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Sample records for blood pressure reduction

  1. Renoprotection with and without blood pressure reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laverman, Gozewijn Dirk; Andersen, Steen; Rossing, Peter

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: AT1-receptor blockade dose dependently lowers blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Reduction of BP and albuminuria are independent treatment targets for renoprotection, but whether this requires similar dose titration is unknown. METHODS: We tested this in two studies designed to find...... arterial pressure (MAP) were measured. Patients were divided into "good" and "poor" BP responders (BP+, BP-) according to BP response above or below group median. RESULTS: Baseline MAP in the BP- groups was 102 (97, 104) mm Hg in DM (median, 95% CI) and 91 (80, 108) mm Hg in ND. The top of the dose...

  2. Effect of fenofibrate on blood pressure reduction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A K Lipatenkova

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Реферат по материалам статей 1. Gilbert K, Nian H, Yu C, Luther JM, Brown NJ. Fenofibrate lowers blood pressure in salt-sensitive but not salt-resistant hypertension. J Hypertens. 2013 Apr;31(4:820-9. doi: 10.1097/HJH.0b013e32835e8227. 2. Kwang K. K. Does Fenofibrate Lower Blood Pressure? Hypertension. 2013 Mar;61(3:e27. doi: 10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.111.00792.

  3. SGLT2 inhibitors: their potential reduction in blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliha, George; Townsend, Raymond R

    2015-01-01

    The sodium glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors represent a promising treatment option for diabetes and its common comorbidity, hypertension. Emerging data suggests that the SGLT2 inhibitors provide a meaningful reduction in blood pressure, although the precise mechanism of the blood pressure drop remains incompletely elucidated. Based on current data, the blood pressure reduction is partially due to a combination of diuresis, nephron remodeling, reduction in arterial stiffness, and weight loss. While current trials are underway focusing on cardiovascular endpoints, the SGLT2 inhibitors present a novel treatment modality for diabetes and its associated hypertension as well as an opportunity to elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension in diabetes. Copyright © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects of blood pressure reduction in mild hypertension : a systematic review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Jackson, Rod; Turnbull, Fiona; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce; de Zeeuw, Dick

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Effects of blood pressure reduction in persons with grade 1 hypertension are unclear. PURPOSE: To investigate whether pharmacologic blood pressure reduction prevents cardiovascular events and deaths in persons with grade 1 hypertension. DATA SOURCES: Trials included in the BPLTTC (Blood

  5. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normal blood pressure is important for proper blood flow to the body's organs and tissues. The force of the blood on the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart ...

  6. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter

    2018-01-01

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark....... One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent...... a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660....

  7. Intensive versus conventional blood pressure monitoring in a general practice population. The Blood Pressure Reduction in Danish General Practice trial: a randomized controlled parallel group trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klarskov, Pia; Bang, Lia E; Schultz-Larsen, Peter; Gregers Petersen, Hans; Benee Olsen, David; Berg, Ronan M G; Abrahamsen, Henrik; Wiinberg, Niels

    2018-01-17

    To compare the effect of a conventional to an intensive blood pressure monitoring regimen on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in the general practice setting. Randomized controlled parallel group trial with 12-month follow-up. One hundred and ten general practices in all regions of Denmark. One thousand forty-eight patients with essential hypertension. Conventional blood pressure monitoring ('usual group') continued usual ad hoc blood pressure monitoring by office blood pressure measurements, while intensive blood pressure monitoring ('intensive group') supplemented this with frequent home blood pressure monitoring and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Mean day- and night-time systolic and diastolic 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure. Change in systolic and diastolic office blood pressure and change in cardiovascular risk profile. Of the patients, 515 (49%) were allocated to the usual group, and 533 (51%) to the intensive group. The reductions in day- and night-time 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure were similar (usual group: 4.6 ± 13.5/2.8 ± 82 mmHg; intensive group: 5.6 ± 13.0/3.5 ± 8.2 mmHg; P = 0.27/P = 0.20). Cardiovascular risk scores were reduced in both groups at follow-up, but more so in the intensive than in the usual group (P = 0.02). An intensive blood pressure monitoring strategy led to a similar blood pressure reduction to conventional monitoring. However, the intensive strategy appeared to improve patients' cardiovascular risk profile through other effects than a reduction of blood pressure. Clinical Trials NCT00244660. © The Author 2018. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Effects of blood pressure reduction in mild hypertension: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundström, Johan; Arima, Hisatomi; Jackson, Rod; Turnbull, Fiona; Rahimi, Kazem; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; Neal, Bruce

    2015-02-03

    Effects of blood pressure reduction in persons with grade 1 hypertension are unclear. To investigate whether pharmacologic blood pressure reduction prevents cardiovascular events and deaths in persons with grade 1 hypertension. Trials included in the BPLTTC (Blood Pressure Lowering Treatment Trialists' Collaboration) and trials identified from a previous review and electronic database searches. Patients without cardiovascular disease with blood pressures in the grade 1 hypertension range (140 to 159/90 to 99 mm Hg) who were randomly assigned to an active (antihypertensive drug or more intensive regimen) or control (placebo or less intensive regimen) blood pressure-lowering regimen. Individual-patient data from BPLTTC trials and aggregate data from other trials were extracted. Risk of bias was assessed for all trials. Individual-patient data involved 10 comparisons from trials where most patients had diabetes, and aggregate data involved 3 comparisons from trials of patients without diabetes. The average blood pressure reduction was about 3.6/2.4 mm Hg. Over 5 years, odds ratios were 0.86 (95% CI, 0.74 to 1.01) for total cardiovascular events, 0.72 (CI, 0.55 to 0.94) for strokes, 0.91 (CI, 0.74 to 1.12) for coronary events, 0.80 (CI, 0.57 to 1.12) for heart failure, 0.75 (CI, 0.57 to 0.98) for cardiovascular deaths, and 0.78 (CI, 0.67 to 0.92) for total deaths. Results were similar in secondary analyses. Withdrawal from treatment due to adverse effects was more common in the active groups. Blood pressure reductions and numbers of events were small. Blood pressure-lowering therapy is likely to prevent stroke and death in patients with uncomplicated grade 1 hypertension. Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Australian Research Council, and National Health and Medical Research Council of Australia.

  9. Potential Biomarker Peptides Associated with Acute Alcohol-Induced Reduction of Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wakabayashi, Ichiro; Marumo, Mikio; Nonaka, Daisuke; Shimomura, Tomoko; Eguchi, Ryoji; Lee, Lyang-Ja; Tanaka, Kenji; Hatake, Katsuhiko

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the peptides that are related to acute reduction of blood pressure after alcohol drinking. Venous blood was collected from male healthy volunteers before and after drinking white wine (3 ml/kg weight) containing 13% of ethanol. Peptidome analysis for serum samples was performed using a new target plate, BLOTCHIP®. Alcohol caused significant decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min. The peptidome analysis showed that the levels of three peptides of m/z 1467, 2380 and 2662 changed significantly after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2662 peptides were identified to be fragments of fibrinogen alpha chain, and the m/z 2380 peptide was identified to be a fragment of complement C4. The intensities of the m/z 2380 and m/z 1467 peptides before drinking were associated with % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels at 45 min after drinking compared with the levels before drinking, while there were no significant correlations between the intensity of the m/z 2662 peptide and % decreases in systolic and diastolic blood pressure levels after drinking. The m/z 1467 and 2380 peptides are suggested to be markers for acute reduction of blood pressure after drinking alcohol. PMID:26815288

  10. Blood pressure reduction, persistence and costs in the evaluation of antihypertensive drug treatment – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasford Joerg

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure lowering drugs are usually evaluated in short term trials determining the absolute blood pressure reduction during trough and the duration of the antihypertensive effect after single or multiple dosing. A lack of persistence with treatment has however been shown to be linked to a worse cardiovascular prognosis. This review explores the blood pressure reduction and persistence with treatment of antihypertensive drugs and the cost consequences of poor persistence with pharmaceutical interventions in arterial hypertension. Methods We have searched the literature for data on blood pressure lowering effects of different antihypertensive drug classes and agents, on persistence with treatment, and on related costs. Persistence was measured as patients' medication possession rate. Results are presented in the form of a systematic review. Results Angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARBs have a competitive blood pressure lowering efficacy compared with ACE-inhibitors (ACEi and calcium channel blockers (CCBs, beta-blockers (BBs and diuretics. 8 studies describing the persistence with treatment were identified. Patients were more persistent on ARBs than on ACEi and CCBs, BBs and diuretics. Thus the product of blood pressure lowering and persistence was higher on ARBs than on any other drug class. Although the price per tablet of more recently developed drugs (ACEi, ARBs is higher than that of older ones (diuretics and BBs, the newer drugs result in a more favourable cost to effect ratio when direct drug costs and indirect costs are also considered. Conclusion To evaluate drugs for the treatment of hypertension several key variables including the blood pressure lowering effect, side effects, compliance/persistence with treatment, as well as drug costs and direct and indirect costs of medical care have to be considered. ARBs, while nominally more expensive when drug costs are considered only, provide substantial cost savings

  11. Kidney Mass Reduction Leads to l-Arginine Metabolism-Dependent Blood Pressure Increase in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pillai, Samyuktha Muralidharan; Seebeck, Petra; Fingerhut, Ralph; Huang, Ji; Ming, Xiu-Fen; Yang, Zhihong; Verrey, François

    2018-02-25

    Uninephrectomy (UNX) is performed for various reasons, including kidney cancer or donation. Kidneys being the main site of l-arginine production in the body, we tested whether UNX mediated kidney mass reduction impacts l-arginine metabolism and thereby nitric oxide production and blood pressure regulation in mice. In a first series of experiments, we observed a significant increase in arterial blood pressure 8 days post-UNX in female and not in male mice. Further experimental series were performed in female mice, and the blood pressure increase was confirmed by telemetry. l-citrulline, that is used in the kidney to produce l-arginine, was elevated post-UNX as was also asymmetric dimethylarginine, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase that competes with l-arginine and is a marker for renal failure. Interestingly, the UNX-induced blood pressure increase was prevented by supplementation of the diet with 5% of the l-arginine precursor, l-citrulline. Because l-arginine is metabolized in the kidney and other peripheral tissues by arginase-2, we tested whether the lack of this metabolic pathway also compensates for decreased l-arginine production in the kidney and/or for local nitric oxide synthase inhibition and consecutive blood pressure increase. Indeed, upon uninephrectomy, arginase-2 knockout mice (Arg-2 -/- ) neither displayed an increase in asymmetric dimethylarginine and l-citrulline plasma levels nor a significant increase in blood pressure. UNX leads to a small increase in blood pressure that is prevented by l-citrulline supplementation or arginase deficiency, 2 measures that appear to compensate for the impact of kidney mass reduction on l-arginine metabolism. © 2018 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley.

  12. Blood pressure reduction induced by low dose of epinephrine via different routes in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Ji, Mu-Huo; Wang, Zhong-Yun; Zhu, Wei; Yang, Jian-Jun; Peng, Yong G

    2013-09-01

    Epinephrine was recently shown to induce a hypotension episode. Activation of β₂-adrenoceptors with smooth muscle relaxation may be the underlying mechanism. This study investigated the effects of ICI 118551, a β₂-adrenoceptors antagonist, on epinephrine-induced blood pressure reduction via different administration routes in rats. A total of 144 Sprague Dawley rats were equally randomized into 3 groups (intranasal, intravenous, and intra-arterial administration), each with 4 subgroups: saline + saline, ICI 118551 + saline, saline + epinephrine, and ICI 118551 + epinephrine. All rats were anesthetized while spontaneously breathing. Epinephrine was administered at doses of 5 μg/kg via nose, 0.25 μg/kg via femoral vein, and 0.1 μg/kg via aorta. Mean arterial pressure and heart rate were monitored. Mean arterial pressure decreased in all 3 saline + epinephrine subgroups after administration (P blood pressure reduction can be prevented by ICI 118551 in rats, suggesting that the activation of β₂-adrenoceptors contributes to blood pressure reduction.

  13. A blood pressure monitor with robust noise reduction system under linear cuff inflation and deflation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usuda, Takashi; Kobayashi, Naoki; Takeda, Sunao; Kotake, Yoshifumi

    2010-01-01

    We have developed the non-invasive blood pressure monitor which can measure the blood pressure quickly and robustly. This monitor combines two measurement mode: the linear inflation and the linear deflation. On the inflation mode, we realized a faster measurement with rapid inflation rate. On the deflation mode, we realized a robust noise reduction. When there is neither noise nor arrhythmia, the inflation mode incorporated on this monitor provides precise, quick and comfortable measurement. Once the inflation mode fails to calculate appropriate blood pressure due to body movement or arrhythmia, then the monitor switches automatically to the deflation mode and measure blood pressure by using digital signal processing as wavelet analysis, filter bank, filter combined with FFT and Inverse FFT. The inflation mode succeeded 2440 measurements out of 3099 measurements (79%) in an operating room and a rehabilitation room. The new designed blood pressure monitor provides the fastest measurement for patient with normal circulation and robust measurement for patients with body movement or severe arrhythmia. Also this fast measurement method provides comfortableness for patients.

  14. Complementary and alternative medicine approaches to blood pressure reduction: An evidence-based review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahas, Richard

    2008-11-01

    ABSTRACTOBJECTIVETo review the evidence supporting complementary and alternative medicine approaches used in the treatment of hypertension.QUALITY OF EVIDENCEMEDLINE and EMBASE were searched from January 1966 to May 2008 combining the key words hypertension or blood pressure with acupuncture, chocolate, cocoa, coenzyme Q10, ubiquinone, melatonin, vitamin D, meditation, and stress reduction. Clinical trials, prospective studies, and relevant references were included.MAIN MESSAGEEvidence from systematic reviews supports the blood pressure-lowering effects of coenzyme Q10, polyphenol-rich dark chocolate, Qigong, slow breathing, and transcendental meditation. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with hypertension and cardiovascular risk; supplementation lowered blood pressure in 2 trials. Acupuncture reduced blood pressure in 3 trials; in 1 of these it was no better than an invasive placebo. Melatonin was effective in 2 small trials, but caution is warranted in patients taking pharmacotherapy.CONCLUSIONSeveral complementary and alternative medicine therapies can be considered as part of an evidence-based approach to the treatment of hypertension. The potential benefit of these interventions warrants further research using cardiovascular outcomes.

  15. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure monitors may have some limitations. Tracking your blood pressure readings It can be helpful in diagnosing or ... more Stage 2 high blood pressure (hypertension) Elevated blood pressure and stages 1 and 2 high blood pressure ( ...

  16. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  17. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

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    ... lowest at night and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low ... low blood pressure. Medications that can cause low blood pressure Some medications can cause low blood pressure, including: ...

  18. Community-based intervention for blood pressure reduction in Nepal (COBIN trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Christensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    . The study will provide detailed information on the burden of blood pressure and also whether treatment targets are being met. Moreover, evidence will be provided on the future role of female community health volunteers for hypertension management in Nepal. The lessons learned from this study may also...... study is to determine the effect of family-based home health education and blood pressure monitoring by trained female community health volunteers. The primary outcome is change in mean systolic blood pressure. A community-based, open-masked, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial will be conducted...... proportion size, 929 individuals for the intervention group and 709 individuals for the control group will participate in the study. Due to the nature of the study, study participants are not compensated or insured. As part of the blood pressure intervention, trained female community health volunteers...

  19. Postaerobic Exercise Blood Pressure Reduction in Very Old Persons With Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Joana; Mesquita-Bastos, José; Argel de Melo, Cristina; Ribeiro, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    A single bout of aerobic exercise acutely decreases blood pressure, even in older adults with hypertension. Nonetheless, blood pressure responses to aerobic exercise in very old adults with hypertension have not yet been documented. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the effect of a single session of aerobic exercise on postexercise blood pressure in very old adults with hypertension. Eighteen older adults with essential hypertension were randomized into exercise (N = 9, age: 83.4 ± 3.2 years old) or control (N = 9, age: 82.7 ± 2.5 years old) groups. The exercise group performed a session of aerobic exercise constituting 2 periods of 10 minutes of walking at an intensity of 40% to 60% of the heart rate reserve. The control group rested for the same period of time. Anthropometric variables and medication status were evaluated at baseline. Heart rate and systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured at baseline, after exercise, and at 20 and 40 minutes postexercise. Systolic blood pressure showed a significant interaction for group × time (F3,24 = 6.698; P = .002; ηp(2) = 0.153). In the exercise group, the systolic blood pressure at 20 (127.3 ± 20.9 mm Hg) and 40 minutes (123.7 ± 21.0 mm Hg) postexercise was significantly lower in comparison with baseline (135.6 ± 20.6 mm Hg). Diastolic blood pressure did not change. Heart rate was significantly higher after the exercise session. In the control group, no significant differences were observed. A single session of aerobic exercise acutely reduces blood pressure in very old adults with hypertension and may be considered an important nonpharmacological strategy to control hypertension in this age group.

  20. Blood pressure reduction due to hemoglobin glycosylation in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Cabrales

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Pedro Cabrales1, Miguel A Salazar Vázquez2,3, Beatriz Y Salazar Vázquez3,4, Martha Rodríguez-Morán5, Marcos Intaglietta4, Fernando Guerrero-Romero51La Jolla Bioengineering Institute, La Jolla, California, USA; 2Hospital Regional No. 1, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 3Faculty of Medicine and Dept. of Physical Chemistry, Universidad Juárez del Estado de Durango, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. Mexico; 4Department of Bioengineering, University of California, San Diego, La Jolla, California, USA; 5Biomedical Research Unit, of the Mexican Social Security Institute, Victoria de Durango, Dgo. MexicoObjective: To test the hypothesis that glycosylation of hemoglobin constitutes a risk factor for hypertension.Methods: A total of 129 relative uniform diabetic subjects (86 women and 42 men were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Exclusion criteria included alcohol consumption, smoking, ischemic heart disease, stroke, neoplasia, renal, hepatic, and chronic inflammatory disease. Systolic and diastolic pressures were recorded in subsequent days and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was determined. Hemoglobin glycosylation was measured by determining the percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c by means of the automated microparticle enzyme immunoassay test.Results: MAP was found to be independent of the concentration of HbA1c; however, correcting MAP for the variability in hematocrit, to evidence the level of vasoconstriction (or vasodilatation showed that MAP is negatively correlated with the concentration of HbA1c (p for trend <0.05, when patients treated for hypertension are excluded from the analysis. Patients treated for hypertension showed the opposite trend with increasing MAP as HbA1c increased (p for the difference in trends <0.05.Conclusions: Glycosylation per se appears to lead to blood pressure reduction in type 2 diabetic patients untreated for hypertension. Treatment for hypertension may be

  1. Changes in the regional cerebral blood flow after drug-induced blood-pressure reduction in patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuwata, Noriyuki; Kuroda, Kiyoshi; Sato, Naoya; Konno, Hiromu; Iwabuchi, Takashi; Ogawa, Akira; Kanaya, Haruyuki.

    1993-01-01

    In patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages, changes in the regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) after drug-induced blood-pressure reduction were examined by means of subtraction SPECT. The subjects were 38 patients with hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhages; 22 were putaminal hemorrhages (mean age, 56.8 years; mean hematoma volume, 18.4 cc), while 16 were thalamic hemorrhages (mean age, 61.9 years; mean hematoma volume, 7.8 cc). The rCBF was measured by means of SPECT (Tomomatic 64) with 133 Xe inhalation. Trimethaphan (an autonomic ganglion blocker) and diltiazem hydrochloride (a calcium antagonist) were used for the reduction of the blood pressure. The results were as follows: In the acute stage, the mean CBF was reduced when the blood pressure fell by more than 20% in both the putaminal hemorrhages and the thalamic hemorrhages. A similar tendency was observed in the subacute stage, except that a greater reduction in the blood pressure was needed to induce mean CBF reduction. The subtraction of rCBF maps before and after hypotension treatment shows a reduction of the rCBF in the lateral region of hematoma and the contralateral hemisphere. (author)

  2. Blood pressure reduction in patients with irreversible pulpitis teeth treated by non-surgical root canal treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James I-Sheng Huang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background/purpose: The hypotension in patients during non-surgical root canal treatment (NSRCT has not yet investigated. This study aimed to assess the mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP, mean diastolic blood pressure (MDBP, and mean arterial blood pressure (MABP reduction percentages in patients with irreversible pulpitis teeth treated by NSRCT. Materials and methods: We prospectively recruited 111 patients with a total of 138 irreversible pulpitis teeth. All patients underwent two NSRCT sessions. The first NSRCT session involved mainly the removal of vital pulp tissue with the direct stimulation of the dental branches of the trigeminal nerve, and the second NSRCT session included the root canal debridement and enlargement with minimal disturbance to the dental nerves. The blood pressure of each patient was recorded before and during both NSRCT sessions. Results: There were significantly higher reduction percentages of MSBP, MDBP, and MABP in the first NSRCT session than in the second NSRCT session for all treated patients (all the P-values < 0.001. If the patients were divided into 2 or more groups according to the clinical variables including the patients' gender, age, tooth type, and anesthesia type, we also found significantly higher reduction percentages of MSBP, MDBP, and MABP in the first NSRCT session than in the second NSRCT session for all treated patients except for patients below 40 years of age and for patients with lower anterior teeth treated (all the P-values < 0.05. Conclusion: The decrease in blood pressure in patients receiving vital pulpal extirpation is a relatively common phenomenon. Keywords: hypotension, irreversible pulpitis teeth, non-surgical root canal treatment, blood pressure, parasympathetic effect, vital pulpal extirpation

  3. Fluid shifts, vasodilatation and ambulatory blood pressure reduction during long duration spaceflight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norsk, Peter; Asmar, Ali; Damgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    KEY POINTS: Weightlessness in space induces initially an increase in stroke volume and cardiac output, accompanied by unchanged or slightly reduced blood pressure.It is unclear whether these changes persist throughout months of flight.Here, we show that cardiac output and stroke volume increase...... by 35–41% between 3 and 6 months on the International Space Station, which is more than during shorter flights.Twenty-four hour ambulatory brachial blood pressure is reduced by 8–10 mmHg by a decrease in systemic vascular resistance of 39%, which is not a result of the suppression of sympathetic nervous...... brachial arterial pressures were automatically recorded at 1–2 h intervals with portable equipment in eight male astronauts: once before launch, once between 85 and 192 days in space on the International Space Station and, finally, once at least 2 months after flight. During the same 24 h, cardiac output...

  4. African Americans and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? African Americans in the U.S. have a higher prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP) than ...

  5. High Blood Pressure

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    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  6. High Blood Pressure Facts

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    ... Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Facts Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On ... Top of Page CDC Fact Sheets Related to High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure Pulmonary Hypertension Heart Disease Signs ...

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  8. A cry unheard: sudden reductions in blood pressure while talking about feelings of hopelessness and helplessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, J J; Lynch, K E; Friedmann, E

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes sudden extreme drops in blood pressure in both experimental and clinical situations when a person is talking about or describing situations of hopelessness and helplessness. These changes are discussed in the context of historical perspectives about the cardiovascular system. A new perspective is introduced, one in which these blood pressure changes are seen as part of an unheard cry for understanding. It is hypothesized that such changes do not occur in response to a person's attempts to communicate a sense of hopelessness, but rather are the biological foundations of the hopelessness itself. Viewed from such a context an entirely new therapeutic approach is outlined regarding the treatment of patients suffering from a wide variety of psychosomatic as well as psychological disturbances.

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Teens / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  10. Long-Term Reduction of High Blood Pressure by Angiotensin II DNA Vaccine in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriyama, Hiroshi; Nakagami, Hironori; Nakagami, Futoshi; Osako, Mariana Kiomy; Kyutoku, Mariko; Shimamura, Munehisa; Kurinami, Hitomi; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Rakugi, Hiromi; Morishita, Ryuichi

    2015-07-01

    Recent research on vaccination has extended its scope from infectious diseases to chronic diseases, including Alzheimer disease, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. The aim of this study was to design DNA vaccines for high blood pressure and eventually develop human vaccine therapy to treat hypertension. Plasmid vector encoding hepatitis B core-angiotensin II (Ang II) fusion protein was injected into spontaneously hypertensive rats using needleless injection system. Anti-Ang II antibody was successfully produced in hepatitis B core-Ang II group, and antibody response against Ang II was sustained for at least 6 months. Systolic blood pressure was consistently lower in hepatitis B core-Ang II group after immunization, whereas blood pressure reduction was continued for at least 6 months. Perivascular fibrosis in heart tissue was also significantly decreased in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. Survival rate was significantly improved in hepatitis B core-Ang II group. This study demonstrated that Ang II DNA vaccine to spontaneously hypertensive rats significantly lowered high blood pressure for at least 6 months. In addition, Ang II DNA vaccines induced an adequate humoral immune response while avoiding the activation of self-reactive T cells, assessed by ELISPOT assay. Future development of DNA vaccine to treat hypertension may provide a new therapeutic option to treat hypertension. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  11. Diurnal blood pressure changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Kikuya, Masahiro

    2018-05-23

    The definition of diurnal blood pressure changes varies widely, which can be confusing. Short-term blood pressure variability during a 24-h period and the dipping status of diurnal blood pressure can be captured by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, and these metrics are reported to have prognostic significance for cardiovascular complications. Morning blood pressure surge also indicates this risk, but its effect may be limited to populations with specific conditions. Meanwhile, the combined use of conventional office blood pressure and out-of-office blood pressure allows us to identify people with white-coat and masked hypertension. Current home devices can measure nocturnal blood pressure during sleep more conveniently than ambulatory monitoring; however, we should pay attention to blood pressure measurement conditions regardless of whether they are in a home, ambulatory, or office setting. The relatively poor reproducibility of diurnal blood pressure changes, including the nocturnal fall of blood pressure, is another underestimated issue to be addressed. Although information on diurnal blood pressure changes is expected to be used more effectively in the future, we should also keep in mind that blood pressure levels have remained central to the primary and secondary prevention of blood pressure-related cardiovascular diseases in clinical practice.

  12. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, heart ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight and ...

  13. High blood pressure - children

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    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007696.htm High blood pressure - children To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  14. Preventing High Blood Pressure

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    ... Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... meal and snack options can help you avoid high blood pressure and its complications. Be sure to eat plenty ...

  15. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007329.htm High blood pressure - infants To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure (hypertension) is an increase in the force of ...

  16. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  17. LB01.06: VISIT-TO-VISIT BLOOD PRESSURE VARIABILITY AND CARDIOVASCULAR OUTCOMES IN FELODIPINE EVENT REDUCTION STUDY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Zhang, X; Liu, L; Zanchetti, A

    2015-06-01

    Many antihypertensive outcome trials have shown that visit-to-visit blood pressure variability is correlated closely with clinical outcomes in hypertensive patients. The objective of the study was to investigate the relationship between visit-to-visit blood pressure variability (BPV) and the major cardiovascular outcomes in the Chinese hypertensive patients. Felodipine Event Reduction (FEVER) study was a double-blind, randomized trial on 9711 Chinese hypertensive patients, in whom cardiovascular outcomes were significantly reduced by more intense therapy achieving a mean of 138 mmHg SBP compared with less-intense therapy achieving a mean of 142 mmHg. Visit-to-visit BPV during the follow-up period [defined as standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV), and average real variability(ARV)] was derived from casual cuff BP measures after six months follow-up until the end of the study. Hazard ratios (HRs), for the incidence of CVD associated with SD, CV, and ARV of SBP and DBP were calculated using Cox proportional hazard models. Overall predictive power [area under receiver operating characteristic (AUC ROC) curve] of the level of blood pressure, blood pressure variability and other baseline characteristics was calculated. In FEVER study, visit-to-visit variability in SBP were significant predictors of subsequent stroke [eg, hazard ratios [HR] for ARV, SD and CV was 1.071 (95% CI: 1.025-1.118), 1.373 (95% CI: 1.159-1.626) and 0.572 (95% CI: 0.451-0,726)]. Visit-to-visit variability in DBP were also showed similar trend [eg, HR for ARV, SD and CV was 1.066 (95% CI: 0.992-1.145), 1.931 (95% CI: 1.435-2.598) and 0.558 (95% CI: 0.438-0,710)]. However, using the analysis of AUC ROC analysis, the risk importance sequence of the stroke events in this cohort was level of SBP, age, level of DBP ARV, SD, sex, CV and treatment. Visit-to-visit blood pressure variability has some effects on the cardiovascular outcomes in the Chinese hypertensive patents in the cohort in

  18. The impact of serum uric acid reduction on renal function and blood pressure in chronic kidney disease patients with hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, Takayuki; Ohishi, Kazuhisa; Takeda, Asumi; Goto, Daiki; Sato, Taichi; Ohashi, Naro; Fujigaki, Yoshihide; Kato, Akihiko; Yasuda, Hideo

    2018-04-26

    Febuxostat is tolerable in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients with hyperuricemia. However, the long-term effect of lowering uric acid with febuxostat on renal function and blood pressure has not been elucidated. This was a 2 years retrospective observational study. 86 CKD patients with hyperuricemia who continued with allopurinol (allopurinol group, n = 30), switched from allopurinol to febuxostat (switched group, n = 25), or were newly prescribed febuxostat (febuxostat group, n = 31) were included in this study. Serum uric acid, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), blood pressure, and urinary protein were analyzed. Moreover, the impact of serum uric acid reduction on renal function and blood pressure was assessed. Serum uric acid in the switched and febuxostat groups was significantly reduced at 6 months (switched group; 8.49 ± 1.32-7.19 ± 1.14 mg/dL, p uric acid was increased (6.86 ± 0.87-7.10 ± 0.85 mg/dL, p = 0.0213). eGFR was significantly increased (35.2 ± 12.8-37.3 ± 13.9 mL/min/1.73 m 2 , p = 0.0232), while mean arterial pressure (93.1 ± 10.8-88.2 ± 9.5 mmHg, p = 0.0039) was significantly decreased at 6 months in the febuxostat group, resulting in the retention of eGFR for 2 years. The impact of serum uric acid reduction might have beneficial effects on CKD progression and blood pressure. However, a large prospective study is needed to determine the long-term efficacy of febuxostat therapy in CKD patients with hyperuricemia.

  19. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Understanding Blood Pressure Readings Updated:Jun 1,2018 What do your blood ... and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you learn about conditions, ...

  20. Reduction of Blood Pressure Following After Renal Artery Adventitia Stripping During Total Nephroureterectomy: Potential Effect of Renal Sympathetic Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Keisuke; Satou, Shunsuke; Setojima, Keita; Shono, Shinjiro; Miyajima, Shigero; Ishii, Tatsu; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-05-16

    BACKGROUND Catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation has been reported to be effective for treatment resistance hypertension in Australia and Europe. However, in the blinded SYMPLICITY HTN-3 trial, renal denervation did not achieve a significant decrease in blood pressure (BP) in comparison to sham controls. There have been various discussions on the factors that influenced this result. CASE REPORT Two men on antihypertensive therapy underwent unilateral radical nephroureterectomy for cancer of the renal pelvis. When the renal artery adventitia was stripped and cauterized just before renal artery ligation, the measured BP of the 2 men increased after stripping adventitia and decreased gradually after cauterization of the renal artery. This was presumably due to removal of renal artery sympathetic nerves, similar to the mechanism of catheter-based renal sympathetic denervation, although anesthesia, fluid infusion, and/or mesenteric traction may have had an influence. CONCLUSIONS A similar strategy involving thoracolumbar sympathectomy was reported about 50 years ago. The clinically significant blood pressure reduction in these patients suggests renal denervation is effective.

  1. High blood pressure - adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pressure is found. This is called essential hypertension. High blood pressure that is caused by another medical condition or medicine you are taking is called secondary hypertension. Secondary hypertension may be due to: Chronic ...

  2. Walnut consumption in a weight reduction intervention: effects on body weight, biological measures, blood pressure and satiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Cheryl L; Flatt, Shirley W; Barkai, Hava-Shoshana; Pakiz, Bilge; Heath, Dennis D

    2017-12-04

    Dietary strategies that help patients adhere to a weight reduction diet may increase the likelihood of weight loss maintenance and improved long-term health outcomes. Regular nut consumption has been associated with better weight management and less adiposity. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of a walnut-enriched reduced-energy diet to a standard reduced-energy-density diet on weight, cardiovascular disease risk factors, and satiety. Overweight and obese men and women (n = 100) were randomly assigned to a standard reduced-energy-density diet or a walnut-enriched (15% of energy) reduced-energy diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Measurements were obtained at baseline and 3- and 6-month clinic visits. Participants rated hunger, fullness and anticipated prospective consumption at 3 time points during the intervention. Body measurements, blood pressure, physical activity, lipids, tocopherols and fatty acids were analyzed using repeated measures mixed models. Both study groups reduced body weight, body mass index and waist circumference (time effect p weight was -9.4 (0.9)% vs. -8.9 (0.7)% (mean [SE]), for the standard vs. walnut-enriched diet groups, respectively. Systolic blood pressure decreased in both groups at 3 months, but only the walnut-enriched diet group maintained a lower systolic blood pressure at 6 months. The walnut-enriched diet group, but not the standard reduced-energy-density diet group, reduced total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) at 6 months, from 203 to 194 mg/dL and 121 to 112 mg/dL, respectively (p weight loss that is comparable to a standard reduced-energy-density diet in the context of a behavioral weight loss intervention. Although weight loss in response to both dietary strategies was associated with improvements in cardiovascular disease risk factors, the walnut-enriched diet promoted more favorable effects on LDL-C and systolic blood pressure. The trial

  3. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... other risk factors, like diabetes, you may need treatment. How does high blood pressure affect pregnant women? A few women will get ... HIV, Birth Control Heart Health for Women Pregnancy Menopause More Women's Health ... High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Women and Diabetes Heart ...

  4. Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction and Spot Sign in Intracerebral Hemorrhage: A Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morotti, Andrea; Brouwers, H Bart; Romero, Javier M; Jessel, Michael J; Vashkevich, Anastasia; Schwab, Kristin; Afzal, Mohammad Rauf; Cassarly, Christy; Greenberg, Steven M; Martin, Renee Hebert; Qureshi, Adnan I; Rosand, Jonathan; Goldstein, Joshua N

    2017-08-01

    The computed tomographic angiography (CTA) spot sign is associated with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) expansion and may mark those patients most likely to benefit from intensive blood pressure (BP) reduction. To investigate whether the spot sign is associated with ICH expansion across a wide range of centers and whether intensive BP reduction decreases hematoma expansion and improves outcome in patients with ICH and a spot sign. SCORE-IT (Spot Sign Score in Restricting ICH Growth) is a preplanned prospective observational study nested in the Antihypertensive Treatment of Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage II (ATACH-II) randomized clinical trial. Participants included consecutive patients with primary ICH who underwent a CTA within 8 hours from onset at 59 sites from May 15, 2011, through December 19, 2015. Data were analyzed for the present study from July 1 to August 31, 2016. Patients in ATACH-II were randomized to intensive (systolic BP target, spot sign, and 24 of 123 without missing data (19.5%) experienced ICH expansion. The spot sign was associated with expansion with sensitivity of 0.54 (95% CI, 0.34-0.74) and specificity of 0.63 (95% CI, 0.53-0.72). After adjustment for potential confounders, intensive BP treatment was not associated with a significant reduction of ICH expansion (relative risk, 0.83; 95% CI, 0.27-2.51; P = .74) or improved outcome (relative risk of 90-day modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, 1.24; 95% CI, 0.53-2.91; P = .62) in spot sign-positive patients. The predictive performance of the spot sign for ICH expansion was lower than in prior reports from single-center studies. No evidence suggested that patients with ICH and a spot sign specifically benefit from intensive BP reduction. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01176565.

  5. Reduction in blood pressure and serum lipids by lycosome formulation of dark chocolate and lycopene in prehypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y; Chalyk, Natalia E; Klochkov, Victor; Kyle, Nigel H

    2014-01-01

    Twenty-nine healthy volunteers aged 47–69 years old were randomly assigned to a 28-day oral intake of different dark chocolate (DC) formulations. The main group received daily 30 g of proprietary lycopene-containing (L-tug) lycosome formulation of DC with enhanced bioavailability of cocoa flavanols. Two control groups daily consumed either 30 g of regular DC alone or along with 7 mg of lycopene, which corresponds to the amount of lycopene ingested with L-tug formulation. It was found that L-tug was more efficient in reducing diastolic blood pressure (mean value of −6.22 mmHg, 95% CI: 5.00, 8.00) when compared with the regular DC group (−3.00 mmHg, P < 0.05) or the group which ingested the DC and lycopene as two separate formulations (mean reduction of −4 mmHg, 95% CI: 2.47, 6.00, P = 0.0262). Only marginal superiority for L-tug formulation in the reduction in systolic blood pressure was seen. However, the L-tug formulation was the only formulation of DC which affected serum lipids. There was a reduction in total cholesterol (from median 228.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 206.2, 242.5] to 187.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 166.2, 202.2, P < 0.05]) with corresponding decline of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (from a median of 166.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 130.8, 177.0] to 151.00 mg/dL [95% CI: 122.8, 167.4; P < 0.05]) at the end of the intervention period. Similar decline was seen in serum triglycerides (P < 0.05). Serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, glucose levels, and C-reactive protein (CRP) values remained statistically unchanged in all study groups throughout the intervention period. A superior biological activity of the L-tug lycosome formulation of DC extending beyond its antihypertensive effect to lipid-lowering ability opens up new possibilities for the use of DC for health purposes helping to reduce daily caloric intake without compromising on the health benefits of DC consumption. PMID:25493193

  6. Blood Pressure Reduction and Secondary Stroke Prevention: A Systematic Review and Metaregression Analysis of Randomized Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsanos, Aristeidis H; Filippatou, Angeliki; Manios, Efstathios; Deftereos, Spyridon; Parissis, John; Frogoudaki, Alexandra; Vrettou, Agathi-Rosa; Ikonomidis, Ignatios; Pikilidou, Maria; Kargiotis, Odysseas; Voumvourakis, Konstantinos; Alexandrov, Anne W; Alexandrov, Andrei V; Tsivgoulis, Georgios

    2017-01-01

    Current recommendations do not specifically address the optimal blood pressure (BP) reduction for secondary stroke prevention in patients with previous cerebrovascular events. We conducted a systematic review and metaregression analysis on the association of BP reduction with recurrent stroke and cardiovascular events using data from randomized controlled clinical trials of secondary stroke prevention. For all reported events during each eligible study period, we calculated the corresponding risk ratios to express the comparison of event occurrence risk between patients randomized to antihypertensive treatment and those randomized to placebo. On the basis of the reported BP values, we performed univariate metaregression analyses according to the achieved BP values under the random-effects model (Method of Moments) for those adverse events reported in ≥10 total subgroups of included randomized controlled clinical trials. In pairwise meta-analyses, antihypertensive treatment lowered the risk for recurrent stroke (risk ratio, 0.73; 95% confidence interval, 0.62-0.87; Psecondary stroke prevention. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  7. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... kidney disease, diabetes, or metabolic syndrome Read less Unhealthy lifestyle habits Unhealthy lifestyle habits can increase the risk of high blood pressure. These habits include: Unhealthy eating patterns, such as eating too much sodium ...

  8. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... factors Diabetes High blood pressure Family history Obesity Race/ethnicity Full list of causes and risk factors ... give Give monthly Memorials and tributes Donate a car Donate gently used items Stock donation Workplace giving ...

  9. Smoking Cessation Ameliorates Microalbuminuria With Reduction of Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate in Patients With Already Diagnosed Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hieshima, Kunio; Suzuki, Tomoko; Sugiyama, Seigo; Kurinami, Noboru; Yoshida, Akira; Miyamoto, Fumio; Kajiwara, Keizo; Jinnouchi, Tomio; Jinnouchi, Hideaki

    2018-06-01

    Smoking cessation in newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes patients is reported to be associated with amelioration of metabolic parameters and blood pressure (BP), and the reduction of microalbuminuria. The aim of this study is to demonstrate changes in BP, pulse rate (PR), and microalbuminuria in already diagnosed diabetes patients who quit smoking. We retrospectively evaluated diabetes outpatients who were habitual smokers, and who visited to our smoking cessation clinic. Patients were divided into two groups based on their smoking status at the termination of a 3-month smoking cessation program (smoking cessation group and smoking group), and analyzed systolic and diastolic BPs, PR, HbA1c, and body weight at the start date, and at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months thereafter. The urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio was also measured at the start date and at 12 months. Thirty-five patients met our criteria. Mean diabetes duration was 12 years. Eighteen patients (52%) quit smoking. Success or failure of smoking cessation depended on nicotine dependence rather than good or bad glycemic control. Both BP and PR decreased significantly after 1 month or later in the smoking cessation group without worsening HbA1c, while both parameters did not show any changes in the smoking group. Microalbuminuria was also ameliorated significantly at 12 months compared with that at the start date in the smoking cessation group (95.8 ± 92.9 mg/gCr vs. 75.5 ± 96.3 mg/gCr, P = 0.0059), while it did not show a significant change in the smoking group. (61.9 ± 43.5 mg/gCr vs. 97.7 ± 90.4 mg/gCr, P = 0.1039). Smoking cessation might cause a reduction in chronic kidney disease progression through ameliorating microalbuminuria without metabolic adverse effects in patients already diagnosed with diabetes mellitus.

  10. Do we need more than just powerful blood pressure reductions? New paradigms in end-organ protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domenico Galzerano

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Domenico Galzerano1, Cristina Capogrosso1, Sara Di Michele2, Emanuele Bobbio3, Paola Paparello1, Carlo Gaudio21Department of Cardiology, San Gennaro Hospital, Naples, Italy; 2Department of Heart and Great Vessels, A. Reale, La Sapienza University, Rome, Italy; 3Department of Cardiovascular Sciences, Federico II University, Naples, ItalyAbstract: Antihypertensive therapy can lower the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Yet, partly because of inadequate dosing, wrong pharmacological choices, and poor patient adherence, hypertension control remains suboptimal in the majority of hypertensive patients. Achieving greater blood pressure control requires a multifaceted approach that raises awareness of hypertension, uses effective therapies, and improves adherence. Particular classes of antihypertensive therapy have beneficial actions beyond blood pressure and studies have evaluated differences in cardiovascular protection among classes. The LIFE and HOPE studies showed between-class differences that may be due to effects other than blood pressure-lowering. In the ONTARGET study, telmisartan and ramipril provided similar cardiovascular protection but adherence was higher with telmisartan, which was better tolerated. This difference in compliance is likely to be important for long-term therapy. The selection of an agent for cardiovascular protection should depend on an appreciation of its composite properties, including any beneficial effects on tolerability and increased patient adherence, as these are likely to be advantageous for the long-term management of hypertension. This review examines the evidence that the effects beyond blood pressure provided by some antihypertensive agents can also lower the risk of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal events in patients with hypertension.Keywords: angiotensin II receptor blocker, cardiovascular continuum, cardiovascular disease, hypertension, renin–angiotensin system, telmisartan

  11. Smart blood pressure holter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan

    2018-03-01

    In this study, a wireless blood pressure holter that can be used with smart mobile devices was developed. The developed blood pressure holter consists of two parts, which are a smart mobile device and a cuff. The smart mobile device is used as a recording, control and display device through a developed interface, while the cuff was designed to take measurements from the arm. Resistor-Capacitor (RC) and digital filters were used on the cuff that communicates with the smart mobile device via Bluetooth. The blood pressure was estimated using the Simple Hill Climbing Algorithm (HCA). It is possible to measure instantaneous or programmable blood pressure and heart rate values at certain intervals using this holter. The test was conducted with 30 individuals at different ages with the guidance of a specialist health personnel. The results showed that an accuracy at 93.89% and 91.95% rates could be obtained for systolic and diastolic pressure values, respectively, when compared with those obtained using a traditional sphygmomanometer. The accuracy level for the heart rate was measured as 97.66%. Furthermore, this device was tested day and night in the holter mode in terms of working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The test results were evaluated separately in terms of measurement accuracy, working time, the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results. The measurement accuracy for systolic, diastolic blood pressure and heart rate values was obtained as 93.89%, 91.95% and 97.66%, respectively. The maximum number of measurements which can be conducted with four 1000 mA alkaline batteries at 20 min intervals was found approximately 79 (little more than 24 h). In addition, it was determined that the continuity of the Bluetooth connection and the reliability of the measurement results were automatically achieved through the features in the interface developed for the

  12. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    OBJECT: Cerebral ischemia remains the key cause of disability and death in the late phase after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), and its pathogenesis is still poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to examine whether the change in intracranial pressure or the extravasated blood causes the...

  13. Sleep-time blood pressure: prognostic value and relevance as a therapeutic target for cardiovascular risk reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermida, Ramón C; Ayala, Diana E; Fernández, José R; Mojón, Artemio

    2013-03-01

    Correlation between blood pressure (BP) level and target organ damage, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, and long-term prognosis is greater for ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) than clinical BP measurements. Nevertheless, the latter continue to be the "gold standard" to diagnose hypertension, assess CVD risk, and evaluate hypertension treatment. Independent ABPM studies have found that elevated sleep-time BP is a better predictor of CVD risk than either the awake or 24-h BP mean. A major limitation of all previous ABPM-based prognostic studies is the reliance only upon a single baseline profile from each participant at the time of inclusion, without accounting for potential changes in the level and pattern of ambulatory BP thereafter during follow-up. Accordingly, impact of the alteration over time, i.e., during long-term follow-up, of specific features of the 24-h BP variation on CVD risk has never been properly investigated. We evaluated the comparative prognostic value of (i) clinic and ambulatory BP; (ii) different ABPM-derived characteristics, e.g., asleep or awake BP mean; and (iii) specific changes in ABPM characteristic during follow-up, mainly whether reduced CVD risk is more related to the progressive decrease of asleep or awake BP. We prospectively studied 3344 subjects (1718 men/1626 women), 52.6 ± 14.5 (mean ± SD) yrs of age, during a median follow-up of 5.6 yrs. Those with hypertension at baseline were randomized to ingest all their prescribed hypertension medications upon awakening or ≥1 of them at bedtime. At baseline, BP was measured at 20-min intervals from 07:00 to 23:00 h and at 30-min intervals at night for 48-h, and physical activity was simultaneously monitored every min by wrist actigraphy to accurately derive awake and asleep BP means. Identical assessment was scheduled annually and more frequently (quarterly) if treatment adjustment was required. Data collected either at baseline or the last ABPM evaluation per participant

  14. Fall in blood pressure during radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larsson, L.E.; Lindahl, J.; Unsgaard, B.

