neglect the impact of these environmental factors on the development of PD, especially with respect to potential gene-environment interactions.

  15. Study on the screening of ALT and their risk factors among voluntary blood donors in zhuzhou area%株洲地区献血者中ALT的筛查及危险因素研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢艳; 熊志高; 曾艳清; 杨小罗

    2016-01-01

    Objective Investigate positive rate of infectious markers in the blood and related risk factors among voluntary blood donors in zhuzhou from 2012 to 2015, to understand the blood donation population in the region when transmitted via blood transfusion infection ALT the spread of the situation, for the prevention and control strategy, improve the blood transfusion of blood donation without compensation ALT, adjust the regional security to provide the reference data. Methods Retrospective analyze detection results of infectious markers among voluntary blood donors in zhuzhou from 2012 to 2015,each blood stations blood samples using multiariable logistic regression analysis andχ2 test for 1580 doses of serum hepatitis b surface antigen ALT blood test results for statistical processing. Results Among the voluntary blood donors from 2012 to 2015,the fraction is 1.21%, and a downward trend year by year, the difference was statistically significant. Multiariable logistic regression analysis and related risk factors for X2 test, according to the results of ALT associated with blood donor gender, age, occupation, level of education, area, 40 to 49 years old group and≧50 years old age group were significantly higher than other age groups, the positive rate of female than for male, and decreased with the increase of blood donors by education level;the positive rate of Sol-dier and student lower than other professionals;in zhuzhou, remote, Chaling County, LiLing County, Yanling County, Zhuzhou county, and other areas. The positive rate of chaling county and youxian is markedly lower than the other areas, and the positive rate was higher than that of male. Overall, from 2012 to 2015 donors blood ALT annual fraction defective blood test results into a downward trend year by year. Conclusion 0range of popular, donors may be related to the region of gender, age and level of education and the region health level and other factors.%目的:调查2012~2015年株洲地区献血

  16. Seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marti-Soler, Helena; Gubelmann, Cédric; Aeschbacher, Stefanie

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the seasonality of cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) in a large set of population-based studies. METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 24 population-based studies from 15 countries, with a total sample size of 237 979 subjects. CVRFs included Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist cir...

  17. Risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hassan, Basim Kamil; Sahlström, Arne; Dessau, Ram Benny Christian

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: Renal injury and dysfunction are serious complications after major surgery, which may lead to increased morbidity and mortality. The objective of our study was to identify the possible risk factors for renal dysfunction after total hip joint replacement surgery......, hypertension, general anesthesia, high ASA scores, low intra-operative systolic BP, and prophylactic dicloxacillin as significant risk factors. Low baseline systolic BP, low baseline diastolic blood pressure, and hip fracture diagnosis were independent risk factors for postoperative increase in serum...... creatinine. Smoking, diabetes mellitus, high BMI, gender, and duration of surgery were not identified as significant risk factors....

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with psoriasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter; Thyssen, Jacob P; Zachariae, Claus

    2013-01-01

    smoking status, weight, height, waist and hip circumferences, systolic and diastolic blood pressures, resting heart rate, and plasma lipids, hemoglobin A1c, fasting glucose, and insulin levels. Results Physician-diagnosed psoriasis was reported by 238 (7.1%) of 3374 participants. There were no differences......Background Epidemiological data have established an association between cardiovascular disease and psoriasis. Only one general population study has so far compared prevalences of cardiovascular risk factors among subjects with psoriasis and control subjects. We aimed to determine the prevalence...... of cardiovascular risk factors in subjects with and without psoriasis in the general population. Methods During 2006-2008, a cross-sectional study was performed in the general population in Copenhagen, Denmark. A total of 3471 subjects participated in a general health examination that included assessment of current...

  19. [Hyperlipidemias as a coronary risk factor in the newborn].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, A; De Tejada, A L; Espinoza, M; Karchmer, S

    1976-01-01

    This article reviews the risk factors of the coronariopathy in the newborn. The authors state that the early diagnosis of the risk factors is an important step in the prevention of ateromatous plaques. Some people are now in the investigation of the normal levels of cholesterol and triglicerides in the blood of the umbilical cord. This values seems similar in different places all over the world and have served to establish the possible interrelation between the newborn hiperlipidemia and the coronary risk.

  20. CEREBRAL PALSY : ANTENATAL RISK FACTORS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa Rao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Cerebral palsy (CP is a group of permanent movement disorders that appear in early childhood. Cerebral palsy is caused by abnormal development or damage to the parts of the brain that control movement, balance, and posture. Most often the problems occur during pregnancy; however, they may also occur during childbirth, or shortly after birth. Often the cause is unknown. AIM: To study the different antenatal maternal risk factors associated with cerebral palsy in the study group. MATERIA LS AND METHODS: Retrospective study was done to assess possible associated antenatal risk factors for cerebral palsy. Mothers of 100 cerebral palsy children were selected who are treated in Rani Chandramani Devi Hospital, a Government hospital in Visakhapa tn am, Andhra Pradesh State, India , from 2012 to 2014 and 100 controls, mothers of normal children were studied. Detailed antenatal history was obtained from the mothers of the children in both affected and control group. RESULTS: From the data, we conclude that the association of maternal anaemia with cerebral palsy is 7.3 times higher; association of maternal hypertension with cerebral palsy is 6.6 time higher, association with Pre - eclampsia is 6 times higher; association with Eclampsia is 8.6 times higher ; with antepartum haemorrhage, the association is 8.6 times higher and association of multiple pregnancy with cerebral palsy is 4.8 times higher than with controls. CONCLUSION: From this study of the role of antenatal risk factors, in the occurrence of cer ebral palsy in children it is concluded that the most common risk factor associated with cerebral palsy is the maternal anaemia and the other important risk factors associated being hypertension, pre eclampsia, eclampsia, antepartum haemorrhage and multipl e births.

  1. 血液净化患者深静脉导管感染的危险因素研究%Study on Risk Factors of Deep- venous Catheter Infection in Patients Undergoing Blood Purification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    费沛; 肖厚勤; 罗昌霞; 郑璇

    2012-01-01

    目的 分析血液净化患者深静脉导管感染的危险因素,为临床实施有效的预防措施提供参考信息.方法 选择2010年1月- 2011年10月湖北医药学院附属太和医院收治的血液净化患者142例,观察患者是否发生深静脉导管感染,并分析患者性别、年龄、置管部位、置管时间、导管腔数、基础疾病种类是否为感染发生的危险因素.结果 本组142例血液净化患者发生深静脉导管感染17例,发生率为12.0%,其发生不受患者的性别、年龄影响(P>0.05),受患者的置管部位、置管时间、导管腔数、基础疾病种类的影响(P<0.05).结论 血液净化患者的置管部位、置管时间、导管腔数、基础疾病种类均为发生深静脉导管感染的危险因素,应针对以上各项采取有效的预防措施以提高患者的治疗效果.%Objective To analyze the risk factors for deep - venous catheter infection in patients undergoing blood purification, and to provide the reference for applying the preventive measures in clinical practice. Methods One hundred and forty - two patients undergoing blood purification hospitalized in Taihe Hospital Affiliated to Hubei Medical College from January 2010 to October 2011 were enrolled in the study. The occurence of deep - venous catheter infection was observed in the patients, and the gender, age, site of catheter, catheter- retaining time, the number of catheter cavity and the kinds of underlying diseases of the patients were analyzed to identify the risk factors for the infection. Results Among 142 patients undergoing blood purification, 17 suffered with deep-venous catheter infection, and the incidence rate was 12.0%. Its occurrence was unrelated to the patients' gender and age (P>0.05), but related to the site of catheter, catheter-retaining time, the number of catheter cavity and the kinds of underlying diseases of the patients (P<0.05). Conclusions Site of catheter, catheter-retaining time, the

  2. Risk and protective factors for inpatient aggression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries Robbé , M. de; Vogel, V. de; Wever, E.C.; Douglas, K.S.; Nijman, H.L.I.

    2016-01-01

    Dynamic risk and protective factors serve to assess the violence risk level of (forensic) psychiatric patients and offer guidance to clinical interventions. Risk assessment scores on Historical Clinical Risk Management-20 (HCR-20) risk factors and Structured Assessment of Protective Factors for viol

  3. Genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure increases risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular diseases in Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiangfeng; Huang, Jianfeng; Wang, Laiyuan; Chen, Shufeng; Yang, Xueli; Li, Jianxin; Cao, Jie; Chen, Jichun; Li, Ying; Zhao, Liancheng; Li, Hongfan; Liu, Fangcao; Huang, Chen; Shen, Chong; Shen, Jinjin; Yu, Ling; Xu, Lihua; Mu, Jianjun; Wu, Xianping; Ji, Xu; Guo, Dongshuang; Zhou, Zhengyuan; Yang, Zili; Wang, Renping; Yang, Jun; Yan, Weili; Gu, Dongfeng

    2015-10-01

    Although multiple genetic markers associated with blood pressure have been identified by genome-wide association studies, their aggregate effect on risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease is uncertain, particularly among East Asian who may have different genetic and environmental exposures from Europeans. We aimed to examine the association between genetic predisposition to higher blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease in 26 262 individuals in 2 Chinese population-based prospective cohorts. A genetic risk score was calculated based on 22 established variants for blood pressure in East Asian. We found the genetic risk score was significantly and independently associated with linear increases in blood pressure and risk of incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease (P range from 4.57×10(-3) to 3.10×10(-6)). In analyses adjusted for traditional risk factors including blood pressure, individuals carrying most blood pressure-related risk alleles (top quintile of genetic score distribution) had 40% (95% confidence interval, 18-66) and 26% (6-45) increased risk for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease, respectively, when compared with individuals in the bottom quintile. The genetic risk score also significantly improved discrimination for incident hypertension and cardiovascular disease and led to modest improvements in risk reclassification for cardiovascular disease (all the Phypertension and cardiovascular disease and provides modest incremental information to cardiovascular disease risk prediction. The potential clinical use of this panel of blood pressure-associated polymorphisms remains to be determined.

  4. Analysis of the risk factors for Elderly patients with high blood pressure and its countermeasures%老年高血压患者危险因素分析及干预对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄小梅

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨影响老年高血压患者的危险因素以及干预的对策.方法 共纳入85例老年高血压患者,同时从门诊随机抽取140例无高血压病史的老年人群作为对照组.详细记录所以受试者的基本信息、高血压患病情况及相关影响因素.应用非条件Logistic回归分析进行多因素分析.结果 单因素分析结果表明:两组间男性、冠心病病史、糖尿病史、吸烟史、入院首次SBP、家族高血压病史、饮酒史、LDL-C及HDL-C比较差异有统计学意义;其中冠心病病史、糖尿病史、吸烟史、入院首次SBP、家族高血压病史、饮酒史、LDL与老年高血压发生呈正相关;HDL-C与老年高血压的发生呈负相关(P<0.05).进一步行多因素分析结果表明:糖尿病史、吸烟史、高血压家族史是老年高血压病患者发生的独立危险因素;而HDL-C是老年高血压病患者发生的保护因素.结论 糖尿病史、吸烟史、高血压家族史是老年高血压病患者发生的独立危险因素;而HDL-C是老年高血压病患者发生的保护因素,应该大力提倡全民健身,同时戒烟限酒,对有上述危险因素的老年人群进行必要的干预,可明显降低高血压的发生率.%OBJECTIVE To study the effect of elderly patients with high blood pressure risk factors and intervention measures. METHODS A total of 85 elderly patients with high blood pressure were collected, and 140 cases with no history of hypertension were randomly selected from outpatient service and regarded as control group. We recorded the basic information of the subjects, high blood pressure and illness related factors. Unconditional Logistic regression analysis was conducted. RESULTS Single factor analysis results showed that: between the two groups, coronary heart disease, diabetes men history history, smoking history, admission, family history of hypertension first SBP, drinking histories, LDL-C and HDL-C had significant differences

  5. Risk factors of placental abruption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooria Seyedhosseini Ghaheh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case - control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson ′ s Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR. Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1% was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83 and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41 were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01. Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency.

  6. Risk factors of placental abruption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaheh, Hooria Seyedhosseini; Feizi, Awat; Mousavi, Maryam; Sohrabi, Davood; Mesghari, Leila; Hosseini, Zahra

    2013-01-01

    Background: Placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during pregnancy. Multiple factors are known to be associated with increase of risk of placental abruption such as alcohol, cocaine use and cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to identify risk factors for placental abruption in an Iranian women population. Materials and Methods: In a retrospective case – control study birth records included 78 cases with placental abruption and 780 randomly selected controls were investigated. Statistical analysis for comparing the studied risk factors between groups was performed using Pearson's Chi-square test along with presenting relevant odds ratio (OR). Results: From 7301 deliveries included in the study, 78 (1%) was complicated placental abruption. Women aged 35 or more likely for experiencing (OR = 3.650, 95% confidence interval [CL] = 1.57-6.83) and those who had a previous cesarean section (OR = 2.65, 95% CL = 3.91- 33.41) were in higher risk for placental abruption ([50 cases] 64% vs. [28 cases] 36% P < 0.01). Conclusion: The results indicate that among the placental abruption is one of the most common causes of bleeding during the pregnancy and one of the major obstetrical emergency. PMID:24174950

  7. Risk factors for congenital hydrocephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Munch, Tina Noergaard; Rasmussen, Marie-Louise Hee; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2014-01-01

    . Furthermore, to identify the risk factors unique for isolated CHC as compared to syndromic CHC. METHODS: We established a cohort of all children born in Denmark between 1978 and 2008. Information on CHC and maternal medical diseases were obtained from the National Patient Discharge Register, maternal intake......-born children, we observed 1193 cases of isolated CHC (0.062/1000) born children. First-borns had an increased risk of isolated CHC compared to later-borns (1.32 95% CI 1.17 to 1.49) (0.72/1000 born children). First trimester exposure to maternal use of antidepressants was associated with a significantly...... increased risk of isolated CHC compared to unexposed children (RR 2.52, 95% CI 1.47 to 4.29) (1.5/1000 born children). Risk factors also found for syndromic CHC were: Male gender, multiples and maternal diabetes. CONCLUSIONS: The higher risk for isolated CHC in first-born children as well as behavioural...

  8. Resistant hypertension: epidemiology and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. E. Deneka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the possibilities of contemporary pharmacotherapy, more than 80% of hypertensive patients do not achieve target blood pressure levels. Besides the obvious reasons – poor adherence of patients to treatment and non-rational therapy, there are other objective risk factors of resistance. Three main modifiable causes of resistant hypertension, that are often underestimated, are considered: obesity, obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and primary hyperaldosteronism. Understanding these mechanisms of resistance and their diagnostic criteria can improve the results of resistant hypertension treatment.

  9. Women's Heart Disease: Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Women's Heart Disease Heart Disease Risk Factors Past Issues / Winter 2014 Table of ... or habits may raise your risk for coronary heart disease (CHD). These conditions are known as risk factors. ...

  10. Risk factors for a first and recurrent venous thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Flinterman, Linda Elisabeth

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to identify new risk factors for first and recurrent venous thrombosis of both the upper and lower extremity, and assess the incidence of recurrence and mortality after a first venous thrombosis. An overview was provided of the current literature on risk factors and treatment for a first venous thrombosis of the upper extremity (chapter 2). We investigated the association between levels of coagulation factors, blood group and a first venous thrombosis of the upper e...

  11. Cardiovascular risk factors in men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyllenborg, J; Rasmussen, S L; Borch-Johnsen, Knut

    2001-01-01

    Males have higher risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than premenopausal females. Gonadal steroids are probably involved in the gender difference in CVD, but previous results have been conflicting. We investigated the associations between CVD risk factors and sex hormones in a cross...... steroids and lipids with and without SHBG adjustment. Atherogenic lipid profile in males is associated with low SHBG, low T levels, and a high FAI. Males with high E2 levels may have a less atherogenic lipid profile and lower LVM. SHBG is a key hormone in the association between sex hormones and plasma...

  12. risk-factor profile for chronic lifestyle diseases in three rural Free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    risk-factor profile for chronic lifestyle diseases in three rural Free State towns. ... Journal Home > Vol 52, No 1 (2010) > ... Results: Multiple risk factors for noncommunicable diseases were identified in this study population, including high blood ...

  13. General practitioners’ use of absolute risk versus individual risk factors in cardiovascular disease prevention: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Jesse; Bonner, Carissa; McKinn, Shannon; Irwig, Les; Glasziou, Paul ,; Doust, Jenny; Teixeira-Pinto, Armando; Hayen, Andrew; Turner, Robin; McCaffery, Kirsten

    2014-01-01

    Objective To understand general practitioners’ (GPs) use of individual risk factors (blood pressure and cholesterol levels) versus absolute risk in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management decision-making. Design Randomised experiment. Absolute risk, systolic blood pressure (SBP), cholesterol ratio (total cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein (TC/HDL)) and age were systematically varied in hypothetical cases. High absolute risk was defined as 5-year risk of a cardiovascular event >15%, hig...

  14. 妊娠期糖尿病危险因素及血糖干预对妊娠结局的影响分析%Risk Factors of Gestational Diabetes Mellitus and Pregnancy Outcome Affected by Blood Sugar Intervention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高文香; 汪能素; 康克蓉

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the risk factors of gestational diabetes mel itus (GDM), and study the ef ect of blood sugar intervention af ecting pregnancy outcome. Methods With case-control study method, 140cases of GDM patients as case group and 140 cases without this disease as control group were col ected. GDM cases were divided into good blood sugar control group (83 cases) and not good control group (57 cases) according to blood sugar control condition. The risk factors of GDM were analyzed and pregnancy outcome and complications were compared between good and not good control groups. Results Multiple factors Logistic Regression analysis result showed that overweight or obesity (OR=3.019), gestational age (OR=1.568), hyperhemoglobinemia (OR=1.519), menstrual cycle disorder (OR=2. 018), adverse pregnancy history (OR=2.815), history of diabetes mel itus (OR=4.948). The complications incidence rates of pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome, hydramnios, ketoacidosis, postpartum hemorrhage, uterine-incision delivery, premature delivery, large for date infant, neonatal asphyxia, hypoglycemia of newborn and hyperbilirubinemia in not good control group were much higher than not good control group ( <0.05). Conclusion We should think highly of the risk factors of GDM, early discovering, early diagnosing and early treating GDM, especial y control ing blood sugar level, thus cut down the ef ect of GDM to pregnancy outcome.%目的:探讨妊娠期糖尿病(GDM)发病的危险因素及血糖控制对母婴妊娠结局的影响。方法收集确诊的140例GDM患者作为病例组和140例正常孕妇为对照组,根据血糖控制情况将GDM病例分为血糖控制良好组(83例)和控制不良组(57例);分析影响GDM发病的危险因素,比较血糖控制良好组和不良组母婴妊娠结局及并发症发生情况。结果多因素分析结果显示,超重或肥胖(=3.019)、妊娠年龄(=1.568)、高血红蛋白血症(=1.519)、月经周期紊乱(=2.018)

  15. Neurodevelopmental risk factors in schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lobato M.I.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors review environmental and neurodevelopmental risk factors for schizophrenic disorders, with emphasis on minor physical anomalies, particularly craniofacial anomalies and dermatoglyphic variations. The high prevalence of these anomalies among schizophrenic subjects supports the neurodevelopmental theory of the etiology of schizophrenia, since they suggest either genetically or epigenetically controlled faulty embryonic development of structures of ectodermal origin like brain and skin. This may disturb neurodevelopment that in turn may cause these subjects to be at increased risk for the development of schizophrenia and related disorders. The precise confirmation of this theory, at least in some cases, will provide further understanding of these illnesses, allowing easy and inexpensive identification of subjects at risk and providing guidelines for the development of new pharmacological interventions for early treatment and even for primary prevention of the illness.

  16. Disability as a risk factor?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøttcher, Louise; Dammeyer, Jesper

    2013-01-01

    Empirical research has established that children with disabilities are more likely to develop psychopathology than children without disabilities. But too little is known about the association between disability and psychopathology. The aim of this article is to discuss developmental...... psychopathological models that conceptualize the connection between childhood disability and psychopathology. Empirical studies of psychopathology among children with a congenital hearing impairment and children with cerebral palsy will be reviewed, representing in-depth examples of association between disability...... and psychopathology. Both a congenital hearing impairment and cerebral palsy were found to be dominating risk factors for all types of psychopathology, but no relationship was identified between degree of disability and risk of psychopathology. The higher risk cannot be explained by biological impairments alone...

  17. Childhood asthma and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ljuština-Pribić Radmila

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. This article summarizes the contribution of epidemiology to the understanding of childhood asthma. The first task in epidemiology is to determine prevalence and incidence of any disease. Prevalence. Epidemiological investigations are aimed at evaluating hypotheses about causes of disease by defining demographic characteristics of a certain population as well as by determining possible effects of environmental factors. In spite of some limitations, data obtained by epidemiological investigations have been valuable in confirming both the increasing incidence of asthma and the differences in prevalence in certain population groups. The observance of this phenomenon has led to much speculation and a lot of attempts to identify the reasons behind the rising prevalence. Risk factors. Epidemiological studies have identified risk factors for the development of childhood asthma and provided insight into natural history of disease and prognosis. Factors ranging from increased numbers of immunizations to increased air pollution have been suggested, but subsequent analysis has failed to provide the supporting evidence to implicate most of these possibilities. The concept known as the hygiene hypothesis has gained some support from epidemiological studies. Conclusion. The development of asthma as well as its severity are affected by numerous factors and their interactions can be explained by the heterogeneous nature of this disease.

  18. Familial risk factors in autism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brimacombe, Michael; Xue Ming; Parikh, Amisha

    2007-05-01

    Familial history risk factors in relation to autism were examined in a cohort of 164 autistic children referred to The Autism Center at New Jersey Medical School-University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey, Newark, over a 2-year period (2001-2003). Information related to familial history was obtained from each family and reviewed by a clinician. It is shown that these families carry a higher overall burden of psychiatric and developmental illnesses compared to reported national levels. These families also carry a relatively high incidence of medical disorders, independently of developmental and psychiatric disorders. This work supports the underlying presence of genetic factors in the etiology of autism.

  19. Insulin as a potential factor influencing blood pressure in amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, H G; Yalow, R S; Schweitzer, P; Schwartz, E

    1986-09-01

    War-injured, bilateral above-knee amputees are known to be at increased risk for cardiovascular mortality. To evaluate possible risk factors, we compared blood pressures and plasma glucose and insulin responses to orally administered glucose in 19 above-knee amputees from the Vietnam War (mean age, 36 +/- 1 years) with those of 12 age-matched unilateral below-elbow amputees. Body composition by densitometry and maximal oxygen consumption during arm or leg exercise were also determined. Nine of 19 leg amputees were hypertensive compared with one of 12 arm amputees. Their 3-hour average insulin responses were markedly increased (260 +/- 60 microU/ml) compared with those of normotensive leg (125 +/- 24 microU/ml) and arm amputees (101 +/- 20 microU/ml), and their mean body fat content (37.2%) also was elevated compared with that in both of these groups (23.2 and 22.6%, respectively). A unique finding was that both insulin response and body fat content were strongly and independently correlated with diastolic blood pressure (r = 0.55, p less than 0.01, and r = 0.62, p less than 0.01, respectively). We conclude that insulin may be a major factor in blood pressure regulation in the maturity-onset obesity that develops following traumatic leg amputation in young, healthy men.

  20. High-normal blood pressure and the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokubo, Yoshihiro; Kamide, Kei

    2009-08-01

    The guidelines of the Joint National Committee 7 from the USA on hypertension have unified the normal and high-normal blood pressure categories into a single entity termed ;prehypertension'. In contrast, The European Guidelines for the management of hypertension in 2007 considered ;prehypertensive' to be divided into normal and high-normal blood pressure. These patients with high-normal blood pressure or prehypertension might progress to hypertension over time. Previous studies have shown that high-normal blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Western countries and Japan. The combination of high-normal blood pressure and other cardiovascular risk factors increases the risks of CVD. Recently, metabolic syndrome has also been shown to be a risk factor for CVD. In Japan, the association between metabolic syndrome and CVD was also found to be significant. The risks for CVD incidence were similar among participants who had the same number of components, regardless of the presence of abdominal obesity. In the Japanese guidelines for the management of hypertension published in 2009, patients are considered to be in a high-risk group if they have diabetes, chronic kidney disease, 3 or more risk factors, target organ damage or CVD, even if they have only high-normal blood pressure, and appropriate antihypertensive therapy should be initiated.

  1. Environmental risk factors for autism

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Autism is a devastating childhood condition that has emerged as an increasing social concern just as it has increased in prevalence in recent decades. Autism and the broader category of autism spectrum disorders are among the increasingly seen examples in which there is a fetal basis for later disease or disorder. Environmental, genetic, and epigenetic factors all play a role in determining the risk of autism and some of these effects appear to be transgenerational. Identification of the most...

  2. RISK FACTORS FOR CHRONIC NON-COMMUNICABLE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    vegetable intake, physical inactivity and biological factors (4, 5). Studies have ... 2Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, College of Public Health and Medical Sciences, Jimma University ... fasting blood sugar level, total blood cholesterol.

  3. Alterações do nível pressórico e fatores de risco em graduandos de enfermagem Alteraciones del nível de la presión y factores de riesgo en profesionales graduandos en enfermería Risk factors and alterations in blood pressure levels in undergraduate nursing students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alba Lúcia Botura Leite de Barros

    2009-12-01

    y enfermedad cardiovascular. Conclusión: De acuerdo con los resultados, se deben cambiar hábitos y estilo de vida de modo que sean más saludables para los futuros enfermeros.Objectives: To identify risk factors and alterations in blood pressure levels in undergraduate nursing students and to examine the associations between the risk factors and blood pressure levels. Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted between November 2006 and May 2007. The sample consisted of 120 undergraduate nursing students from the Federal University of São Paulo. A specific questionnaire on risk factors for high blood pressure was used. Blood pressure measures were taken and recorded. Fisher's exact test was used to determine associations between risk factors and high blood pressure. Results: The majority of participants (92.5% had normal blood pressure levels. A few students had high (4.2% or borderline (3.3% blood pressure levels. Students had some of the risk factors for high blood pressure and cardiovascular diseases. Conclusion: There is a need to emphasize lifestyle changes among those future nurses.

  4. [Risk factors for hepatitis B virus infection among hospital staff].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, J; Llanos, A; Campos, M; Philips, I; Gotuzzco, E; Kilpatrick, M

    1989-01-01

    Viral Hepatitis is one of the leading causes of disease around the world. In Latin America is a severe public health problem. We conducted a case-control study in the Cayetano Heredia Hospital, Lima-Perú, seeking for risk factors for Hepatitis B infection. We found 0.41% of frequency of HBsAg and 8.13% of anti-HBs in the 492 persons screened. Contact with blood was confirmed as a risk factor for Hepatitis B infection; disposable needle-wash was also identified as a major risk factor. The personnel of the Sterilization Room is also in high risk for the infection. The nurse-aid personnel was also identified as a high risk group. We suggest that the needle wash is a risk factor very easy to remove, and also stopping the rotation of the auxiliary personnel could reduce the incidence of the infection in the personnel at risk.

  5. Multiple Risk Factor Clustering and Risk of Hypertension in the Mongolian Ethnic Population of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate whether the clustering of risk factors, both environmental and genetic, increases the risk of essential hypertension (EH) and the accumulation of risk factors influences the blood pressure level in normotensives. Methods On the basis of a prevalence survey, 501 subjects of Mongolian ethnicity (243hypertensives and 258 normotensives) who were not related to each other were selected to conduct a case-control study.All subjects were interviewed with questionnaires and their blood specimens were collected. Renin gene insertion/deletion (I/D) polymorphism, a new genetic marker, was genotyped with PCR and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Results Overweight, alcohol consumption, and renin gene I/D polymorphism were significant risk factors of EH (P<0.05). The odds ratios (OR) for the number of risk factors were 2.39 (95%CI: 0.98-6.74) for one risk factor, 5.03 (95%CI: 2.06-14.18) for two, and 6.09 (95%CI: 1.85-22.38) for three respectively after adjusting for age and sex. In normotensives, age- and sex-adjusted mean blood pressures increased with more accumulation of risk factors.However, there were no significant differences among the different blood pressure levels according to the number of risk factors (P>0.05). Conclusion Overweight, alcohol consumption, and renin gene I/D polymorphism are risk factors of EH in the Mongolian ethnic population of China. The accumulation of the risk factors causes a sharp increase of the risk of EH.

