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Sample records for blood pressure measurement

  1. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  2. Working meeting on blood pressure measurement: suggestions for measuring blood pressure to use in populations surveys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-11-01

    As part of the Pan American Hypertension Initiative (PAHI), the Pan American Health Organization and the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute of the National Institutes of Health of the United States of America conducted a working meeting to discuss blood pressure (BP) measurement methods used in various hypertension prevalence surveys and clinical trials, with the objective of developing a BP measurement protocol for use in hypertension prevalence surveys in the Americas. No such common protocol has existed in the Americas, so it has been difficult to compare hypertension prevention and intervention strategies. This piece describes a proposed standard method for measuring blood pressure for use in population surveys in the Region of the Americas. The piece covers: considerations for developing a common blood pressure measurement protocol, critical issues in measuring blood pressure in national surveys, minimum procedures for blood pressure measurement during surveillance, and quality assessment of blood pressure.

  3. [Measurement of blood pressure variability and the clinical value].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kékes, Ede; Kiss, István

    2014-10-19

    Authors have collected and analyzed literature data on blood pressure variability. They present the methods of blood pressure variability measurement, clinical value and relationships with target organ damages and risk of presence of cardiovascular events. They collect data about the prognostic value of blood pressure variability and the effects of different antihypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability. They underline that in addition to reduction of blood pressure to target value, it is essential to influence blood pressure fluctuation and decrease blood pressure variability, because blood pressure fluctuation presents a major threat for the hypertensive subjects. Data from national studies are also presented. They welcome that measurement of blood pressure variability has been included in international guidelines.

  4. [An integrated system of blood pressure measurement with bluetooth communication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Jing; Sun, Hongyang; Xu, Zuyang; Chai, Xinyu

    2012-07-01

    The development of the integrated blood pressure system with bluetooth communication function is introduced. Experimental results show that the system can complete blood pressure measurement and data transmission wireless effectively, which can be used in m-Health in future.

  5. Auscultatory versus oscillometric measurement of blood pressure in octogenarians

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosholm, Jens-Ulrik; Pedersen, Sidsel Arnspang; Matzen, Lars;

    2012-01-01

    Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement.......Auscultatory measurement using a sphygmomanometer has been the predominant method for clinical estimation of blood pressure, but it is now rapidly being replaced by oscillometric measurement....

  6. A blood pressure measurement method based on synergetics theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    <正>The principle for blood pressure measurement using pulse transit time is introduced in this paper.And the math model of synergetics theory is studied in detail.The synergetics theory is applied in the analysis of blood pressure measurement data.The simulation results show that the application of synergetics theory is helpful to judge the normal blood pressure,and the accuracy is up to 80%.

  7. TREATMENT OF HYPERTENSION USING TELEMEDICAL HOME BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann-Petersen, N; Lauritzen, T; Bech, J N

    2015-01-01

    of the measurements and subsequent communication by telephone or E-mail. In the control group, patients received usual care. Primary outcome was reduction in daytime ambulatory blood pressure measurements (ABPM) from baseline to 3 months' follow-up. RESULTS: In both groups, daytime ABPM decreased significantly....../181), p = 0.34. Blood pressure reduction in the TBPM group varied with the different practices. CONCLUSIONS: No further reduction in ABPM or number of patients reaching blood pressure targets was observed when electronic transmission of TBPM was applied in the treatment of hypertension by GPs. Thus......OBJECTIVE: Telemonitoring of home blood pressure measurements (TBPM) is a new and promising supplement to diagnosis, control and treatment of hypertension. We wanted to compare the outcome of antihypertensive treatment based on TBPM and conventional monitoring of blood pressure. DESIGN AND METHOD...

  8. Fluid-filled blood pressure measurement systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J K; van Brummelen, A G; Noordergraaf, A

    1976-05-01

    The performance of catheter-manometer systems for the measurement of pulsatile pressure has been evaluated by both experimental techniques and theoretical considerations. The former approach has shown, on occasion, multiple maxima in the amplitude response. The latter has been approached in a variety of ways, ranging from extreme lumping to application of transmission line theory while employing different configurations in the system's representation. Multiple maxima have also been seen, The present paper identifies the sources of the differences found and compares the relative merits of various theoretical approaches. It introduces the compliance of the system as a figure of merit and provides a simple first-order approximation formula for evaluation of the quality of a system. Damping and impedance matching to improve the system's frequency response were studied. It was found that they were not needed in a very stiff or a very compliant system, nor should one worry about the representation of such a system.

  9. Automatic noninvasive measurement of systolic blood pressure using photoplethysmography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glik Zehava

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Automatic measurement of arterial blood pressure is important, but the available commercial automatic blood pressure meters, mostly based on oscillometry, are of low accuracy. Methods In this study, we present a cuff-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, based on photoplethysmographic signals measured simultaneously in fingers of both hands. After inflating the pressure cuff to a level above systolic blood pressure in a relatively slow rate, it is slowly deflated. The cuff pressure for which the photoplethysmographic signal reappeared during the deflation of the pressure-cuff was taken as the systolic blood pressure. The algorithm for the detection of the photoplethysmographic signal involves: (1 determination of the time-segments in which the photoplethysmographic signal distal to the cuff is expected to appear, utilizing the photoplethysmographic signal in the free hand, and (2 discrimination between random fluctuations and photoplethysmographic pattern. The detected pulses in the time-segments were identified as photoplethysmographic pulses if they met two criteria, based on the pulse waveform and on the correlation between the signal in each segment and the signal in the two neighboring segments. Results Comparison of the photoplethysmographic-based automatic technique to sphygmomanometry, the reference standard, shows that the standard deviation of their differences was 3.7 mmHg. For subjects with systolic blood pressure above 130 mmHg the standard deviation was even lower, 2.9 mmHg. These values are much lower than the 8 mmHg value imposed by AAMI standard for automatic blood pressure meters. Conclusion The photoplethysmographic-based technique for automatic measurement of systolic blood pressure, and the algorithm which was presented in this study, seems to be accurate.

  10. Invasively Measured Aortic Systolic Blood Pressure and Office Systolic Blood Pressure in Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Esben; Knudsen, Søren T; Hansen, Klavs W;

    2016-01-01

    Aortic systolic blood pressure (BP) represents the hemodynamic cardiac and cerebral burden more directly than office systolic BP. Whether invasively measured aortic systolic BP confers additional prognostic value beyond office BP remains debated. In this study, office systolic BP and invasively...

  11. Blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, Christina H.; Toftegaard, Thomas Skjødeberg

    2013-01-01

    Background: Pregnant diabetic patients are often required to self- measure their blood pressure in the waiting room before consulta- tion. Currently used blood pressure devices do not guarantee valid measurements when used unsupervised. This could lead to misdi- agnosis and treatment error. The a...... support. This could include context-aware patient adherence aids and clinical decision support systems for automatically validating self-measured data based on e-health and telemedicine technology....... of this study was to investigate current use of blood pressure self-measurement in the waiting room in order to identify challenges that could influence the resulting data quality. Also, we wanted to investigate the potential for addressing these challenges with e-health and telemedicine technology. Subjects...

  12. Blood pressure monitor with a position sensor for wrist placement to eliminate hydrostatic pressure effect on blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Hironori; Koshimizu, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Shingo; Ogura, Toshihiko

    2013-01-01

    Accurate measurement of blood pressure at wrist requires the heart and wrist to be kept at the same level to avoid the effects of hydrostatic pressure. Although a blood pressure monitor with a position sensor that guides appropriate forearm angle without use of a chair and desk has already been proposed, a similar functioning device for measuring upper arm blood pressure with a chair and desk is needed. In this study, a calculation model was first used to explore design of such a system. The findings were then implemented into design of a new blood pressure monitor. Results of various methods were compared. The calculation model of the wrist level from arthrosis angles and interarticulars lengths was developed and considered using published anthropometric dimensions. It is compared with 33 volunteer persons' experimental results. The calculated difference of level was -4.1 to 7.9 (cm) with a fixed chair and desk. The experimental result was -3.0 to 5.5 (cm) at left wrist and -2.1 to 6.3(cm) at right wrist. The absolute difference level equals ±4.8 (mmHg) of blood pressure readings according to the calculated result. This meets the AAMI requirements for a blood pressure monitor. In the conclusion, the calculation model is able to effectively evaluate the difference between the heart and wrist level. Improving the method for maintaining wrist to heart level will improve wrist blood pressure measurement accuracy when also sitting in the chair at a desk. The leading angle of user's forearm using a position sensor is shown to work for this purpose.

  13. Noninvasive blood pressure measurement scheme based on optical fiber sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianxuan; Yuan, Xueguang; Zhang, Yangan

    2016-10-01

    Optical fiber sensing has many advantages, such as volume small, light quality, low loss, strong in anti-jamming. Since the invention of the optical fiber sensing technology in 1977, optical fiber sensing technology has been applied in the military, national defense, aerospace, industrial, medical and other fields in recent years, and made a great contribution to parameter measurement in the environment under the limited condition .With the rapid development of computer, network system, the intelligent optical fiber sensing technology, the sensor technology, the combination of computer and communication technology , the detection, diagnosis and analysis can be automatically and efficiently completed. In this work, we proposed a noninvasive blood pressure detection and analysis scheme which uses optical fiber sensor. Optical fiber sensing system mainly includes the light source, optical fiber, optical detector, optical modulator, the signal processing module and so on. wavelength optical signals were led into the optical fiber sensor and the signals reflected by the human body surface were detected. By comparing actual testing data with the data got by traditional way to measure the blood pressure we can establish models for predicting the blood pressure and achieve noninvasive blood pressure measurement by using spectrum analysis technology. Blood pressure measurement method based on optical fiber sensing system is faster and more convenient than traditional way, and it can get accurate analysis results in a shorter period of time than before, so it can efficiently reduce the time cost and manpower cost.

  14. Blood-Pressure Measuring System Gives Accurate Graphic Output

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    The problem: To develop an instrument that will provide an external (indirect) measurement of arterial blood pressure in the form of an easily interpreted graphic trace that can be correlated with standard clinical blood-pressure measurements. From sphygmograms produced by conventional sphygmographs, it is very difficult to differentiate the systolic and diastolic blood-pressure pulses and to correlate these indices with the standard clinical values. It is nearly impossible to determine these indices when the subject is under physical or emotional stress. The solution: An electronic blood-pressure system, basically similar to conventional ausculatory sphygmomanometers, employing a standard occluding cuff, a gas-pressure source, and a gas-pressure regulator and valve. An electrical output transducer senses cuff pressure, and a microphone positioned on the brachial artery under the occluding cuff monitors the Korotkoff sounds from this artery. The output signals present the conventional systolic and diastolic indices in a clear, graphical display. The complete system also includes an electronic timer and cycle-control circuit.

  15. Pressure Gradient Estimation Based on Ultrasonic Blood Flow Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Naotaka; Homma, Kazuhiro; Shiina, Tsuyoshi

    2006-05-01

    Mechanical load to the blood vessel wall, such as shear stress and pressure, which occurs in blood flow dynamics, contribute greatly to plaque rupture in arteriosclerosis and to biochemical activation of endothelial cells. Therefore, noninvasive estimations of these mechanical loads are able to provide useful information for the prevention of vascular diseases. Although the pressure is the dominant component of mechanical load, for practical purposes, the pressure gradient is also often important. So far, we have investigated the estimation of the kinematic viscosity coefficient using a combination of the Navier-Stokes equations and ultrasonic velocity measurement. In this paper, a method for pressure gradient estimation using the estimated kinematic viscosity coefficient is proposed. The validity of the proposed method was investigated on the basis of the analysis with the data obtained by computer simulation and a flow phantom experiment. These results revealed that the proposed method can provide a valid estimation of the pressure gradient.

  16. Pitfalls in blood pressure measurement in daily practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling, ST; Kleefstra, N; Lutgers, HL; Groenier, KH; Meyboom-de Jong, B; Bilo, HJG

    2006-01-01

    Background. Accurate blood pressure (BP) readings and correctly interpreting the obtained values are of great importance. However, there is considerable variation in the different BP measuring methods suggested in guidelines and used in hypertension trials. Objective. To compare the different method

  17. Evaluation of automated blood pressure measurements during exercise testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossack, K F; Gross, B W; Ritterman, J B; Kusumi, F; Bruce, R A

    1982-11-01

    Measurements of systolic (SBP) and diastolic (DBP) blood pressure were made at rest and during symptom-limited exercise with an automated blood pressure measuring device (EBPM). Comparisons were made between the EBPM readings and those made with mercury manometer. Correlations were high (SBP r = 0.92, DBP r = 0.80) when readings were made in the same arm, but were less satisfactory when the cuffs were on different arms (SBP r = 0.80, DBP r = 0.46). The correlation between two mercury manometer readings was SBP r = 0.90, and DBP r = 0.75. Comparison between EBPM and intra-arterial measurements were similar (SBP r = 0.74, DBP r = 0.79) to comparison between mercury manometer and intra-arterial measurements (SBP r = 0.81, DBP r = 0.61). The EBPM detected SBP at consistently higher levels than did physicians, which may be an advantage in the noisy environment of an exercise test. There was a definite tendency for physicians to record blood pressure to the nearest 10 mm Hg, whereas the frequency distribution curve for EBPM measurements was smoother. The EBPM operated satisfactorily at rest and during maximal exercise and gave as reliable measurements as a physician using a mercury manometer and, in the small number of available cases, detected exertional hypotension more often than the physician.

  18. Body mass index and blood pressure measurement during pregnancy.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Hogan, Jennifer L

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVE: The accurate measurement of blood pressure requires the use of a large cuff in subjects with a high mid-arm circumference (MAC). This prospective study examined the need for a large cuff during pregnancy and its correlation with maternal obesity. METHODS: Maternal body mass index (BMI), fat mass, and MAC were measured. RESULTS: Of 179 women studied, 15.6% were obese. With a BMI of level 1 obesity, 44% needed a large cuff and with a BMI of level 2 obesity 100% needed a large cuff. CONCLUSION: All women booking for antenatal care should have their MAC measured to avoid the overdiagnosis of pregnancy hypertension.

  19. Combination of phlebography and sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weber, J.

    1988-07-01

    Phlebographic visualisation offers the highest spatial resolution of all imaging methods both in respect of veins of the leg and pelvis and of the abdomen. Phlebography offers optimal conditions for assessing morphological changes at the veins and in their direct neighbourhood. No quantitative information is available via phlebography if haemodynamics are disturbed; qualitative information is yielded merely to a restricted extent (by assessing flow velocity and collaterals). Direct sanguinous measurement of venous blood pressure is particularly suitable for the quantitative and qualitative assessment of disturbed haemodynamic conditions; in this respect it stands out among the function tests based on the employment of apparatures. If it is combined with phlebography, it is possible not only to optimise the diagnostic yield in the hands of one investigator, but also to reduce the invasiveness of both methods to one single puncture, since the puncture needle is at the same time also an instrument to measure the pressure. The article points out the possibilities and limitations of combining a) ascending phlebography of the leg and pelvis with peripheral venous pressure measurement (phlebodynamometry) and b) visualisation of the veins of the pelvis and vena cava inferior with central sanguinous venous pressure measurement (CP). Indicatious and technical execution are described.

  20. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the reliabili

  1. A comparison of blood pressure measurements in newborns.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Shea, Joyce

    2012-02-01

    Blood pressure monitoring is an essential component of neonatal intensive care. We compared invasive and noninvasive (Dinamap, Marquette, and Dash) recordings in newborns and also noninvasive values obtained from upper and lower limbs. Infants\\' blood pressure was recorded every 6 hours for 72 hours using three noninvasive devices and compared with invasive readings taken simultaneously. Twenty-five babies were enrolled in the study, with birth weights of 560 to 4500 g and gestation 24 + 1 to 40 + 5 weeks. Three hundred thirty-two recordings were obtained. Comparison between invasive and noninvasive readings revealed that all three noninvasive monitors overread mean blood pressure. There was no significant difference between the cuff recordings obtained from the upper or lower limbs. All three noninvasive devices overestimated mean blood pressure values compared with invasive monitoring. Clinicians may be falsely reassured by noninvasive monitoring. Mean blood pressure values obtained from the upper and lower limb are similar.

  2. Context-aware patient guidance during blood pressure self-measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandager, Puk; Lindahl, Camilla; Schlütter, Jacob Mørup

    2013-01-01

    The importance of accurate measurement of blood pressure in the screening and management of hypertension during pregnancy is well established. Blood pressure levels can be measured manually by healthcare staff or by using a blood pressure self-measurement device, either at home or in the clinic...... the blood pressure self-measurement process. Preliminary results indicate that such active and context-aware guidance leads to more reliable measurements by inhibiting non-adherent patient behavior...

  3. Blood pressure measurement: lessons learned from our ancestors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karamanou, Marianna; Papaioannou, Theodore G; Tsoucalas, Gregory; Tousoulis, Dimitris; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Androutsos, George

    2015-01-01

    The profound observations of William Harvey (1578-1657), in blood circulation and the progress of physical science laid the foundation for the development of the Iatrophysical School that contributed to the evolution of clinical sphygmomanometry. The pioneer work of Reverend Stephen Hales (1677-1761) demonstrated the dynamics of the vascular system. One century later the French physician Jean-Léonard-Marie Poiseuille (1797-1867) invented a U-tube mercury manometer and in 1860 the physiologist Etienne- Jules Marey (1830-1904) devised the first portable sphygmograph for recording the pulse wave. The non-invasive techniques of blood pressure measurement were completed by Scipione Riva-Rocci (1896-1937) sphygmomanometer and the description of "Korotkov sounds" by the Russian surgeon Nikolai- Sergeyevich Korotkov (1874-1920).

  4. [Instrumentation for blood pressure measurements: historical aspects, concepts and sources of error].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Araujo, T L; Arcuri, E A; Martins, E

    1998-04-01

    According to the International Council of Nurses the measurement of blood pressure is the procedure most performed by nurses in all the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the polemical aspects of instruments used in blood pressure measurement. Considering the analyses of the literature and the American Heart Association Recommendations, the main source of errors when measuring blood pressure are discussed.

  5. Screening blood pressure measurement in children: are we saving lives?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brady, Tammy M; Redwine, Karen M; Flynn, Joseph T

    2014-06-01

    Blood Pressure screening in children and adolescents is currently recommended by several prominent medical organizations, including the American Heart Association, the National High Blood Pressure Education Program, the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, the European Society of Hypertension, and the American Academy of Pediatrics. This practice was recently subject to intense scientific review by the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. The conclusion of the Task Force was that "current evidence is insufficient to assess the balance of benefits and harms of screening for primary hypertension in asymptomatic children and adolescents." This commentary provides an alternate interpretation of current evidence for blood pressure screening in children and adolescents and highlights its importance as a part of routine medical care.

  6. Patients' experiences and opinions of home blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rickerby, J; Woodward, J

    2003-07-01

    Regular measurement of the blood pressure (BP) is necessary to monitor the treatment of hypertension, and self-measurement is one technique of obtaining such measurements. The aim of this study was to investigate the experiences of individuals who have carried out home BP measurement. A qualitative method using semistructured interviews was used with 13 subjects. These were adults with hypertension who had previous experience of measuring their own BP, and were recruited to the study from one UK general medical practice. Interviews were recorded and transcribed, and data from the interviews have been analysed using phenomenological principles and identifying 'meaning units.' The findings suggest that participants were willing to carry out home measurements and several were pleased to have been asked to be more involved in their own management. All found the technique straightforward. Most noted marked variability in the day-to-day BP measurements. Several exhibited the 'white coat' phenomenon (spuriously raised BP in certain settings only). Some participants showed considerable know-ledge of hypertension and its consequences. They reported being aware of their own BP level and whether this was within acceptable limits. They also reported being willing to take further measurements, and to consider adjusting their treatment in the light of these measurements. Other participants showed less knowledge and enthusiasm, and considered the management of hypertension to be the doctor's job. The findings suggest that for some individuals home BP measurement is acceptable. They also help to explain why, for some individuals, it is not. Using the findings, a number of changes to current practice could be made, which might make home measurements more acceptable and easier to perform. As a result, a new proforma for use in everyday practice has been designed. The study shows that there is considerable scope for sharing BP measurement and management decisions in hypertension with

  7. Challenges in blood pressure measurement in patients treated with maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Matthew A; Pilmore, Helen L; Tonkin, Andrew M; Garg, Amit X; Pascoe, Elaine M; Badve, Sunil V; Cass, Alan; Ierino, Francesco L; Hawley, Carmel M

    2012-09-01

    The association between blood pressure and cardiovascular outcomes in patients undergoing hemodialysis remains controversial. This may relate in part to the technique and device used and the timing of the blood pressure measurement in relation to the hemodialysis procedure. Emerging evidence indicates that standardized hemodialysis unit blood pressure measurements or measurements obtained at home, either by the patient or using an ambulatory blood pressure monitor, may offer advantages over routine hemodialysis unit blood pressure measurements for determining cardiovascular risk and treatment. This review discusses the available evidence and implications for clinicians and clinical trials.

  8. Adult derived genetic blood pressure scores and blood pressure measured in different body postures in young children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Maria Ac; Dalmeijer, Geertje W.; Visseren, Frank Lj; van der Ent, Cornelis K; Leusink, Maarten; Onland-Moret, N Charlotte; Der Zee, Anke H Maitland Van; Grobbee, Diederick E; Uiterwaal, CSPM

    2017-01-01

    Aims Several genes are related to blood pressure (BP) levels in adults, but it is largely unknown whether these genes also determine BP early in life. Methods Systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) were measured in 720 5-year-old children from the WHeezing-Illnesses-STudy-LEidsche-Rijn (WHISTLER)

  9. Nocturnal blood pressure and intraocular pressure measurement in glaucoma patients and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Follmann, P; Palotás, C; Süveges, I; Petrovits, A

    Daytime and nocturnal intraocular pressure (IOP) values and systemic blood pressure (BP) values were compared in 60 non-glaucomatous controls, 54 glaucoma patients with normal visual field, and 46 glaucoma patients with visual field loss. The daytime IOP was measured with a Goldmann applanation tonometer and the nocturnal IOP with a Bio-Rad-Tono-Pen 2. The BP was measured with either a mercury manometer or with a Meditech ABPM-02 Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor, which took BP readings at 60 minute intervals. A tendency towards increasing IOP and decreasing BP was detected in the non-glaucomatous controls, within normal limits, and pathological changes of IOP and BP were observed with a significantly high occurrence (5% > P > 2%; Pearson's chi 2-test) in the glaucoma group with visual field loss.

  10. Measures of blood pressure and cognition in dialysis patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    There are few reports on the relationship of blood pressure with cognitive function in maintenance dialysis patients. The Cognition and Dialysis Study is an ongoing investigation of cognitive function and its risk factors in six Boston area hemodialysis units. In this analysis, we evaluated the rela...

  11. Comparison of automated oscillometric versus auscultatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landgraf, Johanna; Wishner, Stanley H; Kloner, Robert A

    2010-08-01

    Most clinical offices rely on automated oscillometric devices to measure blood pressure (BP), but the accuracy of this technique versus auscultatory determination using a mercury manometer is controversial. To assess the accuracy of automated oscillometric readings, BP was measured from the same site and cuff, in 337 consecutive patients seen in a routine cardiology office, using a simultaneous connection to an automated oscillometric and a mercury manometer technique. The mean systolic BP (133 +/- 20 mm Hg) and diastolic BP (72 +/- 11 mm Hg) were significantly greater using the mercury manometer than the automated oscillometric technique (systolic 131 +/- 18 and diastolic 70 +/- 12 mm Hg, p mercury manometer) in systolic BP were seen in 22% of all patients. Discrepancies in diastolic BP were seen in 20% of all patients. The mean of the discrepancy between the 2 techniques was 1.95 +/- 5 mm Hg (range 1 to 26) for systolic BP and 1.3 +/- 4 mm Hg (range 1 to 25) for diastolic BP. The discrepancies were greater in patients >65 years. In conclusion, the mercury manometer technique resulted in consistently greater BP values than oscillometric devices. These findings have important clinical implications, including the concept that patients whose BP appears to be under control using the oscillometric technique might not be at their goal BP and might have been undertreated.

  12. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  13. Home monitoring of blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    McGrath, Barry P.

    2015-01-01

    Home blood pressure monitoring is the self-measurement of blood pressure by patients. In the diagnosis and management of high blood pressure it is complementary to 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and clinic blood pressure measurements. Home monitoring can also help to identify white-coat and masked hypertension.

  14. The Correlation between Systolic Blood Pressure Measured by Return to Flow Versus Systolic Blood Pressure Measured by Arterial Catheter in the Adult Anesthetized Patient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-12-01

    a U-tube and mercury manometer for other research, he did not use it to measure arterial blood pressure (30). It was almost a century 34 N N 35 later...use of this mercury manometer decreased the size of the measuring apparatus more than 27 times (30). Carl Ludwig made an important contribution to...direct measurement of blood pressure in 1847 when he added a i graphic recording device to the mercury manometer . This eliminated observer error and

  15. [Mobile Health: IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuffless Blood Pressure Measuring Devices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xia; Wu, Wenli; Bao, Shudi

    2015-07-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details will be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users will be addressed.

  16. ON THE USEFULNESS OF FINGER BLOOD-PRESSURE MEASUREMENTS FOR STUDIES ON MENTAL WORKLOAD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VELDMAN, JBP; RUDDEL, H; ROBBE, HWJ; Mulder, Lambertus; Mulder, Gysbertus

    1991-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to explore the usefulness of the Penaz method for non-invasive, continuous finger blood pressure measurements during mental stress testing. In the first study, blood pressure was measured with the Penaz method, in the second it was measured intra-arterially. Two differ

  17. Smartphone-based Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement Using Pulse Transit Time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhosseini, Hamid; Meintjes, Andries; Baig, Mirza; Linden, Maria

    2016-01-01

    The increasing availability of low cost and easy to use personalized medical monitoring devices has opened the door for new and innovative methods of health monitoring to emerge. Cuff-less and continuous methods of measuring blood pressure are particularly attractive as blood pressure is one of the most important measurements of long term cardiovascular health. Current methods of noninvasive blood pressure measurement are based on inflation and deflation of a cuff with some effects on arteries where blood pressure is being measured. This inflation can also cause patient discomfort and alter the measurement results. In this work, a mobile application was developed to collate the PhotoPlethysmoGramm (PPG) waveform provided by a pulse oximeter and the electrocardiogram (ECG) for calculating the pulse transit time. This information is then indirectly related to the user's systolic blood pressure. The developed application successfully connects to the PPG and ECG monitoring devices using Bluetooth wireless connection and stores the data onto an online server. The pulse transit time is estimated in real time and the user's systolic blood pressure can be estimated after the system has been calibrated. The synchronization between the two devices was found to pose a challenge to this method of continuous blood pressure monitoring. However, the implemented continuous blood pressure monitoring system effectively serves as a proof of concept. This combined with the massive benefits that an accurate and robust continuous blood pressure monitoring system would provide indicates that it is certainly worthwhile to further develop this system.

  18. Proportion and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home: Nationwide survey in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petek-Šter Marija

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Home blood pressure monitoring has several advantages over blood pressure monitoring at a physician's office, and has become a useful instrument in the management of hypertension. Objective. To explore the rate and characteristics of patients who measure their blood pressure at home. Methods. A sample of 2,752 patients with diagnosis of essential arterial hypertension was selected from 12596 consecutive office visitors. Data of 2,639 patients was appropriate for analysis. The data concerning home blood pressure measurement and patients' characteristics were obtained from the patients' case histories. Results 1,835 (69.5% out of 2,639 patients measured their blood pressure at home. 1,284 (70.0% of home blood pressure patients had their own blood pressure measurement device. There were some important differences between these two groups: home blood pressure patients were more frequently male, of younger age, better educated, from urban area, mostly non-smokers, more likely to have diabetes mellitus and ischemic heart disease and had higher number of co-morbidities and were on other drugs beside antihypertensive medication. Using the logistic regression analysis we found that the most powerful predictors of home blood pressure monitoring had higher education level than primary school OR=1.80 (95% CI 1.37-2.37, non-smoking OR=2.16 (95% CI 1.40-3.33 and having a physician in urban area OR=1.32 (95% CI 1.02-1.71. Conclusion. Home blood pressure monitoring is popular in Slovenia. Patients who measured blood pressure at home were different from patients who did not. Younger age, higher education, non-smoking, having a physician in urban area and longer duration of hypertension were predictors of home blood pressure monitoring.

