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Sample records for blood related products

  1. Impact of bleeding-related complications and/or blood product transfusions on hospital costs in inpatient surgical patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reynolds Matthew W

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Inadequate surgical hemostasis may lead to transfusion and/or other bleeding-related complications. This study examines the incidence and costs of bleeding-related complications and/or blood product transfusions occurring as a consequence of surgery in various inpatient surgical cohorts. Methods A retrospective analysis was conducted using Premier's Perspective™ hospital database. Patients who had an inpatient procedure within a specialty of interest (cardiac, vascular, non-cardiac thoracic, solid organ, general, reproductive organ, knee/hip replacement, or spinal surgery during 2006-2007 were identified. For each specialty, the rate of bleeding-related complications (including bleeding event, intervention to control for bleeding, and blood product transfusions was examined, and hospital costs and length of stay (LOS were compared between surgeries with and without bleeding-related complications. Incremental costs and ratios of average total hospital costs for patients with bleeding-related complications vs. those without complications were estimated using ordinary least squares (OLS regression, adjusting for demographics, hospital characteristics, and other baseline characteristics. Models using generalized estimating equations (GEE were also used to measure the impact of bleeding-related complications on costs while accounting for the effects related to the clustering of patients receiving care from the same hospitals. Results A total of 103,829 cardiac, 216,199 vascular, 142,562 non-cardiac thoracic, 45,687 solid organ, 362,512 general, 384,132 reproductive organ, 246,815 knee/hip replacement, and 107,187 spinal surgeries were identified. Overall, the rate of bleeding-related complications was 29.9% and ranged from 7.5% to 47.4% for reproductive organ and cardiac, respectively. Overall, incremental LOS associated with bleeding-related complications or transfusions (unadjusted for covariates was 6.0 days and ranged from 1

  2. Moulting patterns of Alabio and Mojosari ducks and their relation on blood lipids (tryglycerides, egg production and egg quality

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    Maijon Purba

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Moulting is a biological condition that can happen in poultry. It is resulted from the complex interaction which involves the function of thyroxine hormone. Moulting can reduce or even stop the egg production. A study was conducted to observe the moulting patterns of local ducks (Alabio and Mojosari and to determine the relation of moulting with blood lipids (triglycerides, egg production and quality. Each breed consisted of ten female dukcs were observed for moulting pattern, blood triglycerides, egg production and quality. Fourty ducks were used for simulation of egg production. Data from moulting patterns,egg production and quality were analyzed using t-based on Least Square means with Statistical Analysis System. The relation of breeds and moulting patterns with triglycerides were analyzed using Analysis of Variance (ANOVA for a completely randomized design in a factorial arrangement of 2x2. The main factor was kind of breeds, while the subfactor was the period of moulting, before and during moulting. There were not interaction in every variables between both factors. The average moulting periode of Alabio was significantly (P<0.05 shorter than that of Mojosari (69 vs 76 days. There were 40% of Alabio ducks moulting for 61-70 days, while 40% of Mojosari ducks moulting for 71-80 days. Egg production of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were higher than those Mojosari ducks. The triglycerides content of Alabio and Mojosari ducks was decreased during moulting, in Alabio ducks they were 32.02 and 27.64 μg/ml before and during moulting, while in Mojosari ducks they were 32.83 and 29.32 μg/ml respectively. Egg weight, albumin weight, yolk weight, and haugh unit of the two breeds increased after moulting, while yolk colour decreased. The average yolk colour of Alabio ducks before and after moulting were 6.90 and 5.11, while in Mojosari ducks they were 7.90 and 4.60 respectively.

  3. LPS-Stimulated Whole Blood Cytokine Production Is Not Related to Disease Behavior in Patients with Quiescent Crohn's Disease.

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    Mark M T J Broekman

    Full Text Available Crohn's disease (CD is a chronic inflammatory disease in which cytokines play a pivotal role in the induction and maintenance of inflammation. Innate cytokine production is genetically determined and varies largely between individuals; this might impact the severity of inflammation. We aimed to assess whether ex-vivo endotoxin-stimulated levels of cytokines could be associated with disease phenotype.Patients with quiescent CD (Harvey-Bradshaw Index ≤ 4 and negative inflammation markers who were not using immunomodulating drugs or biologicals were eligible. Historical disease characteristics (localization, behavior, number of bowel resections, drug history, extra-intestinal symptoms were extracted from medical records. We measured cytokine levels (tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α, interleukin (IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 in supernatants of lipopolysaccharide (LPS -stimulated whole blood cultures and correlated these with disease characteristics and age- and sex-matched healthy controls. In addition, we analyzed whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene were related to TNF-α levels.We included 75 patients with CD and 24 healthy controls. Six patients were excluded because of increased inflammation markers resulting in a total of 69 patients. The mean age (SD of patients with CD was 51.2 (12.3 years with a mean (SD disease duration of 24.1 (11.5 years. Disease localization, peri-anal involvement and behavior were not related to LPS-stimulated TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 or IL-10 levels. In addition, combination of localization with behavior to differentiate mild from severe disease type showed no significant differences. TNF-α levels were higher in patients with CD (428 pg/ml IQR [267-468] compared to healthy controls (459 pg/ml IQR [364-570], p=0.02. We found no associations between SNPs in the promoter region and TNF-α levels.In this study, innate cytokine production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-10 was not

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allerg ies (NDA) ; Guidance on the scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    The European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) asked the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) to draft guidance on scientific requirements for health claims related to appetite ratings, weight management, and blood glucose concentrations. This guidance has been drawn from scientific...

  5. Infections Transmitted By the Transfusion of Blood and Blood Products

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    Tekin A.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Especially viral hepatitis viruses and human immunodeficiency virus(HIV which were transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products have been an important public health problem for a long time on the world. Transfusion of blood and blood products is an ideal and an easiest and a simplest route for transmission of infectious diseases. It is known that many infectious agents, either bacterial, viral, parasitic and fungal agents may be transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products. In present study, we reviewed infection diseases that transmitted by the transfusion of blood and blood products.Additionally, we were aimed to emphasize a rare but a very important complication of transfusion of blood and blood products.

  6. Use of blood and blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E; Wood, B

    1999-11-01

    It is sometimes necessary for the practitioner to transfuse the ruminant with whole blood or plasma. These techniques are often difficult to perform in practice, are time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the animal. Acute loss of 20% to 25% of the blood volume will result in marked clinical signs of anemia, including tachycardia and maniacal behavior. The PCV is only a useful tool with which to monitor acute blood loss after intravascular equilibration with other fluid compartments has occurred. An acutely developing PCV of 15% or less may require transfusion. Chronic anemia with PCV of 7% to 12% can be tolerated without transfusion if the animal is not stressed and no further decline in erythrocyte mass occurs. Seventy-five percent of transfused bovine erythrocytes are destroyed within 48 hours of transfusion. A transfusion rate of 10 to 20 mL/kg recipient weight is necessary to result in any appreciable increase in PCV. A nonpregnant donor can contribute 10 to 15 mL of blood/kg body weight at 2- to 4-week intervals. Sodium citrate is an effective anticoagulant, but acid citrate dextrose should be used if blood is to be stored for more than a few hours. Blood should not be stored more than 2 weeks prior to administration. Heparin is an unsuitable anticoagulant because the quantity of heparin required for clot-free blood collection will lead to coagulation defects in the recipient. Blood cross-matching is only rarely performed in the ruminant. In field situations, it is advisable to inject 200 mL of donor blood into the adult recipient and wait 10 minutes. If no reaction occurs, the rest of the blood can probably be safely administered as long as volume overload problems do not develop. Adverse reactions are most commonly seen in very young animals or pregnant cattle. Signs of blood or plasma transfusion reaction include hiccoughing, tachycardia, tachypnea, sweating, muscle tremors, pruritus, salivation, cough, dyspnea, fever, lacrimation, hematuria

  7. Transfusions of blood and blood products and viral infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Wróblewska

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Transfusions of blood and blood products are commonly used in medicine, but being biological materials they carry a risk of transmitting infections--viral, bacterial, parasitic, as well as prions. Laboratory tests used for screening of donated blood for viral infections at present cannot detect all infectious units. Criteria for selection of blood donors therefore must be very strict, while methods of inactivation of viruses and laboratory assays for detection of their presence must be improved. Indications for blood transfusion should be restricted.

  8. Determination of Rate and Causes of Wastage of Blood and Blood Products in Iranian Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafat Mohebbi Far

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to determine the rate and causes of wastage of blood and blood products (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate in Qazvin hospitals. METHODS: The study was conducted in all hospitals in Qazvin, including 5 teaching hospitals, 2 social welfare hospitals, 3 private hospitals, 1 charity hospital, and 1 military hospital. This descriptive study was based on available data from hospital blood banks in the province of Qazvin. The research instrument was a 2-part questionnaire. The first part was related to demographic characteristics of hospitals and the second part elicited information about blood and blood component wastage. The collected data were then analyzed using descriptive statistic methods and SPSS 11.5. RESULTS: Blood wastage may occur for a number of reasons, including time expiry, wasted imports, blood medically or surgically ordered but not used, stock time expired, hemolysis, or miscellaneous reasons. Data indicated that approximately 77.9% of wasted pack cell units were wasted for the reason of time expiry. Pack cell wastage in hospitals is reported to range from 1.93% to 30.7%. Wastage at all hospitals averaged 9.8% among 30.913 issued blood products. Overall blood and blood product (packed red cells, plasma, platelets, and cryoprecipitate wastage was 3048 units and average total wastage per participant hospital for all blood groups was 254 units per year. CONCLUSION: Blood transfusion is an essential part of patient care. The blood transfusion system has made significant advancements in areas such as donor management, storage of blood, cross-matching, rational use of blood, and distribution. In order to improve the standards of blood banks and the blood transfusion services in Iran, comprehensive standards have been formulated to ensure better quality control in collection, storage, testing, and distribution of blood and its components for the identified major factors

  9. Costing blood products and services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, E L

    1991-05-01

    At present, blood centers and transfusion services have limited alternatives for offsetting the ever-rising costs of health care inputs. In the face of current revenue constraints, cost reduction or cost containment through efficiency improvements or service reduction is the principal available means. Such methods ought to be pursued vigorously by blood bankers with the aid of well-designed costing and other physical measurements systems. Experience indicates, however, that blood bankers, in their attempts to reduce or contain costs, are likely to place undue reliance on cost accounting systems as the means of capturing sought-for benefits. Management must learn enough about methods of costing to judge directly the uses and limitations of the information produced. Such understanding begins with recognition that all costs and cost comparisons should be specific to the purpose for which they are developed. No costing procedure is capable of producing measures generally applicable to all management decisions. A measure relevant to a planning decision is unlikely to be appropriate for performance evaluation. Useful comparisons among sets of organizations of costs, or of measures of physical inputs and outputs, require assurance that the methods of measurement employed are the same and that the sets of organizations from which the measures are drawn are reasonably comparable.

  10. Transfusion of blood and blood products: indications and complications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sanjeev; Sharma, Poonam; Tyler, Lisa N

    2011-03-15

    Red blood cell transfusions are used to treat hemorrhage and to improve oxygen delivery to tissues. Transfusion of red blood cells should be based on the patient's clinical condition. Indications for transfusion include symptomatic anemia (causing shortness of breath, dizziness, congestive heart failure, and decreased exercise tolerance), acute sickle cell crisis, and acute blood loss of more than 30 percent of blood volume. Fresh frozen plasma infusion can be used for reversal of anticoagulant effects. Platelet transfusion is indicated to prevent hemorrhage in patients with thrombocytopenia or platelet function defects. Cryoprecipitate is used in cases of hypofibrinogenemia, which most often occurs in the setting of massive hemorrhage or consumptive coagulopathy. Transfusion-related infections are less common than noninfectious complications. All noninfectious complications of transfusion are classified as noninfectious serious hazards of transfusion. Acute complications occur within minutes to 24 hours of the transfusion, whereas delayed complications may develop days, months, or even years later.

  11. Quality of transfusion products in blood banking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchini, Massimo; Capuzzo, Enrico; Turdo, Rosalia; Glingani, Claudia

    2014-03-01

    The primary goal in transfusion medicine and cellular therapies is to promote high standards of quality and produce ever safer and more efficacious products. The establishment of a transfusion service quality management system, which includes several organizational structures, responsibilities, policies, processes, procedures, and resources, is now mandatory and widely regulated worldwide. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the quality system in transfusion medicine as applied to the production of blood components, including red blood cells, platelets, and fresh frozen plasma. PMID:24474089

  12. Congener Production in Blood Samples During Preparation and Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Felby, Søren; Nielsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone......Retsmedicin, congener production, preparation, head space GC, acetone, isobutanol, storage, blood samples, n-propanol, methanol, methylethylketone...

  13. Blood platelet production with breaks : optimization by SDP and simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, Rene; van Dijk, Nico; van der Wal, Jan; Sibinga, Cees Smit

    2009-01-01

    The production and inventory management of blood products at blood banks and hospitals is it problem of general human interest. As a shortage may put lives at risk, shortages are to be kept to a minimum. As the supply is voluntary and costly, any spill of unused blood (products) is also to be minimi

  14. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  15. [Blood donation: Representations and issues associated with blood product collection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loquier, B; Zegierman, A; Pelletier, B

    2015-08-01

    In order to answer to its aim of standardised self-sufficiency, the Établissement français du sang (main French national platform for blood donation) needs to know well the donors, what moves them, what motivates them, and the meaning that they give to their action. This knowledge allows the EFS to better understand the different sensitivities among donors, and therefore to improve the strategy regarding loyalty or/and newcomers. In this paper we follow, without attempting to be fully exhaustive, the evolution of the research regarding blood donation. The aim is to highlight the role played by social and historical representations regarding donation in general. In a given community, its norms, and its values influence both the image of donors as well as the meaning attached to the act itself of donation. Moreover, these norms have also influenced the way that research has tried to analyse this topic. The initial studies conducted in this field tried generally to understand the meaning and the symbolism attached to the act of blood donation. Later on, researchers started to focus on the assessment of notions such as generosity, and then solidarity. Nowadays, research is more focused on describing the population that gives blood. They are more scrutinised through their socio-demographic traits (who they are) than through the specific study of how they donate, the reasons behind the decision to act and the notion of satisfaction. PMID:26112917

  16. Pathogen inactivation in cellular blood products by photodynamic treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trannoy, Laurence Liliane

    2010-01-01

    The safety of blood transfusion can be increased by introducing methods that eliminate blood-borne pathogens such as viruses and bacteria. In this thesis, the use of photodynamic treatment (PDT) to inactivate pathogens in cellular blood products is described. Various photosensitizers, from phenothia

  17. 'Blind' transfusion of blood products in exsanguinating trauma patients.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geeraedts, L.M.G.; Demiral, H.; Schaap, N.P.M.; Kamphuisen, P.W.; Pompe, J.C.; Frolke, J.P.M.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In trauma, as interventions are carried out to stop bleeding, ongoing resuscitation with blood products is of vital importance. As transfusion policy in exsanguinating patients cannot be based on laboratory tests, transfusion of blood products is performed empirically or 'blindly'. The a

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1747, 1748, 1864, 1951, 1954, 4693) and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1747, 1748, 1864, 1951, 1954, 4693) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2011-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health claims in relation to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The scientific substa...

  19. A rational framework for production decision making in blood establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramoa, Augusto; Maia, Salomé; Lourenço, Anália

    2012-07-24

    SAD_BaSe is a blood bank data analysis software, created to assist in the management of blood donations and the blood production chain in blood establishments. In particular, the system keeps track of several collection and production indicators, enables the definition of collection and production strategies, and the measurement of quality indicators required by the Quality Management System regulating the general operation of blood establishments. This paper describes the general scenario of blood establishments and its main requirements in terms of data management and analysis. It presents the architecture of SAD_BaSe and identifies its main contributions. Specifically, it brings forward the generation of customized reports driven by decision making needs and the use of data mining techniques in the analysis of donor suspensions and donation discards.

  20. Optimizing the use of blood products in trauma care

    OpenAIRE

    Hess, John R.; Hiippala, Seppo

    2005-01-01

    Blood transfusion has been used to treat the injured since the US Civil War. Now, it saves the lives of tens of thousands of injured patients each year. However, not everyone who receives blood benefits, and some recipients are injured by the transfusion itself. Effective blood therapy in trauma management requires an integration of information from diverse sources, including data relating to trauma and blood use epidemiology, medical systems management, and clinical care. Issues of current c...

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the modification of the authorisation of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol; high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of a health claim related to plant sterol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol (high blood LDL-cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of (coronary) heart disease), pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. The applicant requested an extension of the conditions of use to powder...... supplements to be diluted in water at a dose of 2 g per day, which would lower blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations by “5.4-8.1 %” after six weeks of daily consumption. Plant sterol esters are sufficiently characterised. Lowering blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect...... and elevated blood LDL-cholesterol concentration is a risk factor for coronary heart disease. The target population is subjects who need and want to lower their blood cholesterol. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that only one human intervention study showed a reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol...

  2. 21 CFR 607.65 - Exemptions for blood product establishments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... certified under the Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments of 1988 (42 U.S.C. 263a) and 42 CFR part 493... the profession of pharmacy including the business of dispensing and selling blood products at...

  3. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during...... storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine...... content at donation, and histamine concentration in samples drawn from the units on days 0, 2, 5, 9, 14, 21, 28 and 35 were analysed with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Median plasma histamine concentration was 4.8 (range 1.9-14.3) nmol/l (n = 18). Median total cell-bound histamine content was 417...

  4. Use of statistical process control in the production of blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K.; Quere, S.; Winkel, P.

    2008-01-01

    occasional component manufacturing staff to an experienced regular manufacturing staff. Production of blood products is a semi-automated process in which the manual steps may be difficult to control. This study was performed in an ongoing effort to improve the control and optimize the quality of the blood......Introduction of statistical process control in the setting of a small blood centre was tested, both on the regular red blood cell production and specifically to test if a difference was seen in the quality of the platelets produced, when a change was made from a relatively large inexperienced...... by an experienced staff with four technologists. We applied statistical process control to examine if time series of quality control values were in statistical control. Leucocyte count in red blood cells was out of statistical control. Platelet concentration and volume of the platelets produced by the occasional...

  5. Time-dependent histamine release from stored human blood products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Edvardsen, L; Vangsgaard, K;

    1996-01-01

    storage. Whole blood (six units), plasma-reduced whole blood (six units), and plasma- and buffy coat-reduced (saline-adenine-glucose-mannitol) (SAGM) blood (six units) from unpaid healthy donors were stored in the blood bank for 35 days at 4 degrees C. Plasma histamine and total cell-bound histamine......Perioperative transfusion of whole blood has been shown to amplify trauma-induced immunosuppression, which could be attenuated by perioperative administration of histamine2 receptor antagonists. Supernatants from different blood products were, therefore, analysed for histamine content during.......0 (range 176.0-910.0) nmol/l in whole blood and 475.0 (range 360.0-1560.0) nmol/l in plasma-reduced whole blood, while it was undetectable in SAGM blood. Spontaneous histamine release increased in a time-dependent manner from a median of 6.7 (range 2.2-17.4) nmol/l at the time of storage to 175.0 (range 33...

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to isolated soy protein and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to isolated soy protein (ISP) and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, referring to disease risk reduction. The food constituent that is the subject...... of the health claim, ISP (as defined by the applicant), is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. A reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. A reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations reduces the risk of CHD. In weighing the evidence...... not been established between the consumption of ISP (as defined by the applicant) and a reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  7. Blood Platelet Production: Optimization by Dynamic Programming and Simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haijema, R.; Wal, van der J.; Dijk, van N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Blood platelets are precious, as voluntarily supplied by donors, and highly perishable, with limited lifetimes of 5¿7 days. Demand is highly variable and uncertain. A practical production and inventory rule is strived for that minimizes shortages and spill. The demand and production are periodic, as

  8. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217...... relative aerobic workload and ABP were significant. CONCLUSIONS: Because workers may have an elevated relative aerobic workload for several hours each working day, this relationship may elucidate a mechanism behind the increased risk for cardiovascular disease among workers exposed to high levels...

  9. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield. PMID:24611298

  10. [Promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimov, A G; Golota, A S; Krassiĭ, A B

    2013-10-01

    The current article is dedicated to promising technologies of packed red blood cells production and storage. The following new technical approaches are presented: (1) erythrocytes storage in strict anaerobic argon-hydrogen environment, (2) lyophilization of erythrocyte suspension by its atomization in nitrogen gas, (3) lyophilization of erythrocytes by directional freezing under the influence of radio frequency radiation, (4) automated pharming of antigen free packed red blood cells from progenitor cell directly at the battlefield.

  11. Detection of Epstein-Barr virus in leucoreduced blood products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trottier, H; Delage, G; Hu, J; Robitaille, N; Buteau, C; Tucci, M; Lacroix, J; Alfieri, C

    2016-02-01

    This study examined the prevalence of three human herpesviruses (HHV), namely HHV-4 (Epstein-Barr virus/EBV), HHV-6b and HHV-7 in leucoreduced blood products obtained from the Sainte-Justine Hospital blood bank. A total of 100 specimens, including 34 red blood cell concentrates, 33 platelet bags and 33 plasma units, were collected and screened by a sensitive PCR assay using virus-specific primers. Positive units were then retested by quantitative PCR. Of the 100 specimens, one platelet unit tested positive for EBV. PMID:26383177

  12. Relations of blood pressure and head injury to regional cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisser, Jason E; Allen, Allyssa J; Katzel, Leslie I; Wendell, Carrington R; Siegel, Eliot L; Lefkowitz, David; Waldstein, Shari R

    2016-06-15

    Hypertension confers increased risk for cognitive decline, dementia, and cerebrovascular disease. These associations have been attributed, in part, to cerebral hypoperfusion. Here we posit that relations of higher blood pressure to lower levels of cerebral perfusion may be potentiated by a prior head injury. Participants were 87 community-dwelling older adults - 69% men, 90% white, mean age=66.9years, 27.6% with a history of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) defined as a loss of consciousness ≤30min resulting from an injury to the head, and free of major medical (other than hypertension), neurological or psychiatric comorbidities. All engaged in clinical assessment of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) and single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT). Computerized coding of the SPECT images yielded relative ratios of blood flow in left and right cortical and select subcortical regions. Cerebellum served as the denominator. Sex-stratified multiple regression analyses, adjusted for age, education, race, alcohol consumption, smoking status, and depressive symptomatology, revealed significant interactions of blood pressure and head injury to cerebral blood flow in men only. Specifically, among men with a history of head injury, higher systolic blood pressure was associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left orbital (β=-3.21, p=0.024) and left dorsolateral (β=-2.61, p=0.042) prefrontal cortex, and left temporal cortex (β=-3.36, p=0.014); higher diastolic blood pressure was marginally associated with lower levels of perfusion in the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (β=-2.79, p=0.051). Results indicate that men with a history of head injury may be particularly vulnerable to the impact of higher blood pressure on cerebral perfusion in left anterior cortical regions, thus potentially enhancing risk for adverse brain and neurocognitive outcomes. PMID:27206865

  13. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Håkon Reikvam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the blood bank will be less motivated to return for donation, it is important to reduce the number of deferrals. The aims of the present study were to investigate the reasons for deferral of registered donors coming to the blood bank for donation, in order to identify areas of importance for donor education—as these deferrals potentially could be avoided by better donor comprehension. Deferral related to testing of donors is not included in this study as these deferrals are dependent on laboratory results and cannot be indentified by questionnaire or interview. Data were collected from all blood donors in a period for 18 months who came for blood donation at a large university hospital in Norway. 1 163 of the 29 787 regular donors, who showed up for donation, were deferred (3.9%. The main reasons were intercurrent illness (n=182 (15.6%, skin ulcers (n=170 (14.6%, and risk behaviour (n=127 (10.9%. In a community, intercurrent illnesses, skin ulcers, and potential risk behavior are the most frequent reasons for deferral of regular donors. Strategized effort on donor education is needed, as “failure to donate” reduces donor motivation.

  14. Simple technique for measuring relative renal blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To determine whether externally monitored early renal uptake of 131I-hippurate is proportional to renal blood flow, the renal uptake of 131-hippurate at 1 to 2 min after injection was compared with the renal accumulation of radioactive carbonized microspheres in dogs. A renal artery catheter equipped with a balloon was used to decrease renal blood flow unilaterally. One minute after the intravenous injection of 100 μCi of 131I-hippurate, about 1 μCi of either 85Sr- or 95Nb-labeled carbon microspheres was injected into the left ventricle. Radioactivity was measured over both kidneys. The total radioactivity within each kidney region of interest was corrected for background and integrated over the 1 to 2 min interval after injection. Thirteen measurements of relative renal blood flow were made for seven dogs. The dogs were then killed and both kidneys were excised and counted for the radioactivity of the microspheres. The 1 to 2-min relative renal uptake of 131I-hippurate correlated well with relative microsphere uptake, suggesting that relative renal blood flow can be simply determined from the external measurements of renal uptake of 131I-hippurate

  15. RELATIVE BLOOD VOLUME: THE MEANS OF INTRADIALYSIS HYPOTENSION PREVENTION

    OpenAIRE

    V. A. Terehov; A. G. Strokov

    2010-01-01

    Intravascular volume preservation is the first choice measure for the prevention of intradialysis hypotension. At present there are devices that allow continuous monitoring of relative blood volume (RBV) changes during haemodialysis (HD). The aim of this research was to investigate (i) the regularity of RBV curve during haemo- dialysis and (ii) the efficacy of some measures for intravascular volume preservation. In patients with hyperhydration RBV curves were monotone; in all cases relation ...

  16. Catheter-related blood stream infection caused by Raoultella ornithinolytica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sękowska, Alicja; Dylewska, Katarzyna; Gospodarek, Eugenia; Bogiel, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Raoultella spp. representatives are Gram-negative capsulated, nonmotile rods. These bacteria are found in the natural environment: plants, water, soil and insects. R. ornithinolytica is one of the three species of Raoultella. R. ornithinolytica is the only species within the genus which has the ability to produce ornithine decarboxylase. Human infections related to R. ornithinolytica are exceedingly rare. The present case report describes catheter-related blood stream infection caused by R. ornithinolytica and successfully treated with antibiotic therapy.

  17. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...

  18. Splanchnic blood flow and hepatic glucose production in exercising humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron, R; Kjaer, M; Simonsen, L;

    2001-01-01

    The study examined the implication of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in regulation of splanchnic blood flow and glucose production in exercising humans. Subjects cycled for 40 min at 50% maximal O(2) consumption (VO(2 max)) followed by 30 min at 70% VO(2 max) either with [angiotensin...

  19. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to folate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 176) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to folate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders...... that the claimed effect relates to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that no human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn...

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 661, 1831, 1832, 2891, further assessment) pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP......) and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim, the tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood pressure, is a beneficial physiological effect...

  1. Parvovirus transmission by blood products - a cause for concern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norja, Päivi; Lassila, Riitta; Makris, Mike

    2012-11-01

    The introduction of dual viral inactivation of clotting factor concentrates has practically eliminated infections by viruses associated with significant pathogenicity over the last 20 years. Despite this, theoretical concerns about transmission of infection have remained, as it is known that currently available viral inactivation methods are unable to eliminate parvovirus B19 or prions from these products. Recently, concern has been raised following the identification of the new parvoviruses, human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) and new genotypes of parvovirus B19, in blood products. Parvoviruses do not cause chronic pathogenicity similar to human immunodeficiency virus or hepatitis C virus, but nevertheless may cause clinical manifestations, especially in immunosuppressed patients. Manufacturers should institute measures, such as minipool polymerase chain reaction testing, to ensure that their products contain no known viruses. So far, human bocavirus, another new genus of parvovirus, has not been detected in fractionated blood products, and unless their presence can be demonstrated, routine testing during manufacture is not essential. Continued surveillance of the patients and of the safety of blood products remains an important ongoing issue.

  2. Use of statistical process control in the production of blood components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, K; Quere, S; Winkel, P

    2008-01-01

    Introduction of statistical process control in the setting of a small blood centre was tested, both on the regular red blood cell production and specifically to test if a difference was seen in the quality of the platelets produced, when a change was made from a relatively large inexperienced...... components produced and gives an example of how to meet EU legislative requirements in a small-scale production centre. Data included quality control measurements in 363 units of red blood cells, 79 units of platelets produced by an occasional staff with 11 technologists and 79 units of platelets produced...... by an experienced staff with four technologists. We applied statistical process control to examine if time series of quality control values were in statistical control. Leucocyte count in red blood cells was out of statistical control. Platelet concentration and volume of the platelets produced by the occasional...

  3. Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome associated with blood-product transfusions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jett, J.R.; Kuritsky, J.N.; Katzmann, J.A.; Homburger, H.A.

    1983-11-01

    A 53-year-old white man had fever, malaise, and dyspnea on exertion. His chest roentgenogram was normal, but pulmonary function tests showed impaired diffusion capacity and a gallium scan showed marked uptake in the lungs. Results of an open-lung biopsy documented Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia. Immunologic test results were consistent with the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. The patient denied having homosexual contact or using intravenous drugs. Twenty-nine months before the diagnosis of pneumocystis pneumonia was made, the patient had had 16 transfusions of whole blood, platelets, and fresh-frozen plasma during coronary artery bypass surgery at another medical center. This patient is not a member of any currently recognized high-risk group and is believed to have contracted the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome from blood and blood-product transfusions.

  4. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 661, 1831, 1832, 2891, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 (further reassessment)

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following a request from the European Commission, pursuant to Article 13.1 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The food constituent that is the subject of the claim, the tripeptides isoleucine-proline-proline (IPP) and valine-proline-proline (VPP), is sufficiently ...

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Specialised Nutrition Europe (formerly IDACE), submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of France, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific...... substantiation of a health claim related to iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells. The food constituent, iron, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised. Contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells is a beneficial...... physiological effect for infants and young children. A claim on iron and contribution to normal formation of haemoglobin and red blood cells in the general population has already been assessed by the Panel with a favourable outcome. The Panel considers that the role of iron in normal formation of haemoglobin...

  6. Blood money: Bayer's inventory of HIV-contaminated blood products and third world hemophiliacs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHenry, Leemon; Khoshnood, Mellad

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an overlooked case of research misconduct and violations of basic principles of medical and business ethics. When Bayer's Cutter Laboratories realized that their blood products, Factor VIII and IX or antihemophiliac factor (AHF), were contaminated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the financial investment in the product was considered too high to destroy the inventory. Cutter misrepresented the results of its own research and sold the contaminated AHF to overseas markets in Asia and Latin America without the precaution of heat treating the product recommended for eliminating the risk. As a consequence, hemophiliacs who infused the HIV-contaminated Factor VIII and IX tested positive for HIV and developed AIDS. PMID:24785997

  7. Blood pressure variability in relation to outcome in the International Database of Ambulatory blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Richart, Tom;

    2010-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure (BP) monitoring provides information not only on the BP level but also on the diurnal changes in BP. In the present review, we summarized the main findings of the International Database on Ambulatory BP in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDACO) with regard to risk...... stratification based on BP variability. The predictive accuracy of daytime and nighttime BP and the night-to-day BP ratio depended on the disease outcome under study and treatment status, and differed for fatal outcomes compared with the composite of fatal and nonfatal diseases. An exaggerated morning surge...

  8. 21 CFR 607.20 - Who must register and submit a blood product list.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... shall register and submit a list of every blood product in commercial distribution (except that... interstate commerce. (b) Preparatory to engaging in the manufacture of blood products, owners or operators...

  9. DETECTION OF BIOFILM PRODUCTION IN BLOOD CULTURE ISOLATES OF STAPHYLOCOCCI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Puja, Gupta Pratima, Mittal Garima, Agarwal RK, Goyal Rohit

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Biofilm producing bacteria which are inherently resistant to antibiotics and disinfectants are widely associated with implant associated infections. Staphylococcus is the most commonly associated pathogens with bloodstream infection. Aims: The current study was conducted to detect biofilm production in Staphylococci isolated from blood culture specimens. Materials and Methods: 70 clinically significant staphylococcal isolates from blood culture were screened for biofilm production by Tissue culture plate (TCP method, Tube method (TM and Congo red agar (CRA method and their antibiotic susceptibility profile was studied. Results: 59 out of 70 staphylococcal isolates were positive by TCP, out of these 21.4% staphylococci were high biofilm producers, 62.8% staphylococci were moderate biofilm producers and 15.8% were non-biofilm producers. Maximum resistance was observed in biofilm producers to cotrimoxazole (74.5% and erythromycin (62.7% and none were resistant to vancomycin and linezolid. Out of total 59 biofilm producers, 20.3 % (12 were methicillin resistant and all these were S. aureus isolates. 19% (1 out of total 11 biofilm non-producers were methicillin resistant. Conclusion: Biofilm production was seen to be a major virulence factor in most of the staphylococcal isolates obtained from patients with signs and symptoms of septicaemia. S. aureus was found to be the major pathogen and timely detection of biofilm producing phenotype should be carried out using a simple and reproducible method, TCP which is both qualitative and quantitative.

  10. Performance Related Pay and Labour Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, Anne; Kerkhofs, Marcel J M; van Ours, Jan C

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labour productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labour productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  11. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP). We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9% and employment with about 5%.

  12. Performance Related Pay and Labor Productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gielen, A. C.; Kerkhofs, M.J.M.; van Ours, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper uses information from a panel of Dutch firms to investigate the labor productivity effects of performance related pay (PRP).We find that PRP increases labor productivity at the firm level with about 9%.

  13. Cerebral lactate production and blood flow in acute stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, O; Gideon, P; Sperling, B;

    1992-01-01

    Eight stroke patients were examined serially in the acute phase and 1 week and 2-4 weeks after stroke with water-suppressed proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The time courses of lactate level and regional cerebral blood flow were studied. A high lactate level was found in the acute phase...... that follows reperfusion. The amount of lactate present in the acute phase reflects the severity of ischemia in the affected region. The lactate level was still above normal in the subacute phase with hyperemia, suggesting lactate production through aerobic glycolysis. Thus, the lactate level in the subacute...

  14. Questionnaire-Related Deferrals in Regular Blood Donors in Norway

    OpenAIRE

    Håkon Reikvam; Kjersti Svendheim; Anne S. Røsvik; Tor Hervig

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary donation is a key issue in transfusion medicine. To ensure the safety of blood transfusions, careful donor selection is important. Although new approaches to blood safety have dramatically reduced the risks for infectious contamination of blood components, the quality and the availability of blood components depend on the willingness to donate and the reliability of the information given by the donors about their own health, including risk behavior. As donors who are deferred by the...

  15. 21 CFR 607.7 - Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms manufacturing human...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... blood banks and other firms manufacturing human blood and blood products. 607.7 Section 607.7 Food and... Provisions § 607.7 Establishment registration and product listing of blood banks and other firms... permit any blood bank or similar establishment to ship blood products in interstate commerce. (b)...

  16. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-arginine, N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD+, and NADP+. Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson’s coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4–2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  17. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaleckis, Romanas; Murakami, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-04-19

    Metabolites present in human blood document individual physiological states influenced by genetic, epigenetic, and lifestyle factors. Using high-resolution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS), we performed nontargeted, quantitative metabolomics analysis in blood of 15 young (29 ± 4 y of age) and 15 elderly (81 ± 7 y of age) individuals. Coefficients of variation (CV = SD/mean) were obtained for 126 blood metabolites of all 30 donors. Fifty-five RBC-enriched metabolites, for which metabolomics studies have been scarce, are highlighted here. We found 14 blood compounds that show remarkable age-related increases or decreases; they include 1,5-anhydroglucitol, dimethyl-guanosine, acetyl-carnosine, carnosine, ophthalmic acid, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine,N-acetyl-arginine,N6-acetyl-lysine, pantothenate, citrulline, leucine, isoleucine, NAD(+), and NADP(+) Six of them are RBC-enriched, suggesting that RBC metabolomics is highly valuable for human aging research. Age differences are partly explained by a decrease in antioxidant production or increasing inefficiency of urea metabolism among the elderly. Pearson's coefficients demonstrated that some age-related compounds are correlated, suggesting that aging affects them concomitantly. Although our CV values are mostly consistent with those CVs previously published, we here report previously unidentified CVs of 51 blood compounds. Compounds having moderate to high CV values (0.4-2.5) are often modified. Compounds having low CV values, such as ATP and glutathione, may be related to various diseases because their concentrations are strictly controlled, and changes in them would compromise health. Thus, human blood is a rich source of information about individual metabolic differences. PMID:27036001

  18. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to polyphenols in olive and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1639, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food constituent, polyphenols in olive (olive fruit, olive mill waste waters or olive oil, Olea europaea L. extract and leaf) standardised by their content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives (e.g. oleuropein complex), that is the subject...... was insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of olive oil polyphenols (standardised by the content of hydroxytyrosol and its derivatives) and maintenance of normal blood HDL cholesterol concentrations.......Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 in the framework of further assessment related to polyphenols in olive...

  19. Single-tube-genotyping of gastric cancer related SNPs by directly using whole blood and paper-dried blood as starting materials

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huan Huang; Ying Bu; Guo-Hua Zhou

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate an inexpensive method for typing gastric cancer related single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) using whole blood or paper-dried blood as starting materials.METHODS: PCR amplification is directly carried out from the whole blood or paper-dried blood sample without any DNA extraction step. Before PCR, a blood sample, four primers, and all of biological reagents necessary for PCR were added at a time; After PCR, the amplified products were directly separated by slab gel electrophoresis or microchip CE without any purification. SNP typing was performed by tetra-primer PCR with two inner primers specific to each allele and two outer primers defining the length of allele-specific amplicons. Genotypes were directly discriminated by the size of amplicons specific to each allele, thereby avoiding any post-PCR process.RESULTS: Using a special PCR buffer, inhibitory substances in blood (including the anticoagulant in blood) and filter paper were effectively suppressed;a "true" single-tube-genotyping is thus realized. We successfully determined genotypes IL-1B-511 and IL-1B-31 polymorphisms at the gene IL-1B by using whole-blood and paper-dried blood samples as starting materials respectively. The method is so sensitive that 0.5-1.0 μL of blood sample is enough to give a satisfactory typing results. The genotyping results were confirmed by RFLP-PCR using purified genome DNA,indicating that amplification specificity was not affected by inhibitory components (including coagulants) in blood or filter paper.CONCLUSION: Compared with SNP typing methods based on purified DNA, the proposed method is laborsaving, simple, inexpensive, and less cross-contaminated.It is promising to use this method to type other SNPs.

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Following an application from Raisio Nutrition Ltd, submitted pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters per day and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol by 12 % and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease. The applicant has further requested that the min...

  1. The average unit production cost of blood in Zimbabwe from a provider's perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mafirakureva, N.; Nyoni, H.; Chikwereti, R.; Khoza, S.; Mvere, D.A.; Emmanuel, J.C.; Postma, M.J.; Van Hulst, M.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Case Studies: Blood utilization and blood transfusion costs are generally perceived to be increasing at a time when healthcare budgets continue being constricted. There is a paucity of published data on the production costs of blood and the costs of blood transfusion in sub-Saharan Africa

  2. RELATIVE BLOOD VOLUME: THE MEANS OF INTRADIALYSIS HYPOTENSION PREVENTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Terehov

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravascular volume preservation is the first choice measure for the prevention of intradialysis hypotension. At present there are devices that allow continuous monitoring of relative blood volume (RBV changes during haemodialysis (HD. The aim of this research was to investigate (i the regularity of RBV curve during haemo- dialysis and (ii the efficacy of some measures for intravascular volume preservation. In patients with hyperhydration RBV curves were monotone; in all cases relation RBV/ ultrafiltration volume (UF did not exceed 2,5%/L. In stable patients the RBV curve was immutable in the course of years. Patients with high RBV/UF ratio (>6%/L formed a high risk group. In these patients stability of RBV was more im- portant and more useful. Isolated UF did not decrease RBV drop, as well as haemodiafiltration online. Albumin administration allows to decrease RBV/UF ratio. After bolus of hypertonic dextrose solution RBV increased for about half of hour. In patients with acute renal injury RBV monitoring was far from reliability in many cases. 

  3. The relative nutritive value of irradiated spray-dried blood powder and heat-sterilized blood meal as measured in combination with whey protein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method of processing blood meal in which nutritive value of the protein is preserved is described, since appreciable losses occur in the nutritive value of the protein when prepared by heat sterilization with drying at atmospheric pressure in steam jacketed vessels. Blood was spray dried and irradiated at an intensity of 10 kGy. Collectively the heat of spray drying and irradiation was effective in killing both the virus plaque-forming units and the bacteria, thus producing a commercially acceptable sterile product of higher nutritive value. The relative nutritive values (RNV) of 50:50 protein were 0,56 for whey protein concentrate plus heat-sterilized blood meal and 0.90 for whey protein concentrate plus irradiated spray-dried blood powder. Whey protein concentrate used as a control has a RNV of 1,0

  4. Greening Non-Product-Related Procurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosgaard, Mette; Riisgaard, Henrik; Huulgaard, Rikke Dorothea

    2013-01-01

    Green procurement in Denmark is developing with a new strategy with special emphasis on non-product-related procurement; i.e., all products that are not directly transformed into the product produced by the company, for example cleaning detergents and office supplies. Three earlier strategies...... are well described in literature: Green supply chain management in the business-to-business area, green public procurement, and, finally green private consumption. The latest strategy with special emphasis on non-product-related procurement makes sense from a macro-level perspective: the small......-related procurement. Taking a network approach focusing on resources, actors and activities, three ways of utilising the drivers of non-product-related procurement are suggested: 1) Increase the focus on the extremely concentrated procurement markets such as the on-line catalogues of wholesalers; 2) Create a closer...

  5. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  6. Effects of blood products on inflammatory response in endothelial cells in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Urner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Transfusing blood products may induce inflammatory reactions within the vascular compartment potentially leading to a systemic inflammatory response. Experiments were designed to assess the inflammatory potential of different blood products in an endothelial cell-based in vitro model and to compare baseline levels of potentially activating substances in transfusion products. METHODS: The inflammatory response from pre-activated (endotoxin-stimulated and non-activated endothelial cells as well as neutrophil endothelial transmigration in response to packed red blood cells (PRBC, platelet concentrates (PC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP was determined. Baseline inflammatory mediator and lipid concentrations in blood products were evaluated. RESULTS: Following incubation with all blood products, an increased inflammatory mediator release from endothelial cells was observed. Platelet concentrates, and to a lesser extent also FFP, caused the most pronounced response, which was accentuated in already pre-stimulated endothelial cells. Inflammatory response of endothelial cells as well as blood product-induced migration of neutrophils through the endothelium was in good agreement with the lipid content of the according blood product. CONCLUSION: Within the group of different blood transfusion products both PC and FFP have a high inflammatory potential with regard to activation of endothelial cells. Inflammation upon blood product exposure is strongly accentuated when endothelial cells are pre-injured. High lipid contents in the respective blood products goes along with an accentuated inflammatory reaction from endothelial cells.

  7. Infectivity of blood products from donors with occult hepatitis B virus infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allain, Jean-Pierre; Mihaljevic, Ivanka; Gonzalez-Fraile, Maria Isabel;

    2013-01-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors.......Occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection (OBI) is identified in 1:1000 to 1:50,000 European blood donations. This study intended to determine the infectivity of blood products from OBI donors....

  8. Biomarker Analysis of Stored Blood Products: Emphasis on Pre-Analytical Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niels Lion

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking.

  9. Biomarker analysis of stored blood products: emphasis on pre-analytical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delobel, Julien; Rubin, Olivier; Prudent, Michel; Crettaz, David; Tissot, Jean-Daniel; Lion, Niels

    2010-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused every year; many lives are thus directly concerned by transfusion. The three main labile blood products used in transfusion are erythrocyte concentrates, platelet concentrates and fresh frozen plasma. Each of these products has to be stored according to its particular components. However, during storage, modifications or degradation of those components may occur, and are known as storage lesions. Thus, biomarker discovery of in vivo blood aging as well as in vitro labile blood products storage lesions is of high interest for the transfusion medicine community. Pre-analytical issues are of major importance in analyzing the various blood products during storage conditions as well as according to various protocols that are currently used in blood banks for their preparations. This paper will review key elements that have to be taken into account in the context of proteomic-based biomarker discovery applied to blood banking. PMID:21151459

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant sterols/stanols and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 19 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    of an application to modify the conditions of use of an authorised Article 14 claim related to 1.5 - 3.0 g plant sterols/stanols per day and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol by 7 - 12 % and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease. The applicant has further requested that the minimum duration to obtain the effect...... be one to two weeks. The applicant provided a published systematic review and meta-analysis that evaluated the comparative efficacy of plant sterols and plant stanols for lowering blood LDL-cholesterol in healthy and hypercholesterolaemic subjects and an unpublished meta-analysis on 27 randomised....../2010 (yellow fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings) have a similar efficacy on blood LDL-cholesterol lowering, that plant sterols and stanol esters at a daily intake of 3 g (range 2.6 g to 3.4 g) plant sterols/stanols in matrices approved by Regulation (EC) No 376/2010 lower LDL-cholesterol...

  11. Talking about relations: Factors influencing the production of relational descriptions

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana eBaltaretu; Emiel eKrahmer; Alfons eMaes; Carel evan Wijk

    2016-01-01

    In a production experiment (Experiment 1) and an acceptability rating one (Experiment 2), we assessed two factors, spatial position and salience, which may influence the production of relational descriptions (such as the ball between the man and the drawer). In Experiment 1, speakers were asked to refer unambiguously to a target object (a ball). In Experiment 1a, we addressed the role of spatial position, more specifically if speakers mention the entity positioned leftmost in the scene as (fi...

  12. Body mass index relates to blood pressure among adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suman Dua

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The blood pressure and anthropometric measurements are important for evaluating the health of children, adolescents as well as adults. Aim: The aim is to study the blood pressure and body dimensions and to find out the prevalence of overweight/obesity and hypertension among adults. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted of all the people belonging to the Punjabi community, residing in Roshanara area and Jaina building in Delhi, for the past 20 years and aged 18-50 years. The men were engaged in transport business and women were mainly housewives. Results: Mean values of all the measurements, that is, height, weight, upper arm circumference, pulse rate, systolic blood pressure (SBP, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were higher among males as compared with females, except skinfold thicknesses. Body mass index (BMI and fat percentage was found to be higher among females as compared with males. There was a significant positive correlation between BMI, fat percentage, and blood pressure both SBP as well as DBP. Odds ratio showed that overweight/obese subjects were more likely to have hypertension than those with normal BMI. Conclusion: Prevalence of prehypertension among overweight/obese suggested an early clinical detection of prehypertension and intervention including life style modification, particularly weight management.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to 3 g/day plant stanols as plant stanol esters per day and lowering blood LDL-cholesterol by 12 % and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease. The applicant has further requested that the minimum duration to obtain the effect be stated to be one to two weeks, and that the claims be authorised...... fat spreads, dairy products, mayonnaise and salad dressings) lowers LDL-cholesterol by 11.4 % (95% CI: 9.8 – 13.0), that the minimum duration required to achieve the maximum effect of plant stanol esters on LDL-cholesterol lowering is two to three weeks, and that while plant stanol esters added...... to foods such as margarine-type spreads, mayonnaise, salad dressings, and dairy products such as milk, yoghurts including low-fat yoghurts, and cheese have been shown consistently to lower blood LDL-cholesterol levels, the size of the cholesterol-lowering effect of plant stanols added to other food formats...

  14. Age and gender related differences in aortic blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Traberg, Marie Sand; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Hemmsen, Martin Christian;

    2012-01-01

    The abdominal aorta (AA) is predisposed to development of abdominal aneurysms (AAA), a focal dilatation of the artery with fatal consequences if left untreated. The blood flow patterns in the AA is thought to play an important role in the development of AAA. The purpose of this work...

  15. Involvement of calcitonin gene-related peptide in migraine: regional cerebral blood flow and blood flow velocity in migraine patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, L.H.; Jacobsen, V.B.; Haderslev, P.A.;

    2008-01-01

    g/min) or placebo for 20 min was studied in 12 patients with migraine without aura outside attacks. Xenon-133 inhalation SPECT-determined regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and transcranial Doppler (TCD)-determined blood velocity (V-mean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), as well as the heart......Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP)-containing nerves are closely associated with cranial blood vessels. CGRP is the most potent vasodilator known in isolated cerebral blood vessels. CGRP can induce migraine attacks, and two selective CGRP receptor antagonists are effective in the treatment...... of migraine attacks. It is therefore important to investigate its mechanism of action in patients with migraine. We here investigate the effects of intravenous human alpha-CGRP (h alpha CGRP) on intracranial hemodynamics. In a double-blind, cross-over study, the effect of intravenous infusion of haCGRP (2 mu...

  16. Current state of methodological and decisions for radiation treatment of blood, its components and products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordeev A.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents currently used blood transfusion media — components and blood products, therapeutic effects, reactions and complications of blood transfusion, use of radiation treatment for blood transfusion fluids. There had been discussed in detail the practice of radiation processing of blood components and for the prevention of reaction "graft versus host" and studies of plasma radiation treatment for its infectious safety. There was presented the current state of techniques and technical solutions of radiation treatment of transfusion-transmissible environments. There were also considered an alternative to radiation treatment of blood.

  17. Bacterial glycosidases for the production of universal red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Qiyong P; Sulzenbacher, Gerlind; Yuan, Huaiping;

    2007-01-01

    Enzymatic removal of blood group ABO antigens to develop universal red blood cells (RBCs) was a pioneering vision originally proposed more than 25 years ago. Although the feasibility of this approach was demonstrated in clinical trials for group B RBCs, a major obstacle in translating this techno...

  18. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J;

    2011-01-01

    of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses......) of higher urinary calcium excretion (associations were smaller for diastolic BP) in INTERMAP. Qualitatively similar associations were observed in INTERSALT analyses. Associations between magnesium excretion and BP were small and nonsignificant for most of the models examined. The present data suggest...

  19. Blood Lipids and other Related Risk Factors of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu YAND; Hiu Lu

    2000-01-01

    Abstract To assess the ralationship between incidence of stroke and blood lipids, apolipoprolcin (apo) , 219 patients with stroke(cerebral hemorrhage 87, cerebral infarction 132) , diagnosed with the aid of CT, were examined. The levels of serum total cholesterol, triglycerioes, apo-A, apo-B were calculatea. 160 cases with no disorder in metabolism of blood lipids or other disease of meurologic system were taken as centrol group. The results zhowed that the ratio of high density lipoprotein cholesterol and low clensity lipoprotein cholesterol was iower than.that of control group(p<0. 05) . In the patients group, cases with diabetes, hypentension coronary heart disease or onesity, the levels of blood liprds. triglyceride and cholesterol were higher than those vithout above mentioned disease The condusion is, that there is certain reletionship between the contents of bliid lipids. lipoprotein and it sulqraction HDL2, HDL3 and cerebrovasculor cisease. The radis of high density lipoprotein and low density lipoprolein is the important factor in predicting of stroke

  20. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1747, 1748, 1864, 1951, 1954, 4693) and maintenance of normal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to policosanols from sugar cane wax and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article...

  1. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume.

  2. Quality improvement methodologies increase autologous blood product administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, Ashley B; Preston, Thomas J; Fitch, Jill A; Harrison, Sheilah K; Hersey, Diane K; Nicol, Kathleen K; Naguib, Aymen N; McConnell, Patrick I; Galantowicz, Mark

    2014-03-01

    Whole blood from the heart-lung (bypass) machine may be processed through a cell salvaging device (i.e., cell saver [CS]) and subsequently administered to the patient during cardiac surgery. It was determined at our institution that CS volume was being discarded. A multidisciplinary team consisting of anesthesiologists, perfusionists, intensive care physicians, quality improvement (QI) professionals, and bedside nurses met to determine the challenges surrounding autologous blood delivery in its entirety. A review of cardiac surgery patients' charts (n = 21) was conducted for analysis of CS waste. After identification of practices that were leading to CS waste, interventions were designed and implemented. Fishbone diagram, key driver diagram, Plan-Do-Study-Act (PDSA) cycles, and data collection forms were used throughout this QI process to track and guide progress regarding CS waste. Of patients under 6 kg (n = 5), 80% had wasted CS blood before interventions, whereas those patients larger than 36 kg (n = 8) had 25% wasted CS before interventions. Seventy-five percent of patients under 6 kg who had wasted CS blood received packed red blood cell transfusions in the cardiothoracic intensive care unit within 24 hours of their operation. After data collection and didactic education sessions (PDSA Cycle I), CS blood volume waste was reduced to 5% in all patients. Identification and analysis of the root cause followed by implementation of education, training, and management of change (PDSA Cycle II) resulted in successful use of 100% of all CS blood volume. PMID:24783313

  3. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL - cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food, monacolin K in SYLVAN BIO red yeast rice, that is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect......, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. A claim on monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations has already been assessed with a favourable outcome at daily intakes of 10 mg monacolin K from any red...... on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. © European Food Safety Authority, 2013...

  4. Chromatographic techniques for petroleum and related products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barman, B.N.; Cebolla, V.L.; Membrado, L. [Equilon Enterprises LLC, Houston, TX (USA)

    2000-07-01

    Recent developments in chromatographic techniques for the separation and quantitative characterization of petroleum and related products are highlighted. Specifically, scope, applicability and versatility of individual techniques such as gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, supercritical fluid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and size-exclusion chromatography are discussed in some detail.

  5. FREE RADICAL-RELATED DISEASES: THE PREDICTIVE VALUE OF BIOMARKERS IN THE UMBILICAL CORD BLOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Perrone

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite recent advances in preterm newborns healthcare, the incidence of neonatal pathologies and disabilities still remain unacceptable high. The deficiency of antioxidant systems and the high free radicals (FRs production may cause several neonatal diseases, such as Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP, Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia (BPD, Necrotizing Enterocolitis (NEC, Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA, Periventricular Leukomalacia (PVL and Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH, representing facets of the ‘Free Radical-Related Diseases’ (FRD. The aim of this study is to verify the association between FRD and blood levels of reliable oxidative stress (OS biomarkers in preterm newborns. We enrolled 178 preterm newborns born consecutively at the General Hospital “Santa Maria alle Scotte” in Siena, between 23 and 34 weeks (30,36±2.97 of gestational age, with birth-weight from 430 to 2890 grams (1453±593. After birth, we evaluated in the cord blood the markers of potential risk of OS (Non Protein-Bound Iron, NPBI and the markers of FR damage (Total Hydroperoxides, TH; Advanced Oxidation Protein Products, AOPP. For each newborn, we assessed the presence or absence of the following diseases, considering as FRD the presence of one at least: ROP, BPD, NEC, PDA, PVL, IVH. The univariate logistic regression showed a significant association between FRD and OS related markers. Risk assessment of FRD was higher in newborns with higher values of each OS marker: respectively TH (OR=1.013, p=0,000, AOPP (OR=1.017, p=0,036, NPBI (OR=1.077, p=0.039. Perinatal OS exposure is linked to the main diseases of prematurity. The evaluation of OS biomarkers in preterm newborns through the analysis of umbilical cord blood, can be useful and predictive for early identification of infants at risk for FRD in order to devise appropriate and timely prevention and treating strategies.