  6. Factor investing with risk parity portfolios

    OpenAIRE

    Pantchev, V. (Vekil)

    2017-01-01

    Abstract This thesis investigates factor investing and risk parity methods by constructing seven risk parity portfolios. We find that both single-factor portfolios and multi-factor risk parity portfolios outperform the market and our benchmarks. The methods produce higher absolute returns and better risk-adjusted returns with lower volatilities and drawdown...

  7. Risk factors for major amputation in hospitalised diabetic foot patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namgoong, Sik; Jung, Suyoung; Han, Seung-Kyu; Jeong, Seong-Ho; Dhong, Eun-Sang; Kim, Woo-Kyung

    2016-03-01

    Diabetic foot ulcers are the main cause of non-traumatic lower extremity amputation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients. Eight hundred and sixty diabetic patients were admitted to the diabetic wound centre of the Korea University Guro Hospital for foot ulcers between January 2010 and December 2013. Among them, 837 patients were successfully monitored until complete healing. Ulcers in 809 patients (96·7%) healed without major amputation and those in 28 patients (3·3%) healed with major amputation. Data of 88 potential risk factors including demographics, ulcer condition, vascularity, bioburden, neurology and serology were collected from patients in the two groups and compared. Among the 88 potential risk factors, statistically significant differences between the two groups were observed in 26 risk factors. In the univariate analysis, which was carried out for these 26 risk factors, statistically significant differences were observed in 22 risk factors. In a stepwise multiple logistic analysis, six of the 22 risk factors remained statistically significant. Multivariate-adjusted odds ratios were 11·673 for ulcers penetrating into the bone, 8·683 for dialysis, 6·740 for gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, 6·158 for hind foot ulcers, 0·641 for haemoglobin levels and 1·007 for fasting blood sugar levels. The risk factors for major amputation in diabetic foot patients were bony invasions, dialysis, GI disorders, hind foot locations, low levels of haemoglobin and elevated fasting blood sugar levels.

  8. Risk of Abnormal Red Blood Cell to Get Malarial Infection

    OpenAIRE

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2008-01-01

    Malarial infection in red blood cell disorder is an interesting topic in tropical medicine. In this work, the author proposes a new idea on the physical property of red blood cell and risk for getting malarial infection. The study on scenario of red blood cell disorders is performed. Conclusively, the author found that physical property of red blood cell is an important determinant for getting malarial infection

  9. The risk behavior factors for hepatitis B infection in blood donors%献血者感染HBV相关危险行为因素的调查研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张杰; 邓小倩; 董玉芳; 于廉; 钟利; 万里科; 何毅

    2012-01-01

    Objective To research the risk behavior factors for hepatitis B infection in blood donors. Methods 203 blood donors with positive ELISA results for HBsAg were cases,and 406 controls tested negative. A standardized questionnaire was used to collect data concerning demographic aspects and potential risk factors. Cases and controls were compared using logistic regression to calculate crude and adjusted odds ratios,and 95% confidence intervals for risk factors. Results According to the multiple condition Logistic regression model,shared razors,hepatitis B family history,endoscopy history .dental treatment history and no injected hepatitis B vaccine can increased the risk of HBV infection,the OR value for these items is 4.010 2,2. 808 2,5. 815 7,1.758 3,4.044 4. Respectively,PAR for each of them is 43. 39% ,5.50% ,1.75% , 13.46% ,29.91% ,the total PAR is 66.78%. Conclusion Shared razors,hepatitis B family history,endoscopy history, dental treatment history and no injected hepatitis B vaccine are risk factors for hepatitis B infection.%目的 研究献血者感染乙肝病毒(HBV)的相关危险因素.方法 对203名单纯HBsAg阳性的献血者及406名所有血液检测项目均阴性的献血者进行对照研究,应用多因素条件Loostic回归模型分析与HBV感染有关的因素,并对危险因素的人群归因危险度(PAR)进行估计.结果 筛选出5项与感染HBV有关的因素,研究发现使用共用剃刀、乙肝家族史、内窥镜检查史、牙科治疗史、未注射乙肝疫苗可以增加乙肝感染的危险性,其危险度(OR)分别是:4.010 2、2.808 2、5.815 7、1.758 3、4.044 4,人群归因危险度分别是:43.39%,5.50%,1.75%,13.46%,29.91%.5项危险因素总的人群归因危险度为66.78%.结论 使用共用剃刀、乙肝家族史、内窥镜检查史、牙科治疗史、未注射乙肝疫苗是HBV感染的危险因素.

  10. Risk factors for intensive care delirium: A systematic review.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rompaey, B. van; Schuurmans, M.J.; Shortridge-Baggett, L.M.; Truijen, S.; Bossaert, L.

    2007-01-01

    Delirium has been a recognised syndrome in the intensive care unit for some years. This systematic review reports risk factors for delirium studied in the intensive care unit. Four predisposing and 21 precipitating factors, including nine laboratory blood values and seven items relating to the use o

  11. Legionella pneumophila Seropositivity-Associated Factors in Latvian Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Valciņa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Continuous environmental exposure of humans to Legionella may induce immune responses and generation of antibodies. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroprevalence of Legionella pneumophila serogroups (SG 1–6 in the general healthy population and identify the associated host-related and environmental risk factors. L. pneumophila SG 1–6 seroprevalence among a total of 2007 blood samples collected from healthy donors was 4.8%. Seroprevalence was higher in women (5.9% than men (3.3% and in areas with a larger number of inhabitants, ranging from 3.5% in rural regions to 6.8% in the capital, Riga. Blood samples from inhabitants of apartment buildings tested positive for L. pneumophila in more cases (5.8% compared to those from inhabitants of single-family homes (2.7%. Residents of buildings with a municipal hot water supply system were more likely to be seropositive for L. pneumophila (OR = 3.16, 95% CI 1.26–7.91. Previous episodes of fever were additionally identified as a risk factor (OR = 2.42, 95% CI 1.43–4.1. In conclusion, centralized hot water supply, female gender and previous episodes of fever were determined as the main factors associated with L. pneumophila seropositivity in our study population.

  12. Possibility of enhanced risk of retinal neovascularization in repeated blood donors: blood donation and retinal alteration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rastmanesh R

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Reza RastmaneshDepartment of Clinical Nutrition and Dietetics, Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, National Nutrition and Food Technology Research Institute, Tehran, IranAbstract: Repeated blood donors manifest clinical, subclinical, and biochemical signs of iron deficiency anemia, have significantly higher erythropoietin and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF concentrations, and decreased tissue oxygen saturation, oxygenated tissue hemoglobin, and regional cerebral oxygen saturation. Erythropoietin and VEGF are potent retinal angiogenic factors which may initiate and promote the retinal angiogenesis process independently or simultaneously. Increases in circulating levels of erythropoietin and VEGF are proportionate to the levels of hematocrit, hypoxemia, and tissue hypoxia. It is suggested that higher erythropoietin production following iron deficiency anemia-induced chronic hypoxemia/hypoxia may, hypothetically, enhance the risk of retinal angiogenesis and/or neovascularization, possibly by inducing hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha, which consequently upregulates genes stimulating angiogenesis, resulting in formation of a new vasculature, possibly by modulation of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 signaling in the retina. Implications of this hypothesis cover erythropoietin doping, chronic hypoxia, and hypoxemic situations, such as angiogenesis-related cardiac and pulmonary diseases.Keywords: repeated blood donation, erythropoietin, retinal neovascularization, vascular endothelial growth factor, hypoxia

  13. Disclosure Risk from Factor Scores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drechsler Jörg

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Remote access can be a powerful tool for providing data access for external researchers. Since the microdata never leave the secure environment of the data-providing agency, alterations of the microdata can be kept to a minimum. Nevertheless, remote access is not free from risk. Many statistical analyses that do not seem to provide disclosive information at first sight can be used by sophisticated intruders to reveal sensitive information. For this reason the list of allowed queries is usually restricted in a remote setting. However, it is not always easy to identify problematic queries. We therefore strongly support the argument that has been made by other authors: that all queries should be monitored carefully and that any microlevel information should always be withheld. As an illustrative example, we use factor score analysis, for which the output of interest - the factor loading of the variables - seems to be unproblematic. However, as we show in the article, the individual factor scores that are usually returned as part of the output can be used to reveal sensitive information. Our empirical evaluations based on a German establishment survey emphasize that this risk is far from a purely theoretical problem.

  14. The risk for hepatitis C infection in blood donors in Cluj County, Romania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hâţu, G; Brumboiu, M I; Czernichow, P; Bocşan, I S

    2014-05-01

    Blood products safety is based on different criteria including the selection of blood donors. Blood donors referred to Cluj County (Romania) Blood Transfusion Centre in January-March 2012 completed a self-administered questionnaire and were examined by a physician. Data collected from first-time and repeat donors were compared for possible risk factors for hepatitis C infection. In total, 1100 donors were selected. In first-time donors, most frequent factors were age<26 years, female gender and history of health care procedures. Behavioural risk factors (e.g. drug use, sexual promiscuity) may not be properly filtered out in blood donors, suggesting the necessity of improving the health screening process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  15. A Multivariate Analysis of Risk Factors for Diabetic Nephropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Shannon

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses multivariate methods on actual data from 267 patients with noninsulin- dependent (Type 2 diabetes mellitus in order to see how the various risk factors can affect the progression of diabetic nephropathy. The approach succeeds in identifying preliminary risk factors such as smoking for males, although the females had higher fasting blood glucose at diagnosis. Not surprisingly, hypertension is common among patients of both sexes and it has an association with proteinuria in female patients in the sample.

  16. Risk Factors in Derivatives Markets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimonda Martinkutė-Kaulienė

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the article is to analyse and present the classification of risks actual to derivative securities. The analysis is based on classical and modern literature findings and analysis of newest statistical data. The analysis led to the conclusion, that the main risks typical for derivatives contracts and their traders are market risk, liquidity risk, credit and counterparty risk, legal risk and transactions risk. Pricing risk and systemic risk is also quite important. The analysis showed that market risk is the most important kind of risk that in many situations influences the level of remaining risks.

  17. Coronary heart disease risk factors in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Jennifer; Fernandez, Maria Luz; Lofgren, Ingrid E

    2014-03-01

    More than one-half of young adults aged 18-24 y have at least 1 coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factor and nearly one-quarter have advanced atherosclerotic lesions. The extent of atherosclerosis is directly correlated with the number of risk factors. Unhealthy dietary choices made by this age group contribute to weight gain and dyslipidemia. Risk factor profiles in young adulthood strongly predict long-term CHD risk. Early detection is critical to identify individuals at risk and to promote lifestyle changes before disease progression occurs. Despite the presence of risk factors and pathological changes, risk assessment and disease prevention efforts are lacking in this age group. Most young adults are not screened and are unaware of their risk. This review provides pathological evidence along with current risk factor prevalence data to demonstrate the need for early detection. Eighty percent of heart disease is preventable through diet and lifestyle, and young adults are ideal targets for prevention efforts because they are in the process of establishing lifestyle habits, which track forward into adulthood. This review aims to establish the need for increased screening, risk assessment, education, and management in young adults. These essential screening efforts should include the assessment of all CHD risk factors and lifestyle habits (diet, exercise, and smoking), blood pressure, glucose, and body mass index in addition to the traditional lipid panel for effective long-term risk reduction.

  18. Preoperative factors associated with red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Christian Medom; Jørgensen, Henrik Løvendahl; Norgaard, Astrid

    2014-01-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is a frequently used treatment in patients admitted with a fractured hip, but the use remains an area of much debate. The aim of this study was to determine preoperative factors associated with the risk of receiving a red blood cell transfusion in hip fracture...

  19. [Risk factors of lung cancer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ger, L P; Liou, S H; Shen, C Y; Kao, S J; Chen, K T

    1992-09-01

    The relationship between various risk factors and lung cancer was evaluated in a case-control study. One hundred and forty-one cancer patients newly cytologically or pathologically diagnosed from May 1990 to July 1991 at Tri-Service General Hospital (TSGH) were recruited as cases. Two control groups were also studied: 282 hospital controls two-to-one matched with cases on sex, age, hospital of admission and insurance status were selected from the TSGH Ophthalmologic Department, and 282 neighborhood controls two-to-one matched on sex, age, and residence were randomly selected from eligible neighbors. A comparison of interview data between cases and hospital controls based on multiple conditional logistic regression revealed that cigarette smoking, keeping doves as pet, occupational exposure to cotton dust and working as a cook were risk factors for lung cancer. An inverse association between incense burning and lung cancer was noted. The comparison between cases and neighborhood controls showed lung cancer was significantly associated with cigarette smoking, keeping doves, prior chronic bronchitis, occupational exposure to cotton dust, asbestos and radiation, low frequency of burning incense, and low intake of vitamin A derived from vegetables and fruits. There was no association between lung cancer and working as a cook when cases were compared with neighborhood controls.

  20. Posttransplant Erythrocytosis and Risk Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emre ERDEM

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of posttransplant erythrocytosis (PTE. MATERIAL and METHODS: The study included 96 patients who received a renal allograft between 2005-2009 years. PTE was defined as an elevated hematocrit level greater than 51% after renal transplantation in patients receiving an allograft. RESULTS: Of the 96 adult kidney recipients, 15 (15,6% developed PTE. The mean time from transplantation to diagnosis was 7,3 ± 2,8 months ( range, 4,5-13 months . Mean serum creatinine was 1,12 ±0,3 mg/dl (0,8-1,99 mg/dl at the diagnosis of PTE. PTE was more frequent in male patients (p<0.05 and the patients with a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation (p<0.05. There was no significant difference in patient age, donor source, donor age and immunosuppressive therapy on comparing the PTE group and non PTE groups. None of the patients with erythrocytosis experienced thromboembolic events during follow-up. CONCLUSION: PTE developed in the first year after transplantation. Male gender and a long duration on dialysis prior to transplantation are risk factors of PTE.

  1. Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn Javascript on. Feature: Skin Cancer Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2013 Table ... Articles Skin Cancer Can Strike Anyone / Skin Cancer: Biology, Risk Factors & Treatment / Timely Healthcare Checkup Catches Melanoma ...

  2. Risk factors evaluation for urolithiasis among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Velásquez-Forero

    2016-07-01

    Conclusions: Hypocitraturia and hypomagnesuria were the most frequent risk factors associated with urolithiasis, followed by hypercalciuria. High PTH values were excluded. Children presented two or more risk factors for urolithiasis.

  3. Risk-Factor Portfolios and Financial Stability

    OpenAIRE

    Garita, Gus

    2009-01-01

    This paper defines a risk-stability index (RSI) that takes into account the extreme dependence structure and the conditional probability of joint failure (CPJF) among risk factors in a portfolio. In combination, both the RSI and CPJF provide a valuable tool for analyzing risk from complementary perspectives; thereby allowing the measurement of (i) common distress of risk factors in a portfolio, (ii) distress between specific risk factors, and (iii) distress to a portfolio related to a specifi...

  4. Global methylation of blood leukocyte DNA and risk of melanoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Jie; Song, Renduo; Wan, Jie; Huff, Chad; Fang, Shenying; Lee, Jeffrey E; Zhao, Hua

    2017-04-01

    Global DNA methylation, possibly influenced by lifestyle and environmental factors, has been suggested to play an active role in carcinogenesis. However, its role in melanoma has rarely been explored. The aims of this study were to evaluate the relationship between melanoma risk and levels of 5-methylcytosine (5-mC), a marker for global DNA methylation, in blood leukocyte DNA, and to determine whether this 5-mC level is influenced by pigmentation and sun exposure. This case-control study included 540 melanoma cases and 540 healthy controls. Overall, melanoma cases had significantly lower levels of 5-mC% than healthy controls (median: 3.24 vs. 3.91, p melanoma (OR: 1.25; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.37). A significant dose-response relationship was observed in quartile analysis (p = 0.001). Our results suggest that global hypomethylation in blood leukocyte DNA is associated with increased risk of melanoma and that the level of methylation is influenced by pigmentation and sun exposure. © 2016 UICC.

  5. Impact of Age on the Importance of Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures for Stroke Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Borglykke, Anders; Andreasen, Anne H;

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates age-related shifts in the relative importance of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressures as predictors of stroke and whether these relations are influenced by other cardiovascular risk factors. Using 34 European cohorts from the MOnica, Risk, Genetics, Archiving...

  6. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Bo; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Grøn, Randi;

    2013-01-01

    Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated.......Pregnant women are at an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). Risk factors for VTE among pregnant women are not sufficiently investigated....

  7. Blood transfusion after total shoulder arthroplasty: Which patients are at high risk?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdurrahman Kandil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: There are multiple reported risk factors and a wide range of reported blood transfusion rates for total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA. There are no evidence-based guidelines for blood transfusions in TSA patients. Materials and Methods: We utilized the Nationwide Inpatient Sample to analyze 51,191 patients undergoing TSA between 1998 and 2011. The purpose was to describe the incidence and identify the preoperative factors that are independently associated with blood transfusion after TSA. In addition, we studied the association of blood transfusions with certain variables such as length of stay (LOS, total charges, and payer status. Results: The blood transfusion rate in our study was 6.1%. There was no difference in the rate of blood transfusions over the study period (P < 0.001. In our logistic regression model, significant associations were found with increased age (odds ratio [OR] =1.03, white race (OR = 1.05, higher Charlson-Deyo score (OR = 1.12, presence of ischemic heart disease (OR = 1.24, blood loss anemia (OR = 1.65, female gender (OR = 1.94, presence of coagulation disorders (OR = 2.25, and presence of deficiency anemia (OR = 3.5. Patients receiving a blood transfusion had higher total charges, a longer hospital LOS, and were more likely to be Medicare payers (P < 0.001. Conclusions: Our study found five clinically significant risk factors for blood transfusions for TSA: female gender, ischemic heart disease, deficiency anemia, coagulation disorder, and blood loss anemia. Patients with these risk factors should be considered higher risk for requiring a blood transfusion after TSA and counseled appropriately. Level of Evidence: Level II, retrospective cohort study, prognostic study.

  8. Configurations of Common Childhood Psychosocial Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copeland, William; Shanahan, Lilly; Costello, E. Jane; Angold, Adrian

    2009-01-01

    Background: Co-occurrence of psychosocial risk factors is commonplace, but little is known about psychiatrically-predictive configurations of psychosocial risk factors. Methods: Latent class analysis (LCA) was applied to 17 putative psychosocial risk factors in a representative population sample of 920 children ages 9 to 17. The resultant class…

  9. Risk factors of teenage pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Siettou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Teenage pregnancy is a worldwide medical and social issue, associated with many physical, psychological and social consequences and can result in birth, miscarriage or abortion. Aim: The aim of the present study is to find those risk factors that contribute to teenage pregnancy. Results: In U.S.A., according to data from Unicef, the birth rate among teenagers touches the 52.1% and it is four times higher, than the corresponding rate recorded in the countries of Western Europe. The United Kingdom has the highest rate of teenage pregnancy in Europe and in contrast to the decline in the rate of teenage pregnancy, recorded in the remaining countries of Western Europe, this figure has remained relatively stable, especially in adolescents aged 16 years and below. In Greece, according to National Statistics Office, in 2007, we had 3.129 births by teenagers under 18, with 75 births by teenagers under 15. The main factors contributing to the incidence of teenage pregnancy are socioeconomic factors, the family, the education and the sexual behavior of teenagers. Conclusions.It is necessary the state, through the health services and the education programs, to provide modern sex education in schools, as well as programs of prevention and health education in primary health care. The cooperation of these authorities is essential, to better address the extent and consequences of teenage pregnancy.

  10. Stroke Risk Factors, Genetics, and Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Amelia K; Esenwa, Charles; Elkind, Mitchell S V

    2017-02-03

    Stroke is a heterogeneous syndrome, and determining risk factors and treatment depends on the specific pathogenesis of stroke. Risk factors for stroke can be categorized as modifiable and nonmodifiable. Age, sex, and race/ethnicity are nonmodifiable risk factors for both ischemic and hemorrhagic stroke, while hypertension, smoking, diet, and physical inactivity are among some of the more commonly reported modifiable risk factors. More recently described risk factors and triggers of stroke include inflammatory disorders, infection, pollution, and cardiac atrial disorders independent of atrial fibrillation. Single-gene disorders may cause rare, hereditary disorders for which stroke is a primary manifestation. Recent research also suggests that common and rare genetic polymorphisms can influence risk of more common causes of stroke, due to both other risk factors and specific stroke mechanisms, such as atrial fibrillation. Genetic factors, particularly those with environmental interactions, may be more modifiable than previously recognized. Stroke prevention has generally focused on modifiable risk factors. Lifestyle and behavioral modification, such as dietary changes or smoking cessation, not only reduces stroke risk, but also reduces the risk of other cardiovascular diseases. Other prevention strategies include identifying and treating medical conditions, such as hypertension and diabetes, that increase stroke risk. Recent research into risk factors and genetics of stroke has not only identified those at risk for stroke but also identified ways to target at-risk populations for stroke prevention. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Blood pressure values and depression in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mejia-Lancheros, Cilia; Estruch, Ramón; Martínez-González, Miguel Angel; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Corella, Dolores; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Fiol, Miquel; Santos, José Manuel; Fitó, Montse; Arós, Fernando; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Basora, Josep; Sorlí, José Vicente; Muñoz, Miguel-Angel

    2014-08-26

    Hypertension and depression are both important risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. Nevertheless, the association of blood pressure on and depression has not been completely established. This study aims to analyze whether depression may influence the control of blood pressure in hypertensive individuals at high cardiovascular risk. Cross-sectional study, embedded within the PREDIMED clinical trial, of 5954 hypertensive patients with high cardiovascular risk factor profiles. The relationship between blood pressure control and depression was analyzed. A multivariate analysis (logistic and log-linear regression), adjusting for potential confounders (socio-demographic factors, body mass index, lifestyle, diabetes, dyslipidemia, and antihypertensive treatment), was performed. Depressive patients, with and without antidepressant treatment, had better blood pressure control (OR: 1.28, CI 95%: 1.06-1.55, and OR: 1.30, CI 95%: 1.03-1.65, respectively) than non-depressive ones. Regarding blood pressure levels, systolic blood pressure values (mmHg) were found to be lower in both treated and untreated depressive patients (Log coefficient Beta: -1.59, 95% CI: -0.50 to -2.69 and Log coefficient Beta: -3.49, 95% CI: -2.10 to -4.87, respectively). Among hypertensive patients at high cardiovascular risk, the control of blood pressure was better in those diagnosed with depression. Unique identifier: ISRCTN35739639.

  12. Molecular Risk Factors for Schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modai, Shira; Shomron, Noam

    2016-03-01

    Schizophrenia (SZ) is a complex and strongly heritable mental disorder, which is also associated with developmental-environmental triggers. As opposed to most diagnosable diseases (yet similar to other mental disorders), SZ diagnosis is commonly based on psychiatric evaluations. Recently, large-scale genetic and epigenetic approaches have been applied to SZ research with the goal of potentially improving diagnosis. Increased computational analyses and applied statistical algorithms may shed some light on the complex genetic and epigenetic pathways contributing to SZ pathogenesis. This review discusses the latest advances in molecular risk factors and diagnostics for SZ. Approaches such as these may lead to a more accurate definition of SZ and assist in creating extended and reliable clinical diagnoses with the potential for personalized treatment.

  13. Blood pressure management in cardiovascular risk stratification : procedure, progression, process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure

  14. Sugar-sweetened beverages, vascular risk factors and events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keller, Amelie; Heitmann, Berit L; Olsen, Nanna

    2015-01-01

    pressure, blood lipid or blood sugar. CONCLUSIONS: The reviewed studies generally showed that SSB intake was related to vascular risk factors, whereas associations with vascular events were less consistent. Due to a limited number of published papers, especially regarding vascular events, the strength...... factors and events. DESIGN: The article search was performed in August 2013. Two independent researchers performed the article search and selection, data extraction and quality assessment. Eligible studies reported the intake of SSB and one of the following outcomes: change in blood pressure, blood lipid...... or blood sugar, or CVD events such as stroke or myocardial infarction. Only intervention and longitudinal studies were included. SUBJECTS: Only studies in adults (aged 18+ years old) were considered. RESULTS: Two of four prospective studies found clear direct associations between SSB consumption and CHD...

  15. [The colorectal carcinoma risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczak, Andrzej; Wawrzyn-Sobczak, Katarzyna; Sobaniec-Lotowska, Maria

    2005-12-01

    Colorectal carcinoma constitutes the second, as for the rate, death cause due to a malignant disease both in the western countries and in Poland. Despite deep knowledge concerning morphogenesis and spread of colorectal carcinoma as well as vast achievements in surgery, chemo- and radiotherapy, the percentage of 5-year-survivals still reaches 40%. According to most authors there are 4 risk factor categories: epidemiological, intestinal, dietetic, and mixed. It is well-known that colorectal carcinoma, like neoplasms localized in other organs and systems, is a disease, in which genetic mutations of somatic cells are the molecular base/source of the disease. The inner innervation of the colon seems to play an important role in carcinoma pathogenesis and spread. At present, 80% of colorectal carcinomas are diagnosed in the advanced stage, with infiltration exceeding the intestinal wall or spreading to neighboring organs, which gives full clinical symptoms. The prognosis as to survival and disease progression is usually poor. Therefore, the ways of early diagnosis, monitoring, and the knowledge of etiological factors are so important in medical practice.

  16. Noncontact discrimination of animal and human blood with vacuum blood vessel and factors affect the discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linna; Zhang, Shengzhao; Sun, Meixiu; Li, Hongxiao; Li, Yingxin; Fu, Zhigang; Guan, Yang; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2017-03-01

    Discrimination of human and nonhuman blood is crucial for import-export ports and inspection and quarantine departments. Current methods are usually destructive, complicated and time-consuming. We had previously demonstrated that visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy combining PLS-DA method can successfully realize human blood discrimination. In that research, the spectra were measured with the fiber probe under the surface of blood samples. However, open sampling may pollute the blood samples. Virulence factors in blood samples can also endanger inspectors. In this paper, we explored the classification effect with the blood samples measured in the original containers-vacuum blood vessel. Furthermore, we studied the impact of different conditions of blood samples, such as coagulation and hemolysis, on the prediction ability of the discrimination model. The calibration model built with blood samples in different conditions displayed a satisfactory prediction result. This research demonstrated that visible and near-infrared diffuse reflectance spectroscopy method was potential for noncontact discrimination of human blood.

  17. Spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage and the related risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolas Ziakas

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the report is to assess the risk factors among patients with spontaneous ipsilateral subconjunctival hemorrhage (SCH who presented to the outpatients’ department in General Hospital of Veria, Veria, Greece. Thirty-five patients with SCH participated in the study. A thorough case history was taken and a full ophthalmic examination was performed to identify the risk factors related to the clinical finding. The common hematological parameters associated with the coagulation profile of each patient were evaluated. With the exception of SCH, the ophthalmic examination was normal in all patients. Identified risk factors include history of systemic hypertension (21 patients [60%], mean systolic value: 170 mmHg±15 mmHg, strenuous exercise [19 patients (54%] and minor ocular trauma [5 patients (14%]. Other risk factors [each in 2 patients (6%] included: diabetes mellitus, smoking, severe cough, straining at stool, and weight lifting. Seven patients (20% were under medication related to bleeding diathesis. The values of the blood coagulation parameters were within the normal limits in all patients. Twenty-nine patients (83% had elevated blood pressure during the ophthalmological examination. Our study provides documentation regarding the potential risk factors associated with SCH. It is interesting to observe the high incidence of hypertension among the patients with SCH. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the blood pressure be checked in all patients with SCH and that the patients be referred to a general practitioner for further management if indicated.

  18. Risk factors of thrombosis in abdominal veins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Amit Kumar Durra; Ashok Chacko; Biju George; Joseph Anjilivelil Joseph; Sukesh Chandran Nair; Vikram Mathews

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To estimate the prevalence of inherited and acquired thrombophilic risk factors in patients with abdominal venous thrombosis and to compare the risk factor profiles between Budd-Chiari syndromes (BCS) and splanchnic vein thrombosis (SVT).METHODS: In this retrospective study, 36 patients with abdominal venous thrombosis were studied.The patients were divided into Budd-Chiari group (hepatic vein, IVC thrombosis) and splanchnic venous thrombosis group (portal, splenic, superior mesenteric veins) based on the veins involved. Hereditary and acquired thrombophilic risk factors were evaluated in all patients.RESULTS: Twenty patients had SVT, 14 had BCS,and 2 had mixed venous thrombosis. Ten patients (28%) had hereditary and 10 patients (28%) acquired thrombophilic risk factors. The acquired risk factors were significantly more common in the SVT group (SVT vs BCS:45% vs 7%,x2=5.7,P=0.02) while hereditary risk factors did not show significant differences between the two groups (SVT vs BCS: 25%vs 36%, x2=0.46,P=0.7). Multiple risk factors were present in one (7%) patient with BCS and in 3 patients (15%) with SVT. No risk factors were identified in 57% of patients with BCS and in 45% of patients with SVT.CONCLUSION: Hereditary and acquired risk factors play an important role in the etiopathogenesis of abdominal venous thrombosis. Acquired risk factors are significantly more common in SVT patients while hereditary factors are similar in both groups.