  19. Methodological aspects of blood pressure measurement and adherence to antihypertensive drug therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braam, R.L.

    2007-01-01

    Hypertension is an important risk-factor for cardiovascular disease. Accurate blood pressure measurements are very important to diagnose hypertension. Nowadays these blood pressure measurements are often performed using automatic devices. One can wonder whether these devices are accurate enough. In

  20. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  1. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  2. Lack of reproducibility of linkage results in serially measured blood pressure data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Patel, [No Value; Celedon, JC; Weiss, ST; Palmer, LJ

    2003-01-01

    Background: Using the longitudinal Framingham Heart Study data on blood pressure, we analyzed the reproducibility of linkage measures from serial cross-sectional surveys of a defined population by performing genome-wide model-free linkage analyses to systolic blood pressure (SBP) and history of hype

  3. Cost estimation of hypertension management based on home blood pressure monitoring alone or combined office and ambulatory blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubouchairopoulou, Nadia; Karpettas, Nikos; Athanasakis, Kostas; Kollias, Anastasios; Protogerou, Athanase D; Achimastos, Apostolos; Stergiou, George S

    2014-10-01

    This study aims at estimating the resources consumed and subsequent costs for hypertension management, using home blood pressure (BP) monitoring (HBPM) alone versus combined clinic measurements and ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (C/ABPM). One hundred sixteen untreated hypertensive subjects were randomized to use HBPM or C/ABPM for antihypertensive treatment initiation and titration. Health resources utilized within 12-months follow-up, their respective costs, and hypertension control were assessed. The total cost of the first year of hypertension management was lower in HBPM than C/ABPM arm (€1336.0 vs. €1473.5 per subject, respectively; P cost was identical in both arms. There was no difference in achieved BP control and drug expenditure (HBPM: €233.1 per subject; C/ABPM: €247.6 per subject; P = not significant), whereas the cost of BP measurements and/or visits was higher in C/ABPM arm (€393.9 vs. €516.9, per patient, respectively P cost for subsequent years (>1) was €348.9 and €440.2 per subject, respectively for HBPM and C/ABPM arm and €2731.4 versus €3234.3 per subject, respectively (P cost than C/ABPM, and the same trend is observed in 5-year projection. The results on the resources consumption can be used to make cost estimates for other health-care systems.

  4. The measurement of digital systolic blood pressure by strain gauge technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P E; Bell, G; Lassen, N A

    1972-01-01

    The systolic blood pressure on the finger, toe, and ankle has been measured by a strain gauge technique in 10 normal subjects aged 17-31 years and 14 normal subjects aged 43-57 years. The standard deviation in repeated measurements lies between 2 and 6 mm Hg. The finger pressure in the younger...

  5. Occlusion cuff for routine measurement of digital blood pressure and blood flow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Krähenbühl, B; Hirai, M

    1977-01-01

    A miniaturized blood pressure cuff made of plastic material and applicable to fingers and toes is described. The cuff was compared to rubber cuffs and to bladder-free cuffs. It was found to be more reliable than the former type and much easier to use than the latter type. It is recommended for us...

  6. Prognostic significance of distal blood pressure measurements in patients with severe ischaemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paaske, William; Tønnesen, K H

    1980-01-01

    The clinical course was followed and the ankle and toe blood pressures were measured with the strain gauge technique on 5 occasions during 2 years in 43 patients with pain at rest and/or ischaemic ulceration due to severe ischaemia of the legs on the basis of occlusive arterial disease. Although...... arteriosclerosis of the legs in non-diabetic patients is generally considered a benign disease from the standpoint of limb survival, the critical level of TPI (systolic toe blood pressure/systolic arm blood pressure) was found to be 0.07 as a TPI below this value was associated with an overall 82% risk...

  7. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  8. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  9. Blood Pressure Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  10. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  11. Classification of peripheral occlusive arterial diseases based on symptoms, signs and distal blood pressure measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tønnesen, K H; Noer, Ivan; Paaske, William

    1980-01-01

    Systolic blood pressures at toe and ankle were measured in 459 consecutive patients with occlusive arterial disease. Fifty-eight per cent had intermittent claudication with arterial disease of all degrees of severity. Seventeen per cent complained of rest pain having toe systolic pressures below 30...

  12. [Accuracy of the oscillometric method to measure blood pressure in children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rego Filho, E A; Mello, S F; Silva, C R; Vituri, D W; Bazoni, E; Gordan, L N

    1999-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the substitution of the standard auscultatory method by the oscillometric blood pressure monitor, independently of the validity of the intraarterial blood pressure measurement. The accuracy of the automatic oscillometric monitor was compared to the auscultatory mercury manometer blood pressure measurement in apparently healthy school age children. METHODS: A device able to perform 3 simultaneous readings are used: one reading by the monitor and the others by two "blind" observers. We studied 72 school age children with the following characteristics: mean age 9.5 (6.1-16.1) and 39 males (54.2%). RESULTS: The difference for the systolic and diastolic blood pressure obtained by the monitor was in average + 6.2 mmHg and + 10.0 mmHg, respectively, when compared to the observer's readings. There was neither a good correlation nor a good agreement between the two observers and the monitor in the blood pressure determination. CONCLUSIONS: We concluded that the substitution of the standard auscultatory method for the non-invasive oscillometric method to measure blood pressure in school age children can not be generally recommended.

  13. Comparison of noninvasive blood pressure measurement techniques via the coccygeal artery in anesthetized cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Ryan A; Hall, Natalie H; Kass, Philip H; Citino, Scott B

    2013-12-01

    Two indirect blood pressure measurement techniques, Doppler (DOP) sphygmomanometry and oscillometry, applied at the ventral coccygeal artery were compared with simultaneous direct blood pressure measurements at the dorsal pedal artery in 10 anesthetized, captive cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus). The DOP method was moderately accurate, with relatively little bias (mean difference 3.8 mmHg) and 88.6% of the DOP systolic arterial pressure measurements being within 10 mmHg of the direct systolic arterial measurement. With the oscillometric (OM) method, 89.2% of the mean arterial pressure measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), 80.7% of the systolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had the second least bias (mean difference 2.3 mmHg), and 59% of the diastolic measurements were within 10 mmHg of the direct measurement and had significant bias (mean difference 7.3 mmHg). However, DOP showed relatively poor precision (SD 11.2 mmHg) compared with OM systolic (SD 8.0 mmHg), diastolic (SD 8.6 mmHg), and mean (SD 5.7 mmHg). Both techniques showed a linear relationship with the direct technique measurements over a wide range of blood pressures. The DOP method tended to underestimate systolic measurements below 160 mmHg and overestimate systolic measurements above 160 mmHg. The OM method tended to underestimate mean pressures below 160 mm Hg, overestimate mean pressures above 160 mmHg, underestimate systolic pressures below 170 mmHg, overestimate systolic pressures above 170 mmHg, and underestimate diastolic pressures throughout the measured blood pressure range. Indirect blood pressure measurement using the ventral coccygeal artery, particularly when using an OM device for mean and systolic arterial pressure, may be useful in the clinical assessment of cheetahs when monitoring trends over time, but caution should be taken when interpreting individual values.

  14. Self-measurement of blood pressure at home reduces the need for antihypertensive drugs - A randomized, controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, Willem J.; Kroon, Abraham A.; Lenders, Jacques W. M.; Kessels, Alfons G. H.; van Montfrans, Gert A.; Smit, Andries J.; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M.; Nelemans, Patricia J.; Rennenberg, Roger J. M. W.; Grobbee, Diederick E.; Beltman, Frank W.; Joore, Manuela A.; Brunenberg, Danielle E. M.; Dirksen, Carmen; Thien, Theo; de Leeuw, Peter W.

    2007-01-01

    It is still uncertain whether one can safely base treatment decisions on self- measurement of blood pressure. In the present study, we investigated whether antihypertensive treatment based on self- measurement of blood pressure leads to the use of less medication without the loss of blood pressure c

  15. Healing of ulcers on the feet correlated with distal blood pressure measurements in occlusive arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Lassen, N A

    1980-01-01

    The frequency of healing in subchronic ulcers in 66 feet in 62 patients with arterial occlusive disease was correlated with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP) and the systolic ankle blood pressure (SABP), both measured with a strain gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the heel...... of healing correlated significantly with the three distal blood pressure parameters investigated, the closest correlation being with the SDBP measured at the final examination, i.e. just after healing of the ulcer or just before an inevitable major amputation. Of the 22 cases with SDBP below 20 mmHg only two...... (SPPH) as measured with a photocell. Thirty-two patients (35 feet with ulcerations) had diabetes mellitus. The treatment was conservative. In 42 feet the ulcers healed after an average period of 5.8 months; in 24 feet major amputation became necessary after an average of 4.3 months. The frequency...

  16. Frequency of Blood Pressure Measuring According to the Degree of Working Population Education in Canton Sarajevo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brankovic, Suada; Pilav, Aida; Macak-Hadziomerovic, Amra; Rama, Admir; Segalo, Mersa

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Hypertension (high blood pressure) is one of the most widely spread modern diseases and one of the leading risk factors for heart and blood vessel diseases, particularly stroke and coronary heart disease. The prevalence of hypertension is about 25% in adults. Many studies show that blood pressure tends to have lower values among people with higher education levels. Goal: To determine the frequency of measurement and control of blood pressure in relation to the level of education of the active working population of the Sarajevo Canton. Material and methods: The study was conducted on 443 subjects randomly selected from the categories of the active working population of the Sarajevo Canton. The study was conducted at the Center for Heart, Clinical Center University of Sarajevo University through the project “Prevention of risk factors for cardiovascular disease in the active working population of the Sarajevo Canton”. Respondents were at age in range from 18-65 years, who have voluntarily joined the study. Results: Of 443 (100%) of the respondents 153 (34.5%) were males compared to females whose participation in the sample was 290 (65.5%). Regarding the structure of respondents, the majority of them 213 (48.1%) graduated faculty, 142 (32, 1%) graduated secondary vocational schools and 66 (14.9%) with a higher degree, with the lowest number with completed grammar school (1.4%) and secondary school (0.5%). Blood pressure never measure 16 (3.6%) of respondents, which is not insignificant number, more than 5 years ago 23 (5.2%), within last 1-5 years 90 (20.3%), in the past 12 months 88 (19.9% ) and 226 (51%) measured the blood pressure in the past 6 months. Blood pressure never controlled 4.33% of respondents with secondary or higher education and 2.82% of the respondents with university education. Chi-square test showed a difference between education and the prevalence of blood pressure, χ2=7.812; DF=8; p=0.045. Conclusion: Monitoring of blood

  17. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Pblood pressure. In addition, 2 abnormal childhood/youth blood pressure observations increased the prediction of hypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth.

  18. Diurnal blood pressure variability and physical activity measured electronically and by diary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretler, D D; Carlson, G F; Montano, A V; Murphy, M B

    1993-02-01

    In order for 24 h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) to be useful in clinical decision making, it is necessary to quantify ambient physical activity and to develop appropriate norms of ambulatory pressure for different levels of activity. The present study has compared the predictive value of physical activity determined by an electronic activity monitor or a written diary, for concomitantly recorded blood pressure during ABPM in healthy normotensive subjects. Each subject wore four activity monitors, on the right and left wrists, on the left ankle and at the waist, respectively. Linear regression analysis was performed for each subject to determine the correlation between ABPM data (systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate) and activity data (obtained from diaries and the four monitors). Significant differences in the degree of correlation were found for both the location of the activity monitor and the time (1/2, 2, 5, 10, 15, and 30 min preceding blood pressure measurement) over which activity was averaged (P accounting for 18 to 69% (mean 36 +/- 5%) of systolic blood pressure variation. Diaries performed similarly in these well-motivated subjects. It is concluded that because of the significant interaction between activity and blood pressure, ABPM data should be interpreted only in the light of concomitant activity data.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. Blood pressure measurement in hemodialysis: The importance of the measurement technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubrusly, M; de Oliveira, Claudia Maria Costa; Silva, R P; Pinheiro, M A; Rocha, M B C; Magalhães, R M

    2016-03-01

    Systemic arterial hypertension contributes to the high cardiovascular morbidity in hemodialysis (HD) patients, but the accuracy of blood pressure (BP) measurement in this population has not been well studied. To evaluate the agreement between BP measurement using the routine measurement technique (usual method) and the technique recommended by the VII Joint (standard method). This cross-sectional study enrolled 124 patients in a single center who had undergone dialysis for more than three months and were 18 years of age or older. The BP was verified at the start of dialysis by the nursing team (usual method) and by the researchers (standard method). The agreement between the systolic and diastolic BP (SBP and DBP) measurements was tested by the Bland-Altman analysis. A difference in BP measurement higher than ±5 mm Hg was considered clinically significant. The studied group had a mean age of 53.2 years. The average difference between routine and standard BP measurement was -6 mm Hg for SBP (limits of agreement: -40.1-28 mm Hg; P measured by both methods was observed in 69.4% of the patients for SBP and in 61.3% for DBP. The disagreement between the results of different BP measurement methods in HD patients was significant and the BP was underestimated using the usual BP method. BP measurement standardization should be encouraged to avoid errors in diagnosis and therapy.

  20. Blood pressure measurement of all five fingers by strain gauge plethysmography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirai, M; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1976-01-01

    The aim of the present paper was to study the methodological problems involved in measuring systolic blood pressure in all five fingers by the strain gauge technique. In 24 normal subjects, blood pressure at the proximal phalanx of finger I and both at the proximal and the intermediate phalanx...... of the other fingers was measured using a 24-mm-wide cuff. Blood pressure at the proximal phalanx was higher than that at the intermediate phalanx in all fingers except finger V. The difference of blood pressure values corresponded well with circumference of the finger. In 15 normal subjects, blood pressure...... of the mean values was larter with the 27-mm-wide cuff than with the 24-mm-wide cuff, the 24-mm-wide cuff was considered to be most suitable for clinical use in fingers I, II, III, and IV. By using the 20-mm-wide cuff in finger V and the 24-mm-wide cuff in the other fingers, normal value of finger blood...

  1. Oscillometric measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures validated in a physiologic mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbs Charles F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oscillometric method of measuring blood pressure with an automated cuff yields valid estimates of mean pressure but questionable estimates of systolic and diastolic pressures. Existing algorithms are sensitive to differences in pulse pressure and artery stiffness. Some are closely guarded trade secrets. Accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of cuff pressure oscillations remains an open problem in biomedical engineering. Methods A new analysis of relevant anatomy, physiology and physics reveals the mechanisms underlying the production of cuff pressure oscillations as well as a way to extract systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of oscillations in any individual subject. Stiffness characteristics of the compressed artery segment can be extracted from the envelope shape to create an individualized mathematical model. The model is tested with a matrix of possible systolic and diastolic pressure values, and the minimum least squares difference between observed and predicted envelope functions indicates the best fit choices of systolic and diastolic pressure within the test matrix. Results The model reproduces realistic cuff pressure oscillations. The regression procedure extracts systolic and diastolic pressures accurately in the face of varying pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. The root mean squared error in extracted systolic and diastolic pressures over a range of challenging test scenarios is 0.3 mmHg. Conclusions A new algorithm based on physics and physiology allows accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from cuff pressure oscillations in a way that can be validated, criticized, and updated in the public domain.

  2. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  3. DIGITAL BLOOD PRESSURE MONITOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Fuentes

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we present a blood pressure monitor which measures both the high blood pressure (systolic pressure,and the low blood pressure (diastolic pressure. It is a semiautomatic meter because the inflation of the occlusivecuff is carried out in a manual way. The transducer used is a piezoresistive silicon pressure sensor integrated onchip which provides a proportional voltage to the input pressure, with a measurement range from 0 to 50 kPa (0–7.3 PSI. The oscillometric method is employed, which consists on detecting the oscillometric signal on brachialartery, being processed at each pressure step, when the cuff is gradually deflated. Signal sampling is carried out ata rate determined by the heart rate.In order to program the digital electronics of the circuit we used Altera tools, with the compiler MAX-PLUS II, andthe device selected to implement the design was an EPM7128SLC84-15 CPLD (Complex Programmable LogicDevice

  4. Peripheral arterial volume distensibility: significant differences with age and blood pressure measured using an applied external pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Dingchang; Murray, Alan

    2011-05-01

    A new arterial distensibility measurement technique was assessed in 100 healthy normotensive subjects. Arterial transmural pressures on the whole right arm were reduced with a 50 cm long cuff inflated to 10, 20, 30 and 40 mmHg. The electrocardiogram, and finger and ear photoplethysmograms were recorded simultaneously. Arm pulse propagation time, pulse wave velocity (PWV) and arterial volume distensibility were determined. With a 40 mmHg reduction in transmural pressure, arm pulse propagation time increased from 61 to 83 ms, PWV decreased from 12 to 8 m s(-1) and arterial distensibility increased from 0.102% to 0.232% per mmHg (all P pressures, arterial distensibility was significantly related to resting mean arterial pressure (MAP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and age, and for systolic blood pressure at 30 and 40 mmHg (all P pressure, arterial distensibility fell by 54% for a MAP increase from 75 to 105 mmHg, 57% for a DBP increase from 60 to 90 mmHg and 47% for an age increase from 20 to 70 years. These changes were more than double than those without cuff pressure. Our technique showed that systemic volume distensibility of the peripheral arm artery reduced with age, with a greater effect at higher external and lower transmural pressures.

  5. Strategies for classifying patients based on office, home, and ambulatory blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu; Li, Yan; Wei, Fang-Fei; Thijs, Lutgarde; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuai; Xu, Ting-Yan; Wang, Ji-Guang; Staessen, Jan A

    2015-06-01

    Hypertension guidelines propose home or ambulatory blood pressure monitoring as indispensable after office measurement. However, whether preference should be given to home or ambulatory monitoring remains undetermined. In 831 untreated outpatients (mean age, 50.6 years; 49.8% women), we measured office (3 visits), home (7 days), and 24-h ambulatory blood pressures. We applied hypertension guidelines for cross-classification of patients into normotension or white-coat, masked, or sustained hypertension. Based on office and home blood pressures, the prevalence of white-coat, masked, and sustained hypertension was 61 (10.3%), 166 (20.0%), and 162 (19.5%), respectively. Using daytime (from 8 am to 6 pm) instead of home blood pressure confirmed the cross-classification in 575 patients (69.2%), downgraded risk from masked hypertension to normotension (n=24) or from sustained to white-coat hypertension (n=9) in 33 (4.0%), but upgraded risk from normotension to masked hypertension (n=179) or from white-coat to sustained hypertension (n=44) in 223 (26.8%). Analyses based on 24-h ambulatory blood pressure were confirmatory. In adjusted analyses, both the urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio (+20.6%; confidence interval, 4.4-39.3) and aortic pulse wave velocity (+0.30 m/s; confidence interval, 0.09-0.51) were higher in patients who moved up to a higher risk category. Both indexes of target organ damage and central augmentation index were positively associated (P≤0.048) with the odds of being reclassified. In conclusion, for reliably diagnosing hypertension and starting treatment, office measurement should be followed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Using home instead of ambulatory monitoring misses the high-risk diagnoses of masked or sustained hypertension in over 25% of patients.

  6. Treating High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  7. A pitfall in the measurement of arterial blood pressure in the ischaemic limb during elevation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bülow, J; Jelnes, Rolf

    1987-01-01

    kept at 10 mmHg during elevation. In these patients, the increase in vascular resistance was significantly less compared with the situation in which venous pressure was 0 mmHg during elevation. The arterial pressure still did not decrease. It is concluded that perfusion pressure in the ischaemic lower......In order to evaluate if elevation of the ischaemic limb above heart level is an alternative to the conventionally applied method with external counterpressure for estimation of skin perfusion pressure, femoral and popliteal artery pressures were measured directly in eight patients with occlusion...... of the superficial femoral artery. The measurements were done in the horizontal position and during elevation of the calf above heart level. During elevation relative blood flow, measured by arterio-venous oxygen saturation differences, decreased compared with the horizontal position. In contrast the popliteal...

  8. Blood pressure measurement in children: which method? which is the gold standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Enrico; Murer, Luisa; Matteucci, Maria Chiara

    2013-01-01

    The burden of hypertension has become increasingly prevalent in children. Hypertension that begins in childhood can carry on into adulthood, therefore early detection, accurate diagnosis and effective therapy of high blood pressure may improve long-term outcomes of children and adolescents. As far as pediatric hypertension is concerned, doubts still persist about the right instruments, modalities and standards of reference that should be used in routine practice. Due to the dynamic process of growth and development, many physiological parameters undergo intensive change with age. Therefore, in children, the definition of hypertension can not rely on a single blood pressure level but should be based on age- and height-specific percentiles. In this review, we introduce the nephrologist to the correct definition of high blood pressure in children. Moreover, we specifically address the main characteristics of different modalities for blood pressure measurement in children, focusing on practical aspects. The latest international guidelines and appropriate standards of reference for office, ambulatory and home blood pressure data collection are presented. As clinicians are being faced with a greater number of children with hypertension, they should be aware of these peculiarities.

  9. From pioneering to implementing automated blood pressure measurement in clinical practice: Thomas Pickering's legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Wizner, Barbara;

    2010-01-01

    Thomas G. Pickering spent most of his scientific career in carrying out research on clinical hypertension and blood pressure (BP) measurement. In our review of Pickering's seminal work, we first focused on white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension, two terms that he had introduced. Next, we...

  10. Fabrication and characterization of 3C-silicon carbide micro sensor for wireless blood pressure measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Nupur

    A potentially implantable single crystal 3C-SiC pressure sensor for blood pressure measurement was designed, simulated, fabricated, characterized and optimized. This research uses a single crystal 3C-SiC, for the first time, to demonstrate its application as a blood pressure measurement sensor. The sensor, which uses the epitaxial grown 3C-SiC membrane to measure changes in pressure, is designed to be wireless, biocompatible and linear. The SiC material was chosen for its superior physical, chemical and mechanical properties; the capacitive sensor uses a 3C-SiC membrane as one of the electrodes; and, the sensor system is wireless for comfort and to allow for convenient reading of real-time pressure data (wireless communication is enabled by connecting the sensor parallel to a planar inductor). Together, the variable capacitive sensor and planar inductor create a pressure sensitive resonant circuit. The sensor system described above allows for implantation into a human patient's body, after which the planar inductor can be coupled with an external inductor to receive data for real-time blood pressure measurement. Electroplating, thick photo-resist characterization, RIE etching, oxidation, CVD, chemical mechanical polishing and wafer bonding were optimized during the process of fabricating the sensor system and, in addition to detailing the sensor system simulation and characterization; the optimized processes are detailed in the dissertation. This absolute pressure sensor is designed to function optimally within the human blood pressure range of 50-350mmHg. The layout and modeling of the sensor uses finite element analysis (FEA) software. The simulations for membrane deflection, stress analysis and electro-mechanical analysis are performed for 100 μm2 and 400μm2sensors. The membrane deflection-pressure, capacitance-pressure and resonant frequency-pressure graphs were obtained, and detailed in the dissertation, along with the planar inductor simulation for

  11. High blood pressure medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007484.htm High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  12. Blood Pressure Medicines

    Science.gov (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight ...

  13. Which Measurement of Blood Pressure Is More Associated With Albuminuria in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes: Central Blood Pressure or Peripheral Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitagawa, Noriyuki; Okada, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Muhei; Hashimoto, Yoshitaka; Kimura, Toshihiro; Nakano, Koji; Yamazaki, Masahiro; Hasegawa, Goji; Nakamura, Naoto; Fukui, Michiaki

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether central systolic blood pressure (SBP) was associated with albuminuria, defined as urinary albumin excretion (UAE) ≥30 mg/g creatinine, and, if so, whether the relationship of central SBP with albuminuria was stronger than that of peripheral SBP in patients with type 2 diabetes. The authors performed a cross-sectional study in 294 outpatients with type 2 diabetes. The relationship between peripheral SBP or central SBP and UAE using regression analysis was evaluated, and the odds ratios of peripheral SBP or central SBP were calculated to identify albuminuria using logistic regression model. Moreover, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of central SBP was compared with that of peripheral SBP to identify albuminuria. Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that peripheral SBP (β=0.255, Pperipheral SBP (odds ratio, 1.029; 95% confidence interval, 1.016-1.043) or central SBP (odds ratio, 1.022; 95% confidence interval, 1.011-1.034) was associated with an increased odds of albuminuria. In addition, AUC of peripheral SBP was significantly greater than that of central SBP to identify albuminuria (P=0.035). Peripheral SBP is superior to central SBP in identifying albuminuria, although both peripheral and central SBP are associated with UAE in patients with type 2 diabetes.

  14. Validation of continuous noninvasive arterial blood pressure measurements during general anesthesia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalmar, A.F.; Vos, Jaap Jan; Weening, M.; Mooyaart, E.A.; Poterman, Marieke; Struys, Michel; Scheeren, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Background:  Continuous invasive arterial blood pressure (IBP) monitoring remains the accepted gold standard for blood pressure monitoring because of its high accuracy. Several disadvantages of this method motivate the use of noninvasive intermittent blood pressure (NIBP) in most anesthesia cases de

  15. High Blood Pressure Facts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  16. Standing orthostatic blood pressure measurements cannot be replaced by sitting measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breeuwsma, Anna C; Hartog, Laura C; Kamper, Adriaan M; Groenier, Klaas H; Bilo, Henk Jg; Kleefstra, Nanne; Van Hateren, Kornelis Jj

    2017-03-16

    As many elderly patients are not able to stand for several minutes, sitting orthostatic blood pressure (BP) measurements are sometimes used as an alternative. We aimed to investigate the difference in BP response and orthostatic hypotension (OH) prevalence between the standard postural change to the sitting and the standing position in a cross-sectional observational study. BP was measured with a continuous BP measurement device during two postural changes, from supine to the sitting and from supine to the standing position. Linear mixed models were used to investigate the differences in changes (Δ) of systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) between the two postural changes. The prevalence and the positive and negative proportions of agreement of OH were calculated of the two postural changes. One hundred and four patients with a mean age of 69 years were included. ΔSBP was significantly larger in the standing position compared with the sitting between 0 and 44 s. ΔDBP was significantly larger in the sitting position compared with the standing 75-224 s after postural change. The prevalence of OH was 66.3% (95% confidence interval (CI) 57.2, 75.4) in the standing position and 67.3% (95% CI 58.3, 76.3) in the sitting position. The positive proportion of agreement was 74.8% and the negative proportion of agreement was 49.3%. A clear difference was seen in BP response between the two postural changes. Although no significant difference in prevalence of OH was observed, the positive and negative proportion of agreement of the prevalence of OH were poor to moderate, which indicates a different outcome between both postural changes.Hypertension Research advance online publication, 16 March 2017; doi:10.1038/hr.2017.39.

  17. Chronic blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brands, Michael W

    2012-10-01

    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  18. Cuff-less blood pressure measurement using pulse arrival time and a Kalman filter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Chen, Xianxiang; Fang, Zhen; Xue, Yongjiao; Zhan, Qingyuan; Yang, Ting; Xia, Shanhong

    2017-02-01

    The present study designs an algorithm to increase the accuracy of continuous blood pressure (BP) estimation. Pulse arrival time (PAT) has been widely used for continuous BP estimation. However, because of motion artifact and physiological activities, PAT-based methods are often troubled with low BP estimation accuracy. This paper used a signal quality modified Kalman filter to track blood pressure changes. A Kalman filter guarantees that BP estimation value is optimal in the sense of minimizing the mean square error. We propose a joint signal quality indice to adjust the measurement noise covariance, pushing the Kalman filter to weigh more heavily on measurements from cleaner data. Twenty 2 h physiological data segments selected from the MIMIC II database were used to evaluate the performance. Compared with straightforward use of the PAT-based linear regression model, the proposed model achieved higher measurement accuracy. Due to low computation complexity, the proposed algorithm can be easily transplanted into wearable sensor devices.