    1976-01-01

    Blood pressure and heart rate at rest in the supine and standing positions were followed before, during and after irradiation for malignant tumours in 114 patients. A statistically significant gradual reduction in blood pressure during the treatment period was established. This was more marked in older patients and in patients with higher initial blood pressure but was not related to the region irradiated or the type of tumour treated. Particularly if the patient experiences vertigo and nausea on change of position, it seems advisable to check the blood pressure during treatment. (author)

  15. Magnitude of blood pressure reduction in the placebo arms of modern hypertension trials: implications for trials of renal denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Hitesh C; Hayward, Carl; Ozdemir, Baris Ata; Rosen, Stuart D; Krum, Henry; Lyon, Alexander R; Francis, Darrel P; di Mario, Carlo

    2015-02-01

    Early phase studies of novel interventions for hypertension, such as renal sympathetic denervation, are sometimes single-armed (uncontrolled). We explored the wisdom of this by quantifying the blood pressure fall in the placebo arms of contemporary trials of hypertension. We searched Medline up to June 2014 and identified blinded, randomized trials of hypertension therapy in which the control arm received placebo medication or a sham (placebo) procedure. For nonresistant hypertension, we have identified all such trials of drugs licensed by the US Food and Drug Administration since 2000 (5 drugs). This US Food and Drug Administration-related restriction was not applied to resistant hypertension trials. This produced 7451 patients, who were allocated to a blinded control from 52 trials of nonresistant hypertension and 694 patients from 8 trials of resistant hypertension (3 drugs and 2 interventions). Systolic blood pressure fell by 5.92 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 5.14-6.71; Pefficacy explorations of novel therapies for hypertension, once safety is established, should be performed with a randomized, appropriately controlled, and blinded design. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  16. Blood pressure monitors for home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007482.htm Blood pressure monitors for home To use the sharing features ... may ask you to keep track of your blood pressure at home. To do this, you will need ...

  17. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:May 4,2018 Knowing the facts ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  18. Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Blood Pressure vs. Heart Rate (Pulse) Updated:Nov 13,2017 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  19. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  20. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  1. High blood pressure and diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007483.htm High blood pressure and diet To use the sharing features on ... diet is a proven way to help control high blood pressure . These changes can also help you lose weight ...

  2. Types of Blood Pressure Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Types of Blood Pressure Medications Updated:Nov 6,2017 Prescription blood pressure ... This content was last reviewed October 2017. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  3. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  4. Considerably decreased risk of cardiovascular disease with combined reductions in HbA1c, blood pressure and blood lipids in type 2 diabetes: Report from the Swedish National Diabetes Register.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eeg-Olofsson, Katarina; Zethelius, Björn; Gudbjörnsdottir, Soffia; Eliasson, Björn; Svensson, Ann-Marie; Cederholm, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Assess the effect of risk factors changes on risk for cardiovascular disease and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes selected from the Swedish National Diabetes Register. Observational study of 13,477 females and males aged 30-75 years, with baseline HbA1c 41-67 mmol/mol, systolic blood pressure 122-154 mmHg and ratio non-HDL:HDL 1.7-4.1, followed for mean 6.5 years until 2012. Four groups were created: a reference group (n = 6757) with increasing final versus baseline HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and non-HDL:HDL cholesterol during the study period, and three groups with decreasing HbA1c (n = 1925), HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (n = 2050) or HbA1c and systolic blood pressure and non-HDL:HDL (n = 2745). Relative risk reduction for fatal/nonfatal cardiovascular disease was 35% with decrease in HbA1c only (mean 6 to final 49 mmol/mol), 56% with decrease in HbA1c and systolic blood pressure (mean 12 to final 128 mmHg) and 75% with combined decreases in HbA1c, systolic blood pressure and non-HDL:HDL (mean 0.8 to final 2.1), all p < 0.001 adjusting for clinical characteristics, other risk factors, treatments and previous cardiovascular disease. Similar risk reductions were found for fatal/nonfatal coronary heart disease, fatal cardiovascular disease, all-cause mortality and also in a subgroup of 3038 patients with albuminuria. Considerable risk reductions for cardiovascular disease and mortality were seen with combined long-term risk factor improvement. © The Author(s) 2016.

  5. Effectiveness of a lifestyle intervention led by female community health volunteers versus usual care in blood pressure reduction (COBIN)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Mishra, Shiva Raj

    2018-01-01

    ). In the intervention group, 43 FCHVs provided home visits every 4 months for lifestyle counselling and blood pressure monitoring. Eligible participants had been involved in a previous population-based survey, were aged 25–65 years, did not have plans to migrate outside the study area, and were not severely ill......-income population. Methods We did a community-based, open-label, two-group, cluster-randomised controlled trial in Nepal. Using computer-generated codes, we randomly assigned (1:1) 14 clusters to a lifestyle intervention led by female community health volunteers (FCHVs) or usual care (control group...... participants (939 assigned to intervention; 699 assigned to control). At 1 year, 855 participants remained in the intervention group (425 were normotensive, 175 were prehypertensive, and 255 had hypertension) and 613 remained in the control group (305 were normotensive, 128 were prehypertensive, and 180 had...

  6. Reduction in blood pressure and serum lipids by lycosome formulation of dark chocolate and lycopene in prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petyaev, Ivan M; Dovgalevsky, Pavel Y; Chalyk, Natalia E; Klochkov, Victor; Kyle, Nigel H

    2014-11-01

    Twenty-nine healthy volunteers aged 47-69 years old were randomly assigned to a 28-day oral intake of different dark chocolate (DC) formulations. The main group received daily 30 g of proprietary lycopene-containing (L-tug) lycosome formulation of DC with enhanced bioavailability of cocoa flavanols. Two control groups daily consumed either 30 g of regular DC alone or along with 7 mg of lycopene, which corresponds to the amount of lycopene ingested with L-tug formulation. It was found that L-tug was more efficient in reducing diastolic blood pressure (mean value of -6.22 mmHg, 95% CI: 5.00, 8.00) when compared with the regular DC group (-3.00 mmHg, P health purposes helping to reduce daily caloric intake without compromising on the health benefits of DC consumption.

  7. Systolic blood pressure reduction during the first 24 h in acute heart failure admission: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotter, Gad; Metra, Marco; Davison, Beth A; Jondeau, Guillaume; Cleland, John G F; Bourge, Robert C; Milo, Olga; O'Connor, Christopher M; Parker, John D; Torre-Amione, Guillermo; van Veldhuisen, Dirk J; Kobrin, Isaac; Rainisio, Maurizio; Senger, Stefanie; Edwards, Christopher; McMurray, John J V; Teerlink, John R

    2018-02-01

    Changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP) during an admission for acute heart failure (AHF), especially those leading to hypotension, have been suggested to increase the risk for adverse outcomes. We analysed associations of SBP decrease during the first 24 h from randomization with serum creatinine changes at the last time-point available (72 h), using linear regression, and with 30- and 180-day outcomes, using Cox regression, in 1257 patients in the VERITAS study. After multivariable adjustment for baseline SBP, greater SBP decrease at 24 h from randomization was associated with greater creatinine increase at 72 h and greater risk for 30-day all-cause death, worsening heart failure (HF) or HF readmission. The hazard ratio (HR) for each 1 mmHg decrease in SBP at 24 h for 30-day death, worsening HF or HF rehospitalization was 1.01 [95% confidence interval (CI) 1.00-1.02; P = 0.021]. Similarly, the HR for each 1 mmHg decrease in SBP at 24 h for 180-day all-cause mortality was 1.01 (95% CI 1.00-1.03; P = 0.038). The associations between SBP decrease and outcomes did not differ by tezosentan treatment group, although tezosentan treatment was associated with a greater SBP decrease at 24 h. In the current post hoc analysis, SBP decrease during the first 24 h was associated with increased renal impairment and adverse outcomes at 30 and 180 days. Caution, with special attention to blood pressure monitoring, should be exercised when vasodilating agents are given to AHF patients. © 2017 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2017 European Society of Cardiology.

  8. Serial blood pressure measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.R. Koehler

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study the effects of a 60-s interval of venous congestion between two noninvasive measurements of arterial blood pressure (ABP on the fluctuation of ABP, assessed by the standard deviation of the differences between two readings. ABP was measured in 345 successive patients, at rest, four times each. For 269 participants, one pair of readings was obtained with a 60-s interval and the other pair without an interval. For 76 patients, the first pair was read at the same interval, and the second pair had venous congestion interposed and there was no waiting interval. There was no increased ABP oscillation, either when there was no interval between ABP readings, or when venous congestion was interposed compared to pairs of ABP measurements performed with a 60-s interval. There was no increase in ABP oscillations when successive ABP readings were taken without an interval or even with venous congestion interposed. Contrary to the present belief, there seems to be no loss of reliability when blood pressure recordings are taken immediately one after another, in the clinical setting.

  9. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  10. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  11. Reductions in blood pressure during a community-based overweight and obesity treatment in children and adolescents with prehypertension and hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mollerup, P M; Lausten-Thomsen, U; Fonvig, C E

    2017-01-01

    Due to the pandemic of childhood obesity and thus obesity-related hypertension, improvements in treatment availability are needed. Hence, we investigated whether reductions in blood pressure (BP) would occur in children with overweight and obesity exhibiting prehypertension/hypertension during...... a community-based overweight and obesity treatment program, and if changes in body mass index (BMI) are associated with changes in BP. The study included 663 children aged 3-18 years with a BMI ⩾85th percentile for sex and age that entered treatment from June 2012 to January 2015. Height, weight and BP were....../hypertension developed in 23.3% of the normotensive children despite reductions in BMI SDSs (Pobesity treatment can reduce BP, and thus may help improve treatment availability....

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth / For Parents / Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) What's ... High Blood Pressure) Treated? Print What Is Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)? Blood pressure is the pressure of blood against ...

  13. Serotonin and Blood Pressure Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Shaun F.; Davis, Robert Patrick; Barman, Susan M.

    2012-01-01

    5-Hydroxytryptamine (5-HT; serotonin) was discovered more than 60 years ago as a substance isolated from blood. The neural effects of 5-HT have been well investigated and understood, thanks in part to the pharmacological tools available to dissect the serotonergic system and the development of the frequently prescribed selective serotonin-reuptake inhibitors. By contrast, our understanding of the role of 5-HT in the control and modification of blood pressure pales in comparison. Here we focus on the role of 5-HT in systemic blood pressure control. This review provides an in-depth study of the function and pharmacology of 5-HT in those tissues that can modify blood pressure (blood, vasculature, heart, adrenal gland, kidney, brain), with a focus on the autonomic nervous system that includes mechanisms of action and pharmacology of 5-HT within each system. We compare the change in blood pressure produced in different species by short- and long-term administration of 5-HT or selective serotonin receptor agonists. To further our understanding of the mechanisms through which 5-HT modifies blood pressure, we also describe the blood pressure effects of commonly used drugs that modify the actions of 5-HT. The pharmacology and physiological actions of 5-HT in modifying blood pressure are important, given its involvement in circulatory shock, orthostatic hypotension, serotonin syndrome and hypertension. PMID:22407614

  14. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  15. Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / News Research News: Blood Pressure Drugs and AMD Leer en Español: Noticias de ... also found an association between AMD and high blood pressure, but this has been inconsistent. To help clarify ...

  16. High Blood Pressure - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - Amarɨñña / አማርኛ (Amharic) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Arabic (العربية) Expand Section ... Being 8 - High Blood Pressure - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Siloam Family Health Center Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  17. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Feb 27,2018 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  18. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  19. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  20. Pathogen reduction of blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solheim, Bjarte G

    2008-08-01

    Thanks to many blood safety interventions introduced in developed countries the risk of transfusion transmitted infections has become exceedingly small in these countries. However, emerging pathogens still represent a serious challenge, as demonstrated by West Nile virus in the US and more recently by Chikungunya virus in the Indian Ocean. In addition bacterial contamination, particularly in platelets, and protozoa transmitted by blood components still represent sizeable risks in developed countries. In developing countries the risk of all transfusion transmitted infections is still high due to insufficient funding and organisation of the health service. Pathogen reduction of pooled plasma products has virtually eliminated the risk of transfusion transmitted infections, without compromising the quality of the products significantly. Pathogen reduction of blood components has been much more challenging. Solvent detergent treatment which has been so successfully applied for plasma products dissolves cell membranes, and can, therefore, only be applied for plasma and not for cellular blood components. Targeting of nucleic acids has been another method for pathogen inactivation of plasma and the only approach possible for cellular blood products. As documented in more than 15 year's track record, solvent detergent treatment of pooled plasma can yield high quality plasma. The increased risk for contamination by unknown viruses due to pooling is out weighed by elimination of TRALI, significant reduction in allergic reactions and standardisation of the product. Recently, a promising method for solvent detergent treatment of single donor plasma units has been published. Methylene blue light treatment of single donor plasma units has a similar long track record as pooled solvent detergent treated plasma; but the method is less well documented and affects coagulation factor activity more. Psoralen light treated plasma has only recently been introduced (CE marked in Europe

  1. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  2. Differential Impact of Stress Reduction Programs upon Ambulatory Blood Pressure among African American Adolescents: Influences of Endothelin-1 Gene and Chronic Stress Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathew J. Gregoski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Stress-activated gene × environment interactions may contribute to individual variability in blood pressure reductions from behavioral interventions. We investigated effects of endothelin-1 (ET-1 LYS198ASN SNP and discriminatory stress exposure upon impact of 12-week behavioral interventions upon ambulatory BP (ABP among 162 prehypertensive African American adolescents. Following genotyping, completion of questionnaire battery, and 24-hour ABP monitoring, participants were randomized to health education control (HEC, life skills training (LST, or breathing awareness meditation (BAM. Postintervention ABP was obtained. Significant three-way interactions on ABP changes indicated that among ET-1 SNP carriers, the only group to show reductions was BAM from low chronic stress environments. Among ET-1 SNP noncarriers, under low chronic stress exposure, all approaches worked, especially BAM. Among high stress exposure noncarriers, only BAM resulted in reductions. If these preliminary findings are replicated via ancillary analyses of archival databases and then via efficacy trials, selection of behavioral prescriptions for prehypertensives will be edging closer to being guided by individual's underlying genetic and environmental factors incorporating the healthcare model of personalized preventive medicine.

  3. Modest Salt Reduction Lowers Blood Pressure and Albumin Excretion in Impaired Glucose Tolerance and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Randomized Double-Blind Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2016-06-01

    The role of salt restriction in patients with impaired glucose tolerance and diabetes mellitus is controversial, with a lack of well controlled, longer term, modest salt reduction trials in this group of patients, in spite of the marked increase in cardiovascular risk. We carried out a 12-week randomized double-blind, crossover trial of salt restriction with salt or placebo tablets, each for 6 weeks, in 46 individuals with diet-controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance and untreated normal or high normal blood pressure (BP). From salt to placebo, 24-hour urinary sodium was reduced by 49±9 mmol (2.9 g salt). This reduction in salt intake led to fall in clinic BP from 136/81±2/1 mm Hg to 131/80±2/1 mm Hg, (systolic BP; Pdiabetes mellitus with normal or mildly raised BP. The reduction in urinary albumin excretion may carry additional benefits in reducing cardiovascular disease above the effects on BP. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is known as gestational hypertension, a form of secondary hypertension caused by the pregnancy that usually disappears after delivery. If the mother is not treated, high blood pressure can be dangerous to both the mother ...

  5. Psoriasis and high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salihbegovic, Eldina Malkic; Hadzigrahic, Nermina; Suljagic, Edin; Kurtalic, Nermina; Sadic, Sena; Zejcirovic, Alema; Mujacic, Almina

    2015-02-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic skin ailment which can be connected with an increased occurrence of other illnesses, including high blood pressure. A prospective study has been conducted which included 70 patients affected by psoriasis, both genders, older than 18 years. Average age being 47,14 (SD= ±15,41) years, from that there were 36 men or 51,43 and 34 women or 48,57%. Average duration of psoriasis was 15,52 (SD=±12,54) years. Frequency of high blood pressure in those affected by psoriasis was 54,28%. Average age of the patients with psoriasis and high blood pressure was 53,79 year (SD=±14,15) and average duration of psoriasis was 17,19 years (SD=±13,51). Average values of PASI score were 16,65. Increase in values of PASI score and high blood pressure were statistically highly related (r=0,36, p=0,0001). Psoriasis was related to high blood pressure and there was a correlation between the severity of psoriasis and high blood pressure.

  6. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcohol: Does it affect blood pressure? Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  7. Polynomial analysis of ambulatory blood pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwinderman, A. H.; Cleophas, T. A.; Cleophas, T. J.; van der Wall, E. E.

    2001-01-01

    In normotensive subjects blood pressures follow a circadian rhythm. A circadian rhythm in hypertensive patients is less well established, and may be clinically important, particularly with rigorous treatments of daytime blood pressures. Polynomial analysis of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  8. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of high blood pressure? Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  9. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... For Consumers Consumer Information by Audience For Women High Blood Pressure--Medicines to Help You Share Tweet Linkedin Pin ... Click here for the Color Version (PDF 533KB) High blood pressure is a serious illness. High blood pressure is ...

  10. Effects of endurance training on blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and cardiovascular risk factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Véronique A; Fagard, Robert H

    2005-10-01

    Previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials on the effects of chronic dynamic aerobic endurance training on blood pressure reported on resting blood pressure only. Our aim was to perform a comprehensive meta-analysis including resting and ambulatory blood pressure, blood pressure-regulating mechanisms, and concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. Inclusion criteria of studies were: random allocation to intervention and control; endurance training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of > or =4 weeks; availability of systolic or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. The meta-analysis involved 72 trials, 105 study groups, and 3936 participants. After weighting for the number of trained participants and using a random-effects model, training induced significant net reductions of resting and daytime ambulatory blood pressure of, respectively, 3.0/2.4 mm Hg (Phypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; Pendurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favorably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors.

  11. Equal contribution of increased intracranial pressure and subarachnoid blood to cerebral blood flow reduction and receptor upregulation after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Laboratory investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansar, Saema; Edvinsson, Lars

    2009-01-01

    chain reaction was used to determine the mRNA levels for ET(A), ET(B), and 5-HT(1) receptors. Regional and global cerebral blood flow (CBF) were quantified by means of an autoradiographic technique. RESULTS: Compared with the sham condition, both SAH and saline injection resulted in significantly...

  12. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  13. The effects of high-dose amlodipine/benazepril combination therapies on blood pressure reduction in patients not adequately controlled with amlodipine monotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrysant, Steven G; Sugimoto, Daniel H; Lefkowitz, Marty; Salko, Thomas; Khan, Mahmudul; Arora, Vipin; Shi, Victor

    2007-03-01

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of amlodipine/benazepril (10/40 mg/day and 10/20 mg/day) with amlodipine 10 mg/day in patients whose blood pressure (BP) was not adequately controlled with amlodipine monotherapy. After a lead-in period with amlodipine monotherapy, 812 non-responder patients (mean sitting diastolic BP > or =95 mmHg) were randomized to one of three treatment groups. Ambulatory BP monitoring was conducted in 276 patients. Treatment with amlodipine/benazepril 10/40 mg/day and 10/20 mg/day resulted in a decrease of mean sitting systolic and mean sitting diastolic BP by 13.3/12.7 mmHg and 12.1/11.6 mmHg, respectively, compared with monotherapy (6.6/8.5 mmHg) (p benazepril 10/40 mg/day and 10/20 mg/day decreased ambulatory systolic and diastolic BP by 9.9/6.7 mmHg and 7.4/5.2 mmHg compared with monotherapy (p benazepril combinations compared with monotherapy (4.5%, 5.5% vs. 9.2%, respectively, p=NS). No significant metabolic side-effects were noted among the combination groups. Amlodipine/benazepril combinations were well tolerated and resulted in significant BP reductions and better BP responder rates than amlodipine monotherapy.

  14. Modest blood pressure reduction with valsartan in acute ischemic stroke: a prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Mi Sun; Yu, Kyung-Ho; Hong, Keun-Sik; Kang, Dong-Wha; Park, Jong-Moo; Bae, Hee-Joon; Koo, Jaseong; Lee, Juneyoung; Lee, Byung-Chul

    2015-07-01

    To assess the efficacy and safety of modest blood pressure (BP) reduction with valsartan within 48 h after symptom onset in patients with acute ischemic stroke and high BP. This was a multicenter, prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded-end-point trial. A total of 393 subjects were recruited at 28 centers and then randomly assigned in a 1:1 ratio to receive valsartan (n = 195) or no treatment (n = 198) for seven-days after presentation. The primary outcome was death or dependency, defined as a score of 3-6 on the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) at 90 days after symptom onset. Early neurological deterioration (END) within seven-days and 90-day major vascular events were also assessed. There were 372 patients who completed the 90-day follow-up. The valsartan group had 46 of 187 patients (24·6%) with a 90-day mRS 3-6, compared with 42 of 185 patients (22·6%) in the control group (odds ratio [OR], 1·11; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0·69-1·79; P = 0·667). The rate of major vascular events did not differ between groups (OR, 1·41; 95% CI, 0·44-4·49; P = 0·771). There was a significant increase of END in the valsartan group (OR, 2·43; 95% CI, 1·25-4·73; P = 0·008). Early reduction of BP with valsartan did not reduce death or dependency and major vascular events at 90 days, but increased the risk of END. © 2015 World Stroke Organization.

  15. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  16. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  17. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  18. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  19. Pulse pressure and diurnal blood pressure variation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Søren Tang; Poulsen, Per Løgstrup; Hansen, Klavs Würgler

    2002-01-01

    retinopathy, nephropathy, macrovascular disease, PP, and diurnal BP variation in a group of type 2 diabetic patients. METHODS: In 80 type 2 diabetic patients we performed 24-h ambulatory BP (AMBP) and fundus photographs. Urinary albumin excretion was evaluated by urinary albumin/creatinine ratio. Presence...... or absence of macrovascular disease was assessed by an independent physician. RESULTS: Forty-nine patients had no detectable retinal changes (grade 1), 13 had grade 2 retinopathy, and 18 had more advanced retinopathy (grades 3-6). Compared to patients without retinopathy (grade 1), patients with grades 2......BACKGROUND: In nondiabetic subjects pulse pressure (PP) is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease and microalbuminuria. Reduced circadian blood pressure (BP) variation is a potential risk factor for the development of diabetic complications. We investigated the association between...

  20. Effects of low-fat high-fibre diet and mitratapide on body weight reduction, blood pressure and metabolic parameters in obese dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña, Cristina; Suarez, Lourdes; Bautista-Castaño, Inmaculada; Juste, M Candelaria; Carretón, Elena; Montoya-Alonso, José Alberto

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the impact on blood pressure and different metabolic parameters of a weight-loss program on obese dogs fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet and treated with and without mitratapide. The study sample consisted of 36 obese dogs, randomly assigned to a control group (n=17), which were fed on a low-fat high-fibre diet, and an intervention group (n=19), fed on the same diet and treated with mitratapide. Variables measured included body condition score, body weight, heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressures; total cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels; alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase activity, measured both at baseline (day 0) and at the end of the weight loss program (day 85). All the studied parameters had decreased in both groups at the end of the study; these being diastolic blood pressure, total cholesterol and alanine aminotransferase, significantly lower in dogs treated with mitratapide. The use of mitrapide in addition to low-fat high-fibre diet does not seem to offer any further useful effect in the loss of weight during the treatment of canine obesity. On the other hand, mitratapide seems to present certain beneficial effects on pathologies associated with obesity, these being mainly related to blood pressure, lipids and hepatic parameters.

  1. Effect of cocoa on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Fakler, Peter; Stocks, Nigel P

    2017-04-25

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease, contributing to about 50% of cardiovascular events worldwide and 37% of cardiovascular-related deaths in Western populations. Epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Flavanols found in cocoa have been shown to increase the formation of endothelial nitric oxide which promotes vasodilation and therefore blood pressure reduction. Here we update previous meta-analyses on the effect of cocoa on blood pressure. To assess the effects on blood pressure of chocolate or cocoa products versus low-flavanol products or placebo in adults with or without hypertension when consumed for two weeks or longer. This is an updated version of the review initially published in 2012. In this updated version, we searched the following electronic databases from inception to November 2016: Cochrane Hypertension Group Specialised Register, CENTRAL, MEDLINE and Embase. We also searched international trial registries, and the reference lists of review articles and included trials. Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) investigating the effects of chocolate or cocoa products on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in adults for a minimum of two weeks duration. Two review authors independently extracted data and assessed the risks of bias in each trial. We conducted random-effects meta-analyses on the included studies using Review Manager 5. We explored heterogeneity with subgroup analyses by baseline blood pressure, flavanol content of control group, blinding, age and duration. Sensitivity analyses explored the influence of unusual study design. Thirty-five trials (including 40 treatment comparisons) met the inclusion criteria. Of these, we added 17 trials (20 treatment comparisons) to the 18 trials (20 treatment comparisons) in the previous version of this updated review.Trials provided participants with 30 to 1218 mg of flavanols (mean = 670 mg) in 1.4 to 105

  2. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure measurements (TBPM) is a new and promising supplement to diagnosis, control and treatment of hypertension. We wanted to compare the outcome of antihypertensive treatment based on TBPM and conventional monitoring of blood pressure. DESIGN AND METHOD...... of the measurements and subsequent communication by telephone or E-mail. In the control group, patients received usual care. Primary outcome was reduction in daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In both groups, daytime ABPM decreased significantly....../181), p = 0.34. Blood pressure reduction in the TBPM group varied with the different practices. CONCLUSIONS: No further reduction in ABPM or number of patients reaching blood pressure targets was observed when electronic transmission of TBPM was applied in the treatment of hypertension by GPs. Thus...

  3. The hidden magnitude of raised blood pressure and elevated blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Conclusions: The prevalence of undiagnosed raised blood pressure and elevated blood sugar was high in Ethiopia and only very small percentage of people had been aware of their high blood pressure and elevated blood sugar. Policy makers in the health sector including other health development partners need to ...

  4. Caffeine: How Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... naturally increase your blood pressure, such as exercise, weightlifting or hard physical labor. To see if caffeine ... blood pressure and stress indices in healthy individuals. Nutrition Journal. 2016;15:26. Cano-Marquina A, et ...

  5. What Is High Blood Pressure Medicine?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a medicine calendar. • Set a reminder on your smartphone. What types of medicine may be prescribed? One ... High Blood Pressure Medicine? What are their side effects? For many people, high blood pressure medicine can ...

  6. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring - comparison with office ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ambulatory blood pressure recordings in private practice ... position according to established guidelines. ... white-coat effect was defined as a difference of at least 20 .... patients with hypertension: Importance of blood pressure response to ...

  7. High blood pressure - medicine-related

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drug-induced hypertension is high blood pressure caused by using a chemical substance or medicine. ... of the arteries There are several types of high blood pressure : Essential hypertension has no cause that can be ...

  8. Cocoa, blood pressure, and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudano, Isabella; Flammer, Andreas J; Roas, Susanne; Enseleit, Frank; Ruschitzka, Frank; Corti, Roberto; Noll, Georg

    2012-08-01

    The consumption of a high amount of fruits and vegetables was found to be associated with a lower risk of coronary heart disease and stroke. Epidemiologically, a similar relationship has been found with cocoa, a naturally polyphenol-rich food. Obviously, double blind randomized studies are difficult to perform with cocoa and chocolate, respectively. However, intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa has several beneficial effects on cardiovascular health, including the lowering of blood pressure, the improvement of vascular function and glucose metabolism, and the reduction of platelet aggregation and adhesion. Several potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert its positive effects have been proposed, among them activation of nitric oxide synthase, increased bioavailability of nitric oxide as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on blood pressure and vascular function.

  9. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  10. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  11. A Mobile Phone-Based Health Coaching Intervention for Weight Loss and Blood Pressure Reduction in a National Payer Population: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Alice Yuqing; Chen, Connie; Magana, Candy; Caballero Barajas, Karla; Olayiwola, J Nwando

    2017-06-08

    The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic conditions continue to be challenging and costly to address for health care systems; 71% of American adults were overweight, with 35% of men and 40% of women diagnosed with obesity in 2014. Digital health coaching is an innovative approach to decreasing the barriers of cost and accessibility of receiving health coaching for the prevention and management of chronic disease in overweight or obese individuals. To evaluate the early impact of a mobile phone-based health coaching service on weight loss and blood pressure management in a commercially insured population. This was a retrospective study using existing registry data from a pilot commercial collaboration between Vida Health and a large national insurance provider, which enrolled adult members who were overweight (body mass index >25 kg/m2) and able to engage in a mobile phone-based coaching intervention. Participants received 4 months of intensive health coaching via live video, phone, and text message through the Vida Health app. Participants were also provided with a wireless scale, pedometer, and blood pressure cuff. Of the 1012 enrolled, 763 (75.40%) participants had an initial weight upon enrollment and final weight between 3 and 5 months from enrollment; they served as our intervention group. There were 73 participants out of the 1012 (7.21%) who had weight data 4 months prior to and after Vida coaching, who served as the matched-pair control group. Participants in the intervention group lost an average of 3.23% total body weight (TBW) at 4 months of coaching and 28.6% (218/763) intervention participants achieved a clinically significant weight loss of 5% or more of TBW, with an average of 9.46% weight loss in this cohort. In the matched-pair control group, participants gained on average 1.81% TBW in 4 months without Vida coaching and lost, on average, 2.47% TBW after 4 months of Vida coaching, demonstrating a statistically significant difference of 4

  12. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements in healthy ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods. We measured the blood pressures of 650 healthy, randomly ... In addition, blood pressure measurement should be a part of the routine clinical examination of children. ... familial risk factors.2 ... common cause of elevated blood pressure in children.4 They ... sphygmomanometer (Accoson, hospital model BS 274,.

  13. Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin G

    2018-04-01

    Manual blood pressure (BP) recorded in routine clinical practice is relatively inaccurate and associated with higher readings compared to BP measured in research studies in accordance with standardized measurement guidelines. The increase in routine office BP is the result of several factors, especially the presence of office staff, which tends to make patients nervous and also allows for conversation to occur. With the disappearance of the mercury sphygmomanometer because of environmental concerns, there is greater use of oscillometric BP recorders, both in the office setting and elsewhere. Although oscillometric devices may reduce some aspects of observer BP measurement error in the clinical setting, they are still associated with higher BP readings, known as white coat hypertension (for diagnosis) or white coat effect (with treated hypertension). Now that fully automated sphygmomanometers are available which are capable of recording several readings with the patient resting quietly, there is no longer any need to have office staff present when BP is being recorded. Such readings are called automated office blood pressure (AOBP) and they are both more accurate than conventional manual office BP and not associated with the white coat phenomena. AOBP readings are also similar to the awake ambulatory BP and home BP, both of which are relatively good predictors of cardiovascular risk. The available evidence suggests that AOBP should now replace manual or electronic office BP readings when screening patients for hypertension and also after antihypertensive drug therapy is initiated. Copyright © 2018. The Korean Society of Cardiology.

  14. Central blood pressure and chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Yoichi; Kanno, Yoshihiko; Takenaka, Tsuneo

    2016-01-01

    In this review, we focused on the relationship between central blood pressure and chronic kidney diseases (CKD). Wave reflection is a major mechanism that determines central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Recent medical technology advances have enabled non-invasive central blood pressure measurements. Clinical trials have demonstrated that compared with brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure is a stronger risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) and renal diseases. CKD is characterized by a diminished renal autoregulatory ability, an augmented direct transmission of systemic blood pressure to glomeruli, and an increase in proteinuria. Any elevation in central blood pressure accelerates CKD progression. In the kidney, interstitial inflammation induces oxidative stress to handle proteinuria. Oxidative stress facilitates atherogenesis, increases arterial stiffness and central blood pressure, and worsens the CV prognosis in patients with CKD. A vicious cycle exists between CKD and central blood pressure. To stop this cycle, vasodilator antihypertensive drugs and statins can reduce central blood pressure and oxidative stress. Even in early-stage CKD, mineral and bone disorders (MBD) may develop. MBD promotes oxidative stress, arteriosclerosis, and elevated central blood pressure in patients with CKD. Early intervention or prevention seems necessary to maintain vascular health in patients with CKD. PMID:26788468

  15. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  16. Intraocular pressure reduction and regulation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baehr, E. F.; Burnett, J. E.; Felder, S. F.; Mcgannon, W. J.

    1979-01-01

    An intraocular pressure reduction and regulation system is described and data are presented covering performance in: (1) reducing intraocular pressure to a preselected value, (2) maintaining a set minimum intraocular pressure, and (3) reducing the dynamic increases in intraocular pressure resulting from external loads applied to the eye.

  17. Continuous Blood Pressure Monitoring in Daily Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Guillaume; Shuzo, Masaki; Ushida, Hiroyuki; Hidaka, Keita; Yanagimoto, Shintaro; Imai, Yasushi; Kosaka, Akio; Delaunay, Jean-Jacques; Yamada, Ichiro

    Continuous monitoring of blood pressure in daily life could improve early detection of cardiovascular disorders, as well as promoting healthcare. Conventional ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) equipment can measure blood pressure at regular intervals for 24 hours, but is limited by long measuring time, low sampling rate, and constrained measuring posture. In this paper, we demonstrate a new method for continuous real-time measurement of blood pressure during daily activities. Our method is based on blood pressure estimation from pulse wave velocity (PWV) calculation, which formula we improved to take into account changes in the inner diameter of blood vessels. Blood pressure estimation results using our new method showed a greater precision of measured data during exercise, and a better accuracy than the conventional PWV method.

  18. The influence of blood pressure management on neurological outcome in endovascular therapy for acute ischaemic stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, M; Espelund, U S; Juul, N; Yoo, A J; Sørensen, L H; Sørensen, K E; Johnsen, S P; Andersen, G; Simonsen, C Z

    2018-06-01

    Observational studies have suggested that low blood pressure and blood pressure variability may partially explain adverse neurological outcome after endovascular therapy with general anaesthesia (GA) for acute ischaemic stroke. The aim of this study was to further examine whether blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy are associated with neurological outcome. The GOLIATH trial randomised 128 patients to either GA or conscious sedation for endovascular therapy in acute ischaemic stroke. The primary outcome was 90 day modified Rankin Score. The haemodynamic protocol aimed at keeping the systolic blood pressure >140 mm Hg and mean blood pressure >70 mm Hg during the procedure. Blood pressure related parameters of interest included 20% reduction in mean blood pressure; mean blood pressure blood pressure blood pressure; mean blood pressure at the time of groin puncture; postreperfusion mean blood pressure; blood pressure variability; and use of vasopressors. Sensitivity analyses were performed in the subgroup of reperfused patients. Procedural average mean and systolic blood pressures were higher in the conscious sedation group (Pblood pressure blood pressure blood pressure variability, and use of vasopressors were all higher in the GA group (Pblood pressure related parameters and the modified Rankin Score in the overall patient population, and in the subgroup of patients with full reperfusion. We found no statistically significant association between blood pressure related parameters during endovascular therapy and neurological outcome. NCT 02317237. Copyright © 2018 British Journal of Anaesthesia. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Social Stress Induced Pressure Breathing and Consequent Blood Pressure Oscillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fokkema, Dirk S.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.; Meulen, Jan van der; Schoemaker, Regien

    1986-01-01

    A large amplitude blood pressure oscillation occurs during social defeat in a territorial fight between male rats, and during the application of a psychosocial stimulus associated with this defeat. Synchronous recording of blood pressure, intrathoracic pressure and diaphragm activity shows that the

  20. Blood Pressure Matters: Keep Hypertension in Check

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2016 Print this issue Blood Pressure Matters Keep Hypertension in Check En español Send us your comments ... 1 in 3 adults in the U.S. has high blood pressure, but many don’t realize it. High blood ...

  1. Urinary protein as a marker for systolic blood pressure reduction in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus participating in an in-hospital diabetes education program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okada, Kenta; Miyamoto, Michiaki; Kotani, Kazuhiko; Yagyu, Hiroaki; Osuga, Junichi; Nagasaka, Shoichiro; Ishibashi, Shun

    2011-10-01

    Increased blood pressure (BP) and urinary protein (UP)/microalbuminuria are risk factors for cardiovascular disease in patients with diabetes. Although the management of BP in patients with diabetes should involve a multidisciplinary therapy, there are no reports in which modulators have been identified in an in-hospital diabetes education program. The aim of the present study was to investigate the change in BP levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) during a short-term (2-week) in-hospital education program on lifestyle modifications. A total of 167 patients with T2DM (101 men, 66 women; mean age, 61.1 years; glycated hemoglobin, 9.2%) were divided into 2 groups on the basis of their urinary albumin levels: 1 group without UP (urinary albumin level patients with T2DM.

  2. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludovici, Valeria; Barthelmes, Jens; Nägele, Matthias P.; Enseleit, Frank; Ferri, Claudio; Flammer, Andreas J.; Ruschitzka, Frank; Sudano, Isabella

    2017-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP), improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking) or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure). Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO) synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function. PMID:28824916

  3. Cocoa, Blood Pressure, and Vascular Function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeria Ludovici

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD represents the most common cause of death worldwide. The consumption of natural polyphenol-rich foods, and cocoa in particular, has been related to a reduced risk of CVD, including coronary heart disease and stroke. Intervention studies strongly suggest that cocoa exerts a beneficial impact on cardiovascular health, through the reduction of blood pressure (BP, improvement of vascular function, modulation of lipid and glucose metabolism, and reduction of platelet aggregation. These potentially beneficial effects have been shown in healthy subjects as well as in patients with risk factors (arterial hypertension, diabetes, and smoking or established CVD (coronary heart disease or heart failure. Several potential mechanisms are supposed to be responsible for the positive effect of cocoa; among them activation of nitric oxide (NO synthase, increased bioavailability of NO as well as antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. It is the aim of this review to summarize the findings of cocoa and chocolate on BP and vascular function.

  4. Blood pressure documentation in the emergency department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, Ana Carolina Queiroz Godoy; Machado, Juliana Pereira; Veiga, Eugenia Velludo

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To analyze the frequency of blood pressure documentation performed by nursing professionals in an emergency department. Methods This is a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, and analytical study, which included medical records of adult patients admitted to the observation ward of an emergency department, between March and May 2014. Data were obtained through a collection instrument divided into three parts: patient identification, triage data, and blood pressure documentation. For statistical analysis, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was used, with a significance level of α<0.05. Results One hundred fifty-seven records and 430 blood pressure measurements were analyzed with an average of three measurements per patient. Of these measures, 46.5% were abnormal. The mean time from admission to documentation of the first blood pressure measurement was 2.5 minutes, with 42 minutes between subsequent measures. There is no correlation between the systolic blood pressure values and the mean time interval between blood pressure documentations: 0.173 (p=0.031). Conclusion The present study found no correlation between frequency of blood pressure documentation and blood pressure values. The frequency of blood pressure documentation increased according to the severity of the patient and decreased during the length of stay in the emergency department. PMID:28444085

  5. Effects of hormone therapy on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Zeinab; Seely, Ellen W; Rahme, Maya; El-Hajj Fuleihan, Ghada

    2015-04-01

    Although hormone therapy remains the most efficacious option for the management of vasomotor symptoms of menopause, its effects on blood pressure remain unclear. This review scrutinizes evidence of the mechanisms of action of hormone therapy on signaling pathways affecting blood pressure and evidence from clinical studies. Comprehensive Ovid MEDLINE searches were conducted for the terms "hypertension" and either of the following "hormone therapy and menopause" or "selective estrogen receptor modulator" from year 2000 to November 2013. In vitro and physiologic studies did not reveal a clear deleterious effect of hormone therapy on blood pressure. The effect of oral therapy was essentially neutral in large trials conducted in normotensive women with blood pressure as primary outcome. Results from all other trials had several limitations. Oral therapy had a neutral effect on blood pressure in hypertensive women. Transdermal estrogen and micronized progesterone had a beneficial effect on blood pressure in normotensive women and, at most, a neutral effect on hypertensive women. In general, tibolone and raloxifene had a neutral effect on blood pressure in both hypertensive and normotensive women. Large randomized trials are needed to assess the effect of oral hormone therapy on blood pressure as a primary outcome in hypertensive women and the effect of transdermal preparations on both normotensive and hypertensive women. Transdermal preparations would be the preferred mode of therapy for hypertensive women, in view of their favorable physiologic and clinical profiles. The decision regarding the use of hormone therapy should be individualized, and blood pressure should be monitored during the course of treatment.

  6. Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... individuals. American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology. 2016;311:H1024. Carlson DJ, et al. Isometric exercise training for blood pressure management: A systematic review ...

  7. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  8. Endurance training in mild hypertension - effects on ambulatory blood pressure and neural circulatory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narkiewicz; Somers

    1997-10-01

    This review examines the effects of a single bout of exercise and of endurance training on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Possible autonomic mechanisms that mediate these changes in blood pressure are reviewed briefly. Blood pressure rises during exercise. During the second half hour after exercise blood pressure is lower. This p;ost-exercise reduction in blood pressure is associated with a decrease in muscle sympathetic nerve activity, an increase in baroreflex gain and a reduction in the level of blood pressure (set point) at which baroreflex activation occurs. The post-exercise fall in blood pressure appears to be limited to several hours and is not likely to explain any chronic reduction in blood pressure from endurance training. Endurance training elicits modest (approximately 4-5 mmHg) reductions in blood pressure. Because of the intrinsic variability of blood pressure, the decreases in blood pressure after endurance training is evident, especially when multiple measurements of blood pressure are obtained. Studies using 24 h blood pressure measurements suggest that, although endurance training lowers daytime blood pressure, blood pressure during sleep remains unchanged. The mechanism underlying the reduction in blood pressure in endurance training is not known. Although physical fitness is known to attenuate the sympathetic response to acute exercise, whether resting sympathetic drive is decreased with endurance training remains controversial. The slowing of heart rate that accompanies endurance training is also associated with an increase in variability of heart rate. The slower heart rate, increased variability of heart rate and lower blood pressure after endurance training are accompanied by an increase in baroreflex sensitivity. Even though the antihypertensive effect of endurance training is modest, the favourable effects of physical fitness on other risk factors for cardiovascular disease make exercise training an important approach in

  9. Ambulatory blood pressure profiles in familial dysautonomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Lior; Bar-Aluma, Bat-El; Krauthammer, Alex; Efrati, Ori; Sharabi, Yehonatan

    2018-02-12

    Familial dysautonomia (FD) is a rare genetic disease that involves extreme blood pressure fluctuations secondary to afferent baroreflex failure. The diurnal blood pressure profile, including the average, variability, and day-night difference, may have implications for long-term end organ damage. The purpose of this study was to describe the circadian pattern of blood pressure in the FD population and relationships with renal and pulmonary function, use of medications, and overall disability. We analyzed 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring recordings in 22 patients with FD. Information about medications, disease severity, renal function (estimated glomerular filtration, eGFR), pulmonary function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s, FEV1) and an index of blood pressure variability (standard deviation of systolic pressure) were analyzed. The mean (± SEM) 24-h blood pressure was 115 ± 5.6/72 ± 2.0 mmHg. The diurnal blood pressure variability was high (daytime systolic pressure standard deviation 22.4 ± 1.5 mmHg, nighttime 17.2 ± 1.6), with a high frequency of a non-dipping pattern (16 patients, 73%). eGFR, use of medications, FEV1, and disability scores were unrelated to the degree of blood pressure variability or to dipping status. This FD cohort had normal average 24-h blood pressure, fluctuating blood pressure, and a high frequency of non-dippers. Although there was evidence of renal dysfunction based on eGFR and proteinuria, the ABPM profile was unrelated to the measures of end organ dysfunction or to reported disability.

  10. Cycling above rather than below lactate threshold is more effective for nitric oxide release and post-exercise blood pressure reduction in individuals with type-2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Yukio Asano

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this study were to analyze and compare the effects of exercise performed in different intensities, above and below lactate threshold (LT on post-exercise blood pressure (BP and nitric oxide (NO responses in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D. For this, 11 T2D underwent the following sessions: 1 control session; 2 20-min of moderate cycling (80% LT; and 3 20-min of high intensity cycling (120%LT on a cycle ergometer. Plasma NO and BP measurements were carried out at rest and at 15 and 45 min of post-sessions. When compared to rest, only the exercise session performed at 120%LT elicited an increase of NO (from 7.2 to 9.5 µM, p<0.05, as well as a decrease in systolic BP (from 126.6±7.9 to 118.7±3.9 mmHg, p<0.05 during the post-exercise period. In conclusion, the results suggest that NO release and post-exercise BP decrease are intensity-dependent for individuals with T2D.

  11. Health economic potential of early nutrition programming: a model calculation of long-term reduction in blood pressure and related morbidity costs by use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid-supplemented formula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, Niels; Grunert, Philipp; von Kries, Rüdiger; Koletzko, Berthold

    2011-12-01

    The reported effect sizes of early nutrition programming on long-term health outcomes are often small, and it has been questioned whether early interventions would be worthwhile in enhancing public health. We explored the possible health economic consequences of early nutrition programming by performing a model calculation, based on the only published study currently available for analysis, to evaluate the effects of supplementing infant formula with long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs) on lowering blood pressure and lowering the risk of hypertension-related diseases in later life. The costs and health effects of LC-PUFA-enriched and standard infant formulas were compared by using a Markov model, including all relevant direct and indirect costs based on German statistics. We assessed the effect size of blood pressure reduction from LC-PUFA-supplemented formula, the long-term persistence of the effect, and the effect of lowered blood pressure on hypertension-related morbidity. The cost-effectiveness analysis showed an increased life expectancy of 1.2 quality-adjusted life-years and an incremental cost-effectiveness ratio of -630 Euros (discounted to present value) for the LC-PUFA formula in comparison with standard formula. LC-PUFA nutrition was the superior strategy even when the blood pressure-lowering effect was reduced to the lower 95% CI. Breastfeeding is the recommended feeding practice, but infants who are not breastfed should receive an appropriate infant formula. Following this model calculation, LC-PUFA supplementation of infant formula represents an economically worthwhile prevention strategy, based on the costs derived from hypertension-linked diseases in later life. However, because our analysis was based on a single randomized controlled trial, further studies are required to verify the validity of this thesis.

  12. Side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steen, M.S. van der; Lenders, J.W.M.; Thien, Th.

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the experiences and complaints of patients who underwent 24 h blood pressure monitoring. METHODS: Two groups of hypertensive patients of a tertiary outpatient clinic were asked to fill in a nine-item questionnaire about the side effects of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring

  13. Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More Managing Stress to Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 The importance of stress ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  14. Palpatory method of measuring diastolic blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Sahu

    2010-01-01

    Conclusion: The palpatory method would be very useful where frequent blood pressure measurement are being done manually like in wards, in busy OPD, patient on treadmill and also whenever stethoscope is not available. The blood pressure can be measured in noisy environment too.