  19. Neonatal Risk Factors for Treatment-Demanding Retinopathy of Prematurity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Slidsborg, Carina; Jensen, Aksel; Forman, Julie Lyng;

    2016-01-01

    ventilation were the only new statistically independent risk factors to predict the development of treatment-demanding ROP. Modification in the neonatal treatment with mechanical ventilation or blood transfusion did not cause the observed increase in the incidence of preterm infants with treatment...

  20. Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Prevalence and risk factors of arternal hypertension among urban Africans ... Tobacco, alcohol use and level of physical activity measures were obtained. Weight, height, BMI, waist, hip, conicity, blood pressure, pulse pressure and pulse rate were ... Hypertension was associated with aging, higher professional position, ...

  1. Family Factors Predicting Categories of Suicide Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randell, Brooke P.; Wang, Wen-Ling; Herting, Jerald R.; Eggert, Leona L.

    2006-01-01

    We compared family risk and protective factors among potential high school dropouts with and without suicide-risk behaviors (SRB) and examined the extent to which these factors predict categories of SRB. Subjects were randomly selected from among potential dropouts in 14 high schools. Based upon suicide-risk status, 1,083 potential high school…

  2. Risk factors for vascular disease and dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breteler, M M; Bots, M L; Ott, A; Hofman, A

    1998-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that risk factors for vascular disease and stroke are associated with cognitive impairment and Alzheimer's disease. This paper reviews current knowledge on the relationship between risk factors for stroke and Alzheimer's disease. The focus will be on 'classical' risk factors, including age and gender, socioeconomic status, diabetes, cholesterol, prior cardiovascular disease, atrial fibrillation, cigarette smoking and alcohol use; as well as on factors that more recently have been recognized as putative risk factors, including APOE genotype, serum homocysteine concentration, relative abnormalities in the hemostatic and thrombotic systems, and inflammation.

  3. Risk factors associated with emergency peripartum hysterectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Rong; Guo Yuna; Chen Yan

    2014-01-01

    Background Use of an emergency peripartum hysterectomy (EPH) as a lifesaving measure to manage intractable postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) appears to be increasing recently around the world,and the indications for EPH have changed.The object of this study is to identify risk factors associated with EPH.Methods We conducted a case-control study of 21 patients who underwent EPH because of intractable PPH between January 1,2005 and June 30,2013,at the International Peace Maternity and Child Health Hospital Shanghai Jiao Tong University,School of Medicine (IPMCH).The parametric t-test,chi-square tests and Logistic regression models were used for analysis to identify the risk factors.The results were considered statistically significant when P<0.05.Results There were 89 178 deliveries during the study period.Twenty-one women had an EPH,with an incidence of 24 per 100 000 deliveries.The loss of blood during postpartum hemorrhage of the EPH group was (5 060.7±3 032.6)ml,and that of the control group was (2 040.8±723.5) ml.There was a significant difference of PHH between the EHP group and the control group (P=0.001).Independent risk factors for EPH from a logistic regression model were:disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) (OR:9.9,95% CI 2.8-34,P=0.003),previous cesarean section (OR:5.27;95% CI:1.48-17.9,P=0.009),placenta previa (OR:6.9; 95% CI 1.6-2.9,P=0.008),the loss of PPH (OR:1.001; 95% CI 1.001-1.002,P=0.002),placenta accreta (OR:68; 95% CI 10-456,P=0.004),the use of tocolytic agents prenatally (OR:6.55,95%CI 1.34-32.1,P=0.049),and fetal macrosomia (OR:6.9,95% CI 1.25-38,P=0.049).Conclusion Significant risk factors of EPH are DIC,placenta previa,PPH,previous cesarean delivery,and placenta accrete,the use of tocolytic agents prenatally,and fetal macrosomia.

  4. Identification of Behavioral Risk Factors During Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Ruţa Florina; Tarcea Monica; Stere Victoria; Abram Zoltan; Avram Călin

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to smoking during pregnancy is known to be one of the main modifiable risk factors, which threatens maternal and child health. Along with this factor, are not to be neglected also other risk factors belonging to lifestyle sphere, such as alcohol, sedentary, irregular daily meal serving plan, lack of knowledge.

  5. CDC Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) is a state-based system of health surveys that collects information on health risk behaviors, preventive...

  6. Retinal vascular calibres are significantly associated with cardiovascular risk factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    von Hanno, T.; Bertelsen, G.; Sjølie, Anne K.

    2014-01-01

    ) and retinal venular calibre (central retinal vein equivalent) were measured computer-assisted on retinal photographs. Data on blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, glycosylated haemoglobin (HbA1c) and smoking were collected....... Association between retinal vessel calibre and the cardiovascular risk factors was assessed by multivariable linear and logistic regression analyses. Results: Retinal arteriolar calibre was independently associated with age, blood pressure, HbA1c and smoking in women and men, and with HDL cholesterol in men...... cardiovascular risk factors were independently associated with retinal vascular calibre, with stronger effect of HDL cholesterol and BMI in men than in women. Blood pressure and smoking contributed most to the explained variance....

  7. Risk factors for retained surgical items: a meta-analysis and proposed risk stratification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moffatt-Bruce, Susan D; Cook, Charles H; Steinberg, Steven M; Stawicki, Stanislaw P

    2014-08-01

    Retained surgical items (RSI) are designated as completely preventable "never events". Despite numerous case reports, clinical series, and expert opinions few studies provide quantitative insight into RSI risk factors and their relative contributions to the overall RSI risk profile. Existing case-control studies lack the ability to reliably detect clinically important differences within the long list of proposed risks. This meta-analysis examines the best available data for RSI risk factors, seeking to provide a clinically relevant risk stratification system. Nineteen candidate studies were considered for this meta-analysis. Three retrospective, case-control studies of RSI-related risk factors contained suitable group comparisons between patients with and without RSI, thus qualifying for further analysis. Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 2.0 (BioStat, Inc, Englewood, NJ) software was used to analyze the following "common factor" variables compiled from the above studies: body-mass index, emergency procedure, estimated operative blood loss >500 mL, incorrect surgical count, lack of surgical count, >1 subprocedure, >1 surgical team, nursing staff shift change, operation "afterhours" (i.e., between 5 PM and 7 AM), operative time, trainee presence, and unexpected intraoperative factors. We further stratified resulting RSI risk factors into low, intermediate, and high risk. Despite the fact that only between three and six risk factors were associated with increased RSI risk across the three studies, our analysis of pooled data demonstrates that seven risk factors are significantly associated with increased RSI risk. Variables found to elevate the RSI risk include intraoperative blood loss >500 mL (odds ratio [OR] 1.6); duration of operation (OR 1.7); >1 subprocedure (OR 2.1); lack of surgical counts (OR 2.5); >1 surgical team (OR 3.0); unexpected intraoperative factors (OR 3.4); and incorrect surgical count (OR 6.1). Changes in nursing staff, emergency surgery, body

  8. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...

  9. Evaluation of Risk Factors Associated with First Episode Febrile Seizure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharawat, Indar Kumar; Singh, Jitender; Dawman, Lesa; Singh, Amitabh

    2016-05-01

    Febrile seizure (FS) is the single most common type of seizure seen in children between 6 months to 5 years of age. The purpose of our study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures, which would help in the better management and preventive measures in children at risk for FS episodes. To evaluate the risk factors associated with the first episode of febrile seizures in Indian children. This was a hospital based, case control study. The purpose of this study was to identify the risk factors associated with the first FS episode in children. Seventy (70) children between age 6 months to 5 years with their first episode of FS were compared with 70 children with fever but without seizures based on various risk factors. The mean age was 24.90±16.11 months in cases and 26.34±16.93 months in controls. Male: female ratio was 2:1. A positive family history was found in 31.4% of first degree and 11.4% in second degree relatives. Mean maximum temperature was 102.06±1.1°F and URI (upper respiratory infection) was most common cause of fever. Antenatal complication was significantly higher in the case group. RBC (Red Blood Cells) indices like lower mean haemoglobin, MCV (Mean Corpuscular Volume), MCH (Mean Corpuscular Haemoglobin concentration) and higher RDW (Red Cell Distribution Width) values were seen in patients. Serum sodium, Serum calcium and random blood sugar values of the cases were significantly lower than those of controls (pfebrile seizures, peak body temperature, underlying cause of fever, antenatal complications, low serum calcium, sodium, blood sugar and microcytic hypochromic anaemia are the risk factors associated with the occurrence of first episode of febrile seizure and, thus, preventive measures in removing these risk factors could lead to a decrease in incidence of FS.

  10. Sociodemographic factors associated with multiple cardiovascular risk factors among Malaysian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazali, Sumarni Mohd; Seman, Zamtira; Cheong, Kee Chee; Hock, Lim Kuang; Manickam, Mala; Kuay, Lim Kuang; Yusoff, Ahmad Faudzi; Mustafa, Feisul Idzwan; Mustafa, Amal Nasir

    2015-01-31

    To determine the prevalence and sociodemographic correlates of multiple risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) among Malaysian adults. We analysed data on 1044 men and 1528 women, aged 24-64 years, participants in the Non Communicable Disease Surveillance 2005/2006, a nationally representative, population-based, cross-sectional study. Prevalence of obesity, high blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, hyperglycemia, physical inactivity, smoking, risky drinking, low vegetable and fruit intake were determined and multivariable logistic regression was used to identify sociodemographic factors associated with having ≥3 of these cardiovascular disease risk factors. The response rate was 84.6% (2572/3040). Overall, 68.4% (95% CI: 63.2, 73.1) had at least three risk factors. Among men, older age and Indian ethnicity were independently associated with having ≥3 CVD risk factors; while among women, older age, low education, and housewives were more likely to have ≥3 CVD risk factors. The prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors clustering among Malaysian adults is high, raising concerns that cardiovascular disease incidence will rise steeply in the near future if no immediate preventive measures are taken. The current national health education and promotion programmes pertaining to modifiable risk factors can be further improved by taking into account the sociodemographic variation in CVD risk factors clustering.

  11. Risk factor modification and projections of absolute breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petracci, Elisabetta; Decarli, Adriano; Schairer, Catherine; Pfeiffer, Ruth M; Pee, David; Masala, Giovanna; Palli, Domenico; Gail, Mitchell H

    2011-07-06

    Although modifiable risk factors have been included in previous models that estimate or project breast cancer risk, there remains a need to estimate the effects of changes in modifiable risk factors on the absolute risk of breast cancer. Using data from a case-control study of women in Italy (2569 case patients and 2588 control subjects studied from June 1, 1991, to April 1, 1994) and incidence and mortality data from the Florence Registries, we developed a model to predict the absolute risk of breast cancer that included five non-modifiable risk factors (reproductive characteristics, education, occupational activity, family history, and biopsy history) and three modifiable risk factors (alcohol consumption, leisure physical activity, and body mass index). The model was validated using independent data, and the percent risk reduction was calculated in high-risk subgroups identified by use of the Lorenz curve. The model was reasonably well calibrated (ratio of expected to observed cancers = 1.10, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.96 to 1.26), but the discriminatory accuracy was modest. The absolute risk reduction from exposure modifications was nearly proportional to the risk before modifying the risk factors and increased with age and risk projection time span. Mean 20-year reductions in absolute risk among women aged 65 years were 1.6% (95% CI = 0.9% to 2.3%) in the entire population, 3.2% (95% CI = 1.8% to 4.8%) among women with a positive family history of breast cancer, and 4.1% (95% CI = 2.5% to 6.8%) among women who accounted for the highest 10% of the total population risk, as determined from the Lorenz curve. These data give perspective on the potential reductions in absolute breast cancer risk from preventative strategies based on lifestyle changes. Our methods are also useful for calculating sample sizes required for trials to test lifestyle interventions.

  12. Blood Type Influences Pancreatic Cancer Risk | Division of Cancer Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    A variation in the gene that determines ABO blood type influences the risk of pancreatic cancer, according to the results of the first genome-wide association study (GWAS) for this highly lethal disease. The genetic variation, a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), was discovered in a region of chromosome 9 that harbors the gene that determines blood type, the researchers reported August 2 online in Nature Genetics. |

  13. Postpartum depression risk factors: A narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghaedrahmati, Maryam; Kazemi, Ashraf; Kheirabadi, Gholamreza; Ebrahimi, Amrollah; Bahrami, Masood

    2017-01-01

    Postpartum depression is a debilitating mental disorder with a high prevalence. The aim of this study was review of the related studies. In this narrative review, we report studies that investigated risk factors of postpartum depression by searching the database, Scopus, PubMed, ScienceDirect, Uptodate, Proquest in the period 2000-2015 published articles about the factors associated with postpartum depression were assessed in Farsi and English. The search strategy included a combination of keywords include postpartum depression and risk factors or obstetrical history, social factors, or biological factors. Literature review showed that risk factors for postpartum depression in the area of economic and social factors, obstetrical history, and biological factors, lifestyle and history of mental illness detected. Data from this study can use for designing a screening tools for high-risk pregnant women and for designing a prevention programs.

  14. Prevention of risk factors for occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens among healthcare workers%医务人员血源性职业暴露危险因素的预防

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建伟; 韩立海; 孙吉花; 张霞; 邱会芬; 张洁

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the hign‐risk populations ,departments and operation activities associated with occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens among healthcare workers ,further discuss prevention strate‐gies for the hign‐risk factors .METHODS The monitoring report system for the occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens was established ,and the registration form of exposure cases was filled out by the healthcare workers after occurrence of exposure .The 61 reported cases were investigated from Jun .2012 to May 2013 .The software SPSS17 .0 was used for statistical analysis .RESULTS The majority of the 61 reported cases (80 .33% ) were junior nurses and student nurses . Occupational exposure more frequently occurred in general wards (54 .1% ) ,operating rooms (19 .67% ) and emergency rooms (9 .84% ) ,and was most frequently associated with clinical activities such as needle‐withdrawal after transfusion (39 .34% ) ,needle‐withdrawal after various injec‐tions ,punctures and blood drawing (13 .11% ) ,sutures during operation (11 .48% ) and centralized separation of needles (9 .48% ) .The reported cases in which operators did not wear gloves accounted for 86 .89% .It was the most difficult for post‐exposure prophylaxis after contact with unknown patients or unknown pathogens .Hepatitis B virus accounting for 54 .10% took the highest proportion among the sources of blood borne pathogens . CONCLUSION Occupational exposure to blood borne pathogens occurs most frequently in junior nurses and student nurses ,in general ward ,operating rooms and emergency rooms ,and is highly associated with certain unstandard‐ized clinical activities .The optimal prevention strategies for the exposure include well knowledge and concept of ap‐plication of standard precautions ,safely manipulation of safe sharp instruments and needles ,timely vaccination and active self‐report after occupational exposure .%目的:调查医务人员发生血源性职业暴露

  15. Periodontitis as a Risk Factor of Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jirina Bartova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the last two decades, the amount of evidence corroborating an association between dental plaque bacteria and coronary diseases that develop as a result of atherosclerosis has increased. These findings have brought a new aspect to the etiology of the disease. There are several mechanisms by which dental plaque bacteria may initiate or worsen atherosclerotic processes: activation of innate immunity, bacteremia related to dental treatment, and direct involvement of mediators activated by dental plaque and involvement of cytokines and heat shock proteins from dental plaque bacteria. There are common predisposing factors which influence both periodontitis and atherosclerosis. Both diseases can be initiated in early childhood, although the first symptoms may not appear until adulthood. The formation of lipid stripes has been reported in 10-year-old children and the increased prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents is a risk factor contributing to lipid stripes development. Endothelium damage caused by the formation of lipid stripes in early childhood may lead to bacteria penetrating into blood circulation after oral cavity procedures for children as well as for patients with aggressive and chronic periodontitis.

  16. Information Asymmetry as a Risk Factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor Ya. Tsvetkov

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores information asymmetry as the cause of risks in decision making. The author describes the types of information asymmetry as a risk factor; describes the types of risk arising under different information asymmetries; describes the methods for minimizing such risks; brings to light the principal-agent issue; analyzes the principles of minimizing risks in the event of this issue arising; illustrates the application of special information models for minimizing risks in this issue; describes the cascade method for minimizing risks in decision making under information asymmetry.

  17. ICU中革兰阴性菌血流感染的危险因素分析%Analysis on risk factors of Gram-negative bacterial blood-stream infection in ICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩静静; 邓艳萍; 高鑫; 吕丽琼; 徐亚青; 成于珈

    2016-01-01

    ,including 93 case‐times of Gram‐negative bacterial infection .The Gram‐negative pathogenic bacteria were Acinetobacter baumanii ,Klebsiella pneumoniae ,Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumanii ,E .coli ,pseudomonas aeruginosa ,etc .Except E .coli was mainly originated from community acquired infection ,other bacteria were mainly originated from nosocomial infection .In order to differing from other pathogenic bacterial blood stream infection ,the Logistic regression analysis results showed that the independent risk factors of G‐negative bacterial blood‐stream infection in ICU had serum PCT levels over 10 .0 ng/mL (OR= 60 .52 ,P= 0 .001) ,receiving the therapy of carbapenem and third generation cephalosporins (OR=16 .09 ,P=0 .03) ,hospitalization duration less than 2 weeks be‐fore suffering from disease (OR=13 .79 ,P=0 .03) and digestive system basic disease(OR=12 .94 ,P=0 .01) .Conclusion Gram‐negative bacterial blood‐stream infection in ICU of the Renmin Hospital of Wuhan University is mainly caused by multi‐drug resist‐ant bacteria .Serum PCT level over 10 .0 ng/mL ,hospitalization duration less than 2 weeks before infection ,receiving the therapy of carbapenem and third generation cephalosporin and basic diseases of digestive system are the independent risk factors influencing the occurrence and diagnosis of blood‐stream infection .

  18. Dialysis modalities as risk factors in the development of atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damjanović Tatjana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Atherosclerosis is a major risk factor for increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in dialysis patients. First clinical symptoms are usually associated with initial atherosclerotic changes of blood vessels. The aim of this study was ultrasound evaluation of intimae media thickness (IMT of carotid arteries in dialysis patients and its correlation with certain risk factors. Patients and methods IMT was measured in 45 dialysis patients with no signs of cardiovascular diseases:15 continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD patients, 30 haemodialysis (HD patients and in 20 healthy controls. IMT was correlated with certain risk factors for atherosclerosis (general parameters - age, gender, duration of dialysis cause of renal diseases, parameters of nutrition, parameters of calcium and phosphorus metabolism, lipid parameters, blood pressure and smoking. Results The mean carotid artery IMT was significantly higher in dialysis patients than in the control group (p<0.05. In addition, the mean IMT was statistically significantly higher in PD than in HD patients (p<0.05. In CAPD patients there was a significant correlation between IMT and total and LDL cholesterol. In the second group (HD patients IMT was significantly correlated with diastolic blood pressure, BMI and smoking. Conclusion Although atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease may not manifest in dialysis patients, IMT of carotid arteries significantly increases. Major risk factors affecting IMT are lipid disturbances in patients on peritoneal dialysis and hypertension, obesity and smoking in HD patients.

  19. Visceral fat cell lipolysis and cardiovascular risk factors in obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, D P; Löfgren, P; Thorell, A; Arner, P; Hoffstedt, J

    2011-10-01

    Visceral fat accumulation relates to cardiovascular risk factors, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. We investigated the role of visceral adipocyte triglyceride breakdown (lipolysis) for several risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In 73 obese women, fat mass and distribution, blood pressure, blood samples for cardiometabolic risk factors, and whole-body insulin sensitivity were determined. A subcutaneous and a visceral fat biopsy were taken. Fat cell glycerol release after stimulation with a major lipolytic hormone, noradrenaline, was measured. In simple regression analysis, visceral fat cell lipolysis, but not subcutaneous adipocyte lipolysis was related to components of the metabolic syndrome. Moreover, subjects in the highest quartile of catecholamine-induced visceral lipolysis had higher levels of systolic blood pressure, estimated liver fat, plasma levels of glucose, insulin, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and apolipoprotein B and lower whole-body insulin sensitivity than those in the lowest quartile (p=0.0004-0.048). Among subjects with the metabolic syndrome, visceral fat cell lipolysis was 40% higher than in the remaining subjects (p=0.0052). Catecholamine-activated lipolysis in visceral but not subcutaneous fat cells is associated with cardiovascular risk factors in obesity. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Risk factors for hypertensive crisis in children with acute glomerulonephritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sherly Yuniarchan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background Hypertensive crisis occurs in 1-4% of the hypertensive pediatric population, mostly due to acute glomerulonephritis (AGN. Some factors have been suggested to affect blood pressure (BP in children, such as age, sex, race/ethnicity, obesity, and socioeconomic status, but little is known for risk factors for hypertensive crisis in AGN.Objective To analyze the risk factors for hypertensive crisis in children with AGN.Methods Retrospectively, we studied possible risk factors for hypertensive crisis in children with AGN at Dr. Soetomo Hospital from 2007 to 2011. Hypertensive crisis was defined as systolic BP ≥180 mmHg or diastolic BP ≥120 mmHg (for children ≥ 6 years of age; and systolic and/or diastolic BP >50% above the 95th percentile (for children aged <6 years. We evaluated the demographic and clinical characteristics as potential risk factors. Statistical analysis was done with Chi-square, Fisher’s exact, and logistic regression tests. Variables with P <0.25 in the univariable analysis were further analyzed by the multivariable logistic regression model. A P value of < 0.05 was considered statistically significant.Results There were 101 children included (mean age 9.7 (SD 2.17 years, with a male-to-female ratio of 2.7:1. Hypertensive crisis occurred in 42 (41.6% children, of whom 8 had hypertensive urgency and 34 had hypertensive emergency. Proteinuria was seen in 53 children with AGN (52.5% and was the significant risk factor for hypertensive crisis in our subjects (OR=2.75; 95%CI 1.16 to 6.52; P=0.021. Gender, clinical profiles, ethnicity, nutritional status, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR were not significant risk factors for hypertensive crisis.Conclusion Proteinuria is the significant risk factor for hypertensive crisis in children with AGN.

  1. ABO blood groups in relation to breast carcinoma incidence and associated prognostic factors in Moroccan women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zouine, S; Marnissi, F; Otmani, N; Bennani Othmani, M; El Wafi, M; Kojok, K; Zaid, Y; Tahiri Jouti, N; Habti, N

    2016-07-01

    The association between blood groups ABO and different types of diseases was established in several previous studies. Our aim was to seek the possible association between the ABO blood group and breast cancer-associated prognostic factors. The Chi-squared analytic test was used to compare phenotypic ABO distribution among Moroccan blood donors and 442 cases of women suffering from breast carcinoma with archived files in Maternity Ward of University Hospital C.H.U Ibn Rochd between 2008 and 2011. High incidence of breast carcinoma was observed in blood type B patients (p < 0.05). Blood type B was associated with breast carcinomas overexpressing human epidermal growth factor receptor HER2 (p < 0.05) and high risk of cancer at age over 70 years (p < 0.001). Blood type A was associated with high risk of cancer among women younger than 35 years old. Blood type A and AB were associated with high incidence of lymph node metastasis (p < 0.05). Multivariate analysis has shown correlation between O blood type and estrogen receptor-positive tumor. Patients with blood group A, B, and AB were more likely to develop aggressive breast carcinoma. Further follow-up studies are necessary to clarify the role of ABH antigens in the progression of breast carcinoma.

  2. Cardiovascular risk factors in young adults: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dieu-My T; Zimmerman, Lani M

    2015-01-01

    This extensive literature review focuses on cardiovascular risk factors in young adults, with an emphasis on hyperlipidemia and hypertension. Multiple studies have confirmed that hyperlipidemia and hypertension during young adulthood are associated with coronary heart disease (CHD) in later decades, and CHD is one type of cardiovascular disease. The primary risk factors identified in the literature that are predictive of CHD are age; gender; race/ethnicity; smoking status; high blood pressure; and elevated lipid levels, especially low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The current guidelines are insufficient to address screening and treatment in young adults with cardiovascular risk factors. Future studies are warranted to confirm the extent of cardiovascular risks in young adults, which can then be targeted to this population for prevention and intervention strategies.

  3. Placenta Praevia: Incidence, Risk Factors

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    6,7,8,9 caesarean section, myomectomy or metroplasty . The risk of occurrence of ... erythroblastosis, assisted conception, structural .... 7,16 maternal death were reported from other studies . Placenta praevia is common in our environment.

  4. Data collection on risk factors in pregnancy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zetstra-van der Woude, Alethea Priscilla

    2016-01-01

    This thesis aims to investigate the different methods of data collection of risk factors in pregnancy. Several observational epidemiologic study designs were used to assess associations between risk factors and negative birth outcomes. We especially looked at the use of folic acid around pregnancy a

  5. Developmental Risk Factors for Sexual Offending.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph K. P.; Jackson, Henry J.; Pattison, Pip; Ward, Tony

    2002-01-01

    A study involving 64 Australian sex offenders and 33 non-sex offenders found childhood emotional abuse and family dysfunction, childhood behavior problems, and childhood sexual abuse were developmental risk factors for paraphilia. Emotional abuse and family dysfunction was found to be a risk factor for pedophilia, exhibitionism, rape, or multiple…

  6. Other Possible Heart Disease Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Heart Health and Stroke Other possible heart disease risk factors Related information Depression fact sheet Stress and your health fact sheet ... Research also suggests that depression itself is a risk factor for heart disease. Depression, stress, and other negative emotions may affect the ...

  7. Transient risk factors of acute occupational injuries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østerlund, Anna H; Lander, Flemming; Nielsen, Kent

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to (i) identify transient risk factors of occupational injuries and (ii) determine if the risk varies with age, injury severity, job task, and industry risk level. Method A case-crossover design was used to examine the effect of seven specific transient...... in relation to sex, age, job task, industry risk level, or injury severity. Conclusion Use of a case-crossover design identified several worker-related transient risk factors (time pressure, feeling sick, being distracted by someone) that led to significantly increased risks for occupational injuries...... risk factors (time pressure, disagreement with someone, feeling sick, being distracted by someone, non-routine task, altered surroundings, and broken machinery and materials) for occupational injuries. In the study, 1693 patients with occupational injuries were recruited from a total of 4002...

  8. Diabetes mellitus, fasting blood glucose concentration, and risk of vascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarwar, N; Gao, P; Seshasai, S R Kondapally

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Uncertainties persist about the magnitude of associations of diabetes mellitus and fasting glucose concentration with risk of coronary heart disease and major stroke subtypes. We aimed to quantify these associations for a wide range of circumstances. METHODS: We undertook a meta......-analysis of individual records of diabetes, fasting blood glucose concentration, and other risk factors in people without initial vascular disease from studies in the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration. We combined within-study regressions that were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, systolic blood pressure, and body......-mass index to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) for vascular disease. FINDINGS: Analyses included data for 698 782 people (52 765 non-fatal or fatal vascular outcomes; 8.49 million person-years at risk) from 102 prospective studies. Adjusted HRs with diabetes were: 2.00 (95% CI 1.83-2.19) for coronary heart...

  9. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  10. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  11. Persistent diarrhea: risk factors and outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umamaheswari, B; Biswal, Niranjan; Adhisivam, B; Parija, S C; Srinivasan, S

    2010-08-01

    To identify risk factors associated with Persistent diarrhea (PD) and deaths due to PD. This prospective case control study included 60 children with PD (cases) and 60 children (controls) with acute diarrhoea (AD). Detailed history, examination and appropriate investigations were done for all children. Crude Odds ratio was calculated for each risk factor by univariate analysis and adjusted odds ratio was calculated by multivariate logistic regression. Prior antibiotic use, steroid use, anemia, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition, LRI, UTI, oral candidiasis, and hyponatremia, were statistically significant risk factors by univariate analysis. Prior antibiotic use, vitamin A deficiency, malnutrition and LRI were independently associated with PD by multivariate logistic regression analysis. The risk factors for mortality were stool frequency more than 10 times per day, severe malnutrition, oral candidiasis, hypoalbuminemia and HIV positivity. The presence of these risk factors should alert the clinician to take appropriate measures, to decrease the mortality.