  19. ORANGE JUICE AND BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. F. VALIM

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    Blood pressure is the force of blood against artery walls. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mm Hg and recorded as two numbers: systolic pressure (as the heart contracts over diastolic pressure (as the heart relaxes between beats. High blood pressure (hypertension is defined as chronically elevated high blood pressure, with systolic blood pressure (SBP of 140 mm Hg or greater, and diastolic blood pressure (DBP of 90 mm Hg or greater. High blood pressure (HBP, smoking, abnormal blood lipid levels, obesity and diabetes are risk factors for coronary heart disease, the leading cause of death in the US. Lifestyle modifications such as engaging in regular physical activity, quitting smoking and eating a healthy diet (limiting intake of saturated fat and sodium and increasing consumption of fiber, fruits and vegetables are advocated for the prevention, treatment, and control of HBP. As multiple factors influence blood pressure, the effects of each factor are typically modest, particularly in normotensive subjects, yet the combined effects can be substantial. Nutrition plays an important role in influencing blood pressure. Orange juice should be included as part of any low sodium diet and/or any blood pressure reducing eating plan, as it is sodium free, fat-free and can help meet recommended levels of potassium intake that may contribute to lower BP.

  20. Comparison of how well conscious cats tolerate blood pressure measurement from the radial and coccygeal arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Martha J; Brett, Jo

    2012-12-01

    Hypertension is a common condition of older cats and acquiring clinically relevant and repeatable blood pressure (BP) measurements in conscious cats is important in its diagnosis and management. The most common sites for indirect BP measurement in the cat are the radial artery (RA) and the coccygeal artery (CA) but, to date, there are no published data comparing how conscious cats tolerate BP measurements from these sites. A high-definition oscillometric BP monitor was used to measure BP in 30 cats admitted to a cat-only veterinary clinic for reasons other than hypertension. Systolic arterial pressure (SAP), mean arterial pressure (MAP) and diastolic arterial pressure (DAP) were measured using the RA and CA, alternating which site was used first. The number of failed attempts and total time to achieve six measurements was recorded. Measurement of BP using the CA was better tolerated than the RA, resulting in fewer failures and shorter total time required. SAP measurements were slightly higher from the CA compared with the RA, irrespective of which site was used first. There were no significant differences in MAP and DAP. The coccygeal artery appears to be the more appropriate site to use when measuring BP in conscious cats using this oscillometric machine. Further studies are required using alternative BP monitors, including Doppler machines, to establish whether this is a consistent finding. When measuring BP in cats the site used should be recorded and the same site used for all subsequent measurements from the same cat.

  1. Results of kidney function measurement and blood pressure in population from endemic region of Vitina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stašević Zvonimir

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The analysis of frequency of kidney diseases, causes of terminal renal failure in patients subjected to repeated dialysis in major dialysis centers in the region of Kosovo and Metohija as well as mortality rate in these patients showed a stable number of patients with kidney diseases, evidencing that the populations of Vitina and Gnjilane were the most commonly affected. These towns are designated as regions with the highest incidence of Balkan endemic nephropathy. The present analysis was aimed at: 1. establishing the incidence rate of hypertension and renal function impairment by using clinical and laboratory analyses in individuals from Vitina and neighboring villages, and 2. investigating the correlation between creatinine clearance, age and arterial blood pressure in the studied group. Material and methods. The analysis included 510 individuals (excluding diabetics over the one-month period during 2004 (201 males with their age ranging from 18 to 90 years. Blood pressure measurements were performed in all the individuals, while renal function was determined by glomerular filtration rate (GFR, as calculated according to Cockcroft-Gault formula. Results. Creatinine clearance was lower than 100 ml/min in 237 (46.5% individuals, out of whom 62 (12% had GFR below 60 ml/min. Among the remaining 273 (53.5% individuals with GFR above 100 ml/min, 68 individuals had GFR above 140 ml/min. The distribution of patients depending on their systolic blood pressure values revealed that systolic blood pressure was lower in 44 subjects and higher in 302 subjects (59%. The correlation test revealed significant association between the studied parameters. The positive correlation between patients' age and kidney function means the higher the age of subjects the lower creatinine clearance value (r=-0.622, p<0.001. The negative correlation of the systolic blood pressure value and kidney function was found, meaning that higher the systolic blood

  2. Association between routine and standardized blood pressure measurements and left ventricular hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walsh Michael

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Left ventricular (LV hypertrophy is common among patients on hemodialysis. While a relationship between blood pressure (BP and LV hypertrophy has been established, it is unclear which BP measurement method is the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy. We sought to determine agreement between various blood pressure measurement methods, as well as identify which method was the strongest correlate of LV hypertrophy among patients on hemodialysis. Methods This was a post-hoc analysis of data from a randomized controlled trial. We evaluated the agreement between seven BP measurement methods: standardized measurement at baseline; single pre- and post-dialysis, as well as mean intra-dialytic measurement at baseline; and cumulative pre-, intra- and post-dialysis readings (an average of 12 monthly readings based on a single day per month. Agreement was assessed using Lin's concordance correlation coefficient (CCC and the Bland Altman method. Association between BP measurement method and LV hypertrophy on baseline cardiac MRI was determined using receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC. Results Agreement between BP measurement methods in the 39 patients on hemodialysis varied considerably, from a CCC of 0.35 to 0.94, with overlapping 95% confidence intervals. Pre-dialysis measurements were the weakest predictors of LV hypertrophy while standardized, post- and inter-dialytic measurements had similar and strong (AUC 0.79 to 0.80 predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Conclusions A single standardized BP has strong predictive power for LV hypertrophy and performs just as well as more resource intensive cumulative measurements, whereas pre-dialysis blood pressure measurements have the weakest predictive power for LV hypertrophy. Current guidelines, which recommend using pre-dialysis measurements, should be revisited to confirm these results.

  3. Development of a wireless blood pressure measuring device with smart mobile device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlhan, İlhan; Yıldız, İbrahim; Kayrak, Mehmet

    2016-03-01

    Today, smart mobile devices (telephones and tablets) are very commonly used due to their powerful hardware and useful features. According to an eMarketer report, in 2014 there were 1.76 billion smartphone users (excluding users of tablets) in the world; it is predicted that this number will rise by 15.9% to 2.04 billion in 2015. It is thought that these devices can be used successfully in biomedical applications. A wireless blood pressure measuring device used together with a smart mobile device was developed in this study. By means of an interface developed for smart mobile devices with Android and iOS operating systems, a smart mobile device was used both as an indicator and as a control device. The cuff communicating with this device through Bluetooth was designed to measure blood pressure via the arm. A digital filter was used on the cuff instead of the traditional analog signal processing and filtering circuit. The newly developed blood pressure measuring device was tested on 18 patients and 20 healthy individuals of different ages under a physician's supervision. When the test results were compared with the measurements made using a sphygmomanometer, it was shown that an average 93.52% accuracy in sick individuals and 94.53% accuracy in healthy individuals could be achieved with the new device.

  4. Factors Associated With Adherence to Blood Pressure Measurement Recommendations at Pediatric Primary Care Visits, Minnesota and Colorado, 2007–2010

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Elevated blood pressure in childhood may predict increased cardiovascular risk in young adulthood. The Task Force on the Diagnosis, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood pressure in Children and Adolescents recommends that blood pressure be measured in children aged 3 years or older at all health care visits. Guidelines from both Bright Futures and the Expert Panel of Integrated Guidelines for Cardiovascular Health and Risk Reduction in Children and Adolescents recommend annual ...

  5. Status of home blood pressure measured in morning and evening: evaluation in normotensives and hypertensives in Japanese urban population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawabe, Hiroshi; Saito, Ikuo; Saruta, Takao

    2005-06-01

    To assess home blood pressure status in a Japanese urban population, we analyzed home blood pressure values in normotensive subjects determined by casual blood pressure (mmHg), hypertensive subjects without medication (> or = 140/90 mmHg) and treated hypertensive patients. The subjects (468 male, 232 female; mean age 41 years old) were recruited from a company located in Tokyo. Home blood pressure was measured with a semi-automatic device (Omron HEM-759P). Subjects were instructed to perform triplicate morning and evening measurements on 7 consecutive days. In the treated hypertensive group (n = 70), there was a significant difference between morning (139 +/- 12/88 +/- 9 mmHg) and evening (130 +/- 12/79 +/- 8 mmHg) home blood pressure. In the normotensive group (n = 558), however, only the diastolic blood pressure (DBP) component of the home blood pressure was significantly different between morning (115 +/- 13/72 +/- 9 mmHg) and evening (114 +/- 12/68 +/- 8 mmHg). In the nontreated hypertensive group (n = 72), casual blood pressure (145 +/- 14/92 +/- 9 mmHg) was higher than morning (138 +/- 16/89 +/- 11 mmHg) and evening (134 +/- 16/83 +/- 11 mmHg) home blood pressure, but no difference was seen between morning and evening systolic blood pressure (SBP). According to the reference value of the Japanese Society of Hypertension 2004 (SBP > or = 135 mmHg and/or DBP > or = 85 mmHg), 7.2% (systolic) and 8.7% (diastolic) of subjects in the normotensive group were classified as hypertensive by home blood pressure. Casual blood pressure in the treated hypertensive group was normal in 64.3% for SBP and 70.0% for DBP. However, their morning SBP (32.9%), morning DBP (40.0%), evening SBP (10.0%), and evening DBP (17.1%) were classified as hypertensive by home blood pressure. Furthermore, patients who were taking antihypertensive drug(s) only in the morning (n = 52) showed higher morning SBP (6 mmHg, p = 0.086) and morning DBP (6 mmHg, p = 0.005) than patients taking drug(s) by

  6. Understanding natural frequency and damping and how they relate to the measurement of blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleinman, B

    1989-04-01

    The model that describes the physical behavior of a fluid-filled catheter-transducer blood pressure monitoring system is a simple mass-spring system. When the mass is displaced and then released, there results a characteristic motion called simple harmonic motion. The full description of this motion requires defining the concepts of undamped and damped natural frequency, as well as of damping itself. Once these concepts are defined and the mass-spring system clearly understood, their relevance to recording blood pressure measurement by fluid-filled catheters is explained. The apparent paradox of how damping can affect undamped natural frequency is clarified. Finally, impedance matching is explained in the context of how some damping devices work. Detailed mathematical proofs are relegated to an appendix.

  7. Oscillometric blood pressure measurement: a simple method in screening for peripheral arterial disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels; Bruce, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    Blood pressure at the ankle level is a reliable indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) and the ankle brachial index (ABI) is a useful non-invasive screening tool for the early detection of atherosclerosis. In the first part of the study, systolic blood pressures obtained by oscillometry......, the oscillometry showed a positive predictive value of 47%. The presence of PAD was significantly correlated to exercise related leg pain, a diagnosis of hypertension and smoking, whereas no correlation could be found with a diagnosis of heart disease, stroke, or with the presence of diabetes. The prevalence...... of PAD was sufficiently high in subjects over the age of 60 years to warrant screening. The ankle brachial index based on measurements with an oscillometric device was shown reliable in the exclusion of PAD, thereby fulfilling an important criterion for the use in screening....

  8. Optimal blood pressure level and best measurement procedure in hemodialysis patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie Saint-Remy

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Annie Saint-Remy, Jean-Marie KrzesinskiNephrology-Hypertension/Dialysis Unit, University Hospital of Liège, Liège, BelgiumAbstract: Hypertension occurs frequently among hemodialysis (HD patients and can be due to many factors, such as salt intake, elevated sympathetic tone, and uremic toxins. It is responsible for the high cardiovascular risk associated with renal disease. Generally, in HD patients, while there is an elevation of systolic blood pressure (BP, diastolic BP seems to decrease, and the resultant effect is high pulse pressure, which can have a deleterious effect on the cardiovascular system. Although controversial, in the HD population the relationship between BP and risk of death seems to be U shaped, probably because of pre-existing cardiac disease in patients with the lowest BP. In chronic kidney disease, BP lower than 130/80 mmHg is recommended, but an appropriate target for BP in the HD population remains to be established. Moreover, there is no consensus regarding which routine peridialysis BP (pre- or post-dialysis BP, or both can ensure the diagnosis of hypertension in this population. Ambulatory BP monitoring remains the gold standard to quantify the integrated BP load applied to the cardiovascular system. As well, home BP assessment could contribute to improve the definition of an optimal BP in the HD population. An ideal goal for post-dialysis systolic BP seems to be a value higher than 110 mmHg and lower than 150 mmHg. However, HD patients are generally old and often have cardiac complications, so a reasonable pre-dialysis target systolic BP could be 150 mmHg. It is prudent to suggest that an improvement in BP control is necessary in the HD population, first by slow and smooth removal of extracellular volume (dry weight and thereafter by the use of appropriate antihypertensive medication.Keywords: hemodialysis, hypertension, blood pressure measurement, peridialysis blood pressure, blood pressure control

  9. Accuracy of a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure device: comparisons with intraarterial and mercury manometer measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, S; Wenzel, R R; di Matteo, C; Meier, B; Lüscher, T F

    1998-12-01

    Accurate measurement of arterial blood pressure is of great importance for the diagnosis and treatment of hypertension. Because of the chronic nature of antihypertensive drug therapy, the involvement of the patient in blood pressure control is desirable. Such an involvement, however, is only feasible if simple, user-friendly, and precise blood pressure measurement devices are available. In this study we tested a new wrist cuff oscillometric blood pressure measurement device in 100 consecutive patients undergoing cardiac catheterization. Blood pressures were simultaneously taken intraarterially (axillary artery) and with a mercury manometer and stethoscope or noninvasive measurement device (OMRON R3). Intraarterial measurements were directly compared with two measurements taken in random order with either an arm cuff mercury manometer or the wrist cuff device. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure as assessed with the mercury manometer was higher, especially when compared with the intraarterial and the wrist cuff values, which were comparable. Correlations of blood pressure values with intraarterial measurement were 0.86 systolic and 0.75 diastolic (P mercury manometer measurements. Reproducibility of both measurements was good for the wrist cuff device ([systolic/diastolic]: r = 0.94/0.92; P mercury manometer (r = 0.97/0.88; P mercury manometer were higher than intraarterial values and those of the wrist cuff. Both noninvasive devices overestimated high diastolic values.

  10. The 2015 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabi, Doreen M; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Nerenberg, Kara; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; McKay, Donald W; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Ramesh Prasad, G V; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Brian Penner, S; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Fournier, Anne; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Harris, Kevin C; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S

    2015-05-01

    The Canadian Hypertension Education Program reviews the hypertension literature annually and provides detailed recommendations regarding hypertension diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment. This report provides the updated evidence-based recommendations for 2015. This year, 4 new recommendations were added and 2 existing recommendations were modified. A revised algorithm for the diagnosis of hypertension is presented. Two major changes are proposed: (1) measurement using validated electronic (oscillometric) upper arm devices is preferred over auscultation for accurate office blood pressure measurement; (2) if the visit 1 mean blood pressure is increased but blood pressure measurements using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (preferably) or home blood pressure monitoring should be performed before visit 2 to rule out white coat hypertension, for which pharmacologic treatment is not recommended. A standardized ambulatory blood pressure monitoring protocol and an update on automated office blood pressure are also presented. Several other recommendations on accurate measurement of blood pressure and criteria for diagnosis of hypertension have been reorganized. Two other new recommendations refer to smoking cessation: (1) tobacco use status should be updated regularly and advice to quit smoking should be provided; and (2) advice in combination with pharmacotherapy for smoking cessation should be offered to all smokers. The following recommendations were modified: (1) renal artery stenosis should be primarily managed medically; and (2) renal artery angioplasty and stenting could be considered for patients with renal artery stenosis and complicated, uncontrolled hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed.

  11. Self-measurement of blood pressure at home reduces the need for antihypertensive drugs: a randomized, controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberk, Willem J; Kroon, Abraham A; Lenders, Jacques W M; Kessels, Alfons G H; van Montfrans, Gert A; Smit, Andries J; van der Kuy, Paul-Hugo M; Nelemans, Patricia J; Rennenberg, Roger J M W; Grobbee, Diederick E; Beltman, Frank W; Joore, Manuela A; Brunenberg, Daniëlle E M; Dirksen, Carmen; Thien, Theo; de Leeuw, Peter W

    2007-12-01

    It is still uncertain whether one can safely base treatment decisions on self-measurement of blood pressure. In the present study, we investigated whether antihypertensive treatment based on self-measurement of blood pressure leads to the use of less medication without the loss of blood pressure control. We randomly assigned 430 hypertensive patients to receive treatment either on the basis of self-measured pressures (n=216) or office pressures (OPs; n=214). During 1-year follow-up, blood pressure was measured by office measurement (10 visits), ambulatory monitoring (start and end), and self-measurement (8 times, self-pressure group only). In addition, drug use, associated costs, and degree of target organ damage (echocardiography and microalbuminuria) were assessed. The self-pressure group used less medication than the OP group (1.47 versus 2.48 drug steps; P<0.001) with lower costs ($3222 versus $4420 per 100 patients per month; P<0.001) but without significant differences in systolic and diastolic OP values (1.6/1.0 mm Hg; P=0.25/0.20), in changes in left ventricular mass index (-6.5 g/m(2) versus -5.6 g/m(2); P=0.72), or in median urinary microalbumin concentration (-1.7 versus -1.5 mg per 24 hours; P=0.87). Nevertheless, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure values at the end of the trial were higher in the self-pressure than in the OP group: 125.9 versus 123.8 mm Hg (P<0.05) for systolic and 77.2 versus 76.1 mm Hg (P<0.05) for diastolic blood pressure. These data show that self-measurement leads to less medication use than office blood pressure measurement without leading to significant differences in OP values or target organ damage. Ambulatory values, however, remain slightly elevated for the self-pressure group.

  12. High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may have tax advantages for you. Workplace giving Workplace giving Find a list of the most common ... pressure and cholesterol. Exercise can also help relieve stress, another common cause of high blood pressure. To ...

  13. A Study on Anthropometric Measurements, Blood Pressure, Blood Sugar and Food Intakes Among Different Social Status and Ethnicities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafarirad

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Metabolic syndrome is a disorder that increases the risk of cardiovascular disease and diabetes. Objectives The aim of the study was to evaluate some risk factors of the metabolic syndrome and food intakes among people who lived in Ahvaz City, Iran. Methods It was a filed study that was conducted on 211 subjects who participated in health exhibition. Socioeconomic status and ethnicity were asked by a general questionnaire. Weight, height, body mass index, waist circumference (WC and WC to hip circumference ratio (WHR were obtained. Blood sugar was measured by a glucometer. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were obtained and dietary intakes were assessed by a brief instrument. Results There was a significant difference in weight, height, WC, WHR and systolic blood pressure among different jobs. Workers had more intakes of cake and sweets. Arab subjects had more intakes of bread and fishes and Persians more intakes of vegetables. Soda, chocolate and candy were more consumed by Kurd ethnicity. Conclusions Job may be accounted as an important effective socioeconomic factor related to metabolic syndrome risk factors; also different cultures due to different ethnicities may have an influence on lifestyle and dietary intakes.

  14. Preventing High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Web Sites Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention Stroke Heart Disease Cholesterol Salt Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN Preventing High Blood Pressure: Healthy Living Habits Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir By living a healthy lifestyle, you can help keep your blood pressure in ...

  15. The EDAPA Project (Education of self-measurement of blood pressure in Grottaglie

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lenti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available AIM OF THE STUDY The EDAPA Project (Education of self-measurement of blood pressure was conceived to train hypertensive patients in self blood pressure monitoring (SBPM and to survey their feedback, including patient’ assessment, by recording their related cardiovascular diseases (CVD risks factors and lifestyle habits. METHODS The project was conducted during the year 2006. Initially we met Grottaglie’s citizens and illustrated to participants the importance of SBPM at home in the overall management of hypertension, that might lead to a better control of BP and cardiovascular outcomes. After explaining the correct technique for SBPM, we distributed semiautomatic devices (OMRON M6 and asked the participants to fill in the Hypertension Questionnaire Form and to record their own blood pressure values in a diary. RESULTS Among almost 3,000 citizens interviewed, 370 (198 M, 172 F; mean age: 60 years agreed to take part in our study. They were hypertensive for almost 10 years, but waited 3 years before beginning therapy. They measured BP 4 times a month and, in the same sitting, 66% of them carried out only 1 measurement, 29% of them 2 measurements and only 2.5% carried out 3 measurements. Taking as reference BP value of 135/85 mmHg, we registered 28% of the population as normotensive and the remaining 72% as hypertensive. Among the hypertensives, 30% showed a good control, 55% showed a bad one and the remaining 15% was not aware of being hypertensive. Adding non-treated hypertensives to those treated but not controlled, we noticed that 70% of the participants was not properly controlled. Regarding risk factors, almost 64% showed hypercholesterolemia; 18% were smokers; 35% of males and 28% of females showed hyperglicemia and 63% of the latter had a waist line > 88 cm; 32% used to consume alcohol (46% males and 15% females; 26% had a metabolic syndrome; 13% was affected by vascular brain injuries, 30% by peripheral artheriopaty, 35% had heart

  16. Measurement of Blood Pressure Using an Arterial Pulsimeter Equipped with a Hall Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Gu Choi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To measure precise blood pressure (BP and pulse rate without using a cuff, we have developed an arterial pulsimeter consisting of a small, portable apparatus incorporating a Hall device. Regression analysis of the pulse wave measured during testing of the arterial pulsimeter was conducted using two equations of the BP algorithm. The estimated values of BP obtained by the cuffless arterial pulsimeter over 5 s were compared with values obtained using electronic or liquid mercury BP meters. The standard deviation between the estimated values and the measured values for systolic and diastolic BP were 8.3 and 4.9, respectively, which are close to the range of values of the BP International Standard. Detailed analysis of the pulse wave measured by the cuffless radial artery pulsimeter by detecting changes in the magnetic field can be used to develop a new diagnostic algorithm for BP, which can be applied to new medical apparatus such as the radial artery pulsimeter.

  17. Franz Volhard lecture: should doctors still measure blood pressure? The missing patients with masked hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickering, Thomas G; Gerin, William; Schwartz, Joseph E; Spruill, Tanya M; Davidson, Karina W

    2008-12-01

    The traditional reliance on blood pressure (BP) measurement in the medical setting misses a significant number of individuals with masked hypertension, who have normal clinic BP but persistently high daytime BP when measured out of the office. We suggest that masked hypertension may be a precursor of clinically recognized sustained hypertension and is associated with increased cardiovascular risk compared with consistent normotension. We discuss factors that may contribute to clinic-daytime BP differences as well as the changing relationship between these two measures over time. Anxiety at the time of BP measurement and having been diagnosed as hypertensive appear to be two possible mechanisms. The identification of individuals with masked hypertension is of great clinical importance and requires out-of-office BP screening. Ambulatory BP monitoring is the best established technique for doing this, but home monitoring may be applicable in the future.

  18. Thresholds for Diagnosing Hypertension Based on Automated Office Blood Pressure Measurements and Cardiovascular Risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Martin G; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Paterson, J Michael; Dolovich, Lisa; Tu, Karen

    2015-09-01

    The risk of cardiovascular events in relation to blood pressure is largely based on readings taken with a mercury sphygmomanometer in populations which differ from those of today in terms of hypertension severity and drug therapy. Given replacement of the mercury sphygmomanometer with electronic devices, we sought to determine the blood pressure threshold for a significant increase in cardiovascular risk using a fully automated device, which takes multiple readings with the subject resting quietly alone. Participants were 3627 community-dwelling residents aged >65 years untreated for hypertension. Automated office blood pressure readings were obtained in a community pharmacy with subjects seated and undisturbed. This method for recording blood pressure produces similar readings in different settings, including a pharmacy and family doctor's office providing the above procedures are followed. Subjects were followed for a mean (SD) of 4.9 (1.0) years for fatal and nonfatal cardiovascular events. Adjusted hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were computed for 10 mm Hg increments in blood pressure (mm Hg) using Cox proportional hazards regression and the blood pressure category with the lowest event rate as the reference category. A total of 271 subjects experienced a cardiovascular event. There was a significant (P=0.02) increase in the hazard ratio of 1.66 (1.09, 2.54) at a systolic blood pressure of 135 to 144 and 1.72 (1.21, 2.45; P=0.003) at a diastolic blood pressure of 80 to 89. A significant (P=0.03) increase in hazard ratio of 1.73 (1.04, 2.86) occurred with a pulse pressure of 80 to 89. These findings are consistent with a threshold of 135/85 for diagnosing hypertension in older subjects using automated office blood pressure.

  19. Community-based blood pressure measurement by non-health workers using electronic devices: a validation study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. Reidpath

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Population monitoring and screening of blood pressure is an important part of any population health strategy. Qualified health workers are expensive and often unavailable for screening. Non-health workers with electronic blood pressure monitors are increasingly used in community-based research. This approach is unvalidated. In a poor, urban community we compared blood pressure measurements taken by non-health workers using electronic devices against qualified health workers using mercury sphygmomanometers. Method: Fifty-six adult volunteers participated in the research. Data were collected by five qualified health workers, and six non-health workers. Participants were randomly allocated to have their blood pressure measured on four consecutive occasions by alternating a qualified health worker with a non-health worker. Descriptive statistics and graphs, and mixed effects linear models to account for the repeated measurement were used in the analysis. Results: Blood pressure readings by non-health workers were more reliable than those taken by qualified health workers. There was no significant difference between the readings taken by qualified health workers and those taken by non-health workers for systolic blood pressure. Non-health workers were, on average, 5–7 mmHg lower in their measures of blood pressure than the qualified health workers (95%HPD: −2.9 to −10.0 for diastolic blood pressure. Conclusion: The results provide empirical evidence that supports the practice of non-health workers using electronic devices for BP measurement in community-based research and screening. Non-health workers recorded blood pressures that differed from qualified health workers by no more than 10 mmHg. The approach is promising, but more research is needed to establish the generalisability of the results.