  15. Sodium-blood pressure interrelationship in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franx, A; Steegers, E A; de Boo, T; Thien, T; Merkus, J M

    1999-03-01

    In non-pregnant individuals, a strong positive association of sodium intake with blood pressure has been established, but the relationship between sodium intake and blood pressure in human pregnancy remains obscure up to date. The aim of this prospective observational cohort study was to assess the relationship between urinary sodium excretion (as a measure for intake) and blood pressure from the early second trimester onwards throughout pregnancy. The study group consisted of 667 low-risk women with singleton pregnancies, of whom 350 were nulliparous and 317 parous. Blood pressure was measured in a standardised fashion at predetermined intervals from the first antenatal visit prior to 16 weeks gestation until delivery. Urinary sodium excretion was measured in 24-h urine collections on at least four occasions between 16 and 38 weeks gestation. Main outcome measures were the coefficients of correlation between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure during six different gestational epochs. No significant correlations were found between changes in urinary sodium output and changes in blood pressure. Correlation coefficients were alike for nulliparous and parous women and for different gestational intervals. Prior to 32 weeks gestation, no differences were observed in sodium excretion between women who remained normotensive and those who developed gestational hypertension. These results suggest that changes in sodium intake are not associated with blood pressure changes in low-risk pregnant women. Blood pressure increases as observed in the second half of normotensive and hypertensive pregnancies are unlikely to be caused by changes in renal sodium handling.

  16. Dietary protein and blood pressure : epidemiological studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.

    2012-01-01


    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. Diet and lifestyle have a substantial impact on blood pressure, but the role of protein intake is not yet clear. This thesis focuses on total dietary protein, types of protein (i.e. plant and

  17. Blood pressure in ICSI-conceived adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belva, F.; Roelants, M.; de Schepper, J.; Roseboom, T. J.; Bonduelle, M.; Devroey, P.; Painter, R. C.

    2012-01-01

    Do young adolescents conceived by ICSI display a higher blood pressure than spontaneously conceived (SC) adolescents? In our study, 14-year-old male and female ICSI teenagers were not found to have increased blood pressure at rest. Only limited data are available regarding the cardiovascular risk of

  18. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    Defective blood pressure responses to standing, exercise and epinephrine infusions have been demonstrated in diabetic patients with autonomic neuropathy. The circulatory mechanisms underlying blood pressure responses to exercise and standing up in these patients are well characterized: In both...... which may contribute to exercise hypotension in these patients. During hypoglycemia, blood pressure regulation seems intact in patients with autonomic neuropathy. This is probably due to release of substantial amounts of catecholamines during these experiments. During epinephrine infusions a substantial...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  19. Title: variations and sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure is the pressure exerted by circulating blood upon the walls of blood vessels. Accuracy in blood pressure meters is of essence to health, especially in blood pressure monitoring and treatment. The aim of this research was to compare the readings and the sensitivities of some blood pressure monitors in use ...

  20. Nutritional interventions and blood pressure : role of specific micronutrients and other food components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mierlo, van L.A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Background
    Elevated blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD). Modest reductions in blood pressure at the population level, as can be achieved by dietary and lifestyle changes, have a large impact on the burden of CVD. Blood pressure is regulated by several

  1. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Methods...... and results: A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events....... Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0...

  2. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  3. Blood pressure as a therapeutic target in stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armario, Pedro; de la Sierra, Alejandro

    2009-01-01

    Stroke, as a clinical manifestation of the cardiovascular diseases, is one of the leading causes of death and disability in both developed and developing countries. Hypertension is by far, the most important risk factor for stroke. Epidemiological data indicate that the risk of stroke increases with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure elevation, from levels of 115/75 mmHg. It is also evident that most adults worldwide have values above these limits, thus emphasizing the importance of blood pressure as a risk factor for stroke. Clinical trials of antihypertensive treatment, both in studies that have compared active drugs against placebo or in those comparing different types of drugs have clearly demonstrated a protective effect of blood pressure reduction in the prevention of stroke. The degree of protection is directly related to blood pressure reduction and, the lower the level, the better the prognosis. Although data on secondary stroke prevention are scarcer, studies also seem to indicate that lowering blood pressure with antihypertensive treatment protects against stroke recurrence. At the present moment there is still uncertainty on 2 different aspects regarding the relationship between antihypertensive treatment and stroke. First, the blood pressure management during acute stroke has not adequately investigated in clinical trials. Second, the possibility of a protective role of specific types of antihypertensive drugs beyond blood pressure reduction is a matter of debate. Independently of these unresolved issues, prevention of hypertension development by lifestyle changes and adequate treatment and control to the hypertensive population will be a very effective measure in reducing stroke incidence, stroke recurrence, and stroke mortality.

  4. Comparison of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and office blood pressure measurements in obese children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renda, Rahime

    2018-04-01

    Obesity in adults has been related to hypertension and abnormal nocturnal dipping of blood pressure, which are associated with poor cardiovascular and renal outcomes. Here, we aimed to resolve the relationship between the degree of obesity, the severity of hypertension and dipping status on ambulatory blood pressure in obese children. A total 72 patients with primary obesity aged 7 to 18 years (mean: 13.48 ± 3.25) were selected. Patients were divided into three groups based on body mass index (BMİ) Z-score. Diagnosis and staging of ambulatory hypertension based on 24-h blood pressure measurements, obtained from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Based on our ambulatory blood pressure data, 35 patients (48.6%) had hypertension, 7 (20%) had ambulatory prehypertension, 21 (60%) had hypertension, and 7 patients (20%) had severe ambulatory hypertension. There was a significant relationship between severity of hypertension and the degree of obesity (p lood pressure results and loads were similar between groups. Diastolic and mean arterial blood pressure levels during the night, diastolic blood pressure loads, and heart rate during the day were significantly higher in Group 3 (p lood pressure at night, mean arterial pressure at night, diastolic blood pressure loads and heart rate at day. Increase in BMI Z-score does not a significant impact on daytime blood pressure and nocturnal dipping status.

  5. Clinical study on influences of enteric coated aspirin on blood pressure and blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, A-L; Chen, W-W; Huang, W-J

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of oral administration of enteric coated aspirin (ASA) on blood pressure and blood pressure variability of hypertension patients before sleep. We observed 150 hypertension cases, classified as Grade 1-2, from September 2006 to March 2008. They are divided into a control group with 30 cases, ASA I group with 60 cases and ASA II group with 60 cases randomly. Subjects in the control group had proper diets, were losing weight, exercising and maintaining a healthy mentality and were taking 30 mg Adalat orally once a day. Based on the treatment of control group, patients in ASA I group were administered 0.1 g Bayaspirin (produced by Bayer Company) at drought in the morning. Also, based on the treatment of control group, patients in ASA II group were administered 0.1 g Bayaspirin at draught before sleep. The course of treatment is 3 months and then after the treatment, decreasing blood pressure and blood pressure variability conditions in three groups will be compared. Through the comparison of ASA II group with the control group, they have differences in terms of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), decreasing range of blood pressure and blood pressure variability (p sleep has synergistic effects on decreasing blood pressure of hypertension patients and improving blood pressure variability.

  6. Reducing maternal mortality: Systolic blood pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2006-03-21

    Mar 21, 2006 ... While deaths due to fluid overload have ... of better fluid balance management, we have made .... systolic blood pressure plays a significant role in the .... one looks at the work of Martin et al.5 ... Promoting Healthy Life.

  7. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gynecologists f AQ FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS FAQ034 PREGNANCY Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy • What is ... is chronic hypertension during pregnancy managed? • What is preeclampsia? • When does preeclampsia occur? • What causes preeclampsia? • What ...

  8. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  9. Relative and cumulative effects of lipid and blood pressure control in the Stroke Prevention by Aggressive Reduction in Cholesterol Levels trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amarenco, Pierre; Goldstein, Larry B; Messig, Michael

    2009-01-01

    randomized 4731 patients with recent stroke or transient ischemic attack and no known coronary heart disease to atorvastatin 80 mg per day or placebo. RESULTS: After 4.9 years, at each level of LDL-C reduction, subjects with HDL-C value above the median or systolic BP below the median had greater reductions...

  10. Goat Meat Does Not Cause Increased Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan/salt group (GY was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (p<0.01 than the CP and GM groups despite the fact that their diet consumption levels were similar. The body weight of animals in the CP, GM, and GS groups was similar while the animals in the GY group were significantly smaller (p<0.01. The blood pressure in the GM group was virtually the same as the CP group throughout the course of the experiment. In contrast, while the blood pressure of the animals in the GS and GY group from 15 to 19 weeks old was the same as the CP group, their blood pressures were significantly higher (p<0.01 after 20 weeks of age. The GY group tended to have lower blood pressure than the GS group. In experiment 2, in order to clarify whether or not the increase in blood pressure in the GS group and the GY group in experiment 1 was caused by an excessive intake of salt, the effects on blood pressure of a reduction of salt in diet were investigated. When amount of salt in the diet of the GS and GY group was reduced from 4% to 0.3%, the animal

  11. Influence of short-term blood pressure variability on blood pressure determinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, W. J.; van Goudoever, J.; van Montfrans, G. A.; Wesseling, K. H.

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of blood pressure variability on Riva Rocci Korotkoff blood pressure determinations, we studied the intra-arterial pressure during Riva Rocci Korotkoff determinations in 25 patients. In 50 measurements with a cuff deflation rate of 2.5 mm Hg/sec, the systolic intra-arterial

  12. Cardiac contractility, central haemodynamics and blood pressure regulation during semistarvation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stokholm, K H; Breum, L; Astrup, A

    1991-01-01

    pressure (BP) declined. The fall in BP was caused by the reduction in cardiac output as the total peripheral resistance was unchanged. Finally, the decline in total blood volume was not significant. These findings together with a reduction in heart rate indicated that a reduced sympathetic tone via......Eight obese patients were studied before and after 2 weeks of treatment by a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD). Cardiac output and central blood volume (pulmonary blood volume and left atrial volume) were determined by indicator dilution (125I-albumin) and radionuclide angiocardiography (first pass...... and equilibrium technique by [99Tcm]red blood cells). Cardiac output decreased concomitantly with the reduction in oxygen uptake as the calculated systemic arteriovenous difference of oxygen was unaltered. There were no significant decreases in left ventricular contractility indices, i.e. the ejection fraction...

  13. Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate evaluation schema (BSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lassere Marissa N

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood pressure is considered to be a leading example of a valid surrogate endpoint. The aims of this study were to (i formally evaluate systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction as a surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention and (ii determine what blood pressure reduction would predict a stroke benefit. Methods We identified randomised trials of at least six months duration comparing any pharmacologic anti-hypertensive treatment to placebo or no treatment, and reporting baseline blood pressure, on-trial blood pressure, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. Trials with fewer than five strokes in at least one arm were excluded. Errors-in-variables weighted least squares regression modelled the reduction in stroke as a function of systolic blood pressure reduction and diastolic blood pressure reduction respectively. The lower 95% prediction band was used to determine the minimum systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure difference, the surrogate threshold effect (STE, below which there would be no predicted stroke benefit. The STE was used to generate the surrogate threshold effect proportion (STEP, a surrogacy metric, which with the R-squared trial-level association was used to evaluate blood pressure as a surrogate endpoint for stroke using the Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema (BSES3. Results In 18 qualifying trials representing all pharmacologic drug classes of antihypertensives, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, the surrogate threshold effect for a stroke benefit was 7.1 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 2.4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The trial-level association was 0.41 and 0.64 and the STEP was 66% and 78% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. The STE and STEP were more robust to measurement error in the independent variable than R-squared trial-level associations. Using the BSES3, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, systolic blood pressure was a B + grade and

  14. Is blood pressure reduction a valid surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention? an analysis incorporating a systematic review of randomised controlled trials, a by-trial weighted errors-in-variables regression, the surrogate threshold effect (STE) and the biomarker-surrogacy (BioSurrogate) evaluation schema (BSES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Blood pressure is considered to be a leading example of a valid surrogate endpoint. The aims of this study were to (i) formally evaluate systolic and diastolic blood pressure reduction as a surrogate endpoint for stroke prevention and (ii) determine what blood pressure reduction would predict a stroke benefit. Methods We identified randomised trials of at least six months duration comparing any pharmacologic anti-hypertensive treatment to placebo or no treatment, and reporting baseline blood pressure, on-trial blood pressure, and fatal and non-fatal stroke. Trials with fewer than five strokes in at least one arm were excluded. Errors-in-variables weighted least squares regression modelled the reduction in stroke as a function of systolic blood pressure reduction and diastolic blood pressure reduction respectively. The lower 95% prediction band was used to determine the minimum systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure difference, the surrogate threshold effect (STE), below which there would be no predicted stroke benefit. The STE was used to generate the surrogate threshold effect proportion (STEP), a surrogacy metric, which with the R-squared trial-level association was used to evaluate blood pressure as a surrogate endpoint for stroke using the Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema (BSES3). Results In 18 qualifying trials representing all pharmacologic drug classes of antihypertensives, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, the surrogate threshold effect for a stroke benefit was 7.1 mmHg for systolic blood pressure and 2.4 mmHg for diastolic blood pressure. The trial-level association was 0.41 and 0.64 and the STEP was 66% and 78% for systolic and diastolic blood pressure respectively. The STE and STEP were more robust to measurement error in the independent variable than R-squared trial-level associations. Using the BSES3, assuming a reliability coefficient of 0.9, systolic blood pressure was a B + grade and diastolic blood pressure

  15. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  16. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with blood pressure drugs? Is it true that calcium supplements may interact with blood pressure medications? Answers ... G. Sheps, M.D. Yes. In large amounts, calcium supplements may interact with some blood pressure medications. ...

  17. Blood pressure control to prevent decline in cognition after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ihle-Hansen H

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Hege Ihle-Hansen,1 Bente Thommessen,2 Morten W Fagerland,3 Anne R Øksengård,4 Torgeir B Wyller,5 Knut Engedal,6 Brynjar Fure7 1Department of Internal Medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 2Department of Neurology, Akershus University Hospital, Lørenskog, Norway; 3Oslo Centre for Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Research Support Services, Oslo University Hospital, Norway; 4Department of Internal medicine, Vestre Viken Hospital Trust, Bærum Hospital, Bærum, Norway; 5Department of Geriatric Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 6Norwegian Centre for Dementia Research, Oslo University Hospital, Oslo, Norway; 7Norwegian Knowledge Centre for the Health Services, Oslo, Norway Background: Treatment of hypertension post-stroke preserves cognition through prevention of recurrent stroke, but it is not clear whether it prevents cognitive decline through other mechanisms. We aimed to describe changes in blood pressure from baseline to 1 year post-stroke and to evaluate the association between achieved blood pressure targets and cognitive function, mild cognitive impairment (MCI, and dementia.Methods: We included patients with first-ever stroke, and defined achieved blood pressure goals as systolic blood pressure (SBP in the categories ≤125 mmHg, ≤140 mmHg, and ≤160 mmHg, SBP reduction of ≥10 mmHg, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP reduction of ≥5 mmHg. The main outcome variables were cognitive assessments 1 year post stroke. Secondary outcomes were diagnoses of MCI or dementia.Results: Forty-one of 166 patients (25% reached SBP ≤125 mmHg after 1 year, 92/166 (55% reached SBP ≤140 mmHg, and 150/166 (90% reached SBP ≤160 mmHg. SBP was reduced by ≥10 mmHg in 44/150 (29% and DBP by ≥5 mmHg in 57/150 (38%. We did not find any statistically significant associations between cognitive test performances and different blood pressure goals (P=0.070–1.0. Nor was there any significant association

  18. Assessing pharmacy students' ability to accurately measure blood pressure using a blood pressure simulator arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottenberg, Michelle M; Bryant, Ginelle A; Haack, Sally L; North, Andrew M

    2013-06-12

    To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; pdifference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign.

  19. Assessing Pharmacy Students’ Ability to Accurately Measure Blood Pressure Using a Blood Pressure Simulator Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Ginelle A.; Haack, Sally L.; North, Andrew M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective. To compare student accuracy in measuring normal and high blood pressures using a simulator arm. Methods. In this prospective, single-blind, study involving third-year pharmacy students, simulator arms were programmed with prespecified normal and high blood pressures. Students measured preset normal and high diastolic and systolic blood pressure using a crossover design. Results. One hundred sixteen students completed both blood pressure measurements. There was a significant difference between the accuracy of high systolic blood pressure (HSBP) measurement and normal systolic blood pressure (NSBP) measurement (mean HSBP difference 8.4 ± 10.9 mmHg vs NSBP 3.6 ± 6.4 mmHg; pdifference between the accuracy of high diastolic blood pressure (HDBP) measurement and normal diastolic blood pressure (NDBP) measurement (mean HDBP difference 6.8 ± 9.6 mmHg vs. mean NDBP difference 4.6 ± 4.5 mmHg; p=0.089). Conclusions. Pharmacy students may need additional instruction and experience with taking high blood pressure measurements to ensure they are able to accurately assess this important vital sign. PMID:23788809

  20. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  1. Regression of electrocardiographic left ventricular hypertrophy or strain is associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in hypertensive patients independent of blood pressure reduction - A LIFE review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Casper N; Devereux, Richard B; Okin, Peter M

    2014-01-01

    Cornell product criteria, Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria and electrocardiographic (ECG) strain (secondary ST-T abnormalities) are markers for left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and adverse prognosis in population studies. However, the relationship of regression of ECG LVH and strain during antihypertensive therapy to cardiovascular (CV) risk was unclear before the Losartan Intervention for Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. We reviewed findings on ECG LVH regression and strain over time in 9193 hypertensive patients with ECG LVH at baseline enrolled in the LIFE study. The composite endpoint of CV death, nonfatal MI, or stroke occurred in 1096 patients during 4.8±0.9years follow-up. In Cox multivariable models adjusting for randomized treatment, known risk factors including in-treatment blood pressure, and for severity ECG LVH by Cornell product and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, baseline ECG strain was associated with a 33% higher risk of the LIFE composite endpoint (HR. 1.33, 95% CI [1.11-1.59]). Development of new ECG strain between baseline and year-1 was associated with a 2-fold increased risk of the composite endpoint (HR. 2.05, 95% CI [1.51-2.78]), whereas the risk associated with regression or persistence of ECG strain was attenuated and no longer statistically significant (both p>0.05). After controlling for treatment with losartan or atenolol, for baseline Framingham risk score, Cornell product, and Sokolow-Lyon voltage, and for baseline and in-treatment systolic and diastolic blood pressure, 1 standard deviation (SD) lower in-treatment Cornell product was associated with a 14.5% decrease in the composite endpoint (HR. 0.86, 95% CI [0.82-0.90]). In a parallel analysis, 1 SD lower in-treatment Sokolow-Lyon voltage was associated with a 16.6% decrease in the composite endpoint (HR. 0.83, 95% CI [0.78-0.88]). The LIFE study shows that evaluation of both baseline and in-study ECG LVH defined by Cornell product criteria, Sokolow-Lyon voltage criteria or

  2. Circadian rhythm of arterial blood pressure and albuminuria in diabetic nephropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, H P; Rossing, P; Tarnow, L

    1996-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the diurnal relationship between arterial blood pressure and albuminuria, and some potential mechanisms responsible for impaired nocturnal blood pressure reduction (non-dippers, groups I and II) in diabetic nephropathy (DN). Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood p...

  3. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  4. Insight of Human Stroke from blood flow and blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhi; Ivanov, Plamen Ch.; Hu, Kun; Stanley, H. Eugene

    2003-03-01

    Stroke is is one of the leading cause of death and disability in the world. It is well believed that stroke is caused by the disturbance of cerebrovascular autoregulation. We investigate the blood flow on the left and right middle cerebral artery and beat-to-beat blood pressure simultaneously measured from the finger, for both subjects with stroke and healthy subjects. Synchronization technique is used to distinguish the difference between these two groups.

  5. [Health and exercise: effects of exercise on high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Nanri, H; Himeno, E

    1993-09-01

    Many factors, such as genetic, psychological, environmental, and socioeconomical factors, influence the health of individuals. Recently behavioral risks which cause preventable chronic diseases or premature death have been increasing. These risk factors are mainly due to living habits, such as over-eating, less exercise and psychological stress. Physical activity or fitness is reported to be inversely associated with morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases, such as cardiovascular diseases diabetes mellitus, cancer and so on. Hypertension has also been reported to be associated with low physical fitness in cross-sectional studies. We have so far reported a significant blood pressure reduction in mild hypertensive patients who completed mild intensity exercise training in well controlled studies. Exercise seemed to modify the multiple factors that might participate in raising and maintaining high blood pressure. The mechanisms of lowering blood pressure by exercise training are mainly due to a depletion of blood volume or the reduction of both cardiac output and the sympathetic tone. They were supported by the evidence of increased levels of prostaglandin E, dopamine, taurine, and decreased levels of plasma norepinephrine and endogenous ouavain-like substance. In this article, we have reviewed the physiological and biochemical roles of exercise, the effects of exercise on high blood pressure, and the hypotensive mechanism of mild aerobic exercise hypertensive patients.

  6. [Central blood pressure and vascular damage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Lahiguera, Francisco; Rodilla, Enrique; Costa, José Antonio; Pascual, José María

    2015-07-20

    The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between central blood pressure and vascular damage. This cross-sectional study involved 393 never treated hypertensive patients (166 women). Clinical blood pressure (BP), 24h blood pressure (BP24h) and central blood pressure (CBP) were measured. Vascular organ damage (VOD) was assessed by calculating the albumin/creatinine ratio (ACR), wave pulse pressure velocity and echocardiographic left ventricular mass index (LVMI). Patients with VOD had higher values of BP, BP24h, and CBP than patients without ACR. When comparing several systolic BP, systolic BP24h had a higher linear correlation with CBP (Z Steiger test: 2.26; P=.02) and LVMI (Z Steiger test: 3.23; P=.01) than PAC. In a multiple regression analysis corrected by age, sex and metabolic syndrome, all pressures were related with VOD but systolic BP24h showed the highest correlation. In a logistic regression analysis, having the highest tercile of systolic BP24h was the stronger predictor of VOD (multivariate odds ratio: 3.4; CI 95%: 2.5-5.5, P=.001). CBP does not have more correlation with VOD than other measurements of peripheral BP. Systolic BP24h is the BP measurement that best predicts VOD. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of nattokinase on blood pressure: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji Young; Gum, Si Nae; Paik, Jean Kyung; Lim, Hyo Hee; Kim, Kyong-Chol; Ogasawara, Kazuya; Inoue, Kenichi; Park, Sungha; Jang, Yangsoo; Lee, Jong Ho

    2008-08-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of nattokinase supplementation on blood pressure in subjects with pre-hypertension or stage 1 hypertension. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, 86 participants ranging from 20 to 80 years of age with an initial untreated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of 130 to 159 mmHg received nattokinase (2,000 FU/capsule) or a placebo capsule for 8 weeks. Seventy-three subjects completed the protocol. Compared with the control group, the net changes in SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were -5.55 mmHg (95% confidence interval [CI], -10.5 to -0.57 mmHg; pnattokinase group compared with the control group (pnattokinase supplementation resulted in a reduction in SBP and DBP. These findings suggest that increased intake of nattokinase may play an important role in preventing and treating hypertension.

  8. Letter to editor: Blood pressure, hypertension and lead exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Yi; Staessen, Jan A

    2018-02-19

    A significant association of office diastolic blood pressure with low-level blood lead exposure was reported in a Brazilian adult population. However, caution should be taken to interpret these results. The multivariable-adjusted association with blood pressure was positive for diastolic blood pressure, but inverse for systolic blood pressure. The association sizes were infinitesimal without clinical relevance. The outcome measures, i.e. blood pressure and the prevalence of hypertension were analysed across categories of the blood lead distribution - not in relation to blood lead as continuous variable. Blood pressure was the average of two oscillometric office readings, whereas ambulatory monitoring is the state-of-the-art.

  9. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or

  10. The optimal scheme of self blood pressure measurement as determined from ambulatory blood pressure recordings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Thien, Theo; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    Objective To determine how many self-measurements of blood pressure (BP) should be taken at home in order to obtain a reliable estimate of a patient's BP. Design Participants performed self blood pressure measurement (SBPM) for 7 days (triplicate morning and evening readings). In all of them, office

  11. [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palade, D; Iliescu, D; Cotârleţ, Laura; Pandele, G I

    2010-01-01

    Comparison of blood pressure values measured by two methods. 94 hypertensive patients (66 women and 28 men in relation to 2.36/1) were assessed classically and also by ABPM. For statistic evaluation we have used t - Student test, chi2 test, Pearson correlation coefficient and variation coefficient (cv%). It shows significant differences between mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained by the 2 methods. ABPM measured values are more accurate compared to clinic, bringing also information on pattern hypertensive therapy.

  12. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies...... of conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation...

  13. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  14. A novel approach to office blood pressure measurement: 30-minute office blood pressure vs daytime ambulatory blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wel, M.C. van der; Buunk, I.E.; Weel, C. van; Thien, Th.; Bakx, J.C.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: Current office blood pressure measurement (OBPM) is often not executed according to guidelines and cannot prevent the white-coat effect. Serial, automated, oscillometric OBPM has the potential to overcome both these problems. We therefore developed a 30-minute OBPM method that we compared

  15. Radioisotope method for assessing skin blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarkowska, A.; Misiunia, P.; Woytowicz, A.; Olewinski, T.

    1979-01-01

    A method of measuring the skin blood pressure (SBP) evolved by Holstein and Lassen is described. The method is based on determination of the force of pressure causing blockade of Na 131 I clearance from the site of its intradermal injection. Using this method it was found that in the lower extremities in healthy subjects the SBP approached the diastolic pressure measured by the conventional method in the brachial artery. On the other hand in patients with obliterative arteriosclerosis and in Buerger's disease the SBP was considerably lower than the diastolic arterial pressure. The authors think that the method gives a good insight into the state of blood supply to the extremities in healthy subjects and in peripheral vascular failure. (author)

  16. Effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Alinezhad-Namaghi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims and fasting in this month is the rule for any healthy matured person. Nutritional and behavioral changes occurred during Ramadan fasting may lead to several physiological change, such as blood pressure (2. Studies evaluated the effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients, are scarce and reported inadequate results. In this paper a systematic review was performed to accumulate the results of published literature designed to evaluate blood pressure changes in hypertensive patients due to Ramadan fasting. All prospective, English studies which evaluated the effects of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients and measured systolic and diastolic blood pressure twice at least ( before Ramadan and during last week of Ramadan or after Ramadan fasting were included in systematic review . Five studies reported the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure in hypertensive patients in full text. Although significant reduction in systolic blood pressure during Ramadan fasting were seen in 3 studies (3-5, other 3 studies reported no significant difference between systolic blood pressure before and after Ramadan fasting (6, 7. Among 6 studies that reviewed in this paper, 4 studies reported no significant changes in diastolic blood pressure (4, 6, 7. While 2 other studies reported significant reduction in systolic blood pressure after Ramadan fasting (3, 5. This systematic review suggested that Ramadan fasting can be safe in treated essential hypertensive patients with continuation of previous medications. Also it can improve systolic and diastolic blood pressures.

  17. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood pressure...

  18. Blood pressure control among type 2 diabetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Shehri, Ahmed M.

    2008-01-01

    Objective was to assess blood pressure BP control in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2 DM type treated in primary health care. A cross-sectional study was conducted in primary health care at King Fahd Military Complex Hospital in Dhahran, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, between August 2003 and February 2004, to assess blood control in type 2 diabetics. A sample of 403 medical records of type 2 diabetic patients was selected using systematic random sampling after ordering the medical record numbers. The data were collected through the pre-coded checklist. Hypertension was found in 57.8% of diabetic patients with no statistically significant difference between males and females. The mean age of diabetic patients was significantly highly in hypertensive than non-hypertensive p=0.001. The mean duration of hypertension was significantly higher in females p=0.02. There were only 14.2% of hypertensive diabetic patients in whom blood pressure was controlled. Poor control was significantly associated with obesity and a high rate of complications. Blood pressure control correlated positively and significantly with the age of patients and negatively with duration of diabetes and hypertension. The most commonly prescribed antihypertensive were angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors in 29.3%, followed by angiotensin receptors blockers in 24.1%, and the least prescribed drug was thiazide diuretic. Blood pressure in diabetic patients needs to be given particular attention from all health care professionals, especially primary care family physicians, who should follow the new guideline for better control of blood pressure, and fewer complications. Patient's awareness should be increased, through continuous health education with different modalities. (author)

  19. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  20. Stress and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stress and high blood pressure: What's the connection? Stress and long-term high blood pressure may not be linked, but taking steps to reduce your stress can improve your general health, including your blood ...

  1. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  2. Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play

  3. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  4. Casual blood pressure among Tanzanian undergraduate students ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite of the recommendations to use population specific blood pressure (BP) references which consider time, ethnicity and environmental factors, there is limited information regarding BP profile among Tanzanians. This cross sectional study was done to determine casual BP profile among healthy volunteer ...

  5. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    hepatitis A antibody, and human immunodeficiency virus antibody), urine tests (drug screen I-abuse, marijuana, and a pregnancy test), and a 12-lead... sodium chloride; 250 mL over 2.5 minutes) were administered if systolic BP < 85 mmHg. Blood pressure, other hemodynamics, UO, and total amount of

  6. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE

  7. Association between blood Pressure, waist circumference ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Blood pressure (BP) is one of the main cardiovascular risk indicators, but studies on its relationship with waist circumference, triglycerides and cholesterol are rare in low and middle income countries and even non-existent in some areas like the north of Cameroon. The aim of our study was to determine the ...

  8. Hybrid optical unobtrusive blood pressure measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, G.; Shan, C.; Kirenko, I.; Long, X.; Aarts, R.M.

    2017-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is critical in diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Some previous studies have proved that BP can be estimated by pulse transit time (PTT) calculated by a pair of photoplethysmography (PPG) signals at two body sites. Currently, contact PPG (cPPG) and

  9. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  10. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... about Bayer Consumer Health. HBP Resources Risk Calculator Animation Library Track Your Blood Pressure: Print (PDF) | Online ... Pressure Tracker Popular Articles 1 Understanding Blood Pressure Readings 2 Sodium and Salt 3 Heart Attack Symptoms ...

  11. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  12. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-11-21

    To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0.01% (-0.3%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.1% (-1.1%; 0.5%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.65% (0.22-1.08%) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.33% (0.83-1.84%) for cardiovascular events. Comparing daytime and night-time blood pressure, the median difference in 10-year risks was 0.002% (-0.1%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.01% (-0.5%; 0.2%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC was 0.10% (-0.08 to 0.29%) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.15% (-0.06 to 0.35%) for cardiovascular events. Ten-year predictions obtained from ambulatory blood pressure are similar to predictions from office blood pressure. Night-time blood pressure does not improve 10-year predictions obtained from daytime measurements. For an otherwise healthy population sufficient prognostic accuracy of cardiovascular risks can be achieved with office blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  13. Studies Comparing Ambulatory Blood Pressure and Home Blood Pressure on Cardiovascular Disease and Mortality Outcomes: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimbo, Daichi; Abdalla, Marwah; Falzon, Louise; Townsend, Raymond R.; Muntner, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is more commonly recommended for assessing out-of-clinic blood pressure than home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM). We conducted a systematic review to examine whether ABPM or HBPM is more strongly associated with cardiovascular disease events and/or mortality. Of 1,007 abstracts published through July 20, 2015, nine articles, reporting results from seven cohorts, were identified. After adjustment for blood pressure on HBPM, blood pressure on ABPM was associated with an increased risk of outcomes in two of four cohorts for systolic blood pressure and two of three cohorts for diastolic blood pressure. After adjustment for blood pressure on ABPM, systolic blood pressure on HBPM was associated with outcomes in zero of three cohorts; an association was present in one of two cohorts for diastolic blood pressure on HBPM. There is a lack of strong empiric evidence supporting ABPM or HBPM over the other approach for predicting cardiovascular events or mortality. PMID:26822864

  14. Blood pressure changes in dogs with babesiosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.S. Jacobson

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available Systemic arterial blood pressures were measured in 30 dogs with acute babesiosis, 10 each with mild uncomplicated, severe uncomplicated and complicated disease. Ten healthy dogs were used as controls. Hypotension was defined as more than 3 standard deviations below the control mean. Normal mean pressures (±SD were: systolic arterial pressure 151 (±11 mm Hg, diastolic arterial pressure 89 (±8 mm Hg and mean arterial pressure 107 (±10 mmHg. Hypotension was the most frequent abnormality, and increased strikingly in incidence as disease severity increased, with 5/10 dogs in the complicated group being hypotensive for systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures, compared with 2/10 in the severe uncomplicated group and 0/10 in the mild uncomplicated group. Systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressures in the complicated group and severe uncomplicated group, and systolic pressure in the mild uncomplicated group, were significantly lower than in the controls. There were no significant relationships between arterial pressures and age, pulse rate, respiratory rate, temperature, mucous membrane colour or haematocrit. There was a significant negative correlation between arterial pressures and white cell and immature neutrophil counts. Arterial pressures differed significantly between dogs that were clinically collapsed and those that were not, but not between survivors and non-survivors. Pulse pressure (systolic - diastolic was low in 7/10 complicated, 1/10 mild uncomplicated, and 1/10 severe uncomplicated cases, and differed significantly between the complicated and control groups. The high incidence of hypotension in clinically severe babesiosis has important implications for therapy.

  15. Alanine increases blood pressure during hypotension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conlay, L. A.; Maher, T. J.; Wurtman, R. J.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of L-alanine administration on blood pressure (BP) during haemorrhagic shock was investigated using anesthetized rats whose left carotid arteries were cannulated for BP measurement, blood removal, and drug administration. It was found that L-alanine, in doses of 10, 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, increased the systolic BP of hypotensive rats by 38 to 80 percent (while 100 mg/kg pyruvate increased BP by only 9.4 mmhg, not significantly different from saline). The results suggest that L-alanine might influence cardiovascular function.

  16. Dependency of blood pressure upon cardiac filling in patients with severe postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Haedersdal, C; Stokholm, K H

    1994-01-01

    by vasoconstriction. The reduction in cardiac output resulted from reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes with unchanged left ventricular ejection fractions and only moderate increments in heart rate. The study was demonstrated that blood pressure is strongly dependent upon cardiac filling in severe......Autonomic denervation of the vascular bed results theoretically in a stronger dependency of blood pressure upon intravascular volume, and the study described aimed at an investigation of the relation between cardiac filling and arterial blood pressure in patients with severe postural hypotension....... Seven patients were studied during head-up tilt at three different tilt angles using intra-arterial blood pressure recordings and estimates of left ventricular volumes by radioisotope ventriculography. Blood pressure fell dramatically during head-up tilt due to reductions in cardiac output unopposed...

  17. Dependency of blood pressure upon cardiac filling in patients with severe postural hypotension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Haedersdal, C; Stokholm, K H

    1994-01-01

    Autonomic denervation of the vascular bed results theoretically in a stronger dependency of blood pressure upon intravascular volume, and the study described aimed at an investigation of the relation between cardiac filling and arterial blood pressure in patients with severe postural hypotension....... Seven patients were studied during head-up tilt at three different tilt angles using intra-arterial blood pressure recordings and estimates of left ventricular volumes by radioisotope ventriculography. Blood pressure fell dramatically during head-up tilt due to reductions in cardiac output unopposed...... by vasoconstriction. The reduction in cardiac output resulted from reductions in left ventricular end-diastolic volumes with unchanged left ventricular ejection fractions and only moderate increments in heart rate. The study was demonstrated that blood pressure is strongly dependent upon cardiac filling in severe...

  18. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood...... pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. METHODS: For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured blood pressure in adults aged 18 years and older. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to estimate trends...... from 1975 to 2015 in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of raised blood pressure for 200 countries. We calculated the contributions of changes in prevalence versus population growth and ageing to the increase in the number of adults with raised blood pressure. FINDINGS...

  19. Diagnosis of childhood hypertension: is blood pressure height ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure was also recorded according to the standard method. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure to height ratio were then calculated. Receiver operating curves was used to assess the ability of systolic blood and diastolic blood pressure height ratio to discriminate childhood prehypertension and hypertension.

  20. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concistrè, A; Grillo, A; La Torre, G; Carretta, R; Fabris, B; Petramala, L; Marinelli, C; Rebellato, A; Fallo, F; Letizia, C

    2018-04-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism is associated with a cluster of cardiovascular manifestations, including hypertension, leading to increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of our study was to investigate the ambulatory blood pressure monitoring-derived short-term blood pressure variability in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism, in comparison with patients with essential hypertension and normotensive controls. Twenty-five patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (7 normotensive,18 hypertensive) underwent ambulatory blood pressure monitoring at diagnosis, and fifteen out of them were re-evaluated after parathyroidectomy. Short-term-blood pressure variability was derived from ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and calculated as the following: 1) Standard Deviation of 24-h, day-time and night-time-BP; 2) the average of day-time and night-time-Standard Deviation, weighted for the duration of the day and night periods (24-h "weighted" Standard Deviation of BP); 3) average real variability, i.e., the average of the absolute differences between all consecutive BP measurements. Baseline data of normotensive and essential hypertension patients were matched for age, sex, BMI and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring values with normotensive and hypertensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients, respectively. Normotensive-primary hyperparathyroidism patients showed a 24-h weighted Standard Deviation (P blood pressure higher than that of 12 normotensive controls. 24-h average real variability of systolic BP, as well as serum calcium and parathyroid hormone levels, were reduced in operated patients (P blood pressure variability is increased in normotensive patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and is reduced by parathyroidectomy, and may potentially represent an additional cardiovascular risk factor in this disease.

  1. Diurnal changes of blood pressure values (24 h blood pressures in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Grzechocińska

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: More attention is being paid lately to polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS not only in the aspect of fertility but also according to long-term metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities. Observations of women with PCOS show that the occurrence of blood hypertension is more frequent after the menopause. There are few articles concerning the predictable symptoms of blood hypertension. It seems that twenty-four hour blood pressure monitoring and assessment of changes of diurnal rhythm could be useful in this group of patients.Aim of the study: The purpose of this study was to assess diurnal changes of blood pressure in women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Material and methods: 26 women with PCOS diagnosed according to Rotterdam consensus criteria and Androgen Excess Society (AES criteria were included in our study. The mean age of the examined women was 29.5 years and the mean BMI (body mass index was 24.7 kg/m2. The control group consisted of 12 age-matched women, without PCOS. Twenty-four hour Holter monitoring of ambulatory blood pressure was performed during normal daily activity in all patients. Halberg’s cosinor method was used to analyse daily biorhythm.Results: Results show the diurnal changes of systolic blood pressure in the preclinical phase in 30% and diastolic in 15% of PCOS women. In this group no physiological decrease of blood pressure at night time was observed.

  2. The Effects of Arterial Blood Pressure Reduction on Endocan and Soluble Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs and CAMs Ligands Expression in Hypertensive Patients on Ca-Channel Blocker Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refmir Tadzic

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: To determine the effect of arterial blood pressure (BP reduction on endocan and soluble cell adhesion molecules' (sCAM plasma concentration and expression of their ligands on circulatory leukocyte subpopulations. Methods: 24 hypertensive subjects of both sexes (age: 53±8 yrs were treated with Ca-channel blocker, amlodipin (5-10 mg/day for 8 weeks; to reach BP≤139/89mmHg. The serum sCAMs and endocan concentrations were determined by ELISA kits. Level of ICAM/VCAM ligands on leukocytes was assessed by flow cytometry. Paired t-test, or t-test were used as appropriate, with Pearson's correlation calculated; pResults: sICAM-1 and sVCAM-1 were decreased (p≤0.001 and p=0.002, respectively, while E-selectin concentration was increased after amlodipin treatment (P=0.014. CD11a/LFA-1 (ICAM-1 and endocan ligand was significantly increased in all three cell types with BP decrease. CD15 and CD49d/VLA-4 (VCAM-1 ligand did not change after the treatment. There was significant positive correlation of systolic and diastolic BP with ICAM-1 and VCAM-1, and significant negative correlation of systolic BP with CD11a/LFA-1. Endocan significantly positively correlated with ICAM-1. Conclusions: The increased expression of ICAM/VACM ligands, together with decrease of sCAMs and endocan suggests the de-activation of endothelium with reduction in BP, decreasing the adherence of circulatory leukocytes to endothelium; subsequently decreasing the risk for development of atherosclerosis.

  3. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  4. Multicomponent exercise decreases blood pressure, heart rate and double product in normotensive and hypertensive older patients with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho-Júnior, Hélio José; Asano, Ricardo Yukio; Gonçalvez, Ivan de Oliveira; Brietzke, Cayque; Pires, Flávio Oliveira; Aguiar, Samuel da Silva; Feriani, Daniele Jardim; Caperuto, Erico Chagas; Uchida, Marco Carlos; Rodrigues, Bruno

    2018-02-26

    The present study aimed to investigate the effects of a 6-month multicomponent exercise program on blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of uncontrolled and controlled normotensive and hypertensive older patients. The study included 183 subjects, 97 normotensives, of which 53 were controlled normotensives (CNS), and 44 uncontrolled normotensives (UNS), as well as 86 hypertensives, of which 43 were controlled hypertensives (CHS), and 43 uncontrolled hypertensives (UHS). Volunteers were recruited and blood pressure and heart rate measurements were made before and after a 6-month multicomponent exercise program. The program of physical exercise was performed twice a week for 26 weeks. The physical exercises program was based on functional and walking exercises. Exercise sessions were performed at moderate intensity. The results indicated that UHS showed a marked decrease in systolic (-8.0mmHg), diastolic (-11.1mmHg), mean (-10.1mmHg), and pulse pressures, heart rate (-6.8bpm), and double product (-1640bpmmmHg), when compared to baseline. Similarly, diastolic (-5.5mmHg) and mean arterial (-4.8mmHg) pressures were significantly decreased in UNS. Concomitantly, significant changes could be observed in the body mass index (-0.9kg/m 2 ; -1.5kg/m 2 ) and waist circumference (-3.3cm; only UHS) of UNS and UHS, which may be associated with the changes observed in blood pressure. In conclusion, the data of the present study indicate that a 6-month multicomponent exercise program may lead to significant reductions in blood pressure, heart rate, and double product of normotensive and hypertensive patients with high blood pressure values. Copyright © 2018 Instituto Nacional de Cardiología Ignacio Chávez. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  5. Effect of lemon juice on blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    SARI, Aysel; SELİM, Nevzat; DİLEK, Melda; AYDOĞDU, Turkan; ADIBELLİ, Zelal; BÜYÜKKAYA, Piltan; AKPOLAT, Tekin

    2012-01-01

    Lemon juice has commonly been used by hypertensive patients in order to lower blood pressure (BP) acutely when BP is raised or as an alternative/complementary therapy for expectation of chronic improvement. Grapefruit, a citrus fruit like lemon, causes clinically significant interactions with a variety of drugs including calcium antagonists. The aims of this study were to investigate acute and chronic effects of lemon juice on BP among hypertensive patients. Ninty-eight patients were included...

  6. Renal intercalated cells and blood pressure regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan M. Wall

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Type B and non-A, non-B intercalated cells are found within the connecting tubule and the cortical collecting duct. Of these cell types, type B intercalated cells are known to mediate Cl⁻ absorption and HCO₃⁻ secretion largely through pendrin-dependent Cl⁻/HCO₃⁻ exchange. This exchange is stimulated by angiotensin II administration and is also stimulated in models of metabolic alkalosis, for instance after aldosterone or NaHCO₃ administration. In some rodent models, pendrin-mediated HCO₃⁻ secretion modulates acid-base balance. However, the role of pendrin in blood pressure regulation is likely of more physiological or clinical significance. Pendrin regulates blood pressure not only by mediating aldosterone-sensitive Cl⁻ absorption, but also by modulating the aldosterone response for epithelial Na⁺ channel (ENaC-mediated Na⁺ absorption. Pendrin regulates ENaC through changes in open channel of probability, channel surface density, and channels subunit total protein abundance. Thus, aldosterone stimulates ENaC activity through both direct and indirect effects, the latter occurring through its stimulation of pendrin expression and function. Therefore, pendrin contributes to the aldosterone pressor response. Pendrin may also modulate blood pressure in part through its action in the adrenal medulla, where it modulates the release of catecholamines, or through an indirect effect on vascular contractile force. This review describes how aldosterone and angiotensin II-induced signaling regulate pendrin and the contributory role of pendrin in distal nephron function and blood pressure.

  7. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  8. Blood Pressure Measurement: Clinic, Home, Ambulatory, and Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drawz, Paul E.; Abdalla, Mohamed; Rahman, Mahboob

    2014-01-01

    Blood pressure has traditionally been measured in the clinic setting using the auscultory method and a mercury sphygmomanometer. Technological advances have led to improvements in measuring clinic blood pressure and allowed for measuring blood pressures outside the clinic. This review outlines various methods for evaluating blood pressure and the clinical utility of each type of measurement. Home blood pressures and 24 hour ambulatory blood pressures have improved our ability to evaluate risk for target organ damage and hypertension related morbidity and mortality. Measuring home blood pressures may lead to more active participation in health care by patients and has the potential to improve blood pressure control. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring enables the measuring nighttime blood pressures and diurnal changes, which may be the most accurate predictors of risk associated with elevated blood pressure. Additionally, reducing nighttime blood pressure is feasible and may be an important component of effective antihypertensive therapy. Finally, estimating central aortic pressures and pulse wave velocity are two of the newer methods for assessing blood pressure and hypertension related target organ damage. PMID:22521624

  9. Blood pressure changes during barium enema

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roach, S.C.; Martin, O.J.D.; Owen, A.; Martin, D.F.

    2001-01-01

    AIMS: To document blood pressure changes during barium enema examination and to determine at what point in the examination changes are likely to occur. METHODS AND RESULTS: Blood pressure measurements were taken at seven points during the course of barium enema examination in 107 consecutive patients. We found that patients over the age of 60 years had statistically significant decreases in blood pressure when they were stood up during the course of the examination. Many of these patients were asymptomatic. Patients who had symptoms (15/107, 14%) when standing up had a degree of hypotension. The duration of barium enema examination is longer in those patients who experience symptoms. CONCLUSION: During a barium enema examination hypotension occurs at the point of standing up more frequently in patients over 60 years and in those who suffer symptoms at this time. Patients who fall into one of these groups should be considered at risk of fainting at this point in the examination. A modified technique to avoid standing should be considered in at-risk patients. Roach, S.C. et al. (2001)

  10. The impact of parity on life course blood pressure trajectories: the HUNT study in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Eirin B; Horn, Julie; Markovitz, Amanda Rose; Fraser, Abigail; Macdonald-Wallis, Corrie; Tilling, Kate; Romundstad, Pål Richard; Rich-Edwards, Janet Wilson; Åsvold, Bjørn Olav

    2018-01-24

    The drop in blood pressure during pregnancy may persist postpartum, but the impact of pregnancy on blood pressure across the life course is not known. In this study we examined blood pressure trajectories for women in the years preceding and following pregnancy and compared life course trajectories of blood pressure for parous and nulliparous women. We linked information on all women who participated in the population-based, longitudinal HUNT Study, Norway with pregnancy information from the Medical Birth Registry of Norway. A total of 23,438 women were included with up to 3 blood pressure measurements per woman. Blood pressure trajectories were compared using a mixed effects linear spline model. Before first pregnancy, women who later gave birth had similar mean blood pressure to women who never gave birth. Women who delivered experienced a drop after their first birth of - 3.32 mmHg (95% CI, - 3.93, - 2.71) and - 1.98 mmHg (95% CI, - 2.43, - 1.53) in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Subsequent pregnancies were associated with smaller reductions. These pregnancy-related reductions in blood pressure led to persistent differences in mean blood pressure, and at age 50, parous women still had lower systolic (- 1.93 mmHg; 95% CI, - 3.33, - 0.53) and diastolic (- 1.36 mmHg; 95% CI, - 2.26, - 0.46) blood pressure compared to nulliparous women. The findings suggest that the first pregnancy and, to a lesser extent, successive pregnancies are associated with lasting and clinically relevant reductions in systolic and diastolic blood pressure.