  6. A relation between blood pressure and stiffness of joints and skin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Uiterwaal, CSPM; Grobbee, DE; Sakkers, RJB; Helders, PJM; Bank, RA; Engelbert, RHH

    2003-01-01

    Background. Blood pressure, particularly pulse pressure, is associated with arterial wall stiffness, but little is known about its relation to stiffness of other parts of the body. We examined the extent to which blood pressure levels in young healthy children are related to stiffness of various tis

  7. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  8. Cord blood cytokines are modulated by maternal farming activities and consumption of farm dairy products during pregnancy: the PASTURE Study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfefferle, P.I.; Buchele, G.; Blumer, N.; Roponen, M.; Ege, M.J.; Krauss-Etschmann, S.; Genuneit, J.; Hyvarinen, A.; Hirvonen, M.R.; Lauener, R.; Pekkanen, J.; Riedler, J.; Dalphin, J.C.; Brunekreef, B.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; von Mutius, E.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Traditional farming represents a unique model situation to investigate the relationship of early-life farm-related exposure and allergy protection. OBJECTIVES: To investigate associations between maternal farm exposures and cytokine production in cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells in a pr

  9. Non Infectious Complications Related to Blood Transfusion: An 11 year Retrospective Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, J; Pawar, A; Chatterjee, T; Mallhi, R S; Biswas, A K; Dimri, U

    2016-09-01

    In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i.e. those presenting anytime after 24 h. Transfusion reactions can further be classified as immune and non immune or infectious and non infectious based on the pathophysiology. In this retrospective study which was undertaken with an aim to determine the type and frequency of non infectious complications due to transfusion of blood and blood products recorded the incidence of febrile non hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) 51.40 %, allergic reactions 40.14 %, non immune hemolytic reactions 4.22 %, hypothermia 2.81 %, anaphylaxis 0.70 % and iron overload 0.70 %. FNHTR which was found to be the most common complication in this study can certainly be minimized, if not completely eliminated by adopting a policy of universal leucodepletion, the implementation of which solely depends on the financial and infrastructure resources available. This study also reiterates the importance of hemovigilance as a tool to improve the safety of blood transfusion.

  10. Blood Donors on Medication - an Approach to Minimize Drug Burden for Recipients of Blood Products and to Limit Deferral of Donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Becker, Christian D K; Stichtenoth, Dirk O; Wichmann, Michael G; Schaefer, Christof; Szinicz, Ladislaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Blood products derived from donors on medication can contain drugs which might pose a risk for the recipients or influence the quality of the product itself. MATERIAL AND METHODS: To judge the eligibility of blood donors on medication, 4 drug classes have been formed with respect to their pharmacological properties, and blood products have been divided in accordance with their single-donor plasma contents. RESULTS: For drugs with dose-dependent pharmacodynamics, no deferral periods are necessary for donation of blood products containing less than 50 ml single-donor plasma for application to adults. Waiting periods of t(max) + 5 t(1/2) were calculated for the other blood products. Teratogenic drugs do not require special considerations (exception: retinoids, thalidomide and lenalidomide, dutasteride or finasteride with waiting periods for all blood products). A deferral period of t(max) + 24 t(1/2) is proposed for every blood product from blood donors on genotoxic drugs. Drugs without systemic effects can be neglected. Irreversible inhibitors of platelet function cause a 10-day waiting period if production of platelet concentrates is intended. CONCLUSION: Donors on medication are allowed to donate blood for blood products containing less than 50 ml plasma of a single donor, like red blood cell concentrates, for the use in adults without deferral periods, except those taking retinoids, thalidomide, lenalidomide, dutasteride, finasteride, or genotoxic drugs. PMID:20823991

  11. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2015. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Symbiosal® and lowering of blood pressure and reduced risk of hypertension pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Han-Asiabiotech GmbH, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Germany, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion....... Lowering of blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect for people who want to lower their blood pressure. Increased blood pressure is a risk factor for hypertension. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one human study with methodological limitations showed a decrease...

  12. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  13. Complications related to blood donation: A multicenter study of the prevalence and influencing factors in voluntary blood donation camps in Karnataka, India

    OpenAIRE

    Rajat Kumar Agarwal; Sundar Periyavan; Rakesh Dhanya; Parmar, Lalith G.; Amit Sedai; Kumari Ankita; Arpit Vaish; Ritesh Sharma; Prabha Gowda

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Complications associated with blood donation significantly lower odds of subsequent donations. The aim of the study is to assess the prevalence of complications related to blood donation, identify the influencing factors, and come up with suggestions for minimizing discomfort to donors and making outdoor voluntary blood donation camps safer. Materials and Methods: This study covered 181 blood donation camps organized by Sankalp India Foundation where 16 blood banks participated ...

  14. Foreign Market Entry: Production-Related Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Je Tang; Chwo-Ming Joseph Yu

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the profit to a firm of different production-related strategies for entering a foreign market. The entry strategies examined are foreign direct investment, exclusive licensing, multiple licensing, joint venture, and a combination of joint venture and licensing. It is shown that even though the entering firm is able to charge the optimal licensing fee, foreign direct investment generates the highest profit and is thus the dominant entry strategy in many contexts. This paper...

  15. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1997-01-01

    blood pressure and related to the results of an invasive haemodynamic investigation, including measurements of intra-arterial blood pressure (9.00-11.00 h) in 37 patients with cirrhosis. RESULTS: The 24-h blood pressures were significantly lower and the heart rate was significantly higher in patients......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations...... with other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  16. Age-related memory impairments due to reduced blood glucose responses to epinephrine

    OpenAIRE

    Morris, Ken A.; Chang, Qing; Mohler, Eric G.; Gold, Paul E.

    2009-01-01

    Increases in blood glucose levels are an important component of the mechanisms by which epinephrine enhances memory formation. The present experiments addressed the hypothesis that a dysfunction in the blood glucose response to circulating epinephrine contributes to age-related memory impairments. Doses of epinephrine and glucagon that significantly increased blood glucose levels in young adult rats were far less effective at doing so in two-year-old rats. In young rats, epinephrine and gluco...

  17. Individual variability in human blood metabolites identifies age-related differences

    OpenAIRE

    Chaleckis, Romanas; MURAKAMI, Itsuo; Takada, Junko; Kondoh, Hiroshi; Yanagida, Mitsuhiro

    2016-01-01

    Human blood provides a rich source of information about metabolites that reflects individual differences in health, disease, diet, and lifestyle. The coefficient of variation for human blood metabolites enriched in red blood cells or plasma was quantified after careful preparation. We identified 14 age-related metabolites. Metabolites that decline strikingly in the elderly include antioxidants and compounds involved in high physical activity, including carnosine, UDP-acetyl-glucosamine, ophth...

  18. Ferritin blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serum ferritin level ... The amount of ferritin in the blood (serum ferritin level) is directly related to the amount of iron stored in your body. Iron is important for red blood cell production. Your doctor ...

  19. Modeling of Red Blood Cells and Related Spleen Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Zhangli; Pivkin, Igor; Dao, Ming

    2011-11-01

    A key function of the spleen is to clear red blood cells (RBCs) with abnormal mechanical properties from the circulation. These abnormal mechanical properties may be due to RBC aging or RBC diseases, e.g., malaria and sickle cell anemia. Specifically, 10% of RBCs passing through the spleen are forced to squeeze into the narrow slits between the endothelial cells, and stiffer cells which get stuck are killed and digested by macrophages. To investigate this important physiological process, we employ three different approaches to study RBCs passage through these small slits, including analytical theory, Dissipative Particle Dynamics (DPD) simulation and Multiscale Finite Element Method (MS-FEM). By applying the analytical theory, we estimate the critical limiting geometries RBCs can pass. By using the DPD method, we study the full fluid-structure interaction problem, and compute RBC deformation under different pressure gradients. By employing the MS-FEM approach, we model the lipid bilayer and the cytoskeleton as two distinct layers, and focus on the cytoskeleton deformation and the bilayer-skeleton interaction force at the molecular level. Finally the results of these three approaches are compared to each other and correlated to the experimental observations.

  20. 9 CFR 101.3 - Biological products and related terms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS DEFINITIONS..., the harvest date shall be the date blood or tissues are collected for production or the date cultures..., representing a whole culture or a concentrate thereof, with or without the unevaluated growth products,...

  1. Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone P;

    2015-01-01

    3294 men and women aged 18-69 years from a general population based study in Copenhagen, Denmark. Estimated 24-hour sodium excretion was calculated by measurements of creatinine and sodium concentration in spot urine in combination with information of sex, age, height and weight. The relations...

  2. Blood pressure, atherosclerosis, and the incidence of age-related maculopathy: the Rotterdam Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van Leeuwen (Redmer); M.K. Ikram (Kamran); J.R. Vingerling (Hans); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); P.T.V.M. de Jong (Paulus); A. Hofman (Albert)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractPURPOSE: To determine whether blood pressure and subclinical atherosclerosis are associated with incident age-related maculopathy (ARM). METHODS: The study was performed within the Rotterdam Study, a population-based, prospective cohort study in Rotterdam, The Netherlan

  3. Raising the standard: changes to the Australian Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP) for human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Craig; Velickovic, Zlatibor; Brown, Ross; Larsen, Stephen; Macpherson, Janet L; Gibson, John; Rasko, John E J

    2014-04-01

    In Australia, manufacture of blood, tissues and biologicals must comply with the federal laws and meet the requirements of the Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) Manufacturing Principles as outlined in the current Code of Good Manufacturing Practice (cGMP). The Therapeutic Goods Order (TGO) No. 88 was announced concurrently with the new cGMP, as a new standard for therapeutic goods. This order constitutes a minimum standard for human blood, tissues and cellular therapeutic goods aimed at minimising the risk of infectious disease transmission. The order sets out specific requirements relating to donor selection, donor testing and minimisation of infectious disease transmission from collection and manufacture of these products. The Therapeutic Goods Manufacturing Principles Determination No. 1 of 2013 references the human blood and blood components, human tissues and human cellular therapy products 2013 (2013 cGMP). The name change for the 2013 cGMP has allowed a broadening of the scope of products to include human cellular therapy products. It is difficult to directly compare versions of the code as deletion of some clauses has not changed the requirements to be met, as they are found elsewhere amongst the various guidelines provided. Many sections that were specific for blood and blood components are now less prescriptive and apply to a wider range of cellular therapies, but the general overall intent remains the same. Use of 'should' throughout the document instead of 'must' allows flexibility for alternative processes, but these systems will still require justification by relevant logical argument and validation data to be acceptable to TGA. The cGMP has seemingly evolved so that specific issues identified at audit over the last decade have now been formalised in the new version. There is a notable risk management approach applied to most areas that refer to process justification and decision making. These requirements commenced on 31 May 2013 and a 12 month

  4. Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Stuckey, Joyce E; Cox, Heather; Smith, Brett; Funke, Christina; Stott, Jeff; Colle, Clarence; Gaspard, Joseph; Manire, Charles A

    2007-08-15

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide (NO), by manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. PBMC from healthy captive manatees were stimulated with LPS, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha, either alone or in various combinations, with NO production assessed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture. NO production in response to LPS stimulation was significantly greater after 48, 72, or 96 h of culture compared to NO production after 24h of culture. A specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-NIL (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine), significantly decreased NO production by LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC. Manatee specific oligonucleotide primers for iNOS were designed to measure expression of relative amounts of mRNA in LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC from captive manatees. NO production by PBMC from manatees exposed to red tide toxins was analyzed, with significantly greater NO production by both unstimulated and LPS stimulated PBMC from red tide exposed compared with healthy captive or cold-stress manatees. Free-ranging manatees produced significantly lower amounts of nitric oxide compared to either captive or red tide rescued manatees. Results presented in this paper contribute to the current understanding of manatee immune function and represent the first report of nitric oxide production in the immune system of a marine mammal. PMID:17614139

  5. Production of nitric oxide by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from the Florida manatee, Trichechus manatus latirostris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, Catherine J; Stuckey, Joyce E; Cox, Heather; Smith, Brett; Funke, Christina; Stott, Jeff; Colle, Clarence; Gaspard, Joseph; Manire, Charles A

    2007-08-15

    Florida manatees (Trichechus manatus latirostris) are exposed to many conditions in their habitat that may adversely impact health and impair immune function in this endangered species. In an effort to increase the current knowledge base regarding the manatee immune system, the production of an important reactive nitrogen intermediate, nitric oxide (NO), by manatee peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was investigated. PBMC from healthy captive manatees were stimulated with LPS, IFN-gamma, or TNF-alpha, either alone or in various combinations, with NO production assessed after 24, 48, 72, and 96 h of culture. NO production in response to LPS stimulation was significantly greater after 48, 72, or 96 h of culture compared to NO production after 24h of culture. A specific inhibitor of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), L-NIL (L-N(6)-(1-iminoethyl)lysine), significantly decreased NO production by LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC. Manatee specific oligonucleotide primers for iNOS were designed to measure expression of relative amounts of mRNA in LPS-stimulated manatee PBMC from captive manatees. NO production by PBMC from manatees exposed to red tide toxins was analyzed, with significantly greater NO production by both unstimulated and LPS stimulated PBMC from red tide exposed compared with healthy captive or cold-stress manatees. Free-ranging manatees produced significantly lower amounts of nitric oxide compared to either captive or red tide rescued manatees. Results presented in this paper contribute to the current understanding of manatee immune function and represent the first report of nitric oxide production in the immune system of a marine mammal.

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of plant sterols and Cholesternorm®mix and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of plant sterols and Cholesternorm®mix and reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food which is the subject of the health claim is a combination of plant sterols (free and in esterified form) and Cholesternorm...... to the claimed effect. Reduction of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. A reduction in blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations reduces the risk of coronary heart disease. The Panel notes that no evidence was provided that plant sterols or constituents other than plant sterols...... in Cholesternorm®mix, which have a role in the claimed effect, could reasonably be expected to have an effect on blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations at the proposed conditions of use. The Panel notes that no human interventions studies were provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific...

  7. Homocysteine induces production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in cultured human whole blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kun ZENG; Daniel G REMICK; Xian WANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether increased plasma L-homocysteine (Hcy) level could promote monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in cultured whole blood. METHODS: Human whole blood or different type of peripheral blood cells from health volunteers were incubated with Hcy and/or the inhibitors. MCP- 1 and IL-8 level were measured by ELISA assay. RESULTS: Hcy 10-1000 μmol/L induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in cultured human whole blood (P<0.05). The major cellular source of these chemokines comed from monocytes.Meanwhile,Hcy also promoted the upregulation of MPO level even at the 10 μmol/L in the cultured whole blood.secretion in cultured human whole blood, especially in monocytes via oxidative stress mechanism.

  8. 75 FR 35494 - Blood Products Advisory Committee; Notice of Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ...: Bryan Emery or Pearline Muckelvene, Center for Biologics and Research (HFM-71), Food and Drug... Leukemia Virus-Related Virus. In the ] afternoon session, the committee will discuss issues related to...

  9. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed...... effect, maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim....... A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood HDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed...... effect, maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim....... A cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood concentrations of triglycerides....

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    substantiation of a health claim related to OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The food that is the subject of the health claim, OptiEFAX™, which is standardised pure krill oil, is sufficiently characterised in relation to the claimed effect. The claimed effect, maintenance...... of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, is a beneficial physiological effect. The target population proposed by the applicant is the general population. No human studies have been provided from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim. A cause and effect...... relationship has not been established between the consumption of OptiEFAX™ and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations....

  12. Production of lipase from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid and thereof for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides and lysis of red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramani, K; Sekaran, G

    2012-08-01

    The study demonstrates the production of lipase (LIP) from Pseudomonas gessardii using blood tissue lipid as the substrate for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides. The lipase was purified with the specific activity of 828 U/mg protein and the molecular weight of 56 kDa. The maximum lipase activity was observed at the pH 7.0 and the temperature 37 °C. The amino acid composition of purified lipase was determined by HPLC. The mesoporous activated carbon (MAC) was used for the immobilization of lipase for the repeated use of the enzyme catalyst. The K (m) value of immobilized lipase (MAC-LIP) and the free lipase (LIP) was 0.182 and 1.96 mM, respectively. The V (max) value of MAC-LIP and LIP was 1.33 and 1.26 mM/min, respectively. The MAC and MAC-LIP were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The hydrolysis study showed 78 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for LIP and 84 and 100% hydrolysis of triglycerides and cholesterol, respectively, for MAC-LIP at the reaction time of 1 h. The effect of lipase on cell wall lysis was carried out on the RBCs of blood plasma. Interestingly, 99.9% lysis of RBCs was observed within 2 h. SEM images and phase contrast microscopy confirmed the lysis of RBCs. This work provides a potential biocatalyst for the hydrolysis of blood cholesterol and triglycerides.

  13. Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students.METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas.RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was found to be associated with attitudes related to blood donation. This study also shows evidence that regular blood donors have a higher intrinsic religiousness than subjects who donate only once and do not return.CONCLUSION: This study shows that the attitudes concerning blood donation may have some association with religiosity.

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to chitosan and reduction in body weight (ID 679, 1499), maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4663), reduction of intestinal transit time (ID

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to chitosan and reduction in body weight, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations, reduction of intestinal transit time and reduction of inflammation. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list...

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to the raw fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 4041) and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to the raw fruit of Emblica officinalis Gaertn. and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated...

  16. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to rye fibre and changes in bowel function (ID 825), reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses (ID 826) and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to rye fibre and changes in bowel function, reduction of post-prandial glycaemic responses and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13...

  17. [Use of leukocyte-filtered, cytomegalovirus-antibody negative and irradiated cellular blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, B G; Albrechtsen, D H; Evensen, S A; Leivestad, T

    1990-01-10

    This paper presents both quality requirements and indications for use of leucocyte-filtered, cytomegalovirus antibody negative and irradiated cellular blood products at Rikshospitalet. Emphasis is placed on the use of standardized buffycoat depleted red cells or platelet concentrates for filtration, and the selection of leucocyte filters with high capacity and ease of bedside application. Leucocyte counts as low as 1-2 10(5) per unit are recommended after filtration in order to avoid HLA-antibody production. For bedside filtration, our choice was RC100 and PL100 (Pall) for red cells and platelets respectively. For laboratory use we prefer, for economic reasons, to use Sepacell R500 (Asahi) and Imugard IG500 (Terumo) for red cells and platelets respectively. Leucocyte-filtered blood products are considered indicated in all pre-transplant transfusions, in post-transplant HLA-sensitized patients, in other patients with febrile transfusion reactions, and in patients with an expected protracted platelet requirement. CMV antibody negative products are recommended for all immuno-deficient patients and pregnant women negative for CMV antibody. Irradiated blood products are used in the treatment of immuno-deficient patients receiving large amounts of blood, and in all severely immuno-compromised patients. In emergency situations where CMV antibody negative and/or irradiated blood products cannot be supplied, leucocyte filtration is suggested. PMID:2154061

  18. Relation of Whole Blood Carboxyhemoglobin Concentration to Ambient Carbon Monoxide Exposure Estimated Using Regression

    OpenAIRE

    Rudra, Carole B.; Williams, Michelle A.; Sheppard, Lianne; Koenig, Jane Q.; Schiff, Melissa A.; Frederick, Ihunnaya O; Dills, Russell

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO) and other ambient air pollutants is associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes. While there are several methods of estimating CO exposure, few have been evaluated against exposure biomarkers. The authors examined the relation between estimated CO exposure and blood carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 708 pregnant western Washington State women (1996–2004). Carboxyhemoglobin was measured in whole blood drawn around 13 weeks’ gestation. CO exposure during the mon...

  19. Recombinant Human Erythropoietin as an Alternative to Blood Transfusion in Cancer-Related Anaemia

    OpenAIRE

    Andreas Engert

    2000-01-01

    As physicians become more aware of the need to treat anaemia in their patients with cancer, they have to consider 2 treatment options: red blood cell transfusion or recombinant human erythropoietin [epoetin alfa; epoetin beta]. Healthcare systems are under increasing pressure to lower costs while maintaining quality of care; therefore, treatment of cancer-related anaemia requires a disease management strategy aimed at achieving optimal clinical and economic outcomes. Although blood transfusio...

  20. Development of standard definitions for surveillance of complications related to blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, M; Land, K; Robillard, P; Wiersum-Osselton, J

    2016-02-01

    Standard definitions of donor reactions allow each blood establishment to monitor donor adverse events and compare with other organizations to develop best practices. The ISBT Haemovigilance Working Party leads a multi-organizational effort to update the 2008 ISBT standard for surveillance of complications related to blood donation. Revised definitions have been developed and endorsed by the ISBT, AABB, International Haemovigilance Network (IHN) and other international organizations. PMID:26361365

  1. Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Arsenic Exposure in a U.S. Pregnancy Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Farzan, Shohreh F.; Chen, Yu; Wu, Fen; Jiang, Jieying; Liu, Mengling; Baker, Emily; Korrick, Susan A.; Margaret R Karagas

    2015-01-01

    Background: Inorganic arsenic exposure has been related to the risk of increased blood pressure based largely on cross-sectional studies conducted in highly exposed populations. Pregnancy is a period of particular vulnerability to environmental insults. However, little is known about the cardiovascular impacts of arsenic exposure during pregnancy. Objectives: We evaluated the association between prenatal arsenic exposure and maternal blood pressure over the course of pregnancy in a U.S. popul...

  2. Non Infectious Complications Related to Blood Transfusion: An 11 year Retrospective Analysis in a Tertiary Care Hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip, J; Pawar, A; Chatterjee, T; Mallhi, R S; Biswas, A K; Dimri, U

    2016-09-01

    In India transmission of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI) has shown a relative decrease as a result of mandatory screening of donated blood for TTI's. However, reducing the incidence of non infectious complications poses a major challenge, mainly due to the fact that a number of adverse reactions go unreported. Blood transfusion reaction, can be categorized based on the time interval between transfusion of blood products and the presentation of adverse reactions as acute i.e. those presenting during or within 24 h and as delayed i.e. those presenting anytime after 24 h. Transfusion reactions can further be classified as immune and non immune or infectious and non infectious based on the pathophysiology. In this retrospective study which was undertaken with an aim to determine the type and frequency of non infectious complications due to transfusion of blood and blood products recorded the incidence of febrile non hemolytic transfusion reactions (FNHTR) 51.40 %, allergic reactions 40.14 %, non immune hemolytic reactions 4.22 %, hypothermia 2.81 %, anaphylaxis 0.70 % and iron overload 0.70 %. FNHTR which was found to be the most common complication in this study can certainly be minimized, if not completely eliminated by adopting a policy of universal leucodepletion, the implementation of which solely depends on the financial and infrastructure resources available. This study also reiterates the importance of hemovigilance as a tool to improve the safety of blood transfusion. PMID:27429521

  3. USE OF BLOOD PRODUCTS FOR ELECTIVE SURGERY IN 43 EUROPEAN HOSPITALS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    SIRCHIA, G; GIOVANETTI, AM; BAELE, PL; DACOSTA, RBC; DROUET, N; TENDUIS, HJ; JOERGENSEN, J; MANIATIS, A; MCCLELLAND, B; MESSMER, KFW; CASTEL, AN; SISSOURAS, AA; MILANI, S; PAPPALETTERA, M

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the use of blood products and artificial colloids in six commonly performed elective surgical procedures in 43 teaching hospitals in 10 European countries. 7,195 patient data were analysed. For each product wide differences were found between hospitals, both

  4. Correlation Analysis between Complex Relative Permittivity and Biochemical Components for Blood of Dialysis Patients before and after Hemodialysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akira; Takata, Kazuyuki; Nagao, Hirotomo; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    We previously measured for healthy subjects and patients who require hemodialysis the complex relative permittivity (εr´-jεr´´) of whole blood, and found that εr´-axis intercept εrt´ of straight line approximation to the Cole-Cole plots at frequencies from 200 MHz to 1GHz is significantly different with a level of less than 1% among its averaged values for healthy subjects and patients before and after dialysis, though any correlations between εrt´ and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine being used as main indices for hemodialysis evaluation have not so far been clarified. In this study, to make correlation analyses between the intercept εrt´ and blood biochemical components for nine patients before and after hemodialysis, we measured six kinds of their blood components including BUN and creatinine, and calculated their Pearson product-moment correlation coefficients for εrt´ along with significant probability P based on a t-test. It should be noted that P is a reference probability to determine whether or not a null hypothesis can be rejected, and that the P value of 0.05 is commonly used as a significance level for statistical test. As a result, we found that a strong correlation with P 0.05 between εrt´ and other blood components including BUN and creatinine. Although albumin is not used as an index for hemodialysis efficiency, it can reflect water amount in blood vessels and liver operation. This finding implies that εrt´ could be used as an index for evaluating blood viscosity and liver function.

  5. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to “Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA® in the semi-hard Edam-type „heart cheese‟ of Harmony™” and maintenance of normal blood pressure pursuant to Article

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to “Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA® in the semi-hard Edam-type “heart cheese” of Harmony™” and maintenance of normal blood pressure (BP). The food constituent L. plantarum TENSIA®, which is the subject of the health claim, is sufficiently characterised...... exert the claimed effect. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of Lactobacillus plantarum TENSIA®in the semi-hard Edam-type “heart cheese” of Harmony™ and maintenance of normal blood pressure....

  6. Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, K.F.M.; Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Leeuw, de P.W.; Serroyen, J.; Baak, van M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of malto

  7. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and protection of blood ...

  8. Cancer risks related to electricity production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boffetta, P; Cardis, E; Vainio, H; Coleman, M P; Kogevinas, M; Nordberg, G; Parkin, D M; Partensky, C; Shuker, D; Tomatis, L

    1991-01-01

    The International Agency for Research on Cancer has previously evaluated the cancer risks associated with fossil fuel-based industrial processes such as coal gastification and coke production, substances and mixtures such as coal tars, coal tar pitch and mineral oils, and a number of substances emitted from fossil-fuelled plants such as benzo[a]pyrene and other polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, arsenic, beryllium, cadmium, chromium, nickel, lead and formaldehyde. Based on these evaluations and other evidence from the literature, the carcinogenic risks to the general population and occupational groups from the fossil fuel cycle, the nuclear fuel cycle and renewable cycles are reviewed. Cancer risks from waste disposal, accidents and misuses, and electricity distribution are also considered. No cycle appears to be totally free from cancer risk, but the quantification of the effects of such exposures (in particular of those involving potential exposure to large amounts of carcinogens, such as coal, oil and nuclear) requires the application of methods which are subject to considerable margins of error. Uncertainties due to inadequate data and unconfirmed assumptions are discussed. Cancer risks related to the operation of renewable energy sources are negligible, although there may be some risks from construction of such installations. The elements of knowledge at our disposal do not encourage any attempt toward a quantitative comparative risk assessment. However, even in the absence of an accurate quantification of risk, qualitative indication of carcinogenic hazards should lead to preventive measures.

  9. Product Stigmaticity: Understanding, Measuring and Managing Product-Related Stigma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaes, K.

    2014-01-01

    Stigma-free Product Design. Many of the products intended to relieve us from discomforting or unsafe situations and many medical and assistive devices are experienced as unpleasant and uncomfortable. On top of their discomfort, product users may also experience social unease from the people around t

  10. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1447) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to acetic acid and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from stakeholders....... The food that is the subject of the health claim is apple vinegar drink. From the references provided for the scientific substantiation of the claim, the Panel assumes that the food constituent which is responsible for the claimed effect is acetic acid. The Panel considers that acetic acid is sufficiently...... that maintenance of normal blood pressure is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that although one animal study showed an effect of acetic acid administration on systolic blood pressure, results from two human intervention studies are conflicting...

  11. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure (ID 1404) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from Member States or directly from...... stakeholders. The food constituent that is the subject of the health claim is sodium bicarbonate. The Panel considers that sodium bicarbonate is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “blood pressure reduction”. The target population is assumed to be the general population. In the context of the...... substantiation of the claim. On the basis of the data presented, the Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of sodium bicarbonate and maintenance of normal blood pressure....

  12. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations (ID 1648, 1700) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    claims in relation to monacolin K from red yeast rice and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from...... effect refers to maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The Panel considers that maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations is a beneficial physiological effect. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that two randomised controlled trials provided from...... which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim showed an effect of red yeast rice preparations providing a daily dose of about 10 mg monacolin K on LDL-cholesterol concentrations in individuals with hypercholesterolaemia, that the effect of pure monacolin K on LDL-cholesterol...

  13. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J.C.; Hoffman, D.J.; Schmutz, J.A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  14. RELATIONS BETWEEN SELECTED INDICATORS OF BLOOD AND MILK OF DAIRY COWS WITH METABOLIC DISORDERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Kováčik

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to monitor the relations between selected indicators of technological properties of milk and blood biochemical parameters of dairy cows with metabolic disorders. Thirty-two cows were chosen, which were divided into 3 groups: first group - cows with metabolic problems of acidosis, second group - cows with metabolic problems of alkalosis, third group - healthy cows. Blood, urine and milk samples were collected. Urea, total lipids, total proteins, glucose and calcium was determined in the blood serum. Pure acidobasic forms, pH and density of urine were determined. Proteins, lactose, non-fat-solids, somatic cells count, calcium, urea, titratable acidity, fermentability, rennetability and thermostability were determined in samples of milk. Significant negative dependences were observed in the group of cows with metabolic problems of acidosis between urea in blood and in milk (r = -0.694, P <0.05, between calcium in blood and in milk (r = -0.653, P <0, 05, and between calcium in milk and glucose in blood (r = -0.648, P <0.05. In the group of cows with alkalosis, statistically significant correlation between total lipids in blood and fat in milk was found (r = -0.879, P <0.05.

  15. Ebola virus convalescent blood products: where we are now and where we may need to go.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnouf, Thierry; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2014-10-01

    The world is regularly exposed to emerging infections with the potential to burst into a pandemic. One possible way to treat patients, when no other treatment is yet developed,is passive immunization performed by transfusing blood, plasma or plasma immunoglobul infractions obtained from convalescent donors who have recovered from the disease and have developed protective antibodies. The most recent on-going epidemic is caused by the Ebola virus, a filovirus responsible for Ebola virus disease, a severe, often lethal, hemorrhagic fever. Recently, the use of convalescent blood products was proposed by the WHO as one early option for treating patients with Ebola virus disease. This publication provides an overview of the various convalescent blood products and technological options that could theoretically be considered when there is a need to rely on this therapeutic approach.In countries without access to advanced blood-processing technologies, the choice may initially be restricted to convalescent whole blood or plasma. In technologically advanced countries, additional options for convalescent blood products are available, including virally inactivated plasma and fractionated immunoglobulins. The preparation of minipool immunoglobulins is also a realistic option to consider.

  16. Continuous blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis. Relations to splanchnic and systemic haemodynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, S; Christensen, E; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1997-01-01

    a high post-sinusoidal resistance, a low plasma volume, a short central circulation time, and the presence of ascites. In contrast, a low intra-arterial blood pressure was determined by a low serum sodium, a low haemoglobin, and a high cardiac output. Diuretic treatment did not influence this model......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Low arterial blood pressure is recognised as a distinctive factor in the hyperdynamic circulation in cirrhosis. 24-hour monitoring of the blood pressure and heart rate has recently revealed a reduced circadian variation with relation to liver function. However, associations with...... other clinical and haemodynamic characteristics have not been investigated and the aim of the present study was to identify splanchnic and systemic determinants of the 24-h blood pressure and heart rate in cirrhosis. METHODS: The variables were measured by an automatic ambulant device for monitoring...

  17. Relations between radiobiological hypoxia and nuclear magnetic resonance-imaged blood microcirculation in experimental tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristics of hypoxic cells subjected to radiation were investigated and compared with those of microcirculation for two murine fibrosarcomas growing in C3H mice. Small NFSa tumors, growing in air-breathing mice, developed a radioresistant tail on the survival curve. The tail was indistinguishably parallel to a survival curve for an artificially hypoxic tumor. As the NFSa tumors increased in size, the hypoxic tail moved upward with no change of Do, resulting in increase of hypoxic fraction from 3.9% to 40%. The R1137 tumors had no radioresistant tail nor hypoxic fraction regardless of tumor size. However, large-sized R1137 tumors developed a significant number of radioresistant, hypoxic cells with an intermediate Do, and were effectively sensitized by administrating misonidazole before irradiation. Thus, the NFSa tumors were fractionally hypoxic, and the large R1137 tumors had intermediate hypoxia. Measurement of tumor microcirculation by gadolinium-enhanced nuclear magnetic resonance indicated that both blood flow and blood volume decreased significantly when the NFSa tumor grew large. Similar reduction in these microcirculation parameters was also observed for the R1137 tumor. The small-sized NFSa tumor had relatively larger blood volume and faster blood flow than the small-sized R1137 tumor. When large-sized tumors were compared to each other, the NFSa again had better blood flow than the R1137. However, the blood volume in the large-sized tumors was significantly (p<0.05) smaller for the NFSa tumor than for the R1137 tumor. It was concluded that blood flow could not be a single determinant for tumor hypoxia, and the difference between fractional hypoxia and intermediate hypoxia would be reflected in the ratio of blood flow to blood volume. (author)

  18. Blood serum and BSA, but neither red blood cells nor hemoglobin can support vitellogenesis and egg production in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Kristina K; Tsujimoto, Hitoshi; Hansen, Immo A

    2015-01-01

    Aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use modified insects to reduce vector populations and transmission of pathogens, such as sterile insect technique or population replacement. A major problem for vector mosquito mass rearing is the requirement of vertebrate blood for egg production since it poses significant costs as well as potential health hazards. Also, regulations for human and animal use as blood source can pose a significant obstacle. A completely artificial diet that supports egg production in vector mosquitoes can solve this problem. In this study, we compared different blood fractions, serum and red blood cells, as dietary protein sources for mosquito egg production. We also tested artificial diets made from commercially available blood proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA) and hemoglobin). We found that Ae. aegypti performed vitellogenesis and produced eggs when given whole bovine blood, serum, or an artificial diet containing BSA. Conversely, egg production was impaired after feeding of the red blood cell fraction or an artificial diet containing only hemoglobin. We also found that egg viability of serum-fed mosquitoes were comparable to that of whole blood and an iron supplemented BSA meal produced more viable eggs than a meal containing BSA alone. Our results indicate that serum proteins, not hemoglobin, may replace vertebrate blood in artificial diets for mass mosquito rearing. PMID:26020000

  19. Blood serum and BSA, but neither red blood cells nor hemoglobin can support vitellogenesis and egg production in the dengue vector Aedes aegypti

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina K. Gonzales

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Aedes aegypti is the major vector of dengue, yellow fever and chikungunya viruses that put millions of people in endemic countries at risk. Mass rearing of this mosquito is crucial for strategies that use modified insects to reduce vector populations and transmission of pathogens, such as sterile insect technique or population replacement. A major problem for vector mosquito mass rearing is the requirement of vertebrate blood for egg production since it poses significant costs as well as potential health hazards. Also, regulations for human and animal use as blood source can pose a significant obstacle. A completely artificial diet that supports egg production in vector mosquitoes can solve this problem. In this study, we compared different blood fractions, serum and red blood cells, as dietary protein sources for mosquito egg production. We also tested artificial diets made from commercially available blood proteins (bovine serum albumin (BSA and hemoglobin. We found that Ae. aegypti performed vitellogenesis and produced eggs when given whole bovine blood, serum, or an artificial diet containing BSA. Conversely, egg production was impaired after feeding of the red blood cell fraction or an artificial diet containing only hemoglobin. We also found that egg viability of serum-fed mosquitoes were comparable to that of whole blood and an iron supplemented BSA meal produced more viable eggs than a meal containing BSA alone. Our results indicate that serum proteins, not hemoglobin, may replace vertebrate blood in artificial diets for mass mosquito rearing.

  20. Are methane production and cattle performance related?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Methane is a product of fermentation of feed in ruminant animals. Approximately 2 -12% of the gross energy consumed by cattle is released through enteric methane production. There are three primary components that contribute to the enteric methane footprint of an animal. Those components are dry ...

  1. Optimization of sugar and blood feeding regimen in Anopheles gambiae mass production system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The sterile insect technique (SIT) is being developed for the control of malaria transmitting mosquitoes. Critical to the success of applying the SIT is the establishment of standardized mass production systems for the target species. As part of efforts to develop standardised mass production systems for malaria vectors, this project sought to optimize adult blood and sugar feeding in a mass production system. Different sugar types (glucose, sucrose and honey) were evaluated at 6% and 10% concentrations in water to determine the best sugar diet and concentration for feeding adult An. gambiae. Different blood feeding methods, restrained Guinea pig, anaesthetised Guinea pig and human arm feeding were evaluated. Adult survival, female insemination and egg production were used as criteria to determine optimum sugar and blood feeding. The effect of anaesthetics on blood feeding response and egg production of female An. gambiae was determined by comparing feeding response and egg production of females fed with anaesthetised Guinea pigs as against physically restrained Guinea pigs (Control). The specific effect of different anaesthetic agents on blood feeding response and egg production of female mosquitoes were was also determined by comparing the feeding response and egg production of females fed with either Ketamine/Xylazine anaesthetised Guinea pigs or Ketamine/Diazepam anaesthetised Guinea pigs. Effects due to sugar types and concentrations on percentage survival of male and female mosquitoes were observed to be significant at (p 0.05). However, human ann feeding (HAP) method and Ketamine/Xylazine (KX) anaesthetics fed for 25 minutes recorded higher percentage feeding (76.0% and 68.0% respectively) and egg production of 19.0% and 20.8% respectively. Anaesthetised Guinea pig feeding (AGF) of adults for 15 minutes followed closely with 60.0% and 15.1% blood feeding and egg production respectively whilst restrained Guinea pig feeding (RGF) method and Ketamine

  2. The blood pressure effect and related plasma levels of flavan-3-ols in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Mar; Margalef, Maria; Arola-Arnal, Anna; Muguerza, Begoña; Miguel, Marta; Aleixandre, Amaya

    2015-11-01

    We studied the short-term antihypertensive effect of flavan-3-ols (-)-epicatechin, (+)-catechin and (-)-catechin, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Plasma metabolites and the corresponding plasma antioxidant capacity were determined. All the assayed flavan-3-ols decreased systolic blood pressure (SBP) in SHR. Their antihypertensive effects were less pronounced than that of Captopril (50 mg kg(-1)) and were not shown in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats. 6 mg kg(-1) (-)-epicatechin caused the maximum decrease in SBP. The maximum effects of the catechin monomers were observed post-administration of 0.5 mg kg(-1) of flavan-3-ols, (-)-catechin being the least effective among the three assayed compounds. Glucuronide and methyl glucuronide metabolites were obtained in the flavan-3-ol treated SHR, but it was not possible to relate the antihypertensive effect of the assayed flavan-3-ols with a concrete plasma metabolite or with their antioxidant effect. In conclusion, the studied flavan-3-ols could be responsible for the antihypertensive effect of cocoa products. PMID:26294331

  3. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and...... cirrhosis. The relation between PBV and PTT and the low diffusing capacity suggests the pulmonary vascular compartment as an important element in the pathophysiology of the lung dysfunction in cirrhosis....

  4. Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in blood related to lower body mass in common loons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paruk, James D; Adams, Evan M; Uher-Koch, Hannah; Kovach, Kristin A; Long, Darwin; Perkins, Christopher; Schoch, Nina; Evers, David C

    2016-09-15

    We captured 93 wintering adult and subadult Common Loons (Gavia immer) in coastal Louisiana from 2011 to 2015 following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. We tested blood samples for exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and measured physiological variables including hematocrit, hemoglobin and total blood protein. PAH concentrations in loon blood differed from year to year and by age class. High PAH concentrations were significantly related to lower body masses in both adult and subadult birds and higher serum protein levels in adults only. PAH concentrations had marginal relations with both hematocrit and hemoglobin levels. The types of PAHs detected also underwent a major shift over time. The PAHs detected in 2011, 2012, and 2015 were primarily low molecular weight (three carbon rings); however, in 2013, most detected PAHs were high molecular weight (four carbon rings). It is unclear what events led to the increase in PAH concentrations and the shift in type of PAHs over time. PMID:27177142

  5. Homocysteine induces production of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and interleukin-8 in cultured human whole blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kunZENG; DanielGREMICK; XianWANG

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether increased plasma L-homocysteine (Hcy) level could promote monocyte chemoattract antprotein-1 (MCP-1) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) in cultured whole blood. METHODS: Human whole blood or differenttype of peripheral blood cells from health volunteers were incubated with Hcy and/or the inhibitors. MCP-1 and IL-8 level were measured by ELISA assay. RESULTS: Hcy 10-1000 μmol/L induced production of MCP-1and IL-8 in cultured human whole blood (P<0.05). The major cellular source of these chemokines comed from monocytes. Meanwhile,Hcy also promoted the upregulation of MPO level even at the 10 μmol/L in the cultured whole blood.The intracellular ROS, particular the OH radicals, play extremely important role in the Hcy-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 production. CONCLUSION: Increased Hcy level in plasma (hyperhomocysteinemia) induced MCP-1 and IL-8secretion in cultured human whole blood, especially in monocytes via oxidative stress mechanism,

  6. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  7. Storage time effect on blood diet for tsetse mass production in sterile insect technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Byamungu, S. Matembo, K. Benedict & G. Mashenga

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Different methods have been developed for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control oreradication but all these have their specific advantages and limitations. However, a combination of methodscould be used as part of an Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AWPM. The sterile insect technique(SIT as a technique of choice for eradication of tsetse flies requires mass production of flies in the laboratories.Since tsetses are exclusively haemotophogous insects, a quality blood diet is needed for maintenance of flieswith optimum production. The aim of this study was to establish the optimum storage time of blood diet fortsetse colonies.Methods: A total of 450 flies Glossina austeni were fed on different batches of blood (collected in 2004, 2005,2006, 2007 and 2008 three times a week. Pupae were collected daily and mortality checks were done onweekly basis. The quality of the blood diet was measured by observation of tsetse production parametersincluding survival, pupae production and size.Results: The survival of flies fed on 2004 and 2006 batches had lower survival compared to the rest of thebatches. Also the 2005 batch had a significant higher number of pupae compared to the production in othertreatments. The 2004 and 2005 batches had more of small pupae (class A & B compared to the other batches.Interpretation & conclusion: There was a significant difference between the blood batches and the productionparameters were better in the last three years, i.e. 2008, 2007 and 2006. Therefore, this study recommendsthree years to be an optimum storage time for blood diet under regional conditions. Also the storage temperatureconditions should remain stable at –20ºC.

  8. The effect of aprotinin, tranexamic acid, and aminocaproic acid on blood loss and use of blood products in major pediatric surgery : A meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schouten, Esther S.; van de Pol, Alma C.; Schouten, Anton N. J.; Turner, Nigel M.; Jansen, Nicolaas J. G.; Bollen, Casper W.

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Aprotinin reduces the blood loss and transfusion of blood products in children undergoing major surgery. Aprotinin has been associated with severe side effects in adults, and tranexamic acid and aminocaproic acid have been found to be safer alternatives in adults. This systematic review a

  9. Abdominal Respiration Induces Hemodilution and Related Reduction in ADH Concentration of Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Yoshiko; Ajima, Kumiko; Nagai, Takashi; Yokoyama, Yumiko; Kaidoh, Maki; Seto, Emi; Honda, Takayuki; Ohhashi, Toshio

    2015-09-01

    To establish effective lymph drainage methods and develop concise and accurate clinical techniques for evaluating lymph drainage in healthy individuals and patients with cancer treatment-related lymph edema, we investigated the numbers of red (RBC) and white (WBC) blood cells, and platelets (PLT) in blood, hematocrit (Ht), and the blood concentrations of total protein (TP), albumin (Alb), and anti-diuretic hormone (ADH) before and after 5 min manual lymph drainage, followed by 30 min rest with or without abdominal respiration in the supine or sitting position in 48 healthy volunteers. The 5 min facial, upper and lower extremities lymph drainage, followed by 30 min rest in the supine position induced significant reductions of the TP and Alb in all subjects, and their RBC and Ht levels in some subjects. The 30 min rest only in the supine position without lymph drainage produced also significant reductions of blood TP and Alb. In addition, abdominal respiration in the supine position without manual lymph drainage caused more significant hemodilution, being significant reductions of TP, Alb, RBC, Ht, and ADH in all volunteers. These findings may be related to effective lymph drainage from the chylocyst. Furthermore, it also resulted in a significantly increased micturition desire. In conclusion, abdominal respiration during 30 min rest in the supine position is effective at inducing lymph drainage, and the associated induction of hemodilution and lowering of the blood ADH concentration (and increased micturition desire in some cases) can be used to accurately assess the extent of lymph drainage.

  10. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    high population density and thereby reduce the theoretical advantage of ATK (but definitely would not nullify it!). It is equally plausible, however, that this agent would behave like a prion, non-sexual transmission, or like a West-Nil virus, a non-contagious vector-transmitted agent. For PTK this would mean a relative risk up to 4 times (PTK from 4 BCs) or 5 times (PTK from 5 BCs) higher than the risk estimated by the Robert-Koch-Institute. If, taking the passive surveillance data and the changing variables (donor frequency, donor population, and donor location) into account, the risk of transmission of an infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) with HIV, HCV, and HBV moves closer to the higher risk of PTK (exposure to 4 or 8 donors, in case of double ATK per patient), this result of the risk model calculation by no means indicates any equivalency between PTK and ATK with respect to the risk of transmission of infection. The modifiable variables of donor frequency, donor population, and donor location need to be modified, as scientific deductions, in such a way that the avoidable risk of ATK which is influenced by these variables can be corrected to the minimum risk of a transmission of infection of HIV, HBV, and HCV via ATK in comparison to PTK. The minimum risk of a possible transmission of infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) is the basic intrinsic risk of each individual blood donation. The basic intrinsic risk increases relative to the number of blood donations or exposure to donors (PtK has an unalterable, production-dependent exposure to 4 or 8 donors). Let us consider a 1:1.000 prevalence for a new pathogen, which is spread equally in each donor population (apheresis and whole blood) and the present case of approximately 500,000 transfused platelet concentrates in Germany. This means that for the production of 4 PTK about 2 million donations are processed, 2,000 infectious Buffy-Coats are obtained and, thereby, 2,000 infectious PTK. In the case of ATK

  11. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    high population density and thereby reduce the theoretical advantage of ATK (but definitely would not nullify it!). It is equally plausible, however, that this agent would behave like a prion, non-sexual transmission, or like a West-Nil virus, a non-contagious vector-transmitted agent. For PTK this would mean a relative risk up to 4 times (PTK from 4 BCs) or 5 times (PTK from 5 BCs) higher than the risk estimated by the Robert-Koch-Institute. If, taking the passive surveillance data and the changing variables (donor frequency, donor population, and donor location) into account, the risk of transmission of an infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) with HIV, HCV, and HBV moves closer to the higher risk of PTK (exposure to 4 or 8 donors, in case of double ATK per patient), this result of the risk model calculation by no means indicates any equivalency between PTK and ATK with respect to the risk of transmission of infection. The modifiable variables of donor frequency, donor population, and donor location need to be modified, as scientific deductions, in such a way that the avoidable risk of ATK which is influenced by these variables can be corrected to the minimum risk of a transmission of infection of HIV, HBV, and HCV via ATK in comparison to PTK. The minimum risk of a possible transmission of infection via ATK (exposure to 1 donor) is the basic intrinsic risk of each individual blood donation. The basic intrinsic risk increases relative to the number of blood donations or exposure to donors (PtK has an unalterable, production-dependent exposure to 4 or 8 donors). Let us consider a 1:1.000 prevalence for a new pathogen, which is spread equally in each donor population (apheresis and whole blood) and the present case of approximately 500,000 transfused platelet concentrates in Germany. This means that for the production of 4 PTK about 2 million donations are processed, 2,000 infectious Buffy-Coats are obtained and, thereby, 2,000 infectious PTK. In the case of ATK

  12. Obesity, Blood Pressure and Health-Related Behaviour among German Children and Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Christine; Jouck, Stefanie; Koch, Benjamin; Platschek, Anna-Maria; Arnold, Christiane; Bohm, Michael; Dordel, Sigrid; Tokarski, Walter

    2008-01-01

    Study aim: To examine the prevalence of obesity and its correlation with blood pressure, waist circumference and other health related risk factors (smoking, alcohol consumption, physical inactivity and TV/PC-screen time) in German youths. Material and methods: A cohort of 831 boys and 808 girls, fifth- to tenth-graders from 3 German high schools…

  13. Pulmonary diffusion abnormalities in relation to cytomegalovirus antigenemia and cytomegalic endothelial cells in blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kas-Deelen, AM; de Maar, EF; van der Mark, TW; Harmsen, MC; van Son, WJ; The, H

    2001-01-01

    The pathophysiology of HCMV infection may involve many different organs including the lungs. In this study we investigated HCMV antigenemia levels and cytomegalic endothelial cells (CEQ in blood in relation to the pulmonary diffusion capacity. Patients with high HCMV antigenemia (greater than or equ

  14. The miRNA Profile of Platelets Stored in a Blood Bank and Its Relation to Cellular Damage from Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Thaís Brilhante; Moreira-Nunes, Caroline de Fátima Aquino; Maués, Jersey Heitor da Silva; Lamarão, Letícia Martins; de Lemos, José Alexandre Rodrigues; Montenegro, Raquel Carvalho; Burbano, Rommel Mário Rodriguez

    2015-01-01

    Millions of blood products are transfused each year, and many lives are directly affected by transfusion. Platelet concentrate (PC) is one of the main products derived from blood. Even under good storage conditions, PC is likely to suffer cell damage. The shape of platelets changes after 5 to 7 days of storage at 22°C. Taking into consideration that some platelet proteins undergo changes in their shape and functionality during PC storage. Sixteen PC bags were collected and each PC bag tube was cut into six equal pieces to perform experiments with platelets from six different days of storage. Thus, on the first day of storage, 1/6 of the tube was used for miRNA extraction, and the remaining 5/6 was stored under the same conditions until extraction of miRNAs on each the following five days. Samples were sequenced on an Illumina Platform to demonstrate the most highly expressed miRNAs. Three miRNAs, mir127, mir191 and mir320a were validated by real-time quantitative PCR (RQ-PCR) in 100 PC bags tubes. Our method suggests, the use of the miRNAs mir127 and mir320a as biomarkers to assess the "validity period" of PC bags stored in blood banks for long periods. Thus, bags can be tested on the 5th day of storage for the relative expression levels of mir127 and mir320a. Thus, we highlight candidate miRNAs as biomarkers of storage damage that can be used as tools to evaluate the quality of stored PC. The use of miRNAs as biomarkers of damage is unprecedented and will contribute to improved quality of blood products for transfusions.

  15. Production of eosinophil-activating factor (EAF) by peripheral blood mononuclear cells from asthma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, K J; Richardson, B A; Butterworth, A E; Hay, I; Jackson, M; Higenbottam, T W

    1989-01-01

    Mononuclear cells from blood samples from asthmatic patients were tested for their ability to produce two eosinophil activating factors, EAF and TNF. High levels of EAF were produced by some but not by all patients. The influence of external factors on EAF production was evaluated. Patients receiving prednisolone (10-30 mg/day) tended to produce only low levels of EAF. Prednisolone has been shown to inhibit production of EAF in vitro by isolated mononuclear cells, at concentrations of 0.1-1 micrograms steroid/ml. Incubation of mononuclear cells with certain allergens enhances EAF production in sensitive individuals. Little or no production of TNF was observed in the patients examined.

  16. Whole Blood Activation Results in Altered T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production Profiles by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crucian, Brian E.; Sams, Clarence F.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry, a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a whole-blood activation culture has been described. In this study, whole blood activation was compared to traditional PBMC activation and the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells, T cell subsets and monocytes was determined by flow cytometry. RESULTS: For T cell cytokine assessment (IFNg/IL-10 and IL-21/L-4) following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a Significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture and (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. Four-color analysiS was used to allow assessment of cytokine production by specific T cell subsets. It was found that IFNgamma production was significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were Significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines (IL-1a/IL-12 and TNFa/IL-10) in conjunction with CD14. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFa. equally well in both culture systems, however monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated in whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and TNFa producing

  17. Immunomodulatory capacity of fungal proteins on the cytokine production of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jeurink, P.V.; Lull Noguera, C.; Savelkoul, H.F.J.; Wichers, H.J.

    2008-01-01

    Immunomodulation by fungal compounds can be determined by the capacity of the compounds to influence the cytokine production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (hPBMC). These activities include mitogenicity, stimulation and activation of immune effector cells. Eight mushroom strains (Agaric

  18. Pulmonary blood volume and transit time in cirrhosis: relation to lung function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Burchardt, H; Øgard, CG;

    2006-01-01

    not been determined separately we assessed PBV and pulmonary transit time (PTT) in relation to lung function in patients with cirrhosis and in controls. METHODS: Pulmonary and cardiac haemodynamics and transit times were determined by radionuclide techniques in 22 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis......BACKGROUND/AIMS: In cirrhosis a systemic vasodilatation leads to an abnormal distribution of the blood volume with a contracted central blood volume. In addition, the patients have a ventilation/perfusion imbalance with a low diffusing capacity. As the size of the pulmonary blood volume (PBV) has...... and in 12 controls. The lung function including diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL, CO) was determined by conventional single breath technique. RESULTS: In the patients, PTT was shorter, 3.9+/-1.2 vs 5.7+/-1.0 s in the controls, P

  19. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  20. Biological effects of the electrostatic field: red blood cell-related alterations of oxidative processes in blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harutyunyan, Hayk A.; Sahakyan, Gohar V.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine activities of pro-/antioxidant enzymes, reactive oxygen species (ROS) content, and oxidative modification of proteins and lipids in red blood cells (RBCs) and blood plasma of rats exposed to electrostatic field (200 kV/m) during the short (1 h) and the long periods (6 day, 6 h daily). Short-term exposure was characterized by the increase of oxidatively damaged proteins in blood of rats. This was strongly expressed in RBC membranes. After long-term action, RBC content in peripheral blood was higher than in control ( P < 0.01) and the attenuation of prooxidant processes was shown.