  12. Critical Success Factors for Risk Management Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Yaraghi, Niam

    2009-01-01

    Despite the existence of extensive literature regarding risk management, there still seems to be lack of knowledge in identification of Critical Success Factors (CSFs) in this area. In this research Grounded Theory is implemented to identify CSFs in Risk Management Systems (RMS). Factor analysis and one-sample t-test are then used to refine and rank the CSFs based on the results of a survey which has been performed among Risk Management practitioners in various types of Swedish corporations. ...

  13. Motivating Factors and Potential Deterrents to Blood Donation in High School Aged Blood Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Finck

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. To ensure an adequate supply of blood, collection centers must design campaigns that successfully recruit and maintain an active donor pool. Understanding factors that motivate and deter individuals from donating may help centers develop targeted recruitment campaigns. These factors among high school aged blood donors have not yet been fully investigated. Study Design and Methods. A voluntary, anonymous survey was administered to student donors at high school mobile blood drives. The survey instrument asked the students to rate several potential motivating factors in their importance in the decision to donate blood and several potential deterring factors in their future decision whether or not to donate blood again. The survey also asked the students to rate the desirability of several potential incentives. Results. Motivating factors that reflected prosocial, empathetic, and altruistic thoughts and beliefs were rated highly by students. Pain from phlebotomy was most commonly chosen as potential deterrent. Movie tickets and cookies/snacks at the drive were rated as the most attractive incentives. Conclusion. High school aged blood donors are similar to other donor groups in their expressed motives for donating blood. This group may be unique in the factors that deter them from donating and in their preferences for different incentives.

  14. The Bombay blood group: are we out of risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipta, T F; Hossain, A Z

    2011-07-01

    The Bombay blood group is a rare blood group, phenotypes of this group lacking H antigen on the red cell membrane and have anti-H in the serum. It fails to express any A, B or H antigen on their red cells or other tissues. The existence of a human H/h genetic polymorphism was first established by Bhende et al. As first discovery in Bombay (Mumbai), in India in 1952, so the name of this rare blood group is known as Bombay blood group. People having Bombay phenotype are mostly confined to the Southeast Asia. Around 179 persons in India with a frequency of 1 in 10,000 have "Bombay Blood group". A high level of consanguinity present among the parents of the Bombay phenotype. The classic Bombay phenotype has been reported in those of Indian descendent. It is quite rare in Caucasian with an incidence of 1 in 250,000. As because in our country there is routine practice of "only forward or cell type grouping" using finger prick method by voluntary blood donors organization and various blood banks; so there is tremendous chance of misinterpretation or unexploration of this Bombay blood group. When misdiagnosed, this Bombay group can cause fatal haemolytic transfusion reaction. For this reason our suggestion is to incorporate "routine serum typing or reverse grouping confirmation" along with 'O' cell control in reverse grouping procedure in every Transfusion Medicine Department or Blood Bank or Blood Donor Centers and this practice should be mandatory to reduce the risk of fatal haemolytic transfusion reaction. In this view we will highlight the incidence, molecular biology and clinical significance of this rare and fatal blood group.

  15. [Risk factors of main cancer sites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uleckiene, Saule; Didziapetriene, Janina; Griciūte, Liudvika Laima; Urbeliene, Janina; Kasiulevicius, Vytautas; Sapoka, Virginijus

    2008-01-01

    Cancer prevention is a system of various measures devoted to avoid this disease. Primary cancer prevention means the identification, avoidance, or destruction of known risk factors. The main risk factors are smoking, diet, alcohol consumption, occupational factors, environmental pollution, electromagnetic radiation, infection, medicines, reproductive hormones, and lack of physical activity. Approximately one-third of cancers can be avoided by implementing various preventive measures. The aim of this article was to acquaint medical students, family doctors with risk factors of main cancer sites (lung, breast, colorectal, and prostate).

  16. Intrinsic Risk Factors of Falls in Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasmin Amatullah

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Falls are common geriatric problems. The risk factors of falls are the intrinsic and extrinsic risk factors. Studies on falls are scarcely conducted in Indonesia, especially in Bandung. Therefore, this study was conducted to identify the intrinsic risk factors of falls among elderly. Methods: A descriptive study was carried out from August to October 2013 at the Geriatric Clinic of Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung. Fifty three participants were selected according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria using consecutive sampling. The determined variables in this study were classification of the risk of falls, demographic profile, history of falls, disease, and medications. After the selection, the participants were tested by Timed up-and-go test (TUGT. Moreover, an interview and analysis of medical records were carried out to discover the risk factors of falls. The collected data were analyzed and presented in the form of percentages shown in tables. Results: From 53 patients, women (35.66% were considered to have higher risk of fall than men (18.34%. The majority of patients (66% with the risk of fall were from the age group 60–74 years. The major diseases suffered by patients were hypertension, osteoarthritis and diabetes mellitus. Drugs that were widely used were antihypertensive drugs; analgesic and antipyretic drugs and antidiabetic drugs. Conclusions: There are various intrinsic risk factors of falls in elderly and each of the elderly has more than one intrinsic risk factor of falls.

  17. Quantifying Cardiometabolic Risk Using Modifiable Non–Self-Reported Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, Miguel; Li, Yi; Pencina, Michael J.; D’Agostino, Ralph B.; Berkman, Lisa F.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sensitive general cardiometabolic risk assessment tools of modifiable risk factors would be helpful and practical in a range of primary prevention interventions or for preventive health maintenance. Purpose To develop and validate a cumulative general cardiometabolic risk score that focuses on non–self-reported modifiable risk factors such as glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and BMI so as to be sensitive to small changes across a span of major modifiable risk factors, which may not individually cross clinical cut off points for risk categories. Methods We prospectively followed 2,359 cardiovascular disease (CVD)-free subjects from the Framingham offspring cohort over a 14–year follow-up. Baseline (fifth offspring examination cycle) included HbA1c and cholesterol measurements. Gender–specific Cox proportional hazards models were considered to evaluate the effects of non–self-reported modifiable risk factors (blood pressure, total cholesterol, high–density lipoprotein cholesterol, smoking, BMI, and HbA1c) on general CVD risk. We constructed 10–year general cardiometabolic risk score functions and evaluated its predictive performance in 2012–2013. Results HbA1c was significantly related to general CVD risk. The proposed cardiometabolic general CVD risk model showed good predictive performance as determined by cross-validated discrimination (male C-index=0.703, 95% CI=0.668, 0.734; female C-index=0.762, 95% CI=0.726, 0.801) and calibration (lack-of-fit χ2=9.05 [p=0.338] and 12.54 [p=0.128] for men and women, respectively). Conclusions This study presents a risk factor algorithm that provides a convenient and informative way to quantify cardiometabolic risk based on modifiable risk factors that can motivate an individual’s commitment to prevention and intervention. PMID:24951039

  18. Role of nursing intervention in controlling the diabetes-associated risk factors and blood glucose level%护理干预在控制糖尿病患者相关危险因素和血糖水平中的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何爱萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨护理干预在控制糖尿病患者相关危险因素中的作用和血糖控制效果.方法 对445例糖尿病患者实施护理干预,包括心理护理,饮食、服药和运动指导,控制体重等.比较干预前后患者相关危险因素控制情况和血糖控制水平的差异.结果 干预后患者空腹血糖(fasting blood-glucose,FBG)、餐后2h血糖、糖化血红蛋白(glycosylated hemoglobin,HbA1c)明显低于干预前;收缩压(systolic blood pressure,SBP)、舒张压(diastolic blood pressure,DBP)、体重、腰围、甘油三酯(triglyceride,TG)、总胆固醇(total cholesterol,TC)均较干预前下降,干预前后比较,均P< 0.05,差异具有统计学意义.结论 护理干预可有效控制糖尿病患者相关危险因素和血糖水平.%Objective To investigate the effect of nursing intervention in controlling the diabetes-associated risk factors and blood glucose level. Methods 445 diabetic patients received nursing intervention, including mental care, instructions on dieting, medication and taking exercises and weight control. The risk factors and the level of blood glucose before the intervention were compared with those after the intervention. Results After nursing intervention, the fasting blood glucose (FBG), two hours postprandial blood glucose, and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAlc) were all significantly lower than before the intervention (P < 0.05). The systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), body weight, triglyceride, TG, total cholesterol (TC) and low density lipoprotein cholesterin (DL-C) were all significantly lowered (all P < 0.05). Conclusion The nursing intervention may control the diabetes-associated risk factors and the blood glucose level.

  19. ABO Blood Group and Risk of Thromboembolic and Arterial Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vasan, Senthil K; Rostgaard, Klaus; Majeed, Ammar

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: ABO blood groups have been shown to be associated with increased risks of venous thromboembolic and arterial disease. However, the reported magnitude of this association is inconsistent and is based on evidence from small-scale studies. METHODS AND RESULTS: We used the SCANDAT2 (Scand...

  20. Seismic Risk Perception compared with seismic Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crescimbene, Massimo; La Longa, Federica; Pessina, Vera; Pino, Nicola Alessandro; Peruzza, Laura

    2016-04-01

    The communication of natural hazards and their consequences is one of the more relevant ethical issues faced by scientists. In the last years, social studies have provided evidence that risk communication is strongly influenced by the risk perception of people. In order to develop effective information and risk communication strategies, the perception of risks and the influencing factors should be known. A theory that offers an integrative approach to understanding and explaining risk perception is still missing. To explain risk perception, it is necessary to consider several perspectives: social, psychological and cultural perspectives and their interactions. This paper presents the results of the CATI survey on seismic risk perception in Italy, conducted by INGV researchers on funding by the DPC. We built a questionnaire to assess seismic risk perception, with a particular attention to compare hazard, vulnerability and exposure perception with the real data of the same factors. The Seismic Risk Perception Questionnaire (SRP-Q) is designed by semantic differential method, using opposite terms on a Likert scale to seven points. The questionnaire allows to obtain the scores of five risk indicators: Hazard, Exposure, Vulnerability, People and Community, Earthquake Phenomenon. The questionnaire was administered by telephone interview (C.A.T.I.) on a statistical sample at national level of over 4,000 people, in the period January -February 2015. Results show that risk perception seems be underestimated for all indicators considered. In particular scores of seismic Vulnerability factor are extremely low compared with house information data of the respondents. Other data collected by the questionnaire regard Earthquake information level, Sources of information, Earthquake occurrence with respect to other natural hazards, participation at risk reduction activities and level of involvement. Research on risk perception aims to aid risk analysis and policy-making by

  1. Risk factors for intracranial aneurysm in a Chinese ethnic population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yu-xiang; CHEN Xian-cheng; SONG Dong-lei; LENG Bing; ZHAO Fan

    2006-01-01

    Background Intracranial aneurysm (IAN) is a protruding bubble or a sac on a brain artery that balloons out over time, which may lead to spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), ultimately disability and mortality.Current research indicates that the disease is due to multiple causes, including environmental factors and various congenital abnormalities of blood vessels. Apart from congenital predisposition, various high-risk factors such as sex, age, hypertension, and atherosclerosis are involved in the formation of intracranial aneurysms. The aim of this study was to investigate the risk factors associated with the formation of sporadic intracranial aneurysms in Chinese Han ethnic patients.Methods A total of 251 patients with intracranial aneurysm and 338 patients with other cerebral diseases (control group) were enrolled in this study. Single factor and logistic regression model were used to analyze the association of intracranial aneurysms with age; sex; cigarette smoking; alcohol or cocaine consumption; history of hypertension, coronary artery disease, diabetes mellitus and inherited connective tissue disease; and the levels of fasting blood glucose and blood fat. The data expressed as mean ± standard deviation were processed with the statistical software SPSS13. Quantitative and qualitative data were analyzed by the independent-sample t test,and the chi-square test respectively. Logistic regression method was used to analyze the multiple factors.Results In the 251 patients, 163 (64.94%) were at age of 40 to 60 years. Sex (OR, 1.41; 95% CI, 1.01-1.96), cigarette smoking (OR, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.06-3.10), hypertension (OR, 2.32; 95% CI, 1.30-4.16) and fasting blood glucose were significantly associated with intracranial aneurysm (P<0.05). Intracranial aneurysm was correlated with alcohol consumption, coronary artery disease, and the level of blood lipids (P>0.05). Using logistic regression analysis, we identified female sex and advanced age as significant risk

  2. [risk Factors For Urinary Incontinence In Women].

    OpenAIRE

    Higa,Rosângela; Lopes, Maria Helena Baena de Moraes; dos Reis, Maria José

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to conduct a review of the main papers published between 1983 and 2003 on the main risk factors for urinary incontinence (UI) in women. Thirty-eight publications in English and Portuguese were analyzed using the MEDLINE and LILACS databases as well as through research in libraries. There is evidence that the main risk factors are age, pelvic floor trauma, hereditary factors, race, menopausal status, obesity, chronic diseases, use of some sympathomimetics and parasym...

  3. Diabetic Nephropathy: New Risk Factors and Improvements in Diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tziomalos, Konstantinos; Athyros, Vasilios G

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic nephropathy is the leading cause of end-stage renal disease. Patients with diabetic nephropathy have a high cardiovascular risk, comparable to patients with coronary heart disease. Accordingly, identification and management of risk factors for diabetic nephropathy as well as timely diagnosis and prompt management of the condition are of paramount importance for effective treatment. A variety of risk factors promotes the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy, including elevated glucose levels, long duration of diabetes, high blood pressure, obesity, and dyslipidemia. Most of these risk factors are modifiable by antidiabetic, antihypertensive, or lipid-lowering treatment and lifestyle changes. Others such as genetic factors or advanced age cannot be modified. Therefore, the rigorous management of the modifiable risk factors is essential for preventing and delaying the decline in renal function. Early diagnosis of diabetic nephropathy is another essential component in the management of diabetes and its complications such as nephropathy. New markers may allow earlier diagnosis of this common and serious complication, but further studies are needed to clarify their additive predictive value, and to define their cost-benefit ratio. This article reviews the most important risk factors in the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy and summarizes recent developments in the diagnosis of this disease.

  4. Hidden Risk Factors for Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Life's Simple 7®, take the My Life Check® Assessment . In just a few minutes, you can get your own personal health score and life plan to help you reduce your risk of stroke. Popular Articles 1 Stroke Family Warmline 2 What Is an Arteriovenous Malformation (AVM)? ...

  5. The association between risk factors and hypertension in perak, malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, K W; Rani, F; Chan, T C; Loh, H Y; Ng, C W; Moy, F M

    2013-08-01

    Hypertension is a major public health problem in Malaysia. A survey was initiated to examine the association of modifiable and non-modifiable risk factors for hypertension in Perak, Malaysia. A total of 2025 respondents aged 30 years and above were recruited using a multi-stage sampling method. Hypertension was defined as self-reported hypertension and/or average of two blood pressure readings at single occasion with SBP ≥ 140mmHg or DBP ≥ 90 mmHg. Body mass index (BMI) was defined using the Asian criteria and International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) was used to evaluate physical activity. Body weight, height and blood pressure were obtained using standard procedures. Univariate analyses were conducted to examine the associations between risk factors and hypertension. Multiple logistic regression was used to examine each significant risk factor on hypertension after adjusted for confounders. In total, 1076 (54.9%) respondents were found to be hypertensive. Significant associations (p family history of hypertension. After adjusting for age, sex, ethnicity, education background, family history, BMI, physical activity, smoking and diet, respondents who were obese and had positive family history had higher odds for hypertension (OR:2.34; 95% CI:1.84-3.17 and 1.96 (1.59-2.42) respectively. A significant increase (p <0.001) in risk for hypertension was noted for age. Those with moderate physical activities were 1.40 (1.04-1.78) times more of having hypertension than those active. Poor diet score and smoking were not significantly associated with increased risk for hypertension. In conclusion, modifiable risk factors such as BMI and physical activity are important risk factors to target in reducing the risk for hypertension.

  6. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  7. Risk factors of pancreatic leakage after pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yin-Mo Yang; Xiao-Dong Tian; Yan Zhuang; Wei-Min Wang; Yuan-Lian Wan; Yan-Ting Huang

    2005-01-01

    cases (9/46, 19.6%)developed postoperative pancreatic leakage. General risk factors including patient age, gender, history of jaundice,preoperative nutrition, pathological diagnosis and the length of postoperative stay were similar in the two groups.There was no statistical difference in the incidence of pancreatic leakage between the patients who received the prophylactic use of octreotide after surgery and the patients who did not undergo somatostatin therapy.Moreover, multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that none of the above factors seemed to be associated with pancreatic fistula. Two intraoperative risk factors,pancreatic duct size and texture of the remnant pancreas,were found to be significantly associated with pancreatic leakage. The incidence of pancreatic leakage was 4.88%in patients with a pancreatic duct size greater than or equal to 3 mm and was 38.1% in those with ducts smaller than 3 mm (P = 0.002). The pancreatic leakage rate was 2.94% in patients with a hard pancreas and was 32.1% in those with a soft pancreas (P = 0.004). Operative time,blood loss and type of resection were similar in the two patient groups. The incidence of pancreatic leakage was 6.25% (1/16) in patients with duct-to-mucosa anastomosis,and was 19.6% (9/46) in those with traditional invagination anastomosis. Although the difference of pancreatic leakage between the two groups was obvious, no statistical signific-ance was found. This may be due to the small number of patients with duct-to-mucosa anastomosis.By further analyzing with multivariate logistic regression,both pancreatic duct size and texture of the remnant pancreas were demonstrated to be independent risk factors (P= 0.007 and 0.017, OR = 11.87 and 15.45). Although anastomotic technique was not a significant factor,pancreatic leakage rate was much less in cases that underwent duct-to-mucosa pancreaticojejunostomy.CONCLUSION: Pancreatic duct size and texture of the remnant pancreas are risk factors influencing

  8. Smoldering multiple myeloma risk factors for progression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørrig, Rasmus; Klausen, Tobias W; Salomo, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Several risk scores for disease progression in Smoldering Multiple Myeloma (SMM) patients have been proposed, however, all have been developed using single center registries. To examine risk factors for time to progression (TTP) to Multiple Myeloma (MM) for SMM we analyzed a nationwide population......-based cohort of 321 newly diagnosed SMM patients registered within the Danish Multiple Myeloma Registry between 2005 and 2014. Significant univariable risk factors for TTP were selected for multivariable Cox regression analyses. We found that both an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis significantly influenced......-high risk of transformation to MM. Using only immunoparesis and M-protein ≥ 30g/l, we created a scoring system to identify low, intermediate and high risk SMM. This first population-based study of SMM patients confirms that an M-protein ≥ 30g/l and immunoparesis remain important risk factors for progression...

  9. Predictive risk factors for persistent postherniotomy pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aasvang, Eske K; Gmaehle, Eliza; Hansen, Jeanette B

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Persistent postherniotomy pain (PPP) affects everyday activities in 5-10% of patients. Identification of predisposing factors may help to identify the risk groups and guide anesthetic or surgical procedures in reducing risk for PPP. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted in 464...... regression analysis identified four risk factors for PPP: preoperative AAS score, preoperative pain to tonic heat stimulation, 30-day postoperative pain intensity, and sensory dysfunction in the groin at 6 months (nerve damage) (all P risk prediction model of only preoperative factors and choice...... patients undergoing open or laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal elective groin hernia repair. Primary outcome was identification of risk factors for substantial pain-related functional impairment at 6 months postoperatively assessed by the validated Activity Assessment Scale (AAS). Data on potential...

  10. Factors influencing intraoperative blood loss in orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thastum, M; Andersen, K; Rude, K; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-09-01

    This retrospective study aimed to identify factors of importance for intraoperative blood loss relative to total blood volume in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery. The study included 356 patients treated consecutively at a Danish university hospital between 1 January 2010 and 31 December 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years and (2) patient undergoing a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, or a combination of the two. The patient-specific relative blood loss was calculated as a percentage by dividing the intraoperative blood loss by the estimated preoperative total blood volume, and then correlated with body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operating time, and treatment modality in a multivariate stepwise regression analysis. Operating time (Psurgery, a prolonged operating time, and reduced BMI significantly increase the intraoperative relative blood loss in patients undergoing orthognathic surgery.

  11. Burnout and risk factors for cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melamed, S; Kushnir, T; Shirom, A

    1992-01-01

    The burnout syndrome denotes a constellation of physical fatigue, emotional exhaustion, and cognitive weariness resulting from chronic stress. Although it overlaps considerably with chronic fatigue as defined in internal medicine, its links with physical illness have not been systematically investigated. This exploratory study, conducted among 104 male workers free from cardiovascular disease (CVD), tested the association between burnout and two of its common concomitants--tension and listlessness--and cardiovascular risk factors. After ruling out five possible confounders (age, relative weight, smoking, alcohol use, and sports activity), the authors found that scores on burnout plus tension (tense-burnout) were associated with somatic complaints, cholesterol, glucose, triglycerides, uric acid, and, marginally, with ECG abnormalities. Workers scoring high on tense-burnout also had a significantly higher low density lipoprotein (LDL) level. Conversely, scores on burnout plus listlessness were significantly associated with glucose and negatively with diastolic blood pressure. The findings warrant further study of burnout as a predictor of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality.

  12. Relationship Satisfaction and Risk Factors for Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Till, Benedikt; Tran, Ulrich S; Niederkrotenthaler, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that troubled romantic relationships are associated with higher risk factors for mental health. However, studies examining the role of relationship satisfaction in suicide risk factors are scarce. We investigated differences in risk factors for suicide between individuals with high relationship satisfaction, individuals with low relationship satisfaction, and singles. Furthermore, we explored patterns of experiencing, and dealing with, conflicts in the relationship and examined associations with suicide risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, we assessed relationship status, relationship satisfaction, specific types of relationship conflicts, and suicide risk factors (i.e., suicidal ideation, hopelessness, depression) with questionnaires among 382 individuals in Austria. Risk factors for suicide were higher among singles than among individuals in happy relationships, but lower among those with low relationship satisfaction. Participants reporting a high number of unsolved conflicts in their relationship had higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression than individuals who tend to solve issues with their partner amicably or report no conflicts. Relationship satisfaction and relationship conflicts reflect risk factors for suicide, with higher levels of suicidal ideation, hopelessness, and depression reported by individuals who mentioned unsolved conflicts with their partner and experienced low satisfaction with their relationship.

  13. Risk factors of coercion among psychiatric inpatients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Christoffer; Starkopf, Liis; Hastrup, Lene Halling

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: Reducing the use of coercion among patients with mental disorders has long been a political priority. However, risk factors for coercive measures have primarily been investigated in smaller studies. To reduce the use of coercion, it is crucial to identify people at risk which we aim to do...... and having children, reduced the risk of being subjected to coercive measure (all p identified a broad range of risk factors associated with coercive measures. Our findings can assist researchers in identifying patients at risk of coercion and thereby help...... measure (21.9%). Clinical characteristics were the foremost predictors of coercion and patients with organic mental disorder had the highest increased risk of being subjected to a coercive measure (OR = 5.56; 95% CI = 5.04, 6.14). The risk of coercion was the highest in the first admission and decreased...

  14. Association of ABO blood types with the risk of in-stent restenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pourafkari, L; Ghaffari, S; Ahmadi, M; Tajlil, A; Nader, N D

    2015-09-01

    To investigate the prevalence of in-stent restenosis (ISR) in patients with various ABO blood types. Clinical information from 150 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of ISR and 150 patients with a diagnosis of patent coronary stents in the secondary angiography was collected. Comprehensive demographic and laboratory data, including ABO and Rhesus blood groups, as well as comorbid conditions and vessel and stent characteristics, were recorded for each patient. The association of ABO blood groups with the risk of ISR before and after controlling for coronary risk factors was determined. Categorical data were analyzed with the Chi-square test and numerical values were analyzed with t-tests. Binary logistic regression models were constructed to compare type A and non-A for the frequency of risk factors. A total of 392 stents were implanted in 300 patients. Two hundred and fourteen stents (54.6%) were patent and 178 stents (45.4%) were stenosed. Blood group A was significantly more common in the ISR group (43.3% vs. 28.7%, p=0.03). However, the frequencies of other blood types, as well as Rh antigen, were similar between the two groups. Triglyceride and low-density lipoproteins were the only significantly different variables (221 ± 198 mg/dL vs. 138 ± 76 mg/dL, p<0.001 and 108 ± 36 mg/dL vs. 96 ± 73 mg/dL, p=0.04, in type-A vs. non-A, respectively). After matching for coronary risk factors, there was no difference between A blood type patients and their controls. ISR is significantly more prevalent in individuals with the type A blood group. However, this higher association is most likely due to higher atherogenic conditions in patients within this population. © The Author(s) 2015.

  15. Proof of concept in cardiovascular risk: the paradoxical findings in blood pressure and lipid abnormalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, Flavio Danni; Fuchs, Sandra Costa; Moreira, Leila Beltrami; Gus, Miguel

    2012-01-01

    High blood pressure and lipoprotein abnormalities were identified by many cohort studies as the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory experiments apparently confirmed their role in the causation of atherosclerosis, but a proof of concept requires the corroboration by clinical trials in human beings. The size of benefit in clinical trials regarding the control of high blood pressure was within the estimations of risk provided by cohort studies. For a reduction of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure, the relative risk reduction of coronary heart disease was 22% (95% confidence interval 27%–17%) in a meta-analysis of clinical trials, close to the estimation of reduction of 25% (95% confidence interval 23%–27%) provided by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The corresponding values for stroke were 41% (95% confidence interval 33%–48%) in clinical trials compared to a cohort risk prediction of 36% (95% confidence interval 34%–38%). This efficacy was shared by all blood pressure-lowering drugs. The same figure has not paradoxically happened with drugs that act over abnormalities of cholesterol and lipoproteins. Only statins, which have other beneficial actions as well, have consistently lowered the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, an efficacy that was not reproduced by older and newer quite potent lipid drugs. The adverse effects of these drugs may nullify their beneficial effects over lipoproteins and abnormalities of lipoproteins may only be surrogate markers of the underlying real risks. PMID:22870036

  16. Investigation of Framingham Risk Factors in Turkish adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arda Şanlı Ökmen

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine 10-year risk for development of cardiovascular diseases usingFramingham risk scoring as a tool for the estimationof coronary risk and renew the blood lipid levels.Materials and methods: Samples from fasting 3169healthy donors declaring as having no cardiovasculardisease and diabetes (1800 women, mean age 46.8±9.2years and 1369 men, mean age 46.03±8.4 years weretested and scored according to risk factors in both genders.Results: When average values were considered, totalcholesterol level was higher (204±42 mg/dL accordingto reactive insert reference values. High total kolesteroland low HDL-C levels were seen in 20% and 19.5% ofmen and 32.6% and 1.1% of women, respectively. Thenumber of participants having systolic blood pressure≥130 mmHg and diastolic blood pressure ≥ 85 mmHgwere 775 (24.5% and the distribution of those valueswas 10.6 % in men and 13.9% in women. The mean 10-year cardiovascular disease risks were 9.4 % in men and4.6% in women among 3169 participants.Conclusion: A 10-year risk of coronary disease, in Turkishmales was 2-fold higher than in Turkish females. Useof Framingham study in clinical assessments maintains tobe a valid method in preventive approaches for developmentof cardiovascular diseases. J Clin Exp Invest 2011;2(1: 42-49

  17. Early life risk factors for testicular cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Piltoft, Johanne Spanggaard; Larsen, Signe Benzon; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg

    2017-01-01

    of this study is to utilize data from the Copenhagen School Health Records Register (CSHRR) to evaluate cryptorchidism, birth weight and birth order as risk factors for testicular cancer. METHODS: The study population consisted of 408 cases of testicular cancer identified by a government issued identification......PURPOSE: One established risk factors for testicular cancer is cryptorchidism. However, it remains unclear whether cryptorchidism is a risk factor in itself or whether the two conditions share common causes in early life (estrogen hypothesis), such as birth weight and birth order. The objective...

  18. Exercise protects the cardiovascular system: effects beyond traditional risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, Michael J; Green, Daniel J

    2009-12-01

    In humans, exercise training and moderate to high levels of physical activity are protective against cardiovascular disease. In fact they are 40% more protective than predicted based on the changes in traditional risk factors (blood lipids, hypertension, diabetes etc.) that they cause. In this review, we highlight the positive effects of exercise on endothelial function and the autonomic nervous system. We also ask if these effects alone, or in combination, might explain the protective effects of exercise against cardiovascular disease that appear to be independent of traditional risk factor modification. Our goal is to use selected data from our own work and that of others to stimulate debate on the nature and cause of the 'risk factor gap' associated with exercise and physical activity.