  11. Fluctuation of blood pressure and pulse rate during colostomy irrigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadahiro, S; Noto, T; Tajima, T; Mitomi, T; Miyazaki, T; Numata, M

    1995-06-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of colostomy irrigation on the vital signs of patients with left colostomy. Twenty-two consecutive patients who underwent abdominoperineal resection for cancer of the lower rectum and had left lower quadrant end colostomy were included in this study. Subjective symptoms, blood pressure, and pulse rate during the first irrigation were investigated. Fluctuation of blood pressure during instillation was 8.0/8.5 mmHg (average) and 25.0/17.9 mmHg during evacuation. Fluctuation of pulse rate was 5.5 per minute (average) during instillation and 11.5 per minute during evacuation. The number of subjects who showed more than 20% fluctuation of systolic pressure was 12 (54.5 percent) and that of diastolic pressure was 14 (63.6 percent). One of 22 patients complained of illness during irrigation. Although colostomy irrigation showed no significant effects on vital signs in the majority of patients, it caused a significant reduction in both blood pressure and pulse rate in a small number of patients. Careful attention should be paid to vital signs considering the possibility of such effects, especially on the initial irrigation.

  12. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2016-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings can be segmented into time windows of particular interest, e.g., mean daytime and nighttime values. During sleep, blood pressure typically decreases, or dips, such that mean sleep blood pressure is lower than mean awake blood pressure. A non-dipping pattern and nocturnal hypertension are strongly associated with increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Approximately 70% of individuals dip ≥10% at night, while 30% have non-dipping patterns, when blood pressure remains similar to daytime average, or occasionally rises above daytime average. The various blood pressure categorizations afforded by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are valuable for clinical management of high blood pressure since they increase accuracy for diagnosis and the prediction of cardiovascular risk. PMID:25107387

  13. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  14. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  15. Get the Most Out of Home Blood Pressure Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Get the most out of home blood pressure monitoring Checking your blood pressure at home is an important part of managing ... monitors might not give you an accurate reading. Most pharmacies, medical supply stores and some websites sell ...

  16. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating ... might help reduce your chance of developing high blood pressure (hypertension). Whole grains are grains that include the ...

  17. Snapshot: Blood Pressure in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Home Blood Pressure: Make Control Your Goal Infographic Recommend on Facebook ... Compartir Copy the code below to use the Blood Pressure Infographic on your web page or social media ...

  18. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Possibly. It's thought that ... hours a night could be linked to increased blood pressure. People who sleep five hours or less a ...

  19. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medications: Can they raise my triglycerides? Can some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide ...

  20. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  1. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, AFib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Aug ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  2. Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure pattern of adolescent offsprings of hypertensive fathers in Lagos ... in adults which emphasizes the need to track blood pressure in children. ... are hypertensive while among adolescents with normotensive parents, 11.0% for ...

  3. Which Target Blood Pressure in Year 2018? Evidence from Recent Clinical Trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimark, Sondre; Mariampillai, Julian E; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Nilsson, Peter M; Kjeldsen, Sverre E

    2018-04-16

    The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) suggested a favourable effect of lowering blood pressure to Blood Pressure (ACCORD) study, the International Verapamil-Trandolapril Study (INVEST), the Telmisartan, Ramipril or Both in Patients at High Risk for Vascular Events trial (ONTARGET)/the Telmisartan Randomised AssessmenNt Study in aCE iNtolerant participants with cardiovascular Disease (TRANSCEND) study and The Losartan Intervention For Endpoint Reduction in Hypertension (LIFE) study. These studies confirm a positive effect on cardiovascular protection with blood pressure lowering treatment to between 120-140 mmHg in patients with and without diabetes, but no additional effect of lowering blood pressure to blood pressure < 130/80 mmHg appears appropriate in most high-risk hypertensive patients. Additionally, early and sustained BP control below this target is required for optimal cardiovascular protection.

  4. [The oral cavity condition in patients with high blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosiak, Joanna; Kubić-Filiks, Beata; Szymańska, Jolanta

    2015-10-01

    The incidence of high blood pressure in adults is estimated at ca. 30-40% of the general population. Both hypertension disease and hypertensive drugs affect the condition of the patients' oral cavity. A review of the current literature shows that disorders most frequently found in the masticatory organ of patients with hypertension include: xerostomia, changes in salivary glands, gum hypertrophy, lichenoid lesions, taste disorders, and paraesthesias. The authors emphasize that patients with high blood pressure, along with the treatment of the underlying disease, should receive prophylactic and therapeutic dental care. This would enable reduction and/or elimination of unpleasant complaints, and also help prevent the emergence of secondary disorders in the patients' oral cavity as a result of hypertension pharmacotherapy. © 2015 MEDPRESS.

  5. [Should blood pressure goals be changed in hypertension treatment?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camafort-Babkowski, M

    2017-01-01

    Which have to be the most suitable goal for blood pressure has been an object of a debate since the publication of different guidelines of managing of arterial hypertension. Later to the publication of the last guides, the results of the SPRINT study have been known. SPRINT analyzes the differences in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality of different systolic blood pressure goals. The above mentioned study shows that a reduction to 121 mmHg in SBP is better than a SBP Hipertension-Liga Española para la Lucha de la Hipertensión Arterial (SEH-LELHA). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  6. [Development of a continuous blood pressure monitoring and recording system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Li, Yong; Gao, Shumei; Song, Yilin

    2012-09-01

    A small experimental system is constructed with working principle of continuous blood pressure monitoring based on the volume compensation method. The preliminary experimental results show that the system can collect blood pressure signals at the radial artery effectively. The digital PID algorithm can track the variation of blood pressure. And the accuracy of continuous blood pressure detecting achieve the level of same kind of product.

  7. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in nonagenarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Formiga, Francesc; Ferrer, Assumpta; Sobrino, Javier; Coca, Antonio; Riera, Antoni; Pujol, Ramón

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in a sample of Spanish nonagenarians. We also analyzed the misdiagnosis of hypertension and investigated blood pressure (BP) control in treated hypertensive nonagenarians. Twenty-four-hour ABPM was undertaken in a group of 42 nonagenarians. The 24-h mean, daytime BP, nighttime BP and heart rate (HR) were extracted from the ABPM. Sociodemographic data, the ability to perform basic daily activities, measured by the Barthel index (BI) or instrumental activities revealed by the Lawton and Brody index (LI), cognition, and comorbidity were evaluated. Thirty-one subjects were receiving antihypertensive drug treatment. Twenty-four hour, daytime and sleeping pressures averaged 130/65, 131/68 and 128/63mmHg, respectively. Seventeen (40.5%) of the 42 patients had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. In terms of the BP pattern, 8 (19%) subjects were dippers, 19 (45%) non-dippers, and 15 (36%) were risers. Five (45.46%) out of 11 patients with no evidence of hypertension (normotensive patients) had a daytime BP of 135/85 or higher. The mean daytime BP was 135/85 or higher in 12 (38.7%) out of 31 nonagenarians who had previously received therapy for hypertension. In, conclusion a high prevalence of hypertension, misdiagnosis and inadequate BP control was found in nonagenarians treated for hypertension.

  8. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lifting and supporting weights) and have an important influence on blood pressure, it is essential to evaluate blood pressure response to iso- metric effort. This test can reveal high blood pressure that might otherwise not be detected. Only a few ...

  9. Admission Blood Pressure of Stroke Patients and Its Relationship to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: High blood pressure is often said to be associated with poor outcome in stroke. However, there remains some uncertainly about the relationship of blood pressure to mortality in stroke. Objective: This study seeks to determine the influence of admission blood pressure on early mortality of stroke patients at the ...

  10. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ezzati, Majid; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Background

    Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic

  11. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an inelastic...

  12. Anxiety and blood pressure prior to dental treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Benjamins, C.; Schuurs, A.H.; Asscheman, H.; Hoogstraten, J.

    1990-01-01

    Assessed dental anxiety and blood pressure immediately prior to a dental appointment in 24 patients attending a university dental clinic or a clinic for anxious dental patients in the Netherlands. Blood pressure was assessed by 2 independent methods, and the interchangeability of the blood-pressure

  13. A modified isometric test to evaluate blood pressure control with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood pressure at rest is not predictive of roundthe- clock values. Blood pressure should therefore be measured during effort to evaluate hypertension and its response to treatment. The effect of sustained-release verapamil (240 mg taken once a day) on blood pressure at rest and during isometric effort was therefore ...

  14. Multidisciplinary Treatment of the Metabolic Syndrome Lowers Blood Pressure Variability Independent of Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus, Yonit; Segev, Elad; Shefer, Gabi; Sack, Jessica; Tal, Brurya; Yaron, Marianna; Carmeli, Eli; Shefer, Lili; Margaliot, Miri; Limor, Rona; Gilad, Suzan; Sofer, Yael; Stern, Naftali

    2016-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) variability (BPV) contributes to target organ damage independent of BP. The authors examined the effect of a 1-year multidisciplinary intervention on BPV in patients with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) as defined by criteria from the Third Report of the Adult Treatment Panel. Forty-four nondiabetic patients underwent clinical and biochemical profiling, 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), body composition, carotid intima-media thickness, and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV). The intervention targeted all MetS components. BPV was assessed by the standard deviation of daytime systolic BP derived from ABPM. Patients with low and high BPV (lower or higher than the median daytime standard deviation of 11.6 mm Hg) did not differ in regards to systolic and diastolic BP, age, fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, and body mass index, but the high-variability group had higher values of low-density lipoprotein and leg fat. The 1-year intervention resulted in weight reduction but not BP-lowering. BPV declined in the high-variability group in association with lowering of PWV, C-reactive protein, glycated hemoglobin, alanine aminotransferase, asymmetric dimethylarginine, and increased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. A multidisciplinary intervention independent of BP-lowering normalized BPV, lowered PWV, and enhanced metabolic control. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Impact of antihypertensive combination and monotreatments on blood pressure variability: assessment by old and new indices. Data from a large ambulatory blood pressure monitoring database.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Parati, Gianfranco

    2014-06-01

    High 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) variability is associated with poor cardiovascular outcomes. We analysed a large ABP monitoring database containing data from hypertensive patients treated with telmisartan\\/amlodipine combination or various monotherapies with the aim of quantifying the 24-h distribution of blood pressure (BP) reduction by treatment through the smoothness index and of developing and testing a new treatment-on-variability index (TOVI) to quantify the effects of treatment on both mean BP and BP variability.

  16. Contributions of mean and shape of blood pressure distribution to worldwide trends and variations in raised blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overvad, Kim

    2018-01-01

    interventions to control blood pressure in the hypertensive population). Our aim was to quantify the contributions of these two phenomena to the worldwide trends in the prevalence of raised blood pressure. Methods: We pooled 1018 population-based studies with blood pressure measurements on 88.6 million......, where relevant. We used a linear mixed effect model to quantify the association between (probit-transformed) prevalence of raised blood pressure and age-group- and sex-specific mean blood pressure. We calculated the contributions of change in mean SBP and DBP, and of change in the prevalence...... participants from 1985 to 2016. We first calculated mean systolic blood pressure (SBP), mean diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and prevalence of raised blood pressure by sex and 10-year age group from 20-29 years to 70-79 years in each study, taking into account complex survey design and survey sample weights...

  17. Cerebral blood flow in normal pressure hydrocephalus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mamo, H.L.; Meric, P.C.; Ponsin, J.C.; Rey, A.C.; Luft, A.G.; Seylaz, J.A.

    1987-01-01

    A xenon-133 method was used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF) before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) removal in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH). Preliminary results suggested that shunting should be performed on patients whose CBF increased after CSF removal. There was a significant increase in CBF in patients with NPH, which was confirmed by the favorable outcome of 88% of patients shunted. The majority of patients with senile and presenile dementia showed a decrease or no change in CBF after CSF removal. It is suggested that although changes in CBF and clinical symptoms of NPH may have the same cause, i.e., changes in the cerebral intraparenchymal pressure, there is no simple direct relation between these two events. The mechanism underlying the loss of autoregulation observed in NPH is also discussed

  18. Automatic Blood Pressure Measurements During Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Charles S.

    1985-01-01

    Microprocessor circuits and a computer algorithm for automatically measuring blood pressure during ambulatory monitoring and exercise stress testing have been under development at SRI International. A system that records ECG, Korotkov sound, and arm cuff pressure for off-line calculation of blood pressure has been delivered to NASA, and an LSLE physiological monitoring system that performs the algorithm calculations in real-time is being constructed. The algorithm measures the time between the R-wave peaks and the corresponding Korotkov sound on-set (RK-interval). Since the curve of RK-interval versus cuff pressure during deflation is predictable and slowly varying, windows can be set around the curve to eliminate false Korotkov sound detections that result from noise. The slope of this curve, which will generally decrease during exercise, is the inverse of the systolic slope of the brachial artery pulse. In measurements taken during treadmill stress testing, the changes in slopes of subjects with coronary artery disease were markedly different from the changes in slopes of healthy subjects. Measurements of slope and O2 consumption were also made before and after ten days of bed rest during NASA/Ames Research Center bed rest studies. Typically, the maximum rate of O2 consumption during the post-bed rest test is less than the maximum rate during the pre-bed rest test. The post-bed rest slope changes differ from the pre-bed rest slope changes, and the differences are highly correlated with the drop in the maximum rate of O2 consumption. We speculate that the differences between pre- and post-bed rest slopes are due to a drop in heart contractility.

  19. The Influence of Proximity to City Parks on Blood Pressure in Early Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Grazuleviciene

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effect of proximity to city parks on blood pressure categories during the first trimester of pregnancy. This cross-sectional study included 3,416 female residents of the city of Kaunas, Lithuania, who were enrolled in the FP7 PHENOTYPE project study. The women were classified into four blood pressure categories: optimal, normal, high-normal blood pressure, and hypertension. Multinomial regression models were used to investigate the association between three women’s groups with respect to the residence distances from city parks (300, >300–1,000, and >1,000 m and four blood pressure categories. When using the optimal blood pressure as the reference group, the crude and adjusted odds ratios (OR for normal blood pressure and for high-normal blood pressure proved to be statistically significantly higher after the inclusion of the selected covariates into the regression analysis. The probability of normal blood pressure increased by 9%, and that of high-normal blood pressure—by 14% for every 300 m increase in the distance to green spaces. The findings of this study suggest a beneficial impact of nearby city parks on blood pressure amongst 20- to 45-year-old women. This relationship has important implications for the prevention of hypertension and the reduction of hypertension-related morbidity.

  20. A Comparison and Calibration of a Wrist-Worn Blood Pressure Monitor for Patient Management: Assessing the Reliability of Innovative Blood Pressure Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Sarah; Teskey, Robert; Philip, Shona; Simpson, Jeremy A; Lutchmedial, Sohrab

    2018-01-01

    Background Clinical guidelines recommend monitoring of blood pressure at home using an automatic blood pressure device for the management of hypertension. Devices are not often calibrated against direct blood pressure measures, leaving health care providers and patients with less reliable information than is possible with current technology. Rigorous assessments of medical devices are necessary for establishing clinical utility. Objective The purpose of our study was 2-fold: (1) to assess the validity and perform iterative calibration of indirect blood pressure measurements by a noninvasive wrist cuff blood pressure device in direct comparison with simultaneously recorded peripheral and central intra-arterial blood pressure measurements and (2) to assess the validity of the measurements thereafter of the noninvasive wrist cuff blood pressure device in comparison with measurements by a noninvasive upper arm blood pressure device to the Canadian hypertension guidelines. Methods The cloud-based blood pressure algorithms for an oscillometric wrist cuff device were iteratively calibrated to direct pressure measures in 20 consented patient participants. We then assessed measurement validity of the device, using Bland-Altman analysis during routine cardiovascular catheterization. Results The precalibrated absolute mean difference between direct intra-arterial to wrist cuff pressure measurements were 10.8 (SD 9.7) for systolic and 16.1 (SD 6.3) for diastolic. The postcalibrated absolute mean difference was 7.2 (SD 5.1) for systolic and 4.3 (SD 3.3) for diastolic pressures. This is an improvement in accuracy of 33% systolic and 73% diastolic with a 48% reduction in the variability for both measures. Furthermore, the wrist cuff device demonstrated similar sensitivity in measuring high blood pressure compared with the direct intra-arterial method. The device, when calibrated to direct aortic pressures, demonstrated the potential to reduce a treatment gap in high blood

  1. Oscillometric blood pressure measurements: differences between measured and calculated mean arterial pressure.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kiers, H.D.; Hofstra, J.M.; Wetzels, J.F.M.

    2008-01-01

    Mean arterial pressure (MAP) is often used as an index of overall blood pressure. In recent years, the use of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurement devices is increasing. These devices directly measure and display MAP; however, MAP is often calculated from systolic blood pressure (SBP)

  2. [High blood pressure and physical exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Gremeaux, V; Bosquet, L; Herpin, D

    2014-06-01

    High blood pressure is a frequent pathology with many cardiovascular complications. As highlighted in guidelines, the therapeutic management of hypertension relies on non-pharmacological measures, which are diet and regular physical activity, but both patients and physicians are reluctant to physical activity prescription. To acquire the conviction that physical activity is beneficial, necessary and possible, we can take into account some fundamental and clinical studies, as well as the feedback of our clinical practice. Physical inactivity is a major risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, and hypertension contributes to increase this risk. Conversely, regular practice of physical activity decreases very significantly the risk by up to 60%. The acute blood pressure changes during exercise and post-exercise hypotension differs according to the dynamic component (endurance or aerobic and/or strength exercises), but the repetition of the sessions leads to the chronic hypotensive benefit of physical activity. Moreover, physical activity prescription must take into account the assessment of global cardiovascular risk, the control of the hypertension, and the opportunities and desires of the patient in order to promote good adherence and beneficial lifestyle change. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  3. [Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for hypertension diagnosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gijón Conde, T; Banegas, J R

    2017-01-01

    The early and accurate diagnosis of hypertension is essential given its importance in the development of cardiovascular disease. The boundaries between normal blood pressure (BP) and hypertension are arbitrary and based on the benefits of treating exceeding those of not treating. Conventional BP measurement at the clinic only offers information of a particular time and presents multiple biases dependent on inherent variability of BP and measurement technique itself. Multiple studies have demonstrated the prognosis superiority in the development of cardiovascular disease of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), allows detection of white coat hypertension, avoiding overdiagnosis and overtreatment, and the detection of patients with masked hypertension who are at risk of underdetection and undertreatment. ABPM also assess nightime BP and circadian variability, providing additional prognostic value. ABPM is recognized in the diagnosis of hypertension in 2011 British NICE Guidelines, very argued at the 2013 European Society of Hypertension guidelines, and recommended in the US Preventive Services Task Force in 2015, 2016 Canadian Guidelines and the 2016 Spanish Program of Preventive Activities and Health Promotion (PAPPS). Its generalization is likely to be only a matter of time. Copyright © 2017 Sociedad Española de Hipertension-Liga Española para la Lucha de la Hipertensión Arterial (SEH-LELHA). Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Different systolic blood pressure targets for people with history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack: PAST-BP (Prevention After Stroke—Blood Pressure) randomised controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    McManus, Richard J; Roalfe, Andrea; Fletcher, Kate; Taylor, Clare J; Martin, Una; Virdee, Satnam; Greenfield, Sheila; Hobbs, F D Richard

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether using intensive blood pressure targets leads to lower blood pressure in a community population of people with prevalent cerebrovascular disease. Design Open label randomised controlled trial. Setting 99 general practices in England, with participants recruited in 2009-11. Participants People with a history of stroke or transient ischaemic attack whose systolic blood pressure was 125 mm Hg or above. Interventions Intensive systolic blood pressure target (different target, patients in both arms were actively managed in the same way with regular reviews by the primary care team. Main outcome measure Change in systolic blood pressure between baseline and 12 months. Results 529 patients (mean age 72) were enrolled, 266 to the intensive target arm and 263 to the standard target arm, of whom 379 were included in the primary analysis (182 (68%) intensive arm; 197 (75%) standard arm). 84 patients withdrew from the study during the follow-up period (52 intensive arm; 32 standard arm). Mean systolic blood pressure dropped by 16.1 mm Hg to 127.4 mm Hg in the intensive target arm and by 12.8 mm Hg to 129.4 mm Hg in the standard arm (difference between groups 2.9 (95% confidence interval 0.2 to 5.7) mm Hg; P=0.03). Conclusions Aiming for target below 130 mm Hg rather than 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure in people with cerebrovascular disease in primary care led to a small additional reduction in blood pressure. Active management of systolic blood pressure in this population using a blood pressure. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN29062286. PMID:26919870

  5. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  6. Correlates of blood pressure in Yanomami Indians of northwestern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crews, D E; Mancilha-Carvalho, J J

    1993-01-01

    We determined associations of measures of body habitus with blood pressure for 100 adult Yanomami Indians (61 men, 39 women) examined during February and March 1990. Measurements included body weight and height, four skinfolds (triceps, subscapular, suprailiac, abdomen), four circumferences (wrist, upper arm, abdomen, hip), systolic and diastolic blood pressures, pulse rate, and estimated age. Various indices of fat distribution were determined from the measurements of skinfolds, circumferences, weight, and height. Estimated age averaged 35.0 years in men and 33.4 years in women (range: 15 to 63 years). Mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were low in both men (104.8/70.4 mm Hg) and women (94.8/63.5 mm Hg), as was body mass index (men: 20.7; women: 21.4 kg/m2). In Yanomami women, all four skinfolds, wrist circumference, and the indices of hip and abdominal fat were significant correlates of systolic blood pressure, while the abdominal skinfold and wrist and hip circumferences correlated significantly with diastolic blood pressure. Among men, there was a negative correlation between estimated age and systolic blood pressure and a positive correlation between BMI and upper arm and hip circumferences and systolic blood pressure. There was a significant positive correlation between wrist, upper arm, and hip circumferences and diastolic blood pressure among Yanomami men. We used stepwise regression to generate sex-specific predictive equations for blood pressure. For men, estimated age and hip circumference, and for women, abdominal skinfold measurement and age were included in the model for systolic blood pressure. Among men, wrist circumference and height, and among women, wrist circumference alone entered the model for diastolic blood pressure. On the basis of these results, we suggest that even in a low-blood pressure, low-body fat, no-salt setting, systolic blood pressure is associated with the amount and placement of adipose tissue. However, diastolic blood

  7. Simultaneous compared with sequential blood pressure measurement results in smaller inter-arm blood pressure differences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, Niels V.; Lodestijn, Sophie; Nanninga, Stephanie; van Montfrans, Gert A.; van den Born, Bert-Jan H.

    2013-01-01

    There are currently few recommendations on how to assess inter-arm blood pressure (BP) differences. The authors compared simultaneous with sequential measurement on mean BP, inter-arm BP differences, and within-visit reproducibility in 240 patients stratified according to age ( <50 or ≥60 years) and

  8. Inter-arm blood pressure differences in pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poon, L C Y; Kametas, N; Strobl, I; Pachoumi, C; Nicolaides, K H

    2008-08-01

    To determine the prevalence of blood pressure inter-arm difference (IAD) in early pregnancy and to investigate its possible association with maternal characteristics. A cross-sectional observational study. Routine antenatal visit in a university hospital. A total of 5435 pregnant women at 11-14 weeks of gestation. Blood pressure was taken from both arms simultaneously with a validated automated device. The presence of inter-arm blood pressure difference of 10 mmHg or more. The IAD in systolic and diastolic blood pressure was 10 mmHg or more in 8.3 and 2.3% of the women, respectively. Systolic IAD was found to be significantly related to systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure, and diastolic IAD was found to be significantly related to maternal age, diastolic blood pressure and pulse pressure. The systolic and diastolic IAD were higher in the hypertensive group compared with the normotensive group and absolute IAD increased with increasing blood pressure. About 31.0 and 23.9% of cases of hypertension would have been underreported if the left arm and the right arm were used, respectively, in measuring the blood pressure. There is a blood pressure IAD in a significant proportion of the pregnant population, and its prevalence increases with increasing blood pressure. By measuring blood pressure only on one arm, there is a one in three chance of underreporting hypertension. Therefore, it would be prudent that during the booking visit blood pressure should be taken in both arms and thus provide guidance for subsequent blood pressure measurements during the course of pregnancy.

  9. Assessing the influence of mechanical ventilation on blood gases and blood pressure in rattlesnakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Buchanan, Rasmus; Jensen, Heidi Meldgaard

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the impact of mechanical positive pressure ventilation on heart rate (HR), arterial blood pressure, blood gases, lactate, glucose, sodium, potassium and calcium concentrations in rattlesnakes during anesthesia and the subsequent recovery period. STUDY DESIGN: Prospectiv...

  10. Association between ambient temperature and blood pressure and blood pressure regulators: 1831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Chen

    Full Text Available Several studies have suggested an association between ambient air temperature and blood pressure. However, this has not been reliably confirmed by longitudinal studies. Also, whether the reaction to temperature stimulation is modified by other factors such as antihypertensive medication is rarely investigated. The present study explores the relationship between ambient temperature and blood pressure, without and with antihypertensive medication, in a study of 1,831 hypertensive patients followed up for three years, in two or four weekly check ups, accumulating 62,452 follow-up records. Both baseline and follow-up blood pressure showed an inverse association with ambient temperature, which explained 32.4% and 65.6% of variation of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure (P<0.05 respectively. The amplitude of individual blood pressure fluctuation with temperature throughout a year (a 29 degrees centigrade range was 9.4/7.3 mmHg. Medication with angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor benazepril attenuated the blood pressure fluctuation by 2.4/1.3 mmHg each year, though the inverse association of temperature and blood pressure remained. Gender, drinking behavior and body mass index were also found to modify the association between temperature and diastolic blood pressure. The results indicate that ambient temperature may negatively regulate blood pressure. Hypertensive patients should monitor and treat blood pressure more carefully in cold days, and it could be especially important for the males, thinner people and drinkers.

  11. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of

  12. Effects of salt substitute on home blood pressure differs according to age and degree of blood pressure in hypertensive patients and their families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jihong; Zhao, Liancheng; Thompson, Brian; Zhang, Yawei; Wu, Yangfeng

    2018-02-05

    It is known that home blood pressure (HBP) is a more reliable assessment of hypertension treatments than clinical blood pressure (BP). Despite this, HBP response to a salt substitute has only been evaluated by one study which, did not look at the salt substitute's effect on family members and did not analyze by age, gender, or BP degree. The aim of this current study was to assess the effects of a low-sodium and high-potassium salt substitute on HBP among hypertensive patients and their family members. A total of 220 households (including 220 hypertensive patients and 380 their families) were randomly assigned to the regular salt or salt substitute groups. HBP was measured at the beginning, 3rd, 6th, and 12th months. Among the patients (n = 220), only home systolic blood pressure (HSBP) was significantly reduced, by an adjusted baseline BP of 4.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.3-7.0 mm Hg), in the salt substitute group compared with those in the regular salt group at each visit (all P blood pressure (HDBP) at any visit. Among the family members, HSBP and HDBP were not significantly different between the groups. Furthermore, Individuals ≥60 years old, hypertensive patients with stage-2 hypertension, family members with hypertension, and women experienced greater HSBP reduction. Older subjects, those with higher blood pressure, and women experienced greater home blood pressure reduction from the salt substitute compared to regular salt.

  13. Hybrid Optical Unobtrusive Blood Pressure Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangfei Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure (BP is critical in diagnosing certain cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension. Some previous studies have proved that BP can be estimated by pulse transit time (PTT calculated by a pair of photoplethysmography (PPG signals at two body sites. Currently, contact PPG (cPPG and imaging PPG (iPPG are two feasible ways to obtain PPG signals. In this study, we proposed a hybrid system (called the ICPPG system employing both methods that can be implemented on a wearable device, facilitating the measurement of BP in an inconspicuous way. The feasibility of the ICPPG system was validated on a dataset with 29 subjects. It has been proved that the ICPPG system is able to estimate PTT values. Moreover, the PTT measured by the new system shows a correlation on average with BP variations for most subjects, which could facilitate a new generation of BP measurement using wearable and mobile devices.

  14. [Blood pressure in 6 Yanomami villages].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancilha-Carvalho, J J; Sousa e Silva, N A; Carvalho, J V; Lima, J A

    1991-06-01

    To investigate in Yanomami Indians that not add salt to food, the relationship between blood pressure (BP), biological variables (age, body weight, height and pulse) and urinary electrolytes (Na+, K+, Ca++ and Mg++). We studied 125 males and 129 females from six villages on Surucuru plateau and on Catrimani and Ajarani rivers region in the state of Roraima, north Brazil. Two BP measurements were made and the mean of them were used in data analysis. None hypertensive was found. Systolic BP decreased with age and correlated with body weight, pulse and urinary Na+. Diastolic BP only correlated with body weight. Height, urinary K+, Ca++ and Mg++ did not correlate with BP. There was no hypertension nor increase of BP with increasing age in these isolated Yanomami.

  15. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  16. Improving Blood Pressure Control Using Smart Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciemins, Elizabeth L; Arora, Anupama; Coombs, Nicholas C; Holloway, Barbara; Mullette, Elizabeth J; Garland, Robin; Walsh Bishop-Green, Shannon; Penso, Jerry; Coon, Patricia J

    2018-03-01

    The authors sought to determine if wireless oscillometric home blood pressure monitoring (HBPM) that integrates with smartphone technology improves blood pressure (BP) control among patients with new or existing uncontrolled hypertension (HTN). A prospective observational cohort study monitored BP control before and after an educational intervention and introduction to HBPM. Patients in the intervention group were instructed to track their BP using a smartphone device three to seven times per week. Cases were matched to controls at a 1:3 allocation ratio on several clinical characteristics over the same period and received usual care. The proportion of patients with controlled BP was compared between groups at pre- and postintervention, ∼9 months later. Results and Materials: The total study population included 484 patients with mean age 60 years (range 23-102 years), 47.7% female, and 84.6% Caucasian. Mean preintervention BP was 137.8 mm Hg systolic and 81.4 mm Hg diastolic. Mean BP control rates improved for patients who received HBPM from 42% to 67% compared with matched control patients who improved from 59% to 67% (p technology has the potential to improve HTN management among patients with uncontrolled or newly diagnosed HTN. Technology needs to be easy to use and operate and would work best when integrated into local electronic health record systems. In systems without this capability, medical assistants or other personnel may be trained to facilitate the process. Nurse navigator involvement was instrumental in bridging communication between the patients and provider.

  17. Pomegranate Consumption and Blood Pressure: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asgary, Sedigheh; Keshvari, Mahtab; Sahebkar, Amirhossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal

    2017-01-01

    Pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) is a polyphenol-rich fruit with diverse medicinal properties. Several lines of experimental and clinical evidence have shown that pomegranate intake helps lowering blood pressure (BP) through different mechanisms. This study aimed to present a narrative review on the anti-hypertensive properties of different parts of pomegranate such as pomegranate juice (PJ), pomegranate peels (PP), pomegranate seed oil (PSO), pomegranate fruit extract (PFE) and the mechanisms and phytochemicals responsible for these effects. A review on the efficacy of consuming different parts of pomegranate (juice, peels, fruit extract and seed oil) in lowering BP has been performed. To find relevant studies, a search in PubMed, Science Direct and Scopus up from inception to May 4, 2015 was performed. Human, animals and in vitro studies investigating the anti-hypertensive effects of pomegranate were included in the search. Findings arising from animal and clinical studies have shown pomegranate juice can reduce BP in both short-term and long-term course. These effects are accompanied by antioxidant and anti-atherosclerotic actions that collectively improve cardiovascular health. The anti-hypertensive effects have been reported for both pomegranate juice and seed oil. Both systolic and diastolic pressures are affected. Pomegranate juice possesses antioxidant, anti-hypertensive and anti-atherosclerotic properties. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Child Abuse, Resting Blood Pressure, and Blood Pressure Reactivity to Psychosocial Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, Holly C; Milliren, Carly E; Austin, S Bryn; Sheridan, Margaret A; McLaughlin, Katie A

    2016-01-01

    Childhood trauma is associated with hypertension in adults. It is unknown whether childhood trauma predicts elevated blood pressure earlier in development. We investigated whether the trauma of child abuse was associated with blood pressure in adolescents. The sample included 145 adolescents aged 13-17 years, 40% with exposure to child abuse. The mean age of participants was 14.93 years (SD = 1.33); 58% were female. The majority self-identified as non-Hispanic White (43%), with the remainder identifying as non-Hispanic Black (17%), Hispanic (17%), or other/mixed race (23%). We used established age/sex/height-specific cutoffs to determine the prevalence of prehypertension and hypertension in the sample. We used two-sample t tests to examine associations of abuse with resting systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and blood pressure reactivity to the Trier Social Stress Test and a frustration task. We used linear regression to adjust for potential confounders including sociodemographic variables, body mass index, smoking, and psychopathology. Mean resting SBP and DBP were 114.07 mmHg and 61.35 mmHg in those with a history of abuse and 111.39 mmHg and 56.89 mmHg in those without a history of abuse. This difference was significant for DBP only. Twelve percent of participants met criteria for prehypertension or hypertension based on resting blood pressure values; this did not differ between those with and without an abuse history. Child abuse was associated with lower DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress tasks and reduced DBP reactivity to frustration. These associations were robust to adjustment for potential confounders. Child abuse is associated with higher resting DBP and blunted DBP and SBP reactivity to laboratory stress in adolescence. These findings suggest a potential pathway by which child abuse leads to hypertension. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Pediatric Psychology. All

  19. Accurate blood pressure recording: is it difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhalla, A; Singh, R; D'cruz, S; Lehl, S S; Sachdev, A

    2005-11-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement is a routine procedure but errors are frequently committed during BP recording. AIMS AND SETTINGS: The aim of the study was to look at the prevalent practices in the institute regarding BP recording. The study was conducted in the Medicine Department at Government Medical College, Chandigarh, a teaching institute for MBBS students. A prospective, observational study was performed amongst the 80 doctors in a tertiary care hospital. All of them were observed by a single observer during the act of BP recording. The observer was well versed with the guidelines issued by British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the deviations from the standard set of guidelines issued by BHS were noted. The errors were defined as deviations from these guidelines. The results were recorded as percentage of doctors committing these errors. In our study, 90% used mercury type sphygmomanometer. Zero error of the apparatus, hand dominance was not noted by any one. Every one used the standard BP cuff for recording BP. 70% of them did not let the patient rest before recording BP. 80% did not remove the clothing from the arm. None of them recorded BP in both arms. In out patient setting, 80% recorded blood pressure in sitting position and 14% in supine position. In all the patients where BP was recorded in sitting position BP apparatus was below the level of heart and 20% did not have their arm supported. 60% did not use palpatory method for noticing systolic BP and 70% did not raise pressure 30-40 mm Hg above the systolic level before checking the BP by auscultation. 80% lowered the BP at a rate of more than 2 mm/s and 60% rounded off the BP to nearest 5-10 mm Hg. 70% recorded BP only once and 90% of the rest re inflated the cuff without completely deflating and allowing rest before a second reading was obtained. The practice of recording BP in our hospital varies from the standard guidelines issued by the BHS.

  20. Comparison of pressure between barium reduction and air reduction of the intussusception in children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Gyu; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1989-08-15

    There are many method of treatment of the intussusception in children, including surgery, barium reduction, air reduction, and saline enema under ultrasonographic monitoring. Among them, barium reduction and air reduction have been used widely as nonsurgical method of treatment in radiologic department. During barium reduction, the bottle filled with barium solution must not be elevated over a 3 feet from the operating table. In air reduction, diagnostic pressure is about 60 mmHg and pressure during reduction usually is maintained between 90 mmHg and 130 mmHg. The authors have studied about pressure difference of barium solution by changing height of the bottle filled with barium solution, and have compared with pressure in air reduction. The results are as follows; 1. Pressure of 20 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 44.4 mmHg, and 69.6 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 2. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 51.4 mmHg, and 80.1 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 3. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 90cm height is much lower than the pressure maintained during air reduction, and this difference in pressure may be one of the causes of low reduction rate in barium reduction then air reduction. 4. The pressure gradient per 10 cm height is about 8.45 mmHg in 20 w/v % barium solution, about 9.21 mmHg in 30 w/v % barium solution, and about 9.72 mmHg 40 w/v % barium solution. 5. Intraluminal pressure difference between the barium reduction and the air reduction is probably of the major causes of rapid diagnosis and high reduction rate in the air reduction.

  1. Comparison of pressure between barium reduction and air reduction of the intussusception in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Hwan; Park, Sang Gyu; Park, Choong Ki; Yoon, Jong Sup

    1989-01-01

    There are many method of treatment of the intussusception in children, including surgery, barium reduction, air reduction, and saline enema under ultrasonographic monitoring. Among them, barium reduction and air reduction have been used widely as nonsurgical method of treatment in radiologic department. During barium reduction, the bottle filled with barium solution must not be elevated over a 3 feet from the operating table. In air reduction, diagnostic pressure is about 60 mmHg and pressure during reduction usually is maintained between 90 mmHg and 130 mmHg. The authors have studied about pressure difference of barium solution by changing height of the bottle filled with barium solution, and have compared with pressure in air reduction. The results are as follows; 1. Pressure of 20 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 44.4 mmHg, and 69.6 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 2. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 60 cm height is 51.4 mmHg, and 80.1 mmHg at the 90 cm height. 3. Pressure of 40 w/v % barium solution at the 90cm height is much lower than the pressure maintained during air reduction, and this difference in pressure may be one of the causes of low reduction rate in barium reduction then air reduction. 4. The pressure gradient per 10 cm height is about 8.45 mmHg in 20 w/v % barium solution, about 9.21 mmHg in 30 w/v % barium solution, and about 9.72 mmHg 40 w/v % barium solution. 5. Intraluminal pressure difference between the barium reduction and the air reduction is probably of the major causes of rapid diagnosis and high reduction rate in the air reduction

  2. Intraocular pressure, blood pressure, and retinal blood flow autoregulation: a mathematical model to clarify their relationship and clinical relevance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidoboni, Giovanna; Harris, Alon; Cassani, Simone; Arciero, Julia; Siesky, Brent; Amireskandari, Annahita; Tobe, Leslie; Egan, Patrick; Januleviciene, Ingrida; Park, Joshua

    2014-05-29

    This study investigates the relationship between intraocular pressure (IOP) and retinal hemodynamics and predicts how arterial blood pressure (BP) and blood flow autoregulation (AR) influence this relationship. A mathematical model is developed to simulate blood flow in the central retinal vessels and retinal microvasculature as current flowing through a network of resistances and capacitances. Variable resistances describe active and passive diameter changes due to AR and IOP. The model is validated by using clinically measured values of retinal blood flow and velocity. The model simulations for six theoretical patients with high, normal, and low BP (HBP-, NBP-, LBP-) and functional or absent AR (-wAR, -woAR) are compared with clinical data. The model predicts that NBPwAR and HBPwAR patients can regulate retinal blood flow (RBF) as IOP varies between 15 and 23 mm Hg and between 23 and 29 mm Hg, respectively, whereas LBPwAR patients do not adequately regulate blood flow if IOP is 15 mm Hg or higher. Hemodynamic alterations would be noticeable only if IOP changes occur outside of the regulating range, which, most importantly, depend on BP. The model predictions are consistent with clinical data for IOP reduction via surgery and medications and for cases of induced IOP elevation. The theoretical model results suggest that the ability of IOP to induce noticeable changes in retinal hemodynamics depends on the levels of BP and AR of the individual. These predictions might help to explain the inconsistencies found in the clinical literature concerning the relationship between IOP and retinal hemodynamics. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  3. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure: MedlinePlus Health Topic

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spanish Understanding Blood Pressure Readings (American Heart Association) Weightlifting: Bad for Your Blood Pressure? (Mayo Foundation for ... High Blood Pressure High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy Nutrition Quitting Smoking Stress National Institutes of Health The ...

  4. Contributions of social context to blood pressure: findings from a multilevel analysis of social capital and systolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamano, Tsuyoshi; Fujisawa, Yoshikazu; Yamasaki, Masayuki; Ito, Katsuhisa; Nabika, Toru; Shiwaku, Kuninori

    2011-06-01

    In recent years, few studies have quantified the effect of residential context on blood pressure. Although these studies have emphasized the importance of socioeconomic influences such as education or poverty levels, the association between the features of social structure such as social capital and blood pressure remain unclear. Therefore, we investigated whether social capital was associated with systolic blood pressure after controlling for individual potential confounders. We analyzed data from the Shimane Study conducted from 2006 to 2008 in rural mountainous regions of Japan. After excluding the missing data and data of participants taking hypertension medication, we conducted a multilevel analysis of the data for 335 individuals nested within 30 postcode sectors. Systolic blood pressure increased with increasing age and body mass index. We also found that a higher systolic blood pressure was observed among smokers and those taking medication for diabetes. Regarding the contextual effects of social capital, systolic blood pressure increased with an increasing proportion of lack of fairness, after adjustment for individual confounders. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate the association between social capital and systolic blood pressure by using a multilevel methodological framework. Surprisingly, we found that lack of fairness had a strong effect on systolic blood pressure. However, we could not find any significant associations between other items of social capital and systolic blood pressure. Further studies are needed to clarify the mechanism by which lack of fairness may have an effect on systolic blood pressure.

  5. The effects of endurance and resistance training on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, R S; Hirth, V A

    1995-10-01

    There now exists substantial clinical data supporting a blood pressure lowering effect of endurance training. Though the effect is modest (5-10 mmHg), epidemiologic studies indicate the possibility of protection against the development of hypertension and also indicate significantly reduced cardiovascular mortality and increased longevity associated with chronic endurance exercise. The data for blood pressure lowering effects of resistive training are much less compelling, and this area requires additional investigation. However, it appears that resistance training is not associated with chronic elevations in blood pressure. Future studies need to focus on: 1) the relative efficacy of low-, moderate- and high-intensity training on lowering blood pressure; 2) the effect of training on ambulatory blood pressure; 3) targeting of at risk and high responding populations; and 4) the importance of insulinemia, SNS tone and central adiposity in the mechanism of any blood pressure lowering effect of training.

  6. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  7. Mean Blood Pressure Difference among Adolescents Based on Dyssomnia Types

    OpenAIRE

    Krisnarta Sembiring; Oke Rina Ramayani; Munar Lubis

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dyssomnia is the most frequent sleep disturbance and associated with increased blood pressure. There has been no study determining the difference in mean blood pressure based on dyssomnia types among adolescents. OBJECTIVE: To determine the difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types. METHODS: a Cross-sectional study was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Muara Batang Gadis in April 2016. Samples were students having sleep disturbance based on Sleep...

  8. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking....

  9. [Blood pressure variability: clinical interest or simple curiosity?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciaroni, Stefano

    2007-03-14

    Blood pressure variability is a physiological phenomenon influenced by many internal and external factors. This variability could be also influenced by pathological conditions such as arterial hypertension. Two forms must be mainly distinguished: the blood pressure variability at long and short-term. The latter could only be studied by continuous recordings. In this article will be analysed the interest of measuring blood pressure variability, its cardiovascular prognosis and the therapeutic tools when it is increased.

  10. Potentiation by aminopeptidase P of blood pressure response to bradykinin.

    OpenAIRE

    Kitamura, S; Carbini, L A; Carretero, O A; Simmons, W H; Scicli, A G

    1995-01-01

    We examined whether a specific aminopeptidase P (APP) inhibitor, apstatin, increases vasodepressor responses to bradykinin in anaesthetized rats, and whether it would augment blood pressure responses further after treatment with the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (ACEi), lisinopril. Apstatin doubled the maximum blood pressure response to bradykinin. The area under the curve (AUC), which incorporates both peak blood pressure changes and duration of response, was doubled in apstatin-tr...

  11. Blood pressure normalization post-jugular venous balloon angioplasty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternberg, Zohara; Grewal, Prabhjot; Cen, Steven; DeBarge-Igoe, Frances; Yu, Jinhee; Arata, Michael

    2015-05-01

    This study is the first in a series investigating the relationship between autonomic nervous system dysfunction and chronic cerebrospinal venous insufficiency in multiple sclerosis patients. We screened patients for the combined presence of the narrowing of the internal jugular veins and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction (fatigue, cognitive dysfunction, sleeping disorders, headache, thermal intolerance, bowel/bladder dysfunction) and determined systolic and diastolic blood pressure responses to balloon angioplasty. The criteria for eligibility for balloon angioplasty intervention included ≥ 50% narrowing in one or both internal jugular veins, as determined by the magnetic resonance venography, and ≥ 3 clinical symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and post-balloon angioplasty. Among patients who were screened, 91% were identified as having internal jugular veins narrowing (with obstructing lesions) combined with the presence of three or more symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction. Balloon angioplasty reduced the average systolic and diastolic blood pressure. However, blood pressure categorization showed a biphasic response to balloon angioplasty. The procedure increased blood pressure in multiple sclerosis patients who presented with baseline blood pressure within lower limits of normal ranges (systolic ≤ 105 mmHg, diastolic ≤ 70 mmHg) but decreased blood pressure in patients with baseline blood pressure above normal ranges (systolic ≥ 130 mmHg, diastolic ≥ 80 mmHg). In addition, gender differences in baseline blood pressure subcategories were observed. The coexistence of internal jugular veins narrowing and symptoms of autonomic nervous system dysfunction suggests that the two phenomena may be related. Balloon angioplasty corrects blood pressure deviation in multiple sclerosis patients undergoing internal jugular vein dilation. Further studies should investigate the

  12. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.