  1. Raman Tweezers as a Diagnostic Tool of Hemoglobin-Related Blood Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Rusciano

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This review presents the development of a Raman Tweezers system for detecting hemoglobin-related blood disorders at a single cell level. The study demonstrates that the molecular fingerprint insight provided by Raman analysis holds great promise for distinguishing between healthy and diseased cells in the field of biomedicine. Herein a Raman Tweezers system has been applied to investigate the effects of thalassemia, a blood disease quite diffuse in the Mediterranean Sea region. By resonant excitation of hemoglobin Raman bands, we examined the oxygenation capability of normal, alpha- and beta-thalassemic erythrocytes. A reduction of this fundamental red blood cell function, particularly severe for beta-thalassemia, has been found. Raman spectroscopy was also used to draw hemoglobin distribution inside single erythrocytes; the results confirmed the characteristic anomaly (target shape, occurring in thalassemia and some other blood disorders. The success of resonance Raman spectroscopy for thalassemia detection reported in this review provide an interesting starting point to explore the application of a Raman Tweezers system in the analysis of several blood disorders.

  2. Performance-related pay and labor productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lucifora, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Many firms offer employees a remuneration package that links pay to performance as a means of motivation. It also improves efficiency and reduces turnover and absenteeism. The effects on productivity depend on the type of scheme employed (individual or group performance) and its design (commissions, piece-rate or sharing schemes). Individual incentives demonstrate the largest effect, while group or team incentives are smaller in magnitude. The case for government intervention through tax brea...

  3. Changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens due to growth hormone and testosterone injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Ansari-Pirsaraei, Z

    2014-06-01

    The experiment was designed to study the changes in some blood parameters and production performance of old laying hens after injection of different doses of growth hormone (GH) and testosterone (Ts). A total of 160 old laying hens (HyLine W-36) at 73 weeks of age were weighed individually and randomly allocated to four treatments with four replicates and 10 birds in each replicate in a completely randomized design. Growth hormone and Ts hormones were injected subcutaneously. Treatment groups were as follows: treatment 1: injection of 100 μl distiled water (control group), treatment 2: injection of 500 μg Ts/kg live-weight + 50 μgGH/kg live-weight, treatment 3: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 100 μgGH/kg live-weight and treatment 4: injection of 500 μgTs/kg live-weight + 150 μgGH/kg live-weight. Plasma levels of oestradiol, T4 , LDL, HDL and cholesterol significantly increased in treatment 3 in relation to the control group. All injected hens showed significantly higher levels of glucose in relation to control group. The results showed the positive effects of GH and Ts administration on production performance and blood parameters which are associated with egg production potentiality and in turn may improve reproductivity (egg production) in old laying hens. The positive results of the study may be useful in animal selection and breeding programmes.

  4. Moderate exercise training promotes adaptations in coronary blood flow and adenosine production in normotensive rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda R. Roque

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Aerobic exercise training prevents cardiovascular risks. Regular exercise promotes functional and structural adaptations that are associated with several cardiovascular benefits. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of swimming training on coronary blood flow, adenosine production and cardiac capillaries in normotensive rats. METHODS: Wistar rats were randomly divided into two groups: control (C and trained (T. An exercise protocol was performed for 10 weeks and 60 min/day with a tail overload of 5% bodyweight. Coronary blood flow was quantified with a color microsphere technique, and cardiac capillaries were quantified using light microscopy. Adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was evaluated by enzymatic activity, and protein expression was evaluated by western blot. The results are presented as the means ± SEMs (p<0.05. RESULTS: Exercise training increased the coronary blood flow and the myocardial capillary-to-fiber ratio. Moreover, the circulating and cardiac extracellular adenine nucleotide hydrolysis was higher in the trained rats than in the sedentary rats due to the increased activity and protein expression of enzymes, such as E-NTPDase and 59- nucleotidase. CONCLUSIONS: Swimming training increases coronary blood flow, number of cardiac capillaries, and adenine nucleotide hydrolysis. Increased adenosine production may be an important contributor to the enhanced coronary blood flow and angiogenesis that were observed in the exercise-trained rats; collectively, these results suggest improved myocardial perfusion.

  5. Bos taurus papillomavirus activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells: demonstrating a productive infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, T C; Araldi, R P; Pessoa, N S D; de-Sá-Júnior, P L; Carvalho, R F; Beçak, W; Stocco, R C

    2015-01-01

    Bovine papillomavirus (BPV) is an oncogenic virus with mucous and epithelial tropism. Possible productive virus infection in other tissues, such as blood, has been hypothesized. In order to investigate this possibility, three samples of skin papillomas and blood were collected from bovines with BPV infection and five samples of peripheral blood and one sample of normal tissue were collected from a calf without BPV infection. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood and examined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, immunofluorescence, in situ hybridization, and electron microscopy. The tissue samples were examined for histopathological and immunohistochemical features. The skin papillomas showed the presence of DNA sequences of BPV-2, BPV-11, and a putative virus type. The blood samples showed DNA sequences of BPV-1, 2, and 4 simultaneously. Immunohistochemistry showed BPV L1 protein in both epithelium and stroma and BPV E2 protein in koilocytes. In situ hybridization confirmed the presence of BPV DNA in PBMCs and immunofluorescence showed nuclear labeling of E2 and L1 BPV proteins in PBMCs. The transcription analysis revealed transcripts of BPV-1 L1, BPV-2 L2, and BPV-4 E7 in blood and papilloma samples of BPV-infected cattle. The comet assay revealed high levels of host cell DNA damage upon BPV infection. Electron microscopy analysis of PBMCs identified the presence of particles in the cytoplasm that are consistent with papillomavirus in size and shape. The productive infection of PBMCs with BPV has been previously discussed and this study provides evidence indicating that PBMCs are a target of BPV. PMID:26681018

  6. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds. PMID:22029787

  7. Prediction of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps by computational fluid dynamics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Fangqun; LI Lan; FENG Zhigang; QIAN Kunxi

    2005-01-01

    A quantitative evaluation of shear stress-related hemolysis in centrifugal blood pumps with different impeller designs has been investigated. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is applied to track the shear stress history of the streamlines of red cells. The power law model of the relations among the hemolysis, shear stress and exposure time is used to evaluate the hemolysis in the pumps.Hemolysis tests are also conducted to verify the estimations. Both the estimations and experimentally measured hemolysis levels show that the hemolysis in the streamlined impeller pump developed by the authors is lower than the pump with straight-vane under the same boundary conditions. The approach is proved to be acceptable and practical to predict hemolysis levels of blood pumps.

  8. Scaling of brain metabolism and blood flow in relation to capillary and neural scaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbowski, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Brain is one of the most energy demanding organs in mammals, and its total metabolic rate scales with brain volume raised to a power of around 5/6. This value is significantly higher than the more common exponent 3/4 relating whole body resting metabolism with body mass and several other physiological variables in animals and plants. This article investigates the reasons for brain allometric distinction on a level of its microvessels. Based on collected empirical data it is found that regional cerebral blood flow CBF across gray matter scales with cortical volume V as CBF ~ V(-1/6), brain capillary diameter increases as V(1/12), and density of capillary length decreases as V(-1/6). It is predicted that velocity of capillary blood is almost invariant (~V(ε)), capillary transit time scales as V(1/6), capillary length increases as V(1/6+ε), and capillary number as V(2/3-ε), where ε is typically a small correction for medium and large brains, due to blood viscosity dependence on capillary radius. It is shown that the amount of capillary length and blood flow per cortical neuron are essentially conserved across mammals. These results indicate that geometry and dynamics of global neuro-vascular coupling have a proportionate character. Moreover, cerebral metabolic, hemodynamic, and microvascular variables scale with allometric exponents that are simple multiples of 1/6, rather than 1/4, which suggests that brain metabolism is more similar to the metabolism of aerobic than resting body. Relation of these findings to brain functional imaging studies involving the link between cerebral metabolism and blood flow is also discussed.

  9. Scaling of brain metabolism and blood flow in relation to capillary and neural scaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Karbowski

    Full Text Available Brain is one of the most energy demanding organs in mammals, and its total metabolic rate scales with brain volume raised to a power of around 5/6. This value is significantly higher than the more common exponent 3/4 relating whole body resting metabolism with body mass and several other physiological variables in animals and plants. This article investigates the reasons for brain allometric distinction on a level of its microvessels. Based on collected empirical data it is found that regional cerebral blood flow CBF across gray matter scales with cortical volume V as CBF ~ V(-1/6, brain capillary diameter increases as V(1/12, and density of capillary length decreases as V(-1/6. It is predicted that velocity of capillary blood is almost invariant (~V(ε, capillary transit time scales as V(1/6, capillary length increases as V(1/6+ε, and capillary number as V(2/3-ε, where ε is typically a small correction for medium and large brains, due to blood viscosity dependence on capillary radius. It is shown that the amount of capillary length and blood flow per cortical neuron are essentially conserved across mammals. These results indicate that geometry and dynamics of global neuro-vascular coupling have a proportionate character. Moreover, cerebral metabolic, hemodynamic, and microvascular variables scale with allometric exponents that are simple multiples of 1/6, rather than 1/4, which suggests that brain metabolism is more similar to the metabolism of aerobic than resting body. Relation of these findings to brain functional imaging studies involving the link between cerebral metabolism and blood flow is also discussed.

  10. Influence of Relative Humidity on the Spreading Dynamics of a Drying Drop of Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bou Zeid, Wassim; Brutin, David

    2013-11-01

    Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids start spreading after coming into contact with a solid substrate till the anchoring of the triple line. Our experimental work aims to study the effect of the relative humidity on the spreading dynamics of drops of whole blood. Drops of blood of same volume (+/-4.8%) are injected using a digital micropipette and gently deposited onto microscope ultraclean glass substrates. Experiments are conducted in a glove box at ambient temperature and a range of investigated relative humidities between 13.0% and 80.0%. The recorded images are post-processed using ImageJ in which the position of the contact line is measured every 20 ms. We show that the spreading dynamics is, in a first time, governed by relative humidity and later no more influence by relative humidity. Two spreading regimes are observed and analyzed compared to classical viscous drops. In previous work, we show that relative humidity influences the contact angle and the initial wetting radius. In the first regime, we find a spreading power law exponent that decreases for an increasing relative humidity. In the second regime, all the data collapse on each other and the evolution of the dimensionless radius no more depend on relative humidity.

  11. Association between religiousness and blood donation among Brazilian postgraduate students from health-related areas

    OpenAIRE

    Edson Zangiacomi Martinez; Rodrigo Guimarães dos Santos Almeida; Ana Carolina Garcia Braz; Antonio Carlos Duarte de Carvalho

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the association between religiousness and blood donation among postgraduate students.METHODS: The Portuguese-language version of the Duke University Religion Index was administered to a sample of 226 Brazilian students with ages ranging from 22 to 55 years. All study participants had completed undergraduate courses in health-related areas.RESULTS: In the present study, 23.5% of the students were regular donors. Organizational religiousness was f...

  12. Postulated Role of Vasoactive Neuropeptide-Related Immunopathology of the Blood Brain Barrier and Virchow-Robin Spaces in the Aetiology of Neurological-Related Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. R. Staines

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Vasoactive neuropeptides (VNs such as pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP have critical roles as neurotransmitters, vasodilators including perfusion and hypoxia regulators, as well as immune and nociception modulators. They have key roles in blood vessels in the central nervous system (CNS including maintaining functional integrity of the blood brain barrier (BBB and blood spinal barrier (BSB. VNs are potent activators of adenylate cyclase and thus also have a key role in cyclic AMP production affecting regulatory T cell and other immune functions. Virchow-Robin spaces (VRSs are perivascular compartments surrounding small vessels within the CNS and contain VNs. Autoimmunity of VNs or VN receptors may affect BBB and VRS function and, therefore, may contribute to the aetiology of neurological-related conditions including multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. VN autoimmunity will likely affect CNS and immunological homeostasis. Various pharmacological and immunological treatments including phosphodiesterase inhibitors and plasmapheresis may be indicated.

  13. Sodium-to-potassium ratio and blood pressure, hypertension, and related factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Vanessa; Chang, Ellen T

    2014-11-01

    The potential cost-effectiveness and feasibility of dietary interventions aimed at reducing hypertension risk are of considerable interest and significance in public health. In particular, the effectiveness of restricted sodium or increased potassium intake on mitigating hypertension risk has been demonstrated in clinical and observational research. The role that modified sodium or potassium intake plays in influencing the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, and endothelial dysfunction remains of interest in current research. Up to the present date, no known systematic review has examined whether the sodium-to-potassium ratio or either sodium or potassium alone is more strongly associated with blood pressure and related factors, including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction, in humans. This article presents a systematic review and synthesis of the randomized controlled trials and observational research related to this issue. The main findings show that, among the randomized controlled trials reviewed, the sodium-to-potassium ratio appears to be more strongly associated with blood pressure outcomes than either sodium or potassium alone in hypertensive adult populations. Recent data from the observational studies reviewed provide additional support for the sodium-to-potassium ratio as a superior metric to either sodium or potassium alone in the evaluation of blood pressure outcomes and incident hypertension. It remains unclear whether this is true in normotensive populations and in children and for related outcomes including the renin-angiotensin system, arterial stiffness, the augmentation index, and endothelial dysfunction. Future study in these populations is warranted.

  14. RELATIONS OF ENDOTHELIAL FUNCTION AND BLOOD FLOW IN BRACHIAL ARTERY AND CORONARY ARTERY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙寅光; 沈卫峰; 施仲伟; 张大东

    2003-01-01

    Objective To determine the relations between endothelium dependent vasodilator function and blood flow in the brachial and coronary arteries in patients with suspected coronary artery disease.MethodsTwenty eight patients with suspected coronary artery disease underwent brachial artery endothelial function test by using high resolution B mode ultrasound before coronary angiography (CAG) and coronary flow reserve (CFR) test by using intracoronary Doppler technique. The correlation of coronary artery dilatation induced by an increase in blood flow after intracoronary adenosine infusion and brachial artery flow mediated dilatation (FMD) following reactive hyperemia was evaluated. The relation between the change of brachial artery blood flow and CFR was also studied.ResultsThere was a positive correlation between brachial FMD and percent change of coronary diameter after adenosine infusion (12.50%±9.35% vs 11.38%±7.55%, r=0.425,P=0.02). There was also a weak negative relation between brachial flow change following reactive hyperemia and CFR (r=0.397, P=0.04).ConclusionThere is a correlation between the coronary endothelial function and the CFR by ultrasonic determination of brachial flow changes following reactive hyperemia.

  15. Relationships between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity, and health-related QOL.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okano, Yasuko; Hirawa, Nobuhito; Tochikubo, Osamu; Mizushima, Shunsaku; Fukuhara, Shunichi; Kihara, Minoru; Toya, Yoshiyuki; Umemura, Satoshi

    2004-02-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the associations between diurnal blood pressure variation, physical activity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Ninety-seven volunteers, including 52 hypertensive patients and 45 healthy subjects (average age, 48 years) participated in this study. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate variability were measured using TM2425 (A&D Co). Physical activity was measured using actigraphy, and HRQOL was assessed by a Medical Outcome Study Short-Forum 36-Item Health Survey (SF-36). Awake mean physical activity positively correlated with the nocturnal dip in systolic blood pressure (SBP) (r = 0.242, p physical functioning positively correlated with awake mean physical activity (r = 0.265, p physical activity (r = 0.269, p = 0.01). Using multiple regression analysis, the nocturnal dip in SBP was found to be correlated with awake and sleep mean physical activities (p physical activity is associated with the nocturnal dip in blood pressure. Moreover, physical activity correlates with some of the factors of HRQOL.

  16. Whole Blood RNA as a Source of Transcript-Based Nutrition- and Metabolic Health-Related Biomarkers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Petar D.; Bonet, M. Luisa; Reynés, Bárbara; Oliver, Paula; Palou, Andreu; Ribot, Joan

    2016-01-01

    Blood cells are receiving an increasing attention as an easily accessible source of transcript-based biomarkers. We studied the feasibility of using mouse whole blood RNA in this context. Several paradigms were studied: (i) metabolism-related transcripts known to be affected in rat tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by fasting and upon the development of high fat diet (HFD)-induced overweight were assessed in whole blood RNA of fasted rats and mice and of HFD-fed mice; (ii) retinoic acid (RA)-responsive genes in tissues were assessed in whole blood RNA of control and RA-treated mice; (iii) lipid metabolism-related transcripts previously identified in PBMC as potential biomarkers of metabolic health in a rat model were assessed in whole blood in an independent model, namely retinoblastoma haploinsufficient (Rb+/-) mice. Blood was collected and stored in RNAlater® at -80°C until analysis of selected transcripts by real-time RT-PCR. Comparable changes with fasting were detected in the expression of lipid metabolism-related genes when RNA from either PBMC or whole blood of rats or mice was used. HFD-induced excess body weight and fat mass associated with expected changes in the expression of metabolism-related genes in whole blood of mice. Changes in gene expression in whole blood of RA-treated mice reproduced known transcriptional actions of RA in hepatocytes and adipocytes. Reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 could be validated as early biomarkers of metabolic health in young Rb+/- mice using whole blood RNA. Altogether, these results support the use of whole blood RNA in studies aimed at identifying blood transcript-based biomarkers of nutritional/metabolic status or metabolic health. Results also support reduced expression of Fasn, Lrp1, Rxrb and Sorl1 in blood cells at young age as potential biomarkers of metabolic robustness. PMID:27163124

  17. Production of fibrogenic cytokines by interleukin-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kovacs, E J; Brock, B; Silber, I E;

    1993-01-01

    procollagen and fibronectin messenger RNAs was increased in human fibroblasts in response to leukocyte supernatants. Unstimulated leukocytes expressed minimal levels of transforming growth factor-beta or platelet-derived growth factor B chain messenger RNAs, but could be greatly enhanced by IL-2 treatment....... CONCLUSION: Mediators that induce connective tissue production are secreted by IL-2-treated peripheral blood leukocytes. These cytokines may be responsible, in part, for the stimulation of abdominal adhesions in patients receiving intraperitoneal immunotherapy....

  18. Preeclampsia and Blood Pressure Trajectory during Pregnancy in Relation to Vitamin D Status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bärebring, Linnea; Bullarbo, Maria; Glantz, Anna; Leu Agelii, Monica; Jagner, Åse; Ellis, Joy; Hulthén, Lena; Schoenmakers, Inez; Augustin, Hanna

    2016-01-01

    Every tenth pregnancy is affected by hypertension, one of the most common complications and leading causes of maternal death worldwide. Hypertensive disorders in pregnancy include pregnancy-induced hypertension and preeclampsia. The pathophysiology of the development of hypertension in pregnancy is unknown, but studies suggest an association with vitamin D status, measured as 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D). The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gestational 25(OH)D concentration and preeclampsia, pregnancy-induced hypertension and blood pressure trajectory. This cohort study included 2000 women. Blood was collected at the first (T1) and third (T3) trimester (mean gestational weeks 10.8 and 33.4). Blood pressure at gestational weeks 10, 25, 32 and 37 as well as symptoms of preeclampsia and pregnancy-induced hypertension were retrieved from medical records. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations (LC-MS/MS) in T1 was not significantly associated with preeclampsia. However, both 25(OH)D in T3 and change in 25(OH)D from T1 to T3 were significantly and negatively associated with preeclampsia. Women with a change in 25(OH)D concentration of ≥30 nmol/L had an odds ratio of 0.22 (p = 0.002) for preeclampsia. T1 25(OH)D was positively related to T1 systolic (β = 0.03, p = 0.022) and T1 diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.02, p = 0.016), and to systolic (β = 0.02, p = 0.02) blood pressure trajectory during pregnancy, in adjusted analyses. There was no association between 25(OH)D and pregnancy-induced hypertension in adjusted analysis. In conclusion, an increase in 25(OH)D concentration during pregnancy of at least 30 nmol/L, regardless of vitamin D status in T1, was associated with a lower odds ratio for preeclampsia. Vitamin D status was significantly and positively associated with T1 blood pressure and gestational systolic blood pressure trajectory but not with pregnancy-induced hypertension.

  19. Use of paravascular admittance waveforms to monitor relative change in arterial blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinski, Todd M.; Hettrick, Doug; Cho, Yong

    2010-04-01

    Non-invasive methods to monitor ambulatory blood pressure often have limitations that can affect measurement accuracy and patient adherence [1]. Minimally invasive measurement of a relative blood pressure surrogate with an implantable device may provide a useful chronic diagnostic and monitoring tool. We assessed a technique that uses electrocardiogram and paravascular admittance waveform morphology analysis to one, measure a time duration (vascular tone index, VTI in milliseconds) change from the electrocardiogram R-wave to admittance waveform peak and two, measure the admittance waveform minimum, maximum and magnitude as indicators of change in arterial compliance/distensibility or pulse pressure secondary to change in afterload. Methods: Five anesthetized domestic pigs (32 ± 4.2 kg) were used to study the effects of phenylephrine (1-5 ug/kg/min) on femoral artery pressure and admittance waveform morphology measured with a quadrapolar electrode array catheter placed next to the femoral artery to assess the relative change in arterial compliance due to change in peripheral vascular tone. Results: Statistical difference was observed (p blood pressure may be suitable for implantable devices to detect progression of cardiovascular disease such as hypertension.

  20. Salivary latent trait cortisol (LTC): Relation to lipids, blood pressure, and body composition in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Ellen W; Place, Rebecca; Gordish-Dressman, Heather; Visich, Paul; Hoffman, Eric; Walker, Sheila O; Granger, Douglas A

    2016-09-01

    Adversity experienced early in life has the potential to influence physical health later in life. The stress-health relation may be partially explained by stress-related effects on cardiovascular risk factors. This study explored links between individual differences in trait-like variation in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis with cardiovascular risk factors in children. 474 children (M age=9.22years; 54% female; 83% Caucasian) were included in this study, in which cardiovascular risk was assessed using the following indices - triglycerides (TG), HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), glucose (Glu); resting systolic and diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat. Saliva samples were measured 3 times a day (waking, 30min post-waking and bedtime) over 3days (later assayed for cortisol). A latent trait cortisol (LTC) factor explained 43% of the variance in cortisol levels within and across days. Confirmatory factor analysis identified three cardiovascular risk factors: lipids (i.e., TG and HDL-C), blood pressure (i.e., systolic and diastolic), and body composition (i.e., BMI, Waist-to-hip ratio, and % fat). Lower salivary LTC was associated with higher lipids, higher blood pressure, and higher body composition. The findings further support the internal and external validity of the LTC construct, and may also advance our understanding of the link between interindividual differences in HPA axis activity and cardiovascular risk in middle childhood. PMID:27262343

  1. Relative humidity influence on the spreading dynamics of sessile drops of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brutin, David; Bouzeid, Wassim

    2014-11-01

    We studied the effect of relative humidity on the initial stages of spreading dynamics for drops of whole human blood. A range of relative humidities from 8% to 90% was studied. Drops of the same volume were gently deposited on ultra-clean microscope glass substrates. We show that the drop spreading is driven by two distinct regimes. The first is characterized by fast dynamics and competition between viscous forces and capillary forces, whereas the second regime is characterized by competition between viscous dissipation and evaporation and exhibits slower dynamics. At early stages of spreading, the power law r(t) ~ tn (n = 0.65) was observed regardless of the humidity. At later stages of spreading, the exponent of the power law r(t) ~ tn (n = 0.19) was found to be higher than that of Tanner's law because of the effect of humidity and Marangoni stresses. Spreading time and spreading dynamics were found to be related to relative humidity. This is explained by the adhesion of red blood cells to the substrate that is similar to the mechanism observed for nanofluid droplets. The mean velocity of the triple line followed the same behavior as Tanner's model, where the final wetting radius and the apparent contact angle are functions of relative humidity.

  2. The relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to elicit blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Germain, M; Godin, G

    2016-04-01

    The aim of the study was to test the relative efficacy of telephone and email reminders to trigger blood donation. A sample of 3454 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: phone only (n = 1176), email only (n = 1091) and phone + email (n = 1187). There was a higher proportion of donors who registered to give blood in the phone + email condition (18·45%) compared to the other two conditions (phone: 15·73%, P < 0·05; email: 13·20%; P < 0·001); this effect was apparent only in men. The phone and email conditions did not differ significantly (P = 0·16), suggesting equivalent efficacy. PMID:26198382

  3. Investigating Consumer Purchase Behavior in Related Technology Product Categories

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sriram; Chintagunta, Pradeep K.; Agarwal, Manoj K.

    2010-01-01

    We present a framework of durable goods purchasing behavior in related technology product categories that incorporates the following aspects unique to technology product purchases. First, it accounts for consumers' anticipation of declining prices (or increasing quality) over time. Second, the durable nature of technology products implies that even if two categories are related as complements, consumers may stagger their purchases over several periods. Third, the forward-looking consumer deci...

  4. Establishment and performance assessment of preparation technology of internal quality control products for blood transfusion compatibility testing

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Yang; MA, CHUNYA; Feng, Qian; Chen, Xin; GUAN, XIAOZHEN; Zhang, Xiaojuan; Chen, Linfeng; Lin, Zilin; Pan, Jichun; Zhang, Ting; Luo, Qun; Wang, Deqing

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to establish and to optimize the preparation technology of whole blood internal quality control (IQC) products for blood transfusion compatibility testing. Several B-type RhD-negative blood samples collected from healthy donors were mixed. Two groups of whole blood IQC products, namely, the preservative solution group (PS group) and the saline group, were prepared. The agglutination intensity of IQC sample red cells and anti-B antibody, IgM anti-A antibody and revers...

  5. Hydrocortisone sodium succinate suppressed production of interleukin-10 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells: clinical significance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohka H

    1999-02-01

    Full Text Available Corticoids are well known for their immunosuppressive properties. Interleukin-10 (IL-10 is an intrinsic antiinflammatory peptide in immune diseases, originally identified as cytokine synthesis inhibitory factor. We examined the effect of hydrocortisone sodium succinate (HSS on the production of IL-10 by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. PBMCs from healthy volunteers and cancer-burden patients were preincubated separately with or without HSS for 1 h, then stimulated with 5 microg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS. Production of IL-10 by human PBMCs was detected with LPS stimulation and its production was higher in cancer-burden patients than in normal volunteers, although this was not statistically significant. HSS suppressed production of IL-10 by LPS-stimulated PBMCs in a dose-dependent manner both in normal volunteers and in cancer-burden patients. These results indicate that, in addition to their antiinflammatory properties, corticoids act to restore the immunosuppressive states even in cancer-burden states.

  6. Left ventricular hypertrophy in relation to systolic blood pressure and the angiotensin converting enzyme I/D polymorphism in Chinese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexander P. Headley; Yan Li; Yi Zhang; Ji-Yong Ge; Qi-Fang Huang; Ji-Guang Wang

    2009-01-01

    Objective There is little population-based data on the prevalence and the environmental or genetic determinants of left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) in China. The purpose of this paper is to study LVH in relation to systolic blood pressure and the angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) insertion/deletion(I/D) polymorphism in Chinese. Methods We recorded 12-lead ECG (CardioSoft, v4.2) in 1365 residents in the Jingning County, Zhejiang Province, China. LVH was defined according to the gender-specific Sokolow-Lyon and Comell product ECG criteria. Results Regardless of whether the Sokolow-Lyon or Comell product ECG criteria was used, the prevalence of LVH (20.7% and 4.8%, respectively) significantly (P<0.0001) increased with male gender (odds ratio [OR] 2.33 and 7.15) and systolic blood pressure (per 10 mm Hg increase, OR 1.46 and 1.33). If the Sokolow-Lyon criteria was used, the prevalence of LVH was also influenced by alcohol intake (OR 1.44, P=0.03) and body mass index (OR 0.83, P=0.0005). The association between the Sokolow-Lyon voltage amplitude and the ACE I/D polymorphism was dependent on antihypertensive therapy (P=0.01). In 1262 untreated subjects, but not 103 patients on antihypertensive medication, the ACE DD compared with Ⅱ subjects had significantly higher Sokolow-Lyon voltage amplitudes (29.8±0.6 vs. 28.0±20.5 mV, P=0.02) and higher risk of LVH (OR 1.74, 95% CI: 1. 12-2.69, P=0.01). Conclusion LVH is prevalent in Chinese, and is associated with systolic blood pressure and the ACE D allele. The genetic association might be modulated by antihypertensive therapy.

  7. Banking of pluripotent adult stem cells as an unlimited source for red blood cell production: potential applications for alloimmunized patients and rare blood challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peyrard, Thierry; Bardiaux, Laurent; Krause, Claire; Kobari, Ladan; Lapillonne, Hélène; Andreu, Georges; Douay, Luc

    2011-07-01

    The transfusion of red blood cells (RBCs) is now considered a well-settled and essential therapy. However, some difficulties and constraints still occur, such as long-term blood product shortage, blood donor population aging, known and yet unknown transfusion-transmitted infectious agents, growing cost of the transfusion supply chain management, and the inescapable blood group polymorphism barrier. Red blood cells can be now cultured in vitro from human hematopoietic, human embryonic, or human-induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs). The highly promising hiPSC technology represents a potentially unlimited source of RBCs and opens the door to the revolutionary development of a new generation of allogeneic transfusion products. Assuming that in vitro large-scale cultured RBC production efficiently operates in the near future, we draw here some futuristic but realistic scenarios regarding potential applications for alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group. We retrospectively studied a cohort of 16,486 consecutive alloimmunized patients (10-year period), showing 1 to 7 alloantibodies with 361 different antibody combinations. We showed that only 3 hiPSC clones would be sufficient to match more than 99% of the 16,486 patients in need of RBC transfusions. The study of the French National Registry of People with a Rare Blood Phenotype/Genotype (10-year period) shows that 15 hiPSC clones would cover 100% of the needs in patients of white ancestry. In addition, one single hiPSC clone would meet 73% of the needs in alloimmunized patients with sickle cell disease for whom rare cryopreserved RBC units were required. As a result, we consider that a very limited number of RBC clones would be able to not only provide for the need for most alloimmunized patients and those with a rare blood group but also efficiently allow for a policy for alloimmunization prevention in multiply transfused patients. PMID:21377319

  8. Blood Collection from Local Abattoirs for Mass Production of Tsetse Flies to be used in the Sterile Insect Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The mass production of tsetse flies (Glossina spp.) for the sterile insect technique (SIT) requires a supply of quality blood. For some years already cattle blood has been used as food for laboratory reared flies. The blood is collected from an abattoir using standard procedures. The collection procedures, handling and storage require aseptic conditions to avoid contamination of the blood, which could be fatal to the flies. Fly mortality caused by low quality blood endangers the success of mass rearing. To rear healthy flies with good survival and production the blood should be of good quality - free of contamination and with a packed cell volume (PCV) above 25%. The present work involved the seasonal collection of blood from abattoirs in the United Republic of Tanzania (Tanga, Arusha, Dodoma, Dar-es-salaam). Dodoma was identified as having the best conditions for blood collection. To assess the quality of the blood as a diet for tsetse, blood was screened for the presence of bacteria, and the pathogens were identified. Protocols were developed for blood quality assurance. (author)

  9. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Hu, Tingting; Song, Xiaofei; Nie, Hong; Chen, Min; Chen, Weixian; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Dazhi; Hu, Huaidong; Hu, Peng; Ren, Hong

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper cells (Tfh) provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) and health controls (HC) were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC).In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27612199

  10. Production of Autoantibodies in Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Infection Is Associated with the Augmented Function of Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yu; Hu, Tingting; Song, Xiaofei; Nie, Hong; Chen, Min; Chen, Weixian; Zhou, Zhi; Zhang, Dazhi; Hu, Huaidong; Hu, Peng; Ren, Hong

    2016-01-01

    T follicular helper cells (Tfh) provide help to B cells to support their activation, expansion and differentiation. However, the role of Tfh cells in chronic HBV infection is poorly defined. The aim of this research was to examine the function of Tfh cells and whether they are involved in HBV related disease. Blood CXCR5+CD4+T cells and B cells in 85 patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) and health controls (HC) were examined by flow cytometry. The molecule expression in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was detected by real-time PCR. Blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells and B cells were co-cultured and the production of Ig and cytokines was detected by ELISA. Autoantibodies were detected by indirect immunofluorescence and immunospot assay. We found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells in patients with chronic HBV infection (HBV patients) expressed higher level of activation related molecules and cytokines than that from health controls (HC).In HBV patients, the frequency of blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells was significantly correlated with serum ALT and AST. We also found that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients could induce B cells to secret higher level of immunoglobulin than that from HC. Several autoantibodies, including ANA, ss-A, ss-B, Scl-70, Jo-1, ect, were indeed positive in 65% HBV patients. Among HBV patients, expression of function related molecules was significantly higher in blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from patients with autoantibodies than that without autoantibodies. Our research indicated that blood CXCR5+CD4+ T cells from HBV patients were over activated and show augmented capacity to help B cells for antibody secreting, which might correlated with liver inflammation and the production of autoantibodies in extrahepatic manifestations. PMID:27612199

  11. Monitoring of milk production and total cholesterol concentration, gamma-glutamyltransferase, and glutathione peroxidase in Simmental cows blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terezija Silvija Marenjak

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Milk production, total blood cholesterol concentration and activity ofgamma-glutamyl-transferase (GGT and glutation peroxidase (GPx in blood of Simmental cows was monitored during two control periods (first control period - May 2004; second control period - June 2004. The objective was to determine a relationship between milk production and particular blood parameters, and their possible implementation as an indicator of milk production. Twelve Simmental cows from small-scale dairy farm in Zagreb County were included in the study. Cows originated from the same herd andwere roughly of the same parity and stage of lactation. The average milk production and total blood cholesterol concentration were significantly higher in May then in June (20,55 L/d vs. 15,44 L/d; 4,55 mmol/L vs. 3,96 mmol/L, respectively, whereas the GPx and GGT activity was significantly lower in May in comparison with June (GPx=1720,66 U/L vs. GPx=1808 U/L, and GGT = 20,11 U/L vs. 23,22 U/L, respectively. A positive correlation between the milk production and the total blood cholesterol level was detected (r=0,58. The total blood cholesterol concentration in the blood plasma mighthave been one of the indicators of production performance in the Simmental cows herd, whereas the activity of stated enzymes may specify the nutritional status thereof the milk production depends on.

  12. Relation between ABO blood groups and Helicobacter pylori infection in symptomatic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaff MS

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Mohamad Salih Jaff Pathology Department, College of Medicine, Hawler Medical University (formerly Salahuddin University, Erbil, Kurdistan Region, Iraq Abstract: Epidemiological studies have demonstrated higher frequencies of the O blood group and the nonsecretor phenotype of ABH antigens among patients suffering from peptic ulcers. Since Helicobacter pylori has been established as the main etiological factor in this disease, controversies about the associations of the ABO and Lewis blood group phenotypes and secretor and nonsecretor phenotypes in relation to susceptibility towards infection by this bacillus have been presented. The aim of this study was to verify the frequencies of ABO and Rhesus (Rh blood groups in H. pylori seropositive symptomatic patients. The study included (n = 1108 patients with dyspepsia symptoms referred from an outpatient clinic in Erbil city for investigation. Age, sex, and residency were recorded as a routine laboratory framework. Patients underwent SD Bioline (Standard Diagnostics Inc, Kyonggi-do, South Korea and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay serologic tests for H. pylori. ABO blood group phenotypes were determined by a standard hemagglutination test. Results showed that 64.8% of patients (n = 718/1108 were seropositive for H. pylori infection, and (35.2% (n = 390/1108 were seronegative. Of the seropositive patients, 40.8% (n = 293/718 were male and 59.2% (n = 425/718 were female; while of the seronegative patients, 46.7% (n = 182/390 were male and 53.3% (n = 208/390 were female. The mean age for seropositives and seronegatives was (38.0 ± 14.6 years and (37.6 ± 15.7 years respectively. The frequency of the ABO and Rh-positive (Rh+ blood groups among seropositive patients was (A = 32.0%, B = 19.5%, AB = 6.7%, O = 41.8%, and Rh+ = 92.5% and was (A = 32.3%, B = 28.2%, AB = 8.0%, O = 31.5%, and Rh+ = 92.5% in seronegatives. The results of this study suggest that ABO blood groups, age, and gender influence

  13. Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus-Related Virus (XMRV) and the Safety of the Blood Supply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Andrew D; Cohn, Claudia S

    2016-10-01

    In 2006, a new virus, xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus (XMRV), was discovered in a cohort of U.S. men with prostate cancer. Soon after this initial finding, XMRV was also detected in samples from patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The blood community, which is highly sensitive to the threat of emerging infectious diseases since the HIV/AIDS crisis, recommended indefinite deferral of all blood donors with a history of CFS. As XMRV research progressed, conflicting results emerged regarding the importance of this virus in the pathophysiology of prostate cancer and/or CFS. Molecular biologists traced the development of XMRV to a recombination event in a laboratory mouse that likely occurred circa 1993. The virus was propagated via cell lines derived from a tumor present in this mouse and spread through contamination of laboratory samples. Well-controlled experiments showed that detection of XMRV was due to contaminated samples and was not a marker of or a causal factor in prostate cancer or CFS. This paper traces the development of XMRV in the prostate and CFS scientific communities and explores the effect it had on the blood community. PMID:27358491

  14. Exposure to fipronil elevates systolic blood pressure and disturbs related biomarkers in plasma of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaguri, Joao Leandro; Godinho, Antonio Francisco; Horta, Daniel França; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Possomato-Vieira, Jose Sergio; Nascimento, Regina Aparecida; Dias-Junior, Carlos Alan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports show that fipronil affects non-target organisms, including environmental species populations and potentially humans. We aimed to examine if fipronil exposure affects the systolic blood pressure and related biomarkers. Thus, fipronil was orally administered to rats (30 mg/kg/day) during 15 days (Fipronil group) or physiological solution (Control group). While fipronil increased significantly the systolic blood pressure (158±13 mmHg), no significant changes were observed in Control group (127±3 mmHg). Significantly, higher levels of fipronil in plasma were observed in Fipronil group (0.46±0.09 μg/mL versus 0.17±0.11 μg/mL in Control group). Fipronil group showed lower weight gain compared with Control group. While fipronil resulted in higher concentrations of endothelin-1, reduced antioxidant capacity and lower levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites compared to Control group, no alteration was observed in serum biomarkers of renal and hepatic/biliary functional abilities. Therefore, this study suggests that fipronil causes hypertension and endothelin-1 plays a key role. Also, these findings suggest that reductions of both MMP-2 and NO may contribute with the elevation of systolic blood pressure observed with fipronil.

  15. The influence of product- and person-related factors on consumer hedonic responses to soy products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fenko, A.; Backhaus, Birte W.; Hoof, van J.J.

    2015-01-01

    Consumers in Western countries increasingly appreciate health benefits of soy products. However, several barriers prevent full acceptance of these products. This study investigates the effects of product-related factors (perceived familiarity and expected healthiness) and person-related factors (foo

  16. Relative leucopenia in the peripheral blood of asbestos miners: a epidemiologic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munan, L.; Thouez, J.P.; Kelly, A.; Gagne, M.; Labonte, D.

    1981-02-01

    The study examines differential leucocyte counts in blood of asbestos miners and quarriers identified during the course of a community health survey comprising 693 men over 25 years of age of all occupations. Subjects in the asbestos mining and quarrying occupational groups were present in the lowest total leucocyte quintile in significantly greater numbers than expected on the basis of a age-specific uniform leucocyte distribution based upon the total population of male workers. This relative leucopenia was not seen in their wives nor in any of the 22 other major occupational groups examined after their leucocyte counts were adjusted for age and sex variations.

  17. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P group of Murrah buffaloes.

  18. The chemical and sensory qualities of smoked blood sausage made with the edible by-products of goat slaughter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, F A P; Amaral, D S; Guerra, I C D; Dalmás, P S; Arcanjo, N M O; Bezerra, T K A; Beltrão Filho, E M; Moreira, R T; Madruga, M S

    2013-05-01

    The aim was to evaluate smoked blood sausage prepared using goat blood (50%), viscera (10%) and meat fragments (20%). Microbiological, chemical and sensory evaluations were conducted. The quality analyses showed that smoked goat blood sausage is rich in high biological value proteins, amino acids, essential fatty acids, and iron (26.65mg/100g). The smoked goat blood sausage was rated to have a sensory acceptance of greater than 80%. The use of edible by-products from the slaughter of goats in the formulation of smoked blood sausage is viable because it uses low-cost raw materials; furthermore, the utilisation of these by-products can generate income for producers, allowing them to offer a meat product of high nutritional and sensory quality.

  19. Pharmaceutical protein production by yeast: towards production of human blood proteins by microbial fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, José L.; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina; Nielsen, Jens

    2012-01-01

    Since the approval of recombinant insulin from Escherichia coli for its clinical use in the early 1980s, the amount of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins obtained by microbial fermentations has significantly increased. The recent advances in genomics together with high throughput analysis techniques (the so-called - omics approaches) and integrative approaches (systems biology) allow the development of novel microbial cell factories as valuable platforms for large scale production of therape...

  20. Blood Metal Concentrations of Manganese, Lead, and Cadmium in Relation to Serum Ferritin Levels in Ohio Residents

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were to assess fcrritin-specific profiles of blood metal concentrations such as manganese, lead, and cadmium and to evaluate whether ferritin may affect the behavior of the blood metals in relation to menstruation, menopause, or sex in Ohio residents....

  1. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pigosso, Daniela Cristina Antelmi; Ferraz, Mariana; Teixeira, Cláudia;

    2016-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process...... (PDP). Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product......-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A) identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B) identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C) creation...

  2. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  3. Mining Intention-Related Products on Online Q & A Community

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段俊文; 陈毅恒; 刘挺; 丁效

    2015-01-01

    User generated content on social media has attracted much attention from service/product providers, as it contains plenty of potential commercial opportunities. However, previous work mainly focuses on user consumption intention (CI) identification, and little effort has been spent to mine intention-related products. In this paper, focusing on the Baby &Child Care domain, we propose a novel approach to mine intention-related products on online question and answer (Q&A) community. Making use of the question-answering pairs as data source, we first automatically extract candidate products based on dependency parser. And then by means of the collocation extraction model, we identify the real intention-related products from the candidate set. The experimental results on our carefully constructed evaluation dataset show that our approach achieves better performance than two natural baseline methods.

  4. Review of xenon-133 production and related problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A literature survey is given on the production methods of fission xenon-133 and related problems, such as purification, metrological and dosimetric aspects, preparation of isotopic solutions, recycling, etc. 127 references are included. (Author) 127 refs

  5. Social relations within organic food production and consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Galbačová, Ivana

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines the social relations of production and consumption of organic food in the Czech Republic. Organic farming and organic products are new phenomena in nutrition in the countries of the European Union and in the Czech Republic. The current population through sustainable development is looking more and more sources of income that would not only benefit the health and meet the criteria of a healthy lifestyle, but their production should be as environmentally friendly as poss...

  6. Pharmaceutical protein production by yeast: towards production of human blood proteins by microbial fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martínez, José L; Liu, Lifang; Petranovic, Dina;

    2012-01-01

    Since the approval of recombinant insulin from Escherichia coli for its clinical use in the early 1980s, the amount of recombinant pharmaceutical proteins obtained by microbial fermentations has significantly increased. The recent advances in genomics together with high throughput analysis...... techniques (the so-called—omics approaches) and integrative approaches (systems biology) allow the development of novel microbial cell factories as valuable platforms for large scale production of therapeutic proteins. This review summarizes the main achievements and the current situation in the field...

  7. Higher Export Tax Rates for Copper Related Products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    <正>According to a notice published by the Finance Ministry, the State Council’s Customs Tax Regulation Committee has decided to make some adjustments on the export tax rates for some copper related products. The notice says that in order to control the export products re-

  8. Directory of PCB-related product and service companies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The directory lists 28 companies from coast to coast whose principal business activity involves PCB-related products and services. Entries are in alphabetical order. Basic information provided for each of the companies includes: name, address, telephone and fax number, and a brief description of the special product or service provided

  9. Age-related alteration in the composition of immunocompetent blood cells in atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1328 survivors of Hiroshima were studied for alterations in the number of blood lymphocytes belonging to T-cell subpopulations, CD19 antigen-positive B cells and Leu 7 and CD16 antigen-positive lymphocytes. With increasing age, significant decreasing trends in the numbers of some lymphocytes in T-cell subpopulations and of B-cells were seen. The number of blood lymphocytes positive for CD5 antigen was significantly lower in those exposed to radiation (> 1Gy) in the older age group (more than 30 years at the time of bombing) and a similar tendency for decreases in the numbers of CD4, CD8, and CD19 antigen-positive cells was observed, but differences were not significant. The results suggest aging of the T-cell related immune system is accelerated in the irradiated people of advanced age, explained by the age-related decrease in thymic function in those subjects. The number of Leu 7 or CD19 antigen-positive cells was found to be increased significantly in the older age group compared to the younger, although there was little dose dependence. (U.K.)

  10. The Effects of Country-Related Affect on Product Evaluations

    OpenAIRE

    Cathy Yi Chen; Pragya Mathur; Durairaj Maheswaran

    2014-01-01

    Affect toward countries can be generated by people's personal experiences with the country or by targeted advertising campaigns designed to create positive affect toward the country. In four experiments, this research examines the effect of country-related affect (CRA) on the evaluations of products originating from the country. Country-related affect (CRA) systematically influences product evaluations depending on the valence as well as the warmth or competence associations of CRA. Positive ...

  11. Differential expression of function-related antigens on blood monocytes in children with hemolytic uremic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, Gabriela C; Ramos, María V; Gómez, Sonia A; Dran, Graciela I; Exeni, Ramón; Alduncín, Marta; Grimoldi, Irene; Vallejo, Graciela; Elías-Costa, Christian; Isturiz, Martín A; Palermo, Marina S

    2005-10-01

    Monocytes (Mo) mediate central functions in inflammation and immunity. Different subpopulations of Mo with distinct phenotype and functional properties have been described. Here, we investigate the phenotype and function of peripheral Mo from children with hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). For this purpose, blood samples from patients in the acute period of HUS (HUS AP) were obtained on admission before dialysis and/or transfusion. The Mo phenotypic characterization was performed on whole blood by flow cytometry, and markers associated to biological functions were selected: CD14 accounting for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) responsiveness, CD11b for adhesion, Fc receptor for immunoglobulin G type I (FcgammaRI)/CD64 for phagocytosis and cytotoxicity, and human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-DR for antigen presentation. Some of these functions were also determined. Moreover, the percentage of CD14+ CD16+ Mo was evaluated. We found that the entire HUS AP Mo population exhibited reduced CD14, CD64, and CD11b expression and decreased LPS-induced tumor necrosis factor production and Fcgamma-dependent cytotoxicity. HUS AP showed an increased percentage of CD14+ CD16+ Mo with higher CD16 and lower CD14 levels compared with the same subset from healthy children. Moreover, the CD14++ CD16- Mo subpopulation of HUS AP had a decreased HLA-DR expression, which correlated with severity. In conclusion, the Mo population from HUS AP patients presents phenotypic and functional alterations. The contribution to the pathogenesis and the possible scenarios that led to these changes are discussed.

  12. Diminished production of TWEAK by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells is associated with vascular involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otylia Kowal-Bielecka

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Widespread vasculopathy and profound fibrosis are key features of the pathogenesis of systemic sclerosis (SSc. We hypothesized that the TNF-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK, a recently recognized multifunctional cytokine which regulates angiogenesis and tissue remodeling, may play a role in the development of SSc. The production of TWEAK by the peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC was investigated, by means of ELISA, in 24 SSc patients and 14 healthy subjects. Moreover, production of TWEAK was correlated with clinical features of SSc. PBMC were isolated using density gradient centrifugation on Histopaque and were cultured in FCS supplemented RPMI medium at 37 degrees C under 5% CO2. Production of TWEAK by PBMC was significantly diminished in patients with more severe microvascular damage, as indicated by the presence of "active" capillaroscopic pattern, compared with SSc patients with less pronounced microangiopathy ("slow" pattern, and healthy subjects. Moreover production of TWEAK correlated inversely with duration of Raynaud's phenomenon. PBMC from patients with scleroderma-related interstitial lung disease tended to produce lower amounts of TWEAK compared with SSc patients without lung involvement but the difference was not significant. The results of our study suggest that diminished production of TWEAK might play a role in the pathogenesis of vascular injury in SSc patients. Whether TWEAK may represent a new therapeutic target in SSc requires further studies.

  13. Influence of some probiotics on blood components, productive and reproductive performance of japanese quails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The current study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails on productive and reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness. A total number of 500 one day old, unsexed Japanese quail chicks were used. Five experimental groups were assigned in the present study, where the 1st group (G1) was provided with protexin at 5 g/litre (5 days weekly). The 2nd group (G2) contained medi stress of 0.75 g/litre (5 days weekly), the 3rd group (G3) was fed a basal diet contained bioaction at 5g/kg, the 4th group (G4) involved a basal diet with active dried yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) at 0.1 g/kg daily and group 5 were fed the basal diet without probiotics supplementation (control). The results showed that the average body weight, egg production and egg weight were significantly increased due to adding probiotics and 0.1g/kg yeast into diets. Feed conversion ratio and mortality were improved significantly and the most improvement was recorded at 1.0% yeast and protexin. Similar improvement was recorded for hatch ability and hatching weight. There were reductions in intestinal wall thickness due to adding 0.1 g/kg yeast or protexin. The values of HI titer against sheep RBCs were increased significantly as compared to the control, which may lead to an enhancement of immune response of Japanese quails. Blood protein, globulin and FSH hormone were increased significantly. In conclusion, adding some probiotics into diets of Japanese quails improved productive, reproductive performance, blood constituents, immune response and intestinal wall thickness

  14. Scotblood 2015: Improving and delivering blood products, novel cellular therapies, and celebrating patients and donor engagement within transfusion services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colligan, David; McGowan, Neil; Seghatchian, Jerard

    2016-08-01

    Blood Transfusion Services are striving to continually improve the efficacy and quality of their blood products whilst also simultaneously diversifying into novel cellular products. For this to be successful the relationships between the various arms of the organisation must be strong and interlinked. As new technologies impact on the products that blood transfusion services supply it should be noted that the interaction between the service and its donor base is also affected by advancing technologies. Social media has fundamentally altered the way in which the public can access information and news, as such blood services must engage and interact appropriately with these new forms of media. As a reflection of these challenges the Scotblood 2015 programme was focussed on service and product improvement, donor engagement and people centred transfusion. This commentary comprises summaries of the presentations, based in part on the abstracts provided by the speakers. PMID:27524267

  15. Ventricular Assist Devices and Increased Blood Product Utilization for Cardiac Transplantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Matthew L.; LaPar, Damien J.; Benrashid, Ehsan; Scalzo, David C.; Ailawadi, Gorav; Kron, Irving L.; Bergin, James D.; Blank, Randal S.; Kern, John A.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aim of Study The purpose of this study was to examine whether blood product utilization, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival significantly differ for ventricular assist device (VAD patients compared to non-VAD (NVAD) patients following cardiac transplantation. Methods From July 2004 to August 2011, 79 patients underwent cardiac transplantation at a single institution. Following exclusion of patients bridged to transplantation with VADs other than the HeartMate II® LVAD (n = 10), patients were stratified by VAD presence at transplantation: VAD patients (n = 35, age: 54.0 [48.0–59.0] years) vs. NVAD patients (n = 34, age: 52.5 [42.8–59.3] years). The primary outcomes of interest were blood product transfusion requirements, one-year cell-mediated rejection rates, and mid-term survival post-transplantation. Results Preoperative patient characteristics were similar for VAD and NVAD patients. NVAD patients presented with higher median preoperative creatinine levels compared to VAD patients (1.3 [1.1–1.6] vs. 1.1 [0.9–1.4], p = 0.004). VAD patients accrued higher intraoperative transfusion of all blood products (all p ≤ 0.001) compared to NVAD patients. The incidence of clinically significant cell-mediated rejection within the first posttransplant year was higher in VAD compared to NVAD patients (66.7% vs. 33.3%, p = 0.02). During a median follow-up period of 3.2 (2.0, 6.3) years, VAD patients demonstrated an increased postoperative mortality that did not reach statistical significance (20.0% vs. 8.8%, p = 0.20). Conclusions During the initial era as a bridge to transplantation, the HeartMate II® LVAD significantly increased blood product utilization and one-year cell-mediated rejection rates for cardiac transplantation. Further study is warranted to optimize anticoagulation strategies and to define causal relationships between these factors for the current era of cardiac transplantation. PMID:25529999

  16. Comparative usefulness of inflammatory markers to indicate bacterial infection-analyzed according to blood culture results and related clinical factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishikawa, Hirokazu; Shirano, Michinori; Kasamatsu, Yu; Morimura, Ayumi; Iida, Ko; Kishi, Tomomi; Goto, Tetsushi; Okamoto, Saki; Ehara, Eiji

    2016-01-01

    To assess relationships of inflammatory markers and 2 related clinical factors with blood culture results, we retrospectively investigated inpatients' blood culture and blood chemistry findings that were recorded from January to December 2014 using electronic medical records and analyzed the data of 852 subjects (426 culture-positive and 426 culture-negative). Results suggested that the risk of positive blood culture statistically increased as inflammatory marker levels and the number of related factors increased. Concerning the effectiveness of inflammatory markers, when the outcome definition was also changed for C-reactive protein (CRP), the odds ratio had a similar value, whereas when the outcome definition of blood culture positivity was used for procalcitonin (PCT), the greatest effectiveness of that was detected. Therefore, the current results suggest that PCT is more useful than CRP as an auxiliary indication of bacterial infection.