  19. Risk factor control is key in diabetic nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Gareth; Maxwell, Alexander P

    2014-02-01

    Prolonged duration of diabetes, poor glycaemic control and hypertension are major risk factors for both diabetic nephropathy and cardiovascular disease. Optimising blood sugar control together with excellent control of blood pressure can reduce the risk of developing diabetic nephropathy. Diabetic nephropathy should be considered in any patient with diabetes when persistent albuminuria develops. Microalbuminuria is the earliest clinically detectable indicator of diabetic nephropathy risk. The majority of patients with diabetic nephropathy are appropriately diagnosed based on elevated urinary albumin excretion and/or reduced 0032-6518 renal function. Patients with type 2 diabetes should have annual urinary ACR measurements from the time of diabetes diagnosis while those with type 1 diabetes should commence five years after diagnosis. Blood pressure lowering to 130/80mmHg and reduction of proteinuria to diabetic nephropathy and reduces the number of cardiovascular events. Drugs that block the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) are effective in reducing proteinuria, managing hypertension and reducing cardiovascular risk. Unless there are clear contraindications or intolerance all patients with diabetic nephropathy should be prescribed an ACEI or ARB. Stopping an ACEI or ARB during intercurrent illness or times of volume depletion is critically important. Patients with diabetic nephropathy should have at least yearly measurements of blood pressure, renal function and urinary ACR.

  20. Risk Factors for Chronic Pain Syndrome after Gynecological Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Z Dugiyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to define risk factors for chronic postoperative pain syndrome (CPPS in gynecological patients. Subjects and methods. The pre- and intraoperative examination data of 339 gynecological patients who had been operated on via only laparotomic approach and received postoperative traditional therapy (without adaptogens and antioxidants were used to study the risk factors of CPPS. Postoperatively, subjective self-assessment tests were carried out using the visual analogue scale (VAS and 4-point pain rating scale to measure pain intensity. Results. The material of 339 patients who had undergone gynecological surgery was used to investigate the importance of CPPS risk factors associated with their preoperative features and with the indicators characterizing the performed intervention. The reasons that were of statistically confirmed significance to the risk of CPPS were identified. The findings may be used to individualize a postoperative analgesic therapy regimen and they determine priority measures to prevent CPPS. Conclusion. The reasons associated with a significant increase in the relative risk of CPPS (RR, 1.3 to 2.6; p<0.05 are a more than 2-hour operation, an intraoperative blood loss exceeding 500 ml, third-to-fourth-degree obesity, anemia with a preoperative hemoglobin concentration of < 100 g/l, and preoperative sympatotonia. The factors that are of no statistically confirmed significance to the risk of CPPS (p>0.05; 95% CI for RR and OR are anemia with a preoperative hemoglobin concentration of 100 to 120 g/l, first-to-second-degree obesity, a less than 2-hour operation, an intraoperative blood loss of less than 500 ml, and preoperative parasympatotonia. Key words: gynecological surgery, chronic postoperative pain syndrome, risk factors.

  1. HUMAN PROSTATE CANCER RISK FACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prostate cancer has the highest prevalence of any non-skin cancer in the human body, with similar likelihood of neoplastic foci found within the prostates of men around the world regardless of diet, occupation, lifestyle, or other factors. Essentially all men with circulating an...

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... harming your baby. Jump To: Am I at Risk? The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is ... prevent blood clots during pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your ...

  3. Obesity as a significant risk factor for endometrial cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Amer Suskic; Sanela Halilovic Suskic; Dejan Opric; Sinisa Maksimovic

    2016-01-01

    Background: Endometrial cancer is the most developed countries the most common invasive neoplasms of the female reproductive system. The most frequently mentioned risk factors, which are associated with the occurrence of endometrial cancer are obesity, infertility, high blood pressure, diabetes, liver disease, hormone-active tumors of the ovary, and the use of external estrogen. Methods: This paper deals with data of the patients treated for endometrial carcinoma in Public Hospitals in Tra...

  4. Consumption of nattokinase is associated with reduced blood pressure and von Willebrand factor, a cardiovascular risk marker: results from a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter North American clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen GS

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gitte S Jensen,1 Miki Lenninger,1 Michael P Ero,2 Kathleen F Benson,1 1NIS Labs, Klamath Falls, OR, 2Machaon Diagnostics, Inc., Oakland, CA, USA Objective: The objective of this study is to evaluate the effects of consumption of nattokinase on hypertension in a North American hypertensive population with associated genetic, dietary, and lifestyle factors. This is in extension of, and contrast to, previous studies on Asian populations.Materials and methods: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-arm clinical study was performed to evaluate nattokinase (NSK-SD, a fermented soy extract nattō from which vitamin K2 has been removed. Based on the results from previous studies on Asian populations, 79 subjects were enrolled upon screening for elevated blood pressure (BP; systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥90 mmHg who consumed placebo or 100 mg nattokinase/d for the 8-week study duration. Blood collections were performed at baseline and 8 weeks for testing plasma renin activity, von Willebrand factor (vWF, and platelet factor-4. Seventy-four people completed the study with good compliance.Results: Consumption of nattokinase was associated with a reduction in both systolic and diastolic BP. The reduction in systolic BP was seen for both sexes but was more robust in males consuming nattokinase. The average reduction in diastolic BP in the nattokinase group from 87 mmHg to 84 mmHg was statistically significant when compared to that in the group consuming placebo, where the average diastolic BP remained constant at 87 mmHg (P<0.05, and reached a high level of significance for males consuming nattokinase, where the average diastolic BP dropped from 86 mmHg to 81 mmHg (P<0.006. A decrease in vWF was seen in the female population consuming nattokinase (P<0.1. In the subpopulation with low plasma renin activity levels at baseline (<0.29 ng/mL/h, an increase was seen for 66% of the people after 8-week consumption of nattokinase (P

  5. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  6. Arterial stiffness as a risk factor for coronary artery disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Josh; Farmer, John

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a major modifiable risk factor, and clinical trials have demonstrated that successful reduction of elevated blood pressure to target levels translates into decreased risk for the development of coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, and renal failure. The arterial system had previously been regarded as a passive conduit for the transportation of arterial blood to peripheral tissues. The physiologic role the arterial system was greatly expanded by the recognition of the central role of the endothelial function in a variety of physiologic processes. The role of arterial function and structure in cardiovascular physiology was expanded with the development of a variety of parameters that evaluate arterial stiffness. Markers of arterial stiffness have been correlated with cardiovascular outcomes, and have been classified as an emerging risk factor that provides prognostic information beyond standard stratification strategies involving hypertension, diabetes, obesity, dyslipidemia and smoking. Multiple epidemiologic studies have correlated markers of arterial stiffness such as pulse-wave velocity, augmentation index and pulse pressure with risk for the development of fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Additionally, measurements of arterial stiffness had clarified the results of clinical trials that demonstrated differing impacts on clinical outcomes, despite similar reductions in blood pressure, as measured by brachial and sphygmomanometry.

  7. Nutritional risk factors for postmenopausal osteoporosis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olfa Berriche

    2016-07-26

    Jul 26, 2016 ... Aim: The purpose of our study was to identify nutritional risk factors of osteoporosis of two ..... the diet: three studies comparing women with vegetarian diets ... The lack of positive relationships between dairy consump- tion and ...

  8. 459 Preventing Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors through ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... Omoifo Dele E. - College of Education, Igueben, Edo State, Nigeria. E-mail: ... paper therefore is that one's consciousness of his health status can bring about positive modification of likely risk factors. Key words: ...

  9. Awareness of risk factors for cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerlund, Magdalena; Hvidberg, Line; Hajdarevic, Senada

    2015-01-01

    Background: Sweden and Denmark are neighbouring countries with similarities in culture, healthcare, and economics, yet notable differences in cancer statistics. A crucial component of primary prevention is high awareness of risk factors in the general public. We aimed to determine and compare...... awareness of risk factors for cancer between a Danish and a Swedish population sample, and to examine whether there are differences in awareness across age groups. Methods: Data derive from Module 2 of the International Cancer Benchmarking Partnership. Telephone interviews were conducted with 3000 adults...... in Denmark and 3070 in Sweden using the Awareness and Beliefs about Cancer measure. Data reported here relate to awareness of 13 prompted risk factors for cancer. Prevalence ratios with 95 % confidence intervals were calculated to examine associations between country, age, and awareness of risk factors...

  10. Risk Factors for Developing Atopic Dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    G. Carson, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to investigate possible risk factors affecting the development of AD. AD is a frequent disease among children and has a substantial impact on the lives of both the child and its family. A better understanding of the disease would enable better treatment, prevention...... exposure to dog was the only environmental exposure that significantly reduced the disease manifestation, suggesting other, yet unknown environmental factors affecting the increasing prevalence of AD in children. Length at birth was shown to be inversely associated with the risk of later developing AD...... and information to the families involved. Previous risk factor studies have been hampered by an unsuitable study design and/or difficulties in standardization when diagnosing AD, which limit their conclusions. In paper I, we conducted a traditional cross-sectional analysis testing 40 possible risk factors...

  11. Nocturnal Sleep Disturbances: Risk Factors for Suicide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sleep problems are associated with both depressive and anxiety disorders, both of which are risk factors for suicide ( ... Time-related predictors of suicide in major affective disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry , 147 , 1189-1194. Krakow, B., Ribeiro, ...

  12. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  13. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  14. Atrial fibrillation and bleeding complication - risk factors and risk marker

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breithardt, G.; Ravens, U.; Kirchhof, P.; van Gelder, I. C.

    2012-01-01

    The development of atrial fibrillation (AF) is closely linked to risk factors like hypertension and heart failure, diabetes mellitus, myocardial infarction and valvular heart disease. These factors partly overlap with those which determine the progression of atrial fibrillation and the incidence of

  15. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on Wes

  16. Java project on periodontal diseases. The natural development of periodontitis: risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants : risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Velden, U.; Abbas, F.; Armand, S.; Loos, B. G.; Timmerman, M. F.; Van der Weijden, G. A.; Van Winkelhoff, A. J.; Winkel, E. G.

    Objective: To identify risk factors, risk predictors and risk determinants for onset and progression of periodontitis. Material and Methods: For this longitudinal, prospective study all subjects in the age range 15-25 years living in a village of approximately 2000 inhabitants at a tea estate on

  17. RISK FACTORS FOR INTIMATE PARTNER VIOLENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Ceren Atakay

    2014-01-01

    Intimate partner violence has kept being one of the major societal issues in our country over the past year. It is absolutely necessary to intervene in this substantially psychological issue multi-directionally. In order to intervene in the problem from psychological aspect, it is important to estimate and interpret the risk factors for intimate partner violence. Therefore in the current study, ‘I-cube theory’ which is about the risk factors for intimate partner violence has been explained fi...

  18. Cardiovascular risk factors over the life course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulsegge, G.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) usually manifests itself at middle age or beyond, but it is the result of an ongoing disease process. This stresses the need for insight into changes in lifestyle and metabolic risk factors that occur throughout the life course, and their effect on CVD. We studied risk f

  19. Risk factors in prevention of drug dependences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Orosova, Ol'ga; Gajdosova, Beata; Madarasova-Geckova, Andrea; Van Dijk, Jitse P.

    2007-01-01

    The study presents the state-of-art of knowledge of risk factors of drug use as a form of risk behaviour in adolescents in individual, interpersonal, and environmental domain (family, school, society). The attention is paid to general deviation syndrome and to the construct of general tendency to dr

  20. Cancer associated thrombosis: risk factors and outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichinger, Sabine

    2016-04-01

    Deep vein thrombosis of the leg and pulmonary embolism are frequent diseases and cancer is one of their most important risk factors. Patients with cancer also have a higher prevalence of venous thrombosis located in other parts than in the legs and/or in unusual sites including upper extremity, splanchnic or cerebral veins. Cancer also affects the risk of arterial thrombotic events particularly in patients with myeloproliferative neoplasms and in vascular endothelial growth factor receptor inhibitor recipients. Several risk factors need to interact to trigger thrombosis. In addition to common risk factors such as surgery, hospitalisation, infection and genetic coagulation disorders, the thrombotic risk is also driven and modified by cancer-specific factors including type, histology, and stage of the malignancy, cancer treatment and certain biomarkers. A venous thrombotic event in a cancer patient has serious consequences as the risk of recurrent thrombosis, the risk of bleeding during anticoagulation and hospitalisation rates are all increased. Survival of cancer patients with thrombosis is worse compared to that of cancer patients without thrombosis, and thrombosis is a leading direct cause of death in cancer patients.

  1. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor in various blood transfusion components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion may reduce survival after curative surgery for solid tumors. This may be related to extracellular content of cancer growth factors present in transfusion components. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis in solid tumors....... The potential content of VEGF in various blood components for transfusion was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Soluble VEGF (sVEGF, isotype 165) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) in serum and plasma samples and in lysed cells from healthy volunteers. Subsequently, total content......-reduced PRP. The sVEGF accumulated significantly in WB, SAGM blood, and BCP pools, depending on the storage time. CONCLUSION: The sVEGF (isotype 165) appears to be present in various blood transfusion components, depending on storage time....

  2. Association Between Blood Lead and the Risk of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Kwee, Lydia C.; Allen, Kelli D.; Umbach, David M.; Ye, Weimin; Watson, Mary; Keller, Jean; Oddone, Eugene Z.; Sandler, Dale P.; Schmidt, Silke; Kamel, Freya

    2010-01-01

    The authors conducted a 2003–2007 case-control study including 184 cases and 194 controls to examine the association between blood lead and the risk of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) among US veterans and to explore the influence on this association of bone turnover and genetic factors related to lead toxicokinetics. Blood lead, plasma biomarkers of bone formation (procollagen type 1 amino-terminal peptide (PINP)) and resorption (C-terminal telopeptides of type 1 collagen (CTX)), and the K59N polymorphism in the δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase gene, ALAD, were measured. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the association of blood lead with ALS were estimated with unconditional logistic regression after adjustment for age and bone turnover. Blood lead levels were higher among cases compared with controls (P < 0.0001, age adjusted). A doubling of blood lead was associated with a 1.9-fold increased risk of ALS (95% confidence interval: 1.3, 2.7) after adjustment for age and CTX. Additional adjustment for PINP did not alter the results. Significant lead-ALS associations were observed in substrata of PINP and CTX levels. The K59N polymorphism in the ALAD gene did not modify the lead-ALS association (P = 0.32). These results extend earlier findings by accounting for bone turnover in confirming the association between elevated blood lead level and higher risk of ALS. PMID:20406759

  3. Biological correlates of blood pressure variability in elderly at high risk of cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poortvliet, Rosalinde K E; Lloyd, Suzanne M; Ford, Ian; Sattar, Naveed; de Craen, Anton J M; Wijsman, Liselotte W; Mooijaart, Simon P; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Jukema, J Wouter; de Ruijter, Wouter; Gussekloo, Jacobijn; Stott, David J

    2015-04-01

    Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease. This study investigates biological correlates of intra-individual variability in blood pressure in older persons. Nested observational study within the PROspective Study of Pravastatin in the Elderly at Risk (PROSPER) among 3,794 male and female participants (range 70-82 years) with a history of, or risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Individual visit-to-visit variability in systolic and diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure (expressed as 1 SD in mm Hg) was assessed using nine measurements over 2 years. Correlates of higher visit-to-visit variability were examined at baseline, including markers of inflammation, endothelial function, renal function and glucose homeostasis. Over the first 2 years, the mean intra-individual variability (1 SD) was 14.4mm Hg for systolic blood pressure, 7.7mm Hg for diastolic blood pressure, and 12.6mm Hg for pulse pressure. After multivariate adjustment a higher level of interleukin-6 at baseline was consistently associated with higher intra-individual variability of blood pressure, including systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure. Markers of endothelial function (Von Willebrand factor, tissue plasminogen activator), renal function (glomerular filtration rate) and glucose homeostasis (blood glucose, homeostatic model assessment index) were not or to a minor extent associated with blood pressure variability. In an elderly population at risk of cardiovascular disease, inflammation (as evidenced by higher levels of interleukin-6) is associated with higher intra-individual variability in systolic, diastolic, and pulse pressure. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2014. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. [Risk factors and prevention of genitourinary prolapse].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragni, E; Lousquy, R; Costa, P; Delmas, V; Haab, F

    2009-12-01

    Numerous epidemiological studies in recent years have involved the search for the principal risk factors of genitourinary prolapse. Although it has been agreed for a long time that vaginal delivery increases the risk of prolapse (proof level 1), on the other hand, the Cesarian section cannot be considered a completely effective preventative method (proof level 2). The pregnancy itself is a risk factor for prolapse (proof level 2). Certain obstetrical conditions contribute to the alterations of the perineal floor muscle: a foetus weighing more than four kilos, the use of instruments at birth (proof level 3). If the risk of prolapse increases with age, intrication with hormonal factors is important (proof level 2). The role of hormonal replacement therapy remains controversial. Antecedent pelvic surgery has also been identified as a risk factor (proof level 2). Other varying acquired factors have been documented. Obesity (BMI and abdominal perimeter), professional activity and intense physical activity (proof level 3), as well as constipation, increase the risk of prolapse. More thorough research into these varying factors is necessary in order to be able to argue for measures of prevention, obstetrical techniques having already evolved to ensure minimal damage to the perineal structure.

  5. Risk Factors for Cerebral Venous Thrombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silvis, Suzanne M; Middeldorp, Saskia; Zuurbier, Susanna M; Cannegieter, Suzanne C; Coutinho, Jonathan M

    2016-09-01

    Cerebral venous thrombosis (CVT) is a rare thrombotic disorder involving the cerebral veins and dural sinuses. In contrast to more common sites of venous thromboembolism (VTE), such as the legs and lungs, CVT mainly affects young adults and children, and women are affected three times more often than men. Although presenting symptoms are variable, headache is usually the first symptom, often in combination with focal neurologic deficits and epileptic seizures. The primary therapy for CVT consists of heparin followed by oral anticoagulation for at least 3 to 6 months. The mortality in the acute phase is 5 to 10% and a substantial proportion of survivors suffer from long-term disabilities. A large number of risk factors have been linked to CVT, although the scientific evidence for an association varies considerably between risk factors. Some risk factors, such as hereditary thrombophilia, correspond with risk factors for more common sites of VTE, whereas others, such as head trauma, are specific to CVT. In most patients, at least one risk factor can be identified. In this review, we provide an overview of the risk factors for CVT.

  6. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  7. Viral metagenomics applied to blood donors and recipients at high risk for blood-borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Virginie; Laperche, Syria; Cheval, Justine; Muth, Erika; Dubois, Myriam; Boizeau, Laure; Hébert, Charles; Lionnet, François; Lefrère, Jean-Jacques; Eloit, Marc

    2016-01-01

    Background Characterisation of human-associated viral communities is essential for epidemiological surveillance and to be able to anticipate new potential threats for blood transfusion safety. In high-resource countries, the risk of blood-borne agent transmission of well-known viruses (HBV, HCV, HIV and HTLV) is currently considered to be under control. However, other unknown or unsuspected viruses may be transmitted to recipients by blood-derived products. To investigate this, the virome of plasma from individuals at high risk for parenterally and sexually transmitted infections was analysed by high throughput sequencing (HTS). Materials and methods Purified nucleic acids from two pools of 50 samples from recipients of multiple transfusions, and three pools containing seven plasma samples from either HBV−, HCV− or HIV-infected blood donors, were submitted to HTS. Results Sequences from resident anelloviruses and HPgV were evidenced in all pools. HBV and HCV sequences were detected in pools containing 3.8×103 IU/mL of HBV-DNA and 1.7×105 IU/mL of HCV-RNA, respectively, whereas no HIV sequence was found in a pool of 150 copies/mL of HIV-RNA. This suggests a lack of sensitivity in HTS performance in detecting low levels of virus. In addition, this study identified other issues, including laboratory contaminants and the uncertainty of taxonomic assignment of short sequence. No sequence suggestive of a new viral species was identified. Discussion This study did not identify any new blood-borne virus in high-risk individuals. However, rare and/or viruses present at very low titre could have escaped our protocol. Our results demonstrate the positive contribution of HTS in the detection of viral sequences in blood donations. PMID:27136432

  8. Risk factors for mortality in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii bacteraemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Asmita A Mehta; V Anil Kumar; Kumari Indira K; Suresh G Nair; Kavitha R Dinesh; Sanjeev K Singh

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To determine the risk factors associated with mortality in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus–baumannii (Acb) complex blood stream infection. Methods: This was an observational study conducted in tertiary care hospital of South India. All patients with blood culture positive for Acb complex from January 2008 to December 2009 were included and a standardized abstraction form was used to abstract data. P value was calculated by Chi square test. Univariate analysis was done by using 2x2 tables and the variables with P value of <0.1 were further subjected to multivariate analysis. Multivariate analysis was done by logistic regression method. Results: After excluding the polymicrobial infections and duplicate isolates from the same patients, 81 cases were included in our study. Out of 81 patients, 20 (24.6%) patients had positive isolate from body secretion other than blood for Acb complex, majority were hospitalized in intensive care unit (74%), had indwelling vascular catheters (68%) and were mechanically ventilated (61%). Multi drug resistant phenotypes were seen in 56 (69.1%) isolates and among them 13 (16%) were resistant to carbapenems. Univariate analysis showed renal disease, diabetes mellitus, use of mechanical ventilation and absence of appropriate antibiotic therapy, leucopenia, thrombocytopenia and raised prothrombin time were related to increased mortality in Acb complex bacteraemia. However, in multivariate analysis independent risk factors for mortality in Acb complex bacteraemia were platelets of less than 1.5 lacks and inappropriate empirical antibiotics. Conclusions: Thrombocytopenia and absence of appropriate antibiotics were risk factors associated with mortality in Acb bacteraemia. Patients with blood culture showing Acb complex bacteraemia with above findings should be attended with aggressive management. Clinician of hospitals with high incidence of Acb complex bacteraemia, should predict the chances of such infection even prior to blood

  9. Modifiable risk factors for schizophrenia and autism--shared risk factors impacting on brain development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamlyn, Jess; Duhig, Michael; McGrath, John; Scott, James

    2013-05-01

    Schizophrenia and autism are two poorly understood clinical syndromes that differ in age of onset and clinical profile. However, recent genetic and epidemiological research suggests that these two neurodevelopmental disorders share certain risk factors. The aims of this review are to describe modifiable risk factors that have been identified in both disorders, and, where available, collate salient systematic reviews and meta-analyses that have examined shared risk factors. Based on searches of Medline, Embase and PsycINFO, inspection of review articles and expert opinion, we first compiled a set of candidate modifiable risk factors associated with autism. Where available, we next collated systematic-reviews (with or without meta-analyses) related to modifiable risk factors associated with both autism and schizophrenia. We identified three modifiable risk factors that have been examined in systematic reviews for both autism and schizophrenia. Advanced paternal age was reported as a risk factor for schizophrenia in a single meta-analysis and as a risk factor in two meta-analyses for autism. With respect to pregnancy and birth complications, for autism one meta-analysis identified maternal diabetes and bleeding during pregnancy as risks factors for autism whilst a meta-analysis of eight studies identified obstetric complications as a risk factor for schizophrenia. Migrant status was identified as a risk factor for both autism and schizophrenia. Two separate meta-analyses were identified for each disorder. Despite distinct clinical phenotypes, the evidence suggests that at least some non-genetic risk factors are shared between these two syndromes. In particular, exposure to drugs, nutritional excesses or deficiencies and infectious agents lend themselves to public health interventions. Studies are now needed to quantify any increase in risk of either autism or schizophrenia that is associated with these modifiable environmental factors.

  10. [Factors associated with the blood levels of lead in residents of Mexico City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara-Flores, E; Alagón-Cano, J; Bobadilla, J L; Hernández-Prado, B; Ciscomani-Begoña, A

    1989-01-01

    A study aimed at detecting risk factors for high blood lead levels in Mexico City inhabitants, undertaken at the local National Institute of Public Health, is described. Measurements of blood lead levels for a sample of 300 civil servants were related to several potential risk factors. The statistical analysis was based on analysis of variance and logistic regression. The results of the analysis seem to suggest differences in blood levels by sex, zone of residence, hours of transportation and eating habits, such as the consumption of canned meals and the use of "earthenware dishes" in the preparation of meals. The nature of the study is exploratory, but it seems to suggest directions of research in the complex problem of lead levels in people of polluted cities.

  11. Risk factors of kernicterus; a study in 312 icteric neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behjati Ardakani S

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kernicterus, also known as bilirubin encephalopathy, is a neurologic syndrome resulting from the deposition of unconjugated bilirubin in the basal ganglia and brainstem nuclei. Indirect bilirubin is toxic for brain. Neurologic dysfunction (BIND that include acute phase (hyperbilirubin encephalopathy and chronic phase (Kernicterus resulting from hyperbilirubinemia and disruption of blood brain barrier. In this study, the association between bilirubin encephalopathy and risk factors was evaluated. Methods: In this retrospective study, 312 icteric neonates were admitted in the neonatal ward of Children's Hospital, Medical Center, Tehran, and 305 of these cases were evaluated. Patient histories were taken and physical examinations were performed. For each patient, the age, sex, birth weight, time of discharge from the hospital and risk factors were recorded, and a questionnaire was completed. Results: In this study, of the 305 icteric neonates evaluated, 25 cases had kernicterus. Risk factors included acidosis, prematurity, hemolysis, hypoglycemia, sepsis, respiratory distress, low birth weight, ABO incompatibility and G6PD deficiency. The mean level of bilirubin in cases of kernicterus was 32 mg/dl and in the others was 20 mg/dl (p=0.001. Kernicterus was most common among high risk neonates (p<0.001. Birth weight less than 2,500 gm was also an important factor (p=0.04. Conclusion: High-risk neonates need prompt treatment for hyperbilirubinemia compared to low risk neonates.

  12. Diabetes mellitus type 2 - an independent risk factor for cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grote, V A; Becker, S; Kaaks, R

    2010-01-01

    Epidemiological findings have shown up to two-fold increases in the risks of cancers of the colorectum, breast, endometrium, kidney (renal cell tumours), liver and pancreas among diabetes patients. In the present review, we address the question whether, on the basis of these epidemiological observations, type 2 diabetes should be considered a specific and independent risk factor for these various forms of cancer, due to its particular metabolic characteristics of glucose intolerance and hyperinsulinemia. On the basis of further epidemiological evidence among non-diabetic individuals, as well as recent studies examining the effects of different types of diabetes treatment on cancer risks, we conclude that chronic elevations in fasting and non-fasting blood levels of glucose and/or insulin are plausible independent risk factors for cancer, but that much of the increase in cancer risks associated with these two metabolic factors may occur within the normoglycaemic and insulinemic (non-diabetic) ranges. Furthermore, for some tumour types (e. g. cancer of the endometrium) the associations of risk with type 2 diabetes may to a large extent be due to, and at least partially confounded by, other obesity-related alterations in (e. g. sex steroid) metabolism that in part are independent of glucose and/or insulin metabolism. Specifically for pancreatic cancer, a major question, addressed in detail by other reviews, is whether associations of risk with plasma glucose, insulin or overt type 2 diabetes could be either a cause, or possibly also a consequence of tumour development (or both).

  13. Association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of Parkinson disease: the National FINRISK Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chengxuan; Hu, Gang; Kivipelto, Miia; Laatikainen, Tiina; Antikainen, Riitta; Fratiglioni, Laura; Jousilahti, Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko

    2011-06-01

    Cardiovascular risk factors, such as diabetes mellitus and central obesity, have been associated with Parkinson disease (PD), but data on blood pressure and PD are lacking. We sought to examine the association of blood pressure and hypertension with the risk of PD among men and women. This study consisted of 7 surveys (1972-2002) on representative samples of the general population in Finland (National FINRISK Study). A total number of 59 540 participants (age 25 to 74 years; 51.8% women) who were free of PD and stroke at baseline were prospectively followed until December 31, 2006, to identify incident PD cases using the National Social Insurance Register database. Cox proportional hazards models were constructed to estimate the hazard ratio of PD associated with blood pressure. During a mean follow-up period of 18.8 years (SD: 10.2 years), 423 men and 371 women were ascertained to have developed PD. In women, compared with normotensive subjects (high-normal blood pressure (130 to 139/80 to 89 mm Hg) and hypertension (≥140/90 mm Hg or use of antihypertensive agents) were 1.63 (95% CI: 1.07 to 2.47) and 1.62 (95% CI: 1.09 to 2.42). There was no significant association between blood pressure and PD risk in men. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of PD associated with use of antihypertensive agents were 1.08 (95% CI: 0.79 to 1.48) in men and 1.03 (95% CI: 0.76 to 1.38) in women. This study suggests that, in women, above-optimal blood pressure, including high-normal blood pressure and hypertension, is associated with an increased risk of PD. Optimal control of blood pressure in women may reduce the incidence of PD.