  13. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Association of betaine with blood pressure in dialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lulu; Zhao, Mingming; Liu, Wenjin; Li, Xiurong; Chu, Hong; Bai, Youwei; Sun, Zhuxing; Gao, Chaoqing; Zheng, Lemin; Yang, Junwei

    2018-02-01

    Mechanisms underlying elevated blood pressure in dialysis patients are complex as a variety of non-traditional factors are involved. We sought to explore the association of circulating betaine, a compound widely distributed in food, with blood pressure in dialysis patients. We used baseline data of an ongoing cohort study involving patients on hemodialysis. Plasma betaine was measured by high performance liquid chromatography in 327 subjects. Blood pressure level was determined by intradialytic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. The mean age of the patients was 52.6 ± 11.9 years, and 58.4% were male. Average interdialytic ambulatory systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 138.4 ± 22.7 mm Hg and 84.4 ± 12.5 mm Hg, respectively. Mean plasma betaine level was 37.6 μmol/L. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed significant associations of betaine with both systolic blood pressure (β = -3.66, P = .003) and diastolic blood pressure (β = -2.00, P = .004). The associations persisted even after extensive adjustment for cardiovascular covariates. Subgroup analysis revealed that the association between betaine and blood pressure was mainly limited to female patients. Our data suggest that alteration of circulating betaine possibly contributes to blood pressure regulation in these patients. ©2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Risk Stratification by Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring Across JNC Classes of Conventional Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brguljan-Hitij, Jana; Thijs, Lutgarde; Li, Yan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (<120/<80 mm Hg), prehypertension (120-139/80-89 mm Hg), and hypertension (≥140/≥90 mm Hg). METHODS: To assess the potential differential contribution of ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) in predict......BACKGROUND: Guidelines propose classification of conventional blood pressure (CBP) into normotension (ABP......%) and of cardiovascular (-34%), cardiac (-33%), or cerebrovascular (-47%) events. Multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for stroke associated with 24-hour and daytime diastolic ABP (+5 mm Hg) were higher (P ≤ 0.045) in normotension than in prehypertension and hypertension (1.98 vs.1.19 vs.1.28 and 1.73 vs.1.09 vs. 1.......24, respectively) with similar trends (0.03 ≤ P ≤ 0.11) for systolic ABP (+10 mm Hg). However, HRs for fatal endpoints and cardiac events associated with ABP did not differ significantly (P ≥ 0.13) across CBP categories. Of normotensive and prehypertensive participants, 7.5% and 29.3% had masked hypertension...

  16. Influence of Baseline Diastolic Blood Pressure on Effects of Intensive Compared With Standard Blood Pressure Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beddhu, Srinivasan; Chertow, Glenn M; Cheung, Alfred K; Cushman, William C; Rahman, Mahboob; Greene, Tom; Wei, Guo; Campbell, Ruth C; Conroy, Margaret; Freedman, Barry I; Haley, William; Horwitz, Edward; Kitzman, Dalane; Lash, James; Papademetriou, Vasilios; Pisoni, Roberto; Riessen, Erik; Rosendorff, Clive; Watnick, Suzanne G; Whittle, Jeffrey; Whelton, Paul K

    2018-01-09

    In individuals with a low diastolic blood pressure (DBP), the potential benefits or risks of intensive systolic blood pressure (SBP) lowering are unclear. SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) was a randomized controlled trial that compared the effects of intensive (target baseline DBP. Mean baseline SBP and DBP were 139.7±15.6 and 78.1±11.9 mm Hg, respectively. Regardless of the randomized treatment, baseline DBP had a U-shaped association with the hazard of the primary cardiovascular disease outcome. However, the effects of the intensive SBP intervention on the primary outcome were not influenced by baseline DBP level ( P for interaction=0.83). The primary outcome hazard ratio for intensive versus standard treatment was 0.78 (95% confidence interval, 0.57-1.07) in the lowest DBP quintile (mean baseline DBP, 61±5 mm Hg) and 0.74 (95% confidence interval, 0.61-0.90) in the upper 4 DBP quintiles (mean baseline DBP, 82±9 mm Hg), with an interaction P value of 0.78. Results were similar for all-cause death and kidney events. Low baseline DBP was associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease events, but there was no evidence that the benefit of the intensive SBP lowering differed by baseline DBP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01206062. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  17. Home Monitoring of Blood Pressure: Patients' Perception and Role ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    measuring devices, patients' emotional response to their blood pressure readings and actions taken in response. ... pressure, their response regarding different readings, and the .... pivotal position for providing pharmaceutical care services ...

  18. Dialysate magnesium level and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriazis, John; Kalogeropoulou, Konstantina; Bilirakis, Leonidas; Smirnioudis, Nikolaos; Pikounis, Vasilios; Stamatiadis, Dimitrios; Liolia, Ekaterini

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the way dialysate magnesium (dMg) concentrations could affect blood pressure (BP) during hemodialysis (HD). Eight HD patients underwent four midweek HD treatments consecutively, using, during each four-hour HD session, one of the following four dialysate formulations, in randomized order, which differed only with regard to dMg and dialysate calcium (dCa) concentrations (in mmol/L): 0.75 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group I); 0.25 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group II); 0.75 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group III); 0.25 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group IV). Before HD and at four 60-minute intervals during the HD sessions, BP and noninvasive measurements of cardiac index (CI) were obtained. Additionally, 14 HD patients were treated for four weeks with 0.5 mmol/L dMg, followed by four weeks with 0.25 mmol/L dMg, and another four weeks with 0.75 mmol/L dMg, in random order. In all treatments dCa was 1.25 mmol/L. BP and symptoms were recorded during each HD session. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased to a significantly (P dMg was superior to the other two treatments regarding intradialytic morbidity (P dMg level to 0.75 mmol/L could prevent IDH frequently seen with the use of 1.25 mmol/L dCa. Thus, manipulating dMg levels independently or in concert with dCa levels might have important implications with regard to dialysis tolerance.

  19. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  20. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  1. Predicting increased blood pressure using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Soares, Telma de Jesus; Dos Reis, Luciana Araujo; Santos, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  2. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  3. Hyperuricemia and non-dipping blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marrone O

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Oreste Marrone,1 Maria Rosaria Bonsignore1,21National Research Council, Institute of Biomedicine and Molecular Immunology, Palermo, Italy; 2Biomedical Department of Internal and Specialistic Medicine, University of Palermo, Palermo, ItalyThe strong association between the metabolic derangements that characterize the metabolic syndrome with arterial hypertension is very well-known, as it is the common finding of hyperuricemia in the patients with the metabolic syndrome. Besides, hyperuricemia has been found to be associated with cardiovascular, renal, and metabolic diseases; including not only gout but also type 2 diabetes mellitus, although its role as a risk factor is still debated.1 We were not aware of previous studies describing an association between uric acid levels and the non-dipping 24-hour blood pressure (BP pattern, and for that reason we were intrigued by Tutal et al’s article, regarding hypertensive patients with the metabolic syndrome.2 The authors explain some possible causes that could determine an increase in uric acid in the metabolic syndrome, and describe some pathogenetic mechanisms of systemic hypertension in their patients. We would like to point out one more possible mechanism that could link hyperuricemia to non-dipping BP.View original paper by Tutal et al

  4. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...... the circulation to the muscles was arrested just prior to the cessation of the contraction, blood pressure only partly recovered and remained elevated for as long as the occlusion persisted, indicating the level of pressure-raising muscle chemoreflexes. Based on blood pressure recordings obtained during...

  5. Achieved Blood Pressure and Outcomes in the Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odden, Michelle C; McClure, Leslie A; Sawaya, B Peter; White, Carole L; Peralta, Carmen A; Field, Thalia S; Hart, Robert G; Benavente, Oscar R; Pergola, Pablo E

    2016-01-01

    Studies suggest a J-shaped association between blood pressure and cardiovascular events in the setting of intensive systolic blood pressure control; whether there is a similar association with stroke remains less well established. The Secondary Prevention of Small Subcortical Strokes was a randomized trial to evaluate higher (130-149 mm Hg) versus lower (blood pressure targets in participants with recent lacunar infarcts. We evaluated the association of mean achieved blood pressure, 6 months after randomization, and recurrent stroke, major vascular events, and all-cause mortality. After a mean follow up of 3.7 years, there was a J-shaped association between achieved blood pressure and outcomes; the lowest risk was at ≈124 and 67 mm Hg systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. For example, above a systolic blood pressure of 124 mm Hg, 1 standard deviation higher (11.1 mm Hg) was associated with increased mortality (adjusted hazard ratio: 1.9; 95% confidence interval: 1.4, 2.7), whereas below this level, this relationship was inverted (0.29; 0.10, 0.79), Pblood pressure of 67 mm Hg, a 1 standard deviation higher (8.2 mm Hg) was associated with an increased risk of stroke (2.2; 1.4, 3.6), whereas below this level, the association was in the opposite direction (0.34; 0.13, 0.89), P=0.02 for interaction. The lowest risk of all events occurred at a nadir of ≈120 to 128 mm Hg systolic blood pressure and 65 to 70 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure. Future studies should evaluate the impact of excessive blood pressure reduction, especially in older populations with preexisting vascular disease. URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00059306. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  6. Substantial effect of acute hydration on blood pressure in patients with autonomic failure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, J; Boesen, F

    1987-01-01

    fraction were measured in the supine position. Measurements were repeated after rapid infusion of 11 of isotonic saline. Acute hydration resulted in increased supine mean blood pressure levels (P less than 0.01) despite normal plasma volumes in all patients. The postural reductions in mean blood pressure......The effect of acute hydration on arterial blood pressure levels was investigated in ten patients with severe postural hypotension due to autonomic failure. Blood pressure and heart rate were determined in the supine and 60-degree head-up tilted position. Plasma volume and left ventricular ejection...... were reduced from 40 mmHg before to 20 mmHg after saline (median values, P less than 0.01). The results indicate that normal plasma volumes do not ensure optimal circulatory status in patients with autonomic failure. Acute hydration with isotonic saline may be used for immediate corrections of blood...

  7. High blood pressure in acute ischemic stroke and clinical outcome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manabe, Yasuhiro; Kono, Syoichiro; Tanaka, Tomotaka; Narai, Hisashi; Omori, Nobuhiko

    2009-11-16

    This study aimed to evaluate the prognostic value of acute phase blood pressure in patients with acute ischemic stroke by determining whether or not it contributes to clinical outcome. We studied 515 consecutive patients admitted within the first 48 hours after the onset of ischemic strokes, employing systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements recorded within 36 hours after admission. High blood pressure was defined when the mean of at least 2 blood pressure measurements was ≥200 mmHg systolic and/or ≥110 mmHg diastolic at 6 to 24 hours after admission or ≥180 mmHg systolic and/or ≥105 mmHg diastolic at 24 to 36 hours after admission. The high blood pressure group was found to include 16% of the patients. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, hypercholesterolemia, atrial fibrillation, ischemic heart disease, stroke history, carotid artery stenosis, leukoaraiosis, NIH Stroke Scale (NIHSS) on admission and mortality were not significantly correlated with either the high blood pressure or non-high blood pressure group. High blood pressure on admission was significantly associated with a past history of hypertension, kidney disease, the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) on discharge and the length of stay. On logistic regression analysis, with no previous history of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, atrial fibrillation, and kidney disease were independent risk factors associated with the presence of high blood pressure [odds ratio (OR), 1.85 (95% confidence interval (CI): 1.06-3.22), 1.89 (95% CI: 1.11-3.22), and 3.31 (95% CI: 1.36-8.04), respectively]. Multi-organ injury may be presented in acute stroke patients with high blood pressure. Patients with high blood pressure had a poor functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke.

  8. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski [Faculdade Evangélica do Paraná, Curitiba, PR (Brazil); Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha, E-mail: jrochafaria@cardiol.br; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino [Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Paraná (PUC-PR), Curitiba, PR (Brazil)

    2014-04-15

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.

  9. Dietary Interventions and Blood Pressure in Latin America - Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence

  10. Dietary interventions and blood pressure in Latin America - systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzaro, Caroline Cantalejo; Klostermann, Flávia Caroline; Erbano, Bruna Olandoski; Schio, Nicolle Amboni; Guarita-Souza, Luiz César; Olandoski, Marcia; Faria-Neto, José Rocha; Baena, Cristina Pellegrino

    2014-04-01

    High blood pressure is the major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Low blood pressure control rates in Latin American populations emphasize the need for gathering evidence on effective therapies. To evaluate the effects of dietary interventions on blood pressure in Latin American populations. Systematic review. Electronic databases (MEDLINE/PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, SciELO, LILACS and VHL) were searched and manual search for studies published up to April 2013 was performed. Parallel studies about dietary interventions in Latin American adult populations assessing arterial blood pressure (mm Hg) before and after intervention were included. Of the 405 studies identified, 10 randomized controlled trials were included and divided into 3 subgroups according to the proposed dietary intervention. There was a non-significant reduction in systolic blood pressure in the subgroups of mineral replacement (-4.82; 95% CI: -11.36 to 1.73) and complex pattern diets (-3.17; 95% CI: -7.62 to 1.28). Regarding diastolic blood pressure, except for the hyperproteic diet subgroup, all subgroups showed a significant reduction in blood pressure: -4.66 mmHg (95% CI: -9.21 to -0.12) and -4.55 mmHg (95% CI: -7.04 to -2.06) for mineral replacement and complex pattern diets, respectively. Available evidence on the effects of dietary changes on blood pressure in Latin American populations indicates a homogeneous effect of those interventions, although not significant for systolic blood pressure. Samples were small and the quality of the studies was generally low. Larger studies are required to build robust evidence.

  11. Blood pressure lowering effect of Tylophora hirsuta wall | Ahmad ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Crude hydromethanolic extract of Tylophora hirsuta (Th.Cr) was studied in spontaneous hypertensive Wistar rats for possible effects on high blood pressure and heart rate. In the absence of atropine, fall in arterial blood pressure was 64±7 mmHg at the dose of 100 mg/kg while in the presence of atropine, there was no effect ...

  12. Non-hemodynamic predictors of blood pressure in recreational sport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Currently, there are evidences that regular physical activity is an efficient means to control high blood pressure. This cross-sectional study aims at identifying in subjects who exercise in non-institutional structures at Cotonou, the main factors that account for the inter-individual variations of the blood pressure. Four adiposity ...

  13. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  14. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  15. Relationship between blood pressure, body mass index and health ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: Globally, studies have shown that the trend of overweight and obesity has increased astronomically and there is a close link between body mass index and blood pressure. This study determined the link between the body mass index (BMI), blood pressure and health promoting practices of women in rural and ...

  16. Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chronic Tea Consumption Lowers Blood Pressure in Rats: Some Associated Mechanisms. ... Nigerian Journal of Health and Biomedical Sciences ... In experiment 5, group 9 (kept on NF and indomethacin solution) also had similar BP as group 10 (kept on ... KEY WORDS: Blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), rats, tea.

  17. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal from...

  18. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts,

  19. Cardiovascular Topics Blood pressure control at a hospital day clinic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1999-02-01

    Feb 1, 1999 ... control in a hospital day clinic population receiving cal- cium channel ... we had showed poor control of blood pressure in this hospital-based population .... Assessment of com- .... Program are obering: 19 almost half of newly treated hyper- tensives will di ... blood pressure control and quality of life. There is ...

  20. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure Updated:Jan 29,2018 Understanding the heart-healthy ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  1. How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Jan 29,2018 ... This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  2. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  3. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at

  4. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  5. Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa on Blood Pressure and Electrolyte Profile of Mild to Moderate Hypertensive Nigerians: A Comparative Study with Hydrochlorothiazide. ... Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of HS consumption on blood pressure (BP) and electrolytes of mild to moderate hypertensive Nigerians ...

  6. Limiting the blood pressure response in young males during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studies have shown that resistance exercises are beneficial in the lowering of blood pressure. This is of great significance to hypertensive patients. Unfortunately the acute effect that resistance exercises have on blood pressure can be harmful. The seated single leg press was used in this study due to the availability of ...

  7. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2013-01-01

    a reliable blood pressure reading. Results: We found that the patients did not adhere to given instructions when performing blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room. None of the 81 patients adhered to all six inves- tigated recommendations, while around a quarter adhered to five out of six...

  8. Effects of Malaria on Blood Pressure, Heart Rate, Electrocardiogram ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of malaria on blood pressure, heart rate, electrocardiogram and the cardiovascular responses to postural change were studied in malaria patients. Blood pressure was measured by the sphygmomanometric-auscultatory method. Standard ECG machine was used to record the electrocardiogram. Heart rate was ...

  9. Blood pressure indices and disease severity in patients with sickle ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Individuals with sickle cell anaemia (SCA) have lower systemic blood pressures compared to individuals with haemoglobin Hb AA phenotype. Objective: To evaluate blood pressure indices of individuals with SCA in steady state, in comparison with haematological and clinical markers of disease severity.

  10. Effects of aging on blood pressure variability in resting conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerman, D. P.; Imholz, B. P.; Wieling, W.; Karemaker, J. M.; van Montfrans, G. A.

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of aging on beat-to-beat blood pressure and pulse interval variability in resting conditions and to determine the effect of aging on the sympathetic and vagal influence on the cardiovascular system by power spectral analysis of blood pressure

  11. Blood pressure and heart rate adjustment following acute Frenkel's ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Frenkel's ambulatory activity has been routinely employed by physiotherapists for rehabilitation of gait coordination, however, its immediate influence on blood pressure and heart rate has not been investigated. Objective: To investigate the acute effect of Frenkel's ambulatory activity on blood pressure and ...

  12. Hypertension. Age-specificity of blood-pressure-associated complications

    OpenAIRE

    Staessen, Jan A

    2014-01-01

    In an analysis of electronic health records, 1.25 million patients aged ≥30 years without diagnosed cardiovascular disease experienced 83,098 cardiovascular events during follow-up (median 5.2 years). Associations between incident cardiovascular disease and blood pressure differed for systolic and diastolic blood pressures and between the 12 cardiovascular end points examined.

  13. Blood Pressure Abnormalities in Parkinson's Disease in a Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To compare the effect of posture on blood pressure in levodopa-treated Parkinson's disease (PD) patients with that of age-matched controls. The design is a case control study. Blood pressure was recorded manually in the seated position with Accossons® mercury sphygmomanometer in 30 consecutive patients with PD on ...

  14. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Over- ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful choices. Among ...

  15. Blood Pressure Management in Cardiovascular Risk Stratification. Procedure, Progression, Process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adiyaman, A.

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we have explored different aspects of blood pressure measurement and related it to the risk of cardiovascular disease. In the first part we showed that when the arm is positioned under heart level, for example when the arm is placed on a desk or a chair support, the blood pressure and

  16. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    1. Although several epidemiological studies have not observed significant independent relationships between physical activity or fitness and blood pressure, others have concluded that blood pressure is lower in individuals who are more fit or active. However, longitudinal intervention studies are more appropriate for assessing the effects of physical activity on blood pressure. 2. Previously, we have performed meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials involving dynamic aerobic endurance training or resistance training. Inclusion criteria were: random allocation to intervention and control; physical training as the sole intervention; inclusion of healthy sedentary normotensive and/or hypertensive adults; intervention duration of at least 4 weeks; availability of systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure; and publication in a peer-reviewed journal up to December 2003. 3. The meta-analysis on endurance training involved 72 trials and 105 study groups. After weighting for the number of trained participants, training induced significant net reductions of resting and day time ambulatory blood pressure of 3.0/2.4 mmHg (P hypertensive study groups (-6.9/-4.9) than in the others (-1.9/-1.6; P training has been less well studied. A meta-analysis of nine randomized controlled trials (12 study groups) on mostly dynamic resistance training revealed a weighted net reduction of diastolic blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  17. Renal denervation beyond the bifurcation: The effect of distal ablation placement on safety and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beeftink, Martine M A; Spiering, Wilko; De Jong, Mark R; Doevendans, Pieter A; Blankestijn, Peter J; Elvan, Arif; Heeg, Jan-Evert; Bots, Michiel L; Voskuil, Michiel

    2017-04-01

    Renal denervation may be more effective if performed distal in the renal artery because of smaller distances between the lumen and perivascular nerves. The authors reviewed the angiographic results of 97 patients and compared blood pressure reduction in relation to the location of the denervation. No significant differences in blood pressure reduction or complications were found between patient groups divided according to their spatial distribution of the ablations (proximal to the bifurcation in both arteries, distal to the bifurcation in one artery and distal in the other artery, or distal to the bifurcation in both arteries), but systolic ambulatory blood pressure reduction was significantly related to the number of distal ablations. No differences in adverse events were observed. In conclusion, we found no reason to believe that renal denervation distal to the bifurcation poses additional risks over the currently advised approach of proximal denervation, but improved efficacy remains to be conclusively established. ©2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Wearing an abdominal belt increases diastolic blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafacz, W; McGill, S M

    1996-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of wearing an abdominal belt on blood pressure (systolic and diastolic) and heart rate during a variety of tasks. The belt was typical of the elastic type with suspenders and Velcro tabs for cinching the belt snug. The tasks performed included sitting at rest, sitting with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees, standing with the torso inclined forward at 45 degrees (with and without holding an 11-kg weight), a trunk axial rotation task, and squat lifting. Blood pressure was monitored noninvasively with a FINAPRES blood pressure monitor. Twenty healthy men performed each task with and without the abdominal belt. Although no significant increases in mean systolic blood pressure or heart rate were found, there was a significant increase in diastolic blood pressure in all conditions. All people considering wearing an abdominal belt should also consider the risks and liability associated with the additional cardiovascular load, particularly heart attack and stroke.

  19. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  20. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  1. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age...... and accrued $155 261 in lifetime costs, while intensive management yielded 10.5 QALYs and accrued $176 584 in costs. Intensive blood pressure management cost $23 777 per QALY gained. In a sensitivity analysis, serious adverse events would need to occur at 3 times the rate observed in SPRINT and be 3 times...

  2. Blood pressure measurement: one arm or both arm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Prasad K; Shekhar, Susheela; Reddy, B N; Nirmala, B C

    2011-09-01

    Guidelines for measuring blood pressure includes measurement of blood pressure on both arms but it is often ignored. Our case report aims at highlighting the need follow the guidelines. A 60 year old 59 kg weighing male asymptomatic patient without any comobidities was posted for bilateral inguinal hernia repair. The interarm blood pressure difference was discovered incidentally during his preanaesthetic evalution. On further evaluation patient was found to be having subclavian stenosis on left side which was asymptomatic. Intraoperative and post operative period was uneventful. Blood pressure measurement should be done in accordance with the stipulated guidelines. Inter arm blood pressure difference should be noted in all patients as not only for diagnosis and treatment of hypertension but also as a tool to diagnose asymptomatic peripheral vascular disesase.

  3. Blood pressure and pain sensitivity in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drouin, Sammantha; McGrath, Jennifer J

    2013-06-01

    Elevated blood pressure is associated with diminished pain sensitivity. While this finding is well established in adults, it is less clear when the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges across the life course. Evidence suggests this phenomenon may exist during childhood. Children (N = 309; 56% boys) aged 10-15 years and their parents participated. Blood pressure readings were taken during a resting baseline. Maximum pain intensity was rated using a visual analogue scale (rated 0-10) in response to a finger prick pain induction. Parent-measured resting blood pressure was inversely associated with boys' pain ratings only. Cross-sectionally, lower pain ratings were related to higher SBP, univariately. Longitudinally, pain ratings predicted higher DBP, even after controlling for covariates. Determining when and how the relation between blood pressure and pain sensitivity emerges may elucidate the pathophysiology of hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  4. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter...

  5. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP...... immigrants to Denmark exhibit a lower 24-h ABP than Danes. In young Afghans, PRA is less sensitive to changes in salt intake, while PNA is higher and may reflect their lower systolic blood pressure and/or arterial pulse pressure. Whether these hormonal differences can explain the lower 24-h ABP in Afghans...

  6. Meta-analysis of timolol on diurnal and nighttime intraocular pressure and blood pressure.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Lee, Princeton Wen-Yuan

    2012-02-01

    PURPOSE: To evaluate the nighttime intraocular pressure (IOP) and blood pressure (BP) response to timolol treatment in patients with ocular hypertension or primary open-angle glaucoma. METHODS: This was a meta-analysis of previously published studies that must have been randomized, prospective, crossover or parallel, single or double-masked trials. The treatment period must have been >\\/=2 weeks with >\\/=19 patients per treatment arm for a crossover, and >\\/=50 patients for a parallel designed trial. Studies must have included both baseline and treated 24-hour curves. RESULTS: For the IOP analysis, we included 8 articles with 340 patients. A reduction from baseline was observed for timolol at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.009). When 2 studies, in which timolol was used adjunctively, were removed, a similar difference was observed as above at each time point and for the 24-hour curve (p<\\/=0.003). In 2 studies, there were small reductions from baseline for the mean diastolic and systolic BPs at most time points and for the 24-hour curve (3.9 and 4.2 mmHg, respectively) with timolol treatment. The ocular perfusion pressure did not show any difference between baseline and timolol treatment at any time point or for the 24-hour curve (p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis suggests that topical timolol therapy provides an ocular hypotensive effect over the 24-hour curve, including the nighttime hours, and while small reductions in the systolic and diastolic pressures occur, the ocular perfusion pressure is not altered over 24 hours.

  7. High Blood Pressure and Chronic Kidney Disease in Children: A Guide for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Events Advocacy Donate A to Z Health Guide High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease in Children Print Email High ... such as the heart and brain. What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of your blood ...

  8. Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Heather Hayes; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; DuBose, Katrina D; Reeves, Mathew J; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

  9. Blood pressure targets in type 2 diabetes. Evidence against or in favour of an aggressive approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancia, Giuseppe; Grassi, Guido

    2018-03-01

    When associated with high blood pressure, type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterised by a high risk of adverse cardiovascular (CV) and renal outcomes. However, both can be effectively reduced by antihypertensive treatment. Current guidelines on the treatment of hypertension emphasize the need to effectively treat high blood pressure in diabetic individuals, but their recommendations differ in terms of the optimal target blood pressure value to aim for in order to maximise CV and renal protection. In some guidelines the recommended target blood pressure values are blood pressure values close or even less than 130/80 mmHg are recommended. This paper will discuss the evidence for and against a conservative or more aggressive blood pressure target for treated diabetic hypertensive individuals based on the evidence provided by randomised trials, trial meta-analyses and large observational studies. Based on the available evidence, it appears that blood pressure targets will probably have to be lower than <140/90 mmHg, and that values approaching 130/80 mmHg should be recommended. However, evidence in favour of even lower systolic values, i.e. <130 mmHg, is limited and is definitively against a reduction to <120 mmHg.

  10. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  11. Making hypertensive smokers motivated in quitting: developing 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Chi Pang; Tsai, Min Kuang; Chan, Hui Ting; Tsai, Shan Pou; Cheng, Ting Yuan David; Chiang, Po Huang

    2008-04-01

    To express the increased risk from smoking in terms of 'blood pressure' so that hypertensive smokers are motivated into quitting. Mortality risks of smokers were compared with nonsmokers in a large worker cohort in Taiwan (n = 23755 with a 17-year follow-up) for all-cause and for cardiovascular diseases. The blood pressure equivalence of smoking was then identified by the difference in mortality risks between smokers and nonsmokers. Some interaction between hypertension and smoking was found to be synergistic. When hypertension and smoking co-existed, the all-cause mortality outcome [relative risk (RR) = 4.25] was larger than the sum or product of each individual risk for hypertension (RR = 2.16) or for smoking (RR = 1.97). The excess mortality risks of smoking for smokers were converted into a 'blood pressure equivalence'. The results demonstrate that the addition of smoking was similar to an increase of mortality risk approximately equivalent to an increase in blood pressure of 40 mmHg. Smoking cessation in hypertensive patients could provide a reduction of mortality risks similar to a permanent reduction of 40 mmHg in blood pressure, over and above any antihypertensive medications. Appreciating this relationship enables physicians to bridge the clinical disconnection and motivates hypertensive smokers to seek smoking cessation. The use of a 'blood pressure equivalence of smoking' can link the two separate risk factors and may lead to a paradigm shift in overcoming an existing clinical challenge.

  12. Circadian blood pressure patterns and blood pressure control in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Daniele, Nicola; Fegatelli, Danilo Alunni; Rovella, Valentina; Castagnola, Veronica; Gabriele, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo

    2017-12-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for chronic kidney disease (CKD), and CKD progression is associated with suboptimal blood pressure (BP) control. Here we evaluate the impact of CKD on the attainment of BP control and the circadian BP profile in older subjects. In this observational study, we studied 547 patients referred to the hypertension clinic, of whom 224 (40.9%) had CKD. Blood pressure (BP) control and circadian BP patterns were evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring. Circadian BP variability was measured as the within-subject SD of BP, the percentage of measurements exceeding normal values, hypotension, and dipping status. The attainment of adequate BP control was similar in subjects with or without CKD (around 31%). Logistic regression analysis indicated that CKD was not a determinant of adequate BP control (OR 1.004; 95% CI 0.989-1.019; p = 0.58). Patients with CKD presented as twice as higher prevalence of reverse dipper (night-time peak) for systolic BP and episodes of hypotension during daytime, independently of BP control. Knowledge of the circadian pattern of BP in hypertensive subjects with CKD could inform better than attainment of BP target about risky condition for CKD progression and cognitive decline and allow a more personalized antihypertensive treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  14. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... for CRVE, and 0.67 +/- 0.05 microm for AVR. No significant influence on artery or vein diameters was found for gender, smoking, body mass index (BMI), total cholesterol, fasting blood glucose, or 2-hour oral glucose tolerance test values. CONCLUSIONS: In healthy young adults with normal blood pressure...

  15. Altered phase interactions between spontaneous blood pressure and flow fluctuations in type 2 diabetes mellitus: Nonlinear assessment of cerebral autoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Kun; Peng, C. K.; Huang, Norden E.; Wu, Zhaohua; Lipsitz, Lewis A.; Cavallerano, Jerry; Novak, Vera

    2008-04-01

    Cerebral autoregulation is an important mechanism that involves dilatation and constriction in arterioles to maintain relatively stable cerebral blood flow in response to changes of systemic blood pressure. Traditional assessments of autoregulation focus on the changes of cerebral blood flow velocity in response to large blood pressure fluctuations induced by interventions. This approach is not feasible for patients with impaired autoregulation or cardiovascular regulation. Here we propose a newly developed technique-the multimodal pressure-flow (MMPF) analysis, which assesses autoregulation by quantifying nonlinear phase interactions between spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and flow velocity during resting conditions. We show that cerebral autoregulation in healthy subjects can be characterized by specific phase shifts between spontaneous blood pressure and flow velocity oscillations, and the phase shifts are significantly reduced in diabetic subjects. Smaller phase shifts between oscillations in the two variables indicate more passive dependence of blood flow velocity on blood pressure, thus suggesting impaired cerebral autoregulation. Moreover, the reduction of the phase shifts in diabetes is observed not only in previously-recognized effective region of cerebral autoregulation (type 2 diabetes mellitus alters cerebral blood flow regulation over a wide frequency range and that this alteration can be reliably assessed from spontaneous oscillations in blood pressure and blood flow velocity during resting conditions. We also show that the MMPF method has better performance than traditional approaches based on Fourier transform, and is more suitable for the quantification of nonlinear phase interactions between nonstationary biological signals such as blood pressure and blood flow.

  16. Blood pressure and sexual maturity in adolescents: the Heartfelt Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, S D; Mueller, W H; Meininger, J C; Liehr, P; Chan, W

    2001-01-01

    This study investigates sexual maturity as a predictor of resting blood pressures independent of other known predictors, in 179 boys and 204 girls 11-16 years of age from the Heartfelt Study. The sample included youth of African (n = 140), Mexican (n = 117), and European and "other" (n = 126) backgrounds. Sexual maturity was assessed during clinical examination of three standard indicators for each sex. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were higher in children of maturity stages IV and V, compared to stages I-III, in each gender/ethnic group (P maturity for their age group, had significantly higher systolic blood pressures (but not diastolic) than the less advanced in linear models that included height, body mass index (BMI), ethnicity, and age as co-predictors. Diastolic blood pressures were predicted by height in boys and by age and the BMI in girls. This analysis, using a very conservative approach, suggests that sexual maturity provides important and independent information on systolic blood pressure in adolescents. Further investigation of its role in 24-hr blood pressures and in blood pressures taken during physical and emotional stress, is recommended.

  17. Mean Blood Pressure Difference among Adolescents Based on Dyssomnia Types.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sembiring, Krisnarta; Ramayani, Oke Rina; Lubis, Munar

    2018-02-15

    Dyssomnia is the most frequent sleep disturbance and associated with increased blood pressure. There has been no study determining the difference in mean blood pressure based on dyssomnia types among adolescents. To determine the difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types. Cross-sectional study was conducted in SMP Negeri 1 Muara Batang Gadis in April 2016. Samples were students having sleep disturbance based on Sleep Disturbance Scale for Children (SDSC) questionnaire. Stature and blood pressure data were collected along with demographic data and sleep disorder questionnaire. Analyses were done with Kruskal-Wallis test and logistic regression. P - value blood pressure (DBP) was 111.1 (SD 16.46) mmHg and 70.3 (SD 11.98) mmHg respectively. Mean SDSC score was 49.7 (SD 8.96), and the most frequent dyssomnia type was disorders of initiating and maintaining sleep. Age and sex were not the risk factors of hypertension in dyssomnia. There was a significant difference in mean SBP (P = 0.006) and DBP (P = 0.022) based on dyssomnia types. Combination dyssomnia type had the highest mean blood pressure among dyssomnia types. There is a significant difference in mean blood pressure among adolescents based on dyssomnia types.

  18. Associations between bacterial infections and blood pressure in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petry, Clive J; Ong, Ken K; Hughes, Ieuan A; Acerini, Carlo L; Dunger, David B

    2017-10-01

    To test the hypothesis that bacterial infections in pregnancy are related to maternal blood pressure. Bacterial infection was assessed using antibiotic usage as a surrogate and its association with blood pressure in pregnancy tested in the Cambridge Baby Growth Study. Antibiotic usage in pregnancy was self-reported in questionnaires. Blood pressure measurements at four time points in pregnancy were collected from the hospital notes of 622 women. Using all the available blood pressure readings (adjusted for weeks gestation) antibiotic usage was associated with a higher mean arterial blood pressure across pregnancy: antibiotics used 85(84, 87)mmHg vs. no antibiotics used 83 (83, 84) mmHg (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg, p=9.6×10 -3 , from 621 individuals). Further analysis revealed that antibiotic usage was associated with diastolic (β=2.3 (0.6, 4.0) mmHg; p=7.0×10 -3 ) more than systolic blood pressure (β=1.4(-0.9, 3.7)mmHg; p=0.2). The effect size associated with antibiotic usage appeared to rise slightly after the first trimester. Bacterial infection in pregnancy, as assessed by self-reported antibiotic usage, is associated with small rises in blood pressure. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  20. Chronobiometric assessment of autogenic training effects upon blood pressure and heart rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Y; Halberg, F; Cornélissen, G; Saito, Y; Fukuda, K; Otsuka, K; Kikuchi, T

    1996-12-01

    Autogenic training, a method of self-hypnosis, lowers the extent of within-day variation of systolic blood pressure assessed by the circadian double amplitude. The blood pressure and heart rate of ten patients, conventionally diagnosed as having hypertension or white-coat hypertension, were automatically monitored at 30-min intervals for 7 days before autogenic training and again for 7 days, at 1 or 2 months after the start of autogenic training (practiced three times daily). The circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure of the patients investigated was 3 to 17 mm Hg lower on autogenic training. In 5 patients, reductions by 7 to 17 mm Hg were statistically significant. These results are regarded as provisional statistics, the utility of which depends on replication. By contrast, the over-all group reduction of the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure by 8 mm Hg on the average can be taken at face value. Autogenic training also lowered the circadian double amplitude of diastolic blood pressure, but the effect was small as was the effect of autogenic training upon the MESOR (a rhythm adjusted mean) and acrophase (a measure of the timing of over-all high values recurring each day). The effect of autogenic training upon the circadian double amplitude of systolic blood pressure suggests its trial as first-line treatment of patients with an excessive circadian blood pressure amplitude, a condition which, even in the absence of an elevated 24-hr, average of blood pressure, is associated with a large increase in the risk of developing ischemic stroke or nephropathy.

  1. Increased nocturnal blood pressure in enuretic children with polyuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Anne; Mahler, Birgitte; Rittig, Soren; Djurhuus, Jens Christian

    2009-10-01

    We investigated the association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine production in children with enuresis. A total of 39 consecutive children with a mean age of 9.8 years (range 6.2 to 14.9) with monosymptomatic nocturnal enuresis completed a bladder diary, including 2 weeks of basic documentation and 2 with desmopressin titration from 120 to 240 microg sublingually. Arterial blood pressure was measured every 30 minutes during 24 hours and during 4 additional nights using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor. Furthermore, 10 healthy children were recruited into the study who completed a bladder diary for 5 days while measuring arterial blood pressures with documentation of all intake and voided volumes. Patients with nocturnal polyuria had significantly higher nocturnal mean arterial pressure than patients without polyuria and controls (p polyuria than in children without polyuria. There was a significant positive correlation between average nocturnal mean arterial pressure and nocturnal urine volume in the whole study. The association between nocturnal blood pressure and urine volume, and the role of blood pressure should be investigated in a larger group of children with enuresis who have nocturnal polyuria.

  2. Accuracy of home blood pressure readings: monitors and operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stryker, Trina; Wilson, Merne; Wilson, Thomas W

    2004-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of automated digital blood pressure monitoring devices and operators in the community. Also, we tested the effects of a simple education program, and looked for arm-arm differences. Subjects who had bought their own automated digital blood pressure monitor were recruited via an advertisement in the local newspaper. On arrival, they were asked to record their blood pressure exactly as they would at home. The investigator noted any technique deficiencies then corrected them. Blood pressures were then recorded by the investigator and the subject, on opposite arms, simultaneously, and repeated with the arms switched. Finally, subjects recorded their blood pressure again. The subjects' readings were compared to the average of monitor and mercury readings using Bland-Altman methods. A total of 80 subjects were tested. Before educating, subjects' systolic blood pressure (SBP) readings were +5.8+/-6.4 (standard deviation) mmHg greater than the mean of all readings, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were +1.3+/-4.0 mmHg; after educating they were +1.3+/-4.0 and -1.3+/-2.7 respectively. The monitors, as a group, were accurate, and met British Hypertension Society and AAMI highest standards. We found no differences among monitors that had been validated (n=26) and those that had not. There were differences between the arms: 5.3+/-5.2 mmHg for SBP and 3.4+/-3.3 mmHg for DBP. Most patients had never been informed by anyone of proper blood pressure measuring techniques. We conclude that home blood pressure measurement, as practiced in our community, is prone to error, mostly due to mistakes by the operator. These can easily be corrected, so that readings become more accurate. Attention should be paid to arm-arm differences.

  3. Prevalence of pre-high blood pressure and high blood pressure among non-overweight children and adolescents using international blood pressure references in developed regions in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changwei; Xu, Shuang; Wang, Hua; Wang, Wenming; Shen, Hui

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of data on the prevalence of pre-high blood pressure (PreHBP) and high blood pressure (HBP), based on recent international blood pressure references, in non-overweight children and adolescents. To describe the prevalence of PreHBP and HBP in non-overweight children and adolescents in developed regions of China. In total, 588 097 non-overweight children and adolescents aged 6-17 years from the National Surveys on Chinese Students' Constitution and Health in 2015 were included. The prevalence of PreHBP was 13.41% and subjects in urban areas had a higher prevalence of PreHBP (14.14%) than those in rural areas (12.92%). Subjects in regions with a high (13.56%) or moderate (13.61%) socioeconomic status showed a higher prevalence of PreHBP than those in regions with a relatively low socioeconomic status (12.76%). A similar pattern was found for the prevalence of HBP, and the prevalence of HBP was 18.25% for all participants, 20.55% for subjects in urban areas, 16.71% in rural areas, 18.76% in high socioeconomic areas, 18.62% in moderate socioeconomic areas and 16.70% in relatively low socioeconomic areas. A large proportion of non-overweight children and adolescents had elevated blood pressure and there were urban-rural and socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of elevated blood pressure.

  4. Home blood pressure measurement in elderly patients with cognitive impairment: comparison of agreement between relative-measured blood pressure and automated blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plichart, Matthieu; Seux, Marie-Laure; Caillard, Laure; Chaussade, Edouard; Vidal, Jean-Sébastien; Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2013-08-01

    Home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) is recommended by guidelines for hypertension management. However, this method might be difficult to use in elderly individuals with cognitive disorders. Our aim was to assess the agreement and the feasibility of HBPM by a relative as compared with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) in elderly patients with dementia. Sixty outpatients with dementia aged 75 years and older with office hypertension (≥140/90 mmHg) were subjected successively to HBPM by a trained relative and 24-h ABPM. The order of the two methods was randomized. Current guidelines' thresholds for the diagnosis of hypertension were used. The mean (SD) age of the patients was 80.8 (6.1) years (55% women) and the mean (SD) mini-mental state examination score was 20.1 (6.9). The feasibility of relative-HBPM was very high, with a 97% success rate (defined by ≥12/18 measurements reported). The blood pressure measurements were highly correlated between the two methods (r=0.75 and 0.64 for systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, respectively; Pmethods for the diagnosis of sustained hypertension and white-coat hypertension was excellent (overall agreement, 92%; κ coefficient, 0.81; 95% CI, 0.61-0.93). Similar results were found for daytime-ABPM. In cognitively impaired elderly patients, HBPM by a relative using an automated device was a good alternative to 24-h ABPM.

  5. Pressure-mediated reduction of ultrasonically induced cell lysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ciaravino, V.E.; Miller, M.W.; Carstensen, E.L.

    1981-01-01

    Chinese hamster V-79 cells, exposed in polystyrene tubes for 5 min to 1-MHz continuous-wave ultrasound, were lysed more by a 10 than a 5 W/cm 2 intensity. Higher atmospheric pressure was needed to eliminate lysis with the former relative to the latter intensity, but lysis by 10 W/cm 2 was completely climinated with 2 atm of hydrostatic pressure. The reduction in lysis per unit increase in atmospheric pressure was comparable for both ultrasound intensities

  6. Consumption of alcohol and blood pressure: Results of the ELSA-Brasil study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana, Nathália Miguel Teixeira; Mill, José Geraldo; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Moreira, Alexandra Dias; Barreto, Sandhi Maria; Viana, Maria Carmen; Molina, Maria Del Carmen Bisi

    2018-01-01

    Prevention and reduction of excessive use of alcohol represents damages to society in general. In turn, arterial hypertension is the main attributable risk factor premature life lost years and disability. To investigate the relationship between alcohol consumption and high blood pressure in participants of the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). A baseline data of total of 7,655 participants volunteers between 35 and 74 years of age, of both genders, in six educational and research institutions of three different regions of the country were interviewed between 2008-2010. Socioeconomic, haemodynamic, anthropometric and health data were collected in the research centers of ELSA-Brasil. The presence of high blood pressure was identified when the systolic blood pressure was ≥140 mm Hg and/or the diastolic was ≥90 mm Hg. Alcohol consumption was estimated and categorized regarding consumption and pattern of ingestion. The Student's t-test, chi-squared and logistic regression tests were used for analysis, including potential co-variables of the model, and a 5% significance level was adopted. A dose-response relation was observed for the consumption of alcohol (g/week) in systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure. Alcohol consumption was associated with high blood pressure in men who reported moderate (OR = 1.69; 95%CI 1.35-2.11) and excessive (OR = 2.70; 95%CI 2.04-3.59) consumption. Women have nearly three times more chance of presenting elevated blood pressure when presenting excessive consumption (OR = 2.86, 95%CI 1.77-4.63), and binge drinkers who drink more than 2 to 3 times a month have approximately 70% more chance of presenting with elevated blood pressure, after adjusting for consumption of drinks with meals. The consumption of alcohol beverages increases the odds of elevated blood pressure, especially among excessive drinkers. Therefore alcohol consumption needs a more robust regulation in view of its impact on population

  7. [Comparison of invasive blood pressure measurement in the aorta with indirect oscillometric blood pressure measurement at the wrist and forearm].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saul, F; Aristidou, Y; Klaus, D; Wiemeyer, A; Lösse, B

    1995-09-01

    Indirectly measured blood pressure at the wrist or upper arm was compared with directly measured values in the aortic arch during routinely performed diagnostic cardiac catheterization in 100 patients (31-80 years, mean 59.3 years, 60% males). The noninvasive measurements were carried out by oscillometric devices, NAiS Blood Pressure Watch for measurements at the wrist, and Hestia OZ80 at the upper arm. Systolic blood pressure measured at the wrist was 4.3 +/- 14.1 mm Hg, and the diastolic value 6.0 +/- 8.9 mm Hg higher than when measured at the aortic arch; the difference was significant in both cases. Correlation coefficients were 0.85 for systolic and 0.71 for diastolic blood pressure. In 16% of the patients the systolic blood pressure at the wrist differed more than +/- 20 mm Hg. The diastolic blood pressure at the wrist measured more than +/- 20 mm Hg higher than in the aorta in 5% of the patients. At the upper arm mean systolic values were not different to the aorta. The diastolic pressure was 9.3 +/- 9.8 mm Hg higher in the aorta than at the upper arm. To verify the accuracy of values measured with the NAiS Blood Pressure Watch compared with the standard technique at the upper arm, sequential measurements were made at wrist and ipsilateral upper arm in the same group of 100 patients. The systolic blood pressure at the left wrist was 3.4 +/- 13.3 mm Hg higher and the diastolic pressure 3.8 +/- 9.5 mm Hg lower than at the upper arm. Only 53% of systolic values lay within a range of +/- 10 mm Hg. The correspondence between wrist and upper arm values was better for diastolic blood pressure, the values differing by less than +/- 10 mm Hg in two-thirds of patients. Self-measurement of arterial blood pressure with an oscillometric device at the wrist can be recommended only in individual cases with a difference of simultaneously measured values at the upper arm of less than +/- 10 mm Hg for systolic and diastolic blood pressures. The standard method for indirectly

  8. The effect of fish oil supplements on blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lofgren, R P; Wilt, T J; Nichol, K L; Crespin, L; Pluhar, R; Eckfeldt, J

    1993-01-01

    We conducted a double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study to determine the effects of fish oil supplementation on blood pressure in middle-aged men. Subjects were randomly assigned to consume either 20 g of fish oil or safflower oil for 12 weeks and then consume the other oil for an additional 12 weeks after a 4-week washout period. We found no significant changes from the pretreatment value in systolic or diastolic blood pressure with the use of fish oil supplements. In addition, there were no significant differences in the posttreatment blood pressures comparing the fish and safflower oil phases of the study. PMID:8427339

  9. Dairy consumption, systolic blood pressure, and risk of hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Ming; Huang, Tao; Bergholdt, Helle Km

    2017-01-01

    Objective To examine whether previous observed inverse associations of dairy intake with systolic blood pressure and risk of hypertension were causal.Design Mendelian randomization study using the single nucleotide polymorphism rs4988235 related to lactase persistence as an instrumental variable...... blood pressure but not risk of hypertension (odds ratio 0.98, 0.97 to 1.00; P=0.11).Conclusion The weak inverse association between dairy intake and systolic blood pressure in observational studies was not supported by a comprehensive instrumental variable analysis and systematic review of existing...