  17. Circulating thrombopoietin levels in normal healthy blood donors and in aplastic anemia patients in relation to disease severity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Singh

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thrombopoietin (TPO is the key hematopoietic growth factor regulating the production of platelets from bone marrow megakaryocytes and maintaining platelet hemostasis. This study was done to find any relationship between the levels of thrombopoietin and the severity of disease in patients with aplastic anemia. Materials and Methods: Serum samples were collected from 52 patients with a confirmed diagnosis of aplastic anemia and 45 normal healthy blood donors of both sexes over a period of 2 years, and TPO was estimated by using commercially available TPO-specific-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Results: The median TPO level of 1190 pg/ml (range 625-7651 pg/ml in aplastic anemia patients was significantly higher than the median TPO level of 121.1 pg/ml (81.25-237.7 pg/ml in normal healthy blood donors (P = 0.000. No significant difference was observed in TPO levels of male and female patients (P = 0.453. The median TPO concentrations observed in very severe aplastic anemia, severe aplastic anemia, and nonsevere aplastic anemia were 2765 pg/ml (range 625-6451 pg/ml, 1190 pg/ml (range 672.1-7651 pg/ml, and 1111.5 pg/ml (range 761.1-2289.2 pg/ml, respectively. TPO in patients of very severe aplastic anemia was significantly higher than patients of nonsevere aplastic anemia (P = 0.043, with no significant relation among rest of the groups. Discussion: TPO levels in aplastic anemia patients were significantly higher than in healthy blood donors; however, in aplastic anemia patients TPO levels were significantly higher only in patients with very severe disease.

  18. An economic evaluation of plasma production via erythroplasmapheresis and whole blood collection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connelly, Luke B; Pink, Anne

    2002-10-01

    This paper presents cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) of plasma collection via two alternative methods: whole blood collection (WBC) and erythroplasmapheresis collection (EPC). The objective of the study is to provide an answer to the question 'What is the least-cost method of plasma production'. This question is answered, both from the viewpoint of the blood collection agency (using financial CEA) and from that of 'society' as a whole (using economic CEA). We employ detailed financial data and economic survey data for collections made by a blood collection agency and to WBC and EPC donors in Brisbane, Australia. The results indicate that, despite the superior yield provided by EPC, WBC is actually more cost-effective. This result is robust to thorough sensitivity analysis and arises regardless of whether an economic or financial perspective is taken. We conclude that, ceteris paribus, the cost of recruiting new plasma donors would need to be quite substantial for marginal investments in EPC to be considered cost-effective. PMID:12350045

  19. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P > 0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P < 0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  20. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shijie Fan; Jiangxia Zheng; Zhongyi Duan; Ning Yang; Guiyun Xu

    2014-01-01

    Background:Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into 2 groups, 60 hens for experiment and others for control. The experiment group was fed with the dosage of 108 CFU SE per hen. The specific PCR was used to detect the deposition of SE. On the 8 d after SE infection, 10 hens from the control group and 30 hens from the experimental group were slaughtered to detect the SE colonization. The production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indices were also analyzed. Results:The results showed that the colonization rate of SE was highest in caecum contents (55.17%) and lowest in vagina (17.24%). For the eggs the detection rate of SE was highest on the eggshell (80.00%) and lowest in yolk (18.81%). SE infection had no significant influence on production performance and egg qualities (P>0.05). The difference of laying rate between the experimental and control groups was less than 0.30%, and both were approximately equal to 82.00%. The blood analysis showed that the aspartic aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) of experimental group was significantly higher than those of control group (P<0.05). For experimental and control groups AST values were 236.22 U/l and 211.84 U/l respectively, and ALT values were 32.19 U/l and 24.55 U/l. All of coefficients were less than 20%. The colonization of SE in organs increases the enzyme activities of AST and ALT in blood. Conclusions:SE in feed could invade the oviduct and infect the forming eggs. It significantly increased the concentration of ALT and AST in blood

  1. Illness related wage and productivity losses: Valuing 'presenteeism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam

    2015-12-01

    One source of productivity loss due to illness is the reduced "quantity" or "quality" of labor input while working, often referred to as presenteeism. Illness-related presenteeism has been found to be potentially more costly than absenteeism. To value presenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy for marginal productivity at the firm level. However, wage may not equal marginal productivity in some scenarios. One instance is when a job involves team production and perfect substitutes for workers are not readily available. Using a Canadian linked employer-employee survey (2001-2005), we test whether relative wage equals relative marginal productivity among team workers and non-team workers with different frequencies of presenteeism (reduction at work due to illness). For the pooled cross-sectional estimates (2001, 2003, 2005) we obtain 13,755 observations with 6842 unique workplaces. There are 6490 observations for the first differences estimates from the odd years and 5263 observations for the first differences estimates from 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004. We find that in both small and large firms, team workers with frequent reductions at work are less productive but earn similarly compared with non-team workers without reductions. We also find that in small firms, workers with occasional work reductions are more productive than workers without reductions, but the reverse is true in large firms. The study findings partially support the literature stating that productivity loss resulting from employee presenteeism could exceed wages if team work is involved. PMID:26547046

  2. Illness related wage and productivity losses: Valuing 'presenteeism'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Sun, Huiying; Woodcock, Simon; Anis, Aslam

    2015-12-01

    One source of productivity loss due to illness is the reduced "quantity" or "quality" of labor input while working, often referred to as presenteeism. Illness-related presenteeism has been found to be potentially more costly than absenteeism. To value presenteeism, existing methods use wages as a proxy for marginal productivity at the firm level. However, wage may not equal marginal productivity in some scenarios. One instance is when a job involves team production and perfect substitutes for workers are not readily available. Using a Canadian linked employer-employee survey (2001-2005), we test whether relative wage equals relative marginal productivity among team workers and non-team workers with different frequencies of presenteeism (reduction at work due to illness). For the pooled cross-sectional estimates (2001, 2003, 2005) we obtain 13,755 observations with 6842 unique workplaces. There are 6490 observations for the first differences estimates from the odd years and 5263 observations for the first differences estimates from 2001 to 2002 and 2003 to 2004. We find that in both small and large firms, team workers with frequent reductions at work are less productive but earn similarly compared with non-team workers without reductions. We also find that in small firms, workers with occasional work reductions are more productive than workers without reductions, but the reverse is true in large firms. The study findings partially support the literature stating that productivity loss resulting from employee presenteeism could exceed wages if team work is involved.

  3. ABO Blood Group. Related Investigations and Their Association with Defined Pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ursula Jesch

    2007-01-01

    Carriers of blood group O suffered from ulcus ventriculi and gastritis (X21 = 78.629, p <0.001, colitis ulcerosa and duodenitis (X21 = 5.846, p < 0.016, whereas male patients carrying blood group A tended to contract different types of tumours. In patients with intestinal tumours, females with blood group A were more likely to develop the pathology, whereas in males, the blood group O dominated. The development of cholelithiasis was found, above all, in patients with blood group O, which differed from other research where a correlation between this pathology and blood group A was found.

  4. Rilmenidine prevents blood pressure increase in rats with compromised nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mária GEROV(A); Jozef T(O)R(O)K; Ol'ga PECH(A)(O)OV(A); Jana MATU(S)KOV(A)

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To search tools of high blood pressure in the model of nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertension, and the study focused on the effect of rilmenidine, agonist of imidazoline receptors, which was suggested to modulate central sympathetic outflow. METHODS: Three experimental groups, each consisting of 7 rats, were used: (Ⅰ) rats with inhibition of NO synthase (NOS) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) 40 mg.kg-1.d-1 for 4 weeks in drinking water, (Ⅱ) rats with inhibited NOS as in group Ⅰ, plus agonist of imidazoline receptors rilmenidine 3mg.kg-1·d-1 for 4 weeks by gavage, and (Ⅲ) control rats. Systolic blood pressure was measured weekly noninvasively.At the end of experiment aortic ring isometric tension was followed, NOS expression (aorta, left ventricle), and NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) were determined. RESULTS: In the group Ⅰ systolic blood pressure increased significantly, aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine was significantly attenuated. Rilmenidine administered simultaneously with L-NAME (group Ⅱ) prevented the increase of blood pressure which did not differ significantly from control values; aortic ring relaxation to acetylcholine did not differ from control. No change in NOS expression (aorta and left ventricle) was found in groups Ⅰ and Ⅱ. Significant decline in NOS activity (left ventricle and brain) was found in groups Ⅰ and ⅡⅡ. CONCLUSION: Rilmenidine has a remarkable role in NO-defective hypertension,possibly by inhibiting central sympathetic outflow and by affecting receptors in vascular smooth muscle also. The prime cause of hypertension in this experimental model - the compromised production of NO due to inhibition of NOS - was not affected by rilmenidine.

  5. Woody species colonisation in relation to habitat productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, R.; Olff, H.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the effect of habitat productivity on woody species colonisation. Three soil types were distinguished: a relatively poor sandy soil type (1), a somewhat richer sandy type (2) and a relatively rich sandy loamy type (3). Chronosequences were established on these three

  6. The Elicited Production of Korean Relative Clauses by Heritage Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee-Ellis, Sunyoung

    2011-01-01

    In response to new theoretical claims and inconclusive empirical findings regarding relative clauses in East Asian languages, this study examined the factors relevant to relative clause production by Korean heritage speakers. Gap position (subject vs. object), animacy (plus or minus animate), and the topicality of head nouns (plus or minus…

  7. Characterizing Milk Production Related Genes in Holstein Using RNA-seq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Minseok; Lee, Hyun-Jeong; Kim, Kwondo; Caetano-Anolles, Kelsey; Jeong, Jin Young; Park, Sungkwon; Oh, Young Kyun; Cho, Seoae; Kim, Heebal

    2016-01-01

    Although the chemical, physical, and nutritional properties of bovine milk have been extensively studied, only a few studies have attempted to characterize milk-synthesizing genes using RNA-seq data. RNA-seq data was collected from 21 Holstein samples, along with group information about milk production ability; milk yield; and protein, fat, and solid contents. Meta-analysis was employed in order to generally characterize genes related to milk production. In addition, we attempted to investigate the relationship between milk related traits, parity, and lactation period. We observed that milk fat is highly correlated with lactation period; this result indicates that this effect should be considered in the model in order to accurately detect milk production related genes. By employing our developed model, 271 genes were significantly (false discovery rate [FDR] adjusted p-valuemilk production related differentially expressed genes. Of these genes, five (albumin, nitric oxide synthase 3, RNA-binding region (RNP1, RRM) containing 3, secreted and transmembrane 1, and serine palmitoyltransferase, small subunit B) were technically validated using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) in order to check the accuracy of RNA-seq analysis. Finally, 83 gene ontology biological processes including several blood vessel and mammary gland development related terms, were significantly detected using DAVID gene-set enrichment analysis. From these results, we observed that detected milk production related genes are highly enriched in the circulation system process and mammary gland related biological functions. In addition, we observed that detected genes including caveolin 1, mammary serum amyloid A3.2, lingual antimicrobial peptide, cathelicidin 4 (CATHL4), cathelicidin 6 (CATHL6) have been reported in other species as milk production related gene. For this reason, we concluded that our detected 271 genes would be strong candidates for determining milk production

  8. The Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Product Requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela C. A. Pigosso

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from manufacturing-oriented to product-oriented instruments. Compliance with product-related environmental legislation is achieved by the incorporation of environmental requirements into the early phases of the product development process (PDP. Nevertheless, the deployment of product-related environmental legislation into product requirements is still a challenge. This study followed an inductive approach to propose a guideline to support the identification, analysis and deployment of product requirements based on product-related environmental legislation. The guideline is composed of nine steps, clustered into three groups according to their main objective: (A identification of environmental product-related legislation; (B identification of legislative topics to be considered for the deployment of requirements; and (C creation and validation of product requirements. The product requirements deployed are to be considered during the PDP. The guideline was evaluated in an expert consultation in a large manufacturing company, suggesting that it can be used to support the systematization and deployment of product-related environmental requirements.

  9. Kinetic study of cytokines production by human peripheral blood mononuclear cells in response to Brucella DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lashkarbolouki, Taghi; Ardestani, Sussan K; Kariminia, Amina; Ziaee, Abed-Ali; Torkabadi, Ebrahim; Ebrahimi, Mohammad

    2008-01-01

    In spite of reports on cytokines induction by the Brucella DNA in murine model, there is no comparison between pathogenic and appropriate vaccine strains in human. We investigated the cytokines profile of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) induced by DNA extracted from pathogenic isolates of Brucella melitensis and B. abortus as well as Rev1 and S19; the appropriate vaccine strains. It was observed that despite differential induction of Interleukin(IL)-12 and IL-10 production, identical IL-12/IL-10 concentration ratio was obtained by all Brucella strains DNAs that was 2 after 24 h and 4 after 5 days of incubation. In addition, IL-2 and Interferon(IFN)-gamma production were profoundly increased compared to the medium at day 3 and 5 respectively but IFN-alpha was not induced. Therefore, Brucella strains DNAs are Th1 inducing component with similar pattern in human PBMCs. PMID:17008080

  10. Chronic whiplash symptoms are related to altered regional cerebral blood flow in the resting state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linnman, Clas; Appel, Lieuwe; Söderlund, Anne; Frans, Orjan; Engler, Henry; Furmark, Tomas; Gordh, Torsten; Långström, Bengt; Fredrikson, Mats

    2009-01-01

    The neural pathogenic mechanisms involved in mediating chronic pain and whiplash associated disorders (WAD) after rear impact car collisions are largely unknown. This study's first objective was to compare resting state regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by means of positron emission tomography with (15)O labelled water in 21 WAD patients with 18 healthy, pain-free controls. A second objective was to investigate the relations between brain areas with altered rCBF to pain experience, somatic symptoms, posttraumatic stress symptoms and personality traits in the patient group. Patients had heightened resting rCBF bilaterally in the posterior parahippocampal and the posterior cingulate gyri, in the right thalamus and the right medial prefrontal gyrus as well as lowered tempero-occipital blood flow compared with healthy controls. The altered rCBF in the patient group was correlated to neck disability ratings. We thus suggest an involvement of the posterior cingulate, parahippocampal and medial prefrontal gyri in WAD and speculate that alterations in the resting state are linked to an increased self-relevant evaluation of pain and stress. PMID:18486506

  11. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients.

  12. Effect of Korean red ginseng on blood pressure and nitric oxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEON Byeong Hwa; KIM Cuk Seong; KIM Hoe-Suk; PARK Jin-Bong; NAM Ki Yeul; CHANG Seok Jong

    2000-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of crude saponin and nonsaponin fraction of Korean red ginseng (KRG) on the blood pressure and nitric oxide (NO) production in the conscious rats and cultured endothelial cell line, FCV 304 cells. METHODS: Systolic blood pressure and heart rate were monitored in the conscious rats. Nitric oxide levels and the expression of nitric oxide synthase were measured by a spectrophotometric assay using Griess reagents and Western blotting, respectively. Nitric-oxide synthase activity was measured based on the conversion rate of [3H]arginine to [3H]citmlline. RESUITS: Systolic blood pressure was decreased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, iv) of KRG in the conscious control and one-kidney, one-clip Goldblatt hypertensive (1K, 1C-GBH) rats. The hypotensive effect induced by crude saponin of KRG reached maximum at 2 - 4 min and slowly recovered after 20 min to the initial level in both groups. Crude saponin of KRG induced tacliycardia in the conscious rats but induced bradycardia in the anesthetized rats. In contrast to crude saponin of KRG, hypotensive effect induced by saponin-free fraction was minimal. Nitric oxide concentrations were increased by the treaunent of crude saponin in conscious rats as well as in the cultured FCV 304 cells. The protein expression level of endothelial constitutive nitric-oxide synthase (eNOS) in the aorta of rats was not increased by crude saponin (100 mg/kg, ip for 3 d). However, nitric-oxide synthase activity was increased by crude saponin of KRG in the aortic homogenate of rats. CONCLUSION: The hypotensive effect of red ginseng is mainly due to saponin fraction of KRG in the conscious rats, and this effect may be due to an increase in the nitric-oxide production by KRG.

  13. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to Vitis vinifera L. seeds extract and maintenance of normal venous blood flow pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Belgium, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim....... The applicant identified two human intervention studies as pertinent to the health claim. Owing to the very limited information provided in relation to one study, and that the second study was conducted with a food not complying with the characterisation of the food which is the subject of the health claim...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to vitamin K2 and contribution to the normal function of the heart and blood vessels (ID 125, further assessment) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a health claim related to vitamin K2 and contribution to the normal function of the heart....... In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account the absence of human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim, the inconsistency of the results reported in two cross-sectional studies regarding arterial calcification in women...

  15. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to isoleucyl-prolyl-proline (IPP) and valyl-prolyl-proline (VPP) and maintenance of normal blood pressure pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following an application from Valio Ltd submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Finland, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related...... of which were adequately powered to detect small between-group differences in systolic BP (SBP), did not observe an effect of IPP and VPP on SBP or diastolic BP. The interpretation of the results from seven out of the eight studies which reported an effect of IPP and VPP on office SBP was hampered by major...

  16. The association between Neovascular Age-related Macular Degeneration and Regulatory T cells in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madelung, Christopher Fugl; Falk, Mads; Sørensen, Torben Lykke

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To investigate regulatory T cells (Tregs) and subsets of the Treg population in patients with neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD). PATIENTS AND METHODS: Twenty-one neovascular AMD cases and 12 age-matched controls without retinal pathology were selected. Patients were...... recruited from our outpatient retinal clinic. Control individuals were typically spouses. The diagnosis of neovascular AMD was confirmed using fluorescein and indocyaningreen angiography. Fresh venous blood was analyzed by flow cytometry using fluorochrome-conjugated antibodies to the Treg surface antigens...... CD4, CD25, CD127, CD45RA, and CD31. Main outcome measures were the percentage of CD25(high)CD127(low) Tregs, the percentage of CD45RA(+) naïve Tregs, and the percentage of CD31(+) recent thymic emigrant Tregs. RESULTS: Comparing patients with neovascular AMD to controls, no significant differences...

  17. Relative value of diverse brain MRI and blood-based biomarkers for predicting cognitive decline in the elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Sarah K.; Ver Steeg, Greg; Daianu, Madelaine; Mezher, Adam; Jahanshad, Neda; Nir, Talia M.; Hua, Xue; Gutman, Boris A.; Galstyan, Aram; Thompson, Paul M.

    2016-03-01

    Cognitive decline accompanies many debilitating illnesses, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). In old age, brain tissue loss also occurs along with cognitive decline. Although blood tests are easier to perform than brain MRI, few studies compare brain scans to standard blood tests to see which kinds of information best predict future decline. In 504 older adults from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI), we first used linear regression to assess the relative value of different types of data to predict cognitive decline, including 196 blood panel biomarkers, 249 MRI biomarkers obtained from the FreeSurfer software, demographics, and the AD-risk gene APOE. A subset of MRI biomarkers was the strongest predictor. There was no specific blood marker that increased predictive accuracy on its own, we found that a novel unsupervised learning method, CorEx, captured weak correlations among blood markers, and the resulting clusters offered unique predictive power.

  18. First two cases of living related liver transplantation with complicated anatomy of blood vessels in Beijing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen-Han Wu; Yuan-Lian Wan; Long Lee; Yin-Mo Yang; Yan-Ting Huang; Chao-Long Chen; Sheung-Tat Fan

    2004-01-01

    AIM: Living related liver transplantation (LRLT) has been developed in response to the paediatric organ donor shortage.Though it has been succeeded in many centers worldwide,the safety of the donor is still a major concern, especially in donors with anatomy variation. We succeeded in performing the first two cases of living related liver transplantation with complicated anatomy of blood vessels as a way to overcome cadaveric organ shortage in Beijing.METHODS: Two patients, with congenital liver fibrosis and congenital biliary atresia were performed with living donor liver transplantation in our hospital and then followed up from November 12 to December 13, 2001. The two living donors, mother and father, were healthy aged 34 and 35years. One right lobe (segment Ⅴ, Ⅵ, Ⅶ, Ⅷ) and one left lateral lobe (segment Ⅱ and Ⅲ) were used. The grafts weighed 394 g and 300 g. The ratio of graft weight to the standard liver volume (SLV) of donors was 68% and 27%.The graft weight to recipient body weight ratio was 3.2%and 4.4%. The graft weight to recipient estimated standard liver mass (ESLM) ratio was 63% and 85%. The two donors had complicated blood vessel variation.RESULTS: Two patients undergone living donor liver transplantation had good results. Abnormal liver function with high bilirubin level appeared in a few days after operation, but liver function returned to normal one month after operation with bilirubin level almost decreased to near normal. No bleeding, thrombosis, infection and bile leakage occurred. One had an acute rejection and recovered.The two donors recovered in two weeks. One had slight fever because of a little collection in abdomen and recovered after paracentesis and drainage.CONCLUSION: Living donor liver transplantation has been proved to be a good way that offers a unique opportunity of getting a timely liver graft as a response to shortage of pediatric donors, though it could be a technically difficult operation if there is anatomical

  19. Evaluation of relational database products for the VAX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Four commercially available database products for the VAX/VMS operating system were evaluated for relative performance and ease of use. The products were DATATRIEVE, INGRES, Rdb, and S1032. Performance was measured in terms of elapsed time, CPU time, direct I/O counts, buffered I/O counts, and page faults. East of use is more subjective and has not been quantified here; however, discussion and tables of features as well as query syntax are included. This report describes the environment in which these products were evaluated and the characteristics of the databases used. All comparisons must be interpreted in the context of this setting

  20. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Tuscan black cabbage, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bicoloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    .), “tri-coloured” Swiss chard (Beta vulgaris ciclaL.), “bi-coloured” spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) and “blu savoy” cabbage (Brassica oleracea convar. capitata var. sabauda L.), is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration, is a beneficial......, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, “bi-coloured” spinach and “blu savoy” cabbage and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration....

  1. Accelerated leucine decarboxylation in the rat brain in relation to increased blood ammonia levels during acute hepatic failure.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiota,Tetsuya

    1984-06-01

    Full Text Available Leucine decarboxylation in rat brain was investigated during acute hepatic failure, induced by partial hepatectomy after carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 pretreatment of rats. These rats presented metabolic alkalosis, and had significantly higher levels of arterial blood and brain ammonia than control and CCl4-treated rats. Brain leucine decarboxylation was elevated in rats with hepatic failure. This alteration correlated with arterial blood ammonia concentrations, and probably with elevated brain ammonia levels, as brain ammonia levels were directly related to arterial blood ammonia.

  2. Decomposing one-relator products of cyclic groups into free products with amalgamation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problem of the decomposition of one-relator products of cyclics into non-trivial free products with amalgamation is considered. Two theorems are proved, one of which is as follows. Let G=2n=Rm(a,b)=1>, where n≥0, m≥2, and R(a,b) is a cyclically reduced word containing b in the free group on a and b. Then G is a non-trivial free product with amalgamation. One consequence of this theorem is a proof of the conjecture of Fine, Levin, and Rosenberger that each two-generator one-relator group with torsion is a non-trivial free product with amalgamation

  3. Radiographic evaluation of destructive periodontal disease in blue mink in relation to age and blood morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hammer, Anne Sofie; Andersen, Thomas Holmen; Eriksen, Thomas;

    2005-01-01

    animals (age &GE; 19 mo). Severe periodontal disease (defined by more than 50% bone loss related to one or more teeth) was not detected in mink aged 7 mo, but affected 15.3% of mink aged 19 mo and 39.6% of mink aged 31 mo. The positive relationship between age and periodontal disease was statistically...... in the mink was related to and possibly caused by destructive periodontal disease. There was no significant difference in the prevalence of periodontal disease between the 2 genotypes and age was found to be the only statistical predictor of poor production results (P < 0.01) in blue mink....

  4. Morpho-anatomical characteristics of the cork of Dracaena draco L. tree regarding the production of dragon’s blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Jura-Morawiec

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The monocotyledonous plant Dracaena draco L. belongs to so called dragon blood trees producing deep red resin (dragon’s blood that has been used as a famous traditional medicine since ancient times by many cultures. Although resin’s chemistry and its diverse medical application have received much attention, our knowledge of the anatomical basis of the dragon’s blood secretion is scarce when compared with resin/sap secretion of gymnosperms and other angiosperms. The focus of our studies is to look at the structure of the stem secondary protective tissue of D. draco to detect anatomical features of the ducts which are responsible for the process of secretion. The studies were carried out with material collected from the stem of D. draco plants growing in the greenhouses of the Polish Academy of Sciences Botanical Garden – CBDC in Powsin and the Warsaw University Botanic Garden. Hand-cut sections of a fresh material as well as microtome sections of the samples embedded in paraffin wax and epon resin were used for the analysis. The sections were examined under the light microscope and in UV light. Characteristics of the cork tissue of the stems at different age were elucidated. In young stems of D. draco the cork cells form radial arrangement similar to that of ‘storied cork’. However, as the stems become older, the groups of cork cells of a common origin are difficult to distinguish. The cells are tangentially stretched and more or less crushed due to the tension of radial growth. The areas that contain red secretory products were detected and anatomically described. Our results are discussed in relation to the anatomy of secondary protective tissues and the secretion structures in coniferous and broadleaved trees.

  5. Safety of human blood products: inactivation of retroviruses by heat treatment at 60 degrees C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilfenhaus, J; Mauler, R; Friis, R; Bauer, H

    1985-04-01

    Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) can be transferred to patients by blood transfusions or human blood preparations, such as cryoprecipitates or factor VIII concentrates. Retroviruses have been discussed as infectious AIDS agents and more recently human T-lymphotropic retroviruses designated as HTLV type III and LAV (lymphadenopathy-associated virus) have been isolated from AIDS patients. Whether heat treatment at 60 degrees C (pasteurization) of liquid human plasma protein preparations inactivates retroviruses was therefore investigated. Pasteurization had already been included in the routine manufacturing process of human plasma protein preparations in order to guarantee safety with regard to hepatitis B. Since high titer preparations of human retroviruses were not available, heat inactivation was studied using Rous sarcoma virus added to the various plasma protein preparations tested. This retrovirus which was obtained in preparations of 6.0 log10 FFU/ml was shown to be at least as heat stable as two mammalian retroviruses studied, i.e., feline and simian sarcoma virus. In all of eight different plasma protein preparations tested, Rous sarcoma virus was completely inactivated after a heat treatment lasting no longer than 4 hr. It is thus concluded that pasteurization of liquid plasma protein preparations at 60 degrees C over a period of 10 hr must confer safety to these products with respect to AIDS, provided that the AIDS agents are retroviruses of comparable heat stability as Rous sarcoma virus and the mammalian retroviruses tested.

  6. Running Pace Decrease during a Marathon Is Positively Related to Blood Markers of Muscle Damage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Coso, Juan; Fernández, David; Abián-Vicen, Javier; Salinero, Juan José; González-Millán, Cristina; Areces, Francisco; Ruiz, Diana; Gallo, César; Calleja-González, Julio; Pérez-González, Benito

    2013-01-01

    Background Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s) of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. Methodology/Principal Findings We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women) for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity) running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. Results Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P 15% pace reduction) had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L−1; P<0.05), lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L−1; P<0.05), and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L−1; P = 0.07) in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (−3.1 ± 1.0 v −3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60) or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35). Conclusions/Significance Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation. PMID:23460881

  7. Running pace decrease during a marathon is positively related to blood markers of muscle damage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Del Coso

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Completing a marathon is one of the most challenging sports activities, yet the source of running fatigue during this event is not completely understood. The aim of this investigation was to determine the cause(s of running fatigue during a marathon in warm weather. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We recruited 40 amateur runners (34 men and 6 women for the study. Before the race, body core temperature, body mass, leg muscle power output during a countermovement jump, and blood samples were obtained. During the marathon (27 °C; 27% relative humidity running fatigue was measured as the pace reduction from the first 5-km to the end of the race. Within 3 min after the marathon, the same pre-exercise variables were obtained. RESULTS: Marathoners reduced their running pace from 3.5 ± 0.4 m/s after 5-km to 2.9 ± 0.6 m/s at the end of the race (P 15% pace reduction had elevated post-race myoglobin (1318 ± 1411 v 623 ± 391 µg L(-1; P<0.05, lactate dehydrogenase (687 ± 151 v 583 ± 117 U L(-1; P<0.05, and creatine kinase (564 ± 469 v 363 ± 158 U L(-1; P = 0.07 in comparison with marathoners that preserved their running pace reasonably well throughout the race. However, they did not differ in their body mass change (-3.1 ± 1.0 v -3.0 ± 1.0%; P = 0.60 or post-race body temperature (38.7 ± 0.7 v 38.9 ± 0.9 °C; P = 0.35. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Running pace decline during a marathon was positively related with muscle breakdown blood markers. To elucidate if muscle damage during a marathon is related to mechanistic or metabolic factors requires further investigation.

  8. Regional cerebral blood flow abnormalities in late-life depression. Relation to refractoriness and chronification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We examined patterns of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) abnormalities in 18 patients with major depressive disorder in late life using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) and 99mTc-hexamethyl-propylenamine oxime (99mTc-HMPAO). Compared with 13 age-matched controls, relative rCBF was significantly decreased bilaterally in the anterior cingulate gyrus, the prefrontal cortex, the temporal cortex, the parietal cortex, the hippocampus and the caudate nucleus. However, it was not correlated with the severity of depression or global cognitive dysfunction. In 10 patients with a prolonged depressive episode or prolonged residual symptoms (the refractory subgroup), robust and extensive decreases in rCBF were found compared with controls and the rCBF decreased significantly in the anterior cingulate gyrus and the prefrontal cortex compared with that in the non-refractory subgroup. In the non-reflactory subgroup, rCBF decreased significantly in the caudate nucleus and tended to decrease in the anterior cingulate gyrus compared with controls. These findings indicate that dysfunction of the limbic system, the cerebral association cortex and the caudate nucleus may be implicated in late-life depression and that robust and extensive hypoperfusion, especially in the anterior cingulate and the prefrontal regions, may relate to refractoriness or chronification of depression. (author). 60 refs

  9. Production of Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells by Reprogramming of Blood Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sadia Zia

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Blood cells are the simple, efficient and economical source for the production of induced pluripotent cells. The discovery of induced pluripotent cells was not novel; it was pedestal on the scientific principals and technologies which have been developed over last six decades. These are nuclear transfer and the cloning of Animals, Pluripotent cell lines and fusion hybrids and Transcription Factors and lineage switching. The use of human embryonic stem cells in regenerative medicines was a breakthrough but make use of these cells arise ethical issues as they are obtained from human embryos. An alternative advancement using induced pluripotent stem cells, which mimics the embryonic stem cells has the significant gain that they replaced the embryonic stem cells. The pluripotent cells can be induced from terminally differentiated somatic cells by the Induction of only four defined factors including c-Myc, klf4, Oct4 and Sox2 which are enough to alter the fate of cell.

  10. Relating consumer perceptions of pork quality to physical product characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Fertin, Claus

    are related to a number of physical product characteristics commonly used to assess objective pork quality. 3. 200 German consumers are interviewed using real samples of pork chops, alongside with technical measurements of the meat quality. 4. Results show that consumers use colour, fat marbling, share of fat...

  11. Mortality and cancer in relation to ABO blood group phenotypes in the Golestan Cohort Study

    OpenAIRE

    Etemadi, Arash; Kamangar, Farin; Islami, Farhad; Poustchi, Hossein; Pourshams, Akram; Brennan, Paul; Boffetta, Paolo; Malekzadeh, Reza; Dawsey, Sanford M.; Abnet, Christian C.; Emadi, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    Background A few studies have shown an association between blood group alleles and vascular disease, including atherosclerosis, which is thought to be due to the higher level of von Willebrand factor in these individuals and the association of blood group locus variants with plasma lipid levels. No large population-based study has explored this association with overall and cause-specific mortality. Methods We aimed to study the association between ABO blood groups and overall and cause-specif...

  12. Localization of CGRP, CGRP receptor, PACAP and glutamate in trigeminal ganglion. Relation to the blood-brain barrier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eftekhari, Sajedeh; Salvatore, Christopher A; Johansson, Sara;

    2015-01-01

    ) and related this to the expression of CGRP and its receptor in rhesus trigeminal ganglion. Pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) and glutamate were examined and related to the CGRP system. Furthermore, we examined if the trigeminal ganglion is protected by the blood-brain barrier...

  13. Framework for product knowledge and product related knowledge which supports product modelling for mass customization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riis, Jesper; Hansen, Benjamin Loer; Hvam, Lars

    2003-01-01

    process view (“the meeting”). The persons (rolls) involved in the product modelling process are for example: domain experts, change managers, model managers, project leaders, technical facilitators, process managers and software programmers. They need a framework during the product modelling process....... The framework supports the product modelling process in the following areas: • It defines which concepts (terms) to use. • It supports the understanding of the different knowledge types. • It supports the understanding of the specification processes. • It facilitates the demarcation of the product knowledge...

  14. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley beta-glucan and lowering of blood cholesterol and reduced risk of (coronary) heart disease pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    -glucans, is sufficiently characterised. Lowering blood LDL-cholesterol concentration is a beneficial physiological effect by decreasing the risk of coronary heart disease. The applicant identified a total of 16 references as being pertinent to the health claim. These references comprised three meta-analyses, 10 human...... intervention studies, two animal studies and one mechanistic study. In weighing the evidence, the Panel took into account that one meta-analysis including 11 RCTs and one additional RCT which investigated the effects of barley beta-glucans at doses of at least 3 g/day showed a decrease in total and LDL-cholesterol...... the consumption of barley beta-glucans and the lowering of blood LDL-cholesterol concentrations. The following wording reflects the scientific evidence: “Barley beta-glucans have been shown to lower/reduce blood cholesterol. High cholesterol is a risk factor in the development of coronary heart disease”. At least...

  15. Evaluation of latex agglutination tests for fibrin-fibrinogen degradation products in the forensic identification of menstrual blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akutsu, Tomoko; Watanabe, Ken; Motani, Hisako; Iwase, Hirotaro; Sakurada, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The identification of menstrual blood is important when discriminating menstruation from vaginal trauma in sexual assault cases. The aim of this study was to evaluate two fibrin-fibrinogen degradation product (FDP)-latex agglutination test kits, FDPL® Test (FDP-L) and FDP Plasma "RD" (FDP-P), for their ability to forensically identify menstrual blood. Sensitivity and specificity of the two kits were compared for menstrual blood and various body fluids, and the sensitivity of the FDP-latex agglutination test kit was also compared with that of an immunochromatographic test for human hemoglobin. The robustness of the FDP-latex agglutination test was compared with that of gene expression analysis of menstrual blood specific markers. The FDP-L kit was more sensitive than the FDP-P kit, but it cross-reacted with peripheral bloodstains from healthy volunteers. The FDP-P kit was specific for menstrual blood, with the exception of postmortem blood samples, and was not affected by other body fluids. In an FDP-negative menstrual blood sample, the sensitivity of human hemoglobin detection was lower than for FDP-positive samples and peripheral blood stains, suggesting that determination of human hemoglobin could be useful in interpreting negative results in the FDP-latex agglutination test. In menstrual blood samples incubated in wet conditions, FDP was found to be a robust marker in the identification of menstrual blood compared with mRNA markers. FDP-P testing was shown to be a suitable and highly efficient rapid screening test for the laboratory identification of menstrual blood.

  16. Whole Blood Activation Results in Enhanced Detection of T Cell and Monocyte Cytokine Production by Flow Cytometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sams, Clarence F.; Crucian, Brian E.

    2001-01-01

    An excellent monitor of the immune balance of peripheral circulating cells is to determine their cytokine production patterns in response to stimuli. Using flow cytometry a positive identification of cytokine producing cells in a mixed culture may be achieved. Recently, the ability to assess cytokine production following a wholeblood activation culture has been described. We compared whole blood culture to standard PBMC culture and determined the individual cytokine secretion patterns for both T cells and monocytes via flow cytometry. For T cells cytokine assessment following PMA +ionomycin activation: (1) a significantly greater percentages of T cells producing IFNgamma and IL-2 were observed following whole-blood culture; (2) altered T cell cytokine production kinetics were observed by varying whole blood culture times. In addition, a four-color cytometric analysis was used to allow accurate phenotyping and quantitation of cytokine producing lymphocyte populations. Using this technique we found IFNgamma production to be significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8+ T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8- population following five hours of whole blood activation. Conversely, IL-2 and IL-10 production were significantly elevated in the CD3+/CD8- T cell population as compared to the CD3+/CD8+ population. Monocyte cytokine production was assessed in both culture systems following LPS activation for 24 hours. A three-color flow cytometric was used to assess two cytokines in conjunction with CD 14. The cytokine pairs used for analysis were IL-1a/IL-12, and IL-10ITNFa. Nearly all monocytes were stimulated to produce IL-1a, IL-12 and TNFalpha equally well in both culture systems. Monocyte production of IL-10 was significantly elevated following whole blood culture as compared to PBMC culture. IL-12 producing monocytes appeared to be a distinct subpopulation of the IL-1a producing set, whereas IL-10 and TNFa producing monocytes were largely mutually exclusive. IL-10 and

  17. Detection of blood-related signal from a series of fingerprint images acquired during an input action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujieda, Ichiro; Hori, Atsushi; Kurita, Masashi

    2007-09-01

    When a finger is pressed against a flat plate and deformed, blood inside the finger moves away from the deformed area. This causes the finger to change its appearance from reddish to white. As the finger leaves the plate, the blood comes back and it looks reddish again. We have proposed to use this color change to distinguish genuine fingers from artificial ones for un-attended fingerprint identification systems. This blood-related signal may reflect the stiffness of the peripheral blood vessels and therefore it may be correlated with some health conditions such as blood pressure. In experiments, we used a fingerprint sensor based on scattered light detection. Because the spectra of the light scattered by the deformed fingers showed large changes mostly in the green portion, an LED emitting at 525 nm at peak strength was used. First, we compared series of fingerprint images acquired during a normal input action and those obtained while a rubber band occluded the blood flow. The occluded finger required a larger force to exhibit a similar change for these pixel values than the finger without the rubber band. Second, we analyzed fingerprint images recorded by six volunteers. We defined some indices based on the pixel values of the fingerprint images and the pressure applied to the fingers. The correlation coefficient of one of such indices and the average blood pressure of the participants was 0.86. Although the number of the subjects is small, this initial result is encouraging.

  18. The effect of chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure in normal and chronic restraint stressed rats: related with circulating level of blood pressure regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayada, Ceylan; Turgut, Günfer; Turgut, Sebahat; Güçlü, Zuhal

    2015-01-01

    Nesfatin is a peptide secreted by peripheral tissues, central and peripheral nervous system. It is involved in the regulation of homeostasis. Although the effects of nesfatin-1 on nutrition have been studied widely in the literature, the mechanisms of nesfatin-1 action and also relations with other physiological parameters are still not clarified well. We aimed to investigate the effect of peripheral chronic nesfatin-1 application on blood pressure regulation in normal and in rats exposed to restraint immobilization stress. In our study, three month-old male Wistar rats were used. Rats were divided into 4 groups as Control, Stress, Control+Nesfatin-1, Nesfatin-1+Stress. Angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone, cortisol, nesfatin-1 levels were determined in plasma samples by ELISA. Our results have shown that chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration increases blood pressure in normal and in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress. Effect of nesfatin-1 on circulating level of angiotensinogen, angiotensin converting enzyme 2, angiotensin II, endothelin-1, endothelial nitric oxide synthase, aldosterone and cortisol has been identified. We can conclude that elevated high blood pressure after chronic peripheral nesfatin-1 administration in rats exposed to chronic restraint stress may be related to decreased plasma level of endothelial nitric oxide synthase concentration. PMID:25504061

  19. Sources of dietary protein in relation to blood pressure in a general Dutch population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieke Altorf-van der Kuil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Little is known about the relation of different dietary protein types with blood pressure (BP. We examined whether intake of total, plant, animal, dairy, meat, and grain protein was related to BP in a cross sectional cohort of 20,820 Dutch adults, aged 20-65 y and not using antihypertensive medication. DESIGN: Mean BP levels were calculated in quintiles of energy-adjusted protein with adjustment for age, sex, BMI, education, smoking, and intake of energy, alcohol, and other nutrients including protein from other sources. In addition, mean BP difference after substitution of 3 en% carbohydrates or MUFA with protein was calculated. RESULTS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP (p(trend = 0.62 and 0.71 respectively, both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA. Systolic BP was 1.8 mmHg lower (p(trend36 g/d than in the lowest (<27 g/d quintile of plant protein. This inverse association was present both at the expense of carbohydrates and MUFA and more pronounced in individuals with untreated hypertension (-3.6 mmHg than in those with normal (+0.1 mmHg or prehypertensive BP (-0.3 mmHg; p(interaction<0.01. Meat and grain protein were not related to BP. Dairy protein was directly associated with systolic BP (+1.6 mmHg, p(trend<0.01, but not with diastolic BP (p(trend = 0.24. CONCLUSIONS: Total protein and animal protein were not associated with BP in this general untreated Dutch population. Plant protein may be beneficial to BP, especially in people with elevated BP. However, because high intake of plant protein may be a marker of a healthy diet and lifestyle in general, confirmation from randomized controlled trials is warranted.

  20. Exploiting Product Related Review Features for Fake Review Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengai Sun

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Product reviews are now widely used by individuals for making their decisions. However, due to the purpose of profit, reviewers game the system by posting fake reviews for promoting or demoting the target products. In the past few years, fake review detection has attracted significant attention from both the industrial organizations and academic communities. However, the issue remains to be a challenging problem due to lacking of labelling materials for supervised learning and evaluation. Current works made many attempts to address this problem from the angles of reviewer and review. However, there has been little discussion about the product related review features which is the main focus of our method. This paper proposes a novel convolutional neural network model to integrate the product related review features through a product word composition model. To reduce overfitting and high variance, a bagging model is introduced to bag the neural network model with two efficient classifiers. Experiments on the real-life Amazon review dataset demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  1. Effect of Korea red ginseng on cerebral blood flow and superoxide production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cuk Seong KIM; Jin Bong PARK; Kwang-Jin KIM; Seok Jong CHANG; Sung-Woo RYOO; Byeong Hwa JEON

    2002-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of Korea red ginseng (KRG) on the cerebral perfusion rate in the rats and the generation of superoxide anion in the endothelial cells. METHODS: The cerebral perfusion rate was measured using laser-doppler flowmetry before and after the administration of crude saponin (CS) and saponin-free fraction (SFF) of KRG in the anesthetized rats. The superoxide generation was measured by the method based on lucigeninenhanced chemiluminescence in the cultured endothelial cells. RESULTS: The relative cerebral perfusion rate (rCBF) was significantly increased by the intraperitoneal injection of CS (100 mg/kg) in the rats, but SFF had no effect on the rCBF. Chronic treatment with CS for 7 d significantly inhibited the decrease of forebrain cerebral blood flow induced by clamping both carotid arteries in the rats. Furthermore, CS (0.1 g/L) significantly suppressed NADPH-induced superoxide generation in the human umbilical vein endothelial cells (P<0.01).CONCLUSION: The present study demonstrated that crude saponin fraction of KRG enhanced cerebral blood flow in rats. Furthermore, crude saponin fraction of KRG abrogated the NADPH-driven superoxide generation in endothelial cells.

  2. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous. beta. -thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karpathios, Th.; Antypas, A.; Dimitriou, P.; Nicolaidou, P.; Fretzayas, A.; Thomaidis, Th.; Matsaniotis, N. (First Department of Paediatrics of Athens University, Aghia Sophia Children' s Hospital, Athens, Greece and Department of Pathologic Physiology, University of Athens, Athens, Greece)

    1982-01-01

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestered in this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reduction in size.

  3. Spleen size changes in children with homozygous β-thalassaemia in relation to blood transfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    18 thalassaemic children, aged 3.5 to 13 years comprise our clinical material. In 14 of them, clinically elicited spleen markings, haematocrit, blood platelet count and red cell morphology were studied daily for a whole period between 2 transfusions. In 10 patients considerable changes in spleen size were noticed. According to our clinical observations the spleen size starts decreasing 1 to 3 d after blood transfusion up to the 10th posttransfusion day fluctuating thereafter to reach its maximum size again prior to the next blood transfusion. The decrease of spleen size was followed by an increase of haematocrit and blood platelet count and vice versa. 4 additional children were studied clinically only twice: prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. A definite decrease of the spleen size following blood transfusion was observed. Spleen and liver sup(99m)Tc-sulfur colloid uptake was studied in 10 of the above children prior to and 7 to 10 d after blood transfusion. Statistically significant post-transfusion increase of the spleen uptake was demonstrated. Our findings suggest that (a) splenic size is relevant to blood volume sequestrated int this organ, (b) splenic radioactive uptake increases with its post-transfusion reductin in size. (author)

  4. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2014. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to barley soup “Orzotto” and protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    coloured” spinach, “tri-coloured” Swiss chard, onions, red and yellow celery and parsley, is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, protection of blood lipids from oxidative damage, may be a beneficial physiological effect. No human intervention studies from which conclusions could be drawn for...

  5. Female Buying Behaviour Related to Facial Skin Care Products

    OpenAIRE

    Kokoi, Isa

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the buying behaviour of Finnish women related to facial skin care products. The primary purpose of the study is to discover the similarities and differences in the buying behaviour of young and middle-aged women when purchasing facial skin care products. The objective is to study what kinds of factors affect the buying behaviour of both young (20 to 35 years old) and middle-aged (40 to 60 years old) women and then compare the findings from both groups. Furthermore, the aim...

  6. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  7. Effect of anticoagulant administration on blood clotting and some hormones related to rat-fertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was performed using 30 mature male albino rats divided into 3 equal groups; control and two treated groups to assess the effect of anticoagulant (warfarin) administration on the level of some hormones related to fertility. The two treated groups were injected intraperitoneally every other day with 1 ml (0.03 mg)and 2 ml (0.06 mg)warfarin/ 100 g body weight respectively where, two specimens were taken from each group after two and four weeks. Clotting time (CT), prothrombin time (PT), partial prothrombin time (PTT) platelets count, fasting blood sugar (F.B.S), calcium levels in addition to triiodothyronine (T3), thyroxin (T4), insulin, corticosterone, and testosterone hormones were determined. The results showed that the intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant increase in clotting time, prothrombin time , partial prothrombin time, platelets count and glucose level, while serum calcium level showed significant decrease. Intraperitoneal injection of warfarin caused significant decrease of insulin and significant increase of corticosterone, T3 showed significant decrease in high dose group while T4 showed significant decrease in small dose group. The high dose was associated with the highest level of testosterone hormone. these results denoted that warfarin anticoagulant had no negative effect on gonadal sex hormone and hence on male fertility

  8. Blood-group-related carbohydrates are expressed in organotypic cultures of human skin and oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøn, B; Andersson, A; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1999-01-01

    Cellular maturation and migration are usually associated with changes in cell-surface carbohydrates, but the relationship between these changes and cell behaviour is at present largely unknown. To investigate whether an organotypic culture system can be used as an in vitro model to study the func......Cellular maturation and migration are usually associated with changes in cell-surface carbohydrates, but the relationship between these changes and cell behaviour is at present largely unknown. To investigate whether an organotypic culture system can be used as an in vitro model to study...... the function of cell-surface carbohydrates, we established organotypic cultures of skin and buccal mucosa. In these cultures, keratinocytes are grown at the air-liquid interface on a supporting matrix consisting of homologous fibroblasts embedded in a collagen type I gel. We examined the expression of blood......-group-related carbohydrate structures, including Lewis x, sialylated Lewis x, Lewis y, Lewis a, and Lewis b, on the surface of epithelial cells in the cultures. We compared the results with the expression of more well-established markers, including cytokeratins, integrins, bullous pemphigoid antigen and laminin, in the same...

  9. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Low vitality (a component of fatigue) in middle-aged and older adults is an important complaint often identified as a symptom of a disease state or side effect of a treatment. No studies to date have investigated the potential link between dysfunctional mitochondrial ATP production and low vitality....... Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  10. Effect of Feeding Date Pits on Milk Production, Composition and Blood Parameters of Lactating Ardi Goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Suwaiegh, S B

    2016-04-01

    Twenty Ardi lactating goats were used to investigate the effect of substituting 10%, 15%, and 20% of concentrate feed with date pits on milk production, composition, and blood parameters. Four isocaloric and isonitrogenous dietary treatments were used. Four levels (0% [control], 10%, 15%, and 20%) of date pits were used to replace concentrate feed. The forages to concentrate ratio used was 60 to 40. Dry matter intake (DMI) of goats fed diets containing 10% and 15% date pits was significantly (pdate pits were significantly (pdate pits. Goats fed a diet containing 20% date pits was significantly (pdate pits exhibited no significant differences in the total protein percent compared to those fed a diet containing 20% date pits. Triglyceride was significantly higher for goats fed diets containing 10% and 20% date pits compared to those fed 15% date pits. Results obtained in the present study suggest that date pits can be added up to 20% of the concentrate feeds into lactating Ardi goat diets without negative effects on their productive performance.

  11. Do distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows? A computer simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lemmens Hendrikus JM

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Kinetics of inhaled agents are often described by physiological models. However, many pharmacokinetic concepts, such as context-sensitive half-times, have been developed for drugs described by classical compartmental models. We derived classical compartmental models that describe the course of the alveolar concentrations (FA generated by the physiological uptake and distribution models used by the Gas Man® program, and describe how distribution volumes and clearances relate to tissue volumes and blood flows. Methods Gas Man® was used to generate FA vs. time curves during the wash-in and wash-out period of 115 min each with a high fresh gas flow (8 L.min-1, a constant alveolar minute ventilation (4 L.min-1, and a constant inspired concentration (FI of halothane (0.75%, isoflurane (1.15%, sevoflurane (2%, or desflurane (6%. With each of these FI, simulations were ran for a 70 kg patient with 5 different cardiac outputs (CO (2, 3, 5, 8 and 10 L.min-1 and for 5 patients with different weights (40, 55, 70, 85, and 100 kg but the same CO (5 L.min-1. Two and three compartmental models were fitted to FA of the individual 9 runs using NONMEM. After testing for parsimony, goodness of fit was evaluated using median prediction error (MDPE and median absolute prediction error (MDAPE. The model was tested prospectively for a virtual 62 kg patient with a cardiac output of 4.5 L.min-1 for three different durations (wash-in and wash-out period of 10, 60, and 180 min each with an FI of 1.5% halothane, 1.5% isoflurane, sevoflurane 4%, or desflurane 12%. Results A three-compartment model fitted the data best (MDPE = 0% and MDAPE ≤ 0.074% and performed equally well when tested prospectively (MDPE ≤ 0.51% and MDAPE ≤ 1.51%. The relationship between CO and body weight and the distribution volumes and clearances is complex. Conclusion The kinetics of anesthetic gases can be adequately described e by a mammilary compartmental model. Therefore

  12. Structural analysis of the RH-like blood group gene products in nonhuman primates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salvignol, I. [Centre Regional de Transfusion Sanguine, Toulouse (France); Calvas, P.; Blancher, A. [Universitaire d`Immunogenetique moleculaire, Toulouse (France); Socha, W.W. [University Medical Center, New York, NY (United States); Colin, Y.; Le Van Kim, C.; Bailly, P.; Cartron, J.P. [Institut National de la Transfusion Sanguine, Paris (France); Ruffie, J.; Blancher, A. [College de France, Paris (France)

    1995-03-01

    Rh-related transcripts present in bone marrow samples from several species of nonhuman primates (chimpanzee, gorilla, gibbon, crab-eating macaque) have been amplified by RT-polymerase chain reaction using primers deduced from the sequence of human RH genes. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the nonhuman transcripts revealed a high degree of similarity to human blood group Rh sequences, suggesting a great conservation of the RH genes throughout evolution. Full-length transcripts, potentially encoding 417 amino acid long proteins homologous to Rh polypeptides, were characterized, as well as mRNA isoforms which harbored nucleotide deletions or insertions and potentially encode truncated proteins. Proteins of 30-40,000 M{sub r}, immunologically related to human Rh proteins, were detected by western blot analysis with antipeptide antibodies, indicating that Rh-like transcripts are translated into membrane proteins. Comparison of human and nonhuman protein sequences was pivotal in clarifying the molecular basis of the blood group C/c polymorphism, showing that only the Pro103Ser substitution was correlated with C/c polymorphism. In addition, it was shown that a proline residue at position 102 was critical in the expression of C and c epitopes, most likely by providing an appropriate conformation of Rh polypeptides. From these data a phylogenetic reconstruction of the RH locus evolution has been calculated from which an unrooted phylogenetic tree could be proposed, indicating that African ape Rh-like genes would be closer to the human RhD gene than to the human RhCE gene. 55 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Cord blood leptin levels of healthy neonates are associated with IFN-γ production by cord blood T-cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athanasia Mouzaki

    Full Text Available Leptin is a hormone synthesized by adipocytes and other tissues, including the placenta, and it regulates food intake and energy expenditure, reproductive and immune functions. To investigate the role of leptin in neonatal immunity, we measured serum leptin and cytokine (IFN-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12 levels in the cord blood (cb of 510 healthy neonates, 14 small for gestational age (SGA, 312 appropriately grown for gestational age (AGA and 184 large for gestational age (LGA. Median serum leptin concentration in the whole sample was 11 ng/ml. In 11.2% neonates (1 SGA, 32 AGA, 24 LGA, leptin levels were >90th percentile (median 39 ng/ml. In 33.3% of those (3.72% of total sample with the highest leptin levels (median 46 ng/ml, significantly elevated levels of serum IFN-γ were also found (mean 27.11 pg/ml, range 17.5-38.5 pg/ml. In neonates with leptin levels ∼50th percentile (median 12 ng/ml or <10th percentile (median 1 ng/ml, serum IFN-γ levels were negligible. All other cytokines measured, were < the assays' detection limits. To investigate whether leptin can independently influence cytokine gene expression by cb T-cells and monocytes (Mc, we cultured cb T-cells or Mc, isolated from randomly selected AGA neonates or adult peripheral blood, with leptin. This resulted in upregulation of IL-2, IFN-γ and IL-4 gene expression in cb and adult T-cells and IL-10 expression mainly in cb-Mc. Significantly higher expression of IFN-γ occurred in female cb-T-cells cultured with leptin, compared with male cb-T-cells. In conclusion, the concurrent presence of high concentrations in both leptin and IFN-γ in cb of healthy infants, and leptin's ability to directly upregulate cytokine gene expression in cb T and Mc cells, indicate that abnormally high leptin levels can independently influence the immune system of healthy newborns, and may mediate gender differences in the development of a Th1 polarized immune response.