  20. Numerical analysis of stress distribution in the upper arm tissues under an inflatable cuff: Implications for noninvasive blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhipeng; Liang, Fuyou

    2016-07-01

    An inflatable cuff wrapped around the upper arm is widely used in noninvasive blood pressure measurement. However, the mechanical interaction between cuff and arm tissues, a factor that potentially affects the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measurement, remains rarely addressed. In the present study, finite element (FE) models were constructed to quantify intra-arm stresses generated by cuff compression, aiming to provide some theoretical evidence for identifying factors of importance for blood pressure measurement or explaining clinical observations. Obtained results showed that the simulated tissue stresses were highly sensitive to the distribution of cuff pressure on the arm surface and the contact condition between muscle and bone. In contrast, the magnitude of cuff pressure and small variations in elastic properties of arm soft tissues had little influence on the efficiency of pressure transmission in arm tissues. In particular, it was found that a thickened subcutaneous fat layer in obese subjects significantly reduced the effective pressure transmitted to the brachial artery, which may explain why blood pressure overestimation occurs more frequently in obese subjects in noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

  1. Numerical analysis of stress distribution in the upper arm tissues under an inflatable cuff: Implications for noninvasive blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Zhipeng; Liang, Fuyou

    2016-10-01

    An inflatable cuff wrapped around the upper arm is widely used in noninvasive blood pressure measurement. However, the mechanical interaction between cuff and arm tissues, a factor that potentially affects the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measurement, remains rarely addressed. In the present study, finite element (FE) models were constructed to quantify intra-arm stresses generated by cuff compression, aiming to provide some theoretical evidence for identifying factors of importance for blood pressure measurement or explaining clinical observations. Obtained results showed that the simulated tissue stresses were highly sensitive to the distribution of cuff pressure on the arm surface and the contact condition between muscle and bone. In contrast, the magnitude of cuff pressure and small variations in elastic properties of arm soft tissues had little influence on the efficiency of pressure transmission in arm tissues. In particular, it was found that a thickened subcutaneous fat layer in obese subjects significantly reduced the effective pressure transmitted to the brachial artery, which may explain why blood pressure overestimation occurs more frequently in obese subjects in noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

  2. A centenary of auscultatory blood pressure measurement: a tribute to Nikolai Korotkoff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paskalev, Dobrin; Kircheva, Anna; Krivoshiev, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    In 1905, Dr. Nikolai Korotkoff (1874-1920), a Russian surgeon, discovered a simple and precise technique to measure arterial pressure. He was born on 26th February 1874 in the central Russian city of Kursk. Korotkoff graduated from the Medical Faculty of Moscow University in 1898, but he worked later in the Surgical Clinic at the Imperial Military Medical Academy in St. Petersburg (Russia). Korotkoff served as a military surgeon during the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905) and his major efforts were to find reliable clinical signs that could predict whether limb flow would be viable after vascular surgery of traumatic aneurysm. He found that after complete compression, the aneurysm of the arm (i.e. distal pulse on a. brachialis) disappeared with Riva-Rocci cuff and then gradually decreasing the pressure, a series of sounds could be heard by stethoscope under the artery distal to the compression. Korotkoff described four distinct phases of sounds: first sound, then compression murmurs, second tone, and disappearance of sounds. Korotkoff was also able to demonstrate the same auscultatory finding in healthy persons. He failed to notice only the muffled second sound, which was demonstrated a little later. These classical observations are now well known as the five different phases of Korotkoff sounds. In November 1905, during a conference of the Imperial Military Medical Academy, he reported his discovery in a short presentation entitled 'On the issue of the methods for measuring blood pressure'. In 1939, the Joint Committee of the American Heart Association and the Cardiac Society of Great Britain and Ireland recognized officially and accepted worldwide Korotkoff's method for blood pressure determining.

  3. Drinking pattern and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppä, K; Laippala, P; Sillanaukee, P

    1994-03-01

    Large amounts of alcohol are known to increase blood pressure. There is little evidence about the effect of binge drinking of alcohol on blood pressure, although this is the dominant style of alcohol drinking in several countries. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between binge drinking and blood pressure using daily heavy drinkers as a reference group. We examined 260 consecutive nonalcoholic 40- and 45-year-old men participating in a health screening. There were 37 teetotalers, 147 social drinkers, 62 weekend heavy drinkers attending the health screening 2 to 7 days after binge drinking, and 14 men who drank heavily every day. Group division was made using self-reported alcohol consumption and a structured alcohol questionnaire. Blood pressure was measured manually by a mercury manometer. BMDP statistical software was used in the statistical analysis of the material. The diastolic blood pressure of weekend heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend, 289 g) did not differ from that found in teetotalers but systolic blood pressure was slightly higher (5 mm Hg, P = .04). In contrast, daily heavy drinkers (mean intake during the weekend [Friday to Saturday], 151 g) had significantly higher systolic (8 mm Hg, P = .04) and diastolic (6 mm Hg, P = .05) blood pressure values than teetotalers. We conclude that different drinking habits seem to have different effects on blood pressure, those of daily heavy drinking being more prominent than those of weekend heavy drinking.

  4. From pioneering to implementing automated blood pressure measurement in clinical practice: Thomas Pickering's legacy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolarz-Skrzypek, Katarzyna; Thijs, Lutgarde; Wizner, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    Thomas G. Pickering spent most of his scientific career in carrying out research on clinical hypertension and blood pressure (BP) measurement. In our review of Pickering's seminal work, we first focused on white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension, two terms that he had introduced. Next, we...... highlighted the early publications of Pickering on diurnal BP variability and on the clinical application of self-measured BP. Pickering's work inspired many investigators worldwide and constituted a solid basis for further research. Pickering's original ideas led to algorithms for risk stratification...... involving white-coat hypertension and masked hypertension, diurnal BP variability, and self-measured BP. Recent studies validated Pickering's observations in terms of cardiovascular outcome and bridged the path from concept to application in clinical practice....

  5. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015 : a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Bin; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bixby, Honor; Danaei, Goodarz; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; James E Bennett; Taddei, Cristina; Bilano, Ver; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khatibzadeh, Shahab

    2017-01-01

    Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured ...

  6. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, Bin; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bixby, Honor; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; James E Bennett; Taddei, Cristina; Bilano, Ver; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Lugero, Charles; Zhang, Wan Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood pressure of 140 mm Hg or higher or diastolic blood pressure of 90 mm Hg or higher. Methods For this analysis, we pooled national, subnational, or community population-based studies that had measured ...

  7. [Physical activity level and home blood pressure measurement: Pilot study "Acti-HTA"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosner, P; Ott, J; Steichen, O; Bally, S; Krummel, T; Brucker, M; Lequeux, B; Dourmap, C; Llaty, P; Le Coz, S; Baguet, S; Miranne, A; Labrunée, M; Gremeaux, V; Lopez-Sublet, M

    2015-06-01

    While physical activity (PA) is recommended for high blood pressure management, the level of PA practice of hypertensive patients remains unclear. We aimed to assess the association between the level of both PA and blood pressure of individuals consulting in 9 hypertension specialist centres. Eighty-five hypertensive patients were included (59 ± 14 years, 61% men, 12% smokers, 29% with diabetes). Following their consultation, they performed home blood pressure measurement (HBPM) over 7 days (2 in the morning+2 in the evening), they wrote in a dedicated form their daily activities to estimate the additional caloric expenditure using Acti-MET device (built from International physical Activity Questionnaire [IPAQ]). Thus, patients completed a self-administered questionnaire "score of Dijon" (distinguishing active subjects with a score>20/30, from sedentary<10/30). Subjects with normal HBPM value (<135/85 mm Hg) (55% of them) compared to those with high HBPM were older, had a non-significant trend towards higher weekly caloric expenditure (4959 ± 5045 kcal/week vs. 4048 ± 4199 kcal/week, P=0.3755) and score of Dijon (19.44 ± 5.81 vs. 18.00 ± 4.32, P=0.2094) with a higher proportion of "active" subjects (48.9% vs. 34.2%, P=0.1773). In conclusion, our results demonstrate a "tendency" to a higher level of reported PA for subjects whose hypertension was controlled. This encourages us to continue with a study that would include more subjects, which would assess PA level using an objective method such as wearing an accelerometer sensor.

  8. [Reliability of blood pressure measurements; comparison of an electronic meter and a mercury manometer in family practice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doorn, B A; van der Does, E; Lubsen, J; Rijsterborgh, H

    1990-08-25

    The Riva-Rocci indirect method of measuring the blood pressure carries a number of sources of error. A report is presented of a study of the serviceability of an electronic blood pressure meter as compared with the conventional mercury manometer. Seventy-six paired measurements were carried out in patients selected at random using an electronic blood pressure meter and a mercury manometer meeting all Health Council requirements. The systematic error and the incidental error in both measuring procedures were compared. The differences found were so slight as to be negligible in practice. It is concluded that the electronic blood pressure meter in practice constitutes an acceptable substitute for the conventional mercury manometer.

  9. High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High Blood Pressure Salt Cholesterol Million Hearts® WISEWOMAN High Blood Pressure Fact Sheet Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend on ... time. High blood pressure is also called hypertension. High Blood Pressure in the United States Having high blood pressure ...

  10. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... already been diagnosed with high blood pressure. Try yoga and meditation. Yoga and meditation not only can strengthen your body ... Accessed Sept. 21, 2015. Hu B, et al. Effects of psychological stress on hypertension in middle-aged ...

  11. Evaluation of blood pressure measurement and agreement in an academic health sciences center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minor, Deborah S; Butler, Kenneth R; Artman, Katherine L; Adair, Cathy; Wang, Wanmei; McNair, Valerie; Wofford, Marion R; Griswold, Michael

    2012-04-01

    The authors assessed the process of blood pressure (BP) measurement and level of adherence to recommended procedures at representative sites throughout a large academic health sciences center. A casual observer assessed the setting and observed the process, noting the equipment, technique, and BP recorded by site personnel. A trained observer then repeated the patient's BP measurement following American Heart Association recommendations. Significant biases were observed between measurements by site personnel and the trained observer. Site personnel reported on average an increased systolic BP (SBP) of 5.66 mm Hg (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.09-8.23; P<.001) and a decreased diastolic BP (DBP) of -2.96 mm Hg (95% CI, -5.05 to -0.87; P=.005). Overall, 41% of patients had a ≥10-mm Hg difference in SBP between measurements. Similarly, 54% had differences of ≥5 mm Hg in DBP between measurements. Inaccurate BP measurement and poor technique may lead to misclassification, misdiagnosis, and inappropriate medical decisions. Concordance of measured SBP between our site personnel and trained observer was less than optimal. Several areas for improvement were identified. Routine calibration and use of system-wide standardized equipment, establishment of BP measurement protocols, and periodic technique and equipment recertification can be addressed in future quality initiatives.

  12. Automated measurement of office, home and ambulatory blood pressure in atrial fibrillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollias, Anastasios; Stergiou, George S

    2014-01-01

    1. Hypertension and atrial fibrillation (AF) often coexist and are strong risk factors for stroke. Current guidelines for blood pressure (BP) measurement in AF recommend repeated measurements using the auscultatory method, whereas the accuracy of the automated devices is regarded as questionable. This review presents the current evidence on the feasibility and accuracy of automated BP measurement in the presence of AF and the potential for automated detection of undiagnosed AF during such measurements. 2. Studies evaluating the use of automated BP monitors in AF are limited and have significant heterogeneity in methodology and protocols. Overall, the oscillometric method is feasible for static (office or home) and ambulatory use and appears to be more accurate for systolic than diastolic BP measurement. 3. Given that systolic hypertension is particularly common and important in the elderly, the automated BP measurement method may be acceptable for self-home and ambulatory monitoring, but not for professional office or clinic measurement. 4. An embedded algorithm for the detection of asymptomatic AF during routine automated BP measurement with high diagnostic accuracy has been developed and appears to be a useful screening tool for elderly hypertensives.

  13. Measurements of gap pressure and wall shear stress of a blood pump model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chua, L P; Akamatsu, T

    2000-04-01

    The centrifugal blood pump with a magnetically suspended impeller has shown its superiority as compared to other artificial hearts. However, there is still insufficient understanding of fluid mechanics related issues in the clearance gap. The design nature of the pump requires sufficient washout in the clearance between the impeller and stationary surfaces. As the gap is only 0.2 mm in width, it is very difficult to conduct measurements with present instrumentation. An enlarged model with 5:1 ratio of the pump has been designed and constructed according to specifications. Dimensionless gap pressure measurements of the model are very close to the prototype. The measurements of wall shear stress of the fluid flow in the clearance gap between the impeller face and inlet casing of a blood pump model were accomplished through hot-wire anemometry and rotating disk apparatus. Regions of relatively high and low shear stresses are identified. These correspond to spots where the likelihood of hemolysis and thrombus formation is high. With the use of dimensional analysis, it is found that the highest wall shear stress is equivalent to 146 Pa which is much lower than the threshold value of 400 Pa for hemolysis reported in the literature.

  14. Derivation of a measure of systolic blood pressure mutability: a novel information theory-based metric from ambulatory blood pressure tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras, Danitza J; Vogel, Eugenio E; Saravia, Gonzalo; Stockins, Benjamin

    2016-03-01

    We provide ambulatory blood pressure (BP) exams with tools based on information theory to quantify fluctuations thus increasing the capture of dynamic test components. Data from 515 ambulatory 24-hour BP exams were considered. Average age was 54 years, 54% were women, and 53% were under BP treatment. The average systolic pressure (SP) was 127 ± 8 mm Hg. A data compressor (wlzip) designed to recognize meaningful information is invoked to measure mutability which is a form of dynamical variability. For patients with the same average SP, different mutability values are obtained which reflects the differences in dynamical variability. In unadjusted linear regression models, mutability had low association with the mean systolic BP (R(2) = 0.056; P information toward diagnosis.

  15. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part II: Distal blood pressure after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Distal blood pressure (DBP) determination after an exercise test is used on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd). In our department. the average age of these patients is about 60 years. The usual reference values for pressures after exercise were based on data...... collected in the early 1970s from healthy individuals in the age range 21-26 years. Our aims were to collect new reference data for DBP at ankle level after exercise based on older populations, and to compare between reference data for different age groups to find out whether the normal values are dependent...... on age. Material and methods. DBP after exercise was measured using the strain-gauge technique on individuals in two groups: group I comprising 25 healthy persons aged between 61 and 82 years, and group II 14 healthy persons aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results...

  16. Prevention of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Prevention of High Blood Pressure Healthy lifestyle habits, proper use of medicines, and ... prevent high blood pressure or its complications. Preventing High Blood Pressure Onset Healthy lifestyle habits can help prevent high ...

  17. Laser Doppler flowmetry for bone blood flow measurement: correlation with microsphere estimates and evaluation of the effect of intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swiontkowski, M.F.; Tepic, S.; Perren, S.M.; Moor, R.; Ganz, R.; Rahn, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) was used to measure bone blood flow in the rabbit femoral condyles. To correlate the LDF output signal blood cell flux to in vivo blood flow, simultaneous measurements using LDF and /sup 85/Sr-labeled microspheres were made in an adult rabbit model. There was no correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral condyles and the correlation between the two methods for blood flow in the femoral head does not achieve statistical significance. An LDF signal of 0.4 V was approximately equal to a microsphere measured flow rate of 0.4 ml blood/g bone/min. The strength of the correlation in the latter case may have been affected by (a) large arteriovenous shunts, (b) inadequate mixing of the microspheres with a left ventricular injection, and (c) insufficient numbers of microspheres present in the bone samples. When LDF was used to evaluate the effect of elevated intracapsular pressure on femoral head blood flow in skeletally mature rabbits, femoral head subchondral bone blood flow declined with increasing intracapsular pressure from a baseline value of 0.343 +/- 0.036 to a value of 0.127 +/- 0.27 at 120 cm of water pressure. The decline in femoral head blood flow was statistically significant at pressures of 40 cm of water or higher (p less than 0.001), and evaluation of sections of the proximal femora made from preterminal disulphine blue injections confirmed these findings. Intracapsular tamponade has an adverse effect on femoral head blood flow beginning well below central venous pressure and should be considered in the pathophysiology of posttraumatic and nontraumatic necrosis of the femoral head. Laser Doppler flowmetry was easy to use and appears to be a reproducible technique for evaluating femoral head blood flow, offering distinct advantages over the microsphere technique for measuring bone blood flow.

  18. Office, ambulatory and home blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karpettas, Nikos; Kollias, Anastasios; Vazeou, Andriani; Stergiou, George S

    2010-11-01

    There is an increasing interest in pediatric hypertension, the prevalence of which is rising in parallel with the obesity epidemic. Traditionally the assessment of hypertension in children has relied on office blood pressure (BP) measurements by the physician. However, as in adults, office BP might be misleading in children mainly due to the white coat and masked hypertension phenomena. Thus, out-of-office BP assessment, using ambulatory or home monitoring, has gained ground for the accurate diagnosis of hypertension and decision-making. Ambulatory monitoring is regarded as indispensable for the evaluation of pediatric hypertension. Preliminary data support the usefulness of home monitoring, yet more evidence is needed. Office, ambulatory and home BP normalcy tables providing thresholds for diagnosis have been published and should be used for the assessment of elevated BP in children.

  19. [Assessment at distance of a self-measurement of blood pressure education program: The PEA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atallah, A; Pham Hoang Minh, A; Billy-Brissac, R; Dinarque, C

    2015-06-01

    Current recommendations advocate self-measurement of blood pressure (SMBP) for the diagnosis and monitoring of high blood pressure (HBP). The "PEA" is an education program of the HTA GWAD network. Its mission is to train hypertensive patients with SMBP. The objective of this study is to evaluate between 6 months to 1 year after the efficiency of this program on the theoretical and practical knowledge of patients, as well as their behavior towards hypertension. Hundred and twenty patients were included in the study. In an interview, their knowledge was assessed using a questionnaire. The acquisition of the technique, reading and figures transcription, purchase of a SMBP device were also evaluated. The average questionnaire score was 5.7/13 (σ=2.7) before the educational session, 9.5/13 (σ=1.9) 1 week after the educational session. This improvement persisted over time with 8.9/13 (σ=2.9) correct answers 6 months to 1 year later. Exactly 73.3% (n=88/120) had a self-measurement device. Among them, 44.3% (n=39/88) practiced SMBP before medical consultations and 10% systematically did it before each medical consultation. A number of 84.2% (n=101/120) mastered the technique and 76.7% (n=92/120) of patients knew how to transcribe figures. Reading and understanding figures were acquired by 61.7% (n=74/120) of patients. A high level of education was correlated with a high level of practice. PEA is a sustainable solid and stable education program. However, the practice of SMBP is not yet systematic and remains to be encouraged in some patients. Given this situation, the network offers improvements in its program: highlighting of objectives, calendar reminder, "coaching" nurse.

  20. Home and Office Blood Pressure Control among Treated Hypertensive Patients in Japan: Findings from the Japan Home versus Office Blood Pressure Measurement Evaluation (J-HOME Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nariyasu Mano

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Appropriate control of blood pressure (BP is essential for prevention of future cardiovascular events. However, BP control among treated hypertensive patients has been insufficient. Recently, the usefulness of self-measured BP at home (home BP measurement for the management of hypertension has been reported in many studies. We evaluated BP control both at home and in the office among treated hypertensive patients in primary care settings in Japan (the J-HOME study. We found poor control of home and office BPs and clarified some factors affecting control. We also examined factors associated with the magnitude of the white-coat effect, the morning–evening BP difference, and home heart rate in this J-HOME study.

  1. COMPARISON OF HIGH-DEFINITION OSCILLOMETRIC AND DIRECT ARTERIAL BLOOD PRESSURE MEASUREMENT IN ANESTHETIZED CHEETAHS (ACINONYX JUBATUS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sant Cassia, Emma V; Boswood, Adrian; Tordiffe, Adrian S W

    2015-09-01

    Blood pressure measurement reveals important insights into the health of conscious and anesthetized individuals. This is of particular interest in cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus), which in captivity are known to suffer from chronic diseases that may be associated with hypertension and which often require immobilization for transport or veterinary treatment. Invasive testing methods are considered the gold standard but are not practical in many settings. Consequently, it is important to evaluate the use of noninvasive methods in this species. Measurements for systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure obtained using high-definition oscillometry (HDO) at the coccygeal artery were compared to simultaneous direct measurements obtained via catheterization of the femoral or dorsal pedal artery in eight anesthetized captive cheetahs during nine anesthetic events. Overall, HDO and direct measurements agreed most closely for mean arterial pressure, and the poorest agreement was observed for systolic pressure. There was a tendency for low diastolic pressures to be underestimated and for high diastolic pressures to be overestimated. Across all three parameters, HDO measurements from the tail overestimated directly measured pressures in the femoral artery and underestimated those in the dorsal pedal artery. HDO agreed most closely with directly measured dorsal pedal pressures. Mean arterial pressure showed the greatest precision (standard deviation of 10.2 mm Hg) and lowest bias (-1.2 mm Hg), with 75.9% of readings within 10 mm Hg of the direct dorsal pedal pressure. Agreement with systolic pressure was hindered by a high bias (-10.4 mm Hg), but if a correction factor of +10 mm Hg was applied to all systolic measurements, agreement was improved and 65.7% of readings were within 10 mm Hg of the direct pressure. When compared to criteria defined by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine for validation of blood pressure devices, results were favorable, but a

  2. Prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction: an insight from survival trials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yap, Yee Guan; Duong, Trinh; Bland, J Martin

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The prognostic value of blood pressure measured during hospitalization after acute myocardial infarction (MI) has not been investigated, particularly with regard to arrhythmic death. METHODS: A total of 3311 placebo patients (2612 men, median age 64 years; range 23-92) from the EMIAT......). Mortality up to 2 years was examined using Cox regression. RESULTS: At the 2-year follow-up, after adjustment for age, sex, smoking, previous MI, hypertension, heart rate, New York Heart Association functional class, baseline treatments, study effect and diastolic blood pressure, reduced systolic blood...

  3. Impacts of measurement protocols on blood pressure tracking from childhood into adulthood: a metaregression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Youfa; Appel, Lawrence J; Mi, Jie

    2008-03-01

    The best approach for blood pressure (BP) measurement in children remains controversial, specifically regarding the choice of Korotkoff phase 4 versus Korotkoff phase 5 for diastolic BP (DBP) and the use of automated devices. To examine the impacts of different BP measurement protocols on BP tracking from childhood into adulthood, we conducted a meta-analysis of 50 related studies published between 1970 and 2006 identified based on a systematic search of PubMed. These studies provided 617 data points (tracking correlation coefficient, our outcome variable) for systolic BP and 547 data points for DBP for our meta-analysis. The explanatory variables included the use of Korotkoff phase 4/Korotkoff phase 5, BP device, and number of BP measurements per visit. Analyses were adjusted for potential confounders, including sex, baseline age, follow-up length, publication year, and study country. Tracking correlation coefficients for DBP measured using Korotkoff phase 4 was higher than that of Korotkoff phase 5 by 0.035 but not significant. DBP tracking assessed by automated device was higher than that of Korotkoff phase 5 by 0.152 (P=0.024) and higher than the mercury manometer by 0.223 (P=0.005). BP tracking was slightly higher with multiple BP measurements per visit, but measurements of >or=3 times did not improve the tracking further compared with 2 measurements. Although policy-making bodies currently recommend the use of Korotkoff phase 5 to assess DBP in children, our metaregression analysis did not support the recommendation. In general, Korotkoff phase 4 seems to be different from Korotkoff phase 5, and automated device is a promising approach for BP assessment in childhood.

  4. TNO finger pressure reference guide: guide for the non-invasive finger blood pressure measurement and recording systems Portapres and Finometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    With Portapres and Finometer continuous beat-to-beat finger blood pressure is measured. Although it is relatively easy to perform measurements, a basic understanding of the principles of the device is recommended to obtain reliable measurements. This reference guide addresses the volume-clamp method

  5. Reference data for distal blood pressure in healthy elderly and middle-aged individuals measured with the strain gauge technique. Part I: Resting distal blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arveschoug, Anne Kirstine; Vammen, Birthe; Yoshinaka, Emmy

    2008-01-01

    Objective. Most patients referred to our department for distal blood pressure (DBP) determination on suspicion of arterial peripheral vascular disease (apvd) are more than 60 years of age, whereas the only available reference data for resting pressure are based on data from healthy individuals aged....... Material and methods. Group I comprised 31 healthy persons aged between 61 and 87 years and group II 14 healthy middle-aged hospital staff members aged between 45 and 58 years. Strict rules of inclusion were followed. Results. For group I, significantly greater gradients (DBPtoe - systolic arm blood...... pressure and DBPtoe - DBPankle) were found in the new reference data compared to the old. No significant difference between the mean values of the gradient (DBPankle - systolic arm blood pressure) was found between the old and new reference data, although the variation was significantly wider in the new...

  6. Living with High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Living With High Blood Pressure If you have high blood pressure, the best thing to do is to talk ... help you track your blood pressure. Pregnancy Planning High blood pressure can cause problems for mother and baby. High ...

  7. Heat-washout measurements compared to distal blood pressure and perfusion in orthopaedic patients with foot ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, M; Azad, B B S; Broholm, R

    2015-01-01

    Distal blood pressure and local skin perfusion pressure were compared to measurement of blood flow rate (BFR) measured by the heat-washout method in orthopaedic patients with and without diabetes, all with a foot ulcer in one foot, compared to healthy controls. The correlation was good between heat......-washout and distal blood pressure in patients with diabetes with and without an ulcer (P = 0·024 and 0·059, respectively). The correlation was weak in patients without diabetes with and without an ulcer, most probably due to power problems (P = 0·118 and 0·116, respectively). The correlation in the healthy controls...... the surrounding tissue, and therefore, measurements are easier made in these subjects. BFR in the first toe increased significantly in all patients when the foot was moved from heart level to 50 cm below heart level (P = between 0·03 and 0·05) as previously seen in patients with claudication...

  8. Night time blood pressure dip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dennis; Bloomfield; Alex; Park

    2015-01-01

    The advent of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring permitted examination of blood pressures during sleep and recognition of the associated circadian fall in pressure during this period. The fall in pressure,called the "dip",is defined as the difference between daytime mean systolic pressure and nighttime mean systolic pressure expressed as a percentage of the day value. Ten percent to 20% is considered normal. Dips less than 10%,referred to as blunted or absent,have been considered as predicting an adverse cardiovascular event. This view and the broader concept that white coat hypertension itself is a forerunner of essential hypertension is disputable. This editorial questions whether mean arterial pressures over many hours accurately represent the systolic load,whether nighttime dipping varies from measure to measure or is a fixed phenomenon,whether the abrupt morning pressure rise is a risk factor or whether none of these issues are as important as the actual night time systolic blood pressure itself. The paper discusses the difference between medicated and nonmedicated white coat hypertensives in regard to the cardiovascular risk and suggests that further work is necessary to consider whether the quality and duration of sleep are important factors.

  9. Home versus Office blood pressure MEasurements : Reduction of Unnecessary treatment Study: Rationale and Study design of the HOMERUS Trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verberk, WJ; Kroon, AA; Kessels, AGH; Dirksen, C; Nelemans, PJ; Lenders, JWM; Thien, TABM; van Montfrans, GA; Smit, AJ; de Leeuw, PW

    2003-01-01

    The Home versus Office MEasurements, Reduction of Unnecessary treatment Study (HOMERUS) is a multicentre prospective study, primarily designed to examine in subjects with mild to moderate hypertension whether treatment decisions based on home blood pressure measurements can lead to reduction in the

  10. Comparison of the effects of two teaching methods on the nursing students’ performance in measurement of blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eghbalibabadi, Maryam; Ashouri, Elaheh

    2014-01-01

    Background: New teaching methods are essential in the promotion of competence in nursing students. Measuring blood pressure, which is one of the most essential skills, is the foundation of nursing care and clinical decision-making, and students should be trained to master this skill. This study aimed to determine the impact of two teaching methods on students’ performance in blood pressure measurements. Materials and Methods: In this semi-experimental study, 36 first-term nursing students from Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Iran, were divided into six groups of six people each. The type of training for each group was determined by random draw. Blood pressure measurement training was given to three groups on a simulator and to the other three groups on human samples. Pre- and post-test evaluation of knowledge of the methods of measuring blood pressure was conducted using a researcher-made checklist and by observation of the students’ actions. The knowledge and skill scores were compared using paired and independent t-tests. Results: The mean performance scores of students in simulator (19.14 ± 1.60) and human (19.64 ± 1.08) groups were not significantly different. In both methods, there was no significant difference between systolic and diastolic blood pressures measured by students and by teachers (standard). Mean knowledge scores of both groups increased significantly after training compared to before training. Conclusions: According to the results of the study, the two training methods (on human subjects and simulator) provide the students with the necessary ability to measure the systolic and diastolic blood pressures correctly. Therefore, to enrich the educational program of nursing students, using simulators is recommended as an effective teaching strategy to facilitate learning and for the development of students’ knowledge. PMID:25183979

  11. What Causes High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Causes of High Blood Pressure Changes, either from genes or the environment, in ... and blood vessel structure and function. Biology and High Blood Pressure Researchers continue to study how various changes in ...