  10. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  11. Relationship between blood lead, blood pressure, stroke, and heart attacks in middle-aged British men

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pocock, S.J.; Shaper, A.G.; Ashby, D.; Delves, H.T.; Clayton, B.E.

    1988-01-01

    The relationship between blood lead concentration and blood pressure is examined in a survey of 7371 men aged 40 to 59 from 24 British towns. After allowance for relevant confounding variables, including town of residence and alcohol consumption, there exists a very weak but statistically significant positive association between blood lead and both systolic and diastolic blood pressure. After 6 years of follow-up, 316 of these men had major ischemic heart disease, and 66 had a stroke. After allowance for the confounding effects of cigarette smoking and town of residence there is no evidence that blood lead is a risk factor for these cardiovascular events. However, as the blood lead-blood pressure association is so weak, it is unlikely that any consequent association between lead and cardiovascular disease could be demonstrated from prospective epidemiological studies. An overview of data from this and other large epidemiological surveys provides reasonable consistent evidence on lead and blood pressure. While NHANES II data on 2254 US men indicate a slightly stronger association between blood lead and systolic blood pressure, data from two Welsh studies on over 2000 men did not show a statistically significant association. Nevertheless, such statistical association cannot be taken as establishing a causal effect of low-level lead exposure on blood pressure

  12. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood ... values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those ..... nervous system is associated with abdominal visceral ...

  13. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or technician places a strip of chemically treated paper, called a dipstick, into the urine. Patches on the dipstick change color when blood or protein is present in urine. Urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio. A health care provider uses ...

  14. Peripheral vascular effects on auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabbany, S Y; Drzewiecki, G M; Noordergraaf, A

    1993-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to examine the accuracy of the conventional auscultatory method of blood pressure measurement. The influence of the physiologic state of the vascular system in the forearm distal to the site of Korotkoff sound recording and its impact on the precision of the measured blood pressure is discussed. The peripheral resistance in the arm distal to the cuff was changed noninvasively by heating and cooling effects and by induction of reactive hyperemia. All interventions were preceded by an investigation of their effect on central blood pressure to distinguish local effects from changes in central blood pressure. These interventions were sufficiently moderate to make their effect on central blood pressure, recorded in the other arm, statistically insignificant (i.e., changes in systolic [p cooling experiments was statistically significant (p < 0.001). Moreover, both measured systolic (p < 0.004) and diastolic (p < 0.001) pressure decreases during the reactive hyperemia experiments were statistically significant. The findings demonstrate that alteration in vascular state generates perplexing changes in blood pressure, hence confirming experimental observations by earlier investigators as well as predictions by our model studies.

  15. Is the area under blood pressure curve the best parameter to evaluate 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring data?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion, Décio

    2005-10-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) provides relevant data about blood pressure over a 24-h period. The analysis of parameters to determine the blood pressure profile from these data is of great importance. To calculate areas under systolic and diastolic blood pressure curves (SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC) and compare with systolic and diastolic blood pressure load (SBPL/DBPL) and 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure (24-h SBP/24-h DBP) in order to determine which provides the best correlation with left ventricular mass index (LVMI). ABPM measurements (1143 individuals) were analyzed to obtain 24-h SBP/24-h DBP, SBPL/DBPL, and SBP-AUC/ DBP-AUC, using Spacelabs (90207) and CardioSistemas devices. Left ventricular mass was determined using an echocardiograph HP Sonos 5500 and LVMI was calculated. The correlations between all possible pairs within the group 24-h SBP/SBPL/SBP-AUC and 24-h DBP/DBPL/DBP-AUC were high and statistically significant. The correlations between 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC with SBPL/DBPL close to 100%, were lower than those mentioned above. The correlations of the parameters obtained by ABPM with LVMI were also high and statistically significant, except for blood pressure load between 90 and 100%, and for 24-h SBP of 135 mmHg or less and SBPL higher than 50%. SBPL/DBPL and SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC can be used for the evaluation of ABPM data owing to the strong correlation with 24-h SBP/24-h DBP and with LVMI, except when SBPL is close to 100% or 24-h SBP is below 135 mmHg but SBPL is above 50%. SBP-AUC/DBP-AUC, however, are a better alternative because they do not have the limitations of blood pressure load or even of 24-h blood pressure present.

  16. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    OpenAIRE

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-01-01

    Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving a...

  17. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...... load as percentage (%) of systolic/diastolic readings ≥135/≥85 mm Hg and ≥120/≥70 mm Hg during day and night, respectively, or as the area under the BP curve (mm Hg×h) using the same ceiling values. During a period of 10.7 years (median), 1284 participants died and 1109 experienced a fatal or nonfatal...... cardiovascular end point. In multivariable-adjusted models, the risk of cardiovascular complications gradually increased across deciles of BP level and load (Pbased on 24-hour systolic or diastolic BP level (generalized R(2) statistic ≤0.294%; net...

  18. Pathogen reduction of whole blood: utility and feasibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allain, J-P; Goodrich, R

    2017-10-01

    To collect information on pathogen reduction applied to whole blood. Pathogen reduction (PR) of blood components has been developed over the past two decades, and pathogen-reduced fresh-frozen plasma and platelet concentrates are currently in clinical use. High cost and incomplete coverage of components make PR out of reach for low- and middle-income countries (LMIC). However, should PR become applicable to whole blood (WB), the main product transfused in sub-Saharan Africa, and be compatible with the preparation of clinically suitable components, cost would be minimised, and a range of safety measures in place at high cost in developed areas would become redundant. All articles called with "pathogen reduction", "pathogen inactivation" and "whole blood" were retrieved from Medline. References in articles were utilised. One such PR technology (PRT) applied to WB has been developed and has shown efficacious against viruses, bacteria and parasites in vitro; and has been able to inactivate nucleated blood cells whilst retaining the ability to prepare components with acceptable characteristics. The efficacy of this WB PRT has been demonstrated in vivo using the inactivation of Plasmodium falciparum as a model and showing a high degree of correlation between in vitro and in vivo data. Obtaining further evidence of efficacy on other suitable targets is warranted. Shortening of the process, which is currently around 50 min, or increasing the number of units simultaneously processed would be necessary to make PRT WB conducive to LMIC blood services' needs. Even if not 100% effective against agents that are present in high pathogen load titres, WB PRT could massively impact blood safety in LMIC by providing safer products at an affordable cost. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  19. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  20. Blood Pressure Home Monitoring in Hypertensive Patients Attending ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood Pressure Home Monitoring in Hypertensive Patients Attending a Tertiary ... Sixty percent of the patients were aged 50 - 69 years. ... Patients with high BP readings reported that they exercise more and reduced their daily salt intake.

  1. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Antonelli, Lynn T

    2008-01-01

    The invention as disclosed is a non-contact method and apparatus for continuously monitoring a physiological event in a human or animal, such as blood pressure, which involves utilizing a laser-based...

  2. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease. PMID:27168729

  3. Wearable Beat to Beat Blood Pressure Monitor, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key component of NASA's human exploration programs is a system that monitors the health of the crew during space missions. The wearable beat-to-beat blood pressure...

  4. Blood pressure variations in Subjects with different Haemoglobin ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye Samuel

    compared with the normal controls. The systolic blood pressures in control (HB AA) and SCD patients were .... especially in older patients and may predispose them to stroke and other ... autonomic responses to change in posture or vitamin C.

  5. Blood Pressure: Does It Have a Daily Pattern?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and night. With Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Kaplan NM. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and white coat ... www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed Feb. 12, 2015. Kaplan NM, et al. Kaplan's Clinical Hypertension. 10th ed. ...

  6. Association between blood pressure and some other cardiovascular ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    JTEkanem

    2009-11-20

    Nov 20, 2009 ... changing lifestyles and nutrition transition in those regions of the world1. ... largely ignored as a public health problem in ..... education and blood pressure in adults in. Jamaica ... factors in rural and urban elderly populations ...

  7. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Child Health, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Abstract. Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. ..... and treatment of high blood pressure in children and ad- olescents.

  8. Socioeconomic and modifiable predictors of blood pressure control ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    these clinics are nurse led, with varying levels of doctor involvement ... Patient and clinic factors influence blood pressure control and treatment in primary care clinics ..... role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or.

  9. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, Lizzy M.; Mairuhu, Gideon; Bindraban, Navin R.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Clark, Joseph F.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascular

  10. Effect of overtime work on 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, T; Kobayashi, Y; Yamaoka, K; Yano, E

    1996-10-01

    Recently, the adverse effects of long working hours on the cardiovascular systems of workers in Japan, including "Karoshi" (death from overwork), have been the focus of social concern. However, conventional methods of health checkups are often unable to detect the early signs of such adverse effects. To evaluate the influence of overtime work on the cardiovascular system, we compared 24-hour blood pressure measurements among several groups of male white-collar workers. As a result, for those with normal blood pressure and those with mild hypertension, the 24-hour average blood pressure of the overtime groups was higher than that of the control groups; for those who periodically did overtime work, the 24-hour average blood pressure and heart rate during the busy period increased. These results indicate that the burden on the cardiovascular system of white-collar workers increases with overtime work.

  11. [Design of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y P; Zhang, D L; Bai, H W; Zhang, D A

    2000-02-01

    This paper presents the realization and design of a kind of blood-pressure parameter auto-acquisition circuit. The auto-acquisition of blood-pressure parameter controlled by 89C2051 single chip microcomputer is accomplished by collecting and processing the driving signal of LCD. The circuit that is successfully applied in the home unit of telemedicine system has the simple and reliable properties.

  12. Relationship between children’s and parents’ blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Desy Aswira Nasution; Rusdidjas; Supriatmo; Rafita Ramayati; Rosmayanti Siregar

    2014-01-01

    Background A family history of hypertension is a risk factor for hypertension in children. Past studies have reported a significant relationship between elevated blood pressure in children and hypertensive parents. Objective To assess for an association between blood pressure in children and that of their parents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 90 children aged 6-18 years in Baringin Village, Panyabungan, from May to June 2010. Subjects were collected by consecutive ...

  13. Relationship between children’s and parents’ blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Desy Aswira Nasution; Rusdidjas Rusdidjas; Supriatmo Supriatmo; Rafita Ramayati; Oke Rina Ramayani; Rosmayanti Siregar

    2014-01-01

    Background A family history of hypertension is a risk factor for hypertension in children. Past studies have reported a significant relationship between elevated blood pressure in children and hypertensive parents. Objective To assess for an association between blood pressure in children and that of their parents. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in 90 children aged 6-18 years in Baringin Village, Panyabungan, from May to June 2010. Subjects were collected...

  14. [How does salt intake influence blood pressure? Associated aetiopathogenic mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Llama, P; Calero, F

    2017-12-15

    Abundant evidence from epidemiological and experimental studies has established a link between salt and blood pressure. However, there is heterogeneity in the blood pressure responses of humans to changes in sodium intake. Those individuals in whom a severe, abrupt change in salt intake causes the least change in arterial pressure and are termed salt-resistant, whereas in those in whom this leads to large changes in blood pressure, are called salt sensitive. Classically, Guyton's theory of the pressure-natriuresis phenomenon has been accepted to explain the pressor effect of salt, as well as the fundamental role played by the different protein sodium transporters of the renal tubules. In recent years, new theories have emerged pointing to the possible role of the immune system and the existence of a third sodium store in the body as aetiopathogenic factors. Copyright © 2017 SEH-LELHA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Lack of association between systolic blood pressure and blood viscosity in normotensive healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irace, Concetta; Carallo, Claudio; Scavelli, Faustina; Loprete, Antonio; Merante, Valentina; Gnasso, Agostino

    2012-01-01

    A direct relationship between blood pressure and viscosity has frequently been reported, although clear data are not available. To better understand the relationship between these two variables, we evaluated blood viscosity and blood pressure in a group of healthy subjects without cardiovascular risk factors. Healthy subjects were selected from participants in a campaign of prevention of cardiovascular disease (n = 103). They underwent blood sampling for measurement of plasma and blood viscosity, haematocrit, blood lipids and glucose. The quantity and distribution of body fat was assessed by body mass index and waist/hip ratio, respectively. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) correlated significantly with age (r = 0.222) and waist/hip ratio (r = 0.374). Diastolic blood pressure (DBP) correlated significantly with waist/hip ratio (r = 0.216), haematocrit (r = 0.333) and blood viscosity (r = 0.258). Multiple linear regression analyses demonstrated that the only variable significantly associated with SBP was age, while haematocrit was the only variable significantly associated with DBP. Blood viscosity was closely related to waist/hip ratio. These findings show that SBP, in healthy subjects, is not influenced by haematocrit and blood viscosity. In contrast, DBP is related to the values of haematocrit. Among classical cardiovascular risk factors, waist/hip ratio is closely related to blood viscosity.

  16. Can hibiscus tea lower blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibiscus sabdariffa is a common ingredient found in blended herbal teas, and beverages made from the dried calyces of this plant are popular worldwide. In vitro studies have shown that H. sabdariffa has antioxidant properties and, in animal models of hypertension, extracts of this plant lower blood ...

  17. Association between parity and breastfeeding with maternal high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lupton, Samantha J; Chiu, Christine L; Lujic, Sanja; Hennessy, Annemarie; Lind, Joanne M

    2013-06-01

    The objective of this study was to determine how parity and breastfeeding were associated with maternal high blood pressure, and how age modifies this association. Baseline data for 74,785 women were sourced from the 45 and Up Study, Australia. These women were 45 years of age or older, had an intact uterus, and had not been diagnosed with high blood pressure before pregnancy. Odds ratios (ORs) and 99% confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between giving birth, breastfeeding, lifetime breastfeeding duration, and average breastfeeding per child with high blood pressure were estimated using logistic regression. The combination of parity and breastfeeding was associated with lower odds of having high blood pressure (adjusted OR, 0.89; 99% CI, 0.82-0.97; P high blood pressure when compared with parous women who never breastfed. The odds were lower with longer breastfeeding durations and were no longer significant in the majority of women over the age of 64 years. Women should be encouraged to breastfeed for as long as possible and a woman's breastfeeding history should be taken into account when assessing her likelihood of high blood pressure in later life. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular characteristics and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Carol Y; Tay, Wan T; Mitchell, Paul; Wang, Jie J; Hsu, Wynne; Lee, Mong L; Lau, Qiangfeng P; Zhu, Ai L; Klein, Ronald; Saw, Seang M; Wong, Tien Y

    2011-07-01

    The present study examined the effects of blood pressure on a spectrum of quantitative and qualitative retinal microvascular signs. Retinal photographs from the Singapore Malay Eye Study, a population-based cross-sectional study of 3280 (78.7% response) persons aged 40-80 years, were analyzed. Quantitative changes in the retinal vasculature (branching angle, vascular tortuosity, fractal dimension, and vascular caliber) were measured using a semi-automated computer-based program. Qualitative signs, including focal arteriolar narrowing (FAN), arteriovenous nicking (AVN), opacification of the arteriolar wall (OAW), and retinopathy (e.g., microaneurysms, retinal hemorrhages), were assessed from photographs by trained technicians. After excluding persons with diabetes and ungradable photographs, 1913 persons provided data for this analysis. In multivariable linear regression models controlling for age, sex, BMI, use of antihypertensive medication, and other factors, retinal arteriolar branching asymmetry ratio, arteriolar tortuosity, venular tortuosity, fractal dimension, arteriolar caliber, venular caliber, FAN, AVN, and retinopathy were independently associated with mean arterial blood pressure. In contrast, arteriolar/venular branching angle, venular branching asymmetry ratio and OAW were not related to blood pressure. Retinal arteriolar caliber (sβ = -0.277) and FAN (sβ = 0.170) had the strongest associations with mean arterial blood pressure, and higher blood pressure levels were associated with increasing number of both quantitative and qualitative retinal vascular signs (P trend qualitative retinal vascular signs, with the number of signs increasing with higher blood pressure levels.

  19. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function. Copyright © 2013 American Society of Hypertension. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Kiss High Blood Pressure Goodbye: The Relationship between Dark Chocolate and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmoe, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a delicious finding from a recent study claiming a causal link between dark chocolate consumption and blood pressure reductions. In the article, I provide ideas for using this study to whet student appetites for a discussion of statistical ideas, including experimental design, measurement error and inference methods.

  1. Renal denervation beyond the bifurcation : The effect of distal ablation placement on safety and blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeftink, Martine M A; Spiering, Wilko; De Jong, Mark R.; Doevendans, Pieter A.; Blankestijn, Peter J.; Elvan, Arif; Heeg, Jan Evert; Bots, Michiel L.; Voskuil, Michiel

    2017-01-01

    Renal denervation may be more effective if performed distal in the renal artery because of smaller distances between the lumen and perivascular nerves. The authors reviewed the angiographic results of 97 patients and compared blood pressure reduction in relation to the location of the denervation.

  2. Small artery structure adapts to vasodilatation rather than to blood pressure during antihypertensive treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiassen, Ole N.; Buus, Niels H.; Larsen, Mogens L

    2007-01-01

    . RESULTS: In group A, mean ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) fell from 119 +/- 2 (SE) to 103 +/- 2 mmHg (P ABP was unchanged in group B (100 +/- 1 to 99 +/- 1 mmHg, P = NS). Both groups showed similar reductions in Rrest (-33.4 and -28.5%, respectively) and in Rmin (-15.4 and -15...

  3. Effects of fruits and vegetables on electolytes and blood pressure of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    bi-weekly assessment of plasma electrolytes, such as sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate was carried out on the patients. Anthropometric measurements and blood pressure were also assessed biweekly on the patients during their routine clinic attendance. There was a gradual reduction in plasma sodium and ...

  4. Significant role of the cardiopostural interaction in blood pressure regulation during standing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Da; Verma, Ajay K; Garg, Amanmeet; Bruner, Michelle; Fazel-Rezai, Reza; Blaber, Andrew P; Tavakolian, Kouhyar

    2017-09-01

    Cardiovascular and postural control systems have been studied independently despite the increasing evidence showing the importance of cardiopostural interaction in blood pressure regulation. In this study, we aimed to assess the role of the cardiopostural interaction in relation to cardiac baroreflex in blood pressure regulation under orthostatic stress before and after mild exercise. Physiological variables representing cardiovascular control (heart rate and systolic blood pressure), lower limb muscle activation (electromyography), and postural sway (center of pressure derived from force and moment data during sway) were measured from 17 healthy participants (25 ± 2 yr, 9 men and 8 women) during a sit-to-stand test before and after submaximal exercise. The cardiopostural control (characterized by baroreflex-mediated muscle-pump effect in response to blood pressure changes, i.e., muscle-pump baroreflex) was assessed using wavelet transform coherence and causality analyses in relation to the baroreflex control of heart rate. Significant cardiopostural blood pressure control was evident counting for almost half of the interaction time with blood pressure changes that observed in the cardiac baroreflex (36.6-72.5% preexercise and 34.7-53.9% postexercise). Thus, cardiopostural input to blood pressure regulation should be considered when investigating orthostatic intolerance. A reduction of both cardiac and muscle-pump baroreflexes in blood pressure regulation was observed postexercise and was likely due to the absence of excessive venous pooling and a less stressed system after mild exercise. With further studies using more effective protocols evoking venous pooling and muscle-pump activity, the cardiopostural interaction could improve our understanding of the autonomic control system and ultimately lead to a more accurate diagnosis of cardiopostural dysfunctions. NEW & NOTEWORTHY We examined the interaction between cardiovascular and postural control systems during

  5. Salt, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Changes in Human and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Salt, Blood Pressure and Cardiovascular Changes in Human and Experimental Studies – A Review. ... Some of the pathophysiological changes include cardiac hypertrophy and enhanced cardiac contractility, enhanced contraction of blood vessels and veins in response to constrictor agonists and diminished relaxation of ...

  6. Effects of wet-cupping on blood pressure in hypertensive patients: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleyeidi, Nouran A; Aseri, Khaled S; Matbouli, Shadia M; Sulaiamani, Albaraa A; Kobeisy, Sumayyah A

    2015-11-01

    Although cupping remains a popular treatment modality worldwide, its efficacy for most diseases, including hypertension, has not been scientifically evaluated. We aimed to determine the efficacy of wet-cupping for high blood pressure, and the incidence of the procedure's side effects in the intervention group. This is a randomized controlled trial conducted in the General Practice Department at King Abdulaziz University Hospital, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, between May 2013 and February 2014. There were two groups (40 participants each): intervention group undergoing wet-cupping (hijama) in addition to conventional hypertension treatment, and a control group undergoing only conventional hypertension treatment. Three wet-cupping sessions were performed every other day. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured using a validated automatic sphygmomanometer. The follow-up period was 8 weeks. Wet-cupping provided an immediate reduction of systolic blood pressure. After 4 weeks of follow-up, the mean systolic blood pressure in the intervention group was 8.4 mmHg less than in the control group (P=0.046). After 8 weeks, there were no significant differences in blood pressures between the intervention and control groups. In this study, wet-cupping did not result in any serious side effects. Wet-cupping therapy is effective for reducing systolic blood pressure in hypertensive patients for up to 4 weeks, without serious side effects. Wet-cupping should be considered as a complementary hypertension treatment, and further studies are needed. ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier NCT01987583.

  7. Relationship Between Urinary Nitrate Excretion and Blood Pressure in the InChianti Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smallwood, Miranda J; Ble, Alessandro; Melzer, David; Winyard, Paul G; Benjamin, Nigel; Shore, Angela C; Gilchrist, Mark

    2017-07-01

    Inorganic nitrate from the oxidation of endogenously synthesized nitric oxide (NO) or consumed in the diet can be reduced to NO via a complex enterosalivary circulation pathway. The relationship between total nitrate exposure by measured urinary nitrate excretion and blood pressure in a large population sample has not been assessed previously. For this cross-sectional study, 24-hour urinary nitrate excretion was measured by spectrophotometry in the 919 participants from the InChianti cohort at baseline and blood pressure measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer. After adjusting for age and sex only, diastolic blood pressure was 1.9 mm Hg lower in subjects with ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion compared with those excreting nitrate in 24 hours: systolic blood pressure was 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval (CI): -3.5 to -0.4) lower in subjects for the same comparison. Effect sizes in fully adjusted models (for age, sex, potassium intake, use of antihypertensive medications, diabetes, HS-CRP, or current smoking status) were marginally larger: systolic blood pressure in the ≥2 mmol urinary nitrate excretion group was 3.9 (CI: -7.1 to -0.7) mm Hg lower than in the comparison nitrate exposure are associated with lower blood pressure. These differences are at least equivalent to those seen from substantial (100 mmol) reductions in sodium intake. © American Journal of Hypertension, Ltd 2017. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  8. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-01-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s −1 and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P < 0.0001). At all cuff pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P < 0.05). At 40 mmHg cuff pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures

  9. Impact of calibration on estimates of central blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soender, T K; Van Bortel, L M; Møller, J E; Lambrechtsen, J; Hangaard, J; Egstrup, K

    2012-12-01

    Using the Sphygmocor device it is recommended that the radial pressure wave is calibrated for brachial systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). However it has been suggested that brachial-to-radial pressure amplification causes underestimation of central blood pressures (BPs) using this calibration. In the present study we examined if different calibrations had an impact on estimates of central BPs and on the clinical interpretation of our results. On the basis of ambulatory BP measurements, patients were categorized into patients with controlled, uncontrolled or resistant hypertension. We first calibrated the radial pressure wave as recommended and afterwards recalibrated the same pressure wave using brachial DBP and calculated mean arterial pressure. Recalibration of the pressure wave generated significantly higher estimates of central SBP (P=0.0003 and Plost in patients with resistant hypertension (P=0.15). We conclude that calibration with DBP and mean arterial pressure produces higher estimates of central BPs than recommended calibration. The present study also shows that this difference between the two calibration methods can produce more than a systematic error and has an impact on interpretation of clinical results.

  10. Red Wine Polyphenols Do Not Lower Peripheral or Central Blood Pressure in High Normal Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Botden, Ilse P. G.; Draijer, Richard; Westerhof, Berend E.; Rutten, Joost H. W.; Langendonk, Janneke G.; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Danser, A. H. Jan; Zock, Peter L.; van den Meiracker, Anton H.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Epidemiological data suggest that modest red wine consumption may reduce cardiovascular disease risk. Red wine polyphenols improved human endothelial vascular function and reduced blood pressure (BP) in animal studies, but the results of human intervention studies investigating the effect

  11. Aortic and peripheral blood pressure during isometric and dynamic exercise

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blum, V.; Carrière, E.G.J.; Kolsters, W.; Mosterd, W.L.; Schiereck, P.; Wesseling, K.H.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare aortic blood pressure (AOR) to peripheral measurements by the Riva-Rocci/Korotkov (RRK) and Finapres continuous finger pressure (FIN) methods during dynamic and static exercise. A tip manometer was introduced in the ascending aorta after coronary angiography

  12. Blood Pressure and Electrocardiographic changes During Face ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results show that in both groups of subjects face immersion in water (at either temperature) with breath-hold significantly increased BP, QRS amplitude, PR interval, QT interval and R-R interval. Face immersion thus caused a significant reduction in heart rate (HR). However, in both groups of subjects, the changes in BP ...

  13. Reduction in central venous pressure enhances erythropoietin synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Montero, D.; Rauber, S.; Gøtze, Jens Peter

    2016-01-01

    AIMS: Erythropoiesis is a tightly controlled biological event, but its regulation under non-hypoxic conditions, however, remains unresolved. We examined whether acute changes in central venous blood pressure (CVP) elicited by whole-body tilting affect erythropoietin (EPO) concentration according...

  14. Use of Expansion Turbines in Natural Gas Pressure Reduction Stations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poživil Jaroslav

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Through the use of expansion turbines in natural gas pressure reduction stations it is possible to produce clean, “green” electricity.Such energy recovery unit utilize the potential energy of natural gas being delivered under high pressure. Expansion turbines are not onlyefficient and profitable but meet the environmental criteria – no emissions of sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides or carbon dioxide.

  15. Improvement of Diurnal Blood Pressure Variation by Azilsartan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamura, Keisuke; Shirai, Kazuyuki; Okuda, Tetsu; Urata, Hidenori

    2018-01-01

    Azilsartan is an angiotensin II receptor blocker with a potent antihypertensive effect. In a multicenter, prospective, open-label study, 265 patients with poor blood pressure control despite treatment with other angiotensin II receptor blockers were switched to 20 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on standard dosages) or 40 mg/day of azilsartan (patients on high dosages). Blood pressure was 149/83 mm Hg before switching and was significantly reduced from 1 month after switching until final assessment (132/76 mm Hg, P < 0.001). The pulse rate was 72/min before switching and increased significantly from 3 months after switching until final assessment (74/min, P < 0.005). A significant decrease of home morning systolic and diastolic pressure was observed from 1 and 3 months, respectively. Home morning blood pressure was 143/82 mm Hg before switching and 130/76 mm Hg at final assessment (P < 0.01). The morning-evening difference of systolic blood pressure decreased from 14.6 to 6.6 mm Hg after switching (P = 0.09). The estimated glomerular filtration rate was significantly decreased at 3, 6, and 12 months after switching, and serum uric acid was significantly increased at 12 months. No serious adverse events occurred. Azilsartan significantly reduced the blood pressure and decreased diurnal variation in patients responding poorly to other angiotensin II receptor blockers.

  16. Determination of temperature and pressure in the calcium reduction process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arceri, Mariana E.

    1997-01-01

    The calcium reduction process consists in the reduction of uranium tetrafluoride (UF 4 ) with calcium in a refractory material crucible, in order to obtain metallic uranium. The crucible is in turn contained in a steel reactor, heated by means of an induction coil to bring the reagents from the environmental temperature to the temperature necessary for the reaction starting. For the design of the reactor, mathematical expressions that allow to estimate the temperature and pressure of the system have been developed

  17. Vertical sleeve gastrectomy reduces blood pressure and hypothalamic endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne K. McGavigan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Bariatric surgery, such as vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, causes remarkable improvements in cardiometabolic health, including hypertension remission. However, the mechanisms responsible remain undefined and poorly studied. Therefore, we developed and validated the first murine model of VSG that recapitulates the blood pressure-lowering effect of VSG using gold-standard radiotelemetry technology. We used this model to investigate several potential mechanisms, including body mass, brain endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress signaling and brain inflammatory signaling, which are all critical contributors to the pathogenesis of obesity-associated hypertension. Mice fed on a high-fat diet underwent sham or VSG surgery and radiotelemeter implantation. Sham mice were fed ad libitum or were food restricted to match their body mass to VSG-operated mice to determine the role of body mass in the ability of VSG to lower blood pressure. Blood pressure was then measured in freely moving unstressed mice by radiotelemetry. VSG decreased energy intake, body mass and fat mass. Mean arterial blood pressure (MAP was reduced in VSG-operated mice compared with both sham-operated groups. VSG-induced reductions in MAP were accompanied by a body mass-independent decrease in hypothalamic ER stress, hypothalamic inflammation and sympathetic nervous system tone. Assessment of gut microbial populations revealed VSG-induced increases in the relative abundance of Gammaproteobacteria and Enterococcus, and decreases in Adlercreutzia. These results suggest that VSG reduces blood pressure, but this is only partly due to the reduction in body weight. VSG-induced reductions in blood pressure may be driven by a decrease in hypothalamic ER stress and inflammatory signaling, and shifts in gut microbial populations.

  18. Blood pressure standards for Saudi children and adolescents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AlSalloum, Abdullah A.; El Mouzan, Mohammad I.; AlHerbish, Abdullah S.; AlOmar, Ahmad A.; Qurashi, Mansour M.

    2009-01-01

    Blood pressure levels may vary in children because of genetic, ethnic and socioeconomic factors. To date, there have been no large national studies in Saudi Arabia on blood pressure in children. Therefore, we sought to establish representative blood pressure reference centiles for Saudi Arabian children and adolescents. We selected a sample of children and adolescents aged from birth to 18 years by multi-stage probability sampling of the Saudi population. The selected sample represented Saudi children from the whole country. Data were collected through a house-to-house survey of all selected households in all 13 regions in the country. Data were analyzed to study the distribution pattern of systolic (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and to develop reference values. The 90th percentile of SBP and DBP values for each age were compared with values from a Turkish and an American study. A total of 16 226 Saudi children and adolescents from birth to 18 years were studied. Blood pressure rose steadily with age in both boys and girls. The average annual increase in SBP was 1.66 mm Hg for boys and1.44 mm Hg for girls. The average annual increase in DBP was 0.83 mm Hg for boys and 0.77 mm Hg for girls. DBP rose sharply in boys at the age of 18 years. Values for the 90th percentile of both SBP and DBP varied in Saudi children from their Turkish and American counterparts for all age groups. Blood pressure values in this study differed from those from other studies in developing countries and in the United States, indicating that comparison across studies is difficult and from that every population should use their own normal standards to define measured blood pressure levels in children. (author)

  19. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  20. Blood pressure measurements in the ankle are not equivalent to blood pressure measurements in the arm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldstein, Lara Nicole; Wells, Mike; Sliwa, Karen

    2014-07-25

    Blood pressure (BP) is often measured on the ankle in the emergency department (ED), but this has never been shown to be an acceptable alternative to measurements performed on the arm. To establish whether the differences between arm and ankle non-invasive BP measurements were clinically relevant (i.e. a difference of ≥10 mmHg). This was a prospective cross-sectional study in an urban ED making use of a convenience sample of 201 patients (18 - 50 years of age) who were not in need of emergency medical treatment. BP was measured in the supine position on both arms and ankles with the correct size cuff according to the manufacturer's guidelines. The arm and ankle BP measurements were compared. There was a clinically and statistically significant difference between arm and ankle systolic BP (SBP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) (-13 mmHg, 95% confidence interval (CI) -28 - 1 mmHg and -5 mmHg, 95% CI -13 - 4 mmHg, respectively), with less difference in diastolic BP (DBP) (2 mmHg, 95% CI -7 - 10 mmHg). Only 37% of SBP measurements and 83% of MAP measurements were within an error range of 10 mmHg, while 95% of DBP measurements agreed within 10 mmHg. While the average differences (or the bias) were generally not large, large variations in individual patients (indicating poor precision) made the prediction of arm BP from ankle measurements unreliable. Ankle BP cannot be used as a substitute for arm BP in the ED.

  1. Evolution of blood pressure management in acute intracerebral hemorrhage [version 1; referees: 4 approved

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stacy Chu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH remains a prevalent and severe cause of death and disability worldwide. Control of the hypertensive response in acute ICH has been a mainstay of ICH management, yet the optimal approaches and the yield of recommended strategies have been difficult to establish despite a large body of literature. Over the years, theoretical and observed risks and benefits of intensive blood pressure reduction in ICH have been studied in the form of animal models, radiographic studies, and two recent large, randomized patient trials. In this article, we review the historical and developing data and discuss remaining questions surrounding blood pressure management in acute ICH.

  2. Renal function evaluation in the aged with normal blood pressure and high blood pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jacob Filho, W.; Carvalho Filho, E.T. de; Papaleo Netto, M.; Baptista, M.C.

    1986-01-01

    Thirty-four patients older than 65 years were divided into two groups according to their ages: I - 66 to 74 years (17 patients), II - 75 and over (17 patients). These elderly patients were also divided according to their arterial blood pressure level (BP): A - normal BP (14 patients), B high BP (20 patients). None of these patients presented any other disease that could affect kidney function, nor have used drugs that could interfere on the BP or on the kidney function. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and effective renal plasmatic flow (ERPF) were analysed by radioisotopic techniques. Furthermore the filtration fraction (FF) was evaluated by the GFR/ERPF ratio. The observed GFR, ERPF and FF variations in the age groups or in normotensive and hypertensive patients were not significant, but we could assume that the physiopathological mechanisms that cause a decreased GFR in consequence of age or of systemic hypertension could be of different origins. Thus in the old hypertensive patients, alterations in the autoregulated hemodynamic mechanism could occur. (author) [pt

  3. Simultaneous compared with sequential blood pressure measurement results in smaller inter-arm blood pressure differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Hoeven, Niels V; Lodestijn, Sophie; Nanninga, Stephanie; van Montfrans, Gert A; van den Born, Bert-Jan H

    2013-11-01

    There are currently few recommendations on how to assess inter-arm blood pressure (BP) differences. The authors compared simultaneous with sequential measurement on mean BP, inter-arm BP differences, and within-visit reproducibility in 240 patients stratified according to age (simultaneous and three sequential BP measurements were taken in each patient. Starting measurement type and starting arm for sequential measurements were randomized. Mean BP and inter-arm BP differences of the first pair and reproducibility of inter-arm BP differences of the first and second pair were compared between both methods. Mean systolic BP was 1.3±7.5 mm Hg lower during sequential compared with simultaneous measurement (Psequential measurement was on average higher than the second, suggesting an order effect. Absolute systolic inter-arm BP differences were smaller on simultaneous (6.2±6.7/3.3±3.5 mm Hg) compared with sequential BP measurement (7.8±7.3/4.6±5.6 mm Hg, PSimultaneous measurement of BP at both arms reduces order effects and results in smaller inter-arm BP differences, thereby potentially reducing unnecessary referral and diagnostic procedures. ©2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Renal Nerve Stimulation-Induced Blood Pressure Changes Predict Ambulatory Blood Pressure Response After Renal Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mark R; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Gal, Pim; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Heeg, Jan-Evert; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Lau, Elizabeth O Y; Persu, Alexandre; Staessen, Jan A; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Elvan, Arif

    2016-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) response to renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable and its effectiveness debated. A procedural end point for RDN may improve consistency of response. The objective of the current analysis was to look for the association between renal nerve stimulation (RNS)-induced BP increase before and after RDN and changes in ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) after RDN. Fourteen patients with drug-resistant hypertension referred for RDN were included. RNS was performed under general anesthesia at 4 sites in the right and left renal arteries, both before and immediately after RDN. RNS-induced BP changes were monitored and correlated to changes in ambulatory BP at a follow-up of 3 to 6 months after RDN. RNS resulted in a systolic BP increase of 50±27 mm Hg before RDN and systolic BP increase of 13±16 mm Hg after RDN (Pefficacy of RDN and predict BP response to RDN. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Differential effects of lower body negative pressure and upright tilt on splanchnic blood volume

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taneja, Indu; Moran, Christopher; Medow, Marvin S.; Glover, June L.; Montgomery, Leslie D.; Stewart, Julian M.

    2015-01-01

    Upright posture and lower body negative pressure (LBNP) both induce reductions in central blood volume. However, regional circulatory responses to postural changes and LBNP may differ. Therefore, we studied regional blood flow and blood volume changes in 10 healthy subjects undergoing graded lower-body negative pressure (−10 to −50 mmHg) and 8 subjects undergoing incremental head-up tilt (HUT; 20°, 40°, and 70°) on separate days. We continuously measured blood pressure (BP), heart rate, and regional blood volumes and blood flows in the thoracic, splanchnic, pelvic, and leg segments by impedance plethysmography and calculated regional arterial resistances. Neither LBNP nor HUT altered systolic BP, whereas pulse pressure decreased significantly. Blood flow decreased in all segments, whereas peripheral resistances uniformly and significantly increased with both HUT and LBNP. Thoracic volume decreased while pelvic and leg volumes increased with HUT and LBNP. However, splanchnic volume changes were directionally opposite with stepwise decreases in splanchnic volume with LBNP and stepwise increases in splanchnic volume during HUT. Splanchnic emptying in LBNP models regional vascular changes during hemorrhage. Splanchnic filling may limit the ability of the splanchnic bed to respond to thoracic hypovolemia during upright posture. PMID:17085534

  6. Mobile clinic in Massachusetts associated with cost savings from lowering blood pressure and emergency department use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zirui; Hill, Caterina; Bennet, Jennifer; Vavasis, Anthony; Oriol, Nancy E

    2013-01-01

    Mobile health clinics are in increasingly wide use, but evidence of their clinical impact or cost-effectiveness is limited. Using a unique data set of 5,900 patients who made a total of 10,509 visits in 2010-12 to the Family Van, an urban mobile health clinic in Massachusetts, we examined the effect of screenings and counseling provided by the clinic on blood pressure. Patients who presented with high blood pressure during their initial visit experienced average reductions of 10.7 mmHg and 6.2 mmHg in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively, during their follow-up visits. These changes were associated with 32.2 percent and 44.6 percent reductions in the relative risk of myocardial infarction and stroke, respectively, which we converted into savings using estimates of the incidence and costs of these conditions over thirty months. The savings from this reduction in blood pressure and patient-reported avoided emergency department visits produced a positive lower bound for the clinic's return on investment of 1.3. All other services of the clinic-those aimed at diabetes, obesity, and maternal health, for example-were excluded from this lower-bound estimate. Policy makers should consider mobile clinics as a delivery model for underserved communities with poor health status and high use of emergency departments.

  7. Surgical treatment reduces blood pressure in children with unilateral congenital hydronephrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Mashhadi, Ammar; Nevéus, Tryggve; Stenberg, Arne; Karanikas, Birgitta; Persson, A Erik G; Carlström, Mattias; Wåhlin, Nils

    2015-04-01

    Renal disorders can cause hypertension, but less is known about the influence of hydronephrosis on blood pressure. Hydronephrosis due to pelvo-ureteric junction obstruction (PUJO) is a fairly common condition (incidence in newborns of 0.5-1%). Although hypertensive effects of hydronephrosis have been suggested, this has not been substantiated by prospective studies in humans [1-3]. Experimental studies with PUJO have shown that animals with induced hydronephrosis develop salt-sensitive hypertension, which strongly correlate to the degree of obstruction [4-7]. Moreover, relief of the obstruction normalized blood pressure [8]. In this first prospective study our aim was to study the blood pressure pattern in pediatric patients with hydronephrosis before and after surgical correction of the ureteral obstruction. Specifically, we investigated if preoperative blood pressure is reduced after surgery and if split renal function and renographic excretion curves provide any prognostic information. Twelve patients with unilateral congenital hydronephrosis were included in this prospective study. Ambulatory blood pressure (24 h) was measured preoperatively and six months after surgery. Preoperative evaluations of bilateral renal function by Tc99m-MAG3 scintigraphy, and renography curves, classified according to O'Reilly, were also performed. As shown in the summary figure, postoperative systolic (103 ± 2 mmHg) and diastolic (62 ± 2 mmHg) blood pressure were significantly lower than those obtained preoperatively (110 ± 4 and 69 ± 2 mmHg, respectively), whereas no changes in circadian variation or pulse pressure were observed. Renal functional share of the hydronephrotic kidney ranged from 11 to 55%. There was no correlation between the degree of renal function impairment and the preoperative excretory pattern, or between the preoperative excretory pattern and the blood pressure reduction postoperatively. However, preoperative MAG3 function of the affected kidney correlated

  8. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: The CoCo trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senn Oliver

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Objective Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Outcome Primary outcome: Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries. Methods/Design Randomised controlled study. Population: 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system. Expected results/conclusion The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range ≤ 140/≤ 90 mmHg, yellow: blood pressure >140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467

  9. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  10. Sleep deprivation increases blood pressure in healthy normotensive elderly and attenuates the blood pressure response to orthostatic challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robillard, Rébecca; Lanfranchi, Paola A; Prince, François; Filipini, Daniel; Carrier, Julie

    2011-03-01

    To determine how aging affects the impact of sleep deprivation on blood pressure at rest and under orthostatic challenge. Subjects underwent a night of sleep and 24.5 h of sleep deprivation in a crossover counterbalanced design. Sleep laboratory. Sixteen healthy normotensive men and women: 8 young adults (mean 24 years [SD 3.1], range 20-28 years) and 8 elderly adults (mean 64.1 years [SD 3.4], range 60-69 years). Sleep deprivation. Brachial cuff arterial blood pressure and heart rate were measured in semi-recumbent and upright positions. These measurements were compared across homeostatic sleep pressure conditions and age groups. Sleep deprivation induced a significant increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure in elderly but not young adults. Moreover, sleep deprivation attenuated the systolic blood pressure orthostatic response in both age groups. Our results suggest that sleep deprivation alters the regulatory mechanisms of blood pressure and might increase the risk of hypertension in healthy normotensive elderly.

  11. Self-monitored blood pressure: a role in clinical practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padfield, Paul L

    2002-02-01

    Electronic self-monitoring of blood pressure is increasing in popularity and most international guidelines on the management of hypertension approve cautious use of the technique in the assessment of potentially hypertensive individuals. A recent editorial in the Archives of Internal Medicine suggested that it was "appropriate to encourage the widespread use of self recorded BP as an important adjunct to the clinical care of the patient with hypertension". Such a statement is based on increasing evidence that self-monitoring of blood pressure gives similar information to daytime ambulatory blood pressure -- a now well-established technology in the management of hypertension. Suggested strategies for the use of self-monitoring of blood pressure include monitoring in individuals whose clinical risk status is low enough that they need not necessarily be given medical therapy simply on the basis of a clinic pressure (i.e. at a 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease below 20%). The threshold for defining 'normotension/hypertension' is now regarded as being broadly similar for ABPM and SBPM and is set at 135/85 mmHg. In a recent meta-analysis of all available studies the average difference between these techniques, using the same patients, is -1.7/1.2 mmHg. There is some evidence that careful use of self-monitoring may improve blood pressure control in patients who are otherwise resistant to care. Self-monitoring of blood pressure has now been shown in at least one major prospective study to predict outcome better than clinic pressures and in that setting it now has equivalence to the use of ABPM. There remain issues regarding the availability of validated devices, the quality of training of patients in their use and the possibility that inaccurate recording might occur, either deliberately or by accident. Self-monitoring of blood pressure may well not give the same readings as carefully measured blood pressure by research nurses but its use is clearly superior to

  12. Chagas disease, a risk factor for high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicco, Miguel Hernán; Rodeles, Luz; Yódice, Agustina; Marcipar, Iván

    2014-12-01

    Chagas disease is a parasite infection caused by the protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi. Its most common complications is chronic Chagas heart disease but impairments of the systemic vasculature also has been observed. Although the different mechanisms that regulate blood pressure are disrupted, to our knowledge data on the association of hypertension and chronic Chagas disease are scarce. In this regard we evaluate whether Chagas disease constitutes a high blood pressure risk factor. We recruited 200 individuals, half of them with positive serology for T. cruzi. They were subjected to a complete clinical examination. The mean age of sampled individuals was 46.7 ± 12.3, and the mean of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were 124 ± 12 mmHg and 82 ± 10 mmHg, respectively. There were no between-group differences regarding age, sex distribution or body mass index. Chagas disease contributed significantly to high blood pressure (OR = 4, 95% CI 1.8323-7.0864, p = 0.0002). Our results reveal an important association between Chagas disease and high blood pressure, which should be contemplated by physicians in order to promote preventive cardiovascular actions in patients with Chagas disease.

  13. Cantilever arrayed blood pressure sensor for arterial applanation tonometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Byeungleul; Jeong, Jinwoo; Kim, Jinseok; Kim, Bonghwan; Chun, Kukjin

    2014-03-01

    The authors developed a cantilever-arrayed blood pressure sensor array fabricated by (111) silicon bulk-micromachining for the non-invasive and continuous measurement of blood pressure. The blood pressure sensor measures the blood pressure based on the change in the resistance of the piezoresistor on a 5-microm-thick-arrayed perforated membrane and 20-microm-thick metal pads. The length and the width of the unit membrane are 210 and 310 microm, respectively. The width of the insensible zone between the adjacent units is only 10 microm. The resistance change over contact force was measured to verify the performance. The good linearity of the result confirmed that the polydimethylsiloxane package transfers the forces appropriately. The measured sensitivity was about 4.5%/N. The maximum measurement range and the resolution of the fabricated blood pressure sensor were greater than 900 mmHg (= 120 kPa) and less than 1 mmHg (= 133.3 Pa), respectively.