  14. Raman spectroscopy of coloured resins used in antiquity: dragon's blood and related substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edward, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz Fernando C.; Quye, Anita

    2001-12-01

    Dragon's blood is a deep red resin which has been used for centuries by many cultures and much prized for it's rarity, depth of colour and alchemical associations. The original source of dragon's blood resin is believed to be Dracaena cinnabari from Socotra in Africa, but since mediaeval times there have been several alternatives from different geographical locations from the Canary Islands to the East Indies. Here, the Raman spectra of dragon's blood resins from Dracaena draco Liliacae trees growing in several different locations bordering the Mediterranean and Middle East are compared with the resins from alternative botanical sources such as Daemonorops draco, Dracaena cinnabari and Eucalyptus terminalis, which all generically come under the description of dragon's blood. Key vibrational spectroscopic marker bands are identified in the Raman spectra of the resins, which are suggested for adoption as a protocol for the identification of the botanical and possible geographical sources of modern dragon's blood resins. The Raman spectra of materials, which are falsely attributed to dragon's blood resin are also shown for comparison and identification purposes. Changes in the Raman spectra of genuine dragon's blood resin specimens arising from simple processing treatment during the preparation of the resins for sale are also identified, which suggests a possible attribution characteristic for unknown samples.

  15. Relational dynamics in the multi-helices knowledge production system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thai, Thi Minh; Hjortsø, Carsten Nico Portefée

    Drawing on the triple helix framework and organizational institutionalism, this article applies a qualitative research approach to analyze structures, institutional logics, power relations that shape inter-organizational relations and the structuration of a knowledge production system...... in an emerging economy. Findings highlight the emergence of a fifth-helices knowledge production system includes the state, science and education, industry, international actors, and society. The system comprises two major segments, one associated with the traditional command economy and characterized...... by institutional control that reproduces an ill-adopted and less transparent system based on systemic power. At the border of this system, a marketand quality-oriented segment emerges through marked-oriented evolution and collaborative co-evolution processes driven by institutional agency. The system...

  16. Nuclear and related techniques in animal production and health

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The international symposium was attended by about 130 participants from 45 countries and included 83 scientific presentations of which 42 were posters. This volume covers four principal and interrelated topics: adaptation of animals to the environment, and animal reproduction, health and nutrition. Within each topic, consideration is given to those nuclear and related techniques currently employed in investigative research and their usefulness in studying animal production systems. Progress towards new areas of application and new techniques is also covered, particularly the development and practicability of immunoassay and related biotechnological methods for the diagnosis of livestock diseases. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the papers in this volume

  17. Exclusive Pion-production and the Relation to Transversity

    CERN Document Server

    Goldstein, Gary R

    2008-01-01

    Exclusive $\\pi^0$ electroproduction from nucleons is suggested for extracting the tensor charge and other quantities related to transversity from experimental data. This process isolates C-parity odd and chiral odd combinations of t-channel exchange quantum numbers. In a hadronic picture it connects the meson production amplitudes to C-odd Regge exchanges with final state interactions. In a description based on partonic degrees of freedom, the helicity structure for this C-odd process relates to the quark helicity flip, or chiral odd generalized parton distributions.

  18. Woody species colonisation in relation to habitat productivity

    OpenAIRE

    Smit, R; Olff, H.

    1998-01-01

    A study was conducted to analyse the effect of habitat productivity on woody species colonisation. Three soil types were distinguished: a relatively poor sandy soil type (1), a somewhat richer sandy type (2) and a relatively rich sandy loamy type (3). Chronosequences were established on these three soil types of 38 (type 1), 20 (type 2) and 54 years (type 3) after abandonment. In total 117 vegetation relevées were used to analyse life form change and species responses during old field success...

  19. Straight versus tortuous retinal arteries in relation to blood pressure and genetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, N C B B; Munch, I C; Sander, B;

    2008-01-01

    dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs, aged 20 to 46 years, who were characterised by determination of retinal vessel diameters, arterial blood pressure, blood glucose, body mass index, smoking habits and retinal arterial tortuosity, using a three-level grading scale (straight, wavy, tortuous). Heritability...... factors accounting for the remaining 18% (CI(95 )8, 36%). Increasing values of mean arterial blood pressure and body mass index were both associated with decreasing levels of retinal arterial tortuosity. CONCLUSION: There was a large variation in tortuosity of retinal arteries in these healthy subjects...

  20. Cafeteria diet induce changes in blood flow that are more related with heat dissipation than energy accretion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, David; Agnelli, Silvia; Arriarán, Sofía; Romero, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià

    2016-01-01

    Background. A “cafeteria” diet is a self-selected high-fat diet, providing an excess of energy, which can induce obesity. Excess of lipids in the diet hampers glucose utilization eliciting insulin resistance, which, further limits amino acid oxidation for energy. Methods. Male Wistar rats were exposed for a month to “cafeteria” diet. Rats were cannulated and fluorescent microspheres were used to determine blood flow. Results. Exposure to the cafeteria diet did not change cardiac output, but there was a marked shift in organ irrigation. Skin blood flow decreased to compensate increases in lungs and heart. Blood flow through adipose tissue tended to increase in relation to controls, but was considerably increased in brown adipose tissue (on a weight basis). Discussion. The results suggest that the cafeteria diet-induced changes were related to heat transfer and disposal. PMID:27547590

  1. Cafeteria diet induce changes in blood flow that are more related with heat dissipation than energy accretion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabater, David; Agnelli, Silvia; Arriarán, Sofía; Romero, María Del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Alemany, Marià; Remesar, Xavier

    2016-01-01

    Background. A "cafeteria" diet is a self-selected high-fat diet, providing an excess of energy, which can induce obesity. Excess of lipids in the diet hampers glucose utilization eliciting insulin resistance, which, further limits amino acid oxidation for energy. Methods. Male Wistar rats were exposed for a month to "cafeteria" diet. Rats were cannulated and fluorescent microspheres were used to determine blood flow. Results. Exposure to the cafeteria diet did not change cardiac output, but there was a marked shift in organ irrigation. Skin blood flow decreased to compensate increases in lungs and heart. Blood flow through adipose tissue tended to increase in relation to controls, but was considerably increased in brown adipose tissue (on a weight basis). Discussion. The results suggest that the cafeteria diet-induced changes were related to heat transfer and disposal. PMID:27547590

  2. Markers of collagen synthesis is related to blood pressure and vascular hypertrophy: a LIFE substudy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, M H; Christensen, M K; Wachtell, K;

    2005-01-01

    Cardiac fibrosis and high levels of circulating collagen markers has been associated with left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. However, the relationship to vascular hypertrophy and blood pressure (BP) load is unclear. In 204 patients with essential hypertension and electrocardiographic LV hypertrophy...

  3. Blood vessel growth blocker may treat AIDS-related Kaposi’s sarcoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patients with an AIDS-associated cancer, Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), showed improvement after receiving the combination of bevacizumab, a cancer drug that blocks the growth of new blood vessels, and highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART).

  4. Blood transfusions for severe malaria-related anemia in Africa: a decision analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Obonyo; E.W. Steyerberg (Ewout); A.J. Oloo; J.D.F. Habbema (Dik)

    1998-01-01

    textabstractSevere childhood malarial anemia is commonly treated using blood transfusion. Although transfusion may decrease short-term mortality, the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission is considerable in Africa. We constructed a decision tree to wei

  5. Related Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation (HSCT) for Genetic Diseases of Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-11

    Stem Cell Transplantation; Bone Marrow Transplantation; Peripheral Blood Stem Cell Transplantation; Allogeneic Transplantation,; Genetic Diseases; Thalassemia; Pediatrics; Diamond-Blackfan Anemia; Combined Immune Deficiency; Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome; Chronic Granulomatous Disease; X-linked Lymphoproliferative Disease; Metabolic Diseases

  6. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; PVED group 0.04±0.14 mm; PVED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (PVED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2.

  7. Penile rehabilitation with a vacuum erectile device in an animal model is related to an antihypoxic mechanism: blood gas evidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hao-Cheng; Yang, Wen-Li; Zhang, Jun-Lan; Dai, Yu-Tian; Wang, Run

    2013-05-01

    Our previous study showed that vacuum erectile device (VED) therapy has improved erectile function in rats with bilateral cavernous nerve crush (BCNC) injuries. This study was designed to explore the mechanism of VED in penile rehabilitation by analyzing cavernous oxygen saturation (SO2) and to examine the effect of VED therapy on preventing penile shrinkage after BCNC. Thirty adult Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned into three groups: group 1, sham surgery; group 2, BCNC; and group 3, BCNC+VED. Penile length and diameter were measured on a weekly basis. After 4 weeks of therapy, the penile blood was extracted by three methods for blood gas analysis (BGA): method 1, cavernous blood was aspirated at the flaccid state; method 2, cavernous blood was aspirated at the traction state; and method 3, cavernous blood was aspirated immediately after applying VED. SO2 values were tested by the blood gas analyzer. The results showed that VED therapy is effective in preventing penile shrinkage induced by BCNC (Penile shortening: BCNC group 1.9±1.1 mm; VED group 0.3±1.0 mm; PVED group 0.04±0.14 mm; PVED application (88.25%±4.94%) compared to the flaccid (76.53%±4.16%) or traction groups (78.93%±2.56%) (PVED application were 62% arterial and 38% venous blood. These findings suggest that VED therapy can effectively preserve penile size in rats with BCNC injury. The beneficial effect of VED therapy is related to antihypoxia by increasing cavernous blood SO2. PMID:23564044

  8. Serum specific vasopressin-degrading activity is related to blood total cholesterol levels in men but not in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Arrazola, Marcelina; Carrera-González, María Pilar; Arias de Saavedra, José Manuel; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The role of vasopressin (AVP) in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease is controversial, but this peptide hormone is elevated in heart failure and some forms of hypertension. Also, AVP has vasoconstrictor, mitogenic, hyperplasic and renal fluid retaining properties which, by analogy with angiotensin II, may have deleterious effects when present in chronic excess. Furthermore, cholesterol blood levels are also associated with hypertension, although the underlying mechanism is not known. Here we analyze the relationship between blood total cholesterol levels and serum vasopressin- degrading cystyl-aminopeptidase activity (AVP-DA) in healthy humans, and the differences between men and women. Linear correlation coefficients were calculated to test relationships between AVP-DA and blood total cholesterol levels. Sex differences were observed for AVP-DA, being this activity higher in men than in women. According to the linear model of the regression analysis, AVP-DA showed a significant negative correlation with blood total cholesterol levels in men, whereas no correlation was observed in women. Several studies in humans demonstrate the existence of greater plasma AVP concentrations in normal men compared to normal women, which could explain the gender-differences observed in the present work in relation with AVP-DA. However, AVP-DA is related to blood cholesterol levels only in men, although in our hands, women showed higher blood cholesterol levels than men. This could indicate that the risk of high cholesterol-related hypertension is more probable in men than in women. Although AVP-DA misregulation could be involved in the pathogenesis of hypertension, its relation with cholesterol levels appears only in men, but not in women.

  9. Asthma-related productivity losses in Alberta, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen X Thanh

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Nguyen X Thanh, Arto Ohinmaa, Charles YanInstitute of Health Economics, Edmonton, Alberta, CanadaObjectives: To estimate the number and cost of asthma-related productivity loss days due to absenteeism and presenteeism (at work but not fully functioning in Alberta in 2005.Methods: Using data from the 2005 Canadian Community Health Survey, this study focused on people of working age (18–64 years, who reported having an asthma diagnosis. Total asthma-related disability days, including in-bed days and activity-restricted days, were estimated by multiplying the difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics adjusted for sociodemographic characteristics and other health conditions by a multiple linear regression, with the number of asthmatics in the population. Number of productivity loss days was a sum between the number of in-bed days (absenteeism and the number of activity-restricted days multiplied by a reduction in functional level (presenteeism, adjusted for five working days per week. Other data from Alberta or Canadian published literature, such as a reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, a labor participation rate of 73%, and an average wage of $158 per day in 2005, were also used for analyses.Results: The prevalence of asthma was estimated at 8.5% among approximately 2.1 million people of working age in Alberta in 2005. The difference in the means of total disability days between asthmatics and nonasthmatics was 0.487 (95% CI: 0.286–0.688 in a period of two weeks or 12.7 (7.5–17.9 in one year. With the reduction in functional level of 20%–30%, the number of asthma-related productivity loss days was estimated from 442 (259–624 to 533 (313–753 thousand, respectively. The corresponding cost was from $70 ($41–$99 to $84 ($49–$119 million. Of these, the presenteeism accounted for 42% to 52%.Conclusions: The results suggest that an improvement in the controlling of asthma could have a

  10. Occupational and leisure time physical activity in contrasting relation to ambulatory blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clays Els

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While moderate and vigorous leisure time physical activities are well documented to decrease the risk for cardiovascular disease, several studies have demonstrated an increased risk for cardiovascular disease in workers with high occupational activity. Research on the underlying causes to the contrasting effects of occupational and leisure time physical activity on cardiovascular health is lacking. The aim of this study was to examine the relation of objective and self-report measures of occupational and leisure time physical activity with 24-h ambulatory systolic blood pressure (BP. Methods Results for self-reported physical activity are based on observations in 182 workers (60% male, mean age 51 years, while valid objective physical activity data were available in 151 participants. The usual level of physical activity was assessed by 5 items from the Job Content Questionnaire (high physical effort, lifting heavy loads, rapid physical activity, awkward body positions and awkward positions of head or arms at work and one item asking about the general level of physical activity during non-working time. On a regular working day, participants wore an ambulatory BP monitor and an accelerometer physical activity monitor during 24 h. Associations were examined by means of Analysis of Covariance. Results Workers with an overall high level of self-reported occupational physical activity as well as those who reported to often lift heavy loads at work had a higher mean systolic BP at work, at home and during sleep. However, no associations were observed between objectively measured occupational physical activity and BP. In contrast, those with objectively measured high proportion of moderate and vigorous leisure time physical activity had a significantly lower mean systolic BP during daytime, while no differences were observed according to self-reported level of leisure time physical activity. Conclusions These findings suggest that

  11. Acute and Conditioned Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Social and Psychosocial Stimuli in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    1985-01-01

    The naturally occurring tendency to compete with other rats for territorial space has been used to study individual behavior characteristics and blood pressure reactivity to social stimuli in adult male TMD-S3 rats. The competitive characteristics of the individual rats are consistent in two different social situations (victory and defeat). Blood pressure responses during the victory of home territory rats over intruders was more pronounced in the more competitive animals. In addition to defe...

  12. Breast cancer incidence in Greek women in relation to ABO blood groups and Rh factor

    OpenAIRE

    Stamatakos, Michael; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Safioleas, Panagiotis; Safioleas, Constnatinos; Manti, Christina; Safioleas, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Aim To investigate the correlation between breast cancer in Greek women and ABO blood groups. Material-methods In 166 female patients with breast cancer factors such as blood group, histological type, family history, presence or absence of nodal and/or distant metastases were examined. These patients had similar demographic, clinical, surgical, immunohistochemical, laboratory, and follow-up data and this group is representative of general population of women in Greece. Results The ductal type...

  13. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    OpenAIRE

    Gianluigi Mazzoccoli; Giuseppe Miscio; Andrea Fontana; Massimiliano Copetti; Massimo Francavilla; Alberto Bosi; Federico Perfetto; Alice Valoriani; Angelo De Cata; Michele Santodirocco; Angela Totaro; Rosa Rubino; Lazzaro di Mauro; Roberto Tarquini

    2016-01-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction pote...

  14. Rapid detection of cancer related DNA nanoparticulate biomarkers and nanoparticles in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Michael J.; Krishnan, Raj; Sonnenberg, Avery

    2010-08-01

    The ability to rapidly detect cell free circulating (cfc) DNA, cfc-RNA, exosomes and other nanoparticulate disease biomarkers as well as drug delivery nanoparticles directly in blood is a major challenge for nanomedicine. We now show that microarray and new high voltage dielectrophoretic (DEP) devices can be used to rapidly isolate and detect cfc-DNA nanoparticulates and nanoparticles directly from whole blood and other high conductance samples (plasma, serum, urine, etc.). At DEP frequencies of 5kHz-10kHz both fluorescent-stained high molecular weight (hmw) DNA, cfc-DNA and fluorescent nanoparticles separate from the blood and become highly concentrated at specific DEP highfield regions over the microelectrodes, while blood cells move to the DEP low field-regions. The blood cells can then be removed by a simple fluidic wash while the DNA and nanoparticles remain highly concentrated. The hmw-DNA could be detected at a level of <260ng/ml and the nanoparticles at <9.5 x 109 particles/ml, detection levels that are well within the range for viable clinical diagnostics and drug nanoparticle monitoring. Disease specific cfc-DNA materials could also be detected directly in blood from patients with Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) and confirmed by PCR genotyping analysis.

  15. Health-related quality of life in children with sickle cell anemia: impact of blood transfusion therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beverung, Lauren M; Strouse, John J; Hulbert, Monica L; Neville, Kathleen; Liem, Robert I; Inusa, Baba; Fuh, Beng; King, Allison; Meier, Emily Riehm; Casella, James; DeBaun, Michael R; Panepinto, Julie A

    2015-02-01

    The completion of the Multicenter Silent Infarct Transfusion Trial demonstrated that children with pre-existing silent cerebral infarct and sickle cell anemia (SCA) who received regular blood transfusion therapy had a 58% relative risk reduction of infarct recurrence when compared to observation. However, the total benefit of blood transfusion therapy, as assessed by the parents, was not measured against the burden of monthly blood transfusion therapy. In this planned ancillary study, we tested the hypothesis that a patient centered outcome, health-related quality of life (HRQL), would be greater in participants randomly assigned to the blood transfusion therapy group than the observation group. A total of 89% (175 of 196) of the randomly allocated participants had evaluable entry and exit HRQL evaluations. The increase in Change in Health, measured as the child's health being better, was significantly greater for the transfusion group than the observation group (difference estimate = -0.54, P ≤ 0.001). This study provides the first evidence that children with SCA who received regular blood transfusion therapy felt better and had better overall HRQL than those who did not receive transfusion therapy.

  16. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Yoshihiko; Mochida, Masahiko; Shutara, Yoshikazu; Nakagawa, Kazumi [Kyorin Univ., Mitaka, Tokyo (Japan). School of Medicine; Nagata, Ken

    1998-07-01

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6{+-}3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  17. Multivariate evaluation of brain function by measuring regional cerebral blood flow and event-related potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To measure the effect of events on human cognitive function, effects of odors by measurement regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) and P300 were evaluated during the auditory odd-ball exercise. PET showed the increase in rCBF on the right hemisphere of the brain by coffee aroma. rCBF was measured by PET in 9 of right-handed healthy adults men, and P300 was by event-related potential (ERP) in each sex of 20 right-handed healthy adults. ERP showed the difference of the P300 amplitude between men and women, and showed the tendency, by odors except the lavender oil, that women had higher in the P300 amplitude than men. These results suggest the presence of effects on the cognitive function through emotional actions. Next, the relationship between rCBF and ERP were evaluated. The subjects were 9 of the right-handed healthy adults (average: 25.6±3.4 years old). rCBF by PET and P300 amplitude by ERP were simultaneously recorded during the auditory odd-ball exercise using the tone-burst method (2 kHz of the low frequency aimed stimuli and 1 kHz of the high frequency non-aimed stimuli). The rCBF value was the highest at the transverse gyrus of Heschl and the lowest at the piriform cortex among 24 regions of interest (ROI) from both sides. The difference of P300 peak latent time among ROI was almost the same. The brain waves from Cz and Pz were similar and the average amplitude was highest at Pz. We found the high correlation in the right piriform cortex (Fz), and right (Fz, Cz) and left (Cz, Pz) transverse gyrus of Heschl between the P300 amplitude and rCBF. (K.H.)

  18. Complement activation-related pseudoallergy: a stress reaction in blood triggered by nanomedicines and biologicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szebeni, Janos

    2014-10-01

    Intravenous injection of a variety of nanotechnology enhanced (liposomal, micellar, polymer-conjugated) and protein-based (antibodies, enzymes) drugs can lead to hypersensitivity reactions (HSRs), also known as infusion, or anaphylactoid reactions. The molecular mechanism of mild to severe allergy symptoms may differ from case to case and is mostly not known, however, in many cases a major cause, or contributing factor is activation of the complement (C) system. The clinical relevance of C activation-related HSRs, a non-IgE-mediated pseudoallergy (CARPA), lies in its unpredictability and occasional lethal outcome. Accordingly, there is an unmet medical need to develop laboratory assays and animal models that quantitate CARPA. This review provides basic information on CARPA; a short history, issues of nomenclature, incidence, classification of reactogenic drugs and symptoms, and the mechanisms of C activation via different pathways. It is pointed out that anaphylatoxin-induced mast cell release may not entirely explain the severe reactions; a "second hit" on allergy mediating cells may also contribute. In addressing the increasing requirements for CARPA testing, the review evaluates the available assays and animal models, and proposes a possible algorithm for the screening of reactogenic drugs and hypersensitive patients. Finally, an analogy is proposed between CARPA and the classic stress reaction, suggesting that CARPA represents a "blood stress" reaction, a systemic fight of the body against harmful biological and chemical agents via the anaphylatoxin/mast-cell/circulatory system axis, in analogy to the body's fight of physical and emotional stress via the hypothalamo/pituitary/adrenal axis. In both cases the response to a broad variety of noxious effects are funneled into a uniform pattern of physiological changes. PMID:25124145

  19. Influence of mirena treatment on uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-Yun Wang; Hua Zhang; Zhen-Zhen Liu

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of mirena treatment on uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis.Methods:A total of 58 patients with uterine adenomyosis who were treated in our hospital during the time from June 2014 to July 2015 were randomly divided into two groups, 29 patients in the control group were treated with danazol, and 29 patients in the observation group were treated with mirena. Then the total effective rate, adverse reaction rates, uterine blood flow dynamics indexes, serum MMP related indexes and other disease related indexes of the two groups before the treatment and at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were compared.Results:The total effective rate and adverse reaction rate of observation group were both worse than that of control group (allP0.05). While the uterine blood flow dynamics indexes of the observation group at different time after the treatment were all significantly better than those of control group (allP<0.05).Conclusions:Mirena treatment can effectively improve the uterine blood flow dynamics and serum related indexes of patients with uterine adenomyosis, and it has application value for the patients with uterine adenomyosis is higher.

  20. Absolute Versus Relative Myocardial Blood Flow by Dynamic CT Myocardial Perfusion Imaging in Patients With Anatomic Coronary Artery Disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wichmann, Julian L.; Meinel, Felix G.; Schoepf, U. Joseph; Lo, Gladys G.; Choe, Yeon Hyeon; Wang, Yining; Vliegenthart, Rozemarijn; Varga-Szemes, Akos; Muscogiuri, Giuseppe; Cannao, Paola M.; De Cecco, Carlo N.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. The purpose of this study was to evaluate differences in the diagnostic accuracy of absolute and relative territorial myocardial blood flow (MBF) derived from stress dynamic CT myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) for the detection of significant coronary artery stenosis. MATERIALS AND METH

  1. Technology diffusion of energy-related products in residential markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, L.J.; Bruneau, C.L.

    1987-05-01

    Acceptance of energy-related technologies by end residential consumers, manufacturers of energy-related products, and other influential intermediate markets such as builders will influence the potential for market penetration of innovative energy-related technologies developed by the Department of Energy, Office of Building and Community Systems (OBCS). In this report, Pacific Northwest Laboratory reviewed the available information on technology adoption, diffusion, and decision-making processes to provide OBCS with a background and understanding of the type of research that has previously been conducted on this topic. Insight was gained as to the potential decision-making criteria and motivating factors that influence the decision-maker(s) selection of new technologies, and some of the barriers to technology adoption faced by potential markets for OBCS technologies.

  2. Cumulative semantic interference for associative relations in language production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Sebastian Benjamin; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2016-07-01

    Associations between conceptual representations and thematic relations play an important role in the organization of semantic memory. However, language production research on semantic context effects shows that associative (e.g., dog and bone) and categorical relations (dog and horse) seem to diverge. While categorical contexts typically induce semantic interference that has traditionally been taken to reflect competitive lexical selection, evidence for comparable associative modulations is rare. In three experiments we tested whether thematic associations between objects induce cumulative interference in the continuous naming paradigm, assuming that this paradigm hampers lexical selection via the activation of highly active lexical cohorts steadily increasing in size. Indeed, naming times increased linearly with each newly named member of thematic contexts irrespective of the pre-activation of associations before the naming task (Experiment 1), and irrespective of whether categorical links were partially included (Experiments 1 and 2) or entirely absent (Experiment 3). These findings demonstrate that different types of semantic relations induce interference.

  3. SNP may modify the effect of vitamin A supplementation at birth on cytokine production in a whole blood culture assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Mathias Jul; Fisker, Ane Bærent; Erikstrup, Christian;

    2012-01-01

    Within a neonatal vitamin A supplementation (VAS) trial, we investigated the effect of VAS on TNF-a, IL-10, IL-5 and IL-13 production after lipopolysaccharide, purified protein derivative (PPD) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and phytohaemagglutinin stimulation using a whole blood culture protocol....

  4. The future of doping control in athletes. Issues related to blood sampling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkeland, K I; Hemmersbach, P

    1999-07-01

    When current antidoping programmes were developed, the most frequently used doping agents were xenobiotics, such as stimulants and anabolic steroids, that are readily detectable in urine with the use of gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. As control of traditional doping agents became effective, some athletes turned to other means to improve performance, including blood doping and the application of recombinant peptide hormones such as erythropoietin and growth hormone. Doping with these agents is not easily detected in urine samples, and therefore new strategies must be developed as a supplement to those already in use. Such strategies will probably include analysing blood samples, as several of the most promising methods that are able to detect modern doping agents use blood as the analytical matrix. Non-autologous blood doping results in an admixture of self and foreign red blood cells that can be detected in a blood sample with the methods available. Methods to indicate doping with erythropoietin include the indirect finding of an elevated level of soluble transferrin receptor in serum, or a direct demonstration of a shift from the normal to an abnormal spectrum of erythropoietin isoforms. To indicate doping with growth hormone, a set of serum parameters including insulin growth factors and their binding proteins are under investigation as indirect evidence. A direct method using isotopic differences between endogenous and recombinant growth hormones is being investigated. A similar method has been established to detect the administration of testosterone esters. Several legal and ethical questions must be solved before blood sampling can become a part of routine doping control, but the major ethical question is whether sport can continue as today without proper methods to detect many modern doping agents.

  5. A cord blood monocyte–derived cell therapy product accelerates brain remyelination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buntz, Susan; Scotland, Paula; Xu, Li; Noeldner, Pamela; Patel, Sachit; Wollish, Amy; Gunaratne, Aruni; Gentry, Tracy; Matsushima, Glenn K.; Kurtzberg, Joanne; Balber, Andrew E.

    2016-01-01

    Microglia and monocytes play important roles in regulating brain remyelination. We developed DUOC-01, a cell therapy product intended for treatment of demyelinating diseases, from banked human umbilical cord blood (CB) mononuclear cells. Immunodepletion and selection studies demonstrated that DUOC-01 cells are derived from CB CD14+ monocytes. We compared the ability of freshly isolated CB CD14+ monocytes and DUOC-01 cells to accelerate remyelination of the brains of NOD/SCID/IL2Rγnull mice following cuprizone feeding–mediated demyelination. The corpus callosum of mice intracranially injected with DUOC-01 showed enhanced myelination, a higher proportion of fully myelinated axons, decreased gliosis and cellular infiltration, and more proliferating oligodendrocyte lineage cells than those of mice receiving excipient. Uncultured CB CD14+ monocytes also accelerated remyelination, but to a significantly lesser extent than DUOC-01 cells. Microarray analysis, quantitative PCR studies, Western blotting, and flow cytometry demonstrated that expression of factors that promote remyelination including PDGF-AA, stem cell factor, IGF1, MMP9, MMP12, and triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 were upregulated in DUOC-01 compared to CB CD14+ monocytes. Collectively, our results show that DUOC-01 accelerates brain remyelination by multiple mechanisms and could be beneficial in treating demyelinating conditions. PMID:27699230

  6. Effect of live yeast culture Saccharomyces cerevisiae on milk production and some blood parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judit Peter Szucs

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of live yeast culture (Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sc 47 on milk yield, milk composition and some blood parameters of dairy cows during their early lactation on farm conditions. The live yeast culture was given in the diet of heifers and cows (5 g day-1 solid Actisaf for 14 days before calving and exclusively for the treated cows 12 g day-1 dissolved in 500 ml of water, during 14 days after calving. The experiment took until 100th day of lactation on farm conditions. Yeast culture supplementation was the most effective for the performance of primiparous cows: It was advantageous for blod plasma parameters: decreased the beta-hydroxy butyrate (BHB content and free fatty acids (FFA which indicated the protection of the animals against ketosis or other metabolic disorders. Increased the daily milk production and the lactose /glucose content of the milk. The live yeast culture increased the lactose content of the milk and decreased the somatic cell count of multiparous cows. The listed parameters were not significant (P<0.05 compare to the results of positive control groups. The applied live yeast culture supplementation did not significant affect for other performance of the cows.

  7. Pancreatic Cancer Cell Lines Can Induce Prostaglandin E2 Production from Human Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svitlana P. Grekova

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating evidence suggests an important role for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 in the pathogenesis of a wide range of malignancies. The protumorigenic properties of COX-2 are generally thought to be mediated by its product, PGE2, which is shown to promote tumor spread and growth by multiple mechanisms but most importantly through modulation of the local immune response in the tumor. Pancreatic tumor cells produce various amounts of PGE2, some of them being even deficient in COX enzymes or other PGE2 synthases. Here we describe that, beside pancreatic tumor cells or stromal fibroblasts, human peripheral blood mononuclear cells can also produce PGE2 upon coculture with pancreatic cancer cells. Stimulating of cellular cPLA2 within PBMCs by secreted factors, presumably sPLA2, from tumor cells appeared crucial, while the direct contact between PBMCs and PDACs seemed to be dispensable for this effect. Our data is emphasizing the complex interactions participating in the formation of the tolerogenic immune milieu within pancreatic tumors.

  8. Controlled meal frequency without caloric restriction alters peripheral blood mononuclear cell cytokine production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Longo Dan L

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intermittent fasting (IF improves healthy lifespan in animals by a mechanism involving reduced oxidative damage and increased resistance to stress. However, no studies have evaluated the impact of controlled meal frequency on immune responses in human subjects. Objective A study was conducted to establish the effects of controlled diets with different meal frequencies, but similar daily energy intakes, on cytokine production in healthy male and female subjects. Design In a crossover study design with an intervening washout period, healthy normal weight middle-age male and female subjects (n = 15 were maintained for 2 months on controlled on-site one meal per day (OMD or three meals per day (TMD isocaloric diets. Serum samples and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs culture supernatants from subjects were analyzed for the presence of inflammatory markers using a multiplex assay. Results There were no significant differences in the inflammatory markers in the serum of subjects on the OMD or TMD diets. There was an increase in the capacity of PBMCs to produce cytokines in subjects during the first month on the OMD or TMD diets. Lower levels of TNF-α, IL-17, MCP-1 and MIP-1β were produced by PBMCs from subjects on the OMD versus TMD diet. Conclusions PBMCs of subjects on controlled diets exhibit hypersensitivities to cellular stimulation suggesting that stress associated with altered eating behavior might affect cytokine production by immune cells upon stimulation. Moreover, stimulated PBMCs derived from healthy individuals on a reduced meal frequency diet respond with a reduced capability to produce cytokines.

  9. Relation of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy to blood pressure, body mass index, serum lipids and blood sugar levels in adult Nigerians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opadijo, O G; Omotoso, A B O; Akande, A A

    2003-12-01

    Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) is considered an independent risk factor even in the absence of systemic hypertension. Electrocardiographic (ECG) LVH with repolarisation changes has been found in some countries to carry more coronary risk than LVH alone. How far this observation is true among adult Nigerians is not known. We therefore decided to study adult Nigerians with ECG-LVH with or without ST-T waves changes and compare them with normal age matched controls (without ECG-LVH) in relation with established modifiable risk factors such as systemic hypertension (BP), body mass index (BMI), fasting blood sugar (FBS) and serum lipids such as total cholesterol (Tc), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and triglyceride (TG). Adult Nigerians who were consecutively referred to the ECG laboratory were randomly recruited. Three hundred patients were studied. Their blood pressures (BP) as well as body mass indices were recorded after recording their resting 12 read ECG using portable Seward 9953 ECG machine. Their waist-hip ratio (WHR) was also recorded. Blood samples were taken to determine their fasting blood sugar and serum lipids. Their ECG tracings were read by the cardiologists involved in the study while the blood samples were analysed by the chemical pathologist also involved in the study. At the end of the ECG reading, the patients were divided into 3 groups according to whether there was no ECG-LVH (control group A), ECG-LVH alone (group B), and ECG-LVH with ST-T waves changes (group C). One hundred and fifty (50%) patients belonged to group A, 100 (33.3%) patients to group B and 50 (16.7%) group C. Group B patients were found to have higher modifiable risk factors in form of systemic BP. Tc, LDL-C, and WHR compared to group A. However, the group C patients had increased load of these coronary risk factors in terms of BP elevation, higher BMI, FBS, and scrum cholesterol compared to group B. In addition

  10. Proportion of drug-related serious rare blood dyscrasias: estimates from the Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersohn, Frank; Bronder, Elisabeth; Klimpel, Andreas; Garbe, Edeltraut

    2004-11-01

    Drugs are an important cause of serious rare blood dyscrasias. To estimate the proportion of drug-related cases, we used data from the ongoing Berlin Case-Control Surveillance Study. The analysis included a total of 171 cases. The number of cases in which a drug etiology was assessed as at least "possible" was n = 29 (97%) for acute agranulocytosis, n = 4 (0.21%) for aplastic anemia, n = 8 (26%) for immune hemolytic anemia, n = 20 (25%) for immune thrombocytopenia, and n = 2 (20%) for thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura/hemolytic uremic syndrome. Our analysis suggests that a substantial fraction of blood dyscrasias may be attributable to drug therapy. PMID:15495238

  11. Relative pressure estimation from velocity measurements in blood flows: state-of-the-art and new approaches

    OpenAIRE

    Bertoglio, Cristobal; Núñez, Rodolfo; Galarce, Felipe; Nordsletten, David; Osses, Axel

    2016-01-01

    The pressure gradient across stenotic blood vessels is an important clinical index for diagnosis of the pathological severity of the cardiovascular disease. While the clinical gold standard for its measurement is invasive catheterization, Phase-Contrast MR-imaging has emerged as a promising tool for enabling a non-invasive quantification of the relative pressures, by linking the (highly spatially resolved) velocity measurements with the relative pressure via the Navier-Stokes equations. In th...

  12. Hypertension in diabetes as related to nephropathy. Early blood pressure changes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feldt-Rasmussen, B; Borch-Johnsen, K; Mathiesen, E R

    1985-01-01

    We measured the blood pressure under standardized conditions in three groups of patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes: group 1, patients with Albustix-negative urine and normal urinary albumin excretion rate below 20 micrograms/min; group 2, patients with Albustix-negative urine and e...... that arterial hypertension is an early feature in the developing of diabetic nephropathy, with blood pressure rising before the presence of clinical proteinuria.......We measured the blood pressure under standardized conditions in three groups of patients with type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes: group 1, patients with Albustix-negative urine and normal urinary albumin excretion rate below 20 micrograms/min; group 2, patients with Albustix-negative urine...... of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure during the first 2 to 10 years of diabetes. Our study also demonstrated that the blood pressure in group 3 (147/93 mm Hg) was significantly higher than that in group 2 (135/86 mm Hg), which again was higher than that in group 1 (128/79 mm Hg). We concluded...

  13. Are anemia and blood group types related to Japanese encephalitis and dengue?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shantanu Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dengue and Japanese encephalitis (JE are flaviviruses causing significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Previous studies had found an association between dengue infection and particular blood group antigen and also the susceptibility to aplastic anemia by dengue. Aims and Objective: The present study was conducted to find any association between dengue and JE immunoglobulin G (IgG antibody with blood group antigen or anemia. Methodology: The study was conducted in 2 slums of Delhi in 2013 in the interepidemic period. 5 mL blood from 239 samples were taken and processed for IgG levels of dengue and JE and rest used to test hemoglobin and blood group. Results and Discussion: No association has been found between blood group types and dengue IgG antibody positivity (P = 0.42 or JE IgG antibody positivity (P = 0.148. Nor did anemia established any association with dengue (P = 0.185 or JE IgG antibody (P = 0.277. IgG status of dengue and JE could be used as proxy markers of any past subclinical infection (includes clinically manifested cases also. Further studies in large settings and other areas could be done to validate the results. This was the first study of its kind in such settings.

  14. Occupational lead poisoning in the United States: Clinical and biochemical findings related to blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, E.L.; Landrigan, P.J.; Barbour, A.G.; Cox, D.H.; Folland, D.S.

    1977-01-01

    A study was made of 160 lead exposed workers at a secondary lead smelter, a small scrap smelter, and a lead chemicals facility to investigate dose response relationships between blood lead levels and toxic effects. The levels of blood lead ranged from 0.77 to 13.51 micromoles/liter (micromol/l). In 70 workers, 44 percent of the total number, clinical evidence of toxic exposure was detected including colic in 33, wrist or ankle extensor muscle weakness in 12, anemia in 27, elevated blood urea nitrogen (BUN) in 28, and possible encephalopathy in two. At blood lead levels below 1.93 micromol/l no toxicity was detected. However, 13 percent of those workers with blood lead levels of 1.93 to 3.81 micromol/l had extensor muscle weakness or gastrointestinal symptoms. In 5 percent of the workers with lead levels of 1.93 to 2.85 micromol/l, anemia was noted. Anemia was also noted in 14 percent with levels between 2.90 and 3.81 micromol/l and in 36 percent with levels over 3.86 micromol/l. In long term lead workers elevated BUN occurred. All but three workers with elevated BUN had at least 4 years of occupational lead exposure, and nine had received oral chelation therapy. Eight of this group had reduced creatinine clearance and eight had decreased renal concentrating ability.

  15. Prognosis of white-coat and masked hypertension: International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiou, George S; Asayama, Kei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kollias, Anastasios; Niiranen, Teemu J; Hozawa, Atsushi; Boggia, José; Johansson, Jouni K; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Jula, Antti M; Imai, Yutaka; Staessen, Jan A

    2014-04-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is useful in detecting white-coat and masked hypertension and is recommended for patients with suspected or treated hypertension. The prognostic significance of white-coat and masked hypertension detected by home measurement was investigated in 6458 participants from 5 populations enrolled in the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. During a median follow-up of 8.3 years, 714 fatal plus nonfatal cardiovascular events occurred. Among untreated subjects (n=5007), cardiovascular risk was higher in those with white-coat hypertension (adjusted hazard ratio 1.42; 95% CI [1.06-1.91]; P=0.02), masked hypertension (1.55; 95% CI [1.12-2.14]; Phypertension (2.13; 95% CI [1.66-2.73]; Pblood pressure (white-coat) and treated controlled subjects (low office and home blood pressure; 1.16; 95% CI [0.79-1.72]; P=0.45). However, treated subjects with masked hypertension (low office and high home blood pressure; 1.76; 95% CI [1.23-2.53]; P=0.002) and uncontrolled hypertension (high office and home blood pressure; 1.40; 95% CI [1.02-1.94]; P=0.04) had higher cardiovascular risk than treated controlled patients. In conclusion, white-coat hypertension assessed by home measurements is a cardiovascular risk factor in untreated but not in treated subjects probably because the latter receive effective treatment on the basis of their elevated office blood pressure. In contrast, masked uncontrolled hypertension is associated with increased cardiovascular risk in both untreated and treated patients, who are probably undertreated because of their low office blood pressure.

  16. Blood lead level in dogs from urban and rural areas of India and its relation to animal and environmental variables

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is a common environmental pollutant with deleterious health effects on human and animal. Industrial and other human activities enhance the lead level in the environment leading to its higher residues in exposed population. The present study was aimed at determining blood lead concentration in dogs from two urban areas and in surrounding rural areas of India and analyzing lead level in dogs in relation to environmental (urban/ rural) and animal (age, sex, breed and housing) variables. Blood samples were collected from 305 dogs of either sex from urban (n = 277) and unpolluted rural localities (n = 28). Irrespective of breed, age and sex, the urban dogs had significantly (P < 0.01) higher mean blood lead concentration (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than rural dogs (0.10 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The mean blood lead level in stray dogs either from urban or rural locality (0.27 ± 0.01 μg/ml) was significantly (P < 0.01) higher than that of pets (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml), and the blood lead concentration was significantly higher in nondescript dogs (0.25 ± 0.01 μg/ml) than pedigreed dogs (0.20 ± 0.01 μg/ml). The locality (urban/rural) was the major variable affecting blood lead concentration in dogs. Breed and housing of the dogs of urban areas and only housing (pet/stray) in rural areas significantly (P < 0.01) influenced the blood lead concentration in dogs

  17. Relating Productivity Events to Holocene Bivalve Shell Growth Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huntley, J. W.; Krause, R. A.; Kowalewski, M.; Romanek, C. S.; Kaufman, D. S.; Simoes, M. G.

    2007-12-01

    The growth rate of a bivalve can be influenced by many environmental factors that can change during the life of the organism. In this contribution we present initial data from a millennium scale chronology to assess the relationship between ontogenetic growth in the bivalve Semele casali and paleoenvironmental conditions preserved in the shell using growth increment analysis, radiocarbon-calibrated amino acid racemization dating techniques, stable isotopes (C and O) and high spatial resolution (125-150 samples per cm of shell profile) trace element (Ba, Mn) analysis (LA-ICPMS). Time-averaged specimens of S. casali were dredged from two sites at 10 meters and 30 meters depth along the inner continental shelf at Ubatuba Bay in the Southeast Brazilian Bight, an area influenced by productivity pulses triggered by coastal runoff events and coastal upwelling. Seventy-five individual valves were dated using amino acid racemization (aspartic acid). Dates were calculated using an expanded version of a previously published relationship (Barbour Wood et al., 2006 Quaternary Research 323- 331) between aspartic acid ratios and AMS radiocarbon dates of twelve S. casali individuals from the same sampling locations. The resulting time series has complete coverage for the past three thousand years at centennial resolution. From this time series, a sub-sample of dated valves was selected for more detailed growth increment, stable isotope and high-resolution trace element (Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca) analyses. Oceanic productivity is expressed differentially in the trace element profiles of S. casali with elevated Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca ratios capturing nutrient input through coastal runoff events while elevated Ba/Ca and depressed Mn/Ca ratios represent input through coastal upwelling. Fluctuations in Ba/Ca and Mn/Ca are not correlated to fluctuations in relative growth throughout the ontogeny of an individual bivalve, nor are they expected to be as periods of increased productivity are transient

  18. Hemolysis is associated with low reticulocyte production index and predicts blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Fendel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA, a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU (interquartile range (IR: 2.2-9.6 vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3-3.9, p<0.01. Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1, CD55 (decay acceleration factor and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, alpha-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin, which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI: 8.9-427. Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  19. Retrospective evaluation of adverse transfusion reactions following blood product transfusion from a tertiary care hospital: A preliminary step towards hemovigilance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Praveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The goal of hemovigilance is to increase the safety and quality of blood transfusion. Identification of the adverse reactions will help in taking appropriate steps to reduce their incidence and make blood transfusion process as safe as possible. Aims : To determine the frequency and type of transfusion reactions (TRs occurring in patients, reported to the blood bank at our institute. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of all TRs reported to the blood bank at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences, between December 2007 and April 2012 was done. All the TRs were evaluated in the blood bank and classified using standard definitions. Results: During the study period a total of 380,658 bloods and blood components were issued by our blood bank. Out of the total 196 adverse reactions reported under the hemovigilance system, the most common type of reaction observed was allergic 55.1% (n = 108, followed by febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reaction (FNHTR 35.7% (n = 70. Other less frequently observed reactions were Anaphylactoid reactions 5.1% (n = 10, Acute non-immune HTRs 2.6% (n = 5, Circulatory overload 0.5% (n = 1, Transfusion related acute lung injury 0.5% (n = 1, Delayed HTRs 0.5% (n = 1. Not a single case of bacterial contamination was observed. Conclusion: The frequency of TRs in our patients was found to be 0.05% (196 out of 380,658. This can be an underestimation of the true incidence because of under reporting. It should be the responsibility of the blood transfusion consultant to create awareness amongst their clinical counterpart about safe transfusion practices so that proper hemovigilance system can be achieved to provide better patient care.

  20. Blood Sugar Values and Intestine Mucosa Integrity in Suckling Pigs in Relation to their Nutritional Status

    OpenAIRE

    Olga Rada; Horea Sărăndan; Liliana Vasile; Diana Argherie

    2010-01-01

    The experiment included 106 healthy piglets aged 1-14 days and 38 piglets suffering from diarrhoea, aged 1-7 days. The blood sugar was measured with the help of Accu-chek Go (Roche Diagnostics GMBH, Germany) halfway between two sucklings. Segments with duodenum, jejunum and ileum were harvested from the diarrhoea suffering piglets and coloured HE preparations were examined under a stereoscopic magnifying glass and the microscope. With healthy piglets, the average blood sugar was of 61.55±10.2...

  1. Mercury in human brain, blood, muscle and toenails in relation to exposure: an autopsy study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morild Inge

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main forms of mercury (Hg exposure in the general population are methylmercury (MeHg from seafood, inorganic mercury (I-Hg from food, and mercury vapor (Hg0 from dental amalgam restorations. While the distribution of MeHg in the body is described by a one compartment model, the distribution of I-Hg after exposure to elemental mercury is more complex, and there is no biomarker for I-Hg in the brain. The aim of this study was to elucidate the relationships between on the one hand MeHg and I-Hg in human brain and other tissues, including blood, and on the other Hg exposure via dental amalgam in a fish-eating population. In addition, the use of blood and toenails as biological indicator media for inorganic and organic mercury (MeHg in the tissues was evaluated. Methods Samples of blood, brain (occipital lobe cortex, pituitary, thyroid, abdominal muscle and toenails were collected at autopsy of 30 deceased individuals, age from 47 to 91 years of age. Concentrations of total-Hg and I-Hg in blood and brain cortex were determined by cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectrometry and total-Hg in other tissues by sector field inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-SFMS. Results The median concentrations of MeHg (total-Hg minus I-Hg and I-Hg in blood were 2.2 and 1.0 μg/L, and in occipital lobe cortex 4 and 5 μg/kg, respectively. There was a significant correlation between MeHg in blood and occipital cortex. Also, total-Hg in toenails correlated with MeHg in both blood and occipital lobe. I-Hg in both blood and occipital cortex, as well as total-Hg in pituitary and thyroid were strongly associated with the number of dental amalgam surfaces at the time of death. Conclusion In a fish-eating population, intake of MeHg via the diet has a marked impact on the MeHg concentration in the brain, while exposure to dental amalgam restorations increases the I-Hg concentrations in the brain. Discrimination between mercury species is

  2. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch.

  3. Relationship between office and home blood pressure with increasing age: The International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntineri, Angeliki; Stergiou, George S; Thijs, Lutgarde; Asayama, Kei; Boggia, José; Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Hozawa, Atsushi; Imai, Yutaka; Johansson, Jouni K; Jula, Antti M; Kollias, Anastasios; Luzardo, Leonella; Niiranen, Teemu J; Nomura, Kyoko; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Tsuji, Ichiro; Tzourio, Christophe; Wei, Fang-Fei; Staessen, Jan A

    2016-08-01

    Home blood pressure (HBP) measurements are known to be lower than conventional office blood pressure (OBP) measurements. However, this difference might not be consistent across the entire age range and has not been adequately investigated. We assessed the relationship between OBP and HBP with increasing age using the International Database of HOme blood pressure in relation to Cardiovascular Outcome (IDHOCO). OBP, HBP and their difference were assessed across different decades of age. A total of 5689 untreated subjects aged 18-97 years, who had at least two OBP and HBP measurements, were included. Systolic OBP and HBP increased across older age categories (from 112 to 142 mm Hg and from 109 to 136 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being higher than HBP by ∼7 mm Hg in subjects aged >30 years and lesser in younger subjects (P=0.001). Both diastolic OBP and HBP increased until the age of ∼50 years (from 71 to 79 mm Hg and from 66 to 76 mm Hg, respectively), with OBP being consistently higher than HBP and a trend toward a decreased OBP-HBP difference with aging (PDeterminants of a larger OBP-HBP difference were younger age, sustained hypertension, nonsmoking and negative cardiovascular disease history. These data suggest that in the general adult population, HBP is consistently lower than OBP across all the decades, but their difference might vary between age groups. Further research is needed to confirm these findings in younger and older subjects and in hypertensive individuals. PMID:27053011

  4. A Blood Bank Information Management System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmer, James J.

    1982-01-01

    A computerized Blood Bank Management system is described. Features include product oriented data input, inventory control reports, product utilization reports, rapid retrieval of individual patient reports. Relative benefits of the system are discussed.

  5. Premature culling of production animals; ethical questions related to killing animals in food production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruijnis, M.R.N.; Meijboom, F.L.B.; Stassen, E.N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this chapter is to analyse the importance of longevity in relation to the welfare of production animals. I hypothesize that the concept of longevity helps to support the moral intuition that premature culling of animals is a moral wrong. The analysis shows that the interpretation of the c

  6. Productivity developments in European agriculture: relations to and opportunities for biomass production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, M.P.; Londo, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses if, how fast and to what maximum yield improvements can be realized in Europe in the coming decades and what the opportunities and relations are to biomass production. The starting point for the analysis is the historic context of developments in European agriculture over the pa

  7. Effects of Montelukast on free radical production in whole blood and isolated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in asthmatic children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Saadi, Muslim M.; Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Mustafa, Ali; Shafi, Ahmed; Tuwajri, Ali S. Al

    2011-01-01

    Montelukast is a highly selective leukotriene-receptor antagonist (LTRA). It is widely used in the treatment of bronchial asthma, primarily as an adjunct to corticosteroids. Reactive oxygen species (ROSs) play an important role in the pathogenesis of asthma and oxidative stress contributing to the initiation and worsening of inflammatory respiratory disorders, such as asthma. Antioxidant drugs may have a role in minimizing or preventing damage in asthmatic children. The aim of this study was to assess the antioxidant effect of montelukast on the production of free radicals in the whole blood and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) in asthmatic children. A group of 48 (38 males and 10 females), apparently healthy asthmatic children were recruited with ages ranging between 6 and 14 years. In asthmatic children, base line (premedication) and post medication free radicals activity in the whole blood and polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) was determined by measuring chemiluminescence (CL) response through chemiluminescence luminometer. Free radical productions were significantly decreased in the whole blood, when stimulated with Phorbol Myristate Acetate (p < 0.04) and Opsonised Zymosan (p < 0.05). The free radicals were also significantly decreased in isolated polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) when stimulated with Opsonised Zymosan (p < 0.05) after the post medication treatment of montelukast in asthmatic children. Montelukast decreased the reactive oxygen species production, both in the whole blood as well as isolated PMNs in asthmatic children. PMID:23960762

  8. EFFECTS OF AN EIGHT-WEEK ATORVASTATIN TREATMENT ON SPONTANEOUS CYTOKINE PRODUCTION BY THE BLOOD MONONUCLEAR LEUKOCYTES IN METABOLIC SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. D. Bespalovа

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess effects of the eight-week course of atorvastatin therapy upon the levels of spontaneous cytokine production by mononuclear blood leukocytes (MNBC in metabolic syndrome. An open-label prospective study included 36 patients with stage II hypertension (blood pressure < 180/110 mm Hg. accomplished by metabolic syndrome. Along with clinical surveys performed at a specialized cardiological clinics, we assessed spontaneous cytokine production by MNBC during treatment with atorvastatin. It was shown that the 8-week treatment of these patients with atorvaststin, at individually matched daily doses (20to 40 mg was associated with reduced serum concentration of acute phase proteins (C-reactive protein and neopterin, as well as decreased spontaneous production of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα by MNBCs. The latter finding is of great importance for pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome.

  9. Time related variations in stem cell harvesting of umbilical cord blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi; Miscio, Giuseppe; Fontana, Andrea; Copetti, Massimiliano; Francavilla, Massimo; Bosi, Alberto; Perfetto, Federico; Valoriani, Alice; de Cata, Angelo; Santodirocco, Michele; Totaro, Angela; Rubino, Rosa; di Mauro, Lazzaro; Tarquini, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) contains hematopoietic stem cells and multipotent mesenchymal cells useful for treatment in malignant/nonmalignant hematologic-immunologic diseases and regenerative medicine. Transplantation outcome is correlated with cord blood volume (CBV), number of total nucleated cells (TNC), CD34+ progenitor cells and colony forming units in UCB donations. Several studies have addressed the role of maternal/neonatal factors associated with the hematopoietic reconstruction potential of UCB, including: gestational age, maternal parity, newborn sex and birth weight, placental weight, labor duration and mode of delivery. Few data exist regarding as to how time influences UCB collection and banking patterns. We retrospectively analyzed 17.936 cord blood donations collected from 1999 to 2011 from Tuscany and Apulia Cord Blood Banks. Results from generalized multivariable linear mixed models showed that CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell were associated with known obstetric and neonatal parameters and showed rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges. The present findings confirm that volume, total nucleated cells and stem cells of the UCB donations are hallmarked by rhythmic patterns in different time domains and frequency ranges and suggest that temporal rhythms in addition to known obstetric and neonatal parameters influence CBV, TNC and CD34+ cell content in UBC units.

  10. Age related blood flow around the Achilles tendon during exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langberg, Henning; Olesen, J; Skovgaard, D;

    2001-01-01

    Injuries due to the overuse of tendons increase with age, and it has been suggested that this correlates with hypovascularity of the tendon. In the present study, the peritendinous blood flow was determined using xenon-133 washout at rest and during standardised intermittent exercise of the calf-muscle...