  12. A Coherent Pattern Among Social Behavior, Blood Pressure, Corticosterone and Catecholamine Measures in Individual Male Rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    FOKKEMA, DS; SMIT, K; VANDERGUGTEN, J; KOOLHAAS, JM

    1988-01-01

    Behavioral and physiological responses of 18 chronically cannulated male TMD-S3 rats were assessed during various social interactions with conspecifics, both with and without the possibility for physical contact (social vs. psychosocial stimulation). Response magnitudes (behavior, blood pressure, pl

  13. Correlation between objective automatic and auscultatory mercury manometer blood pressure measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez Biosca, M D; Fernandez-Cruz, A; Mizushima, S; Yamori, Y

    1990-01-01

    The automatic blood pressure (BP) measurement device (A) developed for the World Health Organization (WHO) Cardiovascular Diseases and Alimentary Comparison (CARDIAC) Study was compared in Spain with the standard auscultatory-mercury manometer (M) in 440 randomly selected subjects, 50-54 years old (50% men and 50% women). BPs were recorded simultaneously in the same arm. Systolic BP (SBP), analyzed in 1,440 readings, was 127.5 +/- 18.9 mm Hg by A system and 127.6 +/- 18.6 mm Hg by M system (NS). Diastolic BP (DBP) was 71.3 +/- 11.7 mm Hg by A and 79.3 +/- 11 mm Hg by M (p less than 0.001). We confirmed good correlations in SBP and DBP measured by both methods (r = 0.95 and r = 0.88, respectively; both p less than 0.001). Nearly complete consistency was noted between SBP readings by both methods but not between DBP readings; the readings by M were significantly higher than those by A. Since A's consistency with SBP and DBP readings obtained by the intra-arterial method (the most commonly used method) previously had been proven to be satisfactory, DBP obtained by clinical practice is possibly overestimated in adults.

  14. Low Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Blood Pressure • Know Your Numbers • Understand Symptoms and Risks • Learn How HBP Can Harm Your Health • Make Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Watch, Learn and Live Our Interactive Cardiovascular Library has detailed animations and illustrations to help you ...

  15. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    2010319 Effects of combined application of Xuezhikang capsule with hypotensive drugs on arterial compliance and smoothness of the dynamic blood pressure. ZHU Zongtao(朱宗涛),et al. Dept Cardiol, Centr People’s Hosp, Tengzhou 277500.Chin J Integr Tradit & West Med 2010;30

  16. High blood pressure - infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure in children and adolescents. Pediatrics . 2004;114 (2 Suppl 4th Report):555-576. PMID: 15286277 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15286277 . Review Date 5/6/2016 Updated by: Scott I ...

  17. Non-invasive blood pressure measurement: values, problems and applicability in the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mietsch, M; Einspanier, A

    2015-07-01

    The common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus, C. j.) is an established primate model in biomedical research and for human-related diseases. Monitoring of cardiovascular parameters including blood pressure (BP) is important for the health surveillance of these experimental animals and the quantification of diseases or pharmaceutical substances influencing BP. Measurement guidelines for C. j. do not exist yet; therefore, the present study was carried out to establish a practicable protocol based on recommendations of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine (ACVIM). Furthermore, BP data of 49 marmosets (13.8-202.4 months of age) were obtained via high-definition oscillometry to further knowledge of physiological parameters and gender-related differences in this primate. The thighs proved to be the most suitable measurement localization, since systolic values were less variable (left 4.03 ± 2.90%, right 5.96 ± 2.77%) compared with the tail (12.7 ± 6.96%). BP values were similar in the morning and in the afternoon (P > 0.05). Data were highly reproducible within and between several sessions on three consecutive days (P > 0.05) as well as over the course of 20 months (P > 0.05). Furthermore, the measurement time for females was significantly shorter than for males (5:14 ± 1:59 min versus 6:50 ± 1:58 min, P = 0.007). Measurement recommendations for the common marmoset were successfully established. Standardized values enabled a reliable comparison of BP parameters, e.g. for cardiovascular, toxicological or metabolic research.

  18. Closure of digital arteries in high vascular tone states as demonstrated by measurement of systolic blood pressure in the fingers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krähenbühl, B; Nielsen, S L; Lassen, N A

    1977-01-01

    Finger systolic blood pressure (FSP) was measured indirectly in normal subjects and patients with primary Raynaud phenomenon by applying a thin-walled plastic cuff around the finger and a strain gauge more distally to detect volume changes. Inducing a high vascular tone in one or more fingers...... by direct cooling or intra-arterial noradrenaline infusion caused a marked drop in FSP in the exposed fingers, but not in the non-exposed fingers of the same hand. The fact that the non-exposed fingers retained the normal (arm systolic) pressure level is taken to indicate that palmar arch blood pressure...... also remained normal. In the high vascular tone state, a large transmural pressure difference must apparently be established before the digital arteries are forced open. The lowered opening pressure constitutes a manifestation of the closure phenomenon of the digital arteries described in patients...

  19. Sitting and standing blood pressure measurements are not accurate for the diagnosis of orthostatic hypotension.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Cooke, J

    2012-01-31

    INTRODUCTION: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is associated with troublesome symptoms and increased mortality. It is treatable and deserving of accurate diagnosis. This can be time consuming. The current reference standard for its diagnosis is head-up tilt (HUT) testing with continuous beat-to-beat plethysmography. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of sit-stand testing with semi-automatic sphygmomanometry for the diagnosis of OH. DESIGN: Retrospective test of diagnostic accuracy. METHODS: This was a retrospective study performed using a database maintained by a busy syncope unit. HUT testing was performed using an automated tilt table with Finometer monitoring. A 3 min 70 degrees HUT was performed following 5 min supine. Sitting blood pressure (BP) was measured following 3 min rest. Standing BP was measured within 30 s of assuming the upright posture. The results of sit-stand testing were compared with HUT testing as a reference standard. Both tests happened within 5 min of each other and patients underwent no intervention between tests. RESULTS: From a total of 1452 consecutive HUTs, we identified 730 with pre-test measures of sitting and standing BP. The mean age of this group was 70.57 years (SD = 15.1), 62% were female. The sensitivity of sit-stand testing was calculated as 15.5%, specificity as 89.9%, positive predictive value as 61.7%, negative predictive value as 50.2% and the likelihood ratio as 1.6. The area under the Receiver Operator Curve was 0.564. CONCLUSION: We have demonstrated that sit-stand testing for OH has very low diagnostic accuracy. We recommend that the more time-consuming reference standard method of diagnosis be used if the condition is suspected.

  20. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.

  1. Predicting Out-of-Office Blood Pressure in the Clinic (PROOF-BP): Derivation and Validation of a Tool to Improve the Accuracy of Blood Pressure Measurement in Clinical Practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, James P; Stevens, Richard; Gill, Paramjit; Martin, Una; Godwin, Marshall; Hanley, Janet; Heneghan, Carl; Hobbs, F D Richard; Mant, Jonathan; McKinstry, Brian; Myers, Martin; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J

    2016-05-01

    Patients often have lower (white coat effect) or higher (masked effect) ambulatory/home blood pressure readings compared with clinic measurements, resulting in misdiagnosis of hypertension. The present study assessed whether blood pressure and patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict the difference between ambulatory/home and clinic blood pressure readings (the home-clinic difference). A linear regression model predicting the home-clinic blood pressure difference was derived in 2 data sets measuring automated clinic and ambulatory/home blood pressure (n=991) using candidate predictors identified from a literature review. The model was validated in 4 further data sets (n=1172) using area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. A masked effect was associated with male sex, a positive clinic blood pressure change (difference between consecutive measurements during a single visit), and a diagnosis of hypertension. Increasing age, clinic blood pressure level, and pulse pressure were associated with a white coat effect. The model showed good calibration across data sets (Pearson correlation, 0.48-0.80) and performed well-predicting ambulatory hypertension (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.72-0.79 [systolic]; 0.87; 0.85-0.89 [diastolic]). Used as a triaging tool for ambulatory monitoring, the model improved classification of a patient's blood pressure status compared with other guideline recommended approaches (93% [92% to 95%] classified correctly; United States, 73% [70% to 75%]; Canada, 74% [71% to 77%]; United Kingdom, 78% [76% to 81%]). This study demonstrates that patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict a patient's ambulatory blood pressure. Usage of this prediction tool for triaging of ambulatory monitoring could result in more accurate diagnosis of hypertension and hence more appropriate treatment.

  2. Thirty years of research on diagnostic and therapeutic thresholds for the self-measured blood pressure at home.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Staessen, J.A.; Thijs, L.; Ohkubo, T.; Kikuya, M.; Richart, T.; Boggia, J.; Adiyaman, A.; Dechering, D.G.; Kuznetsova, T.; Thien, Th.; Leeuw, P de; Imai, Y.; O'brien, E.; Parati, G.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The goal of this review study is to summarize 30 years of research on cut-off limits for the self-measured blood pressure. METHODS: We reviewed two meta-analyses, several prospective outcome studies in populations and hypertensive patients, studies in pregnant women, three clinical trials

  3. Effect of self-measurement of blood pressure on adherence to treatment in patients with mild-to-moderate hypertension.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Onzenoort, H.A.W. van; Verberk, W.J.; Kroon, A.A.; Kessels, A.G.; Nelemans, P.J.; Kuy, P.H. van der; Neef, C.; Leeuw, P.W. de

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Poor adherence to treatment is one of the major problems in the treatment of hypertension. Self blood pressure measurement may help patients to improve their adherence to treatment. METHOD: In this prospective, randomized, controlled study coordinated by a university hospital, a total of

  4. Sources of measurement variation in blood pressure in large-scale epidemiological surveys with follow-up

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard; Henriksen, Jens H; Jensen, Gorm

    2002-01-01

    The Copenhagen City Heart Study (CCHS) is a longitudinal epidemiological study of 19698 subjects followed up since 1976. Variation in blood pressure (BP) measurement in the first three CCHS surveys is evaluated by assessing two components, systematic variation and random variation [daytime...

  5. Accuracy of blood pressure measurements transmitted through a telemedicine system in underserved populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamore, William P; Homko, Carol J; Kashem, Abul; McConnell, Timothy R; Menapace, Francis J; Bove, Alfred A

    2008-05-01

    In underserved populations, inadequate surveillance and treatment allows hypertension to persist until actual cardiovascular events occur. Thus, we developed an Internet-based telemedicine system to address the suboptimal control of hypertension and other modifiable risk factors. To minimize cost, the subjects used home monitors for blood pressure (BP) measurements and entered these values into the telemedicine system. We hypothesized that patients could accurately measure their BP and transmit these values via a telemedicine system. Inner city and rural subjects (N = 464; 42% African-American or Hispanic) with 10% or greater 10-year risk of cardiovascular disease and with treatable risk factors were randomized into two groups, control group (CG) and telemedicine group (TG). Each subject received a home sphygmomanometer with memory. The TG recorded and entered BP at least weekly. During office visits, the BP meters were downloaded and recorded BP compared to BP values transmitted via telemedicine. The telemedicine (T) BP values were similar to the meter recorded (R) values (T: systolic/diastolic BP 133.4 +/- 11.1/77.5 +/- 6.8 mm Hg, and R: systolic/diastolic BP 136.4 +/- 11.9.4/79.7 +/- 7.5 mm Hg). The percent error was telemedicine BP values were similar to the office (O) BP values for systolic and diastolic BP (T: systolic/diastolic BP 133.4 +/- 11.1/77.5 +/- 6.8 mm Hg, and O: systolic/diastolic BP 136.3 +/- 20.5/78.1 +/- 10.5 mm Hg). In underserved populations, this inexpensive approach of patients using a home monitor and entering these values into a telemedicine system provided accurate BP data.

  6. ACCURACY OF OSCILLOMETRIC (PETMAP™ AND DOPPLER METHODS TO INDIRECT MEASUREMENT OF BLOOD PRESSURE IN LAMBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Maria Vela Ulian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal physiology has peculiarities inherent to the age group. The objective of this study was to monitor the systemic arterial pressure in lambs during neonatal period. We used 20 Ile de France lambs, from birth and at 7, 14, 21, 28 and 35 days of life. The following parameters were analyzed: heart rate (HR, systolic (SBP, diastolic (DBP, and average blood pressure (ABP by oscillometric method petMAP™, and SBP with Doppler. Invasive pressure validated indirect methods with the average 101.52 ± 12.04 mmHg. The averages with petMAP™ were as follows: HR (156.38 ± 37.46 bpm; DBP (63.80 ± 11.14 mmHg; ABP (81.58 ± 11.83 mmHg; SBP (112.48 ± 15.68 mmHg and SBP by Dobler (90.27 ± 12.11 mmHg. There was significant difference in HR and blood pressure among the moments. Indirect methods differ between each other in 12.30 mmHg (overestimation   of 11%. Comparing with the invasive methods, both overestimated values of 4% and 16% in   PAS, respectively, for Doppler and petMAP™. The results showed that the Doppler method has established a good relationship with the invasive one being useful for gauging the SBP. The oscillometric method requires larger studies to be used in small ruminants. Keywords: Doppler; lamb; neonatal period; oscillometric; systemic blood pressure.

  7. Measurement and treatment of elevated blood pressure in the pediatric patient with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swinford, Rita D; Portman, Ronald J

    2004-04-01

    Hypertension, as in adults, is a frequent complication found in children with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Indeed, hypertension has now become one of the most prevalent chronic diseases of childhood. The most recent data available (2003) indicate that at least 38% of children with CKD in the United States are receiving antihypertensive therapy. Only recently has it been shown in children that hypertension, traditionally considered a marker for disease severity in children, is additionally a significant and independent risk factor for accelerated deterioration of kidney function and progression of CKD and a significant risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The following review outlines the differences and similarities of childhood versus adult hypertension with respect to measurement, diagnosis, treatment, and consequence in CKD. The definition of hypertension changes continually as a child grows with or without CKD. Despite numerous guidelines, the diagnosis of childhood hypertension continues to be based on epidemiologic data rather than evidence. For children, the current definition includes 2 categories: high normal, which is blood pressure (BP) between the 90th and 95th percentile, and hypertensive, which is BP above the 95th percentile. The evaluation of all hypertensive children should include a complete assessment of end-organ damage, including eyes, cardiovascular system (including blood vessels), kidneys, and nervous system. For children with CKD and end-stage renal disease (ESRD), a high percentage have left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH). The finding of end-organ damage or comorbidity (CKD, diabetes) in any child is an absolute indication for immediate pharmacologic therapy, whereas the presence of hypertension above the 95th percentile in children without CKD warrants initial intervention such as life style modification. The guidelines for measurement of BP in children with CKD are similar to those in children without CKD and include casual BP

  8. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 readings at several medical appointments to diagnose high blood pressure. Using the ...

  9. High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162977.html High Blood Pressure Increasing Worldwide And health risks may appear even ... of people around the world with elevated or high blood pressure increases, so do the number of deaths linked ...

  10. Medications for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Consumers Home For Consumers Consumer Updates Medications for High Blood Pressure Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... age and you cannot tell if you have high blood pressure by the way you feel, so have your ...

  11. High Blood Pressure in Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of the baby. Controlling your blood pressure during pregnancy and getting regular prenatal care are important for ... your baby. Treatments for high blood pressure in pregnancy may include close monitoring of the baby, lifestyle ...

  12. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... ask for your readings. Blood Pressure Severity and Type Your health care provider usually takes 2–3 ... any other location. Health care providers diagnose this type of high blood pressure by reviewing readings in ...

  13. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Obesity Smoking and Your Heart Stroke Send a link to NHLBI to someone by E-MAIL | ... 90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and ...

  14. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless and can be done ... provider’s office or clinic. To prepare for the test: Don’t drink coffee or smoke cigarettes for ...

  15. Risk stratification by self-measured home blood pressure across categories of conventional blood pressure: a participant-level meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kei Asayama

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Global Burden of Diseases Study 2010 reported that hypertension is worldwide the leading risk factor for cardiovascular disease, causing 9.4 million deaths annually. We examined to what extent self-measurement of home blood pressure (HBP refines risk stratification across increasing categories of conventional blood pressure (CBP. METHODS AND FINDINGS: This meta-analysis included 5,008 individuals randomly recruited from five populations (56.6% women; mean age, 57.1 y. All were not treated with antihypertensive drugs. In multivariable analyses, hazard ratios (HRs associated with 10-mm Hg increases in systolic HBP were computed across CBP categories, using the following systolic/diastolic CBP thresholds (in mm Hg: optimal, <120/<80; normal, 120-129/80-84; high-normal, 130-139/85-89; mild hypertension, 140-159/90-99; and severe hypertension, ≥160/≥100. Over 8.3 y, 522 participants died, and 414, 225, and 194 had cardiovascular, cardiac, and cerebrovascular events, respectively. In participants with optimal or normal CBP, HRs for a composite cardiovascular end point associated with a 10-mm Hg higher systolic HBP were 1.28 (1.01-1.62 and 1.22 (1.00-1.49, respectively. At high-normal CBP and in mild hypertension, the HRs were 1.24 (1.03-1.49 and 1.20 (1.06-1.37, respectively, for all cardiovascular events and 1.33 (1.07-1.65 and 1.30 (1.09-1.56, respectively, for stroke. In severe hypertension, the HRs were not significant (p≥0.20. Among people with optimal, normal, and high-normal CBP, 67 (5.0%, 187 (18.4%, and 315 (30.3%, respectively, had masked hypertension (HBP≥130 mm Hg systolic or ≥85 mm Hg diastolic. Compared to true optimal CBP, masked hypertension was associated with a 2.3-fold (1.5-3.5 higher cardiovascular risk. A limitation was few data from low- and middle-income countries. CONCLUSIONS: HBP substantially refines risk stratification at CBP levels assumed to carry no or only mildly increased risk, in particular in

  16. Controlling your high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000101.htm Controlling your high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... JavaScript. Hypertension is another term used to describe high blood pressure. High blood pressure can lead to: Stroke Heart ...

  17. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  18. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. Diagnosis of High Blood Pressure For most patients, health care providers diagnose high ... are consistently 140/90 mmHg or above. Confirming High Blood Pressure A blood pressure test is easy and painless ...

  19. A system for the automatic measurement and digital display of systolic and diastolic blood pressures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, A. E.

    1971-01-01

    Basic components of system are - occluding cuff with mounted cuff microscope, cuff pump deflator, pressure transducer, preamplifier unit, electrocardiograph machine, an analog to digital convertor unit, and digital display unit. System utilizes indirect auscultatory method, based on Korotkoff sounds, for measurement.

  20. Which markers of subclinical organ damage to measure in individuals with high normal blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sehestedt, Thomas; Jeppesen, Jørgen; Hansen, Tine W

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Medical treatment of healthy individuals with high normal blood pressure (BP) is recommended if there is subclinical organ damage (SOD). We examined which markers of SOD to use based on their supplementary prognostic value. METHODS: In a population sample of 1968 individuals, aged 41, 51....... RESULTS: During a median follow-up of 12.8 years, the composite endpoint (CEP) of cardiovascular death, nonfatal myocardial infarction and stroke occurred in 153 individuals, of whom 32 had high normal BP. Presence of high normal BP was associated with increased risk of CEP [hazard ratio, 1.8 (95......% confidence interval, 1.0-3.1; P = 0.046), optimal BP as reference group, adjusted for age and sex]. In the 337 individuals with high normal BP, using all four markers of SOD increased the sensitivity (number of CEPs in the group in which antihypertensive treatment was indicated divided by total number...

  1. Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930082 Clinical administration of atrial natri-uretic factor in reno-vascular hypertension.ZHANG Weiguo(张卫国),et al.Cardiovasc In-stit & Fuwai Hosp,CAMS,Beijing.Chin Cir J1992;7(5):450-452.In order to evaluate the effects of atrial natri-uretic factor(ANF)on patients with reno-vas-cular hypertension,α-hANF(0.025μg/kg/min×60min)was administered to 7 patients byi.v.drip..The renin-angiotensin-aldosteronesystem,plasma catecholamine and arginine va-sopressin were suppressed with diuresis and na-triuresis and lowering of blood pressure.The

  2. Embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Mahmud-Ul; Islam, Md. Kafiul; Shawon, Mehedi Azad; Nowrin, Tasnuva Faruk

    2010-02-01

    A more efficient newer algorithm of detecting systolic and diastolic pressure of human body along with a complete package of an effective user-friendly embedded programmable blood pressure monitoring system has been proposed in this paper to reduce the overall workload of medical personals as well as to monitor patient's condition more conveniently and accurately. Available devices for measuring blood pressure have some problems and limitations in case of both analog and digital devices. The sphygmomanometer, being analog device, is still being used widely because of its reliability and accuracy over digital ones. But it requires a skilled person to measure the blood pressure and obviously not being automated as well as time consuming. Our proposed system being a microcontroller based embedded system has the advantages of the available digital blood pressure machines along with a much improved form and has higher accuracy at the same time. This system can also be interfaced with computer through serial port/USB to publish the measured blood pressure data on the LAN or internet. The device can be programmed to determine the patient's blood pressure after each certain interval of time in a graphical form. To sense the pressure of human body, a pressure to voltage transducer is used along with a cuff in our system. During the blood pressure measurement cycle, the output voltage of the transducer is taken by the built-in ADC of microcontroller after an amplifier stage. The recorded data are then processed and analyzed using the effective software routine to determine the blood pressure of the person under test. Our proposed system is thus expected to certainly enhance the existing blood pressure monitoring system by providing accuracy, time efficiency, user-friendliness and at last but not the least the 'better way of monitoring patient's blood pressure under critical care' all together at the same time.

  3. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl

    1992-01-01

    Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found...

  4. Stroke and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to Stroke Updated:Dec 2,2016 Stroke and high blood ... Changes That Matter • Find Tools & Resources Show Your Stroke Support! Show your stroke support with our new ...

  5. Adaptive control with self-tuning for non-invasive beat-by-beat blood pressure measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogawa, Masamichi; Ogawa, Mitsuhiro; Yamakoshi, Takehiro; Tanaka, Shinobu; Yamakoshi, Ken-ichi

    2011-01-01

    Up to now, we have successfully carried out the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement of blood pressure (BP) in the root of finger, superficial temporal and radial artery based on the volume-compensation technique with reasonable accuracy. The present study concerns with improvement of control method for this beat-by-beat BP measurement. The measurement system mainly consists of a partial pressurization cuff with a pair of LED and photo-diode for the detection of arterial blood volume, and a digital self-tuning control method. Using healthy subjects, the performance and accuracy of this system were evaluated through comparison experiments with the system using a conventional empirically tuned PID controller. The significant differences of BP measured in finger artery were not showed in systolic (SBP), p=0.52, and diastolic BP (DBP), p=0.35. With the advantage of the adaptive control with self-tuning method, which can tune the control parameters without disturbing the control system, the application area of the non-invasive beat-by-beat measurement method will be broadened.

  6. Diabetes and blood pressure (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ... People with diabetes have a higher risk for heart attacks and strokes. Your doctor or nurse should check your blood pressure ...

  7. What Is High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More What is High Blood Pressure? Updated:Oct 31,2016 First, let’s define high ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  8. Common High Blood Pressure Myths

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Common High Blood Pressure Myths Updated:Dec 9,2016 Knowing the facts ... health. This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP Introduction What ...

  9. A pressão arterial está sendo medida? Is the blood pressure being measured?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora C. Alavarce

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available A medida da pressão arterial faz parte do exame físico e deve ser realizada em toda consulta médica. Para avaliar se a pressão arterial é medida nas consultas médicas, foram consultados 500 prontuários de pacientes de primeira consulta ambulatorial, sendo 335 (67% provenientes de clínicas médicas e cirúrgicas e 165 (33% das clínicas ginecológica e obstétrica. A pressão arterial foi anotada em 39% das consultas realizadas (135±32/85±19 mm Hg, sendo que em 11% destas anotações a pressão diastólica estava acima de 90 mm Hg. Em relação ao diagnóstico prévio de hipertensão arterial verificou-se que: a em 62% dos prontuários não havia esta informação; b 20% referiram ter hipertensão, e em 79% destes a pressão arterial foi anotada; e c 18% referiram não ter hipertensão e 46% destes tiveram registro da pressão arterial. Portanto, a maior parte dos pacientes não teve sua pressão arterial anotada.The blood pressure measure is part of the physical exam and it should be accomplished in every medical consultation. To verify the blood pressure measured in the accomplished medical consultations record of first they were consulted it consults 500 patient's ambulatorial being 335 (67% coming of medical and surgical clinics and 165 (33% of the gynecological and obstetric clinics. The blood pressure was written down in 39% of the accomplished consultations (135+32 mm Hg 85+19 mm Hg, and 11% of this annotations the pressure diastólica was above 90 mm Hg. In relation to the previous diagnosis of hypertension it was verified that: a in 62% of the records there was not this information; b 20% referred to have hypertension, and in 79% of these the arterial pressure was scored; and c 18% referred not to have hypertension and 46% of these had registration of the arterial pressure. Therefore, most of the patients didn't have its logged arterial pressure.

  10. High Blood Pressure and Kidney Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease Mineral & Bone Disorder View All Content High Blood Pressure & Kidney Disease What is high blood pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood ... million filtering units called nephrons. How does high blood pressure affect the kidneys? High blood pressure can ...

  11. Skin perfusion pressure measured by isotope washout in legs with arterial occlusive disease. Evaluation of different tracers, comparison to segmental systolic pressure, angiography and transcutaneous oxygen tension and variations during changes in systemic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Trap-Jensen, J; Bagger, H

    1983-01-01

    The skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured as the isotope washout cessation external pressure is valuable in selection of major amputation level. Five methodological investigations important to clinical use were carried out: (1) In five normal legs and 10 legs with arterial occlusive disease (AOD...... in legs with arterial occlusions at two levels or more; (4) In 47 legs with AOD, the SPP on the calf or on the thigh was compared with transcutaneously measured pO2. The two different methods correlated statistically significant, but the scatter was great; (5) During induced variations in systemic blood...... pressure in seven patients (12 legs with AOD), the segmental SPP and the segmental systolic blood pressure were found on average to vary in proportion with intra-arterial mean and systolic pressure respectively; however, this proportional relationship was not valid for the individual leg. It is concluded...

  12. Association between blood pressure measures and recurrent headache in adolescents: cross-sectional data from the HUNT-Youth study

    OpenAIRE

    Tronvik, Erling; Zwart, John-Anker; Hagen, Knut; Dyb, Grete; Holmen, Turid Lingaas; Stovner, Lars Jacob

    2011-01-01

    The relationship between blood pressure and headache in youth has not been explored and the objective of the present study was to provide data on this association in an adolescent population. Cross-sectional data from a large population-based survey, the Young-HUNT study, on 5,847 adolescents were used to evaluate the association between blood pressure (systolic, diastolic, mean arterial and pulse pressure) and recurrent headache, including migraine and tension-type headache. Increasing pulse...

  13. Numerical analysis of stress distribution in the upper arm tissues under an inflatable cuff:Implications for noninvasive blood pressure measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhipeng Deng; Fuyou Liang

    2016-01-01

    An inflatable cuff wrapped around the upper arm is widely used in noninvasive blood pressure measurement. However, the mechanical interaction between cuff and arm tissues, a factor that potentially affects the accuracy of noninvasive blood pressure measurement, remains rarely addressed. In the present study, finite element (FE) mod-els were constructed to quantify intra-arm stresses generated by cuff compression, aiming to provide some theoretical evi-dence for identifying factors of importance for blood pressure measurement or explaining clinical observations. Obtained results showed that the simulated tissue stresses were highly sensitive to the distribution of cuff pressure on the arm sur-face and the contact condition between muscle and bone. In contrast, the magnitude of cuff pressure and small variations in elastic properties of arm soft tissues had little influence on the efficiency of pressure transmission in arm tissues. In par-ticular, it was found that a thickened subcutaneous fat layer in obese subjects significantly reduced the effective pres-sure transmitted to the brachial artery, which may explain why blood pressure overestimation occurs more frequently in obese subjects in noninvasive blood pressure measurement.