  14. Goat meat does not cause increased blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunagawa, Katsunori; Kishi, Tetsuya; Nagai, Ayako; Matsumura, Yuka; Nagamine, Itsuki; Uechi, Shuntoku

    2014-01-01

    While there are persistent rumors that the consumption of goat meat dishes increases blood pressure, there is no scientific evidence to support this. Two experiments were conducted to clarify whether or not blood pressure increases in conjunction with the consumption of goat meat dishes. In experiment 1, 24 Dahl/Iwai rats (15 weeks old, body weight 309.3±11.1 g) were evenly separated into 4 groups. The control group (CP) was fed a diet containing 20% chicken and 0.3% salt on a dry matter basis. The goat meat group (GM) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat and 0.3% salt. The goat meat/salt group (GS) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meant and 3% to 4% salt. The Okinawan mugwort (Artemisia Princeps Pampan)/salt group (GY) was fed a diet containing 20% goat meat, 3% to 4% salt and 5% of freeze-dried mugwort powder. The experiment 1 ran for a period of 14 weeks during which time the blood pressure of the animals was recorded. The GS, and GY groups consumed significantly more water (pgoat meat does not cause increased blood pressure, rather the large amount of salt used in the preparation of goat meat dishes is responsible for the increase in blood pressure.

  15. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  16. The diagnostic value of supine blood pressure in hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krzesiński, Paweł; Stańczyk, Adam; Gielerak, Grzegorz; Piotrowicz, Katarzyna; Banak, Małgorzata; Wójcik, Agnieszka

    2016-04-01

    Correct blood pressure (BP) measurement is crucial in the diagnosis of arterial hypertension (AH), and controversy exists whether supine BP should be treated as equal to sitting BP. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relation of supine BP to sitting BP and ambulatory BP with regard to identification of diagnostic cut-offs for hypertension. This study included 280 patients with AH (mean age: 44.3 ±10.6 years). The following measurements of BP were performed and analyzed: 1) sitting office blood pressure measurement (OSBP and ODBP); 2) supine BP (supSBP and supDBP), measured automatically (5 times with a 2-minute interval) during evaluation by the Niccomo device (Medis, Germany); 3) 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. The mean supSBP and supDBP were found to be lower than OSBP and ODBP (130.9 ±14.2 vs. 136.6 ±15.5 mm Hg and 84.8 ±9.4 vs. 87.8 ±10.2 mm Hg, respectively; p AUC: 0.820 vs. 0.550; sensitivity 80.7% vs. 57.4%; specificity 83.2% vs. 52.7%; p blood pressure during a 10-minute supine rest was lower than in the sitting position. The supine blood pressure ≥ 130/80 mm Hg was found to be a specific and sensitive threshold for hypertension.

  17. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garner, Rochelle E., E-mail: rochelle.garner@canada.ca [Health Analysis Division, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); Levallois, Patrick [Direction de la santé environnementale et de la toxicologie, Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Québec City, Québec (Canada); Axe santé des populations et pratiques optimales en santé, Centre de Recherche du CHU de Québec-Université Laval, Québec City, Québec (Canada)

    2017-05-15

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  18. Associations between cadmium levels in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension among Canadian adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garner, Rochelle E.; Levallois, Patrick

    2017-01-01

    Background: Cadmium has been inconsistently related to blood pressure and hypertension. The present study seeks to clarify the relationship between cadmium levels found in blood and urine, blood pressure and hypertension in a large sample of adults. Methods: The study sample included participants ages 20 through 79 from multiple cycles of the Canadian Health Measures Survey (2007 through 2013) with measured blood cadmium (n=10,099) and urinary cadmium (n=6988). Linear regression models examined the association between natural logarithm transformed cadmium levels and blood pressure (separate models for systolic and diastolic blood pressure) after controlling for known covariates. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between cadmium and hypertension. Models were run separately by sex, smoking status, and body mass index category. Results: Men had higher mean systolic (114.8 vs. 110.8 mmHg, p<0.01) and diastolic (74.0 vs. 69.6 mmHg, p<0.01) blood pressure compared to women. Although, geometric mean blood (0.46 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) and creatinine-adjusted standardized urinary cadmium levels (0.48 vs. 0.38 µg/L, p<0.01) were higher among those with hypertension, these differences were no longer significant after adjustment for age, sex and smoking status. In overall regression models, increases in blood cadmium were associated with increased systolic (0.70 mmHg, 95% confidence interval [CI]=0.25–1.16, p<0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (0.74 mmHg, 95% CI=0.30–1.19, p<0.01). The associations between urinary cadmium, blood pressure and hypertension were not significant in overall models. Model stratification revealed significant and negative associations between urinary cadmium and hypertension among current smokers (OR=0.61, 95% CI=0.44–0.85, p<0.01), particularly female current smokers (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.32–0.85, p=0.01). Conclusion: This study provides evidence of a significant association between cadmium levels, blood pressure

  19. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy.

  20. DETERMINANTS OF SUBOPTIMAL BLOOD PRESSURE CONTROL IN HYPERTENSIVE PATIENTS: 24-HOUR AMBULATORY BLOOD PRES-SURE MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mansoor Moazenzadeh

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract    INTRODUCTION: The study was conducted to define the determinants of suboptimal blood pressure (BP control among hypertensive patients under treatment and explore a predictive model for detecting the patients at risk for increased BP.    METHODS: We enrolled 97 patients (40 males, 57 females under treatment for hypertension between June 2006 and May 2007 in Shafa hospital, Kerman, Iran. BP was measured at clinic twice within 5-minute intervals. After setting up ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BP was measured at 30-minute intervals during the day and 60-minute intervals during the night. The frequency of increased BP (more than 140/90 mmHg was included in a regression model as dependent variable and all the others such as age, sex, body mass index (BMI, drugs and baseline clinical measurements as the predictors.    RESULTS: Increased BP was detected in 44% (95% CI: 38.79%-49.65% of all measurements during 24-hour monitoring. The frequency of increased BP had a significant relationship with BMI (b=0.35, P=0.001. Clinic's pulse pressure was a significant predicting factor for BP increase (P=0.02.    CONCLUSION: BMI and pulse pressure are the best predictors for being hypertensive during lifetime. Ineffective treatment of hypertension is frequent among the hypertensive patients.      Keywords: Blood pressure control, Pulse pressure, Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM, BMI.

  1. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  2. Intensive Blood Pressure Control Affects Cerebral Blood Flow in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Davis, Shyrin C. A. T.; Truijen, Jasper; Stok, Wim J.; Secher, Niels H.; van Lieshout, Johannes J.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with microvascular complications, hypertension, and impaired dynamic cerebral autoregulation. Intensive blood pressure (BP) control in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients reduces their risk of stroke but may affect cerebral perfusion. Systemic hemodynamic

  3. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage uni.......0001). The synchronism of the nocturnal subcutaneous hyperemia and the decrease in systemic mean arterial blood pressure point to a common, possibly central nervous or humoral, eliciting mechanism.......Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  4. Circadian mechanisms of 24-hour blood pressure regulation and patterning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolensky, Michael H; Hermida, Ramón C; Portaluppi, Francesco

    2017-06-01

    In most persons, blood pressure (BP) rises slowly during late sleep, increases rapidly upon morning awakening and commencement of diurnal activity, exhibits two - morning and afternoon/early evening - daytime peaks, shows a minor midday nadir, and undergoes a decline during nighttime sleep by 10-20% in systolic BP and somewhat lesser amount in diastolic BP relative to wake-time means. Nyctohemeral cycles of ambient temperature, light, noise and behaviorally driven temporal patterns in food, liquid, salt, and stimulant consumption, mental/emotional stress, posture, and physical activity intensity plus circadian rhythms of wake/sleep, pineal gland melatonin synthesis, autonomic and central nervous, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal, hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, renal hemodynamic, endothelial, vasoactive peptide, and opioid systems constitute the key regulators and determinants of the BP 24 h profile. Environmental and behavioral cycles are believed to be far more influential than circadian ones. However, the facts that the: i) BP 24 h pattern of secondary hypertension, e.g., diabetes and renal disease, is characterized by absence of BP fall during sleep, and ii) scheduling of conventional long-acting medications at bedtime, rather than morning, results in much better hypertension control and vascular risk reduction, presumably because highest drug concentration coincides closely with the peak of most key circadian determinants of the BP 24 h profile, indicate endogenous rhythmic influences are of greater importance than previously appreciated. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Clinical Operations Variables are Associated With Blood Pressure Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kressin, Nancy R; Lasser, Karen E; Paasche-Orlow, Michael; Allison, Jeroan; Ash, Arlene S; Adams, William G; Shanahan, Christopher W; Legler, Aaron; Pizer, Steven D

    2015-06-01

    Uncontrolled blood pressure (BP), among patients diagnosed and treated for the condition, remains an important clinical challenge; aspects of clinical operations could potentially be adjusted if they were associated with better outcomes. To assess clinical operations factors' effects on normalization of uncontrolled BP. Observational cohort study. Patients diagnosed with hypertension from a large urban clinical practice (2005-2009). We obtained clinical data on BP, organized by person-month, and administrative data on primary care provider (PCP) staffing. We assessed the resolution of an episode of uncontrolled BP as a function of time-varying covariates including practice-level appointment volume, individual clinicians' appointment volume, overall practice-level PCP staffing, and number of unique PCPs. Among the 7409 unique patients representing 50,403 person-months, normalization was less likely for the patients in whom the episode starts during months when the number of unique PCPs were high [the top quintile of unique PCPs was associated with a 9 percentage point lower probability of normalization (Ppercentage point reduction in the probability of normalization (P=0.01)]. Neither clinician appointment volume nor practice clinician staffing levels were significantly associated with the probability of normalization. Findings suggest that clinical operations factors can affect clinical outcomes like BP normalization, and point to the importance of considering outcome effects when organizing clinical care.

  6. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses...

  7. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF......') oscillations were absent in 9% and 22% of the patients, respectively. In patients in whom spontaneous blood pressure oscillations were preserved, the MF' oscillations occurred at 0.021 Hz (median, interquartile range 0.013-0.030), whereas the LF' oscillations occurred at 0.009 Hz (median, interquartile range 0...

  8. Epidural blood patch for refractory low CSF pressure headache: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Søren Aalbæk; Fomsgaard, Jonna Storm; Jensen, Rigmor

    2011-08-01

    Once believed an exceedingly rare disorder, recent evidence suggests that low cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure headache has to be considered an important cause of new daily persistent headaches, particularly among young and middle-aged individuals. Treatment of low CSF pressure headache consists of non-invasive/conservative measures and invasive measures with epidural blood patch providing the cornerstone of the invasive measures. In the present pilot study we therefore aimed to evaluate the treatment efficacy of epidural blood patch (EBP) in treatment-refractory low-pressure headache. Our primary effect parameter was total headache burden defined as area under the curve (AUC: intensity × duration) and as secondary effect parameters we identified: intensity (VAS 0-10), frequency (days per month), duration in hours (total hours/month) and also medication days (days on medication/month). In our primary effect parameter we found a significant reduction in AUC with more than 25% and this is considered to be clinically relevant. We found also a significant and relevant reduction at -22% in intensity. A trend towards reduction in duration was seen. We found no statistically significant reduction in frequency. An increase in days with use of medication was found. Increased awareness of low CSF pressure headache is emphasized and a controlled larger randomized study is needed to confirm the results. However the present results, allows us to conclude that EBP in treatment-refractory low CSF pressure headache can be considered as a treatment option.

  9. Does a colour-coded blood pressure diary improve blood pressure control for patients in general practice: the CoCo trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steurer-Stey, Claudia; Zoller, Marco; Chmiel Moshinsky, Corinne; Senn, Oliver; Rosemann, Thomas

    2010-04-14

    Insufficient blood pressure control is a frequent problem despite the existence of effective treatment. Insufficient adherence to self-monitoring as well as to therapy is a common reason. Blood pressure self-measurement at home (Home Blood Pressure Measurement, HBPM) has positive effects on treatment adherence and is helpful in achieving the target blood pressure. Only a few studies have investigated whether adherence to HBPM can be improved through simple measures resulting also in better blood pressure control. Improvement of self-monitoring and improved blood pressure control by using a new colour-coded blood pressure diary. Change in systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure 6 months after using the new colour-coded blood pressure diary.Secondary outcome: Adherence to blood pressure self-measurement (number of measurements/entries). Randomised controlled study. 138 adult patients in primary care with uncontrolled hypertension despite therapy. The control group uses a conventional blood pressure diary; the intervention group uses the new colour-coded blood pressure diary (green, yellow, red according a traffic light system). EXPECTED RESULTS/CONCLUSION: The visual separation and entries in three colour-coded areas reflecting risk (green: blood pressure in the target range 140/>90 mmHg, red: blood pressure in danger zone > 180 mmHg/>110 mmHg) lead to better self-monitoring compared with the conventional (non-colour-coded) blood pressure booklet. The colour-coded, visualised information supports improved perception (awareness and interpretation) of blood pressure and triggers correct behaviour, in the means of improved adherence to the recommended treatment as well as better communication between patients and doctors resulting in improved blood pressure control. ClinicalTrials.gov ID NCT01013467.

  10. Blood pressure and serum creatinine in obese female.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asrin, M; Nessa, A; Hasan, M I; Das, R K

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is increasing in developed as well as in developing countries. This analytical cross sectional study was carried out to document the relation between blood pressure, serum creatinine and body mass index in female and to assess potential health differences among obese female and normal weight female. This study was done in the Department of Physiology, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2012 to June 2013. Seventy female persons volunteered as subjects. Among them 35 were within normal weight (BMI 18.5-24.9kg/m²) and 35 were obese (BMI≥30kg/m²). Non probability purposive type of sampling technique was used to select the subjects. Measurement of body mass index and blood pressure were done as per procedure. Serum creatinine level was estimated by enzymatic colorimetric method. The results were calculated and analyzed by using SPSS (statistical package for social science, version 17.0), scientific electronic calculator and simultaneously with a computer assisted program like Microsoft excel. Unpaired 't' test was applied to find the significance of difference regarding serum creatinine and blood pressure levels in obese female. The value of p was 1% to indicate highly significant and 5% to indicate simply significant or statistically significant. The mean±SE of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure and serum creatinine levels were 135.71±1.58mmHg, 88.74±0.95mmHg and 1.03±0.01mg/dl respectively; significant at 1% level for obese group of BMI (phigh BMI is significantly related to increased levels of serum creatinine & blood pressure in obese female which indicate the obese subjects are prone to cardiovascular & metabolic risk.

  11. Noise exposure at school and blood pressure in adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadhilah Ihsani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background The increasing prevalence of primary hypertension has motivated researchers to identify influencing factors, one of which is noise. There have been few studies on a relationships between noise exposure and blood pressure in children, and none have dealt exclusively with adolescents. Objective To assess for an association between noise exposure at school and blood pressure in adolescents.   Methods To identify noisy and quiet schools, the mean noise levels of 192 senior high schools in Medan were measured using sound level meters. One noisy school and one quiet school were randomly selected for inclusion (mean noise levels of  68.2 and  53.8 dB, respectively. Students from both schools underwent blood pressure measurements by mercury sphygmomanometer. Their Body weights and heights were obtained for body mass index calculations. Subjects filled questionnaires and their parents were interviewed regarding history of illnesses. Results Of the 271 adolescents recruited, 136 (50.2% were from the noisy school. Adolescents from the noisy school had higher mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures [121.6 (SD 13.87 mmHg and 71.1 (SD 8.15 mmHg, respectively], than those from the quiet school [111.8 (SD 12.61 mmHg and 63.8 (SD 8.05 mmHg, respectively]. After adjusting for other factors, noise had a significant, moderate, positive association with systolic and diastolic blood pressures [β = 0.452; B = 6.21 (95% CI 3.86-8.55 mmHg; and β = 0.473; B = 4.18 (95% CI 2.41 to 5.94 mmHg, respectively]. Conclusion Adolescents from a noisy school have a greater risk of higher systolic and diastolic blood pressures than those from a quiet school.

  12. High-sodium intake prevents pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beauséjour, Annie; Auger, Karine; St-Louis, Jean; Brochu, Michéle

    2003-07-01

    Despite an increase of circulatory volume and of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS) activity, pregnancy is paradoxically accompanied by a decrease in blood pressure. We have reported that the decrease in blood pressure was maintained in pregnant rats despite overactivation of RAAS following reduction in sodium intake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of the opposite condition, e.g., decreased activation of RAAS during pregnancy in the rat. To do so, 0.9% or 1.8% NaCl in drinking water was given to nonpregnant and pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats for 7 days (last week of gestation). Increased sodium intakes (between 10- and 20-fold) produced reduction of plasma renin activity and aldosterone in both nonpregnant and pregnant rats. Systolic blood pressure was not affected in nonpregnant rats. However, in pregnant rats, 0.9% sodium supplement prevented the decreased blood pressure. Moreover, an increase of systolic blood pressure was obtained in pregnant rats receiving 1.8% NaCl. The 0.9% sodium supplement did not affect plasma and fetal parameters. However, 1.8% NaCl supplement has larger effects during gestation as shown by increased plasma sodium concentration, hematocrit level, negative water balance, proteinuria, and intrauterine growth restriction. With both sodium supplements, decreased AT1 mRNA levels in the kidney and in the placenta were observed. Our results showed that a high-sodium intake prevents the pregnancy-induced decrease of blood pressure in rats. Nonpregnant rats were able to maintain homeostasis but not the pregnant ones in response to sodium load. Furthermore, pregnant rats on a high-sodium intake (1.8% NaCl) showed some physiological responses that resemble manifestations observed in preeclampsia.

  13. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect...

  14. Significance of blood pressure variability in patients with sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Nishant Raj; Bian, Yu-Yao; Shou, Song-Tao

    2014-01-01

    This study was undertaken to observe the characteristics of blood pressure variability (BPV) and sepsis and to investigate changes in blood pressure and its value on the severity of illness in patients with sepsis. Blood parameters, APACHE II score, and 24-hour ambulatory BP were analyzed in 89 patients with sepsis. In patients with APACHE II score>19, the values of systolic blood pressure (SBPV), diasystolic blood pressure (DBPV), non-dipper percentage, cortisol (COR), lactate (LAC), platelet count (PLT) and glucose (GLU) were significantly higher than in those with APACHE II score ≤19 (Pblood cell (WBC), creatinine (Cr), PaO2, C-reactive protein (CRP), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) were not statistically significant (P>0.05). Correlation analysis showed that APACHE II scores correlated significantly with SBPV and DBPV (P0.05). Logistic regression analysis of SBPV, DBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was used to predict prognosis in terms of survival and non-survival rates. Receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) showed that DBPV was a better predictor of survival rate with an AUC value of 0.890. However, AUC of SBPV, APACHE II score, and LAC was 0.746, 0.831 and 0.915, respectively. The values of SBPV, DBPV and non-dipper percentage are higher in patients with sepsis. DBPV and SBPV can be used to predict the survival rate of patients with sepsis.

  15. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors

  16. Effects of fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Samad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims all over the world fast in the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting means abstinence from drinking any liquids, eating, smoking and taking anything parenterally.  It is intermittent in nature from the start of dawn to end at dusk. Fasting has various physiological effects on different biological parameters of the human body. Previous studies that look at effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure have focused mainly on hypertensive patients and patients with already established heart disease.(1,2There is very limited data regarding the effect of fasting on the normal population. (3,4 A few previous studies have advocated a hypotensive role of fasting.(5 In our study published in Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad (JAMC in 2015, “Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males”, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure of normotensive men. We conducted a repeated measure observational study in Karachi, Pakistan on 70 individuals who were normotensive, non-smokers between the ages of 18–50 years. . Blood pressure, pulse, BMI of each participant was recorded one week before the start of Ramadan and in the first, second and third week of Ramadan. The results of our study show that intermittent fasting has a hypotensive effect in normotensive males as proven in animal models and certain human population. There was an average drop of 8/3 mmHg and while the results are significant, their clinical relevance needs to be analysed. Studies on animal models have suggested atrial natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, opiates and body mass index as possible reasons for the decrease in blood pressure due to fasting.(3, 6  Dewanti et al suggested that the cause of drop in blood pressure was the drop in BMI however in our study we found that a drop in BMI only occurred before Iftar towards the end of the fast. There was no significant drop in post-Iftar BMI although there was a significant drop in blood

  17. High Pressure Reduction of Selenite by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picard, A.; Daniel, I.; Testemale, D.; Letard, I.; Bleuet, P.; Cardon, H.; Oger, P.

    2007-12-01

    High-pressure biotopes comprise cold deep-sea environments, hydrothermal vents, and deep subsurface or deep-sea sediments. The latter are less studied, due to the technical difficulties to sample at great depths without contamination. Nevertheless, microbial sulfate reduction and methanogenesis have been found to be spatially distributed in deep deep-sea sediments (1), and sulfate reduction has been shown to be actually more efficient under high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) in some sediments (2). Sulfate-reducing bacteria obtained from the Japan Sea are characterized by an increased sulfide production under pressure (3,4). Unfortunately, investigations of microbial metabolic activity as a function of pressure are extremely scarce due to the experimental difficulty of such measurements at high hydrostatic pressure. We were able to measure the reduction of selenite Se(IV) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1 as a function of pressure, to 150 MPa using two different high-pressure reactors that allow in situ X-ray spectroscopy measurements on a synchrotron source. A first series of measurements was carried out in a low-pressure Diamond Anvil Cell (DAC) of our own design (5) at ID22 beamline at ESRF (European Synchrotron Radiation Facility); a second one was performed in an autoclave (6) at the BM30B beamline at ESRF. Selenite reduction by strain MR-17 was monitored from ambient pressure to 150 MPa over 25 hours at 30 deg C by XANES spectroscopy (X-ray Analysis of Near Edge Structure). Spectra were recorded hourly in order to quantify the evolution of the oxidation state of selenium with time. Stationary-phase bacteria were inoculated at a high concentration into fresh growth medium containing 5 or 10 M of sodium selenite and 20 mM sodium lactate. Kinetic parameters of the Se (IV) reduction by Shewanella oneidensis strain MR-1 could be extracted from the data, as a function of pressure. They show 1) that the rate constant k of the reaction is decreased by a half at high pressure

  18. Relationship between blood manganese and blood pressure in the Korean general population according to KNHANES 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung-Kook; Kim, Yangho

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: We present data on the association of manganese (Mn) level with hypertension in a representative sample of the adult Korean population who participated in the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) 2008. Methods: This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008, which was conducted for three years (2007-2009) using a rolling sampling design involving a complex, stratified, multistage, probability-cluster survey of a representative sample of the noninstitutionalized civilian population of South Korea. Results: Multiple regression analysis after controlling for covariates, including gender, age, regional area, education level, smoking, drinking status, hemoglobin, and serum creatinine, showed that the beta coefficients of log blood Mn were 3.514, 1.878, and 2.517 for diastolic blood pressure, and 3.593, 2.449, and 2.440 for systolic blood pressure in female, male, and all participants, respectively. Multiple regression analysis including three other blood metals, lead, mercury, and cadmium, revealed no significant effects of the three metals on blood pressure and showed no effect on the association between blood Mn and blood pressure. In addition, doubling the blood Mn increased the risk of hypertension 1.828, 1.573, and 1.567 fold in women, men, and all participants, respectively, after adjustment for covariates. The addition of blood lead, mercury, and cadmium as covariates did not affect the association between blood Mn and the prevalence of hypertension. Conclusion: Blood Mn level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension in a representative sample of the Korean adult population. - Highlights: → We showed the association of manganese with hypertension in Korean population. → This study was based on the data obtained by KNHANES 2008. → Blood manganese level was associated with an increased risk of hypertension.

  19. Inverse association between gastroesophageal reflux and blood pressure: Results of a large community based study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lane Athene J

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a cross-sectional community based study, as part of a randomised controlled trial of eradication of Helicobacter pylori infection, the association between blood pressure and symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux was examined. Methods Linear regression was used to examine the association between systolic and diastolic blood pressure and the frequency of heartburn and acid regurgitation in 4,902 of 10,537 participants aged 20–59 years. Results In multivariable analyses, adjusted mean systolic blood pressure was 4.2 (95% confidence interval 1.5 to 7.0 mm Hg lower in participants with daily acid regurgitation compared to those with less frequent symptoms. Similarly, for diastolic blood pressure, a reduction of 2.1 (0.0 to 4.3 mm Hg wasobserved. Conclusion People who experience daily symptoms of gastro-oesophageal reflux have lower blood pressure than people with less frequent or no symptoms. It is possible that factors influencing nitric oxide concentrations both at the lower oesophageal sphincter and within the vasculature may be involved. This hypothesis requires confirmation. Trials registration number ISRCTN44816925

  20. Hostility moderates the effects of social support and intimacy on blood pressure in daily social interactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vella, Elizabeth J; Kamarck, Thomas W; Shiffman, Saul

    2008-03-01

    This study sought to determine the role of hostility in moderating the effects of positive social interactions on ambulatory blood pressure (ABP). Participants (341 adults) completed the Cook-Medley Hostility Scale and underwent ABP monitoring, assessed every 45 min during waking hours across 6 days. An electronic diary measuring mood and social interactions was completed at each ABP assessment. The dependent variables from the ABP monitor included systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and heart rate. Different patterns of ambulatory diastolic blood pressure (ADBP) responding to social interactions perceived as intimate or supportive among high- versus low-hostile individuals were observed. Higher intimacy ratings were linked to reductions in ADBP among low-hostile but not high-hostile individuals. Conversely, high-hostile, but not low-hostile, individuals showed increases in ADBP to situations rated high in social support. Although findings for ambulatory systolic blood pressure were nonsignificant, the pattern of results was similar to ADBP. Hostile individuals may find offers of support stressful and may fail to benefit from intimacy during daily life. The pathogenic effects of hostility may be mediated in part by responses to social interactions, both positive and negative. (c) 2008 APA, all rights reserved

  1. Music improves dopaminergic neurotransmission: demonstration based on the effect of music on blood pressure regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutoo, Den'etsu; Akiyama, Kayo

    2004-08-06

    The mechanism by which music modifies brain function is not clear. Clinical findings indicate that music reduces blood pressure in various patients. We investigated the effect of music on blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Previous studies indicated that calcium increases brain dopamine (DA) synthesis through a calmodulin (CaM)-dependent system. Increased DA levels reduce blood pressure in SHR. In this study, we examined the effects of music on this pathway. Systolic blood pressure in SHR was reduced by exposure to Mozart's music (K.205), and the effect vanished when this pathway was inhibited. Exposure to music also significantly increased serum calcium levels and neostriatal DA levels. These results suggest that music leads to increased calcium/CaM-dependent DA synthesis in the brain, thus causing a reduction in blood pressure. Music might regulate and/or affect various brain functions through dopaminergic neurotransmission, and might therefore be effective for rectification of symptoms in various diseases that involve DA dysfunction.

  2. Effects of Metoprolol and Nebivolol on Exercise Blood Pressure in Patients with Mild Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huseyin Ugur Yazici

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We planned to compare the impact of two beta blockers, metoprolol and nebivolol, on arterial blood pressure during exercise in patients with mild hypertension. Methods. A total of 60 patients (13 males, 47 females; mean age: years were enrolled in the present study. The patients were randomly selected to receive either nebivolol 5 mg/day ( or metoprolol 50 mg/day ( for 8 weeks. At the end of the 8th week, each of the patients received exercise stress test according to Bruce protocol and their blood pressures were remeasured after rest, exercise, and recovery. Results. Blood pressures were determined to be similar between metoprolol and nebivolol groups during rest, exercise, and recovery periods. Metoprolol and nebivolol achieved similar reductions in blood pressures during rest and exercise. However, five patients in nebivolol group and four patients in metoprolol group developed exaggerated BP response to exercise but the difference between metoprolol and nebivolol was not meaningful (. Conclusion. The results of the present study showed that metoprolol and nebivolol established comparable effects on the control of blood pressures during exercise in the patients with mild hypertensions.

  3. [Effects of high intensity interval training on blood pressure in hypertensive subjects].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olea, María Angélica; Mancilla, Rodrigo; Martínez, Sergio; Díaz, Erik

    2017-09-01

    Exercise training may reduce blood pressure. To determine the effects of a high intensity interval training (HIIT) exercise protocol on systolic and diastolic blood pressure in hypertensive subjects. Eleven men and 27 women aged 46.4 ± 9.8 years were divided in two groups according to their blood pressure. Sixteen were classified as normotensive and 22 as hypertensive. All attended an exercise program with 3 sessions per week for a total of 24 sessions. Each session consisted of one minute of intense exercise performed on a stationary bike, followed by an inactive pause lasting two minutes. This cycle was repeated 10 times and it was thus called 1 * 2 * 10. Blood pressure, weight (kg) and body fat were assessed. In the hypertensive group, there was a significant reduction in systolic blood pressure from 145.4 ± 9.0 to 118.3 ± 15.6 mm Hg (p hypertension in a period of two months and 24 sessions.

  4. Reproducibility of blood pressure variation in older ambulatory and bedridden subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuchihashi, Takuya; Kawakami, Yasunobu; Imamura, Tsuyoshi; Abe, Isao

    2002-06-01

    We investigated the influence of ambulation on the reproducibility of circadian blood pressure variation in older nursing home residents. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed twice in 37 older nursing home residents. Nursing home in Japan. Subjects included 18 ambulatory nursing home residents who had no limitation on physical activity and 19 bedridden residents who did not participate in physical activity. Twenty-four-hour, daytime, and nighttime blood pressure levels and their variability. The 24-hour and daytime variability of systolic blood pressure (SBP) was significantly greater in ambulatory than in bedridden subjects, whereas nighttime variability was similar. Significant correlations in SBP averaged for the whole day, daytime, and nighttime were observed between the two examinations in ambulatory (r =.80-.83) and bedridden (r =.83-.91) subjects, but the variabilities of SBP for the whole day and during the daytime of the first measurement were correlated with those of the second measurement in bedridden (r =.67 and r =.47, respectively) but not in ambulatory (r =.39 and r =.28, respectively) subjects. Significant correlations were found between the nocturnal SBP changes at two occasions in both ambulatory (r =.50) and bedridden (r =.51) subjects, but the dipper versus nondipper profiles, defined as reduction in SBP of greater than 10% versus not, showed low reproducibility in ambulatory subjects; five ambulatory (28%) and one bedridden (5%) subjects showed divergent profiles between the two examinations. The reproducibility of blood pressure variation in nursing home residents is influenced by ambulation.

  5. Secular trends of blood pressure in A-bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasaki, Hideo; Kodama, Kazunori; Kitano, Koei

    1986-01-01

    There has been controversy about whether or not radiation exposure plays a major role in advancing age. To preliminarily study this relationship, a statistical analysis was made on blood pressure measurements in a cohort of A-bomb survivors for Adult Health Study carried out during a 22-year period from 1958 through 1980. Systolic blood pressure increased with advancing age in both men and women between 30 and 80 years. During the years 1974 through 1980, it tended to increase in both men and women aged in their thirties and fourties. Diastolic blood pressure for men increased between the ages of 30 and 60 years, and decreased between the ages of 60 and 80 years. It tended to increase from year to year for men. For women, it decreased prior to the 1970's, and thereafter, tended to increase. The parameters, including systolic and diastolic blood pressures and pulse pressure, were independent of exposure doses in the subgroups according to age or sex. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Incident Cardiovascular Disease Among Adults With Blood Pressure Hg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajeu, Gabriel S; Booth, John N; Colantonio, Lisandro D; Gottesman, Rebecca F; Howard, George; Lackland, Daniel T; O'Brien, Emily C; Oparil, Suzanne; Ravenell, Joseph; Safford, Monika M; Seals, Samantha R; Shimbo, Daichi; Shea, Steven; Spruill, Tanya M; Tanner, Rikki M; Muntner, Paul

    2017-08-29

    Data from before the 2000s indicate that the majority of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) events occur among US adults with systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) ≥140/90 mm Hg. Over the past several decades, BP has declined and hypertension control has improved. We estimated the percentage of incident CVD events that occur at SBP/DBP Hg in a pooled analysis of 3 contemporary US cohorts: the REGARDS study (Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke), the MESA (Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis), and the JHS (Jackson Heart Study) (n=31 856; REGARDS=21 208; MESA=6779; JHS=3869). Baseline study visits were conducted in 2003 to 2007 for REGARDS, 2000 to 2002 for MESA, and 2000 to 2004 for JHS. BP was measured by trained staff using standardized methods. Antihypertensive medication use was self-reported. The primary outcome was incident CVD, defined by the first occurrence of fatal or nonfatal stroke, nonfatal myocardial infarction, fatal coronary heart disease, or heart failure. Events were adjudicated in each study. Over a mean follow-up of 7.7 years, 2584 participants had incident CVD events. Overall, 63.0% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9-71.1) of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg; 58.4% (95% CI, 47.7-69.2) and 68.1% (95% CI, 60.1-76.0) among those taking and not taking antihypertensive medication, respectively. The majority of events occurred in participants with SBP/DBP Hg among those Hg, 76.6% (95% CI, 75.8-77.5) were eligible for statin treatment, but only 33.2% (95% CI, 32.1-34.3) were taking one, and 19.5% (95% CI, 18.5-20.5) met the SPRINT (Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial) eligibility criteria and may benefit from a SBP target goal of 120 mm Hg. Although higher BP levels are associated with increased CVD risk, in the modern era, the majority of incident CVD events occur in US adults with SBP/DBP Hg. While absolute risk and cost-effectiveness should be considered, additional CVD risk-reduction

  7. The effect of ventricular assist devices on cerebral blood flow and blood pressure fractality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellapart, Judith; Fraser, John F; Chan, Gregory S H; Tzeng, Yu-Chieh; Ainslie, Philip N; Dunster, Kimble R; Barnett, Adrian G; Boots, Rob

    2011-01-01

    Biological signals often exhibit self-similar or fractal scaling characteristics which may reflect intrinsic adaptability to their underlying physiological system. This study analysed fractal dynamics of cerebral blood flow in patients supported with ventricular assist devices (VAD) to ascertain if sustained modifications of blood pressure waveform affect cerebral blood flow fractality. Simultaneous recordings of arterial blood pressure and cerebral blood flow velocity using transcranial Doppler were obtained from five cardiogenic shock patients supported by VAD, five matched control patients and five healthy subjects. Computation of a fractal scaling exponent (α) at the low-frequency time scale by detrended fluctuation analysis showed that cerebral blood flow velocity exhibited 1/f fractal scaling in both patient groups (α = 0.95 ± 0.09 and 0.97 ± 0.12, respectively) as well as in the healthy subjects (α = 0.86 ± 0.07). In contrast, fluctuation in blood pressure was similar to non-fractal white noise in both patient groups (α = 0.53 ± 0.11 and 0.52 ± 0.09, respectively) but exhibited 1/f scaling in the healthy subjects (α = 0.87 ± 0.04, P < 0.05 compared with the patient groups). The preservation of fractality in cerebral blood flow of VAD patients suggests that normal cardiac pulsation and central perfusion pressure changes are not the integral sources of cerebral blood flow fractality and that intrinsic vascular properties such as cerebral autoregulation may be involved. However, there is a clear difference in the fractal scaling properties of arterial blood pressure between the cardiogenic shock patients and the healthy subjects