  11. The relation between the blood benzodiazepine concentration and performance in suspected impaired drivers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smink, B.E.; Lusthof, K.J.; de Gier, J.J.; Uges, D.R.; Egberts, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Several experimental studies have shown a negative influence of benzodiazepines on driving skills. The objective of this study is to study the relationship between the blood concentration of benzodiazepines and the influence on performance in field sobriety tests. A retrospective case file evaluatio

  12. Acute and Conditioned Blood Pressure Changes in Relation to Social and Psychosocial Stimuli in Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    1985-01-01

    The naturally occurring tendency to compete with other rats for territorial space has been used to study individual behavior characteristics and blood pressure reactivity to social stimuli in adult male TMD-S3 rats. The competitive characteristics of the individual rats are consistent in two differe

  13. Related factors and prognostic significance of intradialytic blood pressure variability in patients on maintenance hemodialysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷立杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate intradialytic blood pressure variability (BPV) in patients on maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) ,and to investigate the correlated factors of BPV in MHD process and its correlation with prognosis.Methods Patients with end stage renal disease on MHD before January 1,2009 were enrolled and analyzed retro-

  14. Changes of metabolic syndrome related indexes before and after blood donation in blood donors%献血前后代谢综合征相关血液指标变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡珍; 罗琼

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the significance of blood donation in preventing metabolic syndrome (MS)by analyzing the changes of the blood pressure and the related biochemical indexes before and after blood donation in the blood donors with high risk of MS.Methods The blood specimens of 102 blood donors,aged 45 -55 years old with the systolic blood pressure of 110 -140 mmHg and the diastolic blood pressure of 75 -90 mmHg,the body mass index> 24 kg/m2 ,were selected as the subjects.The blood pressure,heart rate,iron reserves,blood glucose,blood lipids,and the other indicators were determined before blood donation. All the above indicators were tested again on 42 d after blood donation.Results The blood pressure,iron reserves,blood glucose and LDL/HDL ratio after donation showed significant changes compared with before blood donation(P <0.05 ).Conclusion The changes of the MS related blood indexes exist before and after blood donation,blood donation has a certain significance for preven-ting MS in the blood donors with high risk of MS.%目的:分析代谢综合征(MS)的高危献血者献血前后的血压及相关生化指标来探讨献血对预防 MS 的意义。方法研究对象为男性或绝经后女性共102例,年龄45~55岁,收缩压110~140 mm Hg,舒张压75~90 mm Hg,体质量指数大于24 kg/m2,献血前测定血压、心率、铁储量、血糖、血脂等指标与献血42 d 后再测定相同指标进行比较。结果血压、铁储量、血糖、低密度脂蛋白/高密度脂蛋白(LDL/HDL)与献血前比较差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论献血前后 MS 相关血液指标存在变化,献血对于 MS 高危者预防 MS 具有一定意义。

  15. Visual salience modulates structure choice in relative clause production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montag, Jessica L; MacDonald, Maryellen C

    2014-06-01

    The role of visual salience on utterance form was investigated in a picture description study. Participants heard spoken questions about animate or inanimate entities in a picture and produced a relative clause in response. Visual properties of the scenes affected production choices such that less salient inanimate entities tended to yield longer initiation latencies and to be described with passive relative clauses more than visually salient inanimates. We suggest that the participants' question-answering task can change as a function of visual salience of entities in the picture. Less salient entities require a longer visual search of the scene, which causes the speaker to notice or attend more to the non-target competitors in the picture. As a result, it becomes more important in answering the question for the speaker to contrast the target item with a salient competitor. This effect is different from other effects of visual salience, which tend to find that more salient entities take more prominent grammatical roles in the sentence. We interpret this discrepancy as evidence that visual salience does not have a single effect on sentence production, but rather its effect is modulated by task and linguistic context.

  16. Statistics-related and reliability-physics-related failure processes in electronics devices and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suhir, E.

    2014-05-01

    The well known and widely used experimental reliability "passport" of a mass manufactured electronic or a photonic product — the bathtub curve — reflects the combined contribution of the statistics-related and reliability-physics (physics-of-failure)-related processes. When time progresses, the first process results in a decreasing failure rate, while the second process associated with the material aging and degradation leads to an increased failure rate. An attempt has been made in this analysis to assess the level of the reliability physics-related aging process from the available bathtub curve (diagram). It is assumed that the products of interest underwent the burn-in testing and therefore the obtained bathtub curve does not contain the infant mortality portion. It has been also assumed that the two random processes in question are statistically independent, and that the failure rate of the physical process can be obtained by deducting the theoretically assessed statistical failure rate from the bathtub curve ordinates. In the carried out numerical example, the Raleigh distribution for the statistical failure rate was used, for the sake of a relatively simple illustration. The developed methodology can be used in reliability physics evaluations, when there is a need to better understand the roles of the statistics-related and reliability-physics-related irreversible random processes in reliability evaluations. The future work should include investigations on how powerful and flexible methods and approaches of the statistical mechanics can be effectively employed, in addition to reliability physics techniques, to model the operational reliability of electronic and photonic products.

  17. Production of dendritic cells and cytokine-induced killer cells from banked umbilical cord blood samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phuc Van Pham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Umbilical cord blood (UCB is considered to be a source of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs. All UCB banks have recently become interested in the isolation and storage of HSCs for the treatment of hematological diseases. However, UCB was also recently confirmed as a source of immune cells for immunotherapy such as dendritic cells (DCs and cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs. This study aimed to exploit this source of immune cells in banked UCB samples. After collection of UCB samples, mononuclear cells (MNCs containing stem cells, progenitor cells, and mature cells were isolated by Ficoll-Hypaque-based centrifugation. The MNCs were subjected to freezing and thawing according to a previously published protocol. The banked MNCs were used to produce DCs and CIKs. To produce DCs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented with GM-CSF (50 ng/ml and IL-4 (40 ng/ml for 14 days. To produce CIKs, MNCs were induced in RPMI 1640 medium supplemented an anti-CD3 monoclonal antibody, IL-3, and GMC-SF for 21 and ndash;28 days. Both DCs and CIKs were evaluated for their phenotypes and functions according to previously published protocols. The results showed that banked UCB samples can be successfully used to produce functional DCs and CIKs. These samples are valuable sources of immune cells for immunotherapy. The present results suggest that banked UCB samples are useful not only for stem cell isolation, but also for immune cell production. [Biomed Res Ther 2015; 2(11.000: 402-408

  18. A Stochastic Simulator of a Blood Product Donation Environment with Demand Spikes and Supply Shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Ming-Wen; Reich, Nicholas G.; Crawford, Stephen O.; Brookmeyer, Ron; Louis, Thomas A.; Nelson, Kenrad E.

    2011-01-01

    The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular), immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an -week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries), and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during –. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts. PMID:21814550

  19. A stochastic simulator of a blood product donation environment with demand spikes and supply shocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Wen An

    Full Text Available The availability of an adequate blood supply is a critical public health need. An influenza epidemic or another crisis affecting population mobility could create a critical donor shortage, which could profoundly impact blood availability. We developed a simulation model for the blood supply environment in the United States to assess the likely impact on blood availability of factors such as an epidemic. We developed a simulator of a multi-state model with transitions among states. Weekly numbers of blood units donated and needed were generated by negative binomial stochastic processes. The simulator allows exploration of the blood system under certain conditions of supply and demand rates, and can be used for planning purposes to prepare for sudden changes in the public's health. The simulator incorporates three donor groups (first-time, sporadic, and regular, immigration and emigration, deferral period, and adjustment factors for recruitment. We illustrate possible uses of the simulator by specifying input values for an 8-week flu epidemic, resulting in a moderate supply shock and demand spike (for example, from postponed elective surgeries, and different recruitment strategies. The input values are based in part on data from a regional blood center of the American Red Cross during 1996-2005. Our results from these scenarios suggest that the key to alleviating deficit effects of a system shock may be appropriate timing and duration of recruitment efforts, in turn depending critically on anticipating shocks and rapidly implementing recruitment efforts.

  20. Omega-3 fatty acids improve psychomotor performance via mechanism not related to nitric acid production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwan S. M. Al-Nimer

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Omega-3 fatty acids (ω-3FAs are essential polyunsaturated fats that protect the brain from cognitive impairment. It increases the activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthetase (eNOS and thereby increases the nitric acid (NO production. This study aimed to explore the effect of ω-3FAs on psychomotor performance and to relate this effect to the reactive nitrogen species. This study was conducted in Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Al-Mustansiriya University in Baghdad, Iraq. Twenty healthy subjects, allocated randomly from medical college students, were participated in the single blind clinical trial. Participants were divided into two groups, each of ten subjects to receive either placebo or (ω-3FAs (750 mg single oral dose daily for 5 days. They were asked to perform psychomotor performance before and after 5 days of treatment, and venous blood was obtained for determination of serum nitric oxide (NO and peroxynitrite (ONOO. ω-3FAs treated group was significantly different from placebo-treated group in reducing choice and motor reaction times as well as the critical flicker frequency threshold. The serum levels of NO and ONOO in ω-3FAs-treated group did not significantly differ from placebo-treated group. Short term supplementation of ω-3FAs improves the psychomotor performance in young healthy subjects via a mechanism not related to the production of nitric oxide production. Inflorescence is a panicle few flowered and fruit is a capsule. The data of the results obtained were presented and discussed.

  1. The age-related deficit in LTP is associated with changes in perfusion and blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Christoph W; Cowley, Thelma R; O'Sullivan, Joan; Grehan, Belinda; Browne, Tara C; Kelly, Laura; Birch, Amy; Murphy, Niamh; Kelly, Aine M; Kerskens, Christian M; Lynch, Marina A

    2012-05-01

    In view of the increase in the aging population and the unavoidable parallel increase in the incidence of age-related neurodegenerative diseases, a key challenge in neuroscience is the identification of clinical signatures which change with age and impact on neuronal and cognitive function. Early diagnosis offers the possibility of early therapeutic intervention, thus magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is potentially a powerful diagnostic tool. We evaluated age-related changes in relaxometry, blood flow, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability in the rat by magnetic resonance imaging and assessed these changes in the context of the age-related decrease in synaptic plasticity. We report that T2 relaxation time was decreased with age; this was coupled with a decrease in gray matter perfusion, suggesting that the observed microglial activation, as identified by increased expression of CD11b, MHCII, and CD68 by immunohistochemistry, flow cytometry, or polymerase chain reaction (PCR), might be a downstream consequence of these changes. Increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier was observed in the perivascular area and the hippocampus of aged, compared with young, rats. Similarly there was an age-related increase in CD45-positive cells by flow cytometry, which are most likely infiltrating macrophages, with a parallel increase in the messenger mRNA expression of chemokines IP-10 and MCP-1. These combined changes may contribute to the deficit in long-term potentiation (LTP) in perforant path-granule cell synapses of aged animals.

  2. Age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased proportion of CD56(+) T cells in peripheral blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Singh, Amardeep; Krüger Falk, Mads;

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: To examine the association between age-related changes in the T-cell compartment and prevalence of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). DESIGN: Case-control study. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 117 AMD cases and 106 controls were included prospectively. METHODS: Fresh-drawn peripheral blood...... samples were processed for flow cytometric analysis of T-cell populations. Plasma samples were analyzed for anti-cytomegalovirus (CMV) immunoglobulin (Ig)G and complement factor H (CFH) Y402H genotype. The diagnosis of AMD was made according to the Clinical Age-Related Maculopathy Staging System. MAIN...

  3. Erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B in relation to atherosclerosis, serum lipids and ABO blood group.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boudewijn Klop

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Erythrocytes carry apolipoprotein B on their membrane, but the determining factors of erythrocyte-bound apolipoprotein B (ery-apoB are unknown. We aimed to explore the determinants of ery-apoB to gain more insight into potential mechanisms. METHODS: Subjects with and without CVD were included (N = 398. Ery-apoB was measured on fresh whole blood samples using flow cytometry. Subjects with ery-apoB levels ≤ 0.20 a.u. were considered deficient. Carotid intima media thickness (CIMT was determined as a measure of (subclinical atherosclerosis. RESULTS: Mean ery-apoB value was 23.2% lower in subjects with increased CIMT (0.80 ± 0.09 mm, N = 140 compared to subjects with a normal CIMT (0.57 ± 0.08 mm, N = 258 (P = 0.007, adjusted P<0.001. CIMT and ery-apoB were inversely correlated (Spearman's r: -0.116, P = 0.021. A total of 55 subjects (13.6% were considered ery-apoB deficient, which was associated with a medical history of CVD (OR: 1.86, 95% CI 1.04-3.33; adjusted OR: 1.55; 95% CI 0.85-2.82. Discontinuation of statins in 54 subjects did not influence ery-apoB values despite a 58.4% increase in serum apolipoprotein B. Subjects with blood group O had significantly higher ery-apoB values (1.56 ± 0.94 a.u. when compared to subjects with blood group A (0.89 ± 1.15 a.u, blood group B (0.73 ± 0.1.12 a.u. or blood group AB (0.69 ± 0.69 a.u. (P-ANOVA = 0.002. CONCLUSION: Absence or very low values of ery-apoB are associated with clinical and subclinical atherosclerosis. While serum apolipoprotein B is not associated with ery-apoB, the ABO blood group seems to be a significant determinant.

  4. [The comparative characteristic of cytokine production in serum and whole blood in patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschina, L A; Baranova, N I; Kojenkova, S V

    2015-03-01

    The sampling of 100 patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash and control group of 30 healthy donors was analyzed for identification of level of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18 and γ-interferon (IFN) in serum of patients. The same sampling was examined using method ex vivo for spontaneous and induced production by cells of immune system. In patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash increasing of spontaneous production of IL-4 and spontaneous and induced production of IL-17 and IFN was identified. The decreasing of spontaneous and induced production of IL-18 was detected too. These occurrences indicate to simultaneous activation of Th1, Th2 and Th17-population of T-lymphocytes. The analysis of level of cytokines in blood serum established only decreasing of level of IL-4 in patients with chronic autoimmune nettle rash as compared with healthy individuals. The level of other analyzed cytokines had no reliable differences that demonstrate both low informativeness of detection ofcontent of cytokines in blood serum and advantage of application of method ex vivo with detection of level of cytokines in whole blood. PMID:26031163

  5. Aircraft vibration and other factors related to high systolic blood pressure in Indonesian Air Force pilots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minarma Siagian

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Penerbangan dapat berdampak pada sistem kardiovaskular manusia. Penerbang terpajan antara lain pada bising dan vibrasi pesawat. Penelitian bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh beberapa faktor penerbangan pada tekanan darah sistolik.Metode: Penelitian nested case-control dilakukan pada penerbang Angkatan Udara Republik Indonesia yang melakukan pemeriksaan fisik tahunan di Lembaga Kesehatan Penerbangan dan Ruang Angkasa (LAKESPRA Saryanto tahun 2003–2008. Data yang diperoleh dari rekam medik berupa umur, jumlah jam terbang, jenis pesawat, kadar glukosa puasa dan kadar kholesterol darah, lingkaran pinggang, tinggi dan berat badan, tinggi badan, serta tekanan darah.Hasil: Dari 336 penerbang, terdapat 16 penerbanga dengan tekanan sistolik ³ 140 mmHg. Penerbang dengan rata-rata jam penerbangan 300-622 jam per tahun dibandingkan dengan 29-299 jam per tahun mempunyai risiko peningkatan tekanan darah sistolik tinggi sebesarf 5 kali [rasio odds suaian (ORa = 5,05, 95% interval kepercayaan (CI = 0,88 -23,30, P = 0,070]. Menurut jam terbang total, mereka yang memiliki 1.401-1,1125 jam dibandingkan 147-1.400 jam berisiko 3,6 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 3,58, 95% CI = 1,24-10,38. Selain itu, mereka dengan denyut nadi istirahat tinggi dibandingkan dengan denyut nadi normal istirahat memiliki 2,4 kali mengalami tekanan darah sistolik tinggi (ORa = 2,37, CI = 0,74-7,50 95, P = 0,147].Kesimpulan: Vibrasi pesawat terbang tinggi, rata-rata jam terbang per tahun tinggi, dan frekuensi nadi istirahat yang tinggi meningkatkan risiko tekanan sistolik tinggi.Kata kunci:tekanan darah sistolik, vibrasi pesawat terbang, frekuensi nadi istirahat, pilotAbstractBackground:Flight may affect the human cardiovascular system. Pilots are exposed among others to aircraft noise and vibration. This study aimed to investigate the effects of aircraft flight on systolic blood pressure.Methods:A nested case-control study was conducted on

  6. The product of resting heart rate times blood pressure is associated with high brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anxin Wang

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential associations between resting heart rate, blood pressure and the product of both, and the brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity (baPWV as a maker of arterial stiffness. METHODS: The community-based "Asymptomatic Polyvascular Abnormalities in Community (APAC Study" examined asymptomatic polyvascular abnormalities in a general Chinese population and included participants with an age of 40+ years without history of stroke and coronary heart disease. Arterial stiffness was defined as baPWV≥1400 cm/s. We measured and calculated the product of resting heart rate and systolic blood pressure (RHR-SBP and the product of resting heart rate and mean arterial pressure (RHR-MAP. RESULTS: The study included 5153 participants with a mean age of 55.1 ± 11.8 years. Mean baPWV was 1586 ± 400 cm/s. Significant (P<0.0001 linear relationships were found between higher baPWV and higher resting heart rate or higher arterial blood pressure, with the highest baPWV observed in individuals from the highest quartiles of resting heart rate and blood pressure. After adjusting for confounding parameters such as age, sex, educational level, body mass index, fasting blood concentrations of glucose, blood lipids and high-sensitive C-reactive protein, smoking status and alcohol consumption, prevalence of arterial stiffness increased significantly (P<0.0001 with increasing RHR-SBP quartile (Odds Ratio (OR: 2.72;95%Confidence interval (CI:1.46,5.08 and increasing RHR-MAP (OR:2.10;95%CI:1.18,3.72. Similar results were obtained in multivariate linear regression analyses with baPWV as continuous variable. CONCLUSIONS: Higher baPWV as a marker of arterial stiffness was associated with a higher product of RHR-SBP and RHR-MAP in multivariate analysis. In addition to other vascular risk factors, higher resting heart rate in combination with higher blood pressure are risk factors for arterial stiffness.

  7. Role of fluid shear stress in regulating VWF structure, function and related blood disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogia, Shobhit; Neelamegham, Sriram

    2015-01-01

    Von Willebrand factor (VWF) is the largest glycoprotein in blood. It plays a crucial role in primary hemostasis via its binding interaction with platelet and endothelial cell surface receptors, other blood proteins and extra-cellular matrix components. This protein is found as a series of repeat units that are disulfide bonded to form multimeric structures. Once in blood, the protein multimer distribution is dynamically regulated by fluid shear stress which has two opposing effects: it promotes the aggregation or self-association of multiple VWF units, and it simultaneously reduces multimer size by facilitating the force-dependent cleavage of the protein by various proteases, most notably ADAMTS13 (a disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type repeats, motif 1 type 13). In addition to these effects, fluid shear also controls the solution and substrate-immobilized structure of VWF, the nature of contact between blood platelets and substrates, and the biomechanics of the GpIbα-VWF bond. These features together regulate different physiological and pathological processes including normal hemostasis, arterial and venous thrombosis, von Willebrand disease, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. This article discusses current knowledge of VWF structure-function relationships with emphasis on the effects of hydrodynamic shear, including rapid methods to estimate the nature and magnitude of these forces in selected conditions. It shows that observations made by many investigators using solution and substrate-based shearing devices can be reconciled upon considering the physical size of VWF and the applied mechanical force in these different geometries. PMID:26600266

  8. In vitro cytokine production and phenotype expression by blood mononuclear cells from umbilical cords, children and adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Müller, K; Zak, M; Nielsen, S;

    1996-01-01

    , and unmeasurable levels in cord blood MNC. Flow cytometry analysis of the phenotypic distribution of MNC revealed age related differences in the expression of CD3, CD4, CD8, CD14, CD19, CD45RA, CD45R0, CD2, LFA-1, ICAM-1 and LFA-3. Correlation studies did not indicate that the observed differences in cytokine...

  9. Blood pressure levels and longitudinal changes in relation to social network factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Eriksson Sörman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between social network variables andlevels of and longitudinal changes in blood pressure in a middle-aged/older sample. Theparticipants (50-75 years at baseline; n=1097 responded to questions concerning socialrelationships at baseline and their blood pressure (diastolic, systolic was measured. Bloodpressure levels were reassessed 5, 10, and 15 years later. Latent growth models with responses toquestions concerning social relationships as predictors and basic demographic factors (age, sex ascovariates, unexpectedly indicated that a more limited social network (no close friend, few visits,little contact with friends in other ways, not living with someone, and a composite index based onall questions was associated with significantly lower diastolic blood pressure levels. For systolicblood pressure a similar result was observed for one of the variables (lack of a close friend. Ingeneral, these effects diminished over time, as indexed by the positive relationship between severalof the social variables and slope. The results were little affected by inclusion of additionalcovariates (e.g. measures of psychological distress, smoking/alcohol habits, and BMI suggestingthat the origins of this unexpected pattern of findings must probably be sought for in other subjectrelatedfactors, such as, for example, increased help seeking. Future studies should considerqualitative aspects (e.g. feelings of loneliness, quality of social relationships in addition tostructural aspects to provide a better understanding of these associations.

  10. Conditioned insulin and blood sugar responses in humans in relation to binge eating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overduin, J; Jansen, A

    1997-04-01

    This study proposed to demonstrate a classically conditioned blood sugar decrease in humans and to clarify its relevance for binge eating. Six conditioning trials were run in healthy females. The conditioned stimulus (CS) was a compound peppermint flavor/fragrance, whereas the unconditioned stimulus (UCS) consisted of 50 g of oral glucose. Control subjects received an aspartame drink as the UCS. Ad lib glucose intake, blood parameters, and subjective craving were monitored before and after conditioning. Results showed that the experimental group failed to show conditioned blood sugar and glucagon decreases or C-Peptide increases. Although an increased insulin response was found in the experimental group, the effect size did not exceed that of spontaneous fluctuations. No increases in craving for sweet substances were found. An impressive increase (mean: 78%) in glucose intake after conditioning was found in both conditions, as well as in a subsequently run third condition with plain water as the UCS. The increased glucose intake probably resulted from an initial neophobia to the laboratory setting that subsided as subjects had experienced more lab sessions. Importantly, because no conditioned hypoglycemia occurred in the present study, its relationship with subjectively experienced craving for sweet substance could not be determined. PMID:9108577

  11. [Correlation between Staphylococcus carriage, specific antibody-production and AB0-blood grouping in plasma donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemyrovs'ka, L M; Patoka, V V

    2002-01-01

    Interaction peculiarities of three components of the immune human homeostasis-antigens of blood groups AB0, staphylococcus antigens and antistaphylococcus antibodies have been investigated. Donors (85) of antistaphylococcus plasma immunized by staphylococcus anatoxin have been investigated. It is found that the nasal staphylococcus carriage in donors depends on the level of specific and natural antibodies and on the coincidence between the staphylococcus antigen structure and the protein substance of the specific blood group factors. PMID:12190026

  12. Blood Products and the Commodification Debate: The Blurry Concept of Altruism and the 'Implicit Price' of Readily Available Body Parts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufner, Annette

    2015-12-01

    There is a widespread consensus that a commodification of body parts is to be prevented. Numerous policy papers by international organizations extend this view to the blood supply and recommend a system of uncompensated volunteers in this area--often, however, without making the arguments for this view explicit. This situation seems to indicate that a relevant source of justified worry or unease about the blood supply system has to do with the issue of commodification. As a result, the current health minister of Ontario is proposing a ban on compensation even for blood plasma--despite the fact that Canada can only generate 30 % of the plasma needed for fractionation into important plasma protein products and has to purchase the rest abroad. In the following, I am going to suggest a number of alternative perspectives on the debate in order to facilitate a less dogmatic and more differentiated debate about the matter. Especially in light of the often over-simplified notions of altruism and commodification, I conclude that the debate has not conclusively established that it would be morally objectionable to provide blood plasma donors with monetary compensation or with other forms of explicit social recognition as an incentive. This is especially true of donations for fractionation into medicinal products by profit-oriented pharmaceutical companies. PMID:25471706

  13. The effects of aprotinin on blood product transfusion associated with thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Seigne, P W

    2012-02-03

    OBJECTIVE: To compare the effects of aprotinin on blood product use and postoperative complications in patients undergoing thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest. DESIGN: A retrospective study. SETTING: A university hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Nineteen patients who underwent elective or urgent thoracic aortic surgery. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The total number of units of packed red blood cells, fresh frozen plasma, and platelets was significantly less in the group that received aprotinin (p = 0.01, 0.04, and 0.01). The intraoperative transfusion of packed red blood cells and platelets, collection and retransfusion of cell saver, and postoperative transfusion of fresh frozen plasma were also significantly less in the aprotinin group (p = 0.01, 0.02, 0.01, and 0.05). No patient in either group sustained renal dysfunction or a myocardial infarction. Two patients who had not received aprotinin suffered from chronic postoperative seizures, and one patient who had received aprotinin sustained a perioperative stroke. CONCLUSIONS: Low-dose aprotinin administration significantly decreases blood product transfusion requirements in the setting of thoracic aortic surgery requiring deep hypothermic circulatory arrest, and it does not appear to be associated with renal or myocardial dysfunction.

  14. Signal pathways underlying homocysteine-induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in cultured human whole blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-kun ZENG; You-fei GUAN; Daniel G REMICK; Xian WANG

    2005-01-01

    Aim: To elucidate the mechanisms underlying homocysteine (Hcy)-induced chemokine production. Methods: Human whole blood was pretreated with inhibitors of calmodulin (CaM), protein kinase C (PKC), protein tyrosine kinase(PTK), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and NF-κB and activators of PPARγ for 60 min followed by incubation with Hcy 100 μmol/L for 32 h. The levels of mitogen chemokine protein (MCP)-1 and interleukin-8 (IL-8) were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA). Results: Inhibitors of PKC (calphostin C, 50-500 nmol/L and RO-31-8220, 10-100 nmol/L), CaM(W7, 28-280 μmol/L), ERK1/2 MAPK (PD 98059, 2-20 μmol/L), p38 MAPK(SB 203580, 0.6-6 μmol/L), JNK MAPK (curcumin, 2-10 μmol/L), and NF-κB(PDTC, 10-100 nmol/L) markedly reduced Hcy 100 μmol/L-induced production of MCP-1 and IL-8 in human cultured whole blood, but the inhibitors of PTK(genistein, 2.6-26 μmol/L and tyrphostin, 0.5-5 μmol/L) had no obvious effect on MCP-1 and IL-8 production. PPARγ activators (ciglitazone 30 μmol/L and troglitazone 10 μmol/L) depressed the Hcy-induced MCP-1 production but not IL-8 production in the cultured whole blood. Conclusion: Hcy-induced MCP-1 and IL-8 production is mediated by activated signaling pathways such as PKC,CaM, MAPK, and NF-κB. Our results not only provide clues for the signal transduction pathways mediating Hcy-induced chemokine production, but also offer a plausible explanation for a pathogenic role of hyperhomocysteinemia in these diseases.

  15. Fibronectin adsorption on surface-modified polyetherurethanes and their differentiated effect on specific blood elements related to inflammatory and clotting processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugoni, Ludivine; Montaño-Machado, Vanessa; Yang, Meilin; Pauthe, Emmanuel; Mantovani, Diego; Santerre, J Paul

    2016-01-01

    After the introduction of a medical device into the body, adhesive proteins such as fibronectin (Fn) will adsorb to the surface of the biomaterial. Monocytes (MCs) will interact with these adsorbed proteins, and adopt either a proinflammatory and/or prowound healing phenotype, thereby influencing many blood interaction events including thrombogenesis. In this work, Fn adsorption as well as subsequent MC response and thrombus formation were investigated on two surfaces-modified polyetherurethanes (PEUs) using different surface modifiers: an anionic/dihydroxyl oligomeric (ADO) additive, known to enable cell adhesion, and a fluorinated polypropylene oxide oligomer (PPO), known to reduce platelet adhesion. Results indicated that at 24 h of MC culture, PEU-ADO and PEU-PPO promoted an anti-inflammatory character relative to the base PEU. Longer clotting times, based on a free hemoglobin assay, were also found on the two surface-modified PEUs relative to the native one, suggesting their potential for the reduction of thrombus formation. In presence of a Fn monolayer, the surface-modified PEUs conserved a lower thrombogenic character than the base PEU, and was however significantly decreased when compared to prior protein adsorption. Furthermore, Fn coatings increased the MC production levels of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-10 at 24 h, while not affecting the anti-inflammatory effect of the modifications relative to the base PEU. This finding was most prominent on PEU-PPO, suggesting that the interaction of the adsorbed Fn with blood cells was different for the two additives. Hence, the results highlighted differentiating effects of Fn adsorption on specific blood activating processes related to inflammatory and thrombotic responses. PMID:27246517

  16. Hiring, Developing, and Organizing Individual Employees for New Product Development versus Product-related Service Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Mette Præst; Schleimer, Stephanie

    outcomes. An analysis of 335 survey responses of the multi-topic and multi-country European Manufacturing Survey (EMS) results in a number of interesting findings. First and foremost, although there are commonalities in organizing employees in flexible team arrangements for new product development versus......This study examines how manufacturing firms should organize their human resources by maximizing the value of individual employees for different forms of innovations. In particular, it examines the hiring, developing, and structural organization of human resources for optimizing different innovation...... the value of human resource hiring and developing practices for new product development success; organizations will find it more beneficial to invest predominantly in employees with the highest possible educational level, whilst for product-related service innovations; employees with more general skills...

  17. Investigations of mammary and uterine blood flow in relation to milk yield, postpartum disease, and pregnancy result in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, H; Lietzau, M; Tichy, A; Herzog, K

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to determine the blood flow variables in the uterine arteries and the pudendoepigastric trunks, which supply the mammary gland, and relate these variables to the occurrence of uterine disease, milk yield, and pregnancy result. To achieve this, 119 multiparous German Holstein cows were examined using color Doppler sonography once during the dry period and on Days 7, 14, 28, 42, 56, 66, 76, 86, and 96 postpartum (pp). Cows with retained fetal membranes or metritis had a higher blood flow volume and time-averaged maximum velocity and a lower pulsatility index in the uterine arteries on Days 7, 14 and 28 pp (P blood flow volume in the pudendoepigastric trunks on examination Days 7 to 96 pp with the exception of Day 76 (P perfusion. Increased uterine perfusion in cows with retained fetal membrane and metritis may be due to increased uterine size attributable to delayed involution. High mammary perfusion in high-yielding cows is due to an increased demand for nutrients and oxygen. Color Doppler sonography is a useful method for the investigation of the effect of uterine disease on uterine blood flow and of the effect of milk yield on mammary perfusion.

  18. Relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, A S; Nascimento, M L; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production (EHP) in Nellore steers. Eighteen steers were individually lot-fed diets of 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM for 84 d. Estimated heat production was determined using oxygen pulse (OP) methodology, in which heart rate (HR) was monitored for 4 consecutive days. Oxygen pulse was obtained by simultaneously measuring HR and oxygen consumption during a 10- to 15-min period. Efficiency traits studied were feed efficiency (G:F) and residual feed intake (RFI) obtained by regression of DMI in relation to ADG and midtest metabolic BW (RFI). Alternatively, RFI was also obtained based on equations reported by the NRC's to estimate individual requirement and DMI (RFI calculated by the NRC [1996] equation [RFI]). The slope of the regression equation and its significance was used to evaluate the effect of efficiency indices (RFI, RFI, or G:F) on the traits studied. A mixed model was used considering RFI, RFI, or G:F and pen type as fixed effects and initial age as a covariate. For HR and EHP variables, day was included as a random effect. There was no relationship between efficiency indices and back fat depth measured by ultrasound or daily HR and EHP ( > 0.05). Because G:F is obtained in relation to BW, the slope of G:F was positive and significant ( RFI and RFI ( RFI. Oxygen consumption per beat was not related to G:F; however, it was lower for RFI- and RFI-efficient steers, and consequently, oxygen volume (mL·min·kg) and OP (μL O·beat·kg) were also lower ( RFI and RFI ( > 0.05); however, G:F-efficient steers showed lower hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations ( < 0.05). Differences in EHP between efficient and inefficient animals were not directly detected. Nevertheless, differences in oxygen consumption and OP were detected, indicating that the OP methodology may be useful to predict growth efficiency. PMID

  19. Effect of Blood Component Coatings of Enosseal Implants on Proliferation and Synthetic Activity of Human Osteoblasts and Cytokine Production of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulejova, Hana; Bartova, Jirina; Riedel, Tomas; Pesakova, Vlasta

    2016-01-01

    The study monitored in vitro early response of connective tissue cells and immunocompetent cells to enosseal implant materials coated by different blood components (serum, activated plasma, and plasma/platelets) to evaluate human osteoblast proliferation and synthetic activity and inflammatory response presented as a cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) under conditions imitating the situation upon implantation. The cells were cultivated on coated Ti-plasma-sprayed (Ti-PS), Ti-etched (Ti-Etch), Ti-hydroxyapatite (Ti-HA), and ZrO2 surfaces. The plasma/platelets coating supported osteoblast proliferation only on osteoconductive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch whereas activated plasma enhanced proliferation on all surfaces. Differentiation (BAP) and IL-8 production remained unchanged or decreased irrespective of the coating and surface; only the serum and plasma/platelets-coated ZrO2 exhibited higher BAP and IL-8 expression. RANKL production increased on serum and activated plasma coatings. PBMCs produced especially cytokines playing role in inflammatory phase of wound healing, that is, IL-6, GRO-α, GRO, ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, EGF, and MCP-1. Cytokine profiles were comparable for all tested surfaces; only ENA-78, IL-8, GM-CSF, and MCP-1 expression depended on materials and coatings. The activated plasma coating led to uniformed surfaces and represented a favorable treatment especially for bioinert Ti-PS and ZrO2 whereas all coatings had no distinctive effect on bioactive Ti-HA and Ti-Etch. PMID:27651560

  20. Comprehensive kinetics of triiodothyronine production, distribution, and metabolism in blood and tissue pools of the rat using optimized blood-sampling protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiStefano, J J; Jang, M; Malone, T K; Broutman, M

    1982-01-01

    We have determined estimates for 24 physiological parameters of production, interpool transport, distribution, and metabolism of T3 in the major T3 pools of the unanesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rat, from blood-borne data and a comprehensive model and analysis of this system. Most of these indices have previously been unavailable. Whereas only 3% (2 ng/100 g BW) of the total body T3 pool (74 ng/100 g BW) is in plasma, the composite of slowly equilibrating (slow) tissue pools (e.g. muscle, skin, and brain) appears to contain most of the T3, 76% (57 ng/100 g BW) of the total. The composite of rapidly equilibrating (fast) tissue pools (e.g. liver and kidney) contains the remaining 19% (16 ng/100 g BW). The total body T3 production rate is 0.12 ng/100 g BW . min, and we estimate that about half of this emanates directly from T4 in the slow pools, whereas the remainder is derived from both thyroidal secretion and T4 to T3 conversion in the fast pools. Our results also indicate that T3 molecules spend an average of only 0.5 min in transit each time through plasma, whereas the single pass mean transit times in fast and slow tissue pools (the times available for hormone action) are 10 times and 200 times greater. In contrast, the mean residence time for T3 in the entire system is greater than 12 h despite the extremely rapid early disappearance of injected T3 from plasma. To obtain the required accuracy, we used a novel optimization approach for choosing blood-sampling schedules (1, 4, 44, 202, and 600 min), a remarkably small number of sample times, and each was adjustable by about +/- 20% without effect on optimized parameter accuracies. PMID:7053984

  1. Fish oil-supplementation from 9 to 12 months of age affects infant attention in a free-play test and is related to change in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harbild, Helle Liliegren; Harsløf, Laurine Bente Schram; Christensen, J. H.;

    2013-01-01

    This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval.......This intervention examined whether fish-oil-supplementation in late infancy modifies free-play test scores and if this is related to blood pressure (BP) and mean RR interval....

  2. Inhibition of endotoxin-induced interleukin-6 production by synthetic lipid A partial structures in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, M. H.; Flad, H D; Feist, W; Brade, H; Kusumoto, S; Rietschel, E T; Ulmer, A J

    1991-01-01

    The effect of two synthetic lipid A partial structures, compound 406 (or LA-14-PP, identical in structure to the lipid A precursor, known as Ia or IVa) and compound 401 (lipid X), on the in vitro modulation of endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide)-induced interleukin-6 production by human blood mononuclear cells was investigated. Lipopolysaccharide of Salmonella abortus equi and synthetic Escherichia coli-type lipid A (compound 506, or LA-15-PP) had potent interleukin-6-inducing capacities. The maxi...

  3. Productive performance and blood parameters of bulls fed diets containing babassu mesocarp bran and whole or ground corn

    OpenAIRE

    Aline Evangelista Machado Santana; José Neuman Miranda Neiva; João Restle; Fabrícia Rocha Chaves Miotto; Luciano Fernandes Sousa; Vera Lúcia Araújo; Ranniere Rodrigues Pereira Parente; Rhaiza Alves de Oliveira

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of corn milling and the inclusion of babassu mesocarp bran (BMB) on productive performance, digestibility of dietary nutrients, and blood parameters of dairy crossbred (Holstein-Gyr) bulls finished in confinement. Twenty-four bulls were fed four different experimental diets, containing two levels of inclusion of BMB (0 and 41.24%) and corn supplied in two different forms (ground and whole), for 98 days (77 days of data collection ...

  4. Alteration of Peripheral Blood T-Reg Cells and Cytokines Production in Angiography Personnel Exposed to Scattered X-Rays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ebrahim Torkabadi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Angiocardiography is an X-ray examination of the blood vessels or chambers of the heart. Cardiologists and staff members applying this procedure are exposed to high levels of scattered radiation. In our previous study the incidence of unstable chromosomal aberrations and cytokinesis-blocked micronuclei were found to be significantly higher in exposed individuals than the age and sex matched controls. In the present study we assessed cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells of the above cases and the percentage of Treg cells. According to film dosimeter analysis, personnels received 0.25-15 mSv during the previous year (average of 3 mSv/y. Isolated PBMCs from the test and control groups were stimulated with Phorbol Myristate Acetate/ Ionomycin (PMA/I. Cytokine production was measured in the supernatants of cultured lymphocytes. The percentage of Treg cells was studied by flow cytometry. The production of IL-10 and IL-5 was significantly down-regulated in the test group compared to the control group. In contrast, IL-12 was up-regulated. Yet, no statistically significant difference was found for IFN- γ between two groups. In addition, we found higher percentage of CD4+CD25+bright Treg cells in the study group compared to the controls. Taken together, it was shown that low doses of scattered X-rays could skew cytokine profile of peripheral blood mononuclear cells in favour of inflammatory response causing the increase of Treg cells.

  5. Preconcentration and determination of lead and cadmium levels in blood samples of adolescent workers consuming smokeless tobacco products in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arain, Sadaf Sadia; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Afridi, Hassan Imran; Brahman, Kapil Dev; Naeemullah; Khan, Sumaira; Panhwar, Abdul Haleem; Kamboh, Muhammad Afzal; Memon, Jamil R

    2015-05-01

    The present study was aimed to evaluate the cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) levels in the blood samples of adolescent boys, chewing different smokeless tobacco (SLT) products in Pakistan. For comparative purpose, boys of the same age group (12-15 years), not consumed any SLT products were selected as referents. To determine trace levels of Cd and Pb in blood samples, a preconcentration method, vortex-assisted liquid-liquid microextraction (VLLME) has been developed, prior to analysis by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The hydrophobic chelates of Cd and Pb with ammonium pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate were extracted into the fine droplets of ionic liquid (IL) 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate, while nonionic surfactant, Triton X-114 was used as a dispersing medium. The main factors affecting the recoveries of Cd and Pb, such as concentration of APDC, centrifugation time, volume of IL and TX-114, were investigated in detail. It was also observed that adolescent boys who consumed different SLT products have 2- to 3-fold higher levels of Cd and Pb in their blood samples as compared to referent boys (p < 0.001). PMID:25930204

  6. High Homocysteine and Blood Pressure Related to Poor Outcome of Acute Ischemia Stroke in Chinese Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changjiang; Zhao, Liang; Zhou, Mo; Sun, Wenjie; Xu, Tan; Tong, Weijun

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To assess the association between plasma homocysteine (Hcy), blood pressure (BP) and poor outcome at hospital discharge among acute ischemic stroke patients, and if high Hcy increases the risk of poor outcome based on high BP status in a northern Chinese population. Methods Between June 1, 2009 and May 31, 2013, a total of 3695 acute ischemic stroke patients were recruited from three hospitals in northern Chinese cities. Demographic characteristics, lifestyle risk factors, medical history, and other clinical characteristics were recorded for all subjects. Poor outcome was defined as a discharge modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score ≥3 or death. The association between homocysteine concentration, admission blood pressure, and risk of poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke was analyzed by using multivariate non-conditional logistic regression models. Results Compared with those in the lowest quartile of Hcy concentration in a multivariate-adjusted model, those in the highest quartile of Hcy concentration had increased risk of poor outcome after acute ischemic stroke, (OR = 1.33, P<0.05). The dose-response relationship between Hcy concentration and risk of poor outcome was statistically significant (p-value for trend  = 0.027). High BP was significantly associated with poor outcome following acute ischemic stroke (adjusted OR = 1.44, 95%CI, 1.19–1.74). Compared with non-high BP with nhHcy, in a multivariate-adjusted model, the ORs (95% CI) of non-high BP with hHcy, high BP with nhHcy, and high BP with hHcy to poor outcome were 1.14 (0.85–1.53), 1.37 (1.03–1.84) and 1.70 (1.29–2.34), respectively. Conclusion The present study suggested that high plasma Hcy and blood pressure were independent risk factors for prognosis of acute ischemic stroke, and hHcy may further increase the risk of poor outcome among patients with high blood pressure. Additionally, the results indicate that high Hcy with high BP may cause increased susceptibility

  7. Gender Differences Relating to Metabolic Syndrome and Proinflammation in Finnish Subjects with Elevated Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Esko Kumpusalo; Mauno Vanhala; Hannu Kautiainen; Tiina Ahonen; Juha Saltevo; Markku Laakso

    2009-01-01

    Fasting insulin, adiponectin, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were determined in 278 men and 273 women with blood pressure ≥130 and/or ≥85 mmHg and/or with antihypertensive medication. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) with the National Cholesterol Education Program (NCEP) criteria was observed in 35% of men and 34% of women. Men with MetS had lower hs-CRP and IL-1Ra than women. The absolute gender difference in adiponectin was smaller and ...

  8. EVALUATION OF IL-6 PRODUCTION BY HUMAN BLOOD CELLS INCUBATED WITH METAL COMPLEXES OF Γ-GLOBULIN

    OpenAIRE

    S. B. Cheknev; I. E. Efremova; A. S. Mezdrokhina; A. A. Babajanz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. This study has shown that that a common cytokine pool induced in cultured human peripheral blood cells (PBC) supplied by either γ-globulin fraction proteins, copper or zinc cations, or appropriate metal complexes, contains detectable amounts of IL-6 (0.39+0.14 to 2.04+0.16 ng/ml). γ-globulin complexes with zinc or copper ions are able to induce production of IL-6 in amounts differing from those induced by control proteins, or copper and zinc ions used alone. IL-6 production by PBC i...

  9. Is viscosity important in the production of blood-brain barrier disruption by intracarotid contrast media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilcox, J.; Sage, M.R.

    1984-11-01

    A canine model was used to investigate the effects of intracarotid methylglucamine iothalamate (280 mgI/ml) at different viscosities on the normal blood-brain barrier. To alter viscosity, without changing physicochemical parameters, injections were made at either 23/sup 0/C or 37/sup 0/C. The degree of blood-brain barrier damage was assessed using Evans' Blue dye as a visual marker and by contrast enhancement measured by a computed tomographic (CT) scanner. It was found that methylglucamine iothalamate caused more blood-brain barrier damage at 23/sup 0/C than at 37/sup 0/C (p<0.1). Control studies at each temperature using intracarotid injections of physiological saline showed no temperature effect (p>0.1). The implications of these findings are discussed.

  10. Perspective of future drugs targeting sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase for blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gen-Min; Lin; Pang-Yen; Liu; Ching-Fen; Wu; Wen-Been; Wang; Chih-Lu; Han

    2015-01-01

    According to a genome-wide association study,intronic SNPs within the human sterile 20/SPS1-related proline/alanine-rich kinase(SPAK) gene was linked to 20% of the general population and may be associated with elevated blood pressure. As cell volume changes,mammalian SPAK kinases respond to phosphorylate and regulate cation-coupled chloride co-transporter activity. To our knowledge,phosphorylation of upstream with-no-lysine(K)(WNK) kinases would activate SPAK kinases. The activation of WNK-OSR1/SPAK cascade on the kidneys and aortic tissue is related to the development of hypertension. Several regulators of the WNK pathway such as the Kelch kinase protein 3-Cullin 3 E3 ligase,hyperinsulinemia,and low potassium intake to mediate hypertension have been identified. In addition,the SPAK kinases may affect the action of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system on blood pressure as well. In 2010,two SPAK knock-in and knock-out mouse models have clarified the pathogenesis of lowering blood pressure by influencing the receptors on the kidneys and aortic smooth muscle. More recently,two novel SPAK inhibitors for mice,Stock 1S-14279 and Closantel were discovered in 2014. Targeting of SPAK seems to be promising for future antihypertensive therapy. Therefore we raised some viewpoints for the issue for the antihypertensive therapy on the SPAK(gene or kinase).

  11. Nucleic Acid, Antibody, and Virus Culture Methods to Detect Xenotropic MLV-Related Virus in Human Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. Kearney

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The MLV-related retrovirus, XMRV, was recently identified and reported to be associated with both prostate cancer and chronic fatigue syndrome. At the National Cancer Institute-Frederick, MD (NCI-Frederick, we developed highly sensitive methods to detect XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus. Analysis of XMRV-spiked samples and/or specimens from two pigtail macaques experimentally inoculated with 22Rv1 cell-derived XMRV confirmed the ability of the assays used to detect XMRV RNA and DNA, and culture isolatable virus when present, along with XMRV reactive antibody responses. Using these assays, we did not detect evidence of XMRV in blood samples ( or prostate specimens ( from two independent cohorts of patients with prostate cancer. Previous studies detected XMRV in prostate tissues. In the present study, we primarily investigated the levels of XMRV in blood plasma samples collected from patients with prostate cancer. These results demonstrate that while XMRV-related assays developed at the NCI-Frederick can readily measure XMRV nucleic acids, antibodies, and replication competent virus, no evidence of XMRV was found in the blood of patients with prostate cancer.

  12. Microalbuminuria in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus relates to nocturnal systolic blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mitchell, T H

    2012-02-03

    PURPOSE: Microalbuminuria predicts early mortality in non-insulin-dependent-diabetes mellitus patients (NIDDM). Our objective in the present study was to compare and assess the relationship between 24-hour, day and nocturnal ambulatory blood pressure (BP) and urinary albumin excretion rate (UAE) in microalbuminuric and normoalbuminuric NIDDM and in normal control subjects. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In the present cross-sectional study, 24 hour ambulatory BP (daytime BP and nocturnal BP) and HbA1c were compared in microalbuminuric (n = 10) and nonmicroalbuminuric NIDDM patients (n = 10) and in nondiabetic controls (n = 9). None of the patients were taking antihypertensive agents. RESULTS: In the microlbuminuric group, whereas 24 hour and daytime systolic BP differed significantly from control values (P < 0.025 and P < 0.05 respectively), there was no difference between diabetic groups. However, nocturnal systolic BP in the microalbuminuric group was significantly higher than in the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients (139 vs. 125) (P < 0.05) and a significant difference was also found between the NIDDM patients and the control group (139, 125 vs. 114) (P < 0.025). In multiple regression analysis, only nocturnal systolic BP showed a significant relationship with UAE (P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: We suggest that the higher nocturnal systolic blood pressure seen in our microalbuminuric NIDDM patients may contribute to the increased morbidity in this group.

  13. Relating fibropapilloma tumor severity to blood parameters in green turtles Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirama, Shigetomo; Ehrhart, Llewellyn M; Rea, Lorrie D; Kiltie, Richard A

    2014-08-21

    Fibropapillomatosis is a neoplastic disease that is commonly found in the green turtles Chelonia mydas in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In the current project, juvenile green turtles were captured with large-mesh tangle nets in the Indian River Lagoon and on nearshore reefs of Indian River County, Florida, USA, in 1998 and 1999. The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between the severity of the disease and the general health of green turtles as indicated by blood parameters. All turtles were measured and examined, and the overall severity of the disease was rated by the size, number, and location of external fibropapilloma tumors. Hematocrit, total protein, and hemoglobin concentration were measured and compared with tumor scores (tumor severity appraisal). As the tumor score increased, the blood parameters of turtles decreased; for instance, the percentage of decrease in hematocrit for mildly afflicted, moderately afflicted, and severely afflicted groups were 2.6, 18.3, and 45.5%, respectively. Severely afflicted turtles suffered from anemia, while individuals with mild affliction did not.

  14. The regulation of method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation in the related gene expressions after spinal cord injury

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Fan; Li Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Spinal cord injury is a disease of high incidence and low cure rate without any ideal treatment. Among the complex pathological reactions, the post-injury abnormal expressions of many genes may be an important one. Method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation, which is one of the most important treatments of spinal cord injury in Traditional Chinese Medicine and has been used extensively in clinic, is proved to be effective in the treatment of spinal cord injury. Recently, many scholars have carried out a lot of studies in this filed and acquired notable achievements. The essay concludes mechanisms of the regulation of method of tonifying Qi and activating blood circulation in the related gene expressions after spinal cord injury to provide new thoughts and new methods for the treatment and study of spinal cord injury.

  15. Blood transfusion economics in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriopoulos, J E; Michail-Merianou, V; Gitona, M

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes the organizational structure and the economic impact of blood donation and transfusion in Greece and discusses some alternative aspects of its financing and its costing policy. The cost of blood transfusion is rising in Greece and amounts to nearly 15 billion drachmas per year due to the constant increase in demand and consequently, the price of each unit of blood. The production and distribution of blood on national scale involves meeting the demand for 500.000 units. Blood is mostly given by the friends and relatives of patients (55%) and by voluntary blood donation (30%). Approximately 50% of the blood produced is used in surgery, 20% for cases of beta-thalassaemia, 10% for emergencies and 20% for internal medicine cases. The blood transfusion system is totally funded by the state budget and the value to users is free of charge. The way in which blood is collected and processed differs from one geographical area to another and the unit cost depends on the size of the department concerned, ranging from 60-150 $. The need to control costs and restrain expenditure, in conjunction with guarantees of sufficiency and quality, makes it essential that measures should be taken to introduce economies of scale and encourage competition among blood providers, for increased production, components preparation and rational usage of blood. The introduction of a costing policy becomes necessary in this effort to achieve cost-containment techniques. PMID:8581182

  16. Association of blood products administration during cardiopulmonary bypass and excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Hemant S; Barrett, Sarah S; Barry, Kristen; Xu, Meng; Saville, Benjamin R; Donahue, Brian S; Harris, Zena L; Bichell, David P

    2015-03-01

    Our objectives were to study risk factors and post-operative outcomes associated with excessive post-operative bleeding in pediatric cardiac surgeries performed using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) support. A retrospective observational study was undertaken, and all consecutive pediatric heart surgeries over 1 year period were studied. Excessive post-operative bleeding was defined as 10 ml/kg/h of chest tube output for 1 h or 5 ml/kg/h for three consecutive hours in the first 12 h of pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) stay. Risk factors including demographics, complexity of cardiac defect, CPB parameters, hematological studies, and post-operative morbidity and mortality were evaluated for excessive bleeding. 253 patients were studied, and 107 (42 %) met the criteria for excessive bleeding. Bayesian model averaging revealed that greater volume of blood products transfusion during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding. Multiple logistic regression analysis of blood products transfusion revealed that increased volume of packed red blood cells (PRBCs) administration for CPB prime and during CPB was significantly associated with excessive bleeding (p = 0.028 and p = 0.0012, respectively). Proportional odds logistic regression revealed that excessive bleeding was associated with greater time to achieve negative fluid balance, prolonged mechanical ventilation, and duration of PCICU stay (p < 0.001) after adjusting for multiple parameters. A greater volume of blood products administration, especially PRBCs transfusion for CPB prime, and during the CPB period is associated with excessive post-operative bleeding. Excessive bleeding is associated with worse post-operative outcomes.

  17. Whole blood hypoxia-related gene expression reveals novel pathways to obstructive sleep apnea in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Juliana C; Guindalini, Camila; Bittencourt, Lia; Garbuio, Silverio; Mazzotti, Diego R; Tufik, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In this study, our goal was to identify the key genes that are associated with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). Thirty-five volunteers underwent full in-lab polysomnography and, according to the sleep apnea hypopnea index (AHI), were classified into control, mild-to-moderate OSA and severe OSA groups. Severe OSA patients were assigned to participate in a continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) protocol for 6 months. Blood was collected and the expression of 84 genes analyzed using the RT(2) Profiler™ PCR array. Mild-to-moderate OSA patients demonstrated down-regulation of 2 genes associated with induction of apoptosis, while a total of 13 genes were identified in severe OSA patients. After controlling for body mass index, PRPF40A and PLOD3 gene expressions were strongly and independently associated with AHI scores. This research protocol highlights a number of molecular targets that might help the development of novel therapeutic strategies. PMID:23994550

  18. Sulphydryl groups and their relation to the antioxidant enzymes of chelonian red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torsoni, M A; Viana, R I; Ogo, S H

    1998-09-01

    Thiol groups of hemoglobin and blood glutathione are higher in Geochelone carbonaria than in Geochelone denticulata. Exposure of stripped hemolysate of both tortoises to terc-butyl hydroperoxide, resulted in a higher ferroheme oxidation of G. denticulata hemoglobin. In this example glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase, were not active due to the absence of GSH and NADPH, suggesting that the thiol groups of G. carbonaria hemoglobin act as antioxidant, similar to GSH. In the total hemolysate, however, where the antioxidant enzymes are active, both species showed similar levels of hemoglobin oxidation, suggesting that the protective effect of thiol groups of hemoglobin are less effective for heme protection. The activity of glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase was higher in erythrocytes of G. denticulata and the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase was higher in erythrocytes of G. carbonaria. PMID:9784849

  19. Pretreatment blood concentrations of chloroquine in patients with malaria infection: relation to response to treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quashie, Neils Ben; Akanmori, Bartholomew D; Goka, Bamenla Q;

    2005-01-01

    Resistance of Plasmodium falciparum to chloroquine has been reported in many areas in Ghana. Most of these reports, which are from hospital-based studies, indicate RI and RII rather than RIII type of resistance. Since high pretreatment levels of chloroquine have also been measured in patients...... with malaria infection in Ghana, we hypothesized that the 'added effect' of the pretreatment ingested drug to the full dose given at the hospital may be responsible for the low proportion of RIII type of resistance observed. To ascertain this, pretreatment blood levels of chloroquine were correlated...... and day 0 parasitaemia. Two hundred and seven patients (89.6 per cent) had parasites that were sensitive to chloroquine whilst 24 (10.4 per cent) had resistant parasites. Of the latter group 17, six, and one patients had P. falciparum parasites, which were resistant at RI, RII and RIII levels...