  14. Risk Estimates and Risk Factors Related to Psychiatric Inpatient Suicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Trine; Erlangsen, Annette; Nordentoft, Merete

    2017-01-01

    trends, and socio-demographic and clinical risk factors of suicide in psychiatric inpatients. Psychiatric inpatients have a very high risk of suicide relative to the background population, but it remains challenging for clinicians to identify those patients that are most likely to die from suicide during...... admission. Most studies are based on low power, thus compromising quality and generalisability. The few studies with sufficient statistical power mainly identified non-modifiable risk predictors such as male gender, diagnosis, or recent deliberate self-harm. Also, the predictive value of these predictors......People with mental illness have an increased risk of suicide. The aim of this paper is to provide an overview of suicide risk estimates among psychiatric inpatients based on the body of evidence found in scientific peer-reviewed literature; primarily focusing on the relative risks, rates, time...

  15. [Aflatoxins--health risk factors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miliţă, Nicoleta Manuela; Mihăescu, Gr; Chifiriuc, Carmen

    2010-01-01

    Aflatoxins are secondary metabolites produced by a group of strains, mainly Aspergillus and Penicillium species. These mycotoxins are bifurano-coumarin derivatives group with four major products B1, B2, G1 and G2 according to blue or green fluorescence emitted in ultraviolet light and according to chromatographic separation. After metabolism of aflatoxin B1 and B2 in the mammalian body, result two metabolites M1 and M2 as hydroxylated derivatives of the parent compound. Aflatoxins have high carcinogenic potential, the most powerful carcinogens in different species of animals and humans. International Agency for Research on Cancer has classified aflatoxin B1 in Group I carcinogens. The target organ for aflatoxins is the liver. In chronic poisoning, aflatoxin is a risk to health, for a long term causing cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and in acute intoxications aflatoxin is lethal. This work purpose to discuss aflatoxins issue: the synthesis, absorption and elimination of aflatoxins, the toxicity mechanisms, and measures to limit the content of aflatoxins in food

  16. Prevalence and risk factors of gestational diabetes mellitus in Yemen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali AD

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abdullatif D Ali,1 Amat Al-Khaleq O Mehrass,2 Abdulelah H Al-Adhroey,3 Abdulqawi A Al-Shammakh,1 Adel A Amran4 1Department of Biochemistry, 2Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, 3Department of Basic Medical Sciences, 4Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, Thamar University, Dhamar, Yemen Purpose: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM continues to be a significant health disorder triggering harmful complications in pregnant women and fetuses. Our knowledge of GDM epidemiology in Yemen is largely based on very limited data. The aim of this study was, therefore, to determine the prevalence and risk factors of GDM among pregnant women in Dhamar governorate, Yemen.Patients and methods: A total of 311 subjects were randomly selected for this cross sectional survey. Health history data and blood samples were collected using a pretested questionnaire. To determine the prevalence of GDM, the fasting and random blood glucose techniques were applied according to the recommendations of the American Diabetes Association, using alternative methods that are more convenient to the targeted population. Poisson’s regression model incorporating robust sandwich variance was utilized to assess the association of potential risk factors in developing GDM.Results: The prevalence of GDM was found to be 5.1% among the study population. Multivariate analysis confirmed age ≥30 years, previous GDM, family history of diabetes, and history of polycystic ovary syndrome as independent risk factors for GDM prevalence. However, body mass index ≥30 kg/m2 and previous macrosomic baby were found to be dependent risk factors.Conclusion: This study reports new epidemiological information about the prevalence and risk factors of GDM in Yemen. Introduction of proper maternal and neonatal medical care and health education are important in order to save the mother and the baby. Keywords: gestational diabetes mellitus, alternative diagnostic criteria

  17. Effects of Lifestyle Modification Programs on Cardiac Risk Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Moaven; Fournier, Stephen; Shepard, Donald S.; Ritter, Grant; Strickler, Gail K.; Stason, William B.

    2014-01-01

    Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish) and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006). Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors. PMID:25490202

  18. Effects of lifestyle modification programs on cardiac risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moaven Razavi

    Full Text Available Medicare conducted a payment demonstration to evaluate the effectiveness of two intensive lifestyle modification programs in patients with symptomatic coronary artery disease: the Dr. Dean Ornish Program for Reversing Heart Disease (Ornish and Cardiac Wellness Program of the Benson-Henry Mind Body Institute. This report describes the changes in cardiac risk factors achieved by each program during the active intervention year and subsequent year of follow-up. The demonstration enrolled 580 participants who had had an acute myocardial infarction, had undergone coronary artery bypass graft surgery or percutaneous coronary intervention within 12 months, or had documented stable angina pectoris. Of these, 98% completed the intense 3-month intervention, 71% the 12-month intervention, and 56% an additional follow-up year. Most cardiac risk factors improved significantly during the intense intervention period in both programs. Favorable changes in cardiac risk factors and functional cardiac capacity were maintained or improved further at 12 and 24 months in participants with active follow-up. Multivariable regressions found that risk-factor improvements were positively associated with abnormal baseline values, Ornish program participation for body mass index and systolic blood pressure, and with coronary artery bypass graft surgery. Expressed levels of motivation to lose weight and maintain weight loss were significant independent predictors of sustained weight loss (p = 0.006. Both lifestyle modification programs achieved well-sustained reductions in cardiac risk factors.

  19. The analysis of the abnormal blood lipid and the risk factors for a population of middle and old age in Chonqing%重庆地区中、老年人群血脂异常分布及其危险因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正淑; 王小林

    2011-01-01

    目的:分析研究血脂异常的危险性因素.方法:对到我院体检中心体检的16 538例中老年人分别进行血脂、血糖检查及身高体重的测量,对血脂与血糖、体重指数(Bodymassindex,BMI)的相关性进行分析.结果:男性中血脂异常患病率为64.10%,女性中血脂异常患病率为59.34%.无论男性还是女性血脂异常与血糖水平、BMI均呈正相关(P<0.01).结论:血脂异常与血糖水平、BMI有密切的关系.对体重及血糖的控制能够有效降低血脂异常.%Objective:Analyze the risk factors of the abnormal blood lipid. Methods: Analyze the collection of the blood lipids, glucose and the BMI by measuring the blood lipids,glucose, height and weight of 16 538 cases in our center. Results:The prevalence of the abnormal blood lipid is 64.10% in males, and the prevalence of the abnormal blood lipid is 59.34% in females. Correlative analysis showed that there was a positive correlation between the blood lipids,glucose and the BMI both (P<0.01). Conclusion:The blood lipids has a close relationship with glucose and the BMI. We can reduce the prevalence of the abnormal blood lipid effectively by controlling the body weight and the blood glucose.

  20. Blood-derived DNA methylation markers of cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsit, Carmen; Christensen, Brock

    2013-01-01

    The importance of somatic epigenetic alterations in tissues targeted for carcinogenesis is now well recognized and considered a key molecular step in the development of a tumor. Particularly, alteration of gene-specific and genomic DNA methylation has been extensively characterized in tumors, and has become an attractive biomarker of risk due to its specificity and stability in human samples. It also is clear that tumors do not develop as isolated phenomenon in their target tissue, but instead result from altered processes affecting not only the surrounding cells and tissues, but other organ systems, including the immune system. Thus, alterations to DNA methylation profiles detectable in peripheral blood may be useful not only in understanding the carcinogenic process and response to environmental insults, but can also provide critical insights in a systems biological view of tumorigenesis. Research to date has generally focused on how environmental exposures alter genomic DNA methylation content in peripheral blood. More recent work has begun to translate these findings to clinically useful endpoints, by defining the relationship between DNA methylation alterations and cancer risk. This chapter highlights the existing research linking the environment, blood-derived DNA methylation alterations, and cancer risk, and points out how these epigenetic alterations may be contributing fundamentally to carcinogenesis.

  1. Psychosocial risk factors and heart failure hospitalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rod, Naja Hulvej; Andersen, Ingelise; Prescott, Eva

    2011-01-01

    Prospective studies on the role of psychosocial factors in heart failure development are virtually nonexistent. The authors aimed to address the effect of psychosocial factors on the risk of heart failure hospitalization in men and women free of cardiovascular disease. In 1991-1993, the 8,670 par...

  2. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, M.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/322848350

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on studyi

  3. Osteonecrosis. Part 1. Risk factors and pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekaterina Valeriyevna Ilyinykh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers different risk factors for osteonecrosis (ON and some aspects of its pathogenesis: impairments in the differentiation of stromal cells, the vascular provision of intraand extravasal genesis, the quality of proper bone tissue due to generalized or local osteoporosis, intravascular coagulation factors contributing to microthrombogenesis. The basic types of ON are identified.

  4. Occupational risk factors for Parkinson disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Mark, M.

    2014-01-01

    Environmental factors probably play an important role in the etiology of Parkinson disease (PD). However, not many environmental factors have been identified for which unequivocal evidence is available for a relation with PD risk. The main focus of the research described in this thesis was on studyi

  5. Lifestyle risk factors in an urban South African community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCD Wright

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The research question addressed in the study was to determine the prevalence of the following lifestyle risk factors: obesity, waist-hip ratio, physical inactivity, high blood glucose, and hypertension in an urban community. The research objective for the study was to determine the prevalence of specific risk factors in an urban community. Based on the results, a health intervention could be planned and implemented to reduce the prevalence of the risk factors and the possibility of chronic noncommunicable diseases in later life. The design was a quantitative survey using physical measurement and a structured questionnaire. The target population of the study was black urban adults (n=218. The sampling method was convenient and purposive. The results of the study indicated that the prevalence of hypertension and obesity were higher than the national prevalence for South Africa. The waist-hip ratio revealed that 20% of the men and 49.7% of the women were at risk for cardiovascular disease. High blood glucose levels were demonstrated for 21.6% of the group. Physical activity was also shown to be inadequate. In conclusion, the potential for cardiovascular and metabolic health problems in future is high. It is recommended that an intervention, based on the results of the study, should and must be developed and implemented. The more challenging question is to know what to do and how to do it. A framework is suggested to guide the development of an intervention.

  6. Biological risk factors for deep vein trombosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vayá, Amparo; Mira, Yolanda; Martínez, Marcial; Villa, Piedad; Ferrando, Fernando; Estellés, Amparo; Corella, Dolores; Aznar, Justo

    2002-01-01

    Hypercoagulable states due either to inherited or acquired thrombotic risk factors are only present in approximately half of cases of DVT, but the causes in the other half, remain unknown. The importance of biological risk factors such as hyperlipidemia, hypofibrinolysis and hemorheological alterations in the pathogenesis of DVT has not been well established. In order to ascertain whether the above mentioned biological factors are associated with DVT and could constitute independent risk factors, we carried out a case-control study in 109 first DVT patients in whom inherited or acquired thrombophilic risk factors had been ruled out and 121 healthy controls age (42+/-15 years) and sex matched. From all the biological variables analyzed (cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, fibrinogen, erythrocyte aggregation, hematocrit, plasma viscosity and PAI-1) only fibrinogen concentration reached a statistically significant difference on the comparison of means (290+/-73 mg/dl in cases vs 268+/-58 mg/dl in controls, p220 mg/dl, hematocrit >45% and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl was higher in cases than in controls: 38% vs 22%; p30 ng/ml, 37% vs 25% was borderline significant; p=0.055. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that cholesterolemia >220 mg/dl and fibrinogen >300 mg/dl constitute independent predictors of venous thrombotic risk. The adjusted OR's were 2.03 (95% CI; 1.12-3.70) for cholesterolemia and 1.94 (95% CI; 1.07-3.55) for fibrinogen. When these two variables combined DVT risk rose about fourfold (3.96; p<0.05). Our results suggest that hypercholesterolemia and hyperfibrinogenemia should be added to the list of known DVT risk factors and we recommend adopting measures to decrease these variables in the population with a high risk of DVT.

  7. [Risk factors associated to female infertility].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero Ramos, Ricardo; Romero Gutiérrez, Gustavo; Abortes Monroy, Ignacio; Medina Sánchez, Héctor Gerardo

    2008-12-01

    Incidence of female infertility is growing worldwide and the its rate varies from 10 to 20%. It has been reported diverse risk factors associated with this medical complication. To identify the risk factors with significant association with female infertility. A case-control study was carried out. There were included 440 patients, divided into 220 women with primary or secondary female infertility (cases) and 220 women without infertility recruited at mediate postpartum (controls). Twenty sociodemographic and clinical risk factors for female infertility were analyzed. Statistical analysis was performed with percentages, arithmetic media, standard error, Student t test and chi squared. An alpha value was set at 0.05. There were 6 factors with statistical significance: advanced age (p < 0.001), elevated body mass index (p < 0.001), age of onset of sexual activity (p < 0.001), prior pelvic surgeries (p < 0.001), and presence of stress (p < 0.001). Other risk factors such as smoking, chemical and radiological treatments, pelvic inflammatory disease, exercise, contraceptive use, alcohol intake, drugs, coffee, solvents, glue and insecticides, were not significant. There are clinical and demographic risk factors associated with female infertility. Them identification in women at reproductive age could diminish the frequency of female infertility and, thus, avoid them consequences.

  8. Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children☆

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Methods: Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Results: Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Conclusion: The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. PMID:25479851

  9. [Association of body mass index and aerobic physical fitness with cardiovascular risk factors in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Reginaldo; Szmuchrowski, Leszek Antony; Damasceno, Vinícius Oliveira; de Medeiros, Marcelo Lemos; Couto, Bruno Pena; Lamounier, Joel Alves

    2014-09-01

    To identify the association between both, body mass index and aerobic fitness, with cardiovascular disease risk factors in children. Cross-sectional study, carried out in Itaúna-MG, in 2010, with 290 school children ranging from 6 to 10 years-old of both sexes, randomly selected. Children from schools located in the countryside and those with medical restrctions for physical activity were not included. Blood sample was collected after a 12-hour fasting period. Blood pressure, stature and weight were evaluated in accordance with international standards. The following were considered as cardiovascular risk factors: high blood pressure, high total cholesterol, LDL, triglycerides and insulin levels, and low HDL. The statistical analysis included the Spearman's coefficient and the logistic regression, with cardiovascular risk factors as dependent variables. Significant correlations were found, in both sexes, among body mass index and aerobic fitness with most of the cardiovascular risk factors. Children of both sexes with body mass index in the fourth quartile demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. Moreover, girls with aerobic fitness in the first quartile also demonstrated increased chances of having high blood insulin and clustering cardiovascular risk factors. The significant associations and the increased chances of having cardiovascular risk factors in children with less aerobic fitness and higher levels of body mass index justify the use of these variables for health monitoring in Pediatrics. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  10. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  11. Contribution of the risk factor concept to patient care in coronary heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijler, F.L.

    1983-01-01

    This article deals with the question of whether or not the risk factor concept, a principal aspect of preventive cardiology, has contributed to patient care in coronary heart disease. The risk factors considered are plasma cholesterol, high blood pressure, smoking, diabetes and marked obesity. With

  12. Coronary Heart Disease Risk Factors in Young People of Differing Socio-Economic Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Non-Eleri; Cooper, Stephen-Mark; Williams, Simon P.; Baker, Julien S.; Davies, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    This study determined the prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) risk factors in young people of differing socio-economic status (SES). A cohort of 100 boys and 108 girls, aged 12.9, SD 0.3 years drawn of differing SES were assessed for CHD risk factors. Measurements included indices of obesity, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, diet, blood…

  13. Predicting DUI recidivism: blood alcohol concentration and driver record factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marowitz, L A

    1998-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between blood alcohol concentration (BAC) at arrest, driving history and other demographic factors, and the 1-year post-arrest probability of recidivism for drunk driving (DUI) convictees. Complex and simple prediction models were developed. All models found a statistically significant cubic relationship between BAC and recidivism, reflecting a relatively high rate of recidivism at a BAC of 0.00%, decreasing to a minimum at ca 0.09% BAC, then increasing to another relatively high rate at a BAC of ca 0.29%, followed by a decline in recidivism to BAC levels of 0.35% and beyond. High rates of recidivism at high BACs suggest alcohol dependency, while high rates at low BACs suggest the involvement of other impairing substances. The rate of DUI recidivism for offenders who refused alcohol testing was the same as for aggregated BAC-tested offenders who had prior DUIs at the time of the arrest. The probability of DUI recidivism predicted by a simple model using BAC, prior 2-year traffic convictions, and offender level (first or repeat offender) could be used along with other factors by presentence investigators, judges or in administrative settings to determine appropriate sanctions, treatment or other remedial measures. The findings support the notion that first offenders with high BAC levels and prior 2-year traffic convictions are at as high a risk of recidivating as many repeat offenders, and might therefore benefit from similar sanctions and/or remedial treatment. The findings also support viewing DUI arrestees with very low BACs as probable drug users with relatively high probabilities of recidivating.

  14. OCULAR HYPERTENSION - RISK FACTORS AND THERAPY?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janićijević Katarina

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction/Aim: The goal of our study was to analyze the epidemiological`s characteristics of ocular hypertension, as well as the influence of chronic risk factors on glaucoma development (conversion in glaucoma. We tried to make some entries for solving this complex ophthalmological problem. Material /Methods: From 2009 to 2015, a retrospective control study was performed on 121 patient with diagnoses of bilateral ocular hypertension and without disease progression/conversion of glaucoma (by standard protocols of diagnosis and basic procedures on tertiary level at Clinic of Ophthalmology, Clinical Centre of Kragujevac, Serbia.. The authors analyzed epidemiological characteristics: sex, age groups, positive/negative family history and personal history with chronic risk factors (one and/or two of ocular hypertension. The data obtained from this study were statistically analyzed in SPSS program, version 20.00. Results: As for the patients, 69 of them (57.02% were male and 52 female (42.98%. Dominant age group was between 40-49 (42.15% and then group between 50-59 (40.50% years of age. Anamnesis data indicated the absence of family anamnesis 71 (58.68%. Risk factors for ocular hypertension were presented in 103 (85.13% patients, 18 of them (14.87% did not respond. One risk factor - cardiovascular disease was noted in 83 (68.59%, with two risk factors - cardiovascular diseases and diabetes mellitus in 20 patients (16.53% and with PEX syndroma at other respondents. Conclusion: Ocular hypertension is not a common disease, but with risk factors, such as older age, positive family history, and chronic risk factors syndicated, represents a serious clinical and social problem, so the question remains for ophthalmologists - pro or against therapy? Those in favor of therapy would state the safety and protection from conversion/progression of glaucoma; but those  against therapy would only mention adequate monitoring of patients.

  15. Trends in population blood pressure and determinant factors for population blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-03-01

    Strategies to reduce the burden of blood pressure attributable diseases require knowledge of secular trend in PBP and its determinants. The issues were investigated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The design of CCHS is a repeated measures study. Such designs are uniquely suited to studying changes of an outcome and what risk factors may be associated with that outcome. Repeated measures studies are very well suited for trend analysis by using mixed effect analyses. SBP decreased about 2 mmHg in 25 years. The risk factors age, gender and BMI were found valid as determinant factors for secular trends in SBP. In addition, the following factors were identified: household income and the interactions ''gender*age'' and ''survey*age''. The interaction ''gender*age'' stated that the difference between SBP in the two genders was great in the young individuals and diminished by age. The interaction ''survey*age'' stated that SBP in the young individuals decreased more with survey than SBP in the older individuals. Thus, the 20 years old subjects in survey 2, 3 and 4 have lower SBP than the 20 years old subjects in preceding surveys. The slopes were less steep in higher ages. In the group of elderly and old subjects the trend is partly explained by treatment bias because more and more subjects leave the untreated group and start treatment. The factor ''household income'' was significant only in the female population and stated that high-income women had lower SBP and a more beneficial secular trend in SBP than low-income women. Marital status, self-reported physical exercise and alcohol intake were not significant factors. A number of factors, that are interesting in relation to SBP, were not included in the CCHS and therefore not investigated. Among them are salt intake, childhood factors, genetic factors and the DASH diet. A survival study was performed to investigate the mortality rate in relation to SBP changes during the observation period. A Cox regression analysis

  16. Risk factors for and assessment of constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Sherree; Hungerford, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Constipation commonly occurs in older people, particularly in hospital or residential care settings, and leads to decreased quality of life and increased healthcare costs. Despite its frequency, however, nurses often overlook the condition. One possible reason for this may be the lack of appropriate tools or scales for nurses to assess risk factors for developing constipation. This article identifies, from the academic literature, 14 risk factors for developing constipation in older people. These factors are then considered in light of four common constipation assessment charts. The article concludes by arguing the need for more comprehensive assessment tools to, firstly, identify risk factors; and, secondly, support the implementation of appropriate preventative strategies that will enable better health outcomes for older people.

  17. Epidemiology and Risk Factors for Venous Thrombosis

    OpenAIRE

    Cushman, Mary

    2007-01-01

    Venous thrombosis, including deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, occurs at an annual incidence of about 1 per 1000 adults. Rates increase sharply after around age 45 years, and are slightly higher in men than women in older age. Major risk factors for thrombosis, other than age, include exogenous factors such as surgery, hospitalization, immobility, trauma, pregnancy and the puerperium and hormone use, and endogenous factors such as cancer, obesity, and inherited and acquired disorde...

  18. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meghan Baruth

    2011-01-01

    both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women. Interventions that can be implemented in health care settings nationwide and result in meaningful population-wide changes in CVD risk factors are needed. The ACT physical activity interventions produced substantial improvements among men and women with elevated CVD risk factors.Keywords: primary care counseling, cardiovascular disease risk factors, physical activity, fitness, behavioral intervention

  19. Risk factors for leukopenia in patients with gastrointestinal fistula

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Zheng; REN Jian-an; LIU Hai-yan; GU Guo-sheng; LI Jie-shou

    2010-01-01

    Background White blood cell count is an important index to the outcome of patients. In hospital, leukopenia is accompanied by high mortality, morbidity and treatment costs. However, in infectious diseases, the reasons responsible for leucopenia was not well elucidated. We investigated patients with gastrointestinal fistula to find risk factors for leukopenia.Methods A prospective case control investigation was carried out in the Gastrointestinal Fistula Center, General Surgical Institute of Jinling Hospital. Cases included gastrointestinal fistula patients with leukopenia (n=98) and controls composed of gastrointestinal fistula patients with normal white blood cell count (n=78). The two groups were compared for risk factors of leucopenia by statistical analysis.Results Factors associated with an increased risk for leukopenia included bacterial infection (25.5%) and hypoalbuminaemia (61.2%). Multivariable Logistic regression analysis identified bacterial infection (80%), urinary catheter (70%) and central vein catheter (60%) as the independent determinants for mortality in cases.Conclusions In patients with gastrointestinal fistula, two independent factors for leukopenia and three significant predictors of mortality were elucidated. We suggest that clinicians give patients more supportive management and apply prevention strategies to treat and prevent leukopenia.

  20. Vulvovaginal candidiasis: Epidemiology, microbiology and risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Bruna; Ferreira, Carina; Alves, Carlos Tiago; Henriques, Mariana; Azeredo, Joana; Silva, Sónia

    2016-11-01

    Vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) is an infection caused by Candida species that affects millions of women every year. Although Candida albicans is the main cause of VVC, the identification of non-Candida albicans Candida (NCAC) species, especially Candida glabrata, as the cause of this infection, appears to be increasing. The development of VVC is usually attributed to the disturbance of the balance between Candida vaginal colonization and host environment by physiological or nonphysiological changes. Several host-related and behavioral risk factors have been proposed as predisposing factors for VVC. Host-related factors include pregnancy, hormone replacement, uncontrolled diabetes, immunosuppression, antibiotics, glucocorticoids use and genetic predispositions. Behavioral risk factors include use of oral contraceptives, intrauterine device, spermicides and condoms and some habits of hygiene, clothing and sexual practices. Despite a growing list of recognized risk factors, much remains to be elucidated as the role of host versus microorganisms, in inducing VVC and its recurrence. Thus, this review provides information about the current state of knowledge on the risk factors that predispose to VVC, also including a revision of the epidemiology and microbiology of VVC, as well as of Candida virulence factors associated with vaginal pathogenicity.

  1. Weighing of risk factors for penetrating keratoplasty graft failure: application of Risk Score System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdo Karim Tourkmani

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To analyze the relationship between the score obtained in the Risk Score System (RSS proposed by Hicks et al with penetrating keratoplasty (PKP graft failure at 1y postoperatively and among each factor in the RSS with the risk of PKP graft failure using univariate and multivariate analysis. METHODS: The retrospective cohort study had 152 PKPs from 152 patients. Eighteen cases were excluded from our study due to primary failure (10 cases, incomplete medical notes (5 cases and follow-up less than 1y (3 cases. We included 134 PKPs from 134 patients stratified by preoperative risk score. Spearman coefficient was calculated for the relationship between the score obtained and risk of failure at 1y. Univariate and multivariate analysis were calculated for the impact of every single risk factor included in the RSS over graft failure at 1y. RESULTS: Spearman coefficient showed statistically significant correlation between the score in the RSS and graft failure (P0.05 between diagnosis and lens status with graft failure. The relationship between the other risk factors studied and graft failure was significant (P<0.05, although the results for previous grafts and graft failure was unreliable. None of our patients had previous blood transfusion, thus, it had no impact. CONCLUSION: After the application of multivariate analysis techniques, some risk factors do not show the expected impact over graft failure at 1y.

  2. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  3. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentanoic acid (EPA and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms” pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Minami Nutrition Health BVBA, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD-like symptoms”. The food constituent, EPA, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect proposed by the applicant is “reduces the AA/EPA ratio in blood. A high AA/EPA level is a risk factor in the development of attention difficulties in children with ADHD-like symptoms. These children are also characterised by less hyperactivity and/or coexisting oppositional behaviour”. Upon a request by EFSA for clarification, the applicant indicated that the disease was ADHD, which is classified as such in accordance with the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV, that the risk factor for the disease was an elevated AA/EPA ratio in blood, and that the target population for the claim was children with diagnosis of ADHD. The Panel considers that the evidence provided does not establish that reducing the AA/EPA ratio reduces the risk of ADHD in children, and considers that the target population is a diseased population (i.e. children with ADHD. The Panel concludes that the claimed effect relates to the treatment of a disease, and that therefore the health claim does not comply with the criteria laid down in Regulation (EC No 1924/2006.

  4. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...... cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (P

  5. Modifiable Lifestyle Risk Factors and Incident Diabetes in African Americans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Joshua J; Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Talegawkar, Sameera A; Effoe, Valery S; Okhomina, Victoria; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Hsueh, Willa A; Golden, Sherita H

    2017-08-14

    The associations of modifiable lifestyle risk factors with incident diabetes are not well investigated in African Americans (AAs). This study investigated the association of modifiable lifestyle risk factors (exercise, diet, smoking, TV watching, and sleep-disordered breathing burden) with incident diabetes among AAs. Modifiable lifestyle risk factors were characterized among 3,252 AAs in the Jackson Heart Study who were free of diabetes at baseline (2000-2004) using baseline questionnaires and combined into risk factor categories: poor (0-3 points), average (4-7 points), and optimal (8-11 points). Incidence rate ratios (IRR) for diabetes (fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL, physician diagnosis, use of diabetes drugs, or glycosylated hemoglobin A1c ≥6.5%) were estimated using Poisson regression modeling adjusting for age, sex, education, occupation, systolic blood pressure, and BMI. Outcomes were collected 2005-2012 and data analyzed in 2016. Over 7.6 years, there were 560 incident diabetes cases (mean age=53.3 years, 64% female). An average or optimal compared to poor risk factor categorization was associated with a 21% (IRR=0.79, 95% CI=0.62, 0.99) and 31% (IRR=0.69, 95% CI=0.48, 1.01) lower risk of diabetes. Among participants with BMI <30, IRRs for average or optimal compared to poor categorization were 0.60 (95% CI=0.40, 0.91) and 0.53 (95% CI=0.29, 0.97) versus 0.90 (95% CI=0.67, 1.21) and 0.83 (95% CI=0.51, 1.34) among participants with BMI ≥30. A combination of modifiable lifestyle factors are associated with a lower risk of diabetes among AAs, particularly among those without obesity. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor

  7. Metabolite Signatures of Metabolic Risk Factors and their Longitudinal Changes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Subramanian, S.; Willinger, C.M.; Chen, G.; Juhasz, P.; Courchesne, P.; Chen, B.H.; Li, X.; Hwang, S.J.; Fox, C.S.; O'Donnell, C.J.; Muntendam, P.; Fuster, V.; Bobeldijk-Pastorova, I.; Sookoian, S.C.; Pirola, C.J.; Gordon, N.; Adourian, A.; Larson, M.G.; Levy, D.