  8. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.B. Ehret (Georg); P. Munroe (Patricia); K.M. Rice (Kenneth); M. Bochud (Murielle); A.D. Johnson (Andrew); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); M.D. Tobin (Martin); G.C. Verwoert (Germaine); S.J. Hwang; V. Pihur (Vasyl); P. Vollenweider (Peter); P.F. O'Reilly (Paul); N. Amin (Najaf); J.L. Bragg-Gresham (Jennifer L.); A. Teumer (Alexander); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); L.J. Launer (Lenore); J.H. Zhao (Jing Hua); Y.S. Aulchenko (Yurii); S.C. Heath (Simon); S. Sõber (Siim); A. Parsa (Afshin); J. Luan; P. Arora (Pankaj); A. Dehghan (Abbas); F. Zhang (Feng); G. Lucas (Gavin); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); A.U. Jackson (Anne); J. Peden (John); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); S.H. Wild (Sarah); I. Rudan (Igor); W. Igl (Wilmar); Y. Milaneschi (Yuri); A.N. Parker (Alex); C. Fava (Cristiano); J.C. Chambers (John); E.R. Fox (Ervin); M. Kumari (Meena); M. Jin Go (Min); P. van der Harst (Pim); W. Hong Linda Kao (Wen); M. Sjögren (Marketa); D.G. Vinay; M. Alexander (Myriam); Y. Tabara (Yasuharu); S. Shaw-Hawkins (Sue); P.H. Whincup (Peter); Y. Liu (YongMei); G. Shi (Gang); J. Kuusisto (Johanna); B. Tayo (Bamidele); M. Seielstad (Mark); X. Sim (Xueling); K.-D. Hoang Nguyen; T. Lehtimäki (Terho); G. Matullo (Giuseppe); Y. Wu (Ying); T.R. Gaunt (Tom); N. Charlotte Onland-Moret; M.N. Cooper (Matthew); C. Platou (Carl); E. Org (Elin); R. Hardy (Rebecca); S. Dahgam (Santosh); J. Palmen (Jutta); V. Vitart (Veronique); P.S. Braund (Peter); T. Kuznetsova (Tatiana); C.S.P.M. Uiterwaal (Cuno); A. Adeyemo (Adebowale); W. Palmas (Walter); H. Campbell (Harry); B. Ludwig (Barbara); M. Tomaszewski; I. Tzoulaki; N.D. Palmer (Nicholette); T. Aspelund (Thor); M. Garcia (Melissa); Y.-P.C. Chang (Yen-Pei); J.R. O´Connell; N.I. Steinle (Nanette); D.E. Grobbee (Diederick); D.E. Arking (Dan); S.L. Kardia (Sharon); A.C. Morrison (Alanna); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); S.S. Najjar (Samer); W.L. McArdle (Wendy); D. Hadley (David); M.J. Brown (Morris); J. Connell (John); A. Hingorani (Aroon); I.N.M. Day (Ian); D.A. Lawlor (Debbie); J.P. Beilby (John); R.W. Lawrence (Robert); R. Clarke; J. Hopewell; H. Ongen (Halit); A.W. Dreisbach (Albert); Y. Li (Yali); J. Hunter Young; J.C. Bis (Joshua); M. Kähönen (Mika); J. Viikari (Jorma); N.R. Lee (Nanette); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); M. Olden (Matthias); C. Pattaro (Cristian); J.A. Hoffman Bolton (Judith); A. Köttgen (Anna); S.M. Bergmann (Sven); V. Mooser (Vincent); N. Chaturvedi (Nish); T.M. Frayling (Timothy); M. Islam (Muhammad); T.H. Jafar (Tazeen); S.R. Kulkarni (Smita); S.R. Bornstein (Stefan); J. Gräßler (Jürgen); L. Groop (Leif); B.F. Voight (Benjamin); J. Kettunen (Johannes); P. Howard (Philip); A. Taylor (Andrew); S. Guarrera (Simonetta); F. Ricceri (Fulvio); V. Emilsson (Valur); A.S. Plump (Andrew); K-T. Khaw (Kay-Tee); A.B. Weder (Alan); S.C. Hunt (Steven); Y.V. Sun (Yan); R.N. Bergman (Richard); F.S. Collins (Francis); L.L. Bonnycastle (Lori); L.J. Scott (Laura); H.M. Stringham (Heather); L. Peltonen (Leena Johanna); M. Perola (Markus); E. Vartiainen (Erkki); S.-M. Brand; J.A. Staessen (Jan); Y.A. Wang (Ying); P.R. Burton (Paul); M. Soler Artigas (Maria); Y. Dong (Yanbin); H. Snieder (Harold); H. Zhu (Haidong); K. Lohman (Kurt); M.E. Rudock (Megan); S.R. Heckbert (Susan); K.L. Wiggins (Kerri); A. Doumatey (Ayo); D. Shriner (Daniel); G. Veldre (Gudrun); M. Viigimaa (Margus); S. Kinra (Sanjay); D. Prabhakaran (Dorairaj); V. Tripathy (Vikal); C.D. Langefeld (Carl); A. Rosengren (Annika); D.S. Thelle (Dag); A. Maria Corsi (Anna); A. Singleton (Andrew); T. Forrester (Terrence); G. Hilton (Gina); C.A. McKenzie (Colin); T. Salako (Tunde); N. Iwai (Naoharu); Y. Kita (Yoshikuni); T. Ogihara (Toshio); T. Ohkubo (Takayoshi); T. Okamura (Tomonori); H. Ueshima (Hirotsugu); S. Umemura (Satoshi); S. Eyheramendy (Susana); T. Meitinger (Thomas); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); Y. Shin Cho (Yoon); H.-L. Kim; J.S. Sehmi (Joban); B. Hedblad (Bo); P. Nilsson (Peter); G. Davey-Smith (George); A. Wong (Andrew); N. Narisu (Narisu); A. Stancáková (Alena); L.J. Raffel (Leslie); J. Yao (Jie); S. Kathiresan (Sekar); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); S.M. Schwartz (Stephen); M.A. Ikram (Arfan); W.T. Longstreth Jr; T.H. Mosley (Thomas); S. Seshadri (Sudha); N.R.G. Shrine (Nick); L.V. Wain (Louise); M.A. Morken (Mario); A.J. Swift (Amy); J. Laitinen (Jaana); I. Prokopenko (Inga); P. Zitting (Paavo); S.E. Humphries (Steve); J. Danesh (John); A. Rasheed (Asif); A. Goel (Anuj); A. Hamsten (Anders); H. Watkins (Hugh); W.H. van Gilst (Wiek); C.S. Janipalli (Charles); K. Radha Mani; C. Yajnik (Chittaranjan); A. Hofman (Albert); F.U.S. Mattace Raso (Francesco); B.A. Oostra (Ben); A. Demirkan (Ayşe); A.J. Isaacs (Aaron); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); E. Lakatta (Edward); M. Orrù (Marco); A. Scuteri (Angelo); M. Ala-Korpela (Mika); A.J. Kangas (Antti); L.-P. Lyytikäinen (Leo-Pekka); P. Soininen (Pasi); T. Tukiainen (Taru); P. Würtz (Peter); R. Twee-Hee Ong (Rick); M. Dörr (Marcus); H.K. Kroemer (Heyo); U. Völker (Uwe); H. Völzke (Henry); P. Galan (Pilar); S. Hercberg (Serge); G.M. Lathrop (Mark); D. Zelenika (Diana); P. Deloukas (Panagiotis); M. Mangino (Massimo); T.D. Spector (Timothy); G. Zhai (Guangju); J.F. Meschia (James F.); M.A. Nalls (Michael); P. Sharma (Pankaj); J. Terzic (Janos); M.V. Kranthi Kumar; M. Denniff (Matthew); E. Zukowska-Szczechowska (Ewa); L.E. Wagenknecht (Lynne); F. Gerald R. Fowkes; F.J. Charchar (Fadi); P.E.H. Schwarz (Peter); C. Hayward (Caroline); X. Guo (Xiuqing); C. Rotimi (Charles); M.L. Bots (Michiel); N.J. Samani (Nilesh); O. Polasek (Ozren); P.J. Talmud (Philippa); F. Nyberg (Fredrik); D. Kuh (Diana); M. Laan (Maris); K. Hveem (Kristian); Y.T. van der Schouw (Yvonne); J.P. Casas (Juan); K.L. Mohlke (Karen); P. Vineis (Paolo); O. Raitakari (Olli); S.K. Ganesh (Santhi); E. Shyong Tai; M. Laakso (Markku); D.C. Rao (Dabeeru C.); T.B. Harris (Tamara); R.W. Morris (Richard); A. Dominiczak (Anna); M. Kivimaki (Mika); M. Marmot (Michael); T. Miki (Tetsuro); D. Saleheen; G.R. Chandak (Giriraj); J. Coresh (Josef); G. Navis (Gerjan); V. Salomaa (Veikko); B.-G. Han; J.S. Kooner (Jaspal); O. Melander (Olle); P.M. Ridker (Paul); S. Bandinelli (Stefania); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); A.F. Wright (Alan); J.F. Wilson (James); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); M. Farrall (Martin); J. Tuomilehto (Jaakko); P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); R. Elosua (Roberto); N. Soranzo (Nicole); E.J.G. Sijbrands (Eric); D. Altshuler (David); R.J.F. Loos (Ruth); A.R. Shuldiner (Alan); C. Gieger (Christian); P. Meneton (Pierre); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); N.J. Wareham (Nick); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.I. Rotter (Jerome); R. Rettig (Rainer); M. Uda (Manuela); D.P. Strachan (David); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); A.L. Hartikainen; J.S. Beckmann (Jacques); E.A. Boerwinkle (Eric); J. Erdmann (Jeanette); R.S. Vasan (Ramachandran Srini); M. Boehnke (Michael); M.G. Larson (Martin); M.R. Järvelin; B.M. Psaty (Bruce); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); C. Newton-Cheh (Christopher); P. Elliott (Paul); D. Levy (Daniel); M. Caulfield (Mark); G.R. Abecasis (Gonçalo); L.S. Adair (Linda); S.J.L. Bakker (Stephan); I.E. Barroso (Inês)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractBlood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140mmg Hg systolic blood pressure ≥90mmg Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  9. Genetic variants in novel pathways influence blood pressure and cardiovascular disease risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ehret, Georg B.; Munroe, Patricia B.; Rice, Kenneth M.; Bochud, Murielle; Johnson, Andrew D.; Chasman, Daniel I.; Smith, Albert V.; Tobin, Martin D.; Verwoert, Germaine C.; Hwang, Shih-Jen; Pihur, Vasyl; Vollenweider, Peter; O'Reilly, Paul F.; Amin, Najaf; Bragg-Gresham, Jennifer L.; Teumer, Alexander; Glazer, Nicole L.; Launer, Lenore; Zhao, Jing Hua; Aulchenko, Yurii; Heath, Simon; Sõber, Siim; Parsa, Afshin; Luan, Jian'an; Arora, Pankaj; Dehghan, Abbas; Zhang, Feng; Lucas, Gavin; Hicks, Andrew A.; Jackson, Anne U.; Peden, John F.; Tanaka, Toshiko; Wild, Sarah H.; Rudan, Igor; Igl, Wilmar; Milaneschi, Yuri; Parker, Alex N.; Fava, Cristiano; Chambers, John C.; Fox, Ervin R.; Kumari, Meena; Go, Min Jin; van der Harst, Pim; Kao, Wen Hong Linda; Sjögren, Marketa; Vinay, D. G.; Alexander, Myriam; Tabara, Yasuharu; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Whincup, Peter H.; Liu, Yongmei; Shi, Gang; Kuusisto, Johanna; Tayo, Bamidele; Seielstad, Mark; Sim, Xueling; Nguyen, Khanh-Dung Hoang; Lehtimäki, Terho; Matullo, Giuseppe; Wu, Ying; Gaunt, Tom R.; Onland-Moret, N. Charlotte; Cooper, Matthew N.; Platou, Carl G. P.; Org, Elin; Hardy, Rebecca; Dahgam, Santosh; Palmen, Jutta; Vitart, Veronique; Braund, Peter S.; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Uiterwaal, Cuno S. P. M.; Adeyemo, Adebowale; Palmas, Walter; Campbell, Harry; Ludwig, Barbara; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Palmer, Nicholette D.; Aspelund, Thor; Garcia, Melissa; Chang, Yen-Pei C.; O'Connell, Jeffrey R.; Steinle, Nanette I.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Arking, Dan E.; Kardia, Sharon L.; Morrison, Alanna C.; Hernandez, Dena; Najjar, Samer; McArdle, Wendy L.; Hadley, David; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Hingorani, Aroon D.; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Beilby, John P.; Lawrence, Robert W.; Clarke, Robert; Hopewell, Jemma C.; Ongen, Halit; Dreisbach, Albert W.; Li, Yali; Young, J. Hunter; Bis, Joshua C.; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Adair, Linda S.; Lee, Nanette R.; Chen, Ming-Huei; Olden, Matthias; Pattaro, Cristian; Bolton, Judith A. Hoffman; Köttgen, Anna; Bergmann, Sven; Mooser, Vincent; Chaturvedi, Nish; Frayling, Timothy M.; Islam, Muhammad; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Kulkarni, Smita R.; Bornstein, Stefan R.; Grässler, Jürgen; Groop, Leif; Voight, Benjamin F.; Kettunen, Johannes; Howard, Philip; Taylor, Andrew; Guarrera, Simonetta; Ricceri, Fulvio; Emilsson, Valur; Plump, Andrew; Barroso, Inês; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Weder, Alan B.; Hunt, Steven C.; Sun, Yan V.; Bergman, Richard N.; Collins, Francis S.; Bonnycastle, Lori L.; Scott, Laura J.; Stringham, Heather M.; Peltonen, Leena; Perola, Markus; Vartiainen, Erkki; Brand, Stefan-Martin; Staessen, Jan A.; Wang, Thomas J.; Burton, Paul R.; Artigas, Maria Soler; Dong, Yanbin; Snieder, Harold; Wang, Xiaoling; Zhu, Haidong; Lohman, Kurt K.; Rudock, Megan E.; Heckbert, Susan R.; Smith, Nicholas L.; Wiggins, Kerri L.; Doumatey, Ayo; Shriner, Daniel; Veldre, Gudrun; Viigimaa, Margus; Kinra, Sanjay; Prabhakaran, Dorairaj; Tripathy, Vikal; Langefeld, Carl D.; Rosengren, Annika; Thelle, Dag S.; Corsi, Anna Maria; Singleton, Andrew; Forrester, Terrence; Hilton, Gina; McKenzie, Colin A.; Salako, Tunde; Iwai, Naoharu; Kita, Yoshikuni; Ogihara, Toshio; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Okamura, Tomonori; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Umemura, Satoshi; Eyheramendy, Susana; Meitinger, Thomas; Wichmann, H.-Erich; Cho, Yoon Shin; Kim, Hyung-Lae; Lee, Jong-Young; Scott, James; Sehmi, Joban S.; Zhang, Weihua; Hedblad, Bo; Nilsson, Peter; Smith, George Davey; Wong, Andrew; Narisu, Narisu; Stančáková, Alena; Raffel, Leslie J.; Yao, Jie; Kathiresan, Sekar; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Schwartz, Stephen M.; Ikram, M. Arfan; Longstreth, W. T.; Mosley, Thomas H.; Seshadri, Sudha; Shrine, Nick R. G.; Wain, Louise V.; Morken, Mario A.; Swift, Amy J.; Laitinen, Jaana; Prokopenko, Inga; Zitting, Paavo; Cooper, Jackie A.; Humphries, Steve E.; Danesh, John; Rasheed, Asif; Goel, Anuj; Hamsten, Anders; Watkins, Hugh; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; van Gilst, Wiek H.; Janipalli, Charles S.; Mani, K. Radha; Yajnik, Chittaranjan S.; Hofman, Albert; Mattace-Raso, Francesco U. S.; Oostra, Ben A.; Demirkan, Ayse; Isaacs, Aaron; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Lakatta, Edward G.; Orru, Marco; Scuteri, Angelo; Ala-Korpela, Mika; Kangas, Antti J.; Lyytikäinen, Leo-Pekka; Soininen, Pasi; Tukiainen, Taru; Würtz, Peter; Ong, Rick Twee-Hee; Dörr, Marcus; Kroemer, Heyo K.; Völker, Uwe; Völzke, Henry; Galan, Pilar; Hercberg, Serge; Lathrop, Mark; Zelenika, Diana; Deloukas, Panos; Mangino, Massimo; Spector, Tim D.; Zhai, Guangju; Meschia, James F.; Nalls, Michael A.; Sharma, Pankaj; Terzic, Janos; Kumar, M. V. Kranthi; Denniff, Matthew; Zukowska-Szczechowska, Ewa; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Fowkes, F. Gerald R.; Charchar, Fadi J.; Schwarz, Peter E. H.; Hayward, Caroline; Guo, Xiuqing; Rotimi, Charles; Bots, Michiel L.; Brand, Eva; Samani, Nilesh J.; Polasek, Ozren; Talmud, Philippa J.; Nyberg, Fredrik; Kuh, Diana; Laan, Maris; Hveem, Kristian; Palmer, Lyle J.; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Casas, Juan P.; Mohlke, Karen L.; Vineis, Paolo; Raitakari, Olli; Ganesh, Santhi K.; Wong, Tien Y.; Tai, E. Shyong; Cooper, Richard S.; Laakso, Markku; Rao, Dabeeru C.; Harris, Tamara B.; Morris, Richard W.; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Kivimaki, Mika; Marmot, Michael G.; Miki, Tetsuro; Saleheen, Danish; Chandak, Giriraj R.; Coresh, Josef; Navis, Gerjan; Salomaa, Veikko; Han, Bok-Ghee; Zhu, Xiaofeng; Kooner, Jaspal S.; Melander, Olle; Ridker, Paul M.; Bandinelli, Stefania; Gyllensten, Ulf B.; Wright, Alan F.; Wilson, James F.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Farrall, Martin; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Pramstaller, Peter P.; Elosua, Roberto; Soranzo, Nicole; Sijbrands, Eric J. G.; Altshuler, David; Loos, Ruth J. F.; Shuldiner, Alan R.; Gieger, Christian; Meneton, Pierre; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rettig, Rainer; Uda, Manuela; Strachan, David P.; Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Hartikainen, Anna-Liisa; Beckmann, Jacques S.; Boerwinkle, Eric; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Boehnke, Michael; Larson, Martin G.; Järvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Psaty, Bruce M.; Abecasis, Gonçalo R.; Chakravarti, Aravinda; Elliott, Paul; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Newton-Cheh, Christopher; Levy, Daniel; Caulfield, Mark J.; Johnson, Toby; Tang, Hua; Knowles, Joshua; Hlatky, Mark; Fortmann, Stephen; Assimes, Themistocles L.; Quertermous, Thomas; Go, Alan; Iribarren, Carlos; Absher, Devin; Risch, Neil; Myers, Richard; Sidney, Steven; Ziegler, Andreas; Schillert, Arne; Bickel, Christoph; Sinning, Christoph; Rupprecht, Hans J.; Lackner, Karl; Wild, Philipp; Schnabel, Renate; Blankenberg, Stefan; Zeller, Tanja; Münzel, Thomas; Perret, Claire; Cambien, Francois; Tiret, Laurence; Nicaud, Viviane; Proust, Carole; Uitterlinden, Andre; van Duijn, Cornelia; Whitteman, Jaqueline; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demissie-Banjaw, Serkalem; Ramachandran, Vasan; Smith, Albert; Folsom, Aaron; Morrison, Alanna; Chen, Ida Yii-Der; Bis, Joshua; Volcik, Kelly; Rice, Kenneth; Taylor, Kent D.; Marciante, Kristin; Smith, Nicholas; Glazer, Nicole; Heckbert, Susan; Harris, Tamara; Lumley, Thomas; Kong, Augustine; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Thorgeirsson, Gudmundur; Holm, Hilma; Gulcher, Jeffrey R.; Stefansson, Kari; Andersen, Karl; Gretarsdottir, Solveig; Thorsteinsdottir, Unnur; Preuss, Michael; Schreiber, Stefan; König, Inke R.; Lieb, Wolfgang; Hengstenberg, Christian; Schunkert, Heribert; Fischer, Marcus; Grosshennig, Anika; Medack, Anja; Stark, Klaus; Linsel-Nitschke, Patrick; Bruse, Petra; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Peters, Annette; Loley, Christina; Willenborg, Christina; Nahrstedt, Janja; Freyer, Jennifer; Gulde, Stephanie; Doering, Angela; Meisinger, Christina; Klopp, Norman; Illig, Thomas; Meinitzer, Andreas; Tomaschitz, Andreas; Halperin, Eran; Dobnig, Harald; Scharnagl, Hubert; Kleber, Marcus; Laaksonen, Reijo; Pilz, Stefan; Grammer, Tanja B.; Stojakovic, Tatjana; Renner, Wilfried; März, Winfried; Böhm, Bernhard O.; Winkelmann, Bernhard R.; Winkler, Karl; Hoffmann, Michael M.; Siscovick, David S.; Musunuru, Kiran; Barbalic, Maja; Guiducci, Candace; Burtt, Noel; Gabriel, Stacey B.; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Wells, George A.; Chen, Li; Jarinova, Olga; Roberts, Robert; McPherson, Ruth; Dandona, Sonny; Pichard, Augusto D.; Rader, Daniel J.; Devaney, Joe; Lindsay, Joseph M.; Kent, Kenneth M.; Qu, Liming; Satler, Lowell; Burnett, Mary Susan; Li, Mingyao; Reilly, Muredach P.; Wilensky, Robert; Waksman, Ron; Epstein, Stephen; Matthai, William; Knouff, Christopher W.; Waterworth, Dawn M.; Hakonarson, Hakon H.; Walker, Max C.; Hall, Alistair S.; Balmforth, Anthony J.; Wright, Benjamin J.; Nelson, Chris; Thompson, John R.; Ball, Stephen G.; Felix, Janine F.; Demissie, Serkalem; Loehr, Laura R.; Rosamond, Wayne D.; Folsom, Aaron R.; Benjamin, Emelia; Aulchenko, Yurii S.; Haritunians, Talin; Couper, David; Murabito, Joanne; Wang, Ying A.; Stricker, Bruno H.; Gottdiener, John S.; Chang, Patricia P.; Willerson, James T.; Köttgen, A.; Pattaro, C.; Böger, C. A.; Fuchsberger, C.; Olden, M.; Glazer, N. L.; Parsa, A.; Gao, X.; Yang, Q.; Smith, A. V.; O'Connell, J. R.; Li, M.; Schmidt, H.; Tanaka, T.; Isaacs, A.; Ketkar, S.; Hwang, S. J.; Johnson, A. D.; Dehghan, A.; Teumer, A.; Paré, G.; Atkinson, E. J.; Zeller, T.; Lohman, K.; Cornelis, M. C.; Probst-Hensch, N. M.; Kronenberg, F.; Tönjes, A.; Hayward, C.; Aspelund, T.; Eiriksdottir, G.; Launer, L. J.; Harris, T. B.; Rampersaud, E.; Mitchell, B. D.; Arking, D. E.; Boerwinkle, E.; Struchalin, M.; Cavalieri, M.; Singleton, A.; Giallauria, F.; Metter, J.; de Boer, J.; Haritunians, T.; Lumley, T.; Siscovick, D.; Psaty, B. M.; Zillikens, M. C.; Oostra, B. A.; Feitosa, M.; Province, M.; de Andrade, M.; Turner, S. T.; Schillert, A.; Ziegler, A.; Wild, P. S.; Schnabel, R. B.; Wilde, S.; Munzel, T. F.; Leak, T. S.; Illig, T.; Klopp, N.; Meisinger, C.; Wichmann, H. E.; Koenig, W.; Zgaga, L.; Zemunik, T.; Kolcic, I.; Minelli, C.; Hu, F. B.; Johansson, A.; Igl, W.; Zaboli, G.; Wild, S. H.; Wright, A. F.; Campbell, H.; Ellinghaus, D.; Schreiber, S.; Aulchenko, Y. S.; Felix, J. F.; Rivadeneira, F.; Uitterlinden, A. G.; Hofman, A.; Imboden, M.; Nitsch, D.; Brandstätter, A.; Kollerits, B.; Kedenko, L.; Mägi, R.; Stumvoll, M.; Kovacs, P.; Boban, M.; Campbell, S.; Endlich, K.; Völzke, H.; Kroemer, H. K.; Nauck, M.; Völker, U.; Polasek, O.; Vitart, V.; Badola, S.; Parker, A. N.; Ridker, P. M.; Kardia, S. L.; Blankenberg, S.; Liu, Y.; Curhan, G. C.; Franke, A.; Rochat, T.; Paulweber, B.; Prokopenko, I.; Wang, W.; Gudnason, V.; Shuldiner, A. R.; Coresh, J.; Schmidt, R.; Ferrucci, L.; Shlipak, M. G.; van Duijn, C. M.; Borecki, I.; Krämer, B. K.; Rudan, I.; Gyllensten, U.; Wilson, J. F.; Witteman, J. C.; Pramstaller, P. P.; Rettig, R.; Hastie, N.; Chasman, D. I.; Kao, W. H.; Heid, I. M.; Fox, C. S.; Vasan, R. S.; Lieb, W.; Felix, S. B.; Watzinger, N.; Larson, M. G.; Smith, N. L.; Grosshennig, A.; Kathiresan, S.; König, I. R.; Homuth, G.; Aragam, J.; Bis, J. C.; Erdmann, J.; Dörr, M.; Zweiker, R.; Lind, L.; Rodeheffer, R. J.; Greiser, K. H.; Levy, D.; Deckers, J. W.; Stritzke, J.; Lackner, K. J.; Ingelsson, E.; Kullo, I.; Haerting, J.; O'Donnell, C. J.; Heckbert, S. R.; Stricker, B. H.; Reffelmann, T.; Redfield, M. M.; Werdan, K.; Mitchell, G. F.; Rice, K.; Arnett, D. K.; Gottdiener, J. S.; Meitinger, T.; Blettner, M.; Friedrich, N.; Wang, T. J.; Benjamin, E. J.; Rotter, J. I.; Schunkert, H.; Chambers, J. C.; Zhang, W.; Lord, G. M.; van der Harst, P.; Lawlor, D. A.; Sehmi, J. S.; Gale, D. P.; Wass, M. N.; Ahmadi, K. R.; Bakker, S. J.; Beckmann, J.; Bilo, H. J.; Bochud, M.; Brown, M. J.; Caulfield, M. J.; Connell, J. M.; Cook, H. T.; Cotlarciuc, I.; Davey Smith, G.; de Silva, R.; Deng, G.; Devuyst, O.; Dikkeschei, L. D.; Dimkovic, N.; Dockrell, M.; Dominiczak, A.; Ebrahim, S.; Eggermann, T.; Farrall, M.; Floege, J.; Forouhi, N. G.; Gansevoort, R. T.; Han, X.; Hedblad, B.; Homan van der Heide, J. J.; Hepkema, B. G.; Hernandez-Fuentes, M.; Hypponen, E.; Johnson, T.; de Jong, P. E.; Kleefstra, N.; Lagou, V.; Lapsley, M.; Li, Y.; Loos, R. J.; Luan, J.; Luttropp, K.; Maréchal, C.; Melander, O.; Munroe, P. B.; Nordfors, L.; Peltonen, L.; Penninx, B. W.; Perucha, E.; Pouta, A.; Roderick, P. J.; Ruokonen, A.; Samani, N. J.; Sanna, S.; Schalling, M.; Schlessinger, D.; Schlieper, G.; Seelen, M. A.; Sjögren, M.; Smit, J. H.; Snieder, H.; Soranzo, N.; Spector, T. D.; Stenvinkel, P.; Sternberg, M. J.; Swaminathan, R.; Ubink-Veltmaat, L. J.; Uda, M.; Vollenweider, P.; Wallace, C.; Waterworth, D.; Zerres, K.; Waeber, G.; Wareham, N. J.; Maxwell, P. H.; McCarthy, M. I.; Jarvelin, M. R.; Mooser, V.; Abecasis, G. R.; Lightstone, L.; Scott, J.; Navis, G.; Elliott, P.; Kooner, J. S.

    2011-01-01

    Blood pressure is a heritable trait influenced by several biological pathways and responsive to environmental stimuli. Over one billion people worldwide have hypertension (≥140 mm Hg systolic blood pressure or  ≥90 mm Hg diastolic blood pressure). Even small increments in blood pressure are

  10. Effect of Turkish classical music on blood pressure: a randomized controlled trial in hypertensive elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekiroğlu, Tansel; Ovayolu, Nimet; Ergün, Yusuf; Ekerbiçer, Hasan Çetin

    2013-06-01

    Existing studies suggest that music therapy can have favorable effects on hypertension and anxiety. We therefore set out to investigate the effect of Turkish classical music. To investigate whether Turkish classical music has positive effects on blood pressures and anxiety levels in elderly patients. This was a randomized controlled trial performed on 60 hypertensive patients living in a local elderly home in Adana, Turkey. Following the completion of a socio-demographic form for each patient, Hamilton anxiety scale was applied. Thereafter, the subjects were randomly divided into two equal-size groups and were allowed to either listen to Turkish classical music (music therapy group) or have a resting period (control group) for 25 min. The primary and secondary outcome measures were blood pressure and Hamilton anxiety scale scores, respectively. The mean reduction in systolic blood pressure was 13.00 mmHg in the music therapy group and 6.50 mmHg in the control group. The baseline adjusted between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (95% CI 6.80-9.36). The median reductions in diastolic blood pressures were 10 mmHg both in the music therapy and control groups. The between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (Mann-Whitney U test, P = 0.839). The mean reduction in HAMA-A was 1.63 in the music therapy group and 0.77 in the control group. The baseline adjusted between treatment group difference was not statistically significant (95% CI 0.82-1.92). The study demonstrated that both Turkish classical music and resting alone have positive effects on blood pressure in patients with hypertension. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Proof of concept in cardiovascular risk: the paradoxical findings in blood pressure and lipid abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuchs FD

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Flavio Danni Fuchs, Sandra Costa Fuchs, Leila Beltrami Moreira, Miguel GusDivision of Cardiology and Postgraduate Studies Program in Cardiology, Hospital de Clinicas de Porto Alegre, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, BrazilAbstract: High blood pressure and lipoprotein abnormalities were identified by many cohort studies as the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease. Laboratory experiments apparently confirmed their role in the causation of atherosclerosis, but a proof of concept requires the corroboration by clinical trials in human beings. The size of benefit in clinical trials regarding the control of high blood pressure was within the estimations of risk provided by cohort studies. For a reduction of 10 mmHg in systolic blood pressure or 5 mmHg in diastolic blood pressure, the relative risk reduction of coronary heart disease was 22% (95% confidence interval 27%–17% in a meta-analysis of clinical trials, close to the estimation of reduction of 25% (95% confidence interval 23%–27% provided by a meta-analysis of cohort studies. The corresponding values for stroke were 41% (95% confidence interval 33%–48% in clinical trials compared to a cohort risk prediction of 36% (95% confidence interval 34%–38%. This efficacy was shared by all blood pressure-lowering drugs. The same figure has not paradoxically happened with drugs that act over abnormalities of cholesterol and lipoproteins. Only statins, which have other beneficial actions as well, have consistently lowered the incidence of cardiovascular diseases, an efficacy that was not reproduced by older and newer quite potent lipid drugs. The adverse effects of these drugs may nullify their beneficial effects over lipoproteins and abnormalities of lipoproteins may only be surrogate markers of the underlying real risks.Keywords: proof of concept, hypertension, lipoproteins, clinical trials

  12. NOS3 Glu298Asp genotype and blood pressure response to endurance training: the HERITAGE family study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankinen, T; Rice, T; Pérusse, L; Chagnon, Y C; Gagnon, J; Leon, A S; Skinner, J S; Wilmore, J H; Rao, D C; Bouchard, C

    2000-11-01

    Endothelium-dependent vasodilation is a mechanism that may affect blood pressure response to endurance training. Because NO plays a central role in this process, the endothelial NO synthase gene is a good candidate for the regulation of exercise blood pressure. We investigated the associations between an endothelial NO synthase gene polymorphism (Glu298Asp) and endurance training-induced changes in resting and submaximal exercise blood pressure in 471 white subjects of the HERITAGE Family Study. Two submaximal exercise tests at 50 W were conducted both before and after a 20-week endurance training program. Steady-state exercise blood pressure was measured twice in each test with an automated unit. The Glu298Asp polymorphism was typed with a PCR-based method and digestion with BAN:II. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure at 50 W decreased in response to the training program, whereas resting blood pressure remained unchanged. The decrease in diastolic blood pressure at 50 W was greater (P=0.0005, adjusted for age, gender, baseline body mass index, and baseline diastolic blood pressure at 50 W) in the Glu/Glu homozygotes (4.4 [SEM 0.4] mm Hg, n=187) than in the heterozygotes (3.1 [0.4] mm Hg, n=213) and the Asp/Asp homozygotes (1.3 [0.7] mm Hg, n=71). The genotype accounted for 2.3% of the variance in diastolic blood pressure at 50 W training response. Both the Glu298 homozygotes and the heterozygotes had a greater (P=0.013) training-induced reduction in rate-pressure product at 50 W than the Asp298 homozygotes. These data suggest that DNA sequence variation in the endothelial NO synthase gene locus is associated with the endurance training-induced decreases in submaximal exercise diastolic blood pressure and rate-pressure product in sedentary normotensive white subjects.

  13. Combined exercise circuit session acutely attenuates stress-induced blood pressure reactivity in healthy adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio R. Moreira

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the blood pressure (BP responses to cardiovascular stress test after a combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity. Method: Twenty individuals (10 male/10 fem; 33.4± 6.9 years; 70.2± 15.8 kg; 170.4± 11.5 cm; 22.3± 6.8% body fat were randomized in a different days to control session with no exercise or exercise session consisting of 3 laps of the following circuit: knee extension, bench press, knee flexion, rowing in the prone position, squats, shoulder press, and 5 min of aerobic exercise at 75-85% of age-predicted maximum heart rate and/or 13 on the Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion [scale of 6 to 20]. The sets of resistance exercise consisted of 15 repetitions at ~50% of the estimated 1 repetition maximum test. Systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP were measured at rest and during 1h of recovery in both experimental sessions. After that, blood pressure reactivity (BPR was evaluated using the Cold Pressor Test. Results: During 1h of exercise recovery, there was a reduction in SBP (3-6 mmHg and DBP (2-5 mmHg in relation to pre-session rest (p<0.01, while this reduction was not observed in the control session. A decline in BPR (4-7 mmHg; p<0.01 was observed 1h post-exercise session, but not in the control session. Post-exercise reductions in SBP and DBP were significantly correlated with BPR reductions (r=0.50-0.45; p<0.05. Conclusion: A combined exercise circuit session at moderate intensity promoted subsequent post-exercise hypotension and acutely attenuated BPR in response to a cardiovascular stress test. In addition, the post-exercise BP reduction was correlated with BPR attenuation in healthy adults of both genders.

  14. The relationship between elevated interstitial fluid pressure and blood flow in tumors: a bioengineering analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milosevic, Michael F.; Fyles, Anthony W.; Hill, Richard P.

    1999-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the hypothesis that elevated interstitial fluid pressure (IFP) is a cause of reduced blood flow in tumors. Materials and Methods: A physiologic model of tumor blood flow was developed based on a semipermeable, compliant capillary in the center of a spherical tumor. The model incorporates the interaction between the tumor vasculature and the interstitium, as mediated by IFP. It also incorporates the dynamic behavior of the capillary wall in response to changes in transmural pressure, and the effect of viscosity on blood flow. Results: The model predicted elevated tumor IFP in the range of 0 to 56 mmHg. The capillary diameter in the setting of elevated IFP was greatest at the arterial end, and constricted to between 3.2 and 4.4 μm at the venous end. This corresponded to a 2.4- to 3.5-fold reduction in diameter along the length of the capillary. The IFP exceeded the intravascular pressure distally in the capillary, but vascular collapse did not occur. Capillary diameter constriction resulted in a 2.3- to 9.1-fold steady-state reduction in tumor blood flow relative to a state of near-zero IFP. Conclusion: The results suggest that steady-state vascular constriction occurs in the setting of elevated IFP, and leads to reduced tumor blood flow. This may in turn contribute to the development of hypoxia, which is an important cause of radiation treatment failure in many tumors

  15. Baseline Blood Pressure, the 2017 ACC/AHA High Blood Pressure Guidelines, and Long-Term Cardiovascular Risk in SPRINT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Pareek, Manan; Qamar, Arman; Pandey, Ambarish; Olsen, Michael H; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-02-05

    The 2017 American College of Cardiology (ACC)/American Heart Association (AHA) guidelines include lower thresholds to define hypertension than previous guidelines. Little is known about the impact of these guideline changes in patients with or at high risk for cardiovascular disease. In this exploratory analysis using baseline blood pressure assessments in Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT), we evaluated the prevalence and associated cardiovascular prognosis of patients newly reclassified with hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA (systolic blood pressure ≥130 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥80 mm Hg) compared with the Seventh Report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure (JNC 7) guidelines (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mm Hg or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mm Hg). The primary endpoint was the composite of myocardial infarction, other acute coronary syndromes, stroke, heart failure, or cardiovascular death. In 4683 patients assigned to the standard treatment arm of SPRINT, 2328 (49.7%) met hypertension thresholds by JNC 7 guidelines, and another 1424 (30.4%) were newly reclassified as having hypertension based on the 2017 ACC/AHA guidelines. Over 3.3-year median follow-up, 319 patients experienced the primary endpoint (87 of whom were newly reclassified with hypertension based on the revised guidelines). Patients with hypertension based on prior guidelines compared with those newly identified with hypertension based on the new guidelines had similar risk of the primary endpoint (2.3 [95% confidence interval {CI}, 2.0-2.7] vs 2.0 [95% CI, 1.6-2.4] events per 100 patient-years; adjusted HR, 1.10 [95% CI, 0.84-1.44]; P = .48). The 2017 ACC/AHA high blood pressure guidelines are expected to significantly increase the prevalence of patients with hypertension (perhaps to a greater extent in higher-risk patient cohorts compared with the general population) and

  16. The Role of Central Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Management of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochoa, Adrian; Patarroyo-Aponte, Gabriel; Rahman, Mahboob

    2018-04-19

    Central blood pressure is a novel predictor of cardiovascular risk that can be measured in the clinical setting using currently available technology. This paper will review current available methods of central blood pressure monitoring as well as its impact in cardiac and renal disease. Both aortic and carotid systolic blood pressure are independently associated with cardiovascular mortality and serious cardiac events. Furthermore, studies show that systolic aortic blood pressure has been shown to be superior predictor of cardiovascular as compared to brachial blood pressure. Inhibitors of the renin angiotensin axis may have a beneficial effect on central blood pressure; however, long term studies evaluating the impact of lowering central blood pressure on clinical outcomes are lacking. Central blood pressure is a good predictor of cardiovascular risk. As more studies emerge demonstrating the value of central blood pressure as a therapeutic target, it is possible that targeting central blood pressure may become an important part of the armamentarium to lower cardiovascular risk.

  17. White-Coat Hypertension: When Blood Pressure Rises at the Doctor's Office

    Science.gov (United States)

    White coat hypertension: When blood pressure rises at the doctor's office My blood pressure is always higher in the ... You could have a condition known as white coat hypertension. White coat hypertension occurs when the blood ...

  18. The conundrum of arterial stiffness, elevated blood pressure, and aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    AlGhatrif, Majd; Lakatta, Edward G

    2015-02-01

    Isolated systolic hypertension is a major health burden that is expanding with the aging of our population. There is evidence that central arterial stiffness contributes to the rise in systolic blood pressure (SBP); at the same time, central arterial stiffening is accelerated in patients with increased SBP. This bidirectional relationship created a controversy in the field on whether arterial stiffness leads to hypertension or vice versa. Given the profound interdependency of arterial stiffness and blood pressure, this question seems intrinsically challenging, or probably naïve. The aorta's function of dampening the pulsatile flow generated by the left ventricle is optimal within a physiological range of distending pressure that secures the required distal flow, keeps the aorta in an optimal mechanical conformation, and minimizes cardiac work. This homeostasis is disturbed by age-associated, minute alterations in aortic hemodynamic and mechanical properties that induce short- and long-term alterations in each other. Hence, it is impossible to detect an "initial insult" at an epidemiological level. Earlier manifestations of these alterations are observed in young adulthood with a sharp decline in aortic strain and distensibility accompanied by an increase in diastolic blood pressure. Subsequently, aortic mechanical reserve is exhausted, and aortic remodeling with wall stiffening and dilatation ensue. These two phenomena affect pulse pressure in opposite directions and different magnitudes. With early remodeling, there is an increase in pulse pressure, due to the dominance of arterial wall stiffness, which in turn accelerates aortic wall stiffness and dilation. With advanced remodeling, which appears to be greater in men, the effect of diameter becomes more pronounced and partially offsets the effect of wall stiffness leading to plateauing in pulse pressure in men and slower increase in pulse pressure (PP) than that of wall stiffness in women. The complex nature of

  19. Modeling low pressure baroreceptors and their contribution to blood pressure control

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de Zambrano, Betsy Mirley; Rojas-Sulbarán, Rubén Darío

    2016-01-01

    The main mechanism for blood pressure (BP) control is coordinated by the central nervous system through the sympathetic and parasympathetic systems. In order to simulate this mechanism, different mathematical models are available, but they take into account only the high pressure receptors as sensing systems for BP. However, other receptors located in low pressure areas have not, as far as we know, been considered in the models described in the literature, despite their important role in the ...

  20. National High Blood Pressure 12-Month Kit. May 1988.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Heart and Lung Inst. (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD. National High Blood Pressure Education Program.

    Part I of this kit provides information for program planners and health professionals on ways to overcome barriers to health care among the medically underserved, promote high blood pressure control through the media and other community channels, and improve adherence to treatment among hypertensive patients. It lists additional resources for…

  1. Blood pressure and BMI in adolescents in Aracaju, Brazil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polderman, Jorinde; Gurgel, Ricardo Queiroz; Barreto-Filho, José Augusto S.; Roelofs, Rik; Ramos, Ricardo Emanoel de O.; de Munter, Jeroen S.; Wendte, Johannes F.; Agyemang, Charles

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To assess the prevalence of high blood pressure (BP) and the association of overweight and obesity with high BP among adolescents in Aracaju, Brazil. Design: Cross-sectional study. The main outcome measure was the proportion of adolescents with high BP (sex-, age- and height-specific >=

  2. Pattern of Blood Pressure in Adolescents | Mijinyawa | Sahel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Multiple linear regression analysis identified body mass index, height and socioeconomic status as independent predictors of rise in SBP. These variables, as well as age similarly predicted rise in diastolic blood pressure. Going by the definition of hypertension of equal greater than the 95th percentile for the individual's sex ...

  3. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in clinical trials with antihypertensive agents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.H. van den Meiracker (Anton)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractAmbulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is being used increasingly for the evaluation of antihypertensive agents in clinical trials. In this brief review several aspects of ABPM are discussed. In particular, attention is paid to the extent to which ABPM is subject to a placebo

  4. The relationship between basal blood pressure and body mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: In contrast to the situation in developed countries, very few studies have been done on blood pressure (BP) determinants among Nigerian adolescents. Aim: To evaluate the relationship between basal BP and body mass index (BMI) in a group of healthy Nigerian secondary school students. Methods: This was ...

  5. The Magnitude of Obesity and its Relationship to Blood Pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Obesity in developing nations is no longer as uncommon as it was thought to be decades ago however paucity of data on the burden of obesity from urban communities was observed by previous workers. Aim: To determine the magnitude of obesity and its relationship to blood pressure among urban adult ...

  6. Prevalence of obesity and elevated blood pressure among bankers ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among bankers in Lagos State, Nigeria. Methods: Blood pressure, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were measured in 260 professional bankers from 56 bank branches in Lagos. Results: The mean age of the respondents was ...

  7. Time Spent on the Internet and Adolescent Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassidy-Bushrow, Andrea E.; Johnson, Dayna A.; Peters, Rosalind M.; Burmeister, Charlotte; Joseph, Christine L. M.

    2015-01-01

    Internet use is nearly ubiquitous among adolescents. Growing evidence suggests heavy Internet use negatively impacts health, yet the relationship between time spent on the Internet and adolescent blood pressure (BP) is unknown. We examined the association between Internet use and elevated BP in a racially diverse cross-sectional sample of 331…

  8. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  9. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines...

  10. A Nutrition Curriculum for Families with High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farris, Rosanne P.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    A nutrition curriculum for elementary and secondary school students with high blood pressure was implemented as part of a Dietary/Exercise Alteration Program trial. Reduced sodium and energy intake and increased potassium intake were promoted. Materials and methods of the program are described. (Author/DF)

  11. Ambulatory blood pressure and adherence monitoring: diagnosing pseudoresistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burnier, Michel; Wuerzner, Gregoire

    2014-01-01

    A small proportion of the treated hypertensive population consistently has a blood pressure greater than 140/90 mm Hg despite a triple therapy including a diuretic, a calcium channel blocker, and a blocker of the renin-angiotensin system. According to guidelines, these patients have so-called resistant hypertension. The prevalence of this clinical condition is higher in tertiary than primary care centers and often is associated with chronic kidney disease, diabetes, obesity, and sleep apnea syndrome. Exclusion of pseudoresistant hypertension using ambulatory or home blood pressure monitoring is a crucial step in the investigation of patients with resistant hypertension. Thus, among the multiple factors to consider when investigating patients with resistant hypertension, ambulatory blood pressure monitoring should be performed very early. Among other factors to consider, physicians should investigate patient adherence to therapy, assess the adequacy of treatment, exclude interfering factors, and, finally, look for secondary forms of hypertension. Poor adherence to therapy accounts for 30% to 50% of cases of resistance to therapy depending on the methodology used to diagnose adherence problems. This review discusses the clinical factors implicated in the pathogenesis of resistant hypertension with a particular emphasis on pseudoresistance, drug adherence, and the use of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring for the diagnosis and management of resistant hypertension.

  12. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty...

  13. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  14. Somatotype, blood pressure and physical activity among 10- to 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of blood pressure issues in the pediatric population has increased, leading to conceptual changes in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood hypertension. Physical activity may be utilized in the prevention and treatment of an unhealthy body composition due to the increase in resting metabolic rate, and the ...

  15. Patient related factors for optimal blood pressure control in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EB

    2013-09-03

    Sep 3, 2013 ... e” 90 mm Hg.8. Interview questionnaires. The questionnaires during the interview were comprised of four categories. The first was in relation to formal .... high blood pressure in clinics and hospitals is a major cause. Our earlier study on a rural Australian population showed that 56.7% of the patients with.

  16. Observational assessment and correlates to blood pressure of future ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-01-06

    Jan 6, 2012 ... was on older adults and elderly. But studies from .... seated posture, feet on the floor, not cross‑legged, on the right upper arm ..... incidence and control. Annu Rev ... Average blood pressure falls globally, shoots up in. India.

  17. Circadian pattern of blood pressure in normal pregnancy and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Hem Prabha; Singh, R K; Singh, Urmila; Mehrotra, Seema; Verma, N S; Baranwal, Neelam

    2011-08-01

    AIMS #ENTITYSTARTX00026; To find out the circadian pattern of blood pressure in normotensive pregnant women and in women with preeclampsia. A cross-sectional prospective observational case control study. Blood pressure was sampled in thirty-five normotensive pregnant women (control) and thirty five preeclamptic women (study group) by using non-invasive automatic ambulatory blood pressure monitoring machine for 72 h. Blood pressure (BP) was not constant over 24 h period and it oscillated from time to time in control group. BP was maximum during early part of afternoon. However, in preeclampsia besides quantitative increase in BP, circadian BP oscillations were less pronounced and in around 50% subjects BP was maximum during evening and night hours. Both systolic and diastolic BP showed definite reproducible circadian pattern in both preeclamptic and normotensive pregnant women. This pattern both quantitatively and qualitatively was different in preeclamptic women. Standardized 24 h BP monitoring allows quantitative and qualitative evaluation of hypertensive status and is important for timing and dosing of antihypertensive medications.

  18. Family support and blood pressure pattern in adult patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data was collected using a structured questionnaire and family APGAR questionnaire. The diagnosis of hypertension was based on blood pressure (BP) threshold of 140/90 mmHg according to JNC VII guidelines definitions. Data was analyzed using Stata statistical software (Version 10). Results: The mean age and BP of ...

  19. Patient Blood Pressure and Pulse Rate Monitoring With an Alert ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-12-01

    Dec 1, 2012 ... an Alert System Using the Omron 790it Blood Pressure. Monitor ... detailed medical information on the vital signs of patients and will save many lives that may be lost. Keywords: Omron .... at rest, in beats per minute (BPM):.

  20. Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensives in a Tertiary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Goal blood pressure (BP) was defined by the JNC VI and the World Health Organization- International Society of Hypertension (WHO/ISH) as <140 mm Hg systolic and <90 mm Hg diastolic for the general and <130 mm Hg systolic and <85 mm Hg diastolic for special high-risk populations. It is well established ...

  1. Blood Pressure Profile and Hypertension in Adolescents in Port ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was undertaken to determine the blood pressure profile, prevalence of hypertension in apparently healthy secondary school children in Port Harcourt and the relationship between body mass index and hypertension. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study of 1,056 adolescents, aged 10-18 years, selected ...

  2. Blood Pressure Loci Identified with a Gene-Centric Array

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnson, Toby; Gaunt, Tom R.; Newhouse, Stephen J.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Tomaszewski, Maciej; Kumari, Meena; Morris, Richard W.; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; O'Brien, Eoin T.; Poulter, Neil R.; Sever, Peter; Shields, Denis C.; Thom, Simon; Wannamethee, Sasiwarang G.; Whincup, Peter H.; Brown, Morris J.; Connell, John M.; Dobson, Richard J.; Howard, Philip J.; Mein, Charles A.; Onipinla, Abiodun; Shaw-Hawkins, Sue; Zhang, Yun; Smith, George Davey; Day, Ian N. M.; Lawlor, Debbie A.; Goodall, Alison H.; Fowkes, F. Gerald; Abecasis, Goncalo R.; Elliott, Paul; Gateva, Vesela; Braund, Peter S.; Burton, Paul R.; Nelson, Christopher P.; Tobin, Martin D.; van der Harst, Pim; Glorioso, Nicola; Neuvrith, Hani; Salvi, Erika; Staessen, Jan A.; Stucchi, Andrea; Devos, Nabila; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Plouin, Pierre-Francois; Tichet, Jean; Juhanson, Peeter; Org, Elin; Westra, Harm-Jan; Wolfs, Marcel G. M.; Franke, Lude

    2011-01-01

    Raised blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous studies have identified 47 distinct genetic variants robustly associated with BP, but collectively these explain only a few percent of the heritability for BP phenotypes. To find additional BP loci, we used a

  3. Estimating the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. To estimate the burden of disease attributable to high blood pressure (BP) in adults aged 30 years and older in South Africa in 2000. Design. World Health Organization comparative risk assessment (CRA) methodology was followed. Mean systolic BP (SBP) estimates by age and sex were obtained from the 1998 ...

  4. Some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effects of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The methanol extract of the leaves of Spondias mombin (SP) was evaluated for some central nervous system and blood pressure lowering effect in albino wistar rats and mice. The extract was administered to pre-weighed mice (20-35 g), divided into five groups of five mice each at the doses of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg for the ...

  5. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient ...

  6. Home monitoring of blood pressure: patients' perception and role of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To explore the use of the blood pressure monitors by hypertensive patients in Jordanian homes and investigate their effect on emotional status and disease management, and the role of the pharmacist in this regard. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted over two months in 2012, in Amman, Jordan.

  7. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and intraoperative blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haelst, Ingrid M M; van Klei, Wilton A; Doodeman, Hieronymus J; Kalkman, Cor J; Egberts, Toine C G

    2012-02-01

    The influence of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) on blood pressure is poorly understood. We hypothesized that if SSRIs have an influence on blood pressure, this might become manifest in changes in intraoperative blood pressure. We aimed to study the association between perioperative use of SSRIs and changes in intraoperative blood pressure by measuring the occurrence of intraoperative hyper- and hypotension. We conducted a retrospective observational follow-up study among patients who underwent elective primary total hip arthroplasty. The index group included users of SSRIs. The reference group included a random sample (ratio 1:3) of nonusers of an antidepressant agent. The outcome was the occurrence of intraoperative hypo- and hypertensive episodes (number, mean and total duration, and area under the curve (AUC)). The outcome was adjusted for confounding factors using regression techniques. The index group included 20 users of an SSRI. The reference group included 60 nonusers. Users of SSRIs showed fewer intraoperative hypotensive episodes, a shorter mean and total duration, and a smaller AUC when compared to the reference group. After adjustment for confounders, SSRI use was associated with a significantly shorter total duration of hypotension: mean difference of -29.4 min (95% confidence interval (CI) -50.4 to -8.3). Two users of an SSRI and two patients in the reference group had a hypertensive episode. Continuation of treatment with SSRIs before surgery was associated with a briefer duration of intraoperative hypotension.

  8. Hypertension, and blood pressure response to graded exercise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension, and blood pressure response to graded exercise in young obese and non- athletic Nigerian university students. ... onset of hypertension and thus other cardiovascular diseases and less tolerant to physical exercises. Our results add to the evidence that hypertension is common among obese young adults.

  9. Antihypertensive regimen and blood pressure control in patients ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hypertension is a major public health problem worldwide. In Nigeria, records have shown an increasing prevalence with suboptimal evaluation of blood pressure (BP) control. Generally, antihypertensives have recorded significant successes in BP control over the years. This study was aimed at investigating ...

  10. Remote Blood Pressure Waveform Sensing Method and Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-02

    test the effects of drugs, exercise, or other stimuli, whereby an increase or decrease in the ratio may indicate an improvement or worsening of systolic...even though high blood pressure in animals can be symptomatic of a variety of diseases including chronic renal failure, hyperthyroidism , Cushing’s

  11. Relationship between BMI and blood pressure in girls and boys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogdu, Zuhal

    2008-10-01

    To investigate the relationship between BMI and blood pressure as this is of crucial interest in evaluating both public health and the clinical impact of the so-called obesity epidemic. Data were gathered from 1899 children aged between 6 and 14 years, analysing and evaluating a possible relationship between BMI and systolic and diastolic blood pressure values for both girls and boys. Each child was classified on the basis of age- and sex-specific BMI percentile as normal weight (<85th percentile), overweight (95th percentile). In comparisons among age BMI percentile groups, systolic and diastolic blood pressure values were higher in obese and overweight groups than in normal weight groups for both sexes. Although BMI among girls was higher than among boys in all three percentile groups, there were no significant differences between sexes with respect to blood pressure values. The present findings emphasize the importance of the prevention of obesity in order to prevent future related problems such as hypertension in children and adolescents.

  12. Cesarean Delivery, Overweight throughout Childhood, and Blood Pressure in Adolescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pluymen, Linda P M; Smit, Henriëtte A; Wijga, Alet H; Gehring, Ulrike; De Jongste, Johan C; Van Rossem, Lenie

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate whether children delivered by cesarean had a higher risk of being overweight from early until late childhood and whether they had a higher blood pressure in adolescence compared with children delivered vaginally. STUDY DESIGN: We used data from a Dutch birth cohort study

  13. Blood pressure measurements in the ankle are not equivalent to ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Blood pressure (BP) is often measured on the ankle in the emergency department (ED), but this has never been shown to be an acceptable alternative to measurements performed on the arm. Objective. To establish whether the differences between arm and ankle non-invasive BP measurements were clinically ...

  14. Association between blood pressure and urinary electrolytes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Little is known about the association between blood pressure and urinary electrolytes in young adult, nonurban-dwelling, sub-Saharan Africans. This study attempts to provide such data in a Nigerian population. Patients and Methods: Four hundred Nigerians (50% female) aged 19-40 years were studied.

  15. Prevalence of malnutrition and high blood pressure amongst ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Globally, underweight in children is projected to decline except in Sub-Sahara Africa. This study assessed the prevalence of malnutrition and its correlation with high blood pressure among adolescents in a semi-urban Nigerian setting. A descriptive cross sectional study was conducted among adolescent school children in ...

  16. Normalized Dynamic Blood Pressure Parameters - Additional Marker of Hypertension Risk

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jurák, Pavel; Halámek, Josef; Vondra, Vlastimil; Leinveber, P.; Fráňa, P.; Plachý, M.; Souček, M.; Kára, T.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 1 (2008), s. 103 ISSN 1556-7451. [World Congress on Heart Disease /14./. 26.07.2008-29.07.2008, Toronto] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20650511 Keywords : hypertension * vessel compliance * blood pressure * dynamic parameters Subject RIV: FA - Cardiovascular Disease s incl. Cardiotharic Surgery

  17. Patterns of blood pressure variability in normotensive and hypertensive rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein-Rathlou, N H; He, J; Wagner, A J

    1995-01-01

    We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR)...... the day; less pronounced in 2K,1C; and not detectable in SHR. There are regular patterns of blood pressure fluctuations and specific modifications to the patterns by different forms of hypertension.......We sought patterns in mean arterial pressure of normotensive rats and alterations in chronic hypertension. Pressure was recorded for 4-6 days by telemetry from conscious, unrestrained rats and sampled digitally at 3 Hz, using normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR...

  18. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of Ramadan Fasting on Blood Pressure and Lipid Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam sadat Amirkalali sijavandi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Ramadan is a holy month for Muslims during which avoid from eating, drinking and sexual intercourse for about 13-17 hours. The aim of this study was surveying the effects of Islamic fasting in Ramadan on lipid profile and blood pressure.Materials and Methods: we designed this study in two phases, a week before and a week after Ramadan month. Eighty nine healthy subjects with 20-50 years old were participated in this study. Blood sampling for lipid profile measurement was done in the morning and blood pressure was measured in the afternoon with digital sphygmomanometer. Statistical analysis was performed with SPSS version 16.0 software.Results: In a week after Ramadan, body weight and body mass index (BMI decreased in both sexes, comparing with the week before Ramadan measurements (p

  20. Estimation of blood pressure from non-invasive data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Satya Narayan

    2017-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most important physiological parameter that can provide crucial information for health care. The widely used cuff based technology is not very convenient or comfortable as it occludes the blood flow in the arteries during the time of measurement. In past, Phonocardiogram (PCG), Electrocardiogram (ECG) and Photoplethysmogram (PPG) signals have been used to predict the BP values. In this paper, we propose to estimate the blood pressure from PPG using Multi Task Gaussian Processes (MTGPs) and compare with Artificial Neural networks (ANNs). Both MTGPs and ANNs are evaluated on the clinical data obtained from MIMIC Database. The performance of the proposed method is found to be comparable or better than the existing methods of computing BP from non-invasive data.