  20. Restraint effects on stress-related hormones and blood natural killer cell cytotoxicity in pigs with a mutated ryanodine receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciepielewski, Z M; Stojek, W; Glac, W; Wrona, D

    2013-05-01

    A mutation in the ryanodine receptor gene (RYR1) of the calcium release channel is responsible for increased stress susceptibility in pigs. In the present study, the relation of a mutation in RYR1 with the neuroendocrine (stress-related hormone) response and the immune defense represented by natural killer cell cytotoxicity (NKCC) during a 4-h restraint and recovery phase in 60 male pigs was investigated. Blood samples were collected from pigs previously divided into RYR1 genotypes (nn, Nn, NN), based on PCR amplification and restriction analyses. The blood samples collected during the restraint and recovery phases of the experiment were used to determine NKCC ((51)Cr-release assay), large granular lymphocyte number (hematologic method), and plasma concentrations of prolactin (PRL), GH, ACTH, and cortisol (COR) (by specific RIA). The greatest degree of NKCC response (P stress relative to controls was observed for the stress-susceptible homozygote group (nn). Measures of stress-related hormones were positively correlated with NKCC during the entire experimental period (P stress and the recovery phase (480 min), a decrease in immune response was accompanied by an elevated COR response in all RYR1 genotypes. Moreover, divergent responses of both PRL (greatest in nn, P stress-susceptible RYR1-mutated homozygotes develop a greater level of immune defense, including cytotoxic activity of NK cells, and accompanied by more pronounced stress-induced changes in neuroendocrine response than stress-resistant heterozygous (Nn) and homozygous (NN) pigs.

  1. Effect of advanced glycosylation end products on activity of protein kinase C in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objectives TO investigate the effect of advanced glycosylation end products (AGEs) on the activity of protein kinese C (PKC) in human peripheral bloodmononuclear Cells (PBMC) and to observe whether aminoguanidine (AG) can influence the effect of AGEs. Methods After PBMC were isoiated from human peripheral blood and incubated with different concentrations of AGEs-BSA for various periods, total PKC activity in PBMC was determined by measuring the incorporation of 32P from [γ-32P] ATP=into a special substrate using Prornega PKC assay kit. Results AGEs-BSA increased the total PKC activity in PBMC from 83.43±6.57 pmol/min/mg protein to 116.8±13.82 pmol/min/mg protein with a peak at 15 min.AGEs-BSA also increased the total PKC activity in a concentration-dependent manner from 83.1±6.4 pmol/min/mg protein(control) to 119.1±13.3 pmol/min/mg protein (control vs AGEs-BSA 400 mg/L, P<0.01). Furthermore, AGEs-BSA induced an elevation of PKC activity in a glycosylating time-related manner,from 80.9±8.2 (control) to 118.3±11.5 pmol/min/mg protein (glycasytation for 12 wk, P<0.01). The total PKC activity stimulated by AGEs-BSA pretreated with AG (100, 200 mg/L) was markedly lower than that of AGEs-BSA group not pretreated with AG ( P<0.05, P<0.01). Conclusions AGEs-BSA increased the total PKC activity in PBMC in a concentration and incubation time dependent manner. The ability of AGEs-B.SA to stimulate PKC activity was markedly decreased by pretreatment of AGEs-BSA with AG.

  2. Antigen induced production of υ-interferon ex vivo, in the peripheral blood of patients with active pulmonary tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Zagdyn

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Tuberculosis (TB is one of the most significant problems in the Russian Health Care. Russia remains on the list of the 22 countries with a high TB incidence and on the third place in the world with a high prevalence of Drug Resistant TB [1]. It is urgently needed to develop new TB diagnostic methods as well as effective measures of the specific TB prevention, including a development of the novel vaccines, so we have to know better about the most immunogenic antigens of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis. We studied the Interferon-Q production in the whole blood after stimulating immune response with different proteins of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis in patients with active TB. The study results permitted us to evaluate the immunogenicity of the previously known proteins (Ag85a и ESAT-6 in comparison to the recently identified ones (Rv2957, Rv2958c и Rv0447, analyzing simultaneously their relation to tuberculin, as well as to antigens of the different viruses (Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Cytomegalovirus, Epstein-Barr Virus, Influenza Virus. Protein Rv2958c, unlike protein ESAT-6, showed the high immunogenicity in comparison to tuberculin. The expressed immunogenicity of protein Rv2958c might be indicated a possible greatest specificity of immune response to this antigen in TB patients. Meanwhile, bacillary tuberculosis was strongly associated with low immune response to this protein. Also we were found statistical differences in immune responses of patients to the different Mycobacterium Tuberculosis antigens depending on the drug sensitivity. In addition it was interesting to know about a significantly low immune response of patients with Drug Resistant TB to protein pp65 CMV.

  3. Successful second transplantation from haploidentical donor for graft failure following unrelated cord blood cell transplantation or mismatched related transplantation: 2cases report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Lan-ping; HUANG Xiao-jun

    2006-01-01

    @@ Cord blood transplantation (CBT) from unrelated donors has increasingly been performed worldwide during the last decade. The immaturity of lymphocytes in cord blood permits HLA-mismatching between donors and recipients and reduces the severity of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).However, the relatively small dose of the cord blood nucleated cells is associated with a high frequency of engraftment failure.1-5 But re-transplantation with stem cells from the original donor is impossible.

  4. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Low vitality (a component of fatigue) in middle-aged and older adults is an important complaint often identified as a symptom of a disease state or side effect of a treatment. No studies to date have investigated the potential link between dysfunctional mitochondrial ATP production and low vitality....... Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production......, and deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) balance in PBMCs. The population was drawn from the Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953. Vitality level was estimated from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale. We found that vitality score had no association with any of the mitochondrial respiration parameters...

  5. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production......, and deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) balance in PBMCs. The population was drawn from the Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953. Vitality level was estimated from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale. We found that vitality score had no association with any of the mitochondrial respiration parameters....... However, vitality score was inversely associated with cellular ROS production and cellular deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels and positively associated with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) levels. We conclude that self-reported persistent low vitality is not associated with specific aspects...

  6. Guidelines for the Deployment of Product-Related Environmental Legislation into Requirements for the Product Development Process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferraz, Mariana; Antelmi Pigosso, Daniela Cristina; Teixeira, Cláudia Echevenguá;

    2013-01-01

    Environmental legislation is increasingly changing its focus from end-of-pipe approaches to a life cycle perspective. Therefore, manufacturing companies are increasingly identifying the need of deploying and incorporating product-related environmental requirements into the product development pro...

  7. Measurement and Hemodialysis Effect of Complex Relative Permittivity for Blood of Kidney Patients Using Open-Ended Coaxial Measurement Probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Akira; Takata, Kazuyuki; Nagao, Hirotomo; Wang, Jianqing; Fujiwara, Osamu

    Before evaluating the quality of hemodialysis from the limited volume of human blood using a commercially available open-ended coaxial probe, we previously measured the complex relative permittivity of pure water from 200 MHz to 6 GHz with respect to its measured liquid volume, and revealed that 1.9 ml water in a beaker with a diameter of 24 mm and a depth of 2 mm gives a variation within ±0.5 % for the real part and ±7 % for the imaginary part. Based on the above finding, we measured the dielectric properties of 2.5 ml whole blood at 25°C for 10 normal healthy subjects and 9 hemodialysis patients. The measured results on healthy subjects show good agreement with the data reported by Gabriel for human blood at 37°C, while they provide different dispersion characteristics of straight lines for their Cole-Cole plots. The measured results on the patients give further different dispersion characteristics in comparison with the healthy subjects. In order to investigate the above differences statistically, the student t-test was conducted to reveal that permittivity at infinite frequency for the Cole-Cole plots is significantly different with a level of 1 % among its averaged values for normal healthy subjects and patients before dialysis.

  8. Impact of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance of Santa Inês ewes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morsy, Amr S; Soltan, Yosra A; Sallam, Sobhy M A; Alencar, Severino M; Abdalla, Adibe L

    2016-06-01

    Twenty Santa Inês ewes used to evaluate effects of oral administration of Brazilian red propolis extract on blood metabolites, milk production, and lamb performance were randomly grouped (n = 10 ewes/group) to control without propolis administration and propolis treated (3 g red propolis extract/ewe/day) 21 days before expected lambing date. Blood samples were collected weekly, and daily milk yield was recorded twice weekly until 7 weeks postpartum. Propolis administration increased (P protein, and globulin and glucose concentrations, decreased (P milk, fat, protein, and lactose. Propolis supplementation increased (P milk conversion ratio but had no effect on lamb birth and weaning weights. The prepartum administration of propolis extract supported positively the transition of ewes from pregnancy to lactation with health benefits achieved for both of ewes and lambs performances. PMID:27098314

  9. Effects of striatal nitric oxide production on regional cerebral blood flow and seizure development in rats exposed to extreme hyperoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasier, Heath G; Demchenko, Ivan T; Allen, Barry W; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2015-12-01

    The endogenous vasodilator and signaling molecule nitric oxide has been implicated in cerebral hyperemia, sympathoexcitation, and seizures induced by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) at or above 3 atmospheres absolute (ATA). It is unknown whether these events in the onset of central nervous system oxygen toxicity originate within specific brain structures and whether blood flow is diverted to the brain from peripheral organs with high basal flow, such as the kidney. To explore these questions, total and regional cerebral blood flow (CBF) were measured in brain structures of the central autonomic network in anesthetized rats in HBO2 at 6 ATA. Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, cardiovascular hemodynamics, and renal blood flow (RBF) were also monitored. As expected, mean arterial blood pressure and total and regional CBF increased preceding EEG spikes while RBF was unaltered. Of the brain structures examined, the earliest rise in CBF occurred in the striatum, suggesting increased neuronal activation. Continuous unilateral or bilateral striatal infusion of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester attenuated CBF responses in that structure, but global EEG discharges persisted and did not differ from controls. Our novel findings indicate that: 1) cerebral hyperemia in extreme HBO2 in rats does not occur at the expense of renal perfusion, highlighting the remarkable autoregulatory capability of the kidney, and 2) in spite of a sentinel increase in striatal blood flow, additional brain structure(s) likely govern the pathogenesis of HBO2-induced seizures because EEG discharge latency was unchanged by local blockade of striatal nitric oxide production and concomitant hyperemia.

  10. Relative indexes of cutaneous blood perfusion measured by real-time laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Schawkat, Megir; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Shafighi, Maziar

    2014-07-01

    We used real-time LDI to study regional variations in microcirculatory perfusion in healthy candidates to establish a new methodology for global perfusion body mapping that is based on intra-individual perfusion index ratios. Our study included 74 (37 female) healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 30 years (mean 24.49). Imaging was performed using a recent microcirculation-imaging camera (EasyLDI) for different body regions of each volunteer. The perfusion values were reported in Arbitrary Perfusion Units (APU). The relative perfusion indexes for each candidate's body region were then obtained by normalization with the perfusion value of the forehead. Basic parameters such as weight, height, and blood pressure were also measured and analyzed. The highest mean perfusion value was reported in the forehead area (259.21APU). Mean perfusion in the measured parts of the body correlated positively with mean forehead value, while there was no significant correlation between forehead blood perfusion values and room temperature, BMI, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.420, 0.623, 0.488, 0.099, respectively). Analysis of the data showed that perfusion indexes were not significantly different between male and female volunteers except for the ventral upper arm area (p=.001). LDI is a non-invasive, fast technique that opens several avenues for clinical applications. The mean perfusion indexes are useful in clinical practice for monitoring patients before and after surgical interventions. Perfusion values can be predicted for different body parts for patients only by taking the forehead perfusion value and using the perfusion index ratios to obtain expected normative perfusion values. PMID:24788075

  11. Relative indexes of cutaneous blood perfusion measured by real-time laser Doppler imaging (LDI) in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seyed Jafari, S Morteza; Schawkat, Megir; Van De Ville, Dimitri; Shafighi, Maziar

    2014-07-01

    We used real-time LDI to study regional variations in microcirculatory perfusion in healthy candidates to establish a new methodology for global perfusion body mapping that is based on intra-individual perfusion index ratios. Our study included 74 (37 female) healthy volunteers aged between 22 and 30 years (mean 24.49). Imaging was performed using a recent microcirculation-imaging camera (EasyLDI) for different body regions of each volunteer. The perfusion values were reported in Arbitrary Perfusion Units (APU). The relative perfusion indexes for each candidate's body region were then obtained by normalization with the perfusion value of the forehead. Basic parameters such as weight, height, and blood pressure were also measured and analyzed. The highest mean perfusion value was reported in the forehead area (259.21APU). Mean perfusion in the measured parts of the body correlated positively with mean forehead value, while there was no significant correlation between forehead blood perfusion values and room temperature, BMI, systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (p=0.420, 0.623, 0.488, 0.099, respectively). Analysis of the data showed that perfusion indexes were not significantly different between male and female volunteers except for the ventral upper arm area (p=.001). LDI is a non-invasive, fast technique that opens several avenues for clinical applications. The mean perfusion indexes are useful in clinical practice for monitoring patients before and after surgical interventions. Perfusion values can be predicted for different body parts for patients only by taking the forehead perfusion value and using the perfusion index ratios to obtain expected normative perfusion values.

  12. Milk production, intake, digestion, blood parameters, and ingestive behavior of cows supplemented with by-products from the biodiesel industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzaga Neto, Severino; Oliveira, Ronaldo Lopes; de Lima, Francisco Helton Sá; de Medeiros, Ariosvaldo Nunes; Bezerra, Leilson Rocha; Viégas, Júlio; do Nascimento, Nilton Guedes; de Freitas Neto, Marcondes Dias

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the intake, digestion, blood parameters, and feeding behavior of crossbred dairy cows (Holstein × Gir) managed on Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzania-1 and provided supplementation with groundnut cake, sunflower cake, or palm kernel cake (to replace soybean meal). Sixteen cows were randomly assigned in a Latin square design with four treatments and four experimental periods. The consumption of nutrients from the pasture did not vary between experimental treatments. Cows receiving the palm kernel cake supplement had a reduced crude protein, non-fibrous carbohydrate, and total digestible nutrient intake and an increase in the average consumption of ether extract. There was also a reduction in the digestibility of dry matter. The inclusion of supplements in the diet did not influence the average time spent eating, ruminating, or resting. The mean values of respiratory and heart rates showed thermal comfort during the trial period. There was a reduction in blood urea nitrogen with palm kernel cake supplementation, and the values of total protein, albumin, and glucose were also significantly different with this supplement. It is recommended that cakes of groundnut cake and sunflower cake seed be used for a total replacement of soybean meal supplements for lactating cows, but the use of palm kernel cake is not recommended. PMID:25319453

  13. [Antibody production in the blood of donors immunized with staphylococcal anatoxin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyzyk, H M; Shumeha, I S; Tarasenko, A O; Patoka, V V

    1998-01-01

    Blood serum content was studied of specific antistaphylococcal antibodies (staphylolysins) in 576 donors immunized with staphylococcal anatoxin with the purpose of obtaining an antistaphylococcal plasma and antistaphylococcal immunoglobulin to be used in clinical settings. 292 donors had been immunized and examined prior to 1986, 284--after 1986 (before 1994). Comparison of the immune responses in the above periods of time permitted finding out that 13.03% of immunized donors responded to the antigenic stimulus by such paradoxical reaction as disappearance of specific antibodies; the number of persons-active respondents has gotten reduced from 17.12% to 5.98% as has the number of individuals having the baseline level of staphylolysins (1-2 ME/ml). The changes were at their greatest in donors with group A (II) blood. PMID:9621632

  14. Increased micronuclei and bulky DNA adducts in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.; Wichmann, J.; Autrup, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Exposure to traffic-related air pollution in urban environment is common and has been associated with adverse human health effects. In utero exposures that result in DNA damage may affect health later in life. Early effects of maternal and in utero exposures to traffic-related air pollution were...... highest among mother-newborn pairs who lived near medium-traffic-density (> 400-2500 vehicle km/24 h; p 2500 vehicle km/24 h) were significantly increased (p = 0.02). This trend remained after adjusting...... for potential confounders and effect modifiers. For the first time increased bulky DNA adducts and MN in cord blood after maternal exposures to traffic-related air pollution are found, demonstrating that these transplacental environmental exposures induce DNA damage in newborns. Given that increased DNA damage...

  15. Effects of MDMA and related analogs on plasma 5-HT: Relevance to 5-HT transporters in blood and brain

    OpenAIRE

    Yubero-Lahoz, Samanta; Ayestas, Mario A; Blough, Bruce E; Partilla, John S; Rothman, Richard B.; de la Torre, Rafael; Baumann, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    (±)-3,4-Methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA) is an illicit drug that evokes transporter-mediated release of serotonin (5-HT) in the brain. 5-HT transporter (SERT) proteins are also expressed in non-neural tissues (e.g., blood), and evidence suggests that MDMA targets platelet SERT to increase plasma 5-HT. Here we tested two hypotheses related to the effects of MDMA on circulating 5-HT. First, to determine if MDMA metabolites might contribute to actions of the drug in vivo, we used in vitro mi...

  16. The influences of SE infection on layers’ production performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Shijie; Zheng, Jiangxia; Duan, Zhongyi; Yang, Ning; Xu, Guiyun

    2014-01-01

    Background Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis (SE), as a major cause of foodborn illness, infects humans mainly through the egg. However, the symptom of laying hens usually is not typical and hard to diagnosis. In the present study, it is studied that the influences of SE infection on layers’ performance, egg quality and blood biochemical indicators. It will help us to improve the strategy to control SE infection in commercial layers. One hundred layers at 20 wk of age were divided into ...

  17. Smoking-related microRNAs and mRNAs in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Ming-Wei; Yu, Sung-Liang; Lin, Wen-Chang; Tsai, Ching-Hui; Chen, Po-Hua; Lee, Yungling Leo

    2016-08-15

    Teenager smoking is of great importance in public health. Functional roles of microRNAs have been documented in smoke-induced gene expression changes, but comprehensive mechanisms of microRNA-mRNA regulation and benefits remained poorly understood. We conducted the Teenager Smoking Reduction Trial (TSRT) to investigate the causal association between active smoking reduction and whole-genome microRNA and mRNA expression changes in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). A total of 12 teenagers with a substantial reduction in smoke quantity and a decrease in urine cotinine/creatinine ratio were enrolled in genomic analyses. In Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (GSEA) and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA), differentially expressed genes altered by smoke reduction were mainly associated with glucocorticoid receptor signaling pathway. The integrative analysis of microRNA and mRNA found eleven differentially expressed microRNAs negatively correlated with predicted target genes. CD83 molecule regulated by miR-4498 in human PBMC, was critical for the canonical pathway of communication between innate and adaptive immune cells. Our data demonstrated that microRNAs could regulate immune responses in human PBMC after habitual smokers quit smoking and support the potential translational value of microRNAs in regulating disease-relevant gene expression caused by tobacco smoke. PMID:27321975

  18. Laser Doppler measurement of relative blood velocity in the human optic nerve head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, C E; Grunwald, J E; Sinclair, S H

    1982-02-01

    The Doppler shift frequency spectrum (DSFS) of laser light scattered from red blood cells (RBCs) moving in the microcirculation of the optic nerve head has been recorded in normal volunteers by means of a fundus camera laser Doppler velocimeter. The width of the DSFS, which varies in proportion to the speed of the RBCs, has been characterized by a parameter alpha. With the use of a model for the scattering of light by tissue and RBCs and for the RBC velocity distribution, values of alpha recorded at normal intraocular pressure (IOP) suggest that the RBCs that contribute to the Doppler signal are flowing in capillaries. The parameter alpha was found to vary markedly with the IOP and with the phase of the ocular pressure pulse at elevated IOP. The return of the speed of RBCs toward normal, which is observed after a step increase of IOP above normal and after a step decrease below normal, has been attributed to an autoregulatory response of the optic nerve circulation.

  19. Reference ranges and age-related changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Chinese healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIAO Yang; QIU ZhiFeng; XIE Jing; LI DongJing; LI TaiSheng

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to build region-specific reference ranges of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets for Chinese healthy adults from the young to the elderly and analyze the trends of changes in lymphocyte subsets for evaluating the impact of age on the values. 151 healthy adults aged 19-86 were recruited based on the SENIEUR protocol. Three sets of reference ranges were finally built applicable for the healthy young (19-44 years), middle-aged (45-64 years) and elder adults (>65). Comparisons in parameters among the three cohorts showed that e statistically significant increase in CD16CD56+ NK cell was observed between the middle-aged and elder cohorts, whereas for the majority of the parameters, a significant decline was observed between the young and the middle-aged cohorts.Further results showed that inverse correlations were observed between the age and CD19+ B, CD3+T,CD3+CD4+1, CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+ naTve T cell and CD4+CD28+/CD4+, while the positive one was identified between the age end the NK cell. These significant changes of the most of immune parameters provided evidence for immunosenescence. Notably, T cell activation markers of CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ showed reverse trends of association with age, which provides a clue for further researches on the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical clinical presentation of the elder patients.

  20. Relations between diabetes, blood pressure and aortic pulse wave velocity in haemodialysis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Christian Daugaard; Kjærgaard, Krista Dybtved; Dzeko, Mirela;

    Diabetes (DM) is common in haemodialysis (HD) patients and affects both blood pressure (BP) and arterial stiffness. Carotid femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) reflects the stiffness of the aorta and is regarded as a strong risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) mortality in HD patients. However, PWV...... is highly influenced by the BP-level. Higher PWV-values among HD patients with DM could reflect a higher BP-level rather than increased arterial stiffness. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of DM on BP and PWV in a group of HD patients. BP and PWV were measured in 66 HD patients without DM...... (HD) and 32 HD patients with DM (HD+DM). The SphygmoCor system was used for estimation of PWV. HD-duration, age, gender and BP medication were similar in the two groups. Mean DM-duration was 23±11 years and 25(78%) had type 2 DM. HD+DM had higher BMI (26±5 vs. 29±5 kg/m2, p=0.02), systolic BP (142...

  1. Relating external compressing pressure to mean arterial pressure in non-invasive blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, K Y; Panerai, R B

    2015-01-01

    Arterial volume clamping uses external compression of an artery to provide continuous non-invasive measurement of arterial blood pressure. It has been assumed that mean arterial pressure (MAP) corresponds to the point where unloading leads to the maximum oscillation of the arterial wall as reflected by photoplethysmogram (PPG), an assumption that has been challenged. Five subjects were recruited for the study (three males, mean age (SD) = 32 (15) years). The PPG waveform was analysed to identify the relationship between the external compressing pressure, PPG pulse amplitude and MAP. Two separate tests were carried out at compression step intervals of 10 mmHg and 2 mmHg, respectively. No significant differences were found between the two tests. The bias between the compressing pressure and the MAP was -4.7 ± 5.63 mmHg (p < 0.001) showing a normal distribution. Further research is needed to identify optimal algorithms for estimation of MAP using PPG associated with arterial compression. PMID:25429784

  2. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2014-08-05

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  3. Genes related to xylose fermentation and methods of using same for enhanced biofuel production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlbach, Dana J.; Gasch, Audrey P.

    2015-09-29

    The present invention provides isolated gene sequences involved in xylose fermentation and related recombinant yeast which are useful in methods of enhanced biofuel production, particularly ethanol production. Methods of bioengineering recombinant yeast useful for biofuel production are also provided.

  4. Some political issues related to future special nuclear materials production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Federal Government must take action to assure the future adequate supply of special nuclear materials for nuclear weapons. Existing statutes permit the construction of advanced defense production reactors and the reprocessing of commercial spent fuel for the production of special materials. Such actions would not only benefit the US nuclear reactor manufacturers, but also the US electric utilities that use nuclear reactors

  5. MILK KEFIR: COMPOSITION, MICROBIAL CULTURES, BIOLOGICAL ACTIVITIES AND RELATED PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Rosa Prado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there has been a strong focus on beneficial foods with probiotic microorganisms and functional organic substances. In this context, there is an increasing interest in the commercial use of kefir, since it can be marketed as a natural beverage that has health promoting bacteria. There are numerous commercially available kefir based-products. Kefir may act as a matrix in the effective delivery of probiotic microorganisms in different types of products. Also, the presence of kefir’s exopolysaccharides, known as kefiran, which has biological activity, certainly adds value to products. Kefiran can also be used separately in other food products and as a coating film for various food and pharmaceutical products. This article aims to update the information about kefir and its microbiological composition, biological activity of the kefir’s microflora and the importance of kefiran as a beneficial health substance.

  6. Visit-to-Visit Variability in Blood Pressure Is Related to Late-Life Cognitive Decline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Bo; Viera, Anthony J; Muntner, Paul; Plassman, Brenda L; Edwards, Lloyd J; Adair, Linda S; Popkin, Barry M; Mendez, Michelle A

    2016-07-01

    The association between visit-to-visit variability of blood pressure (BP) and cognitive decline over time remains incompletely understood in a general population of older adults. We assessed the hypothesis that higher visit-to-visit variability in BP, but not mean BP, would be associated with faster decline in cognitive function among community-dwelling older adults. This prospective cohort study comprised 976 adults who had 3 or 4 visits with BP measurements as part of the China Health and Nutrition Survey from 1991, up to their first cognitive tests, and completed cognitive screening tests at ≥2 visits in 1997, 2000, or 2004. Visit-to-visit BP variability was expressed as the SD, coefficient of variation, or as the variation independent of mean BP across visits conducted at a mean interval of 3.2 years. Mean (SD) age at the first cognitive test was 64 (6) years. Using multivariable-adjusted linear mixed-effects models, we found higher visit-to-visit variability in systolic BP, but not mean systolic BP, was associated with a faster decline of cognitive function (adjusted mean difference [95% confidence interval] for high versus low tertile of SD variability: standardized composite scores -0.038 standard units (SU)/y [-0.066 to -0.009] and verbal memory -0.041 SU/y [-0.075 to -0.008]). Higher visit-to-visit variability in diastolic BP was associated with a faster decline of cognitive function, independent of mean diastolic BP, among adults aged 55 to 64 years but not those ≥65 years. Our results suggest that higher long-term BP visit-to-visit variability is associated with a faster rate of cognitive decline among older adults. PMID:27217401

  7. Relation of Blood Pressure to Retinal Vessel Diameter in Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Ronald; Myers, Chelsea E.; Klein, Barbara E. K.; Zinman, Bernard; Gardiner, Robert; Suissa, Samy; Sinaiko, Alan R.; Donnelly, Sandra M.; Goodyer, Paul; Strand, Trudy; Mauer, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objective To examine the relationship of blood pressure (BP) and use of angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) or angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEI) to retinal vessel diameter in normotensive, normoalbuminuric persons with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Design Randomized controlled clinical trial. Participants Persons with T1DM and gradable fundus photographs both at baseline (n=147) and 5-year follow-up (n=124). Methods Clinic and 24-hour ambulatory BPs (ABP) were measured. Retinal arteriolar and venular diameters were measured using a computer-assisted technique. Individual arteriolar and venular measurements were combined into summary indices that reflect the average retinal arteriolar (central retinal arteriolar equivalent [CRAE]) and venular (central retinal venular equivalent [CRVE]) diameter of an eye, respectively. Main Outcome Measures CRAE and CRVE. Results While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin and ambulatory pulse rate, daytime ambulatory systolic (-0.29 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.02) and daytime ambulatory diastolic (-0.44 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.04), nighttime ambulatory systolic (-0.27 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.03), and 24-hour ambulatory systolic BP (-0.31 μm effect per 1mmHg, P=.03) were cross-sectionally associated with a smaller CRAE. While controlling for age, study site, glycosylated hemoglobin, ambulatory pulse rate and baseline CRAE, no BP measure was associated with a change in CRAE or CRVE over 5 years of follow-up. Treatment with losartan or enalapril was not associated with a statistically significant change in CRAE or CRVE. Conclusions ACEI or ARB therapy does not affect retinal arteriolar or venular diameter in normotensive persons with T1DM. PMID:20142543

  8. Influence of Salt Intake on Association of Blood Uric Acid with Hypertension and Related Cardiovascular Risk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Hou

    Full Text Available A relationship of blood uric acid (UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk is under debate thus salt intake is hypothesized to contribute to such associations.In this cross-sectional study, stratified cluster random sampling elicited a sample of 1805 Kazakhs with 92.4% compliance. Hypertension and moderate-or-high total cardiovascular risk (mTCR were defined according to guidelines. Sodium intake was assessed by urinary sodium excretion. Prevalence ratios (PRs were used to express associations of UA with hypertension and mTCR.In the highest tertile of sodium intake in women, the adjusted PRs (95% confidence intervals of low to high quartiles compared with the lowest quartile of UA, were 1.22(0.78-1.91, 1.18(0.75-1.85, and 1.65(1.09-2.51 for hypertension and 1.19(0.74-1.90, 1.39(0.91-2.11, and 1.65(1.10-2.47 for mTCR (P for trend <0.05. However, these findings were not shown for other sodium intake levels. There were similar results in men. PRs markedly increased with a concomitant increase in UA and sodium intake and there was a significant interaction (P = 0.010 for mTCR with PRs of 1.69(1.10-2.60 for men and 3.70(2.09-6.52 for women in those with the highest compared with the lowest quartile of UA and tertile of sodium intake. Similar findings were shown for hypertension.This study implied that a high salt intake may enhance the associations of UA with hypertension and cardiovascular risk.

  9. Reference ranges and age-related changes of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets in Chinese healthy adults

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    This study was performed to build region-specific reference ranges of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets for Chinese healthy adults from the young to the elderly and analyze the trends of changes in lymphocyte subsets for evaluating the impact of age on the values.151 healthy adults aged 19-86 were recruited based on the SENIEUR protocol.Three sets of reference ranges were finally built applicable for the healthy young(19-44 years),middle-aged(45-64 years) and elder adults(≥65).Comparisons in parameters among the three cohorts showed that a statistically significant increase in CD16CD56+ NK cell was observed between the middle-aged and elder cohorts,whereas for the majority of the parameters,a significant decline was observed between the young and the middle-aged cohorts.Further results showed that inverse correlations were observed between the age and CD19+ B,CD3+ T,CD3+CD4+ T,CD4+CD45RA+CD62L+ nave T cell and CD4+CD28+/CD4+,while the positive one was identified between the age and the NK cell.These significant changes of the most of immune parameters provided evidence for immunosenescence.Notably,T cell activation markers of CD8+CD38+ and CD8+HLA-DR+ showed reverse trends of association with age,which provides a clue for further researches on the mechanisms underlying the paradoxical clinical presentation of the elder patients.

  10. The relative labour productivity contribution of different age-skill categories for a developing economy

    OpenAIRE

    Gerhardus van Zyl

    2013-01-01

    Orientation: The article dealt with the estimation, computation and interpretation of the relative productivity contributions of different age-skill categories. Research purpose: The aim of the article was to estimate and compute, (1) relative productivity contributions and (2) relative productivity contribution–employee remuneration cost levels for different age-skill categories.Motivation for the study: The research was deemed necessary given the current debate on relative productivity le...

  11. 76 FR 25373 - Certain Polyimide Films, Products Containing Same, and Related Methods; Notice of Institution of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-04

    ... COMMISSION Certain Polyimide Films, Products Containing Same, and Related Methods; Notice of Institution of... films, products containing same, and related methods by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S... certain polyimide films, products containing same, and related methods that infringe one or more of...

  12. 78 FR 46367 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Notice of Receipt of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging; Notice of Receipt of... Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging, DN 2969; the Commission is soliciting... importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and related packaging. The complaint names...

  13. Production of good manufacturing practice-grade human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells for therapeutic use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Pham, Phuc; Phan, Ngoc Kim

    2015-01-01

    Human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells (UCB-MSCs) are multipotent stem cells that can be differentiated into several specific cell types such as adipocytes, osteoblasts, and chondroblasts. They also were demonstrated to trans-differentiate into other cell lineages such as muscle cells and neurons. Thus, they are considered a promising stem cell source for therapeutic use. Here, we describe a method for production of good manufacturing practice-grade human UCB-MSCs for therapeutic use. The obtained UCB-MSCs are free of allogenous or xenogenous proteins. In addition, these MSCs could maintain the MSC phenotype in long-term culture.

  14. Methods and materials relating to IMPDH and GMP production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collart, Frank R.; Huberman, Eliezer

    1997-01-01

    Disclosed are purified and isolated DNA sequences encoding eukaryotic proteins possessing biological properties of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase ("IMPDH"). Illustratively, mammalian (e.g., human) IMPDH-encoding DNA sequences are useful in transformation or transfection of host cells for the large scale recombinant production of the enzymatically active expression products and/or products (e.g., GMP) resulting from IMPDH catalyzed synthesis in cells. Vectors including IMPDH-encoding DNA sequences are useful in gene amplification procedures. Recombinant proteins and synthetic peptides provided by the invention are useful as immunological reagents and in the preparation of antibodies (including polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies) for quantitative detection of IMPDH.

  15. Significant association between ABO blood group and pancreatic cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia; B; Greer; Mark; H; Yazer; Jay; S; Raval; M; Michael; Barmada; Randall; E; Brand; David; C; Whitcomb

    2010-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate whether the ABO blood group is related to pancreatic cancer risk in the general population of the United States.METHODS:Using the University of Pittsburgh's clinicalpancreatic cancer registry,the blood donor database from our local blood bank (Central Blood Bank),and the blood product recipient database from the regional transfusion service (Centralized Transfusion Service) in Pittsburgh,Pennsylvania,we identified 274 pancreatic cancer patients with previously determined serological ABO bloo...

  16. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuengsaman, Piyatida

    2016-01-01

    Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7%) of early response, 122 (18.9%) of delayed response, and 144 (22.3%) of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value < 0.001 for all comparisons). Conclusion. Three patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter. PMID:27656294

  17. Dialysate White Blood Cell Change after Initial Antibiotic Treatment Represented the Patterns of Response in Peritoneal Dialysis-Related Peritonitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pichaya Tantiyavarong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Patients with peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis usually have different responses to initial antibiotic treatment. This study aimed to explore the patterns of response by using the changes of dialysate white blood cell count on the first five days of the initial antibiotic treatment. Materials and Methods. A retrospective cohort study was conducted. All peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis episodes from January 2014 to December 2015 were reviewed. We categorized the patterns of antibiotic response into 3 groups: early response, delayed response, and failure group. The changes of dialysate white blood cell count for each pattern were determined by multilevel regression analysis. Results. There were 644 episodes in 455 patients: 378 (58.7% of early response, 122 (18.9% of delayed response, and 144 (22.3% of failure episodes. The patterns of early, delayed, and failure groups were represented by the average rate reduction per day of dialysate WBC of 68.4%, 34.0%, and 14.2%, respectively (p value < 0.001 for all comparisons. Conclusion. Three patterns, which were categorized by types of responses, have variable rates of WBC declining. Clinicians should focus on the delayed response and failure patterns in order to make a decision whether to continue medical therapies or to aggressively remove the peritoneal catheter.

  18. Effect of guar crispbread with cereal products and leguminous seeds on blood glucose concentrations of diabetics.

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, D J; Wolever, T M; Taylor, R H; Barker, H M; Fielden, H; Jenkins, A. L.

    1980-01-01

    To compare the effect on blood glucose concentrations of guar incorporated into crispbreads with that of unprocessed high-fibre foods groups of four to six diabetics took a total of seven test breakfasts on separate days. By comparison with a breakfast of wholemeal bread and cheese, guar crispbread combined with bread reduced the area under the glucose response curve to 51% (p < 0.05); bread and soya beans reduced the area to 65% (p < 0.05); guar crispbread with soya beans to 25% (p < 0.002);...

  19. Ex-vivo response to blood products and haemostatic agents after paediatric cardiac surgery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvas, Anne-Mette; Andreasen, Jo B; Christiansen, Kirsten;

    2013-01-01

    cardiac surgery. The haemostatic potential of various factor concentrates (fibrinogen concentrate, recombinant factor VIIa and factor XIII), fresh frozen plasma (FFP), pooled platelets and tranexamic acid was investigated. After surgery, the coagulation profiles revealed significantly prolonged clotting...... of fibrinogen concentrate, FFP or tranexamic acid improved clot stability significantly. Whole blood coagulation was significantly impaired after cardiac surgery in children. Ex-vivo studies showed a total reversal of the coagulopathy after addition of pooled platelets and significantly improved clot stability...... after addition of fibrinogen concentrate, FFP and tranexamic acid, respectively....

  20. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: implications for the prevention of blood borne infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G; Patterson, Thomas L; Strathdee, Steffanie A

    2005-09-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900's and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana.

  1. Historical trends in the production and consumption of illicit drugs in Mexico: Implications for the prevention of blood borne infections

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucardo, Jesus; Brouwer, Kimberly C.; Magis-Rodríguez, Carlos; Ramos, Rebeca; Fraga, Miguel; Perez, Saida G.; Patterson, Thomas L.; Strathdee, Steffanie A.

    2007-01-01

    Mexico has cultivated opium poppy since before the 1900’s and has been an important transit route for South American cocaine for decades. However, only recently has drug use, particularly injection drug use, been documented as an important problem. Heroin is the most common drug used by Mexican injection drug users (IDUs). Increased cultivation of opium poppy in some Mexican states, lower prices for black tar heroin and increased security at U.S.-Mexican border crossings may be contributing factors to heroin use, especially in border cities. Risky practices among IDUs, including needle sharing and shooting gallery attendance are common, whereas perceived risk for acquiring blood borne infections is low. Although reported AIDS cases attributed to IDU in Mexico have been low, data from sentinel populations, such as pregnant women in the Mexican-U.S. border city of Tijuana, suggest an increase in HIV prevalence associated with drug use. Given widespread risk behaviors and rising numbers of blood borne infections among IDUs in Mexican-U.S. border cities, there is an urgent need for increased disease surveillance and culturally appropriate interventions to prevent potential epidemics of blood borne infections. We review available literature on the history of opium production in Mexico, recent trends in drug use and its implications, and the Mexican response, with special emphasis on the border cities of Ciudad Juarez and Tijuana. PMID:16102372

  2. Production Technologies And Exchange Relations In International Industrial Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Hallén, L; Johanson, J.; Seyed Mohamed, N

    1986-01-01

    Based on interviews with marketers in British, German, and Swedish industrial firms, 237 relationships to customers are investigated with regard to the latent factors adaptation and contact intensity. A Lisrel model is developed, which shows that these factors are present in the total material as well as in two of the three specified technological categories, i.e. in relationships to customers with unit and mass production but not in relationships to customers with process production. Further...

  3. Hyaluronidase production in Streptococcus milleri in relation to infection.

    OpenAIRE

    Unsworth, P F

    1989-01-01

    One hundred and seven (41%) of 262 isolates of Streptococcus milleri, from human sources, produced hyaluronidase. Hyaluronidase production was commoner in beta haemolytic isolates 32 of 39 (82%), many of which were of Lancefield group F. But hyaluronidase was also found in alpha and non-haemolytic isolates, and in groups A, C, G, and non-groupable isolates. There was a strong association between hyaluronidase production and isolation from known internal abscesses (48/58, 83%) compared with is...

  4. Authentication of organic tomatoes, wheat, and related products

    OpenAIRE

    Novotná, Hana; Schulzova, Vera; Krtkova, Veronika; Hajslova, Jana

    2013-01-01

    There is an increasing consumer demand for food cultivated by organic farming practices. Because of higher price of these products, there is a need for development and validation of analytical methods, which allow discrimination between organic and conventional food products. This contribution concerns with one of the novel methods of food analysis, the metabolomic fingerprinting/profiling by the ambient mass spectrometry employing Direct Analysis in Real Time (DART) ion source coupled with O...

  5. PRODUCTION OF PROINFLAMMATORY CYTOKINES AND ALPHA-2-MACROGLOBULIN BY PERIPHERAL BLOOD CELLS IN THE PATIENTS WITH COLORECTAL CANCER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zorina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Colorectal cancer (CRC is the third most common cancer worldwide, being quite complicated, with respect to diagnostics and postoperative prognosis. Proinflammatory cytokines are shown to be involved into CRC pathogenesis. However, the changes in alpha-2-macroglobulin (α2-MG, a known regulator of cytokine production, still remain unclear. The aim of this work was to compare contents and production of a2-MG and several pro-inflammatory cytokines in blood serum and supernates from short-term blood cell cultures. The samples were taken from the patients with CRC at initial terms and after surgical removal of the tumor.Studies of cytokines and a2-MG concentrations in serum and supernates of 24-h blood cell cultures from the patients with verified CRC (stages T2-3N0-1M0 and T4N0-1M0 have shown some sufficient differences from healthy volunteers (control group. Pre-surgery IL-6 and TNFα contents in blood of CRC patients was significantly increased agains healthy controls (respectively, 29.9±5.4 and 3.4±1.5 pg/mL versus control group (1.0±0.3 and 0 pg/mL, respectively. Following surgical treatment, the cytokine levels were decreased by 40- 60% after the operation, however, without significant differences from initial values.The supernates of blood cultures stimulated with polyclonal mitogens exhibited significant reduction of IFNγ levels prior to surgery (273±123 pg/ml versus 804±154 pg/mL, and elevated IL-6 levels (14412±2570 pg/mL versus 1970±457 pg/mL. The mean α2-MG concentrations before CRC surgery comprised 1.96±0.11 g/L for blood serum, 0.0304±0.0047 g/L, for non-stimulated blood cell cultures, and 0.0300±0.0052 g/L in mitogen-induced cultures. These parameters did not significantly differ from control values (2.21±0.17 g/L, 0.0328±0.0018 g/L, and 0.0314±0.0019 g/L, respectively. Similar results have been yielded with the samples obtained after surgical treatment of the CRC patients.The obtained data indicate that surgical

  6. Effect of in vitro zinc supplementation on HSPs expression and Interleukin 10 production in heat treated peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal and Karan Fries cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheikh, Aasif Ahmad; Aggarwal, Anjali; Aarif, Ovais

    2016-02-01

    The changing climatic scenario with apprehended rise in global temperature is likely to affect the livestock adversely vis-à-vis production and reproduction. This has prompted more focus in addressing the unfavorable effects of thermal stress in livestock system. Presuming that the trace element zinc is indispensible for cellular antioxidant system and immune function, the present study was designed to investigate the effect of zinc treatment on heat stress alleviation and immune modulation in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of indigenous and crossbred transition cows. Twelve cows, six each of Sahiwal and Karan Fries (KF) in their second parity with confirmed pregnancy were selected for the experiment. The blood samples were collected at -21, 0 and +21 days in relation to expected date of calving. The experiment was carried out in vitro after isolating PBMC from whole blood. The 48h cultured PBMC were subjected to assorted levels of exposures viz. 37°C, 42°C to impose heat stress and 42°C+zinc to alleviate heat stress and modulate immunity. The PBMC viability was 86%, 69% and 78%, respectively. The mRNA expression of heat shock proteins (HSP 40, 70 and 90α) and Interleukin-10 (IL-10) production varied between the two breeds vis-à-vis days and levels of exposure. The mRNA expression of HSP40 and HSP70 was significantly (PZinc treatment to heat stressed PBMC caused a significant (PZinc treatment reduced the IL-10 concentration. From the study, it could be concluded that the zinc supplementation in heat stressed PBMC can ameliorate thermal stress and modulate immune response which can act as a model for reducing heat stress during the periparturient period in tropical livestock.

  7. Effects of niacin on milk production and blood parameters in early lactation of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghorbani, Behnam; Vahdani, Narges; Zerehdaran, Saeed

    2008-06-15

    To investigate the effects of niacin supplementation in the diet of high producing cows at early lactation, 21 holstein dairy cows were used in this experiment. Animal were assigned in to three groups based on their milk yield and calving date soon after parturition. They were received a basal diet and 0 (group 1), 6 (group 2), 12 (group 3) g of supplementation niacin per day over a 10 weeks experimental period. Milk volume was recorded and milk samples were collected for each cow at two weeks interval for analysis of fat, protein, lactose and SNF (Solid-None Fat). Blood samples were also taken for the measurement of glucose, triglyceride, Beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein at two weeks intervals. No significant difference were observed between milk yield, milk fat, protein, lactose and SNF content in cows received niacin compared to the control group (p > 0.05). Plasma glucose in groups 2 and 3 compared to the control were higher and this difference were statistically significant (p niacin supplementation. BHBA were lower in cows received niacin and this difference were significant (p Niacin has showed an increase in the level of plasma glucose and a notable decrease in the amount of blood triglyceride, beta-hydroxy butyrate and total protein, which may be due to the effect of this vitamin on the energy metabolism in cows.

  8. Properdin-Mediated C5a Production Enhances Stable Binding of Platelets to Granulocytes in Human Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blatt, Adam Z; Saggu, Gurpanna; Kulkarni, Koustubh V; Cortes, Claudio; Thurman, Joshua M; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D; Valenzuela, Jesus G; Ferreira, Viviana P

    2016-06-01

    Enhanced levels of platelet/granulocyte aggregates (PGAs) are found in patients suffering from many different inflammatory vascular diseases, and their formation in animal models of vascular disease is associated with increased thromboinflammation and worsened outcomes. The complement system, a part of the innate immune system, influences PGA formation, but the mechanisms for its effects are unknown. In this study, we have defined complement-mediated mechanisms that enhance PGA formation in human whole blood stimulated with thrombin receptor-activating peptide (TRAP) using ex vivo flow cytometry assays. We demonstrate that physiological properdin, a positive regulator of complement alternative pathway activity, increases PGA formation when added to TRAP-stimulated blood. All physiological properdin forms increase PGA formation, but properdin tetramers are the most efficient at increasing complement activity and PGA formation. Inhibition of endogenous properdin, either circulating in the blood or produced locally by leukocytes, impairs TRAP-mediated PGA formation to the same level as specific inhibition of either the alternative or classical pathway. Additionally, blocking the interaction of C5a with its cellular receptor prevents properdin-mediated increases in PGA formation. Adding either properdin tetramers or C5a to whole blood increases CD11b expression on granulocytes, and this increase is prevented by blockade of the C5a-C5a receptor axis. Finally, we demonstrate that the effects of properdin on PGA formation are tightly regulated by Factor H. Cumulatively, our data indicate that properdin enhances PGA formation via increased production of C5a, and that inhibition of properdin function has therapeutic potential to limit thromboinflammation in diseases characterized by increased PGA formation. PMID:27183616

  9. Evaluation of metabolite/drug ratios in blood and urine as a tool for confirmation of a reduced tolerance in methadone-related deaths in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marie K K; Johansen, Sys Stybe; Linnet, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Methadone blood concentrations in fatal cases are highly variable and there is an appreciable overlap between therapeutic methadone concentrations and the concentrations detected in fatalities. As with other opioids, the background of these methadone-related deaths is unclear. The aim of this study...... was to investigate if short-time abstinence was contributing to the cause of death in methadone-related deaths by evaluation of the EDDP/methadone ratio in blood and urine....

  10. Relations between neuropsychological findings and lateral asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshimura, Nahoko; Soma, Yoshiaki; Ootsuki, Mika [Takeda General Hospital, Aizu-Wakamatsu, Fukushima (Japan)

    1993-10-01

    We studied 16 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (6 men, 10 women; aged 63-85, mean 72.8 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebrovascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below 4). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with {sup 123}I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine ({sup 123}I-IMP), using the Matsuda`s quantitative method. Regional tracer uptake was measured in regions of interests (ROIs) over right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of lateral asymmetries in the temporal and parietal cortexes of rCBF (leftblood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Decreased rCBF in the left temporoparietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right hemisphere, with constructive dysfunction. (author).

  11. Relations between neuropsychological findings and lateral asymmetries of cerebral blood flow measured by SPECT in dementia of Alzheimer type

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We studied 16 right-handed patients clinically diagnosed as dementia of Alzheimer type (6 men, 10 women; aged 63-85, mean 72.8 years). The average duration of symptoms was 2.7 years. Dementia ranged from mild to moderately severe. None had clinical or laboratory evidence of cerebrovascular disease (Hachinski ischemic scores for all patients were 4 or below 4). All received the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS), Mini-mental State Test (MMS) and Western Aphasia Battery (WAB, First Japanese edition, 1986). Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) was evaluated by single photon emission CT (SPECT) with 123I-N-isopropyl-p-iodoamphetamine (123I-IMP), using the Matsuda's quantitative method. Regional tracer uptake was measured in regions of interests (ROIs) over right and left frontal, temporal, parietal and occipital cortical regions; basal ganglia; and cerebellar hemispheres. The subjects were divided into three groups on the basis of lateral asymmetries in the temporal and parietal cortexes of rCBF (left< right, n=5; right< left, n=3; left=right, n=8). We decided that lateral asymmetry was present when rCBF for each ROI between left and right sides differs by more than 10%. General score (MMS, T-IQ) was not correlated with asymmetry of cerebral blood flow. Verbal IQ in patients with predominant hypoperfusion of left temporal and parietal lobe was significantly lower than other group, while performance IQ and WAB constructive scores were lower in those with right hemispheric hypoperfusion (p<0.05). We concluded that cerebral blood flow asymmetry by SPECT was related significantly to the deficit of language and constructive function in patients with dementia of Alzheimer type. Decreased rCBF in the left temporoparietal lobe was associated with language dysfunction, and that in the right hemisphere, with constructive dysfunction. (author)

  12. SPM analysis of cerebral blood flow changes related to age in patients with schizophrenia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Ho Chun; Kim, Sung Wan; Lee, Byeong II; Min, Jung Joon; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National University Medical School, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The goal of this study was to explore neural activities of schizophrenic patients related to current age including the age of onset and also we examined the correlation patterns between age and neural correlates. 21 patients with schizophrenia (female/male; 10/11, mean age; 36.1 11.2) participated in this study and all patients were evaluated by criteria of DSM-IV as a schizophrenia patient. Exclusion criteria included inability to give informed consent and a history of significant neurological illness. 99mTc-ECD brain perfusion SPECT images were obtained from 21 schizophrenic patients. Using SPM (statistical parametric mapping), all images were normalized to a SPECT template (MNI template) and then smoothed. We performed an ANCOVA analysis with current age (covariate variable) and the age of onset (nuisance variable). The correlation was analyzed into positive and negative patterns. Findings are reported as a Z scores with a significance threshold of p < 0.005 (uncorrected) and a minimum cluster size of 10. Significant difference was found between current age and premorbid age (p < 0.05). Cerebral regions that were positively correlated with current age were observed in the middle frontal gyrus and the superior frontal gyrus bilaterally, the left precentral gyrus (Brodmann's area; BA 9) and the right inferior frontal gyrus (BA 46). Also, in relation to negative correlations, there were many regions in the right posterior cingulate gyrus (BA 30) and the left cuneus (BA 30), middle temporal gyrus (BA 21) and superior temporal gyrus (BA 13, 39). Additionally, the occipital regions were found in the right cuneus (BA 18) including the right middle occipital gyrus (BA 18) and right lingual gyrus (BA 19). Age effect in schizophrenic patients was observed in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with positive correlation. We suggest that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex activity which is important for cognitive task performance is related to an increase of patients

  13. Expression of blood group-related glycoconjugates in the junctional and other oral epithelia of rodents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackenzie, I C; Dabelsteen, Erik; Rittman, G;

    1995-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The junctional epithelium (JE) attaches the gingiva to the non-vital tooth surface and has other unusual properties which protect the underlying periodontal tissues. The JE differs from other gingival and oral epithelia in its unusual expression of cytokeratins typical of both...... stratifying and of simple epithelia, a phenotypic pattern possibly related to its specialized functions. METHODS: The patterns of differentiation of rodent gingival and other epithelia were examined using monoclonal antibodies against various glycoconjugates which are expressed on epithelial cell surfaces...

  14. Inhibition of whole blood platelet-aggregation by compounds in garlic clove extracts and commercial garlic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawson, L D; Ransom, D K; Hughes, B G

    1992-01-15

    The inhibitory effects of adenosine and 16 quantitatively determined organosulfur compounds derived from garlic cloves or commercial garlic preparations on collagen stimulated in vitro platelet aggregation in whole blood were determined. An estimation of the anti-aggregatory activity of several brands of the major types of commercial garlic preparations was determined from the activities of the individual compounds present in each sample. In platelet rich plasma (PRP) most of the anti-aggregatory activity of garlic clove homogenates was due to adenosine; however, in whole blood neither adenosine nor the polar fraction had any effect and all of the anti-aggregatory activity was due to allicin and other thiosulfinates. Allicin was equally active in whole blood and PRP. Among brands there was a several-fold variation in content of the organosulfur compounds and activity for all types of garlic products tested. The best garlic powder tablets were equally as active as clove homogenates whereas steam-distilled oils were 35% as active and oil-macerates (due to low content) only 12% as active. A garlic product aged many months in aqueous alcohol had no activity. For steam-distilled oils, most of the activity was due to diallyl trisulfide. For the oil-macerates, most of the activity was due largely to the vinyl dithiins. Ajoene, an exclusive component of the oil-macerates, had highest specific activity of all the compounds tested but, because of its low concentration, had only 13% of the activity of diallyl trisulfide and 3% of the activity of allicin. Compounds which may be active in vivo are discussed. PMID:1579891

  15. Genotypic variation and slime production among blood and catheter isolates of Candida parapsilosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Branchini, M L; Pfaller, M A; Rhine-Chalberg, J; Frempong, T; Isenberg, H D

    1994-01-01

    Candida parapsilosis is an important nosocomial pathogen that can proliferate in high concentrations of glucose and form biofilms on prosthetic materials. We investigated the genotypic diversity and slime production among 31 isolates of C. parapsilosis from individual patients with bloodstream or catheter infections. DNA subtyping was performed by using electrophoretic karyotyping plus restriction endonuclease analysis with BssHII followed by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis. Slime production...