    2016-01-01

    Context: Metabolic dysregulation underlies key metabolic risk factors—obesity, dyslipidemia, and dysglycemia. Objective: To uncover mechanistic links between metabolomic dysregulation and metabolic risk by testing metabolite associations with risk factors cross-sectionally and with risk factor chang

  8. Prevalence and Risk Factors for Toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retmanasari, Annisa; Widartono, Barandi Sapta; Wijayanti, Mahardika Agus; Artama, Wayan Tunas

    2016-11-09

    Toxoplasmosis is a zoonosis caused by Toxoplasma gondii. Risk factors include consumption of undercooked meat, raw vegetables, and unfiltered water. This study aims to determine the seroprevalence and spatial distribution of toxoplasmosis in Middle Java, Indonesia, using an EcoHealth approach, combined with geographic information system (GIS). A total of 630 participants were randomly selected from seven districts. Each participant completed a questionnaire and provided a blood sample. The seroprevalence of toxoplasmosis was 62.5%. Of those who were seropositive, 90.1% were IgG+, and 9.9% were IgG+ and IgM+. Several risk factors were identified, including living at elevations of ≤200 m, compared with >200 m (OR = 56.2; P Java has a high prevalence of toxoplasmosis and identified some important environmental, ecological, and demographic risk factors. When researching diseases, such as toxoplasmosis, where animal hosts, human lifestyle, and environmental factors are involved in transmission, an EcoHealth method is essential to ensure a fully collaborative approach to developing interventions to reduce the risk of transmission in high-risk populations.

  9. Risk factors of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szyguła-Jurkiewicz, Bożena; Szczurek, Wioletta; Gąsior, Mariusz; Zembala, Marian

    2015-12-01

    Despite advances in prevention and treatment of heart transplant rejection, development of cardiac allograft vasculopathy (CAV) remains the leading factor limiting long-term survival of the graft. Cardiac allograft vasculopathy etiopathogenesis is not fully understood, but a significant role is attributed to endothelial cell damage, caused by immunological and non-immunological mechanisms. Immunological factors include the differences between the recipient's and the donor's HLA systems, the presence of alloreactive antibodies and episodes of acute rejection. Among the non-immunological factors the most important are the age of the donor, ischemia-reperfusion injury and cytomegalovirus infection. The classical cardiovascular risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity and hyperlipidemia) are also important. This study presents an up-to-date overview of current knowledge on the vasculopathy etiopathogenesis and the role played by endothelium and inflammatory processes in CAV, and it also investigates the factors which may serve as risk markers of cardiac allograft vasculopathy.

  10. Non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis in high risk children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blieden, L C; Kuberger, N; Goez, R; Abramov, N; Laron, Z; Weizman, A; Gil-Ad, I

    1996-12-01

    Non-traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis were examined in children whose fathers suffered from myocardial infarction up to age 48. Factors examined were hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance, lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)], fibrinogen, cardiovascular hyperreactivity, and autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Hyperinsulinemia was present in five cases (9%) and hypoinsulinemia in two. Insulin output following glucose load was significantly higher in obese children compared with controls. There was an increase in Lp(a) alone in 14 cases (24%) and with low density lipoprotein in 6 cases. Increased fibrinogen and positive correlation with insulin abnormality was present in 29% (76% females) (P >0.02). Cardiac hyperreactivity (increased systolic blood pressure) was present in 9% and increased blood pressure and pulse rate in 17%. Holter monitoring pattern was sympathetic in 39% and parasympathetic in 47% of cases. Thus a number of non-traditional risk factors were found to be higher than normal in a relatively large number of children at high risk for atherosclerosis, with 25 children having more than three risk factors.

  11. What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Thymus Cancer? A risk factor is anything that affects ... Cancer? Can Thymus Cancer Be Prevented? More In Thymus Cancer About Thymus Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and ...

  12. What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Prevention What Are the Risk Factors for Testicular Cancer? A risk factor is anything that changes your ... Cancer? Can Testicular Cancer Be Prevented? More In Testicular Cancer About Testicular Cancer Causes, Risk Factors, and Prevention ...

  13. Soluble vascular endothelial growth factor in various blood transfusion components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Werther, K; Mynster, T;

    1999-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood transfusion may reduce survival after curative surgery for solid tumors. This may be related to extracellular content of cancer growth factors present in transfusion components. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a potent stimulator of angiogenesis in solid tumors....... The potential content of VEGF in various blood components for transfusion was evaluated. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: Soluble VEGF (sVEGF, isotype 165) was determined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (EIA) in serum and plasma samples and in lysed cells from healthy volunteers. Subsequently, total content...... of platelet-derived soluble plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (sPAI-1) was determined by an EIA in the same samples. Finally, the extracellular accumulation of sVEGF was determined in nonfiltered WB and SAGM blood during storage for 35 days and in BCP pools during storage for 7 days. RESULTS...

  14. Primary prevention of dementia: focus on modifiable risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srisuwan, Patsri

    2013-02-01

    Dementia will inevitably increase in the aging world. Moreover there is no cure for dementia. Therefore, primary prevention is very important. There are several factors possibly and/or certainly influencing dementia risk including non-modifiable and modifiable risk factors. There are evidences that the risk of developing dementia may be reduced by modifiable risk factors. LIFESTYLE FACTORS: The strategies are to encourage regular physical and mental exercise in midlife and in late-life. Those include cognitive activity and higher education, mentally demanding occupations or participation in mentally challenging leisure activities, being more socially active, a diet that is low in saturated fat, a diet with lots of fruits and vegetables, smoking cessation, and prevention of head injury, with loss of consciousness. Chronic disease factors: The strategies are to prevent high blood pressure, especially at midlife, diabetes, high serum cholesterol, especially at midlife, and depression or high depressive symptoms. It is important to develop a systematic public-health strategy and research specific to primary prevention of dementia in Thailand with the evidence-based medicine.

  15. Blood pressure and 10-year mortality risk in the Milan Geriatrics 75+ Cohort Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogliari, Giulia; Westendorp, Rudi G J; Muller, Majon

    2015-01-01

    75+ Cohort Study. SUBJECTS: one thousand five hundred and eighty-seven outpatients aged 75 years and over. METHODS: the relations of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with mortality risk were analysed using Cox proportional hazards models. Blood pressure, Mini-Mental State Examination...... (MMSE) and Basic Activities of Daily Living (ADL) were assessed at baseline. All analyses were adjusted for socio-demographic factors, co-morbidities and medications. RESULTS: one thousand and forty-six patients died during 10-year follow-up. The relationships of SBP and DBP with mortality risk were U......-shaped; SBP of 165 mmHg and DBP of 85 mmHg were associated with the lowest mortality. Patients with SBP 60) higher mortality risk than patients with SBP 160-179 mmHg (P values 0...

  16. CARDIOVASCULAR RISK FACTORS IN PATIENTS WITH CHRONIC OBSTRUCTIVE PULMONARY DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye. D. Bazdyrev

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to detect previously undiagnosed arterial hypertension in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD as a risk factor for cardiovascular mortality.Materials and methods. 43 patients with stage I–II of COPD and the absence of clinical signs of cardiovascular diseases were examined. Spirometry, body plethysmography and diffusing lung capacity (DLCO were included in the respiratory system assessment. The cardiovascular system was assessed with echocardiography and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM.Results. Despite the absence of obvious signs of cardiovascular lesions (an increase of office blood pressure, intracardiac hemodynamic changes, the following cardiovascular risk factors were identified: age (58.2 ± 2.0 years, male gender, smoking, hypercholesterolemia and dyslipidemia (total cholesterol 5.9 ± 0.9 mmol / l, low density lipoproteins 3.8 ± 0.5 mmol / l, triglycerides 1.8 ± 0.2 mmol / l. Correlation analysis has revealed the relation between several respiratory parameters and the severity of dyspnea and quality of life in patients with COPD, as well as its relation with lipid levels.Conclusion. The patients with COPD have a large number of risk factors for CVD. According to ABPM data, arterial hypertension was verified in 18 (41.9 % of 43 patients with COPD at normal level of office blood pressure; moreover, 51.2 % of patients demonstrated low reduction of blood pressure during the night-time that nowadays, is considered to be a predictor of cardiovascular disease and sudden death.

  17. Safety Factors in Pesticide Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Elmegaard, N.; Jagers op Akkerhuis, G. A. J. M.

    Foreword It has become common practice to protect the environment from hazardous chemicals by use of risk assessment to establish environmental concentration at which only limited damage to the ecosystem can be expected. The methods and tools applied in the risk assessment need constant evaluation...... to secure that the methodology is adequate. As new knowledge surfaces the risk assessment procedures develops. The present report is a contribution to the development of safety factors used to account for the uncertainty when · extrapolating from the results of test with a single species in the laboratory...... factors used in pesticide risk assessment: the variability in species sensitivities, and the relationship between acute LC50's and chronic NOEC's....

  18. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2009-08-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM tempol (antioxidant). Compared with V, NaCl intake for 10 days doubled sodium intake and increased urinary dopamine level but reduced urinary nitric oxide content. NaCl intake also reduced basal renal proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity with no effect on blood pressure. However, NaCl intake in BSO-treated rats failed to reduce basal Na-K-ATPase activity despite higher urinary dopamine levels. Also, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity and these rats exhibited reduced urinary nitric oxide levels and high blood pressure. Tempol supplementation in NaCl plus BSO-treated rats reduced blood pressure. BSO treatment alone did not affect the urinary nitric oxide and dopamine levels or blood pressure. However, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity in BSO-treated rats. BSO treatment also increased basal protein kinase C activity, D1 receptor serine phosphorylation, and oxidative markers like malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostane. We suggest that NaCl-mediated reduction in nitric oxide does not increase blood pressure due to activation of D1 receptor signaling. Conversely, oxidative stress-provoked inhibition of D1 receptor signaling fails to elevate blood pressure due to presence of normal nitric oxide. However, simultaneously decreasing nitric oxide levels with NaCl and inhibiting D1 receptor signaling with BSO elevated blood pressure.

  19. Predicting Blood Transfusion Factors in Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Kasraian

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: The ability to predict the use of blood components during bypass surgery will improve the blood banks ability to provide efficient service.Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective cross-sectional study that was carried out on patients that underwent CABG in Shiraz Namazi hospital in 2004. The sample size was 480 and we did systematic random sampling, and a questionnaire contained factors that effect on blood need was filling out. Independent t-test, multivariate logistic regression and Poason correlation were used for data analysis.Results: The average age of patients was 59.15±10.6 years, 69.2% were male and the mean Hct before surgery was 39.86±6.38% and after operation was 32.68±5.84% and the duration of surgery was 2 hours and 48 minutes. The average of pack cell was 5.76±1.52 unit and average of FFP was 2.82±7.72 unit. There was not significant correlation between ages, weighs, Hct before and after, sex and pack cell use (P> 0.05. The use of pack cell and FFP were more in urgent surgery in diabetic patients and vascular disease (P< 0.05.Conclusion: It seems that the rate of blood demanding in proportion to blood use is logical but the rate of blood usage is more than blood usage in other countries with considering of immunological and non-immunological complication of blood products, the heart surgeons must do special concern about the making decision for blood use.

  20. EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS IN ACUTE STROKE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Cerebrovascular disease is the third most common cause of death in the developed world after cancer and ischemic heart disease. In India, community surveys have shown a crude prevalence rate of 200 per 100000 population for hemiplegia. Aims and objectives: Identification of risk factors for c erebrovascular disease. Materials and Methods: Inclusion Criteria: Cases of acute stroke admitted in S.V.R.R.G.G.H, Tirupati were taken for the study. Exclusion Criteria: Head injury cases, neoplasm cases producing cerebrovascular disease were excluded. Re sults: Stroke was more common in male, 54% patients were male 46% were female. It was more common in 6 th and 7 th decade. More common risk factors were hypertension followed by smoking, diabetes mellitus. More common pathology was infarction. Conclusion: Com mon risk factors for acute stroke are hypertension, smoking, diabetes mellitus, alcoholism, obesity, cardiac disease. Stroke was confirmed by CT scan of brain.

  1. The risk factors of CVA in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auais, Mohammad A; Alzyoud, Jehad M; Sbieh, Ziad; Abdulla, Fuad A

    2012-11-01

    This study aimed to identify the main risk factors of cerebrovascular accident (CVA) in Jordan. Identification of risk factors may help to reduce the incidence of CVA. A form was prepared for data collection which consisted of two parts to gather biodata and the incidence of risk factors. A sample of 200 patients with CVA (60% men) were randomly selected from various areas of Jordan. An age, region distribution, and gender-matched sample were selected to serve as control. Hypertension in the experimental group (66%) was significantly higher than the control group (32%) p  CVA compared to 14% in the control group (p  CVA group had hyperlipidemia in comparison to 13% in the controls (p CVA in Jordan.

  2. Psychological Factors Linked to Risk Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaş, I.; Creãu, R. Z.; Stǎnciugelu, I.

    2012-04-01

    Risks are mental models, which allow people to cope with dangerous phenomena (Renn, 2008; Jasanoff, 1998). The term "risk" refers to the likelihood of an adverse effect resulting from an event. The aim of the present study is to identify the psychological factors that are most predictive of risk perception in relation with age, gender, educational level and socio-economical status. Earthquake hazard was considered, because it is an emerging danger for Bucharest. 80% of the laypeople sample are waiting for this event to happen in the next three years. By integrating all the research data, it was attempted to build a risk profile of the investigated population, which could be used by institutions responsible for earthquake risk mitigation situations in Bucharest. This research appealed to the social learning Rotter (1966), auto-effectiveness Bandura (1977; 1983), and anxiety and stress theories. We used psychological variables that measured stress, personal effectiveness and the belief in personal control. The multi-modal risk perception questionnaire was structured on a 49 items sequence. The sample was composed of 1.376 participants recruited on a voluntary basis. The characteristics of risk (like probability and magnitude, time scales) are perceived differently according to psychological factors that play a role also in biases in people's ability to draw inferences from probabilistic information (like cognitive dissonance). Since the 1970's, it has been argued that those who perceive life's events as being beyond their locus of control (external locus of control) are significantly more anxious and less adapted. In this research, strongest associations and significant differences were obtained between sex, age and income categories with Stress vulnerability factor and the External Locus of Control factor. The profile of the low risk perceiver is that of a young, more educated, male individual with a higher self- efficacy level and an internal locus of control.

  3. Risk factors of child sexual abuse

    OpenAIRE

    Apraez-Villamarin, Genny Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To show a review of specialized literature concerning risk factors ofchild sexual abuse. Initially, the definitions of sexual abuse suggested by various authors are presented. Source and types of publications: Publications were obtained from libraries, periodicals and websites; the review includes articles, essays, books, chapters and laws. Point of view: Emphasis on risk contexts highlighting social, family and environmental characteristics, as well as personal features, whose prese...

  4. A new factor in the blood of patients with peptic ulcer. Distribution in blood fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Necheles, H; Geisel, A; Berg, M; Jefferson, N C

    1975-08-01

    Previous work on a factor in the blood of patients with peptic ulcer which contracts smooth muscle was confirmed and the work extended to investigation of the activity of blood fractions. Whole heparinized blood and its fractions were tested on a strip of guinea pig ileum and height of contraction and latent period were used as criteria of activity. Whole heparinized blood of ulcer patients had significantly higher activity than that of normal controls. Differences between the fractions of ulcer patients and controls were less significant. With the lysed buffy coat, however, while the differences between the height of contraction between the groups did not differ statistically, the speed of the reaction (shorter latent period) was significantly greater in the ulcer patients. The cellular alterations causing this response are unknown.

  5. Blood donors at high risk of transmitting the acquired immune deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, M; Hewitt, P E; Barbara, J A; Mochnaty, P Z

    1985-03-09

    The acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) occurs most commonly in homosexual men. This group carries the greatest risk of transmitting AIDS by blood transfusion. Both promiscuous and nonpromiscuous male homosexuals should refrain from giving blood. A leaflet stating this advice was prepared by the Department of Health and Social Security, United Kingdom. In July 1984 a questionnaire was given to all donors attending a blood donor clinic in the west end of London, England. 53% were male. Donors were given a leaflet on AIDS and a questionnaire to complete in private. Those who considered themselves to be in a high risk group were asked to designate their blood for research purposes only. Serum samples from donors who confirmed that they were in the high risk category were tested for antihepatitis B core antigen and anti-human T lymphotropic virus type III (anti-HTLV-III) in addition to the routine screening of donors for hepatitis B surface antigen and syphilis. All high risk donors were men. Homosexuality was the only high risk factor. Of 5000 questionnaires administered between July and October, 614 were not completed or had ambiguous answers. 38 donors who completed the questionnaire beonged to a high risk group. Of these, 7 were positive for antihepatitis B core antigen; none were positive for anti-HTLV-III, T pallidum hemagglatination, or hepatits B surface antigen. Although the homosexual donors had a much lower incidence of sexually transmitted disease than those attending special clinics, this should not encourage complacency. All possible measures must be taken to prevent homosexuals from donating blood.

  6. Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Freire da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A major cause of morbidity and mortality in the context of the antiphospholipid syndrome (APS is the occurrence of thrombotic events. Besides the pathogenic roles of antiphospholipid antibodies (aPL, other risk factors and medical conditions, which are conditions for traditional risk of an individual without the APS, can coexist in this patient, raising their risk of developing thrombosis. Therefore, the clinical and laboratory investigation of comorbidities known to increase cardiovascular risk in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome is crucial for the adoption of a more complete and effective treatment. Experimental models and clinical studies show evidence of association between APS and premature formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Atherosclerosis has major traditional risk factors: hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, dyslipidemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle that may be implicated in vascular involvement in patients with APS. The influence of nontraditional risk factors as hyperhomocysteinemia, increased lipoprotein a, and anti-oxLDL in the development of thromboembolic events in APS patients has been studied in scientific literature. Metabolic syndrome with all its components also has been recently studied in antiphospholipid syndrome and is associated with arterial events.

  7. RISK FACTORS OF MORTALITY IN NEONATAL ILLNESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeyanthi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Infant Mortality Rate (IMR is high in India. Identification of risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness is essential to reduce Neonatal Mortality Rate (NMR and ultimately the IMR. AIM To identify the risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. SETTING AND DESIGN It was a nested case control study done at the sick neonatal unit of urban tertiary referral centre. METHODS AND MATERIALS After obtaining ethical committee approval, retrospective analysis of 150 out born neonatal case records of babies admitted during the period from October 2015 to December 2015 was done. Data such as demographic features, maternal details, referral details, perinatal events, clinical features, laboratory reports and outcome were recorded. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS These risk factors were subjected to univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis and P value calculated for the same to find out significant risk factors of mortality in neonatal illness. RESULTS Neonatal mortality rate was 22%. Male-to-female ratio was 2:1, death occurred more commonly in female neonates (23.1%. Home deliveries carried more risk of mortality. Birth order 4 and above had 25% mortality. Neonates of mother who had primary education and below had higher mortality. Perinatal asphyxia and sepsis were the most common causes of neonatal mortality. By univariate analysis, preterms had 4.9 times increased risk of mortality than term babies. Apnoeic spells, chest retractions and shock had 8 times, 3 times and 3.6 times increased risk of mortality respectively. By multivariate analysis, birth weight below 2 kilograms (kg carried 11.8 times more risk of mortality with a p value 0.00 (95% C.I 3.2, 30.4 and poor maternal intake of iron and folic acid tablets was 3.9 times more risk p value 0.003 (95% C.I 1.6, 9.6, apnoeic spells were 5.8 times more risk of mortality with p value 0.02 (95% C.I 1.3, 26.2. CONCLUSION Birth weight below 2 kg, poor maternal intake of iron and folic

  8. Risk Factors for Severe Bleeding Complications in Percutaneous Renal Biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da-Min; Chen, Min; Zhou, Fu-de; Zhao, Ming-Hui

    2017-03-01

    Percutaneous renal biopsy is essential for diagnosis of many renal diseases. Previous studies have revealed a variety of factors associated with bleeding complications of renal biopsy; however, data are not sufficient in the Chinese population. We aimed to investigate the risk factors for severe post-biopsy bleeding events in a large cohort of Chinese patients. The data of patients who underwent percutaneous renal biopsy from January 2008 to December 2012 were collected. Severe bleeding complication was defined as requiring intervention, including blood transfusion or an invasive procedure (radiological or surgical) due to bleeding. Logistic regression analysis was used to assess risk factors. Over the 5-year period, 3,577 native kidney biopsies were performed. Severe bleeding complication occurred in 14 biopsies (0.39%). The patients with complications were older, had higher blood pressure, lower hemoglobin, lower platelet count and worse renal function. Multivariable logistic regression demonstrated that platelet level and the estimated glomerular filtration rate were independently associated with the risk of complications. Each 10 × 10(9)/L increase of platelet count was associated with an 11% decrease of severe bleeding risk (odds ratio = 0.89; 95% CI: 0.80-0.98; P = 0.02). Each 1mL/minute/1.73m(2) increase of the estimated glomerular filtration rate was associated with a 4% decrease of severe bleeding risk (odds ratio = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94-0.99; P = 0.004). Patients with worse renal function and lower platelet counts had a higher risk of developing severe bleeding events after renal biopsy. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Risk factors for progressive ischemic stroke A retrospective analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Progressive ischemic stroke has higher fatality rate and disability rate than common cerebral infarction, thus it is very significant to investigate the early predicting factors related to the occurrence of progressive ischemic stroke, thc potential pathological mechanism and the risk factors of early intervention for preventing the occurrence of progressive ischemic stroke and ameliorating its outcome.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the possible related risk factors in patients with progressive ishcemic stroke, so as to provide reference for the prevention and treatment of progressive ishcemic stroke.DESIGN: A retrospective analysis.SETTING: Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Coal Mining Group.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 280 patients with progressive ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, General Hospital of Beijing Coal Mining Group from March 2002 to June 2006, including 192 males and 88 females, with a mean age of (62±7) years old. They were all accorded with the diagnostic standards for cerebral infarction set by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease in 1995, and confired by CT or MRI, admitted within 24 hours after attack, and the neurological defect progressed gradually or aggravated in gradients within 72 hours after attack, and the aggravation of neurological defect was defined as the neurological deficit score decreased by more than 2 points. Meanwhile,200 inpatients with non-progressive ischemic stroke (135 males and 65 females) were selected as the control group.METHODS: After admission, a univariate analysis of variance was conducted using the factors of blood pressure, history of diabetes mellitus, fever, leukocytosis, levels of blood lipids, fibrinogen, blood glucose and plasma homocysteine, cerebral arterial stenosis, and CT symptoms of early infarction, and the significant factors were involved in the multivariate non-conditional Logistic regression analysis.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES

  10. SEAFARER FATIGUE: A REVIEW OF RISK FACTORS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Jørgen Riis; Zhao, Zhiwei; Tu, Mingshan;

    2016-01-01

    Background: The widespread occurrence of fatigue in the maritime industry and the consequences for the health and safety of seafarers have caused concern, and indicates the importance of research into risk factors at sea. This review gives an overview of the currently recognized key determinants...... of seafarer fatigue. Methods: A literature study was conducted aiming to collect publications that address work-related risk factors for fatigue. Due to the limited number of publications that deals with seafarers, experiences from other populations sharing the same exposures (e.g. shift work) were also...

  11. Genome-wide association analysis identifies novel blood pressure loci and offers biological insights into cardiovascular risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Helen R; Evangelou, Evangelos; Cabrera, Claudia P; Gao, He; Ren, Meixia; Mifsud, Borbala; Ntalla, Ioanna; Surendran, Praveen; Liu, Chunyu; Cook, James P; Kraja, Aldi T; Drenos, Fotios; Loh, Marie; Verweij, Niek; Marten, Jonathan; Karaman, Ibrahim; Lepe, Marcelo P Segura; O'Reilly, Paul F; Knight, Joanne; Snieder, Harold; Kato, Norihiro; He, Jiang; Tai, E Shyong; Said, M Abdullah; Porteous, David; Alver, Maris; Poulter, Neil; Farrall, Martin; Gansevoort, Ron T; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Mägi, Reedik; Stanton, Alice; Connell, John; Bakker, Stephan J L; Metspalu, Andres; Shields, Denis C; Thom, Simon; Brown, Morris; Sever, Peter; Esko, Tõnu; Hayward, Caroline; van der Harst, Pim; Saleheen, Danish; Chowdhury, Rajiv; Chambers, John C; Chasman, Daniel I; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Lindgren, Cecilia M; Levy, Daniel; Kooner, Jaspal S; Keavney, Bernard; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Samani, Nilesh J; Howson, Joanna M M; Tobin, Martin D; Munroe, Patricia B; Ehret, Georg B; Wain, Louise V

    2017-03-01

    Elevated blood pressure is the leading heritable risk factor for cardiovascular disease worldwide. We report genetic association of blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, pulse pressure) among UK Biobank participants of European ancestry with independent replication in other cohorts, and robust validation of 107 independent loci. We also identify new independent variants at 11 previously reported blood pressure loci. In combination with results from a range of in silico functional analyses and wet bench experiments, our findings highlight new biological pathways for blood pressure regulation enriched for genes expressed in vascular tissues and identify potential therapeutic targets for hypertension. Results from genetic risk score models raise the possibility of a precision medicine approach through early lifestyle intervention to offset the impact of blood pressure-raising genetic variants on future cardiovascular disease risk.

  12. Factors associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients with suspected bacteremia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildi, K; Tschudin-Sutter, S; Dell-Kuster, S; Frei, R; Bucher, H C; Nüesch, R

    2011-12-01

    Blood cultures are routinely taken in outpatients with fever and suspected bacterial infections. However, in the majority of cases, they are not informative and of limited value for clinical decision making. The aim of this study was therefore to investigate factors associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients presenting to an outpatient clinic and emergency room. This was a case-control study of all outpatients with positive blood cultures from January 1, 2006 to October 31, 2007 and matched control patients with negative blood cultures in the same time period. Microbiology results and medical charts were reviewed to determine factors associated with positive blood cultures. The presence of a systemic inflammation response syndrome (SIRS) (OR 2.7, 95% Cl 1.0-7.2) and increased C-reactive protein (CRP) (OR 1.1 per 10 mg/l, 95% Cl 1.0-1.2) were the most powerful predictive values for the development of positive blood cultures. In positive cases serum albumin was lower (35 mg/l versus 39 mg/l) than in controls. SIRS, increasing CRP and low albumin were associated with positive blood cultures in outpatients. With simple clinical assessment and few laboratory tests indicative of infection, it is possible to define a group at higher risk for bacteremia in outpatients.

  13. Sociomedical risk factors for male infecundity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Epanchintseva

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Subjects and methods. A total of 917 men from infertile couples with abnormal ejaculate indicators were examined. Their age was 34.1 ± 6.3 years; the infertility period was 4.6 ± 3.9 years. A retrospective analysis of their case histories, clinical examination, questioning to identify risk factors for infertility, and anthropometric measurements of weight and height were made. Weight was rated normal at a body mass index (BMI of ≤ 24.9 kg/m2 ; overweight at 25.0–29.9 kg/m2 , and obesity at ≥ 30 kg/m2 . When identifying infertility risk factors, the investigators kept in mind 24 risk factors at the moment of examination or in the patient histories, which were grouped into 3 clusters: 1 – environmental factors and occupational hazards; 2 – evidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities; 3 – social and quality-of-life factors; this cluster also includes history and examination evidence of tuberculosis, sexually transmitted diseases, and other social diseases, such as hepatitis B and C, or human immunodeficiency infection. Then the men who did not show an exacerbation of somatic diseases, genetic anomalies associated with reproductive disorders, or an exacerbation of social diseases at the moment of examination were selected from the total sample. These were divided into 2 groups: normal weight and obese patients. The frequency of the above mentioned infertility risk factors and additionally the proportion of persons engaged in intellectual or manual labor were calculated in each group.Results and discussion. In the total sample, the frequency of infertility risk factors including occupational hazards and environmental factors was < 20 %; the incidence of congenital and acquired abnormalities was 1–39 %. The highest frequency of risk factors was noted in cluster 3. Among them, alcohol consumption (75 % occupied the first place; next were the rate of sexually transmitted infections (59 %, emotional stress (44 %, and smoking (42

  14. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  15. Exercise blood pressure and the risk of future hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, L; Mortensen, L; Kanckos, C; Ljungman, C; Mehlig, K; Manhem, K

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify which blood pressure measurement during exercise is the best predictor of future hypertension. Further we aimed to create a risk chart to facilitate the evaluation of blood pressure reaction during exercise testing. A number (n=1047) of exercise tests by bicycle ergometry, performed in 1996 and 1997 were analysed. In 2007-2008, 606 patients without hypertension at the time of the exercise test were sent a questionnaire aimed to identify current hypertension. The response rate was 58% (n=352). During the 10-12 years between exercise test and questionnaire, 23% developed hypertension. The strongest predictors of future hypertension were systolic blood pressure (SBP) before exercise (odds ratios (OR) 1.63 (1.31-2.01) for 10 mm Hg difference) in combination with the increase of SBP over time during exercise testing (OR 1.12 (1.01-1.24) steeper increase for every 1 mm Hg min(-1)). A high SBP before exercise and a steep rise in SBP over time represented a higher risk of developing hypertension. A risk chart based on SBP before exercise, increase of SBP over time and body mass index was created. SBP before exercise, maximal SBP during exercise and SBP at 100 W were significant single predictors of future hypertension and the prediction by maximal SBP was improved by adjusting for time/power at which SBP max was reached during exercise testing. Recovery ratio (maximal SBP/SBP 4 min after exercise) was not predictive of future hypertension.