  14. Diet, blood pressure, and multicollinearity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, D; McGee, D; Yano, K; Hankin, J

    1985-01-01

    Recent reports of an inverse association between dietary calcium intake and hypertension stimulated this analysis of the relationship of blood pressure to more than 20 dietary factors among a group of 8000 Japanese men in Hawaii. Reported intakes of potassium, calcium, protein, and milk were all inversely associated with blood pressure levels when examined one at a time while controlling for other risk factors. Alcohol intake was directly associated with blood pressure, and was treated as a confounding variable in the analysis. The association of potassium intake with blood pressure was relatively stronger than the associations for other nutrients, but the intake of potassium was so highly correlated with intakes of calcium, milk, and protein that it was not statistically possible to identify the independent association of potassium and blood pressure. Calcium intake was strongly correlated with milk and potassium intakes, and only calcium from dairy sources was associated with blood pressure. These data thus indicate that several dietary factors are inversely related to blood pressure levels independently of other risk factors such as age, body mass, and alcohol intake. The high degree of intercorrelation (multicollinearity) among these dietary factors, however, indicates that the independent role of any specific nutrient cannot be conclusively separated from the possible effects of other nutrients in this type of study.

  15. High blood pressure in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, D A; Oparil, S

    1997-01-01

    There is a sexual dimorphism in blood pressure of humans and experimental animals: males tend to have higher blood pressure than females with functional ovaries, while ovariectomy or menopause tends to abolish the sexual dimorphism and cause females to develop a "male" pattern of blood pressure. Hypertensive male laboratory animals tend to have NaCl-sensitive blood pressure, while females are NaCl resistant unless their ovaries are removed, in which case NaCl sensitivity appears. The hormonal basis of NaCl sensitivity of blood pressure and of the sexual dimorphism of hypertension remains to be defined. Synthetic estrogens and progestins, as found in oral contraceptives, tend to elevate blood pressure, while naturally occurring estrogens lower it, or have no effect. Hypertension increases cardiovascular risk in women, as well as men, although the benefits of antihypertensive treatment have been more difficult to demonstrate in women. In the population of the United States, women are more aware of their hypertension, more likely to be treated medically, and more likely to have their blood pressure controlled.

  16. Segmental blood pressure after total hip replacement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gebuhr, Peter Henrik; Soelberg, M; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1992-01-01

    drop was found in all pressures 1 week postoperatively. The decrease followed the systemic pressure and was restored to normal after 6 weeks. In a group of six patients with preoperatively decreased ankle pressure, a significant transient further decrease in the ankle-toe gradient pressure was found......Twenty-nine patients due to have a total hip replacement had their systemic systolic and segmental blood pressures measured prior to operation and 1 and 6 weeks postoperatively. No patients had signs of ischemia. The segmental blood pressure was measured at the ankle and at the toes. A significant...... on the operated side. None of the patients had symptoms from the lowered pressure. We conclude that in patients without signs of ischemia, the postoperative segmental pressure decrease is reversible and therefore not dangerous....

  17. Genes That Influence Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Influence Blood Pressure Gene Linked to Optimism and Self-Esteem Designing New Diabetes Drugs Connect with Us Subscribe to get NIH Research Matters by email RSS Feed Facebook Email us Mailing Address: NIH Research Matters Bldg. ...

  18. Frequency of takeaway food consumption and its association with major food group consumption, anthropometric measures and blood pressure during adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, Bamini; Flood, Victoria M; Burlutsky, George; Louie, Jimmy C Y; Baur, Louise A; Mitchell, Paul

    2016-06-01

    We prospectively assessed the (1) frequency and socio-economic correlates of takeaway food consumption during adolescence; and (2) association between frequent takeaway food consumption with intakes of major food groups and anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP). In total, 699 Sydney schoolchildren (380 girls and 319 boys) who had dietary data at both 12 and 17 years of age were included for analyses. Takeaway food consumption was self-reported and based on a single question. Anthropometric measures and BP were collected. The proportion of participants who ate takeaway foods once per week or more increased significantly over 5 years from the age of 12 to 17 years: 35·5-44·1 % (Pfood consumption at the age of 12 years was not associated with anthropometric indices and BP at the age of 17 years. Consumption of takeaway foods became more frequent during adolescence, particularly among boys, and it was associated with reduced intake of fruits and vegetables.

  19. Associations of sedentary behaviour, physical activity, blood pressure and anthropometric measures with cardiorespiratory fitness in children with cerebral palsy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer M Ryan

    Full Text Available Children with cerebral palsy (CP have poor cardiorespiratory fitness in comparison to their peers with typical development, which may be due to low levels of physical activity. Poor cardiorespiratory fitness may contribute to increased cardiometabolic risk.The aim of this study was to determine the association between sedentary behaviour, physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with CP. An objective was to determine the association between cardiorespiratory fitness, anthropometric measures and blood pressure in children with CP.This study included 55 ambulatory children with CP [mean (SD age 11.3 (0.2 yr, range 6-17 yr; Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS levels I and II]. Anthropometric measures (BMI, waist circumference and waist-height ratio and blood pressure were taken. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured using a 10 m shuttle run test. Children were classified as low, middle and high fitness according to level achieved on the test using reference curves. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry over 7 days. In addition to total activity, time in sedentary behaviour and light, moderate, vigorous, and sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (≥10 min bouts were calculated.Multiple regression analyses revealed that vigorous activity (β = 0.339, p<0.01, sustained moderate-to-vigorous activity (β = 0.250, p<0.05 and total activity (β = 0.238, p<0.05 were associated with level achieved on the shuttle run test after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level. Children with high fitness spent more time in vigorous activity than children with middle fitness (p<0.05. Shuttle run test level was negatively associated with BMI (r2 = -0.451, p<0.01, waist circumference (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001, waist-height ratio (r2 = -0.560, p<0.001 and systolic blood pressure (r2 = -0.306, p<0.05 after adjustment for age, sex and GMFCS level.Participation in physical activity, particularly at a vigorous intensity, is

  20. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the years led to verification of the important role of high blood pressure—especially in concert with ... is specific for that person will be an important key to improving prevention, ... an international team of investigators, funded in part by the NIH, ...

  1. Alcohol: Does It Affect Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Does drinking alcohol affect your blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Drinking too much alcohol can raise blood pressure to unhealthy levels. Having ...

  2. Anxiety: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can anxiety cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Anxiety doesn't cause long-term high blood pressure (hypertension). But episodes of anxiety can cause dramatic, ...

  3. High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162996.html High Blood Pressure Often Undiagnosed, Untreated Half of mobile clinic patients ... that's often referred to as a "silent killer" -- high blood pressure, a new Canadian study reveals. High blood pressure, ...

  4. Skin perfusion pressure measured by isotope washout in legs with arterial occlusive disease. Evaluation of different tracers, comparison to segmental systolic pressure, angiography and transcutaneous oxygen tension and variations during changes in systemic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Trap-Jensen, J; Bagger, H;

    1983-01-01

    digit (strain gauge technique). The two different methods correlated statistically significant at all four levels, but the systolic blood pressures were higher than the SPP in particular in diabetic legs; (3) Angiograms in 35 legs with AOD showed that the SPP on the ankle was only consistently decreased......The skin perfusion pressure (SPP) measured as the isotope washout cessation external pressure is valuable in selection of major amputation level. Five methodological investigations important to clinical use were carried out: (1) In five normal legs and 10 legs with arterial occlusive disease (AOD......Hg (range 18-98) (P less than 0.02). The average washout constant for the three different tracers were approximately equal and correlated statistically significant with the SPP; (2) In 59 legs with AOD, segmental SPP was compared to segmental systolic blood pressures on the thigh, calf, ankle and first...

  5. Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2012-01-01

    This device provides non-invasive beat-to-beat blood pressure measurements and can be worn over the upper arm for prolonged durations. Phase and waveform analyses are performed on filtered proximal and distal photoplethysmographic (PPG) waveforms obtained from the brachial artery. The phase analysis is used primarily for the computation of the mean arterial pressure, while the waveform analysis is used primarily to obtain the pulse pressure. Real-time compliance estimate is used to refine both the mean arterial and pulse pressures to provide the beat-to-beat blood pressure measurement. This wearable physiological monitor can be used to continuously observe the beat-to-beat blood pressure (B3P). It can be used to monitor the effect of prolonged exposures to reduced gravitational environments and the effectiveness of various countermeasures. A number of researchers have used pulse wave velocity (PWV) of blood in the arteries to infer the beat-to-beat blood pressure. There has been documentation of relative success, but a device that is able to provide the required accuracy and repeatability has not yet been developed. It has been demonstrated that an accurate and repeatable blood pressure measurement can be obtained by measuring the phase change (e.g., phase velocity), amplitude change, and distortion of the PPG waveforms along the brachial artery. The approach is based on comparing the full PPG waveform between two points along the artery rather than measuring the time-of-flight. Minimizing the measurement separation and confining the measurement area to a single, well-defined artery allows the waveform to retain the general shape between the two measurement points. This allows signal processing of waveforms to determine the phase and amplitude changes.

  6. Vegetarian diet and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beilin, L J; Armstrong, B K; Margetts, B M; Rouse, I L; Vandongen, R

    1987-01-01

    There is now convincing evidence from epidemiological studies and randomized controlled trials that adoption of an ovo-lacto vegetarian diet leads to blood pressure reduction in both normotensive and hypertensive subjects. This effect appears to be independent of both dietary sodium and weight loss but additive to effects of weight reduction. Long-term adherence to a vegetarian diet is associated with less of a rise of blood pressure with age and a decreased prevalence of hypertension. The nutrients responsible for these effects have not been clearly identified and the mechanisms involved are unknown. Resolution of these questions is needed to enable more widespread adoption of dietary changes which may reduce the prevalence of hypertension, reduce antihypertensive drug dependence and by effects on blood pressure and blood lipids ameliorate the natural history of hypertensive cardiovascular disease.

  7. The 2014 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Kaberi; Quinn, Robert R; Zarnke, Kelly B; Rabi, Doreen M; Ravani, Pietro; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Rabkin, Simon W; Trudeau, Luc; Feldman, Ross D; Cloutier, Lyne; Prebtani, Ally; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Gilbert, Richard E; Ruzicka, Marcel; McKay, Donald W; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Bolli, Peter; Wilson, Thomas W; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Gelfer, Mark; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; McLean, Donna; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Burns, Kevin D; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Tremblay, Guy; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Carruthers, S George; Pylypchuk, George B; Burgess, Ellen; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Penner, S Brian; Hegele, Robert A; McFarlane, Philip A; Khara, Milan; Pipe, Andrew; Oh, Paul; Selby, Peter; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra J; Tobe, Sheldon W; Padwal, Raj S; Poirier, Luc

    2014-05-01

    Herein, updated evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in Canadian adults are detailed. For 2014, 3 existing recommendations were modified and 2 new recommendations were added. The following recommendations were modified: (1) the recommended sodium intake threshold was changed from ≤ 1500 mg (3.75 g of salt) to approximately 2000 mg (5 g of salt) per day; (2) a pharmacotherapy treatment initiation systolic blood pressure threshold of ≥ 160 mm Hg was added in very elderly (age ≥ 80 years) patients who do not have diabetes or target organ damage (systolic blood pressure target in this population remains at hypertension to only those ≥ 50 years of age. The 2 new recommendations are: (1) advice to be cautious when lowering systolic blood pressure to target levels in patients with established coronary artery disease if diastolic blood pressure is ≤ 60 mm Hg because of concerns that myocardial ischemia might be exacerbated; and (2) the addition of glycated hemoglobin (A1c) in the diagnostic work-up of patients with newly diagnosed hypertension. The rationale for these recommendation changes is discussed. In addition, emerging data on blood pressure targets in stroke patients are discussed; these data did not lead to recommendation changes at this time. The Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations will continue to be updated annually.

  8. Aerobic Exercise Responses and Blood Pressure Measurement of Individuals with Intellectual Disability in Ibadan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angba, Tessy Onogimesike

    2016-01-01

    The benefits of physical activities are universal for all, including those with intellectual disability. Individuals with intellectual disability are mostly neglected and hardly exercised. Hence, the opportunities for improved health and wellness are limited. Paucity of data that could guide ameliorative measures also presents another challenge.…

  9. Interarm difference in blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehlsen, Jesper; Wiinberg, Niels

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed at examining the interarm difference in blood pressure and its use as an indicator of peripheral arterial disease (PAD). Data were included from consecutive patients referred from their general practitioner to our vascular laboratory for possible PAD aged 50 years or older...... without known cardiac disease, renal disease, or diabetes mellitus. 824 patients (453 women) with mean age of 72 years (range: 50-101) were included. 491 patients had a diagnosis of hypertension and peripheral arterial disease (PAD) was present in 386 patients. Systolic blood pressure was 143 ± 24 mm......Hg and 142 ± 24 mmHg on the right and left arm, respectively (P = 0.015). The interarm difference was greater in patients with hypertension (P = 0.002) and PAD (P blood pressure was reproducible...

  10. Reliable blood pressure self-measurement in the obstetric waiting room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan; Kamper, C. H.; Rasmussen, Niels H

    2014-01-01

    this problem, we suggest introducing an alternative method for achieving reliable BPSM by measuring additional context meta-data for validating patient adherence. To facilitate this, we have developed ValidAid, a context-aware system for determining patient adherence levels during BPSM. Objectives: The aim...... that a) the pregnant diabetics did not adhere to given instructions when performing BPSM in the waiting room, and that b) the ValidAid system was able to accurately classify patient adherence to the modeled recommendations. Conclusions: A new method for ensuring reliable BPSM based on the ValidAid system...... applicable to other self-measurement environments including the home setting and outpatient clinics in remote or underserved areas as it is built using telemedicine technology and thus well-suited for remote monitoring and diagnosis....

  11. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  12. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) KidsHealth > For Parents > High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) A ... posture, and medications. continue Long-Term Effects of High Blood Pressure When someone has high blood pressure, the heart ...

  13. Accuracy Evaluation of Non-invasive Blood Pressure Monitor in Blood Pressure Measurement of Patients with Atrial Fibrillation%无创血压监护仪在心房纤颤病人血压测量中的准确性评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文志; 周海波

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨无创血压监护仪在心房纤颤病人血压测量中的准确性。方法对60例心房纤颤病人分别采用无创血压监护仪和汞柱台式血压计进行血压监测,对比其测量结果。结果无创血压监护仪和汞柱台式血压计血压测量结果比较,收缩压无显著差异(P>0.05),而舒张压有显著差异(P<0.05)。结论无创血压监护仪在心房纤颤病人血压测量中的准确性较差,值得临床注意。%Objective To investigate the accuracy of non-invasive blood pressure monitor in blood pressure measurement of patients with atrial fibrillation. Methods The blood pressure of 60 patients with atrial fibrillation was measured by using non-invasive blood pressure monitor and mercury sphygmomanometer, respectively. Then the measuring results of blood pressure of non-invasive blood pressure monitor were compared with those of mercury sphygmomanometer. Results There was no signiifcant difference between the measuring results of blood pressure of non-invasive blood pressure and those of mercury sphygmomanometer on systolic pressure (P>0.05) while there were signiifcant differences between the measuring results of blood pressure of non-invasive blood pressure and those of mercury sphygmomanometer on diastolic pressure (P<0.05). Conclusion It is inaccurate to measure the blood pressure of patients with atrial ifbrillation by using non-invasive blood pressure monitor, which should be paid attention to in clinic.

  14. DASH diet to lower high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ency/patientinstructions/000770.htm DASH diet to lower high blood pressure To use the sharing features on this page, ... Stop Hypertension. The DASH diet can help lower high blood pressure and cholesterol and other fats in your blood. ...

  15. High blood pressure and eye disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000999.htm High blood pressure and eye disease To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. High blood pressure can damage blood vessels in the retina . The ...

  16. Vital Signs - High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-10-02

    In the U.S., nearly one third of the adult population have high blood pressure, the leading risk factor for heart disease and stroke - two of the nation's leading causes of death.  Created: 10/2/2012 by National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion (NCCDPHP).   Date Released: 10/17/2012.

  17. 有创血压测量技术的研究进展%Research Progress on Invasive Blood Pressure Measurement Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余立君; 黄振; 王兢业; 罗宏

    2015-01-01

    本文阐述了有创血压测量的实现过程、优点和测量的影响因素,综述了有创血压测量技术及其装置(包括有创血压监护仪和传感器)的研究进展,并对植入式测压装置和降压装置的临床试验前景进行了展望。%This paper describes the implementation process and advantages of invasive blood pressure measurement as well as the factors affecting the accuracy of the results. The research progress on invasive blood pressure measurement technology and equipment such as invasive monitors and invasive pressure sensor are also reviewed in this paper. And clinical trials of implantable pressure measuring devices and therapy device is prospected.

  18. Use of Item Response Theory to Examine a Cardiovascular Health Knowledge Measure for Adolescents with Elevated Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie L. Fitzpatrick

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the psychometric properties of a cardiovascular health knowledge measure for adolescents using item response theory. The measure was developed in the context of a cardiovascular lifestyle intervention for adolescents with elevated blood pressure. Sample consisted of 167 adolescents (mean age = 16.2 years who completed the Cardiovascular Health Knowledge Assessment (CHKA, a 34-item multiple choice test, at baseline and post-intervention. The CHKA was unidimensional and internal consistency was .65 at pretest and .74 at posttest. Rasch analysis results indicated that at pretest the items targeted adolescents with variable levels of health knowledge. However, based on results at posttest, additional hard items are needed to account for the increase in level of cardiovascular health knowledge at post-intervention. Change in knowledge scores was examined using Rasch analysis. Findings indicated there was significant improvement in health knowledge over time [t(119 = -10.3, p< .0001]. In summary, the CHKA appears to contain items that are good approximations of the construct cardiovascular health knowledge and items that target adolescents with moderate levels of knowledge.  DOI: 10.2458/azu_jmmss.v3i1.16111

  19. High Blood Pressure: Unique to Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our e-newsletter! Aging & Health A to Z High Blood Pressure Hypertension Unique to Older Adults This section provides ... Pressure Targets are Different for Very Old Adults High blood pressure (also called hypertension) increases your chance of having ...

  20. The impact of arm position and pulse pressure on the validation of a wrist-cuff blood pressure measurement device in a high risk population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Reza Khoshdel

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Ali Reza Khoshdel1,2, Shane Carney2, Alastair Gillies21Faculty of Medicine, Aja University of Medical Science, Tehran, Iran; 2John Hunter Hospital, Faculty of Health, The University of Newcastle, Newcastle, NS W, AustraliaAbstract: Despite the increasing popularity of blood pressure (BP wrist monitors for self-BP measurement at home, device validation and the effect of arm position remains an issue. This study focused on the validation of the Omron HEM-609 wrist BP device, including an evaluation of the impact of arm position and pulse pressure on BP measurement validation. Fifty patients at high risk for cardiovascular disease were selected (age 65 ± 10 years. Each patient had two measurements with a mercury sphygmomanometer and three measurements with the wrist BP device (wrist at the heart level while the horizontal arm supported [HORIZONTAL], hand supported on the opposite shoulder [SHOULDER], and elbow placed on a desk [DESK], in random order. The achieved systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP wrist-cuff readings were compared to the mercury device and the frequencies of the readings within 5, 10, and 15 mmHg of the gold standard were computed and compared with the British Hypertension Society (BHS and Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI protocols. The results showed while SBP readings with HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions were significantly different from the mercury device (mean difference = 7.1 and 13.3 mmHg, respectively; P < 0.05, the DESK position created the closest reading to mercury (mean difference = 3.8, P > 0.1. Approximately 71% of SBP readings with the DESK position were within ±10 mmHg, whereas it was 62.5% and 34% for HORIZONTAL and SHOULDER positions, respectively. Wrist DBP attained category D with BHS criteria with all three arm positions. Bland–Altman plots illustrated that the wrist monitor systematically underestimated SBP and DBP values. However a reading adjustment of 5 and 10 mm

  1. Dietary phosphorus and blood pressure: international study of macro- and micro-nutrients and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Paul; Kesteloot, Hugo; Appel, Lawrence J; Dyer, Alan R; Ueshima, Hirotsugu; Chan, Queenie; Brown, Ian J; Zhao, Liancheng; Stamler, Jeremiah

    2008-03-01

    Raised blood pressure is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide; improved nutritional approaches to population-wide prevention are required. Few data are available on dietary phosphorus and blood pressure and none are available on possible combined effects of phosphorus, magnesium, and calcium on blood pressure. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure is a cross-sectional epidemiologic study of 4680 men and women ages 40 to 59 from 17 population samples in Japan, China, United Kingdom, and United States. Blood pressure was measured 8 times at 4 visits. Dietary intakes were obtained from four 24-hour recalls plus data on supplement use. Dietary phosphorus was inversely associated with blood pressure in a series of predefined multiple regression models, with the successive addition of potential confounders, both nondietary and dietary. Estimated blood pressure differences per 232 mg/1000 kcal (2 SD) of higher dietary phosphorus were -1.1 to -2.3 mm Hg systolic/-0.6 to -1.5 mm Hg diastolic (n=4680) and -1.6 to -3.5 mm Hg systolic/-0.8 to -1.8 mm Hg diastolic for 2238 "nonintervened" individuals, ie, those without special diet/nutritional supplements or diagnosis/treatment for cardiovascular disease or diabetes. Dietary calcium and magnesium, correlated with phosphorus (partial r=0.71 and r=0.68), were inversely associated with blood pressure. Blood pressures were lower by 1.9 to 4.2 mm Hg systolic/1.2 to 2.4 mm Hg diastolic for people with intakes above versus below country-specific medians for all 3 of the minerals. These results indicate the potential for increased phosphorus/mineral intake to lower blood pressure as part of the recommendations for healthier eating patterns for the prevention and control of prehypertension and hypertension.

  2. An implantable blood pressure and flow transmitter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rader, R. D.; Meehan, J. P.; Henriksen, J. K. C.

    1973-01-01

    A miniature totally implantable FM/FM telemetry system has been developed to simultaneously measure blood pressure and blood flow, thus providing an appreciation of the hemodynamics of the circulation to the entire body or to a particular organ. Developed for work with animal subjects, the telemetry system's transmission time is controlled by an RF signal that permits an operating life of several months. Pressure is detected by a miniature intravascular transducer and flow is detected by an extravascular interferometric ultrasonic technique. Both pressure and flow are calibrated prior to implanting. The pressure calibration can be checked after the implanting by cannulation; flow calibration can be verified only at the end of the experiment by determining the voltage output from the implanted sensing system as a function of several measured flow rates. The utility of this device has been established by its use in investigating canine renal circulation during exercise, emotional encounters, administration of drugs, and application of accelerative forces.

  3. Effectiveness of in-office blood pressure measurement by eye care practitioners in early detection and management of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saud; A.Al; Anazi; Uchechukwu; L.Osuagwu; Turki; M.Al; Mubrad; Hany; K.Ahmed; Kelechi; C.Ogbuehi

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the number of hypertensive patients, the optometrist is able to identify by routinely taking blood pressure(BP) measurements for patients in "at-risk" groups, and to sample patients’ opinions regarding in-office BP measurement. Many of the optometrists in Saudi Arabia practice in optical stores.These stores are wide spread, easily accessible and seldom need appointments. The expanding role of the optometrist as a primary health care provider(PHCP) and the increasing global prevalence of hypertension,highlight the need for an integrated approach towards detecting and monitoring hypertension.METHODS: Automated BP measurements were made twice(during the same session) at five selected optometry practices using a validated BP monitor(Omron M6) to assess the number of patients with high BP(HBP)- in at-risk groups-visiting the eye clinic routinely. Prior to data collection, practitioners underwent a two-day training workshop by a cardiologist on hypertension and how to obtain accurate BP readings. A protocol for BP measurement was distributed and retained in all participating clinics. The general,,.,attitude towards cardiovascular health of 480 patients aged 37.2(±12.4)y and their opinion towards in-office BP measurement was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire.RESULTS: A response rate of 83.6% was obtained for the survey. Ninety-three of the 443 patients(21.0%)tested for BP in this study had HBP. Of these,(62subjects) 67.7% were unaware of their HBP status. Thirty of the 105 subjects(28.6%) who had previously been diagnosed with HBP, still had HBP at the time of this study, and only 22(73.3%) of these patients were on medication. Also, only 25% of the diagnosed hypertensive patients owned a BP monitor.CONCLUSION: Taking BP measurements in optometry practices, we were able to identify one previously undiagnosed patient with HBP for every 8 adults tested.We also identified 30 of 105 previously diagnosed patients whose BP was poorly

  4. Hypertension Canada's 2016 Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines for Blood Pressure Measurement, Diagnosis, Assessment of Risk, Prevention, and Treatment of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Alexander A; Nerenberg, Kara; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; McBrien, Kerry; Zarnke, Kelly B; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Cloutier, Lyne; Gelfer, Mark; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Milot, Alain; Bolli, Peter; Tremblay, Guy; McLean, Donna; Tobe, Sheldon W; Ruzicka, Marcel; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; Feldman, Ross D; Selby, Peter; Pipe, Andrew; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; McFarlane, Philip A; Oh, Paul; Hegele, Robert A; Khara, Milan; Wilson, Thomas W; Penner, S Brian; Burgess, Ellen; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Coutts, Shelagh B; Gubitz, Gord; Campbell, Norman R C; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Prebtani, Ally; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Hiremath, Swapnil; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Grégoire, Jean C; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra; Lear, Scott A; Moullec, Gregory; Gupta, Milan; Magee, Laura A; Logan, Alexander G; Harris, Kevin C; Dionne, Janis; Fournier, Anne; Benoit, Geneviève; Feber, Janusz; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S; Rabi, Doreen M

    2016-05-01

    Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force provides annually updated, evidence-based recommendations to guide the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension. This year, we present 4 new recommendations, as well as revisions to 2 previous recommendations. In the diagnosis and assessment of hypertension, automated office blood pressure, taken without patient-health provider interaction, is now recommended as the preferred method of measuring in-office blood pressure. Also, although a serum lipid panel remains part of the routine laboratory testing for patients with hypertension, fasting and nonfasting collections are now considered acceptable. For individuals with secondary hypertension arising from primary hyperaldosteronism, adrenal vein sampling is recommended for those who are candidates for potential adrenalectomy. With respect to the treatment of hypertension, a new recommendation that has been added is for increasing dietary potassium to reduce blood pressure in those who are not at high risk for hyperkalemia. Furthermore, in selected high-risk patients, intensive blood pressure reduction to a target systolic blood pressure ≤ 120 mm Hg should be considered to decrease the risk of cardiovascular events. Finally, in hypertensive individuals with uncomplicated, stable angina pectoris, either a β-blocker or calcium channel blocker may be considered for initial therapy. The specific evidence and rationale underlying each of these recommendations are discussed. Hypertension Canada's Canadian Hypertension Education Program Guidelines Task Force will continue to provide annual updates.

  5. Effects of Past and Recent Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Level on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality, Accounting for Measurement Error

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Lanti, M.; Menotti, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Tolonen, H.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2007-01-01

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality d

  6. Effects of Past and Recent Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Level on Coronary Heart Disease and Stroke Mortality, Accounting for Measurement Error - Reply ( letter to the editor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boshuizen, H.C.; Lanti, M.; Menotti, A.; Moschandreas, J.; Tolonen, H.; Nissinen, A.; Nedeljkovic, S.; Kafatos, A.; Kromhout, D.