  16. Production of cytokine and chemokines by human mononuclear cells and whole blood cells after infection with Trypanosoma cruzi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karine Rezende-Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The innate immune response is the first mechanism of protection against Trypanosoma cruzi, and the interaction of inflammatory cells with parasite molecules may activate this response and modulate the adaptive immune system. This study aimed to analyze the levels of cytokines and chemokines synthesized by the whole blood cells (WBC and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC of individuals seronegative for Chagas disease after interaction with live T. cruzi trypomastigotes. METHODS: IL-12, IL-10, TNF-α, TGF-β, CCL-5, CCL-2, CCL-3, and CXCL-9 were measured by ELISA. Nitrite was determined by the Griess method. RESULTS: IL-10 was produced at high levels by WBC compared with PBMC, even after incubation with live trypomastigotes. Production of TNF-α by both PBMC and WBC was significantly higher after stimulation with trypomastigotes. Only PBMC produced significantly higher levels of IL-12 after parasite stimulation. Stimulation of cultures with trypomastigotes induced an increase of CXCL-9 levels produced by WBC. Nitrite levels produced by PBMC increased after the addition of parasites to the culture. CONCLUSIONS: Surface molecules of T. cruzi may induce the production of cytokines and chemokines by cells of the innate immune system through the activation of specific receptors not evaluated in this experiment. The ability to induce IL-12 and TNF-α contributes to shift the adaptive response towards a Th1 profile.

  17. Related research of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Juan Zeng; Jie Ou; Yun-Mei He; Chun-Yu Cai

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To explore the relationship between levels of blood glucose, blood lipid and serum cystatin C and lower-extremity arterial disease in type 2 diabetic mellitus so as to provide the basis for the prevention and treatment of the disease.Methods:A total of 240 cases of patients with type 2 diabetic mellitus receiving physical examinations in our hospital from March 2014 to March 2015 were selected and divided into three groups. The control group was consisted of type 2 diabetes patients without lower-extremity arterial disease, the observation group 1 included type 2 diabetes patients with mild or moderate lower-extremity arterial disease, and the observation group 2 was formed by type 2 diabetes patients with severe lower-extremity arterial disease. Each group contained 80 cases. Then, the heights, weights, waist and hip circumferences of patients in the three groups were determined and the body mass index (BMI) and waist to hip ratio (WHR) were calculated; the fasting blood glucose (FBG), fasting insulin (FINS), insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR), 2 h postprandial blood glucose (2 h PG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HBA1c) in two groups were detected; and the levels of serum total cholesterol(TC), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), apolipoprotein A1 (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB) and cystatin C (CysC) in two groups were also tested.Results:Compared with the control group, the WHR, FBG, HOMA-IR, 2 h PG, HBA1c, LDL-C, apoB and CysC all increased significantly, and the differences were statistically significant. Besides, there were statistically significances existing between the observation groups 1 and 2. What’s more, the serum levels of TC, HDL-C, TG and apoA1 in the observation groups were not significantly different from those of the control group.Conclusions: There is a close relationship between blood glucose, blood lipid, serum cystatin C level and lower-extremity arterial

  18. International market segmentation based on consumer-product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ter Hofstede, F; Steenkamp, JBEM; Wedel, M

    1999-01-01

    With increasing competition in the global marketplace, international segmentation has become an ever more important issue in developing, positioning, and selling products across national borders. The authors propose a methodology to identify cross-national market segments, based on means-end chain t

  19. Anticancer agent-based marine natural products and related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian-Wei; Wu, Qi-Hao; Rowley, David C; Al-Kareef, Ammar M Q; Wang, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Marine natural products constitute a huge reservoir of anticancer agents. Consequently during the past decades, several marine anticancer compounds have been isolated, identified, and approved for anticancer treatment or are under trials. In this article the sources, structure, bioactivities, mode of actions, and analogs of some promising marine and derived anticancer compounds have been discussed. PMID:25559315

  20. A multidisciplinary framework for (teaching) human product relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eggink, Wouter; Bijl-Brouwer, van der Mieke; Boks, C.; McMahon, C.; Ion, W.; Parkinson, B.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we introduce a framework for dealing with the complexity of human-product relationships. The actual framework is a matrix of design perspectives, with three cooperating disciplines on the one hand and three levels of abstraction on the other hand. Basis of the framework is the notion t

  1. Leader-follower interactions : Relations with OCB and sales productivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zacher, Hannes; Jimmieson, Nerina L.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Based on substitutes for leadership theory, the aim of this study is to examine followers' learning goal orientation as a moderator of relationships among transformational leadership, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) and sales productivity. Design/methodology/approach Data came from

  2. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin; Desler, Claus; Bendix, Laila; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Molbo, Drude; Croteau, Deborah L; Osler, Merete; Stevnsner, Tinna; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Dela, Flemming; Avlund, Kirsten; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2013-11-01

    Low vitality (a component of fatigue) in middle-aged and older adults is an important complaint often identified as a symptom of a disease state or side effect of a treatment. No studies to date have investigated the potential link between dysfunctional mitochondrial ATP production and low vitality. Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) balance in PBMCs. The population was drawn from the Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953. Vitality level was estimated from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale. We found that vitality score had no association with any of the mitochondrial respiration parameters. However, vitality score was inversely associated with cellular ROS production and cellular deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels and positively associated with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) levels. We conclude that self-reported persistent low vitality is not associated with specific aspects of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in PBMCs, but may have other underlying cellular dysfunctions that contribute to dNTP imbalance and altered ROS production.

  3. Determination of blood ET-1 and related cytokines in pediatric patients with bronchial asthma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: To explore the role of endothelin and related cytokines (IL-5, IL-6, IL-8) in the development of bronchial asthma in pediatric patients. Methods: Plasma ET-1 (with RIA) and serum IL-5 (with ELISA), IL-6, IL-8 (with RIA) levels were measured in 42 pediatric patients with bronchial asthma and 30 controls. Results: The plasma ET-1 levels in the patients during acute attack (n=22) were significantly higher than those in patients during remission (n=20) as well as in controls (P0.05). Levels of ET-1 were positively correlated with those of IL-5 (during attack, r=0.560, P<0.01; during remission, r=0.435, P<0.01). Conclusion: ET and the cytokines IL-5, IL-6, IL-8 participated in the pathogenesis of bronchial asthma through different mechanisms and dynamic determination of which could reflect the progression of the disease. (authors)

  4. Effect of thermal stress on expression profile of apoptosis related genes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of transition Sahiwal cow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somal, A; Aggarwal, A; Upadhyay, R C

    2015-01-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the effect of thermal stress on expression profile of genes related to apoptosis in peripartum Sahiwal cows. For this, twelve pregnant dry Sahiwal cows were selected from Livestock Research Centre at National Dairy Research Institute, Karnal. The cows were divided into two groups consisting of six Sahiwal cows each. Cows of group I calved during thermoneutral temperature conditions (THI=67.3) and cows of group II calved in summer season (THI=79.9). Blood samples were collected on -15, 0 and +15 days with respect to calving where day '0' represents the day of calving. The peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were separated and total RNA was isolated for the BCL-2 (B-Cell Lymphoma-2), BAX (BCL-2 antagonist killer-1), BAK (Bcl-2-associated X protein), CASP-3 (cysteine-aspartic proteases-3) and P53 (tumour protien-53) mRNAs expression. It was found that there was up regulation of CASP-3 on the day of calving during both temperature conditions. Comparison between the two temperature conditions showed that expression of CASP-3, BCL-2, BAK, P53 and ratio of BAX/BCL-2 in PBMC increased during summer as compared to thermoneutral condition suggesting the susceptibility of these cells to apoptosis. Based on the above findings it can be concluded that during calving PBMC are more susceptible to apoptosis, and summer being more stressful potentiates the apoptosis of PBMC in Sahiwal cows.

  5. Morphometric Evaluation of the Blood Pressure Related Organs in Nili-Ravi Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis With Advancing Age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hussain

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Forty clinically healthy buffaloes of either sex were divided into two age-groups of equal size i.e., young (12-42 months and adult (48-96 months. Histological sections were prepared by routine method and stained by H&E. AutoCAD® image analysis software and ocular micrometer were used for the morphometric evaluations. Studies revealed that the adrenal cortex of buffalo was divided into four zones, zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia, zona fasciculate and zona reticularis. The zona fasciculata was recorded as the widest and zona reticularis narrowest zone of the adrenal cortex. The volume of cardiomyocytic nuclei (μm3, volume of renal corpuscles (μm3×103, volume of nuclei of cells of zona glomerulosa (μm3, thickness of the zona glomerulosa, zona intermedia and zona fasciculata of adrenal cortex in adult buffaloes were significantly (P<0.01 higher as compared to their younger counterparts. It is conceivable that the development of blood related parameters showed an increase parallel to the advancing age in order to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process in buffalo.

  6. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesa eWeise

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain (BBB or blood nerve barrier (BNB preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO and perfluorocarbons (PFC enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis (MS, cerebral ischemia and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.

  7. Magnetic resonance imaging of blood brain/nerve barrier dysfunction and leukocyte infiltration: closely related or discordant?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weise, Gesa; Stoll, Guido

    2012-01-01

    Unlike other organs the nervous system is secluded from the rest of the organism by the blood brain barrier (BBB) or blood nerve barrier (BNB) preventing passive influx of fluids from the circulation. Similarly, leukocyte entry to the nervous system is tightly controlled. Breakdown of these barriers and cellular inflammation are hallmarks of inflammatory as well as ischemic neurological diseases and thus represent potential therapeutic targets. The spatiotemporal relationship between BBB/BNB disruption and leukocyte infiltration has been a matter of debate. We here review contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) as a non-invasive tool to depict barrier dysfunction and its relation to macrophage infiltration in the central and peripheral nervous system under pathological conditions. Novel experimental contrast agents like Gadofluorine M (Gf) allow more sensitive assessment of BBB dysfunction than conventional Gadolinium (Gd)-DTPA enhanced MRI. In addition, Gf facilitates visualization of functional and transient alterations of the BBB remote from lesions. Cellular contrast agents such as superparamagnetic iron oxide particles (SPIO) and perfluorocarbons enable assessment of leukocyte (mainly macrophage) infiltration by MR technology. Combined use of these MR contrast agents disclosed that leukocytes can enter the nervous system independent from a disturbance of the BBB, and vice versa, a dysfunctional BBB/BNB by itself is not sufficient to attract inflammatory cells from the circulation. We will illustrate these basic imaging findings in animal models of multiple sclerosis, cerebral ischemia, and traumatic nerve injury and review corresponding findings in patients.

  8. Mental stress-induced increase in blood pressure is not related to baroreflex sensitivity in middle-aged healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, J P; Cerutti, C; Quelin, P; Laville, M; Gustin, M P; Paultre, C Z; Ducher, M

    2000-04-01

    The baroreflex that acts to blunt blood pressure (BP) variations through opposite variations in heart rate should limit the BP increase produced by an emotional challenge. However, relations between baroreflex sensitivity and BP reactivity induced by a psychological stress in a large group of adults have never been firmly established. In 280 healthy men, rest (10 minutes) and stress (5 minutes) BP and heart rate were recorded beat to beat by a blood pressure monitor. The mental stress was elicited by a well-standardized computerized version of a word color conflict stress test (Stroop Color Test). Rest and stress baroreflex sensitivity was assessed by the cross-spectral analysis of BP and heart rate and by the sequence method. The stress-induced increase in systolic BP (22.4+/-0.1 mm Hg) was not correlated with resting baroreflex sensitivity but was slightly correlated (r=0.2, P<0.001) with BP variability assessed either by standard deviation or by mid-frequency band spectral power. Our results suggested that a centrally mediated sympathetic stimulation overcame cardiac autonomic regulation and emphasized the role of the sympathetic vasoconstriction in the pressure response at the onset of the stressing stimulation. During the sustained sympathoexcitatory phase, the cardiac baroreflex blunts BP variations but at a lower sensitivity.

  9. Stress associated gene expression in blood cells is related to outcome in radiotherapy treated head and neck cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bøhn Siv K

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We previously observed that a radiotherapy-induced biochemical response in plasma was associated with favourable outcome in head and neck squamous carcinoma cancer (HNSCC patients. The aim of the present study was to compare stress associated blood cell gene expression between two sub-groups of HNSCC patients with different biochemical responses to radiotherapy. Methods Out of 87 patients (histologically verified, 10 biochemical ‘responders’ having a high relative increase in plasma oxidative damage and a concomitant decrease in plasma antioxidants during radiotherapy and 10 ‘poor-responders’ were selected for gene-expression analysis and compared using gene set enrichment analysis. Results There was a significant induction of stress-relevant gene-sets in the responders following radiotherapy compared to the poor-responders. The relevance of the involvement of similar stress associated gene expression for HNSCC cancer and radioresistance was verified using two publicly available data sets of 42 HNSCC cases and 14 controls (GEO GSE6791, and radiation resistant and radiation sensitive HNSCC xenografts (E-GEOD-9716. Conclusions Radiotherapy induces a systemic stress response, as revealed by induction of stress relevant gene expression in blood cells, which is associated to favourable outcome in a cohort of 87 HNSCC patients. Whether these changes in gene expression reflects a systemic effect or are biomarkers of the tumour micro-environmental status needs further study. Trial registration Raw data are available at ArrayExpress under accession number E-MEXP-2460.

  10. 21 CFR 640.1 - Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Whole Blood. 640.1 Section 640.1 Food and Drugs... STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Whole Blood § 640.1 Whole Blood. The proper name of this product shall be Whole Blood. Whole Blood is defined as blood collected from human donors for...

  11. Relative toxicity of pyrolysis products of some foams and fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.

    1976-01-01

    A limited number of foams and fabrics was evaluated in the course of developing test procedures for determining the relative toxicity of materials. The principal variable studied, heating rate, did not affect the relative ranking of the materials tested. Two pyrolysis test procedures using the same basic approach but employing different sample weights, chamber volumes, laboratory animals, heating rates, and upper temperature limits, resulted in identical rankings of relative toxicity. The data obtained show that modification of conventional flexible polyurethane foams with flame retardants to comply with California upholstered furniture flammability regulations seems to consistently reduce toxicity under pyrolysis conditions.

  12. Volvatellin, caulerpenyne-related product fromt he sacoglossan Volvatella sp.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Fontana, A.; Ciavatta, M.L.; Mollo, E.; Naik, C.G.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.; Cimino, G.

    Volvatellin (4) is a highly unstable terpene isolated from the extracts of the Indian opisthobranch mollusk Volvatella sp. The structure and the relative stereochemistry of 4 were determined by NMR methods. The paper also describes a hypothetical...

  13. "Eating well": the politics of production and relational aesthetics

    OpenAIRE

    Walden, Jenny

    2009-01-01

    Relational Aesthetics” has emerged as a phenomenon in art critical discourse through the work of Nicholas Bourriard and his categorisation of certain modes of creating art works, involving the participation of the ‘viewer’ in distinctive ways, such that a new ethical and political relation subtends, displacing former political ‘boundary markers’ between object and audience. The chapter will discuss two significant ways in which ‘the politics of production’ in connection with arts works consi...

  14. Reference values of central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity in relation with 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in Belgian healthy young subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Remy, Annie; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to define reference values of central blood pressure (cBP) and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) together with 24H ABPM in healthy normotensive young adults before starring a follow-up of their CV profile modifications over time. Peer reviewed

  15. Reference values of central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity in relations with 24 hours ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in Belgian normotensive young subjects

    OpenAIRE

    Saint-Remy, Annie; Krzesinski, Jean-Marie

    2010-01-01

    The present study aimed to define reference values of central blood pressure (cBP) and Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) together with 24H APPM in healththy normotensive young adults before starting a follow-up of their CV profile modifications over time. Peer reviewed

  16. Unemployment persistence and the unemployment-productivity relation

    OpenAIRE

    Snower, Dennis J.

    1994-01-01

    This paper explores the interrelation between the degree of unemployment persistence and the unemployment-productivity trade-off. The analysis suggests that the more effective are structural labour market policies (designed to change labour market institutions and laws, such as job security legislation) in making wages and prices more responsive to current unemployment and making unemployment less persistent, the less effective will be the growth-promoting supply-side policies (such as traini...

  17. Factors Related to Low Research Productivity at Higher Education Level

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Zafar Iqbal; Azhar Mahmood

    2011-01-01

    Research is vital and necessary part of modern university education; universities are producers of new knowledge. Role of universities is different from the 19th century; demands of the 21st century are enormously higher. The purpose of study was to find out the causes of low research productivity at university level. Population of the study was faculty members working at University. Sample consisting of 232 male and female faculty members was selected through the stratified sampling techniqu...

  18. Extraction of mRNA from coagulated horse blood and analysis of inflammation-related cytokine responses to coagulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bovbjerg, Kirsten Katrine Lindegaard; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Skovgaard, Kerstin

    2010-01-01

    available. Here, a protocol for RNA extraction from highly clotted blood was optimized and the regulation of a number of cytokine genes compared to stabilized blood was studied. Whole blood samples from 10 clinically healthy horses were incubated for 24 hours at 37°C and RNA was extracted from...

  19. Development of functional food products in relation to obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monika Choudhary

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The development of new eating habits, as well as actual trends in production and consumption,has a health, environmental and social impact. The entire world is fighting diseases characteristic of the modern age such as obesity, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes, allergies, and dental problems. With a global increase in the prevalence of obesity, both nutrition and exercise play key roles in its prevention and treatment. Natural product (nutraceutical interventions are currently being investigated on a large-scale basis as potential treatments for obesity and weight management. With advancing nutritional sciences, several nutrients such as; low-glycemic-indexcarbohydrates, 5-hydroxytryptophan, green tea extract, and chromium have been shown topromote weight loss. The first two nutrients decrease appetite, green tea increases the 24 hrenergy expenditure, and chromium promotes the composition of the weight lost to be fat rather than lean tissue. These have been assembled, in efficacious doses, into a new functional food product and described in this review. Each component has already been shown to promote weight loss independently in clinical trials.

  20. Age and dose related alteration of in vitro mixed lymphocyte culture response of blood lymphocytes from A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The responsiveness of peripheral blood lymphocytes to allogenic antigens in mixed lymphocyte culture (MLC) was measured in 139 atomic-bomb survivors. The study revealed a significant decrease in MLC response with increasing dose of previous radiation exposure. This decline was marked in the survivors who were older than 15 at the time of the bomb (ATB). The results suggest a possible relationship between the recovery of T-cell-related function and the thymic function which processes mature T cells for the immune system. Thus it may be that in the advanced age ATB group, the thymus function had started to involute, allowing less recovery of T-cell function compared to young survivors who had adequate processing T-cell activity

  1. EFSA NDA Panel (EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies), 2013. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of normal blood LDL-cholesterol concentration pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    OpenAIRE

    Tetens, Inge

    2013-01-01

    Following an application from Italsur s.r.l., submitted pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Italy, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of red spinach, green spinach, red chicory, green chicory, green leaf chard, red leaf chard, red Swiss chard, golden Swiss chard and white Swiss chard and maintenance of norma...

  2. [Relation between cardiorespiratory indicators, blood lipids, and the amount and distribution of adipose tissue in middle-aged men].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parízková, J; Vĕtvicka, J; Pousek, L; Liska, O

    1995-06-28

    BACKGROUND. In middle-aged and elderly men the cardiovascular mortality in this country is still relatively high. The objective of the presented work was therefore the validation of simple parameters of fat deposition as a risk factor in order to select subjects at risk where preventive measures are called for. METHODS AND RESULTS. In 68 men aged 43.8 +/- 7.4 years from a sample of managers of a Prague bank the case-history we evaluated, as well as a basic physical examination, a loading test on a bicycle ergometer (performance evaluated in W/kg body weight or lean body mass) and ECG; serum lipids were examined (total and HDL-cholesterol, triacyglycerols), the body mass index (BMI), the ratio of depot fat (by evaluation of 10 skinfolds measured by means of a caliper) and the distribution of body fat (indices relating either only the subscapular and tricipital skinfold or all skinfolds on the trunk to all skinfolds on the extremities, and the waist/hip ratio). The basic physical examination did not reveal any serious acute diseases. Mean BMI values (26.7 +/- 3.4 kg/m2) and body fat ratio (20.8 +/- 4.2%) were higher than standard values. 24.1% of the men were obese, the W/H ratio was 0.9 +/- 0.1 but this index, similarly as the other mentioned indices, were elevated, indicating risk. The mean values of the heart rate and blood pressure at rest and after a load were normal, however 11.5% of the men had an elevated diastolic pressure after a load and a similar percentage of men manifested during a load certain signs of myocardial ischaemia. The prevalence of hypertension according to WHO criteria was 9.6%. On average, however, the physical performance (W/kg of the total body weight or lean body mass) was 108% of the Czech standard assessed previously within the framework of the International Biological Programme. The total cholesterol was 5.35 +/- 1.04, HDL 1.11 +/- 0.19, total triacylglycerols 1.81 +/- 0.77 mmol/l. The ratio of total and HDL cholesterol was 4.9 +/- 1

  3. A study on device-related infections with special reference to biofilm production and antibiotic resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monil Singhai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indwelling medical devices (IMDs in critical patients are vulnerable to colonization by biofilm producing bacteria. Complex characteristics of bacterial biofilms promote antibiotic resistance, leading to the emergence of resistant device-related infections (DRI, which pose new challenges in their management. Materials and Methods : The study was done on 135 hospitalized (Intensive care units pediatric patients with IMDs (intravascular catheter, urinary catheter, and endotracheal tube to determine the device-specific infection rates. Biofilm formations were demonstrated by the tube method and by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Bacteria in biofilms were identified by the standard conventional methods and tested for antibiotic resistance. We also detected the presence of extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESβLs, particularly, blaCTX-M, in gram-negative isolates. Results: The rates of biofilm-based catheter-related blood stream infections (CRBSI, catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTI, and Ventilator Associated Pneumonia (VAP, in our study, were 10.4, 26.6, and 20%. Biofilm formation by the tube method correlated well with the SEM findings. A majority of infections were caused by Klebsiella pneumoniae followed by Staphylococcal biofilms. A high percentage (85.7%, 95% confidence interval 64.5 to 95.8% of biofilm producing bacterial isolates, causing infection, were multidrug resistant. Many biofilm producing gram-negative isolates were ESβLs producers, and a majority particularly harbored blaCTX-M, among the ESβLs genotypes. Conclusion: The incidence of resistant device-related infections, predominantly caused by biofilm producing bacteria, is rising. The tube method is an effective screening method to test biofilm production, where sophisticated microscopy facilities are not available. The varying resistance pattern of organisms isolated in our setup, emphasizes the importance of studying the pattern of infection in

  4. Production of embryonic and fetal-like red blood cells from human induced pluripotent stem cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan-Jung Chang

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that human embryonic stem cells can be differentiated into embryonic and fetal type of red blood cells that sequentially express three types of hemoglobins recapitulating early human erythropoiesis. We report here that we have produced iPS from three somatic cell types: adult skin fibroblasts as well as embryonic and fetal mesenchymal stem cells. We show that regardless of the age of the donor cells, the iPS produced are fully reprogrammed into a pluripotent state that is undistinguishable from that of hESCs by low and high-throughput expression and detailed analysis of globin expression patterns by HPLC. This suggests that reprogramming with the four original Yamanaka pluripotency factors leads to complete erasure of all functionally important epigenetic marks associated with erythroid differentiation regardless of the age or the tissue type of the donor cells, at least as detected in these assays. The ability to produce large number of erythroid cells with embryonic and fetal-like characteristics is likely to have many translational applications.

  5. A variational matrix product ansatz for dispersion relations

    CERN Document Server

    Haegeman, Jutho; Weir, David J; Cirac, J Ignacio; Osborne, Tobias J; Verschelde, Henri; Verstraete, Frank

    2011-01-01

    A variational ansatz for momentum eigenstates of translation invariant quantum spin chains is formulated. The matrix product state ansatz works directly in the thermodynamic limit and allows for an efficient and stable implementation of the variational principle. Unlike previous approaches, the ansatz includes topologically non-trivial states (kinks, domain walls) for systems with symmetry breaking. The method is benchmarked using the S=1/2 XXZ antiferromagnet, the S=1 Heisenberg antiferromagnet and the S=1 XXZ antiferromagnet, and we obtain surprisingly accurate results.

  6. The National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute retrovirus epidemiology donor studies (Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study and Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study-II): twenty years of research to advance blood product safety and availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, Steven; King, Melissa R; Busch, Michael P; Murphy, Edward L; Glynn, Simone A

    2012-10-01

    The Retrovirus Epidemiology Donor Study (REDS), conducted from 1989 to 2001, and the REDS-II, conducted from 2004 to 2012, were National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-funded, multicenter programs focused on improving blood safety and availability in the United States. The REDS-II also included international study sites in Brazil and China. The 3 major research domains of REDS/REDS-II have been infectious disease risk evaluation, blood donation availability, and blood donor characterization. Both programs have made significant contributions to transfusion medicine research methodology by the use of mathematical modeling, large-scale donor surveys, innovative methods of repository sample storage, and establishing an infrastructure that responded to potential emerging blood safety threats such as xenotropic murine leukemia virus-related virus. Blood safety studies have included protocols evaluating epidemiologic and/or laboratory aspects of human immunodeficiency virus, human T-lymphotropic virus 1/2, hepatitis C virus, hepatitis B virus, West Nile virus, cytomegalovirus, human herpesvirus 8, parvovirus B19, malaria, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, influenza, and Trypanosoma cruzi infections. Other analyses have characterized blood donor demographics, motivations to donate, factors influencing donor return, behavioral risk factors, donors' perception of the blood donation screening process, and aspects of donor deferral. In REDS-II, 2 large-scale blood donor protocols examined iron deficiency in donors and the prevalence of leukocyte antibodies. This review describes the major study results from over 150 peer-reviewed articles published by these 2 REDS programs. In 2011, a new 7-year program, the Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III, was launched. The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-III expands beyond donor-based research to include studies of blood transfusion recipients in the hospital setting and adds a third country, South Africa

  7. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  8. Age-Related Differences in the Production of Textual Descriptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Andrea; Boewe, Anke; Caltagirone, Carlo; Carlomagno, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    Narratives produced by 69 healthy Italian adults were analyzed for age-related changes of microlinguistic, macrolinguistic and informative aspects. The participants were divided into five age groups (20-24, 25-39, 40-59, 60-74, 75-84). One single-picture stimulus and two cartoon sequences were used to elicit three stories per subject. Age-related…

  9. Human perception, productivity and symptoms related to indoor air quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wargocki, P.

    1998-08-01

    Three objectives of the present study are formulated: (1) to investigate whether total sensory pollution load on the air in space can be estimated by adding sensory pollution loads from the individual pollution sources; (2) to develop alternative reference exposures which can be used to calibrate sensory evaluations of the air quality indoors made by trained subjects; and (3) to investigate whether decreasing the pollution loads on the air indoors is an effective measure for improving the perceived air quality, reducing the prevalence of health symptoms and increasing people`s productivity. Limited data exist on the addition of families of sensory pollution, sources, i.e., building materials, people and tobacco smoke (research was mainly performed on building materials), and that no field study on addition has been carried out previously. Consequently, laboratory and field experiments on the addition of families of sensory pollution sources were undertaken. Reducing the sensory pollution load on the air indoors proved to be an effective and energy-efficient measure to improve the perceived quality of air, to lower the prevalence of symptoms and to improve productivity. Suggestions for future experiments are made including, i.a., using other sub-populations of subjects stratified for age, sensitivity and type of work, other pollution sources, as well as the independent measures design and repeated exposures to the same environmental conditions. (EG) 209 refs.

  10. Blood transfusion practices in cancer surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan P Cata

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer patients are commonly transfused with blood products immediately before, during or after major surgery. Blood loss and haemodilution are the most common causes of red blood cells (RBCs administration and coagulopathies are the indications for the infusion of fresh-frozen plasma (FFP, cryoprecipitates and platelets. Transfusion-related immune modulation is a complication associated with the administration of blood products. A decreased immune surveillance as a consequence of blood transfusions has been linked to cancer recurrence and progression. Moreover, soluble factors present in packed RBCs, platelets and FFP can directly stimulate tumour growth and spread. Two meta-analyses suggest that the administration of blood products is associated with shorter recurrence-free survival and overall survival after colorectal cancer surgery. More studies are needed to show such association in different cancer patient populations.

  11. Storage time effect on blood diet for tsetse mass production in sterile insect technique

    OpenAIRE

    M. Byamungu, S. Matembo, K. Benedict & G. Mashenga

    2011-01-01

    Background & objectives: Different methods have been developed for tsetse and trypanosomiasis control oreradication but all these have their specific advantages and limitations. However, a combination of methodscould be used as part of an Area-wide Integrated Pest Management (AWPM). The sterile insect technique(SIT) as a technique of choice for eradication of tsetse flies requires mass production of flies in the laboratories.Since tsetses are exclusively haemotophogous insects, a quality bloo...

  12. 78 FR 53479 - Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Certain Laundry and Household Cleaning Products and Related Packaging AGENCY: U.S. International... States after importation of certain laundry and household cleaning products and packaging thereof...

  13. 76 FR 39896 - In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-07

    ... COMMISSION In the Matter of Certain GPS Navigation Products, Components Thereof, and Related Software; Notice..., components thereof, and related software by reason of infringement of certain claims of U.S. Patent No. 7,209... navigation products, components thereof, and related software that infringe one or more of claims 14 and...

  14. Production and properties of monoclonal antibodies to human blood coagulation factor VII and factor VIIa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Human factor VII is a trace vitamin K-dependent protein that circulates in blood as a single-chain precursor to a serine protease. Upon activation, two-chain factor VIIa activates factor x in the presence of tissue factor and calcium. Purified preparations of single-chain (SC) human factor VII and two-chain (TC) factor VIIa were utilized to immunize Balb/c mice. Spleen cells from these immunized mice were fused to a non-secreting NS-1 derivative of X63-Ag8 myeloma cells and grown in selective medium. Analysis of culture supernatants by EIA revealed several hybridomas that were secreting IgG specific for Sc-factor VII and TC-factor VIIa. In addition, several hybridomas secreted IgG that reacted equally well with factor VII and factor VIIa. One of the latter McAb (A-29) reacted with the heavy chain of factor VIIa and the intact factor VII molecule equally as judged by Western blotting. A-29 was produced in ascites fluid, purified and coupled to activated CH-Sepharose. Application of one liter of normal human plasma to 10 ml of this immunoadsorbent column, elution of factor VII and subsequent Western blot using 125I-rabbit anti-human factor VII indicated a single species of factor VII(M/sub r/ = 50 KDa) in normal plasma. These specific factor VII/VIIa McAbs may prove useful in the analysis of these factors, and in the separation of SC-factor VII from TC-factor VIIa

  15. Public Relations: Ketchum brands new product with innovative PR strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Novartis Pharmaceuticals tapped publis relations (PR) giant Ketchum earlier this year to spearhead a marketing campaign that would make its new U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prescription-based medication, Enablex, stand out among the crowd in over active bladder (OAB) treatment. OAB is a disorder that affects an estimated 33 million Americans making this treatment highly in demand with consumers and highly competitive with other pharmaceutical companies. PMID:17048759

  16. Phylogeny, diversity and toxin production related to cyanobacterial symbioses

    OpenAIRE

    Papaefthimiou, Dimitra

    2007-01-01

    Phylogeny and morphology were examined for the cyanobionts from the water fern Azolla and the cyanobacterial genus Nostoc originating from symbioses with different host plants (genera Gunnera, Cycas, Dioon, Encephalarthos, Macrozamia, and Anthoceros), the lichen genus Pannaria, and free-living Nostoc isolates from different habitats. Nostoc isolates of Pannaria formed a closely related group, but, in general, no monophyletic nature was attributed to the genus Nostoc, in contrast to the cyanob...

  17. Public Relations: Ketchum brands new product with innovative PR strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    Novartis Pharmaceuticals tapped publis relations (PR) giant Ketchum earlier this year to spearhead a marketing campaign that would make its new U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved prescription-based medication, Enablex, stand out among the crowd in over active bladder (OAB) treatment. OAB is a disorder that affects an estimated 33 million Americans making this treatment highly in demand with consumers and highly competitive with other pharmaceutical companies.

  18. [Structure and function of neural plasticity-related gene products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamagata, K; Sugiura, H; Suzuki, K

    1998-08-01

    We have isolated novel immediate early genes (IEGs) from the hippocampus by differential cloning techniques. These mRNAs are induced by synaptic activity and translated into proteins that may affect neural function. We have analyzed a variety of "effector" immediate early genes. These mRNAs encode: 1) cytoplasmic proteins, such as cyclooxygenase-2, a small G protein, Rheb, and a cytoskeleton-associated protein, Arc; 2) membrane-bound proteins, such as the cell adhesion protein Arcadlin, and a neurite-outgrowth protein, Neuritin; and 3) a secreted protein, Narp. We hypothesize that physiological stimulation induces "effector" proteins that might strengthen synaptic connections of activated synapses. In contrast, pathological conditions such as epilepsy or drug addiction may accelerate overproduction of these gene products, which cause abnormal synapse formation. Gene targeting and in vivo gene transfer techniques are required to prove this hypothesis. PMID:9866829

  19. Proliferation and TH1/TH2 Cytokine Production in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells after Treatment with Cypermethrin and Mancozeb In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Mandarapu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent times, human cell-based assays are gaining attention in assessments of immunomodulatory effects of chemicals. In the study here, the possible effects of cypermethrin and mancozeb on lymphocyte proliferation and proinflammatory (tumor necrosis factor (TNF- α and immunoregulatory cytokine (interferon- (IFN- γ, interleukins (IL 2, 4, 6, and 10 formation in vitro were investigated. Human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were isolated and exposed for 6 hr to noncytotoxic doses (0.45–30 µM of cypermethrin or mancozeb in the presence of activating rat S9 fraction. Cultures were then further incubated for 48 or 72 hr in fresh medium containing phytohemagglutinin (10 µg/mL to assess, respectively, effects on cell proliferation (BrdU-ELISA method and cytokine formation (flow cytometric bead immunoassays. Mancozeb induced dose-dependent increases in lymphocyte proliferation, inhibition of production of TNFα and the TH2 cytokines IL-6 and IL-10, and an increase in IFNγ (TH1 cytokine production (at least 2-fold compared to control; mancozeb also induced inhibition of IL-4 (TH2 and stimulated IL-2 (TH1 production, albeit only in dose-related manners for each. In contrast, cypermethrin exposure did not cause significant effects on proliferation or cytokine profiles. Further studies are needed to better understand the functional significance of our in vitro findings.

  20. Effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens D.C. (devil's claw) on COX-1, COX-2 activity and nitric oxide production on whole-blood assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anauate, Maria Cecilia; Torres, Luce Maria; de Mello, Suzana Beatriz Veríssimo

    2010-09-01

    The present study evaluates the effect of isolated fractions of Harpagophytum procumbens (devil's claw) on cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2) activities and NO production using a whole blood assay. The activity of COX-1 was quantified as platelet thromboxane B(2) production in blood clotting and COX-2 as prostaglandin E(2) production in LPS-stimulated whole blood. Total NO(2) (-)/NO(3) (-) concentration was determined by Griess reaction in LPS stimulated blood. Assays were performed by incubation of isolated fractions obtained by flash chromatography monitored with HPLC, TLC and identified by (1)HNMR, containing different amounts of harpagoside with blood from healthy donors. Indomethacin and etoricoxib were the positive controls of COX-1 and COX-2 Inhibition. Data shows that fraction containing the highest concentration of harpagoside inhibited indistinctively COX-1 and COX-2 (37.2 and 29.5% respectively) activity and greatly inhibited NO production (66%). In contrast the fraction including iridoid pool increased COX-2 and did not alter NO and COX-1 activities. The fraction containing cinnamic acid was able to reduce only NO production (67%). Our results demonstrated that the harpagoside fraction is the main responsible for the effect of devils claw on these enzyme activities. However, other components from devil's claw crude extract could antagonize or increase the synthesis of inflammatory mediators. PMID:20812280

  1. Effects of crystalline menthol on blood metabolites in Holstein steers and in vitro volatile fatty acid and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bibber-Krueger, C L; Miller, K A; Aperce, C C; Alvarado-Gilis, C A; Higgins, J J; Drouillard, J S

    2016-03-01

    Fifty-two Holstein steers (573 ± 9.92 kg BW) were used to determine if oral administration of crystalline menthol would induce changes in endogenous secretions of IGF-1 and circulating concentrations of glucose, lactate, and plasma urea nitrogen (PUN). Steers were blocked by BW and assigned within block to treatment. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% crystalline menthol (DM basis) added to the diet. Animals were housed in individual, partially covered pens equipped with feed bunks and automatic water fountains. On d 1 of the experiment, blood samples were obtained via jugular venipuncture at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. Treatment administration commenced on d 2, and blood samples were again drawn at 0, 6, 12, 18, and 24 h after feeding. This blood-sampling schedule was repeated on d 9, 16, 23, and 30. Plasma was analyzed for PUN, glucose, and lactate concentrations. Serum was used to analyze IGF-1 concentration. Body weights were measured on d 1, 9, 16, 23, and 30. To accompany the live animal phase, in vitro fermentations were performed using ruminal fluid cultures. Measurements included VFA concentrations and fermentative gas production for cultures containing crystalline menthol at 0, 0.003, 0.03, or 0.3% of substrate DM. Addition of menthol to the diet of steers resulted in a treatment × day interaction ( plasma glucose. Cattle fed 0 and 0.003% menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 2 compared with steers fed 0.03% menthol. Steers fed 0% menthol had greater serum IGF-1 concentrations on d 9 compared with steers fed 0.03 and 0.3% menthol, whereas no differences were observed on d 23 or 30. Plasma glucose was similar among treatments until d 23, when steers supplemented with 0.03% menthol had lower glucose concentrations. Plasma urea nitrogen concentrations were not different among treatments; however, PUN concentrations varied by day. A linear response was detected for BW ( = 0.03), with steers consuming 0% menthol having

  2. New insights into the effects on blood pressure of diets low in salt and high in fruits and vegetables and low-fat dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Sacks Frank M; Vollmer William M; Svetkey Laura P

    2001-01-01

    Abstract Results from the recent Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)-Sodium trial provide the latest evidence concerning the effects of dietary patterns and sodium intake on blood pressure. Participants ate either the DASH diet (high in fruits, vegetables and low-fat dairy products, and reduced in saturated and total fat) or a typical US diet. Within each diet arm, participants ate higher, intermediate, and lower sodium levels, each for 30 days. The results indicated lower blood pr...

  3. Shifts and Twists in the Relative Productivity of Skilled Labor: Reconciling Accelerated SBTC with the Productivity Slowdown

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Marey; Arnaud Dupuy

    2004-01-01

    Skill-biased technical change is usually interpreted in terms of the efficiency parameters of skilled and unskilled labor. This implies that the relative productivity of skilled workers changes proportionally in all tasks. In contrast, we argue that technical changes also affect the curvature of the distribution of relative productivity. Building on Rosen's (1978) tasks assignment model, this implies that not only the efficiency parameters of skilled and unskilled workers change, but also the...

  4. Biosynthesis Pathway Related Production of Medium Chain Length Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林会兰; 史文慧; 吴琼; 陈金春; 徐军; 陈国强

    2001-01-01

    Pseudomonas flava HBE06 isolated from oil-contaminated soil was found to produce polyesters consisting of medium chain length polyhydroxyalkanoates (mci PHA). The strain mainly synthesized PHA containing 3-hydroxyoctanoate (C8 or HO), 3-hydroxynonanoate (C9 or HN), 3-hydroxydecanoate (C10 or HD), and 3-hydroxyunidecanoate (C11 or HUD) as monomers when grown on various substrates. It was found that the monomer ratio (especially C10/C8 or C11/C9) was related to the PHA biosynthesis pathway. When PHA was synthesized via the de novo fatty acid pathway, the molar ratio of C10/C8 was greater than 2. If PHA was synthesized from β-oxidation of fatty acids, C10/C8 was less than 1. Pseudomonas stutzeri 1317 is another mci PHA synthesizing bacteria whose C10/C8 ratio is also related to the synthesis pathway. When the two synthesis pathways were used together, the C10/C8 ratio could be adjusted according to the ratio of the mixed substrates.

  5. River ice implications related to water power production in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asvall, R.P. [Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo (Norway). Hydrology Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Nearly 99 per cent of the electricity produced in Norway is based on water power. While the period of large power development is over, the current focus lies in developing small hydroelectric power plants. A new market based energy law was implemented in Norway in 1991 to achieve more efficient use of electricity production by means of market forces. Since water regulation influences ice conditions in lakes and rivers, this paper focused on the implications of changes in ice conditions. In Norway, the expected changes in ice conditions are taken into account when issuing permits for water regulations and schemes for water discharge because some waterways are used as winter roads. Follow-up includes both close and long term observations and measurements. The impact of variable price on power was also discussed, with particular reference to ice conditions in cases where water discharge occurs on rivers. This paper summarized selected ice problems and how they have been handled. The paper also included a summary of anticipated climatic changes relevant to ice conditions.

  6. A proposal for a classification of product-related dependencies in development of mechatronic products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torry-Smith, Jonas; Mortensen, Niels Henrik; Achiche, Sofiane

    2014-01-01

    When designing mechatronic products ‘complex dependencies’ are often reported to be a major challenge. This paper focuses on managing dependencies between attributes of the product during the design process. The literature study shows that there is a gap in the literature with regards to the clas...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to FRUIT UP® and a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to FRUIT UP® and a reduction of post-prandial blood glucose responses. The Panel considers that the food, FRUIT UP®, and the food (i.e. glucose, sucrose) that FRUIT UP® should replace in foods or beverages are both sufficiently characterised in relation......Following an application from WILD-Valencia SAU, submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 13(5) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Spain, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion...... could be drawn, FRUIT UP® decreased post-prandial blood glucose responses compared with glucose but not compared with sucrose, and that this effect may be explained by the partial replacement of glucose by fructose. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established...

  8. ‘Adaptive’ Psychosocial Factors in Relation to Home Blood Pressure: A Study in the General Population of Southern Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Nyklicek, I.; Vingerhoets, A.J.J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Background Evidence is accumulating for an association between psychosocial stress and elevated blood pressure. However, studies focusing on adaptive psychosocial factors are scarce. Purpose We examined the association between putatively adaptive psychosocial factors and home blood pressure in a population study in the Netherlands. Method Resting blood pressure was measured of 985 female and 777 male participants between 20 and 55 years of age in their home setting. Questionnaires assessing p...

  9. Health care professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and practices relating to umbilical cord blood banking and donation: an integrative review

    OpenAIRE

    Peberdy, Lisa; Young, Jeanine; Kearney, Lauren

    2016-01-01

    Background Collection and storage of an infant’s cord blood at birth is an option available to many new parents. Antenatal health care providers have an important role in providing non-biased and evidence based information to expectant parents about cord blood and tissue banking options. The aim of this paper was to identify and review studies of health care professionals’ knowledge, attitudes and practices concerning cord blood banking and the sources by which healthcare professionals obtain...

  10. Blood glucose and meal patterns in time-blinded males, after aspartame, carbohydrate, and fat consumption, in relation to sweetness perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, K J; Westerterp-Plantenga, M S; Campfield, L A; Saris, W H

    1999-12-01

    In a study of the impact of aspartame, fat, and carbohydrate on appetite, we monitored blood glucose continuously for 431 (SE 16) min. Ten healthy males (19-31 years) participated in three time-blinded visits. As blood glucose was monitored, appetite ratings were scored at randomized times. On the first meal initiation, volunteers consumed one of three isovolumetric drinks (aspartame, 1 MJ simple carbohydrate, and 1 MJ high-fat; randomized order). High-fat and high-carbohydrate foods were available ad libitum subsequently. Blood glucose patterns following the carbohydrate drink (+1.78 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 38 (SE 3) min) and high-fat drink (+0.83 (SE 0.28) mmol/l in 49 (SE 6) min) were predictive of the next intermeal interval (R 0.64 and R 0.97 respectively). Aspartame ingestion was followed by blood glucose declines (40% of subjects), increases (20%), or stability (40%). These patterns were related to the volunteers' perception of sweetness of the drink (R 0.81, P = 0.014), and were predictive of subsequent intakes (R -0.71, P = 0.048). For all drinks combined, declines in blood glucose and meal initiation were significantly associated (chi 2 16.8, P blood glucose responses and intermeal intervals correlated significantly (R 0.715, P = 0.0001), and sweetness perception correlated negatively with hunger suppression (R -0.471, P = 0.015). Effects of fat, carbohydrate, and aspartame on meal initiation, meal size, and intermeal interval relate to blood glucose patterns. Varied blood glucose responses after aspartame support the controversy over its effects, and may relate to sweetness perception. PMID:10690159

  11. European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation Centers with FACT-JACIE Accreditation Have Significantly Better Compliance with Related Donor Care Standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthias, Chloe; O'Donnell, Paul V; Kiefer, Deidre M; Yared, Jean; Norkin, Maxim; Anderlini, Paolo; Savani, Bipin N; Diaz, Miguel A; Bitan, Menachem; Halter, Joerg P; Logan, Brent R; Switzer, Galen E; Pulsipher, Michael A; Confer, Dennis L; Shaw, Bronwen E

    2016-03-01

    Previous studies have identified healthcare practices that may place undue pressure on related donors (RDs) of hematopoietic cell products and an increase in serious adverse events associated with morbidities in this population. As a result, specific requirements to safeguard RD health have been introduced to Foundation for the Accreditation of Cellular Therapy/The Joint Accreditation Committee ISCT and EBMT (FACT-JACIE) Standards, but the impact of accreditation on RD care has not previously been evaluated. A survey of transplant program directors of European Group for Blood and Marrow Transplantation member centers was conducted by the Donor Health and Safety Working Committee of the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research to test the hypothesis that RD care in FACT-JACIE accredited centers is more closely aligned with international consensus donor care recommendations than RD care delivered in centers without accreditation. Responses were received from 39% of 304 centers. Our results show that practice in accredited centers was much closer to recommended standards as compared with nonaccredited centers. Specifically, a higher percentage of accredited centers use eligibility criteria to assess RDs (93% versus 78%; P = .02), and a lower percentage have a single physician simultaneously responsible for an RD and their recipient (14% versus 35%; P = .008). In contrast, where regulatory standards do not exist, both accredited and nonaccredited centers fell short of accepted best practice. These results raise concerns that despite improvements in care, current practice can place undue pressure on donors and may increase the risk of donation-associated adverse events. We recommend measures to address these issues through enhancement of regulatory standards as well as national initiatives to standardize RD care.

  12. What drives consumer involvement? The relative impact of product category and product attribute

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Barcellos, Marcia Dutra; Kügler, Jens Oliver; Scholderer, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    , foods, household appliances, alcoholic beverages) and on two involvement dimensions (interest and importance). The results indicate that in three of the four super-categories the predominant source of variation in product involvement were the attributes of the products, not the product category...... they belong to. Only for foods, the traditional conceptualisation of involvement held. The findings suggest that parts of previous research on involvement may have to be re-interpreted and that future research should adopt more complex conceptualisations of involvement. From a managerial point of view...

  13. Morphometric Evaluation of Blood Pressure Regulating Organs in Teddy Goats (Capra hircus in Relation to Age and Sex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shah, A. S. Qureshi*1, S. Rehan1 and R. Hussain1

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands of 36 teddy goats (Capra hircus of both sexes, divided in 3 age groups viz. kids (6-12 months, adults (13-21 months and old (22-24 months were collected after slaughter. Immediately after collection, absolute and relative weights, length, width, thickness, circumference and volume of all organs were recorded. Shape of the heart was cone like and the coronary groove was filled with fat. None of the anatomical parameters of the heart, kidneys and adrenal glands differed between male and female goats, except that absolute weight of the right kidney and volume of right and left kidneys were higher in males than in females (P<0.05. Absolute and relative weights of the heart, volume, length, circumference, right atrial wall thickness and right ventricle wall thickness were higher in old than in kids or adult animals (P<0.05. No difference was seen in various anatomical parameters between the right and the left kidneys. However, values of most of the anatomical parameters were higher in old than in kids or adult goats (P<0.05, except relative weight of the organ and thickness of medulla, which did not differ among animals of three age groups. For adrenals, the absolute weight and length of the left organ were higher than the right (P<0.05. Similarly, absolute weight, length and width were higher in old than in kids (P<0.05. It is conceivable from these findings that goat has a stable cardiovascular system. The development of heart, kidneys and adrenals showed an increase parallel to the advancing age to adjust with the increasing blood pressure due to physiological development process. Sex, however, played a secondary role.

  14. Short-Term Blood Pressure Variability Relates to the Presence of Subclinical Brain Small Vessel Disease in Primary Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filomena, Josefina; Riba-Llena, Iolanda; Vinyoles, Ernest; Tovar, José L; Mundet, Xavier; Castañé, Xavier; Vilar, Andrea; López-Rueda, Antonio; Jiménez-Baladó, Joan; Cartanyà, Anna; Montaner, Joan; Delgado, Pilar

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability is associated with stroke risk, but less is known about subclinical cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD). We aimed to determine whether CSVD relates to short-term BP variability independently of BP levels and also, whether they improve CSVD discrimination beyond clinical variables and office BP levels. This was a cohort study on asymptomatic hypertensives who underwent brain magnetic resonance imaging and 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Office and average 24-hour, daytime and nighttime BP levels, and several metrics of BP variability (SD, weighted SD, coefficient of variation, and average real variability [ARV]) were calculated. Definition of CSVD was based on the presence of lacunar infarcts and white matter hyperintensity grades. Multivariate analysis and integrated discrimination improvement were performed to assess whether BP variability and levels were independently associated with CSVD and improved its discrimination. Four hundred eighty-seven individuals participated (median age, 64; 47% women). CSVD was identified in 18.9%, related to age, male sex, diabetes mellitus, use of treatment, ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels, and ARV of systolic BP at any period. The highest prevalence (33.7%) was found in subjects with both 24-hour BP levels and ARV elevated. BP levels at any period and ARV (24 hours and nocturnal) emerged as independent predictors of CSVD, and discrimination was incrementally improved although not to a clinically significant extent (integrated discrimination improvement, 5.31%, 5.17% to 5.4%). Ambulatory BP monitoring-defined BP levels and ARV of systolic BP relate to subclinical CSVD in hypertensive individuals.

  15. THE EFFECT OF A NEW SALICYLATE SYNTHESIS PRODUCT ON BLOOD GSH VALUES IN RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORINA GRĂVILĂ

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available GSH (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine is a sulfhydril (-SH antioxidant, antitoxin and enzyme cofactor which is an important component of the cellular detoxification of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Being water soluble it is found mainly in the cytosol and other aqueous phases of the living system and thus constitute one of the most important intracellular antioxidants (10,7,9. GSH plays a role in removing various toxic chemicals and drugs from the body. As a result glutathione levels in the body are reduced by exposure to heavy metals and the chemicals used in chemotherapy (6. Sulfanilamide was the first sulfonamide discovered in this class of antimicrobial agents and its structure is considered to contain the minimum pharmacophore. They prevent or limit bacterial multiplication. Salicylic acid (2-hydroxybenzoic acid, is the basic substance of the salicylates which are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs. Salicylic acid and methyl salicylate (ester (methyl 2-hydroxybenzoate are the main therapeutically used substances of this group. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of a new synthesis product in comparison with the effect of sulfanilamide on GSH values in intraperitonally injected Wistar rats.

  16. Retrospective evaluation of adverse transfusion reactions following blood product transfusion from a tertiary care hospital: A preliminary step towards hemovigilance

    OpenAIRE

    Praveen Kumar; Rakesh Thapliyal; Poonam Coshic; Kabita Chatterjee

    2013-01-01

    Background: The goal of hemovigilance is to increase the safety and quality of blood transfusion. Identification of the adverse reactions will help in taking appropriate steps to reduce their incidence and make blood transfusion process as safe as possible. Aims : To determine the frequency and type of transfusion reactions (TRs) occurring in patients, reported to the blood bank at our institute. Materials and Methods : A retrospective review of all TRs reported to the blood bank at the All I...

  17. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure : Results from the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; Van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; De Jongste, Johan C.; Van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Aims: Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution

  18. Traffic-related air pollution and noise and children's blood pressure : Results from the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bilenko, Natalya; van Rossem, Lenie; Brunekreef, Bert; Beelen, Rob; Eeftens, Marloes; Hoek, Gerard; Houthuijs, Danny; de Jongste, Johan C.; van Kempen, Elise; Koppelman, Gerard H.; Meliefste, Kees; Oldenwening, Marieke; Smit, Henriette A.; Wijga, Alet H.; Gehring, Ulrike

    2015-01-01

    Aims Elevation of a child's blood pressure may cause possible health risks in later life. There is evidence for adverse effects of exposure to air pollution and noise on blood pressure in adults. Little is known about these associations in children. We investigated the associations of air pollution

  19. Blood pressure in old age : exploring the relation with the structure, function and hemodynamics of the brain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Foster-Dingley, J.C.

    2016-01-01

    With increasing age the prevalence of hypertension rises. High blood pressure at midlife is associated with cognitive impairment. Nevertheless, in older persons a lower rather than a higher blood pressure is associated with incident dementia. The main purpose of the work in this thesis was to explor

  20. Blood pressure level and relation to other cardiovascular risk factors in male hypertensive patients without clinical evidence of ischemic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, C T; Sørum, C; Hansen, J F;

    2000-01-01

    , duration of hypertension, cholesterol and triglyceride level, smoking status, information of regular exercise, a family history of ischemic heart disease (IHD) and drug treatment, in 220 men treated for arterial hypertension. In the univariate analyses we found a higher systolic blood pressure (SBP...... and the blood pressure (BP), and to evaluate the percentage of patients who had achieved a BP level as recommended by the sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC VI). BP was evaluated in relation to age, body mass index...... was independently associated with DBP. Office SBP was above 140 mmHg in 83% and above 160 mmHg in 44% of patients. During ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (AMBP), SBP was above 135 mmHg in 40% and above 155 mmHg in 15% of patients. In addition to male sex and hypertension there was a high percentage of other...