  16. Dementia risk factors for Australian baby boomers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter K. Panegyres

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Baby boomers are individuals born in the years 1946 to 1965. The objective of this paper was to define the risk factors for dementia and Alzheimer’s disease (AD and their relevance to Australian baby boomers, with the aim of providing evidence-based guidelines for dementia prevention. A series of PubMed searches (1994-2010 were conducted with relevant key words. Data was included from the Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS in relation to baby boomers in Australia. Article titles and abstracts were assessed by two reviewers for inclusion. Searches through ABS revealed no specific study on baby boomers at a national level; information was only available for Western Australia, South Australia and Queensland. A number of genetic and non-genetic risk factors for dementia were identified most of which remain controversial and require further study. We did not identify significant differences in the prevalence and incidence of dementia in those under 65 years in Queensland, South Australia and Western Australia. There were no correlations of risk factors and dementia between the Australian states. Modification of risk factors has not been proven to reduce the incidence and prevalence of dementia and AD in baby boomers. Nevertheless, on available evidence, we recommend: i active management of cardiovascular risk factors such as hypertension; ii the encouragement of a healthy lifestyle (eg, weight reduction, exercise as offering the best pathways to reduce the emerging dementia risk for baby boomers. The implications are that activities promoting a healthy heart might lead to a healthy brain and help to prevent dementia.

  17. Risk factors for mortality in Down syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uppal, H; Chandran, S; Potluri, R

    2015-09-01

    Down syndrome is a genetic condition that contributes to a significantly shorter life expectancy compared with the general population. We investigated the most common comorbidities in a population of acute hospital patients with Down syndrome and further explored what the most common risk factors for mortality are within this population. From our database of one million patients admitted to National Health Service (NHS) Trusts in northern England, we identified 558 people who had Down syndrome. We compared this group with an age- and gender-matched control group of 5580 people. The most prevalent comorbid diseases within the Down's population were hypothyroidism (22.9%) and epilepsy (20.3%). However, the conditions that had the highest relative risks (RRs) in the Down's population were septal defects and dementia. Respiratory failure, dementia and pneumonia were the most significantly related comorbidities to mortality in the Down syndrome population. In the control population, respiratory failure, dementia and renal failure were the most significant disease contributors. When these contributors were analysed using multivariate analysis, heart failure, respiratory failure, pneumonia and epilepsy were the identified risk factors for in-hospital mortality in the Down syndrome population. Respiratory failure was the sole risk factor for mortality in the Down syndrome population [RR = 9.791 (1.6-59.9) P ≤ 0.05], when compared with the risk factors for mortality in the control population. There is significant medical morbidity in Down syndrome. This morbidity contributes to the lower life expectancy. Respiratory failure is a risk factor for mortality in Down syndrome. We need to thoroughly investigate people with Down syndrome to ensure any treatable illnesses are well managed. © 2015 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Interactive effects of vascular risk burden and advanced age on cerebral blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine eBangen

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Vascular risk factors and cerebral blood flow (CBF reduction have been linked to increased risk of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease (AD; however the possible moderating effects of age and vascular risk burden on CBF in late life remain understudied. We examined the relationships among elevated vascular risk burden, age, CBF, and cognition. Seventy-one non-demented older adults completed an arterial spin labeling MR scan, neuropsychological assessment, and medical history interview. Relationships among vascular risk burden, age, and CBF were examined in a priori regions of interest (ROIs previously implicated in aging and AD. Interaction effects indicated that, among older adults with elevated vascular risk burden (i.e., multiple vascular risk factors, advancing age was significantly associated with reduced cortical CBF whereas there was no such relationship for those with low vascular risk burden (i.e., no or one vascular risk factor. This pattern was observed in cortical ROIs including medial temporal (hippocampus, parahippocampal gyrus, uncus, inferior parietal (supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, angular gyrus, and frontal (anterior cingulate, middle frontal gyrus, medial frontal gyrus cortices. Furthermore, among those with elevated vascular risk, reduced CBF was associated with poorer cognitive performance. Such findings suggest that older adults with elevated vascular risk burden may be particularly vulnerable to cognitive change as a function of CBF reductions. Findings support the use of CBF as a potential biomarker in preclinical AD and suggest that vascular risk burden and regionally-specific CBF changes may contribute to differential age-related cognitive declines.

  19. Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Peripheral Blood Cells and Risk of Developing Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemnrau, Alina; Brook, Mark N; Fletcher, Olivia; Coulson, Penny; Tomczyk, Katarzyna; Jones, Michael; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony; Orr, Nick; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat

    2015-07-15

    Increased mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) copy number in peripheral blood cells (PBC) has been associated with the risk of developing several tumor types. Here we evaluate sources of variation of this biomarker and its association with breast cancer risk in a prospective cohort study. mtDNA copy number was measured using quantitative real-time PCR on PBC DNA samples from participants in the UK-based Breakthrough Generations Study. Temporal and assay variation was evaluated in a serial study of 91 women, with two blood samples collected approximately 6-years apart. Then, associations with breast cancer risk factors and risk were evaluated in 1,108 cases and 1,099 controls using a nested case-control design. In the serial study, mtDNA copy number showed low assay variation but large temporal variation [assay intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), 79.3%-87.9%; temporal ICC, 38.3%). Higher mtDNA copy number was significantly associated with younger age at blood collection, being premenopausal, having an older age at menopause, and never taking HRT, both in cases and controls. Based on measurements in a single blood sample taken on average 6 years before diagnosis, higher mtDNA copy number was associated with increased breast cancer risk [OR (95% CI) for highest versus lowest quartile, 1.37 (1.02-1.83); P trend = 0.007]. In conclusion, mtDNA copy number is associated with breast cancer risk and represents a promising biomarker for risk assessment. The relatively large temporal variation should be taken into account in future analyses.

  20. Graft monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell content predicts the risk of acute graft-versus-host disease after allogeneic transplantation of granulocyte colony-stimulating factor-mobilized peripheral blood stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vendramin, Antonio; Gimondi, Silvia; Bermema, Anisa; Longoni, Paolo; Rizzitano, Sara; Corradini, Paolo; Carniti, Cristiana

    2014-12-01

    Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are powerful immunomodulatory cells that in mice play a role in infectious and inflammatory disorders, including acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Their relevance in clinical acute GVHD is poorly known. We analyzed whether granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) administration, used to mobilize hematopoietic stem cells, affected the frequency of MDSCs in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts of 60 unrelated donors. In addition, we evaluated whether the MDSC content in the peripheral blood stem cell grafts affected the occurrence of acute GVHD in patients undergoing unrelated donor allogeneic stem cell transplantation. Systemic treatment with G-CSF induces an expansion of myeloid cells displaying the phenotype of monocytic MDSCs (Lin(low/neg)HLA-DR(-)CD11b(+)CD33(+)CD14(+)) with the ability to suppress alloreactive T cells in vitro, therefore meeting the definition of MDSCs. Monocytic MDSC dose was the only graft parameter to predict acute GVHD. The cumulative incidence of acute GVHD at 180 days after transplantation for recipients receiving monocytic MDSC doses below and above the median was 63% and 22%, respectively (P = .02). The number of monocytic MDSCs infused did not impact the relapse rate or the transplant-related mortality rate (P > .05). Although further prospective studies involving larger sample size are needed to validate the exact monocytic MDSC graft dose that protects from acute GVHD, our results strongly suggest the modulation of G-CSF might be used to affect monocytic MDSCs graft cell doses for prevention of acute GVHD.

  1. [Cardiovascular risk factors in the population at risk of poverty and social exclusión].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Fernández, Carlos; Vaquero-Abellán, Manuel; Ruíz-Gandara, África; Romero-Saldaña, Manuel; Álvarez-López, Carlos

    2017-03-01

    Detect if there are differences in prevalence, distribution of cardiovascular risk factors and risk according to REGICOR and SCORE's function; between people belonging to different occupational classes and population at risk of social exclusion. Cross-sectional. SITE: Occupational health unit of the City Hall of Córdoba. Sample availability of 628 people, excluding 59 by age or incomplete data. The group of municipal workers was obtained randomly while all contracted exclusion risk was taken. No preventive, diagnostic or therapeutic actions that modify the course of the previous situation of workers were applied. Smoke, glucose, lipids, blood pressure and BMI as main variables. T-student were used for comparison of means and percentages for Chi(2). Statistical significance attached to an alpha error <5% and confidence interval with a 95% security. Receiver operator curves (ROC) were employed to find out what explanatory variables predict group membership of workers at risk of exclusion. Smoking (95% CI: -.224;-.443), hypercholesterolemia (95% CI: -.127;-.320), obesity (95% CI: -.005;-0.214), diabetes (95% CI: -.060;-.211) and cardiovascular risk were higher in men at risk of exclusion. In women there were differences in the same variables except smoking (P=.053). The existence of inequalities in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors is checked. In a context of social crisis, health promotion and primary prevention programs directing to the most vulnerable, they are needed to mit. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  2. What Are the Risk Factors for Kidney Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... were exposed to in the environment, or both. High blood pressure The risk of kidney cancer is higher in people with high blood pressure. Some studies have suggested that certain medicines used ...

  3. Genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunsheng; Tian, Xiaocao; Sun, Jianping

    2017-01-01

    AIM: To explore the genetic and environmental influences on cardiovascular risk factors (CVRF) and cognitive function in the world's largest and rapidly aging Chinese population. METHODS: Cognitive function and CVRF, including body mass index, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, pu...

  4. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F.

    2009-01-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM t...

  5. Prehospital Volume Therapy as an Independent Risk Factor after Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuer, Matthias; Lefering, Rolf; Touma, Alexander; Schoeneberg, Carsten; Keitel, Judith; Lendemans, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Background. Prehospital volume therapy remains widely used after trauma, while evidence regarding its disadvantages is growing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the volume administered in a prehospital setting as an independent risk factor for mortality. Material and Methods. Patients who met the following criteria were analyzed retrospectively: Injury Severity Score = 16, primary admission (between 2002 and 2010), and age = 16 years. The following data had to be available: volume administered (including packed red cells), blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, therapeutic measures, and laboratory results. Following a univariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality after trauma were investigated using a multivariate regression analysis. Results. A collective of 7,641 patients met the inclusion criteria, showing that increasing volumes administered in a prehospital setting were an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.34). This tendency was even more pronounced in patients without severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) (odds ratio: 2.71), while the opposite tendency was observed in patients with TBI. Conclusions. Prehospital volume therapy in patients without severe TBI represents an independent risk factor for mortality. In such cases, respiratory and circulatory conditions should be stabilized during permissive hypotension, and patient transfer should not be delayed. PMID:25949995

  6. Prehospital Volume Therapy as an Independent Risk Factor after Trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjoern Hussmann

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Prehospital volume therapy remains widely used after trauma, while evidence regarding its disadvantages is growing. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the volume administered in a prehospital setting as an independent risk factor for mortality. Material and Methods. Patients who met the following criteria were analyzed retrospectively: Injury Severity Score = 16, primary admission (between 2002 and 2010, and age = 16 years. The following data had to be available: volume administered (including packed red cells, blood pressure, Glasgow Coma Scale, therapeutic measures, and laboratory results. Following a univariate analysis, independent risk factors for mortality after trauma were investigated using a multivariate regression analysis. Results. A collective of 7,641 patients met the inclusion criteria, showing that increasing volumes administered in a prehospital setting were an independent risk factor for mortality (odds ratio: 1.34. This tendency was even more pronounced in patients without severe traumatic brain injury (TBI (odds ratio: 2.71, while the opposite tendency was observed in patients with TBI. Conclusions. Prehospital volume therapy in patients without severe TBI represents an independent risk factor for mortality. In such cases, respiratory and circulatory conditions should be stabilized during permissive hypotension, and patient transfer should not be delayed.

  7. Prevalence of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in employees of Brazilian University

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Sanches BERTASSO-BORGES

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular diseases have been the main cause of death in Brazil and the identification of cardiovascular risk factors is crucial to effective prevention. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in employees of a University in São José do Rio Preto. This analysis was done by a study transverse and descriptive carried out from a questionnaire for the identification of cardiovascular risk factors, anthropometric measures and arterial blood pressure in employees. A total of 127 employees were assessed, being 84 (66.14% of them females. The age group most prevalent is 21 to 30 years (37%. Arterial hypertension was identified in 7.09% of the people and 17.32% of them were in the pre-hypertension range. Positive family history was reported by 82.68% of the employees. Approximately 50% of the population reported alcoholism, with prevalence in males (69.77%. The frequency of a sedentary lifestyle was high in females (73.81% and 52.76% of the total population was overweight. For females there was statistical significance for waist circumference in the analysis by age groups. Based on the results we conclude that hypertension, family history, alcoholism, overweight and a sedentary lifestyle are the main cardiovascular risk factors in this population of employees.

  8. Risk factors and effective management of preeclampsia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    English FA

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Fred A English,1 Louise C Kenny,1 Fergus P McCarthy1,2 1Irish Centre for Fetal and Neonatal Translational Research (INFANT, Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland; 2Women’s Health Academic Centre, King's Health Partners, St Thomas' Hospital, London, UK Abstract: Preeclampsia, a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy is estimated to complicate 2%–8% of pregnancies and remains a principal cause of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality. Preeclampsia may present at any gestation but is more commonly encountered in the third trimester. Multiple risk factors have been documented, including: family history, nulliparity, egg donation, diabetes, and obesity. Significant progress has been made in developing tests to predict risk of preeclampsia in pregnancy, but these remain confined to clinical trial settings and center around measuring angiogenic profiles, including placental growth factor or newer tests involving metabolomics. Less progress has been made in developing new treatments and therapeutic targets, and aspirin remains one of the few agents shown to consistently reduce the risk of developing preeclampsia. This review serves to discuss recent advances in risk factor identification, prediction techniques, and management of preeclampsia in antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal patients. Keywords: pregnancy, treatment, risk reduction, prediction

  9. [Cardiovascular risk factors in Chilean university students].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang-Salgado, M T; Casanueva-Escobar, V; Cid-Cea, X; González-Rubilar, U; Olate-Mellado, P; Nickel-Paredes, F; Revello-Chiang, L

    1999-01-01

    To study the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in asymptomatic university students of both sexes, aged 18 to 25 years. Serum lipid levels were measured in a subsample of 293 subjects, using a Hitachi 717 chemical analyzer. Obesity was classified using body mass index (BMI) measurements. A self-applied questionnaire was used to collect data on sedentary life style, family history of cardiovascular disease and cigarette smoking. Statistical associations of lipid levels with lipidic and non-lipidic risk factors were assessed using Pearson's chi-square test and multiple regression. We found lipid risk levels in 29.2% for total cholesterol (CT), 16.2% for low-density lipoproteins (C-LDL) and 5% for high-density lipoproteins (C-HDL). The main non-lipidic factors were smoking (46.1%) and sedentarism (60.8%). Obesity, hypertension and parental history of myocardial infarction were present in 1.9%, 4.6% and 11%, respectively. We observed an association of a lipid risk profile with obesity, cigarette smoking and family history. The results show that sedentarism and smoking are associated with a lipid risk profile. These results call for the need to develop appropriate behavior strategies for the successful prevention of cardiovascular disease.

  10. Exploring Risk Factors for Follicular Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander J. Ambinder

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Follicular lymphoma (FL is an indolent malignancy of germinal center B cells with varied incidence across racial groups and geographic regions. Improvements in the classification of non-Hodgkin lymphoma subtypes provide an opportunity to explore associations between environmental exposures and FL incidence. Our paper found that aspects of Western lifestyle including sedentary lifestyle, obesity, and diets high in meat and milk are associated with an increased risk of FL. Diets rich in fruits and vegetables, polyunsaturated fatty acids, vitamin D, and certain antioxidants are inversely associated with FL risk. A medical history of Sjogren's syndrome, influenza vaccination, and heart disease may be associated with FL incidence. Associations between FL and exposure to pesticides, industrial solvents, hair dyes, and alcohol/tobacco were inconsistent. Genetic risk factors include variants at the 6p21.32 region of the MHC II locus, polymorphisms of the DNA repair gene XRCC3, and UV exposure in individuals with certain polymorphisms of the vitamin D receptor. Increasing our understanding of risk factors for FL must involve integrating epidemiological studies of genetics and exposures to allow for the examination of risk factors and interactions between genes and environment.

  11. Physiological and lifestyle factors contributing to risk and severity of peri-orbital dark circles in the Brazilian population

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Matsui, Mary S; Schalka, Sérgio; Vanderover, Garrett; Fthenakis, Christina G; Christopher, J; Bombarda, Patricia Camarano Pinto; Bueno, Juliana Regina; Viscomi, Bianca Lenci Inácio; Bombarda Júnior, Mário Sérgio

    2015-01-01

    ... epidermis/dermis under the eye. It is of interest to better understand lifestyle and demographic risk factors and the relative impact of melanin, blood and epidermal/dermal factors on the severity of Peri-orbital dark...

  12. ROLE OF VARIOUS RISK FACTORS ASSOCIATED WITH CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranay Wal

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Coronary Artery Disease (CAD is the leading cause of cardiovascular mortality world wide. Increasing rate of CAD mortality and projected rise in CAD mortality for 2020 in the developing world necessitates immediate prevention and control measures. Cardiovascular disease (CVD is generally due to reduced blood flow to the heart, brain or body caused by atheroma or thrombosis. It is increasingly common after the age of 60, but rare below the age of 30. Plaques (plates of fatty atheroma build up in different arteries during adult life. These can eventually cause narrowing of the arteries, or trigger a local thrombosis (blood clot which completely blocks the blood flow. Despite scientific evidence that evidence based drug therapy reduce mortality in patients with established CAD, these therapies continue to be underutilized in patients receiving conventional care. It is essential to identify and manage risk factors for coronary artery diseases and to implement unique and creative approaches to stimulate better adherence to practice guidelines, to improve the quality of care given to patients with CAD. Reduction of SBP, DBP, heart rate, and body fat%, total cholesterol, triglycerides and LDL after regular yogic practices is beneficial for cardiac and hypertensive patients. Emphasis focusing on conventional risk factors, lifestyle modifications, smoking cessation, reduction of central obesity through dietary modification and exercise, can be proved to be the key interventions for preventing CAD.

  13. Blood pressure and cardiovascular risk: what about cocoa and chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Davide; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Claudio

    2010-09-01

    Cocoa flavonoids are able to reduce cardiovascular risk by improving endothelial function and decreasing blood pressure (BP). Interest in the biological activities of cocoa is daily increasing. A recent meta-analysis shows flavanol-rich cocoa administration decreases mean systolic (-4.5mm Hg; p<0.001) and diastolic (-2.5mm Hg; p<0.001) BP. A 3-mm Hg systolic BP reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on cardiovascular health focusing on putative mechanisms of action and nutritional and "pharmacological" viewpoints. Cocoa consumption could play a pivotal role in human health.

  14. Psychosocial risk factors for musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heuvel, S. van den

    2014-01-01

    It has been known for some time that risk factors in the workplace can have a negative effect on health. Ramazzini was one of the first scientists to identify occupational health hazards. He wrote about diseases of the musculoskeletal system caused by sudden and irregular movements and the adoption

  15. Prevalence, Risk Factors and Antimicrobial Resistance of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mubeen

    the prevalence, risk factors and antibiotic resistance related to ABU in antenatal women. Subjects and Methods: A ... anatomical and physiological changes imposed on urinary ... obtained from pre-tested, self-administered questionnaire. The study was ..... 2013;2:92-6. Source of Support: Nil, Conflict of Interest: None declared.

  16. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  17. Self-management of vascular risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sol-de Rijk, B.G.M.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The aim of this thesis was to provide insight into the potential of a self-management approach in treatment of vascular risk factors and to develop a self-management intervention. Furthermore to examine if this intervention, based on self-efficacy promoting theory, is effective in reducing v

  18. Neuropathic pain: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Kamerman, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Neuropathic pain: epidemiology, risk factors and prevention. Presented in a teaching workshop at the 22nd World Congress of Neurology, Santiago, Chile, 2015 (Workshop title: Neuropathic pain - advice for clinical practice; chair: AL Oaklander, USA).The presentation covers the epidemiology of neuropathic pain.

  19. Risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijk, van N.Ph.L.; Bruijn, de J.G.M.

    2012-01-01

    One out of three people (25% of men, 38% of women) in Curacao have experienced some form of domestic violence at some point in their adult lives. The most significant risk factors for domestic violence in Curacao are the female gender, a young age, low education, and experiencing domestic violence v

  20. Risk Factors and Prodromal Eating Pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stice, Eric; Ng, Janet; Shaw, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Prospective studies have identified factors that increase risk for eating pathology onset, including perceived pressure for thinness, thin-ideal internalization, body dissatisfaction, dietary restraint, and negative affect. Research also suggests that body dissatisfaction and dietary restraint may constitute prodromal stages of the development of…

  1. Lifestyle factors and risk of cardiovascular diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoevenaar-Blom, M.P.

    2013-01-01

     Background Evidence is accumulating that lifestyle factors influence the incidence of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular diseases (CVD). A healthy diet, being physically active, moderate alcohol consumption and not smoking are associated with a lower CVD risk. In addition to

  2. Infants at Risk: Perinatal and Neonatal Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipsitt, Lewis P.

    1979-01-01

    Reviews studies of infant behavior and development. Delineates a behavioral hypothesis relating prenatal and neonatal risk factors in infancy to crib death. The mutual dependence of experience and neurostructural development suggests that infancy is a period of critical learning experiences. (Author/RH)

  3. Risk Factors of γ-Hydroxybutyrate Overdosing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.J. Korf; T. Nabben; A. Benschop; K. Ribbink; J.G.C. van Amsterdam

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to identify in recreational drug users the factors which increase the risk of overdosing (OD) with γ-hydroxybutyrate (GHB). A purposive sample of 45 experienced GHB users was interviewed, equally divided into three groups (never OD, occasional OD, and repeat OD). The repeat

  4. Exogenous risk factors for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huisman, M.H.B.

    2015-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to determine the epidemiology of ALS in the Netherlands, to determine the familial aggregation of ALS with Parkinson disease (PD), dementia, and vascular diseases, and to determine the association between several environmental and lifestyle factors and risk for sporadic

  5. Risk Factors for Herpes Zoster Among Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marin, Mona; Harpaz, Rafael; Zhang, John; Wollan, Peter C; Bialek, Stephanie R; Yawn, Barbara P

    2016-09-01

    Background.  The causes of varicella-zoster virus reactivation and herpes zoster (HZ) are largely unknown. We assessed potential risk factors for HZ, the data for which cannot be obtained from the medical sector. Methods.  We conducted a matched case-control study. We established active surveillance in Olmsted County, Minnesota to identify HZ occurring among persons age ≥50 years during 2010-2011. Cases were confirmed by medical record review. Herpes zoster-free controls were age- and sex-matched to cases. Risk factor data were obtained by telephone interview. Results.  We enrolled 389 HZ case patients and 511 matched controls; the median age was 65 and 66 years, respectively. Herpes zoster was associated with family history of HZ (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 1.65); association was highest with first-degree or multiple relatives (aOR = 1.87 and 3.08, respectively). Herpes zoster was also associated with prior HZ episodes (aOR = 1.82), sleep disturbance (aOR = 2.52), depression (aOR = 3.81), and recent weight loss (aOR = 1.95). Stress was a risk factor for HZ (aOR = 2.80), whereas a dose-response relationship was not noted. All associations indicated were statistically significant (P .1). Conclusions.  We identified several important risk factors for HZ; however, the key attributable causes of HZ remain unknown.

  6. Risk Factors for Smoking Behaviors among Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sung Suk; Joung, Kyoung Hwa

    2014-01-01

    Many students in Korea begin to use tobacco and develop a regular smoking habit before they reach adulthood. Yet, little is known about various signs contributing to the transition of the student smoking behaviors. This study used a national sample to explore and compare risk factors for smoking behaviors. Three types of smoking behaviors were…

  7. Risk Factors for Depression in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacPhee, Angela R.; Andrews, Jac J. W.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify salient risk factors for depression in early adolescence from a group of common predictors. The following nine predictors were examined: (1) perceived quality of peer relationships, (2) perceived parental nurturance, (3) perceived parental rejection, (4) self-esteem, (5) body image, (6) pubertal status,…

  8. Risk factors for feline diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slingerland, L.I.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/304830917

    2008-01-01

    The chapters of Part I of the thesis describe the development of techniques that can be used in the assessment of risk factors for the development of diabetes mellitus (DM) in cats. The hyperglycemic glucose clamp (HGC) was developed for use in conscious cats, equipped with arterial catheters for

  9. [Is hyperuricemia a cardiovascular risk factor?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chizyński, Krzysztof; Rózycka, Monika

    2006-01-01

    The association of elevated serum uric acid (hyperuricemia, gout) with the presence of classical coronary risk factors and coronary artery disease (CAD) or myocardial infarction (MI) has been analysed in many epidemiological studies. Numerous studies have revealed that hypertension, high body mass index (BMI), lipid disorders (especially raised triglycerides--TG level and low high dense lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C level), increased creatinine or insulin levels have caused hyperuricemia. No association has been observed between hyperuricemia and diabetes type 2 and uricemia and glicemia. But in some studies the relationship between cholesterol and uric acid levels has been not confirmed. Hyperuricemia has been observed in patients with non-treated hypertension. Gout has often occurred with typical disorders for the metabolic syndrome X. Significant correlation of the serum uric level and the CAD presence and severity of coronary atherosclerosis confirmed by coronary angiography has been observed in women. Hyperuricemia has also indirect influence on progress of CAD by physical activity restriction, what causes sedentary mode of life and lead to obesity. Obesity is a known risk factor diabetes, lipid disorders and hypertension. To recapitulate, it is a matter of controversy as to whether uric acid is an independent cardiovascular risk factor or rather it only represents reinforcement of typical risk factor.

  10. Risk factors for suicide in multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stenager, E N; Koch-Henriksen, N; Stenager, E

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to identify risk factors for suicide in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: The study is based on available information about MS patients identified in the Danish MS Registry (DMSR) with onset in the period 1950-1985. We compared the MS...

  11. Prevalence and control of high blood pressure in primary care: results from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study (GEMCAS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balijepalli, Chakrapani; Bramlage, Peter; Lösch, Christian; Zemmrich, Claudia; Humphries, Karin H; Moebus, Susanne

    2014-06-01

    Contemporary epidemiological data on blood pressure readings, hypertension prevalence and control in unselected patient populations covering a broad age range are scarce. The aim here is to report the prevalence of high blood pressure and to identify factors associated with blood pressure control in a large German primary care sample. We used data from the German Metabolic and Cardiovascular Risk Study including 35 869 patients aged 18-99 years. High blood pressure was defined as systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg or using antihypertensive therapy. Factors associated with blood pressure control among patients receiving antihypertensive therapy were examined using multiple logistic regressions to estimate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals. The prevalence of high blood pressure, uncontrolled high blood pressure and untreated high blood pressure was 54.8%, 21.3% and 17.6%, respectively. Age >50 years (1.52; 1.40-1.65), male sex (1.30; 1.20-1.41), elevated waist circumference (1.55; 1.45-1.65), high cholesterol (1.24; 1.16-1.33), high triglycerides (1.11; 1.04-1.19) and concomitant diabetes (1.29; 1.20-1.40) were independently associated with uncontrolled high blood pressure. In a majority of patients we observed hypertension despite treatment for high blood pressures. Studies examining the reasons f