    2008-01-01

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality d

  7. Blood Pressure Percentiles for School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İsmail Özanli

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The prevalence of hypertension in childhood and adolescence is gradually increasing. We aimed to in­vestigate the blood pressure (BP values of children aged 7-18 years. Methods: This study was conducted in a total of 3375 (1777 females, 1598 males children from 27 schools. Blood pressures of children were measured using sphyg­momanometer appropriate to arm circumference. Results: A positive relationship was found between sys­tolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP and the body weight, height, age and body mass index (BMI in male and female children. SBP was high­er in males than females after the age of 13. DBP was higher in males than the females after the age of 14. The mean annual increase of SBP was 2.06 mmHg in males and 1.54 mmHg in females. The mean annual increase of DBP was 1.52 mmHg in males and 1.38 mmHg in fe­males. Conclusion: In this study, we identified the threshold val­ues for blood pressure in children between the age of 7 and 18 years in Erzurum province. It is necessary to com­bine and evaluate data obtained from various regions for the identification of BP percentiles according to the age, gender and height percentiles of Turkish children.

  8. How to Prevent High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... provider will use a gauge, a stethoscope or electronic sensor, and a blood pressure cuff. For most ... per day, and women only 1. Not smoking. Cigarette smoking raises your blood pressure and puts you ...

  9. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Oct 31,2016 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  10. High Blood Pressure: Keep the Beat Recipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Keep the Beat Recipes Past Issues / Fall 2011 ... 65 million American adults—one in three—with high blood pressure, you have probably heard the advice, "watch your ...

  11. Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Health Lines Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Past Issues / Fall ... Not Alone / Keep Weight Off / Facts About Fat / Control Blood Pressure, Protect Your Kidneys Fall 2008 Issue: ...

  12. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a silent threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  13. HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE: DOES THIS CONCERN ME?

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    To find out, the Medical Service's nurses are organising A HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE SCREENING AND PREVENTION CAMPAIGN from Monday, 26th to Thursday, 29th March 2007 at the Infirmary - Building 57 - ground floor A blood pressure test, advice, information and, if necessary, referral for specialist medical treatment will be offered to any person working on the CERN site. High blood pressure is a stealth threat to health. So come and get your blood pressure checked.

  14. Automated postoperative blood pressure control

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hang ZHENG; Kuanyi ZHU

    2005-01-01

    It is very important to maintain the level of mean arterial pressure (MAP).The MAP control is applied in many clinical situations,including limiting bleeding during cardiac surgery and promoting healing for patient's post-surgery.This paper presents a fuzzy controller-based multiple-model adaptive control system for postoperative blood pressure management.Multiple-model adaptive control (MMAC) algorithm is used to identify the patient model,and it is a feasible system identification method even in the presence of large noise.Fuzzy control (FC) method is used to design controller bank.Each fuzzy controller in the controller bank is in fact a nonlinear proportional-integral (PI) controller,whose proportional gain and integral gain are adjusted continuously according to error and rate of change of error of the plant output,resulting in better dynamic and stable control performance than the regular PI controller,especially when a nonlinear process is involved.For demonstration,a nonlinear,pulsatile-flow patient model is used for simulation,and the results show that the adaptive control system can effectively handle the changes in patient's dynamics and provide satisfactory performance in regulation of blood pressure of hypertension patients.

  15. Context classification during blood pressure self-measurement using the sensor seat and the audio classification device

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagner, Stefan Rahr; Rasmussen, Niels Holm; Ahrendt, Peter

    2012-01-01

    pressure (BP) devices cannot verify whether the patient has followed these recommendations or not. As a result, the data quality of BP measurements could be biased. We present a proof-of-concept demonstration prototype that uses audio context classification for detecting speech during the measurement...... process, as well as a sensor seat for measuring patient posture and activity before and during the BPSM process....

  16. [Chronobiology of blood pressure and chronopharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmieder, R E; Bramlage, P; Schunkert, H

    2012-02-01

    Arterial blood pressure is subject to a circadian rhythm that results in a fall of blood pressure during the night. In patients with diabetes, renal insufficiency, left-ventricular hypertrophy, sleep apnea, hypertension of pregnancy, and different forms of secondary hypertension a nocturnal fall of blood pressure is even abandoned or reverted. Diagnosis is made using 24-h blood pressure measurement, which is however used not frequently enough for a clinical assessment or adjustment of therapy. An adaption of the selection or the time of administration of antihypertensive drugs with respect to the circadian rhythm is beneficial to control blood pressure and reduce cardiovascular morbidity. This is particularly true for patients with an a non- or inverted dipping blood pressure pattern, in which the bedtime dosing may result in a normalization of blood pressure and restoration of a normal circadian rhythm. The present manuscript reviews the chronopharmacotherapy of arterial hypertension and grant practical recommendations for their translation into clinical practice.

  17. Application of a radiotelemetry system for chronic measurement of blood pressure, heart rate, EEG, and activity in the chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savory, C J; Kostal, L

    1997-06-01

    This paper reports the first successful chronic monitoring (for 30 days) of blood pressure, heart rate, EEG, and physical activity in a freely moving bird, following (described) implantation of a commercially available (Data Sciences International) radiotelemetry device in a 1.6-kg broiler chicken. The tip of the device's pressure sensing catheter was introduced into the descending aorta via a leg (ischiadic) artery and, although the catheter was tied in place, circulation in the leg was maintained and leg function was not impaired. EEG was recorded from the device's paired sensing electrodes positioned on the surface of the telencephalon. Physiological and activity data collected by the radiotelemetry system over 2 complete 24-h periods, 1 and 4 weeks after implantation of the device, were analyzed with the system's own (Dataquest LabPRO) analysis software. The results presented are discussed mainly in terms of variation between light and dark periods.

  18. Blood pressure modifies retinal susceptibility to intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng He

    Full Text Available Primary open angle glaucoma affects more than 67 million people. Elevated intraocular pressure (IOP is a risk factor for glaucoma and may reduce nutrient availability by decreasing ocular perfusion pressure (OPP. An interaction between arterial blood pressure and IOP determines OPP; but the exact contribution that these factors have for retinal function is not fully understood. Here we sought to determine how acute modifications of arterial pressure will affect the susceptibility of neuronal function and blood flow to IOP challenge. Anaesthetized (ketamine:xylazine Long-Evan rats with low (∼60 mmHg, sodium nitroprusside infusion, moderate (∼100 mmHg, saline, or high levels (∼160 mmHg, angiotensin II of mean arterial pressure (MAP, n = 5-10 per group were subjected to IOP challenge (10-120 mmHg, 5 mmHg steps every 3 minutes. Electroretinograms were measured at each IOP step to assess bipolar cell (b-wave and inner retinal function (scotopic threshold response or STR. Ocular blood flow was measured using laser-Doppler flowmetry in groups with similar MAP level and the same IOP challenge protocol. Both b-wave and STR amplitudes decreased with IOP elevation. Retinal function was less susceptible to IOP challenge when MAP was high, whereas the converse was true for low MAP. Consistent with the effects on retinal function, higher IOP was needed to attenuated ocular blood flow in animals with higher MAP. The susceptibility of retinal function to IOP challenge can be ameliorated by acute high BP, and exacerbated by low BP. This is partially mediated by modifications in ocular blood flow.

  19. Dysglycemia induces abnormal circadian blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumarasamy Sivarajan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediabetes (PreDM in asymptomatic adults is associated with abnormal circadian blood pressure variability (abnormal CBPV. Hypothesis Systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. Methods Dahl salt-sensitive (S rats (n = 19 after weaning were fed either an American (AD or a standard (SD diet. The AD (high-glycemic-index, high-fat simulated customary human diet, provided daily overabundant calories which over time lead to body weight gain. The SD (low-glycemic-index, low-fat mirrored desirable balanced human diet for maintaining body weight. Body weight and serum concentrations for fasting glucose (FG, adipokines (leptin and adiponectin, and proinflammatory cytokines [monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α] were measured. Rats were surgically implanted with C40 transmitters and blood pressure (BP-both systolic; SBP and diastolic; DBP and heart rate (HR were recorded by telemetry every 5 minutes during both sleep (day and active (night periods. Pulse pressure (PP was calculated (PP = SBP-DBP. Results [mean(SEM]: The AD fed group displayed significant increase in body weight (after 90 days; p Conclusion These data validate our stated hypothesis that systemic inflammation and glycemia influence circadian blood pressure variability. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a cause and effect relationship between caloric excess, enhanced systemic inflammation, dysglycemia, loss of blood pressure control and abnormal CBPV. Our results provide the fundamental basis for examining the relationship between dysglycemia and perturbation of the underlying mechanisms (adipose tissue dysfunction induced local and systemic inflammation, insulin resistance and alteration of adipose tissue precursors for the renin-aldosterone-angiotensin system which generate abnormal CBPV.

  20. [Measurement of arterial pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rorive, G

    1998-03-01

    The casual determination of blood pressure remains the basis of the diagnosis of arterial hypertension and the criteria for usefulness of drug therapy. The reference values usually in use concern determinations by the doctor in very well defined conditions, rest, size of the bladder, etc.... The poor reproductibility of the determinations made by the doctor in casual conditions has produced a large interest for new approaches: autodetermination by the patient at home, and ambulatory blood pressure determinations using automatic devices. These new approaches have their own reference values, specific indications and limitations.

  1. Interday variation and effect of transportation on indirect blood pressure measurements, plasma endothelin-1 and serum cortisol in Standardbred and Icelandic horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Söder Josefin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Systemic hypertension is a prominent feature in humans with metabolic syndrome (MS and this is partly caused by an enhanced endothelin-1 (ET-1 mediated vasoconstriction. There are indications that systemic hypertension might be a feature in equine metabolic syndrome (EMS but if ET-1 is involved in the development of hypertension in horses is not known. Increased levels of cortisol have also been found in humans with MS but there are no reports of this in horses. Before blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol can be evaluated in horses with EMS, it is necessary to investigate the interday variation of these parameters on clinically healthy horses. The aims of the present study were therefore to evaluate the interday variation and influence of transportation on systemic blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol in healthy Standardbred and Icelandic horses, and to detect potential breed differences. Methods Nine horses of each breed were included in the study. Blood pressure was measured and blood samples were collected between 6 and 9 am on two separate days. Eight of the horses (four of each breed were transported to a new stable were they stayed overnight. The next morning, the sampling procedure was repeated. Results The interday variation was higher for plasma ET-1 (37% than for indirect pressure measurements (8-21% and serum cortisol (18%. There were no differences in systemic blood pressure between the two breeds. The Icelandic horses had significantly lower serum cortisol and significantly higher plasma ET-1 concentrations compared to the Standardbred horses. Plasma ET-1 was significantly elevated after transportation, but systemic blood pressure and serum cortisol did not differ from the values obtained in the home environment. Conclusions Indirect blood pressure, plasma ET-1 and serum cortisol are of interest as markers for cardiovascular dysfunction in horses with EMS. The elevated plasma ET-1

  2. Endovascular blood flow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khe, A. K.; Cherevko, A. A.; Chupakhin, A. P.; Krivoshapkin, A. L.; Orlov, K. Yu

    2016-06-01

    In this paper an endovascular measurement system used for intraoperative cerebral blood flow monitoring is described. The system is based on a Volcano ComboMap Pressure and Flow System extended with analogue-to-digital converter and PC laptop. A series of measurements performed in patients with cerebrovascular pathologies allows us to introduce “velocity-pressure” and “flow rate-energy flow rate” diagrams as important characteristics of the blood flow. The measurement system presented here can be used as an additional instrument in neurosurgery for assessment and monitoring of the operation procedure. Clinical data obtained with the system are used for construction of mathematical models and patient-specific simulations. The monitoring of the blood flow parameters during endovascular interventions was approved by the Ethics Committee at the Meshalkin Novosibirsk Research Institute of Circulation Pathology and included in certain surgical protocols for pre-, intra- and postoperative examinations.

  3. High blood pressure in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Margaret; Bluhm, Brian

    2012-04-01

    High blood pressure in children and adolescents is a growing health problem that is often overlooked by physicians. Normal blood pressure values for children and adolescents are based on age, sex, and height, and are available in standardized tables. Prehypertension is defined as a blood pressure in at least the 90th percentile, but less than the 95th percentile, for age, sex, and height, or a measurement of 120/80 mm Hg or greater. Hypertension is defined as blood pressure in the 95th percentile or greater. A secondary etiology of hypertension is much more likely in children than in adults, with renal parenchymal disease and renovascular disease being the most common. Overweight and obesity are strongly correlated with primary hypertension in children. A history and physical examination are needed for all children with newly diagnosed hypertension to help rule out underlying medical disorders. Children with hypertension should also be screened for other risk factors for cardiovascular disease, including diabetes mellitus and hyperlipidemia, and should be evaluated for target organ damage with a retinal examination and echocardiography. Hypertension in children is treated with lifestyle changes, including weight loss for those who are overweight or obese; a healthy, low-sodium diet; regular physical activity; and avoidance of tobacco and alcohol. Children with symptomatic hypertension, secondary hypertension, target organ damage, diabetes, or persistent hypertension despite nonpharmacologic measures should be treated with antihypertensive medications. Thiazide diuretics, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, beta blockers, and calcium channel blockers are safe, effective, and well tolerated in children.

  4. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BLOOD-PRESSURE DURING HEMODIALYSIS AND AMBULATORY BLOOD-PRESSURE IN BETWEEN DIALYSES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    HUISMAN, RM; DEBRUIN, C; KLONT, D; SMIT, AJ

    1995-01-01

    Background. Ambulatory blood pressure measurements in haemodialysis patients are relevant in view of the high cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in chronic haemodialysis patients. Methods. Twelve normotensive patients were studied from the beginning of one dialysis until the end of the next (mea

  5. Multiple imputation of missing blood pressure covariates in survival analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van; Boshuizen, H.C.; Knook, D.L.

    1999-01-01

    This paper studies a non-response problem in survival analysis where the occurrence of missing data in the risk factor is related to mortality. In a study to determine the influence of blood pressure on survival in the very old (85+ years), blood pressure measurements are missing in about 12.5 per c

  6. Autonomic nervous system function in type 2 diabetes using conventional clinical autonomic tests, heart rate and blood pressure variability measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sucharita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are currently approximately 40.9 million patients with diabetes mellitus in India and this number is expected to rise to about 69.9 million by the year 2025. This high burden of diabetes is likely to be associated with an increase in associated complications. Materials and Methods: A total of 23 (15 male and 8 female patients with type 2 diabetes of 10-15 years duration and their age and gender matched controls (n=23 were recruited. All subjects underwent detailed clinical proforma, questionnaire related to autonomic symptoms, anthropometry, peripheral neural examination and tests of autonomic nervous system including both conventional and newer methods (heart rate and blood pressure variability. Results: Conventional tests of cardiac parasympathetic and sympathetic activity were significantly lower in patients with diabetes compared to the controls (P<0.05. The diabetic patients group had significantly lower high frequency and low-frequency HRV when expressed in absolute units (P<0.05 and total power (P<0.01 compared to the controls. Conclusion: Data from the current study demonstrated that diabetics had both cardiac sympathetic and cardiac parasympathetic nervous system involvement. The presence of symptoms and involvement of both components of the autonomic nervous system suggest that dysfunction has been present for a while in these diabetics. There is a strong need for earlier and regular evaluation of autonomic nervous system in type 2 diabetics to prevent further complications.

  7. The 2013 Canadian Hypertension Education Program recommendations for blood pressure measurement, diagnosis, assessment of risk, prevention, and treatment of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackam, Daniel G; Quinn, Robert R; Ravani, Pietro; Rabi, Doreen M; Dasgupta, Kaberi; Daskalopoulou, Stella S; Khan, Nadia A; Herman, Robert J; Bacon, Simon L; Cloutier, Lyne; Dawes, Martin; Rabkin, Simon W; Gilbert, Richard E; Ruzicka, Marcel; McKay, Donald W; Campbell, Tavis S; Grover, Steven; Honos, George; Schiffrin, Ernesto L; Bolli, Peter; Wilson, Thomas W; Feldman, Ross D; Lindsay, Patrice; Hill, Michael D; Gelfer, Mark; Burns, Kevin D; Vallée, Michel; Prasad, G V Ramesh; Lebel, Marcel; McLean, Donna; Arnold, J Malcolm O; Moe, Gordon W; Howlett, Jonathan G; Boulanger, Jean-Martin; Larochelle, Pierre; Leiter, Lawrence A; Jones, Charlotte; Ogilvie, Richard I; Woo, Vincent; Kaczorowski, Janusz; Trudeau, Luc; Petrella, Robert J; Milot, Alain; Stone, James A; Drouin, Denis; Lavoie, Kim L; Lamarre-Cliche, Maxime; Godwin, Marshall; Tremblay, Guy; Hamet, Pavel; Fodor, George; Carruthers, S George; Pylypchuk, George B; Burgess, Ellen; Lewanczuk, Richard; Dresser, George K; Penner, S Brian; Hegele, Robert A; McFarlane, Philip A; Sharma, Mukul; Reid, Debra J; Tobe, Sheldon W; Poirier, Luc; Padwal, Raj S

    2013-05-01

    We updated the evidence-based recommendations for the diagnosis, assessment, prevention, and treatment of hypertension in adults for 2013. This year's update includes 2 new recommendations. First, among nonhypertensive or stage 1 hypertensive individuals, the use of resistance or weight training exercise does not adversely influence blood pressure (BP) (Grade D). Thus, such patients need not avoid this type of exercise for fear of increasing BP. Second, and separately, for very elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension (age 80 years or older), the target for systolic BP should be patients. We also discuss 2 additional topics at length (the pharmacological treatment of mild hypertension and the possibility of a diastolic J curve in hypertensive patients with coronary artery disease). In light of several methodological limitations, a recent systematic review of 4 trials in patients with stage 1 uncomplicated hypertension did not lead to changes in management recommendations. In addition, because of a lack of prospective randomized data assessing diastolic BP thresholds in patients with coronary artery disease and hypertension, no recommendation to set a selective diastolic cut point for such patients could be affirmed. However, both of these issues will be examined on an ongoing basis, in particular as new evidence emerges.

  8. Ambulatory blood pressure values in healthy children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paripović Dušan

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM is an important tool in the diagnosis and management of childhood hypertension. Normal ambulatory blood pressure (ABP values in children with body heights between 100 and 120 cm have not been reported. The aim of the study was to establish the normal range of values for ABPM in these children. 24-hour ABPM was performed in 40 normotensive (auscultatory casual blood pressure was obtained before ABPM subjects, aged from 4 to 6 years (26 males, 14 females with body heights between 95 and 125 cm. ABPM was carried out on non-dominant arm using the oscillometric device (SpaceLab 90207 with appropriate cuff size. The monitor was programmed to measure BP every 15 min. during the day (6 a.m. to 10 p.m. and every 30 min. during the night (10 p.m. to 6 a.m.. The mean daytime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 108+/-6/67+/-5 and 105+/-5/66+/-1, respectively. The mean nighttime SBP/DBP in boys and girls was 98+/-6/56+/-5 and 97+/-7/56+/-4, respectively. There was a significant difference between day and night readings of SBP, DBP and heart rate (nocturnal fall was observed. The distribution of ABP noted in this study could serve as preliminary reference. A multicenter study should be performed to provide normal ranges of ABP.

  9. Nutraceuticals for blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirtori, Cesare R; Arnoldi, Anna; Cicero, Arrigo F G

    2015-01-01

    Significant effects on blood pressure (BP) have been reported from large nutritional interventions, particularly the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) and the Mediterranean diet. In more recent years, numerous studies have investigated the possible BP-lowering effect of different nutraceuticals; these range from specific foods to minerals, lipids, whole proteins, peptides, amino acids, probiotics, and vitamins. While a very large body of evidence supports the use of potassium, L-arginine, vitamins C and D, cocoa flavonoids, beetroot juice, some probiotics, coenzyme Q10, controlled-release melatonin, aged garlic extract, and coffee, the use of other nutraceuticals, such as green tea, flaxseed, and resveratrol, has not as yet been supported by adequate evidence. In some cases, e.g. proteins/peptides, the responsible component needs also to be fully uncovered. Finally, while for most of the products only short-term studies are available, with no specific end-points, an ongoing very large prospective study on chocolate flavanols will answer the question whether this may reduce cardiovascular risk. Thus, in addition to data on long-term safety, further clinical research is advisable in order to identify, among active nutraceuticals, those with the best cost-effectiveness and risk-benefit ratio for a wide use in the general population with a raised cardiovascular risk consequent to uncomplicated hypertension.

  10. Long-Term Stroke Risk Due to Partial White-Coat or Masked Hypertension Based on Home and Ambulatory Blood Pressure Measurements: The Ohasama Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satoh, Michihiro; Asayama, Kei; Kikuya, Masahiro; Inoue, Ryusuke; Metoki, Hirohito; Hosaka, Miki; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Obara, Taku; Ishiguro, Aya; Murakami, Keiko; Matsuda, Ayako; Yasui, Daisaku; Murakami, Takahisa; Mano, Nariyasu; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2016-01-01

    The prognostic significance of white-coat hypertension (WCHT) is controversial, and different findings on self-measured home measurements and 24-h ambulatory monitoring make identifying WCHT difficult. We examined whether individuals with partially or completely defined WCHT, as well as masked hypertension, as determined by different out-of-office blood pressure measurements, have a distinct long-term stroke risk. We followed 1464 participants (31.8% men; mean age, 60.6±10.8 years) in the general population of Ohasama, Japan, for a median of 17.1 years. A first stroke occurred in 212 subjects. Using sustained normal blood pressure (events/n=61/776) as a reference, adjusted hazard ratios for stroke (95% confidence intervals; events/n) were 1.38 (0.82-2.32; 19/137) for complete WCHT (isolated office hypertension), 2.16 (1.36-3.43; 29/117) for partial WCHT (either home or ambulatory normotension with office hypertension), 2.05 (1.24-3.41; 23/100) for complete masked hypertension (both home and ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), 2.08 (1.37-3.16; 38/180) for partial masked hypertension (either home or ambulatory hypertension with office normotension), and 2.46 (1.61-3.77; 42/154) for sustained hypertension. When partial WCHT and partial masked hypertension groups were further divided into participants only with home hypertension and those only with ambulatory hypertension, all subgroups had a significantly higher stroke risk (adjusted hazard ratio ≥1.84, P≤0.04). In conclusion, impacts of partial WCHT as well as partial masked hypertension for long-term stroke risk were comparable to those of complete masked hypertension or sustained hypertension. We need both home and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure measurements to evaluate stroke risk accurately.

  11. High blood pressure and visual sensitivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisner, Alvin; Samples, John R.

    2003-09-01

    The study had two main purposes: (1) to determine whether the foveal visual sensitivities of people treated for high blood pressure (vascular hypertension) differ from the sensitivities of people who have not been diagnosed with high blood pressure and (2) to understand how visual adaptation is related to standard measures of systemic cardiovascular function. Two groups of middle-aged subjects-hypertensive and normotensive-were examined with a series of test/background stimulus combinations. All subjects met rigorous inclusion criteria for excellent ocular health. Although the visual sensitivities of the two subject groups overlapped extensively, the age-related rate of sensitivity loss was, for some measures, greater for the hypertensive subjects, possibly because of adaptation differences between the two groups. Overall, the degree of steady-state sensitivity loss resulting from an increase of background illuminance (for 580-nm backgrounds) was slightly less for the hypertensive subjects. Among normotensive subjects, the ability of a bright (3.8-log-td), long-wavelength (640-nm) adapting background to selectively suppress the flicker response of long-wavelength-sensitive (LWS) cones was related inversely to the ratio of mean arterial blood pressure to heart rate. The degree of selective suppression was also related to heart rate alone, and there was evidence that short-term changes of cardiovascular response were important. The results suggest that (1) vascular hypertension, or possibly its treatment, subtly affects visual function even in the absence of eye disease and (2) changes in blood flow affect retinal light-adaptation processes involved in the selective suppression of the flicker response from LWS cones caused by bright, long-wavelength backgrounds.

  12. A Ubiquitous Blood Pressure Sensor Worn at the Ear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Hiroshi; Shimada, Junichi; Uenishi, Yuji; Tochikubo, Osamu

    2009-12-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement and BP control are important for the prevention of lifestyle diseases, especially hypertension, which can lead to more serious conditions, such as cardiac infarction and cerebral apoplexy. The purpose of our study is to develop a ubiquitous blood pressure sensor that is more comfortable and less disruptive of users' daily activities than conventional blood pressure sensors. Our developed sensor is worn at an ear orifice and measures blood pressure at the tragus. This paper describes the concept, configuration, and the optical and electronic details of the developed ear-worn blood pressure sensor and presents preliminary evaluation results. The developed sensor causes almost no discomfort and produces signals whose quality is high enough for detecting BP at an ear, making it suitable for ubiquitous usage.

  13. Consistenyc of perioperative invasive blood pressure m easurement with non-invasive blood pressure measurement for lower extremities in patients undergoing general anesth esia%全麻手术患者围术期下肢有创血压与无创血压的一致性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    衣晓卓; 李天发; 王红霞; 夏豪; 周期

    2016-01-01

    目的:分析全麻手术患者围术期下肢有创血压与无创血压的一致性。方法选取行神经外科手术的患者30例,均行静脉全身麻醉。术中及术后同时监测患者脚踝部的无创血压及同侧足背动脉的有创血压,对两种血压进行比较。结果在手术开始后0~4 h内,有创测量脚踝部的收缩压及舒张压测量值均高于无创测量(P<0.05),在手术开始后4~16 h,两种测量方法的收缩压及舒张压测量值比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。两种测量方法对全麻手术患者围术期下肢收缩压及舒张压的监测一致性均好(Kappa=0.70,0.79)。结论监测全麻手术患者围术期下肢无创血压和有创血压一致性好,但仍存在一定差异,在手术中要根据患者的具体情况选取血压的测量方式。%Objective To analyze the consistency of perioperative invasive blood pressure measurement with non -invasive blood pressure measurement for lower extremities in patients undergoing general anesthesia .Methods Thirty patients receiving neurosurgery were enrolled and underwent intravenous general anesthesia .The non-invasive blood pressure of the ankle and the invasive blood pressure of the ipsilateral dorsal artery were monitored in all cases during surgery and after surgery .The results of the two blood pressure measurements were compared.Results Within 0-4 hours after the surgery starting,the systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of the ankle measured by the invasive method were higher than those measured by the non -invasive method(P<0.05).Within 4-16 hours after the surgery starting ,there was no significant difference in the systolic blood pressure or diastolic blood pressure between two methods .For patientsundergoing general anesthesia ,good consistency existed between the two measurements for perioperative systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure of lower extremities (Kappa

  14. Improvement and development of non-invasive blood pressure measurement techniques%无创血压测量技术的改进与进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑理华; 窦建洪; 何兴华; 屠伟峰; 马铭俊; 吴昊

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the improvement and development of some general non-invasive blood pressure measurement(NBPM)techniques, e.g. korotkoff sound method, oscillometric method and double cuff method. The new practical techniques and methods at home and abroad and perspective of non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement(NCBPM)have also been presented systematically in this article, such as arterial tonometry method, arterial volumn clamp method, pulse-wave velocity method, ultrasonic method and the application of wavelet analysis and fuzzy recognition. Finally, it's pointed out that NBPM, especially NCBPM, has a huge market demand. Pulse-wave velocity method can achieve real non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement and thus has abroad application. Research progress of methods and theories of continuous non-invasive measurement of blood pressure will be a desired direction.%介绍数种常规的无创血压测量方法-柯氏音法、示波法和双袖带法及其改进.重点对国际上连续无创血压测量的新型实用技术、方法及前景进行较为详细的介绍,如动脉张力测量法、动脉容积钳制法、脉搏波速度测量法、超声测压法以及小波分析和模糊识别技术在血压信号处理中的应用等.指出无创血压测量技术,尤其是无创连续血压测量方法有着巨大的市场需求;脉搏波速度测量法能实现真正意义上的连续无创血压测量,因此具有广泛的应用前景,而采用新理论进行连续的无创血压测量将是该领域的目标和发展方向.

  15. Home readings of blood pressure in assessment of hypertensive subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P.E.; Myschetzky, P; Andersen, A R;

    1986-01-01

    Out-patient clinic blood pressure (OPC-BP) was compared to home blood pressure (Home-BP) measured three times daily during a two week period in 122 consecutively referred hypertensive subjects. A semi-automatic device (TM-101) including a microphone for detection of Korotkoff-sounds, self......-deflation of cuff pressure and digital display of blood pressure was used. Mean difference between OPC-BP and Home-BP was systolic +13 mm Hg (range -21 - +100 mg Hg) and diastolic +5 mm Hg (range -27 - +36 mm Hg). Although a significant correlation could be demonstrated between Home-BP and OPC-BP, the inter...

  16. Grains and Potato Consumption in Association with Anthropomet¬ric Measures and Blood Pressure in Iranian Chil¬dren and Adolescents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloud PAYAB

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was aimed to investigate the association of consuming white rice and potato, as well as the bread type with anthropometric measures and blood pressure (BP in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents. Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage cluster sampling from 30 provinces of Iran. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC, hip circumference (HC, waist -to-hip ratio (WHR, waist-to- height ratio (WHtR, as well as systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP were measured. The self-reported frequency consumption of white rice and potato (daily or non-daily, as well as consumed bread type were asked. Results: The mean (SD age of participants was 12.47 (3.36. They were consisted of 50.76% girls and 75.57% urban residents. The intake of white rice had significant positive association with anthropometric indices and SBP levels (P-value<0.05. In crude and adjusted models, white rice consumption was significantly associated with BMI (0.29(0.06-0.51 and 0.19(0.02-0.35. Likewise, significant association existed between the type of the bread and anthropometric indices (except for WHR. Potato consumption was significantly associated with anthropometric indices (except for WHR and WHtR and BP levels. In adjusted model, potato consumption had significant positive association with BMI. For every increase in the frequency of daily consumption of white rice, 0.19 units were added to BMI.Conclusion: White rice consumption increases the risk of general and abdominal obesity in children and adolescents. Consequently, for prevention and control of obesity, the consumption of refined grains should be limited by moderating nutrition policies. Keywords: Grains, High blood pressure, Obesity, Anthropometric indices, Iran 

  17. Noninvasive measurement of blood pressure and heart rate in tree shrews%树鼩血压和心率的无创测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    仝品芬; 陆彩霞; 江勤芳; 孙晓梅; 高家红; 匡德宣; 代解杰

    2013-01-01

    Objective To establish the normal reference values of heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP) of healthy tree shrews, and discuss the differences of HR and BP in tree shrews of different sources, sex and age. Methods One hundred eighty tree shrews were randomly divided in three groups: wild adult group, F1 generation artificial breeding adult group and juvenile group. Each group included 60 animals ( half female and half male). An indirect blood pressure meter(BP-98A, Softron) was used to measure the heart rate ( HR) , systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) and mean arterial pressure (MBP). Results The HR of wild adult, artificial breeding adult and juvenile tree shrews were 394.33 ±37.74 BPM, 351.61 ±72.76 BPM, and 378. 19 ±69.04 BPM, respectively. There was a significant difference between the wild adult and artificial breeding adult tree shrew groups ( P < 0. 05 ). The SBP, DBP and MBP of artificial breeding adult group were very significantly lower than those of juvenile group ( P < 0. 01 ). There were no significant differences between the SBP, DBP and MBP of wild adult and artificial breeding adult groups (P > 0.05). Conclusions The rat indirect blood pressure meter ( Softron, BP-98A ) is suitable for measurement of blood pressure and heart rate of tree shrews. The HR and BP of wild adult, F1 generation of artificial breeding adult and juvenile tree shrews obtained in this study enriched the basic physiological data o tree shrews and provide scientific reference for relevant researches.%目的 建立健康树鼩的心率、血压正常值参考范围,并探讨不同来源、不同性别、不同年龄树鼩心率、血压的差异.方法 随机挑选实验树鼩180只,按来源分为野生成年组、F1代自繁成年组和青幼年组三个组,每组雌雄各半,共60只.采用智能无创血压计(鼠仪)逐只测定HR(心率)、SBP(收缩压)、DBP(舒张压)和MBP(平均动脉压).结果 野生成年树鼩、自繁成年

  18. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P blood pressures...... were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P blood pressure and HR from daytime...

  19. Cost-effectiveness of Intensive Blood Pressure Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richman, Ilana B; Fairley, Michael; Jørgensen, Mads Emil

    2016-01-01

    Importance: Among high-risk patients with hypertension, targeting a systolic blood pressure of 120 mm Hg reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality compared with a higher target. However, intensive blood pressure management incurs additional costs from treatment and from adverse events......-effectiveness of intensive blood pressure management among 68-year-old high-risk adults with hypertension but not diabetes. We used the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) to estimate treatment effects and adverse event rates. We used Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Life Tables to project age....... Interventions: Treatment of hypertension to a systolic blood pressure goal of 120 mm Hg (intensive management) or 140 mm Hg (standard management). Main Outcomes and Measures: Lifetime costs and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), discounted at 3% annually. Results: Standard management yielded 9.6 QALYs...

  20. Estimated aortic blood pressure based on radial artery tonometry underestimates directly measured aortic blood pressure in patients with advancing chronic kidney disease staging and increasing arterial stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsen, Rasmus K; Peters, Christian D; Khatir, Dinah S; Laugesen, Esben; Bøtker, Hans Erik; Winther, Simon; Buus, Niels H

    2016-10-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) can be assessed noninvasively based on radial tonometry and may potentially be a better predictor of clinical outcome than brachial BP. However, the validity of noninvasively obtained estimates has never been examined in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Here we compared invasive aortic systolic BP (SBP) with estimated central SBP obtained by radial artery tonometry and examined the influence of renal function and arterial stiffness on this relationship. We evaluated 83 patients with stage 3 to 5 CKD (mean estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] 30 ml/min/1.73 m(2)) and 41 controls without renal disease undergoing scheduled coronary angiography. BP in the ascending aorta was measured through the angiography catheter and simultaneously estimated using radial tonometry. The mean difference between estimated central and aortic SBP was -13.2 (95% confidence interval -14.9 to -11.4) mm Hg. Arterial stiffness was evaluated by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cf-PWV) and was significantly increased in CKD patients compared with (versus) control patients (mean 10.7 vs. 9.3 m/s). The difference in BP significantly increased 1.0 mm Hg for every 10 ml/min decrease in eGFR and by 1.6 mm Hg per 1 m/s increase in cfPWV. Using multivariate regression analysis including both eGFR and cfPWV, the difference between estimated central and invasive aortic SBP was significantly increased by 0.7 mm Hg. For the entire cohort brachial SBP significantly better reflected invasive SBP than estimated SBP. Thus, tonometry-based estimates of central BP progressively underestimate invasive central SBP with decreasing renal function and increasing arterial stiffness in CKD patients.

  1. Dietary fiber and blood pressure control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aleixandre, A; Miguel, M

    2016-04-01

    In the past few years, new strategies to control blood pressure levels are emerging by developing new bioactive components of foods. Fiber has been linked to the prevention of a number of cardiovascular diseases and disorders. β-Glucan, the main soluble fiber component in oat grains, was initially linked to a reduction in plasma cholesterol. Several studies have shown afterward that dietary fiber may also improve glycaemia, insulin resistance and weight loss. The effect of dietary fiber on arterial blood pressure has been the subject of far fewer studies than its effect on the above-mentioned variables, but research has already shown that fiber intake can decrease arterial blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Moreover, certain fibers can improve arterial blood pressure when administered to hypertensive and pre-hypertensive subjects. The present review summarizes all those studies which attempt to establish the antihypertensive effects of dietary fiber, as well as its effect on other cardiovascular risk factors.

  2. High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161398.html High Blood Pressure May Hike Dementia Risk New statement from American Heart Association warns ... in middle age, might open the door to dementia, the American Heart Association warns in a new ...

  3. Birth weight and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edvardsson, Vidar O; Steinthorsdottir, Sandra D; Eliasdottir, Sigridur B; Indridason, Olafur S; Palsson, Runolfur

    2012-12-01

    A large body of literature suggests an inverse relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in children, adolescents and adults. The most persistent findings have been observed in children with a history of low birth weight or intrauterine growth restriction, while a large number of studies carried out in populations with normally distributed birth weight have shown conflicting results. A recently reported strong direct association between high birth weight and blood pressure, and the significant positive effect of postnatal growth on blood pressure suggests that the fetal origins of adult disease hypothesis should be expanded to include the role of excessive fetal and postnatal growth. In this paper, we review recent studies on the relationship between birth weight and blood pressure in childhood, with a focus on confounding variables that may explain the conflicting results of published work in this field.

  4. High Blood Pressure: Medicines to Help You

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... names are given for the drugs in each group.Find your drug. Then read some basic information about your kind of drug. Types of High Blood Pressure Medicines ACE Inhibitors Beta Blockers Calcium Channel Blockers ...

  5. Blood pressure circadian rhythm and obesity: Blood pressure variations and obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Despotović Nebojša

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction The association between obesity and arterial hypertension has been established in a great number of studies. Our objective was to investigate whether circadian rhythm of blood pressure is disturbed among obese people. Material and methods In this cross-sectional, randomized study, Schiller BR-102 device was used for ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. One hundred and twenty outpatients were divided into three randomized groups: obese body mass index 30 kg/m2 (52 patients, overweight (28 patients, with body mass index 25,0-29,9 kg/m2 and normal weight (control group (48 patients, with body mass index 18,5-24,9 kg/m2. In all patients we investigated the following blood pressure parameters: average blood pressure (total, day-time and night-time, maximal blood pressure and dipping or non-dipping blood pressure pattern during night (for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively. Results In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2 only systolic blood pressure parameters were significantly higher - average blood pressure - during daytime (P=0.034 and during night (P=0.014; maximal blood pressure (P=0.001. In body mass index beyond 30 kg/m2, absence of normal blood pressure during night was significantly more often registered (P=0.007. Discussion and Conclusion The non-dipping blood pressure pattern and increase of systolic blood pressure only reveal hyper activation of sympathetic nervous system as a leading pathophysiological mechanism causing arterial hypertension in obese patients.

  6. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José;

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies to prospe......Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies...

  7. Blood pressure regulation in diabetic autonomic neuropathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J

    1985-01-01

    experimental situations insufficient contraction of resistance vessels has been demonstrated. The vasoconstrictor defects demonstrated are of a magnitude sufficient to account for the prevailing hypotension. Furthermore, during exercise cardiac output is low in patients with autonomic neuropathy, a finding...... blood pressure fall ensues in patients with autonomic neuropathy, probably due to excessive muscular vasodilation. It is unresolved why blood pressure regulation is intact during hypoglycemia and severely impaired--at similar catecholamine concentrations--during epinephrine infusions....

  8. Cocoa, blood pressure, and cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferri, Claudio; Desideri, Giovambattista; Ferri, Livia; Proietti, Ilenia; Di Agostino, Stefania; Martella, Letizia; Mai, Francesca; Di Giosia, Paolo; Grassi, Davide

    2015-11-18

    High blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular disease and cardiovascular events worldwide. Clinical and epidemiological studies suggest that cocoa-rich products reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. According to this, cocoa has a high content in polyphenols, especially flavanols. Flavanols have been described to exert favorable effects on endothelium-derived vasodilation via the stimulation of nitric oxide-synthase, the increased availability of l-arginine, and the decreased degradation of NO. Cocoa may also have a beneficial effect by protecting against oxidative stress alterations and via decreased platelet aggregation, decreased lipid oxidation, and insulin resistance. These effects are associated with a decrease of blood pressure and a favorable trend toward a reduction in cardiovascular events and strokes. Previous meta-analyses have shown that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa products are needed to determine whether or not blood pressure is reduced on a chronic basis by daily ingestion of cocoa. Furthermore, long-term trials investigating the effect of cocoa on clinical outcomes are also needed to assess whether cocoa has an effect on cardiovascular events. A 3 mmHg systolic blood pressure reduction has been estimated to decrease the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. This paper summarizes new findings concerning cocoa effects on blood pressure and cardiovascular health, focusing on putative mechanisms of action and "nutraceutical " viewpoints.

  9. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  10. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  11. What about African Americans and High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ANSWERS by heart Lifestyle + Risk Reduction High Blood Pressure What About African Americans and High Blood Pressure? The prevalence of high blood pressure in African Americans is among the highest in ...

  12. Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_162446.html Yoga Called Good Medicine for High Blood Pressure People who added this practice to a healthy ... elevated blood pressure] are likely to develop hypertension [high blood pressure] unless they improve their lifestyle," said study author ...

  13. Can Weight Loss Reduce the Need for Blood Pressure Medication?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... weight loss reduce the need for blood pressure medication? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. If ... possible to reduce your dose of blood pressure medication — or stop taking your blood pressure medication completely. ...

  14. Blood Pressure Quiz | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents Blood pressure changes throughout the day. It… is highest while ...

  15. Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... news/fullstory_163468.html Too Many Americans Have High Blood Pressure, Doctors Warn With February designated National Heart Month, ... physicians warns that too many Americans struggle with high blood pressure. High blood pressure is a major risk factor ...

  16. Aerobic exercise reduces blood pressure in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimeo, Fernando; Pagonas, Nikolaos; Seibert, Felix; Arndt, Robert; Zidek, Walter; Westhoff, Timm H

    2012-09-01

    Regular physical exercise is broadly recommended by current European and American hypertension guidelines. It remains elusive, however, whether exercise leads to a reduction of blood pressure in resistant hypertension as well. The present randomized controlled trial examines the cardiovascular effects of aerobic exercise on resistant hypertension. Resistant hypertension was defined as a blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg in spite of 3 antihypertensive agents or a blood pressure controlled by ≥4 antihypertensive agents. Fifty subjects with resistant hypertension were randomly assigned to participate or not to participate in an 8- to 12-week treadmill exercise program (target lactate, 2.0±0.5 mmol/L). Blood pressure was assessed by 24-hour monitoring. Arterial compliance and cardiac index were measured by pulse wave analysis. The training program was well tolerated by all of the patients. Exercise significantly decreased systolic and diastolic daytime ambulatory blood pressure by 6±12 and 3±7 mm Hg, respectively (P=0.03 each). Regular exercise reduced blood pressure on exertion and increased physical performance as assessed by maximal oxygen uptake and lactate curves. Arterial compliance and cardiac index remained unchanged. Physical exercise is able to decrease blood pressure even in subjects with low responsiveness to medical treatment. It should be included in the therapeutic approach to resistant hypertension.

  17. Estimated daily salt intake in relation to blood pressure and blood lipids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Betina H; Toft, Ulla; Buhelt, Lone P

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Excessive salt intake causes increased blood pressure which is considered the leading risk for premature death. One major challenge when evaluating associations between daily salt intake and markers of non-communicable diseases is that a high daily salt intake correlates with obesity......, which is also a well described risk factor for poor cardiometabolic outcome. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of estimated daily salt intake with blood pressure and blood lipids and to investigate the effect of taking different measures of obesity into account. METHODS: We included...... of estimated 24-hour sodium excretion with blood pressure and blood lipids were evaluated by linear regression models. RESULTS: The daily mean estimated intake of salt was 10.80 g and 7.52 g among men and women, respectively. Daily salt intake was significantly associated with blood pressure (β-estimates 1...

  18. Measurement of blood flow in the superior sagittal sinus in healthy volunteers, and in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus and idiopathic intracranial hypertension with phase-contrast cine MR imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gideon, P; Thomsen, C; Gjerris, F

    1996-01-01

    PURPOSE: To measure blood flow and velocity in the superior sagittal ++sinus. MATERIAL AND METHODS: MR velocity mapping was used to examine 14 healthy volunteers, 15 patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH), 3 patients with high pressure hydrocephalus (HPH), and 11 patients with idiopathic...... intracranial hypertension (IIH). RESULTS: Mean blood flow was 443 ml/min in healthy volunteers with a tendency towards reduced blood flow with increasing age. In NPH patients significantly lower superior sagittal sinus blood flow values were found, but this difference was no longer significant when patients...... and controls were matched for age. In HPH and IIH patients blood flow and velocity were within the normal range. In one patient with thrombosis of the superior sagittal sinus the blood flow was reduced to 40 ml/min. CONCLUSION: MR velocity mapping methods may be of value in the assessment of blood flow...

  19. Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-24

    reduce the fluid burden of hemorrhage. Based on group -to- group comparisons, ITPR had limited effect on improving mean arterial pressure and other...between the two groups . Mean arterial pressure showed a steady decrease from the beginning of the study until device placement, but showed no difference...AFRL-SA-WP-SR-2016-0006 Intrathoracic Pressure Regulator for Blood Loss Richard D. Branson, RRT University of Cincinnati

  20. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in Clinical Practice: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, J. Rick; Viera, Anthony J.; Shimbo, Daichi

    2014-01-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring offers the ability to collect blood pressure readings several times an hour across a 24-hour period. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring facilitates the identification of white-coat hypertension, the phenomenon whereby certain individuals who are not on antihypertensive medication show elevated blood pressure in a clinical setting but show non-elevated blood pressure averages when assessed by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Additionally, readings ca...

  1. Randomized Comparison of the Therapeutic Effect of Acupuncture, Massage, and Tachibana-Style-Method on Stiff Shoulders by Measuring Muscle Firmness, VAS, Pulse, and Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiro Tachibana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the therapeutic efficacy of acupuncture, massage, and Tachibana-Ryojutsu (one of Japanese traditional body balance therapy techniques (SEITAI, on stiff shoulders, the subjects’ muscle firmness, blood pressure, pulse, VAS, and body temperature were measured before and after the treatment. Forty-seven volunteer subjects gave written informed consent to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into three groups to receive acupuncture, massage, or Tachibana-Ryojutsu. Each therapy lasted for 90 seconds. The acupuncture treatment was applied by a retaining-needle at GB-21, massage was conducted softly on the shoulders, and Tachibana-Ryojutsu treated only the muscles and joints from the legs to buttocks without touching the shoulders or backs. The study indicated that the muscle firmness and VAS of the Tachibana-Ryojutsu group decreased significantly in comparison with the acupuncture and massage groups after treatment.

  2. Centrifugal pump inlet pressure site affects measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustin, Simon; Horton, Alison; Butt, Warwick; Bennett, Martin; Horton, Stephen

    2010-09-01

    During extracorporeal life support (ECLS), blood is exposed to a myriad of unphysiological factors that can affect outcome. One aspect of this is the sub-atmospheric pressure generated by the ECLS pump and imparted to blood elements along the pump inlet line. This pressure can be measured on the inlet line close to the pump head by adding a connector, or at the venous cannula connection site. We compared the two measurement sites located at both points; between the venous cannula-inlet tubing and inlet tubing-pump, with a range of cannulae and flows. We also investigated the effects on inlet pressure from pump afterload and increasing inlet tubing length.

  3. Blood pressure associates with standing balance in elderly outpatients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jantsje H Pasma

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Assessment of the association of blood pressure measurements in supine and standing position after a postural change, as a proxy for blood pressure regulation, with standing balance in a clinically relevant cohort of elderly, is of special interest as blood pressure may be important to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance in routine geriatric assessment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In a cross-sectional cohort study, 197 community-dwelling elderly referred to a geriatric outpatient clinic of a middle-sized teaching hospital were included. Blood pressure was measured intermittently (n = 197 and continuously (subsample, n = 58 before and after a controlled postural change from supine to standing position. The ability to maintain standing balance was assessed during ten seconds of side-by-side, semi-tandem and tandem stance, with both eyes open and eyes closed. Self-reported impaired standing balance and history of falls were recorded by questionnaires. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between blood pressure and 1 the ability to maintain standing balance; 2 self-reported impaired standing balance; and 3 history of falls, adjusted for age and sex. RESULTS: Blood pressure decrease after postural change, measured continuously, was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance and falls. Presence of orthostatic hypotension was associated with reduced ability to maintain standing balance in semi-tandem stance with eyes closed for both intermittent and continuous measurements and with increased self-reported impaired standing balance for continuous measurements. CONCLUSION: Continuous blood pressure measurements are of additional value to identify patients at risk of having impaired standing balance and may therefore be useful in routine geriatric care.

  4. Effect on Blood Pressure of Daily Lemon Ingestion and Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoji Kato

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Recent studies suggest that the daily intake of lemon (Citrus limon has a good effect on health, but this has not been confirmed in humans. In our previous studies, it was observed that people who are conscious of their health performed more lemon intake and exercise. An analysis that took this into account was required. Methodology. For 101 middle-aged women in an island area in Hiroshima, Japan, a record of lemon ingestion efforts and the number of steps walked was carried out for five months. The change rates (Δ% of the physical measurements, blood test, blood pressure, and pulse wave measured value during the observation period were calculated, and correlations with lemon intake and the number of steps walked were considered. As a result, it was suggested that daily lemon intake and walking are effective for high blood pressure because both showed significant negative correlation to systolic blood pressure Δ%. Conclusions. As a result of multiple linear regression analysis, it was possible that lemon ingestion is involved more greatly with the blood citric acid concentration Δ% and the number of steps with blood pressure Δ%, and it was surmised that the number of steps and lemon ingestion are related to blood pressure improvement by different action mechanisms.

  5. Noninvasive 24-hour ambulatory arterial blood pressure monitoring in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Søren; Wiinberg, N; Henriksen, Jens Henrik

    1995-01-01

    were almost similar in the two groups (108 vs. 110; 65 vs. 67; 78 vs. 82 mm Hg, NS). Conversely, HR was significantly higher in the patients both in the daytime (86 vs. 72/min, P pressure and HR from daytime......Cirrhotic patients have disturbed systemic hemodynamics with reduced arterial blood pressure, but this has not been investigated during daily activity and sleep. Systolic (SBP), diastolic (DBP), and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP), and heart rate (HR) were measured by an automatic ambulant...... device for monitoring blood pressure in 35 patients with cirrhosis and 35 healthy matched controls. During the daytime, SBP, DBP, and MAP were significantly lower in the patients than in the controls (median 118 vs. 127; 70 vs. 78; 86 vs. 94 mm Hg, P pressures...

  6. Blood pressure in childhood : epidemiological probes into the aetiology of high blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Hofman (Albert)

    1983-01-01

    textabstractHigh arterial blood pressure takes a heavy toll in western populations (1 ). Its causes are still largely unknown, but its sequelae, a variety of cardiovascular and renal diseases, have been referred to as "a modern scourge" (2). High blood pressure of unknown cause, or essential hyperte

  7. High Blood Pressure and Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mild kidney disease. The combination of birth control pills and cigarette use may be especially dangerous for some women. Learn more about quitting smoking . Before taking oral contraceptives: Talk to your doctor about the risks. Make sure your doctor measures and records your ...

  8. Effects of a diet high in salt, fat, and sugar on telemetric blood pressure measurements in conscious, unrestrained adult Yucatan miniature swine (Sus scrofa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myrie, Semone B; McKnight, Leslie L; King, J Christopher; McGuire, John J; Van Vliet, Bruce N; Bertolo, Robert F

    2012-08-01

    Radiotelemetry was used to evaluate diet-related elevation of blood pressure in adult Yucatan miniature swine. Systolic arterial blood pressure (SAP), diastolic atrial blood pressure (DAP), heart rate, and locomotor activity were assessed in 9- or 11-mo-old Yucatan miniature pigs fed a standard diet or a North American-type diet high in salt, fat, and sugar (HSFS). Compared with pigs fed standard diet, pigs fed HSFS diet showed markedly elevated SAP (132 ± 3 compared with 156 ± 6 mm Hg), whereas DAP was unchanged (92 ± 2 compared with 99 ± 5 mm Hg). In addition, all pigs were modestly sensitive to short-term changes in dietary salt, as indicated by a 6% to 7% response in blood pressure parameters. According to these data, the increase in SAP for pigs on the HSFS diet was too large to be explained by the NaCl content of the diet alone. We found no evidence of endothelial dysfunction, and the relaxation responses of isolated coronary arteries actually were enhanced in the HSFS group. In conclusion, in a Yucatan miniature pigs model chronically fed a HSFS diet, DAP did not increase, but SAP and pulse pressure appeared to be affected by high dietary levels of fat or sugar (or both).

  9. [Blood pressure and polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiałka, Marta; Milewicz, Tomasz; Klocek, Marek

    2015-01-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder occurring in women of childbearing age. The literature describes the relationship between PCOS and high blood pressure levels and increased risk of arterial hypertension development, which is an important and strong risk factor for adverse cardiovascular events in the future. Among the main causes of hypertension in PCOS women insulin resistance, hyperandrogenism, greater sympathetic nerve activity and concomitance of obesity are stressed. Because PCOS may contribute to earlier development of hypertension, as well as pre-hypertension, therefore it is advisable to monitor blood pressure systematically, to control known risk factors, and to initiate the treatment of hypertension when the disease occur.

  10. Electrocardiogram-assisted blood pressure estimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saif; Chen, Silu; Soueidan, Karen; Batkin, Izmail; Bolic, Miodrag; Dajani, Hilmi; Groza, Voicu

    2012-03-01

    Accurate automatic noninvasive assessment of blood pressure (BP) presents a challenge due to conditions like arrhythmias, obesity, and postural changes that tend to obfuscate arterial amplitude pulsations sensed by the cuff. Researchers tried to overcome this challenge by analyzing oscillometric pulses with the aid of a higher fidelity signal-the electrocardiogram (ECG). Moreover, pulse transit time (PTT) was employed to provide an additional method for BP estimation. However, these methods were not fully developed, suitably integrated, or tested. To address these issues, we present a novel method whereby ECG-assisted oscillometric and PTT (measured between ECG R-peaks and maximum slope of arterial pulse peaks) analyses are seamlessly integrated into the oscillometric BP measurement paradigm. The method bolsters oscillometric analysis (amplitude modulation) with more reliable ECG R-peaks provides a complementary measure with PTT analysis (temporal modulation) and fuses this information for robust BP estimation. We have integrated this technology into a prototype that comprises a BP cuff with an embedded conductive fabric ECG electrode, associated hardware, and algorithms. A pilot study has been undertaken on ten healthy subjects (150 recordings) to validate the performance of our prototype against United States Food and Drug Administration approved Omron oscillometric monitor (HEM-790IT). Our prototype achieves mean absolute difference of less than 5 mmHg and grade A as per the British Hypertension Society protocol for estimating BP, with the reference Omron monitor.

  11. Nocturnal variations in peripheral blood flow, systemic blood pressure, and heart rate in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sindrup, J H; Kastrup, J; Christensen, H;

    1991-01-01

    Subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow rate, together with systemic arterial blood pressure and heart rate under ambulatory conditions, was measured in the lower legs of 15 normal human subjects for 12-20 h. The 133Xe-washout technique, portable CdTe(Cl) detectors, and a portable data storage unit...

  12. Instrumentação na medida da pressão arterial: aspectos históricos, conceituais e fontes de erro Blood pressure measurement instrumentation: historical aspects, concepts and source of errors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thelma Leite de Araujo

    1998-04-01

    Full Text Available A medida indireta da pressão arterial é um dos procedimentos mais executados pelos enfermeiros de todo o mundo, segundo o Conselho Internacional de Enfermeiras. 0 trabalho discute os principais aspectos polêmicos do instrumental utilizado para a medida indireta da pressão arterial que são causa significativa de erros de medida, a partir da análise da literatura e das recomendações da American Heart Association.According to the International Council of Nurses the measurement of blood pressure is the procedure most performed by nurses in all the world. The aim of this study is to analyse the polemical aspects of instruments used in blood pressure measurement. Considering the analyses of the literature and the American Heart Association Recommendations, the main source of errors when measuring blood pressure are discussed.

  13. Fruit and vegetable consumption and the risk of hypertension determined by self measurement of blood pressure at home: the Ohasama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utsugi, Megumi T; Ohkubo, Takayoshi; Kikuya, Masahiro; Kurimoto, Ayumi; Sato, Rie I; Suzuki, Kazuhiro; Metoki, Hirohito; Hara, Azusa; Tsubono, Yoshitaka; Imai, Yutaka

    2008-07-01

    It is well recognized that high fruit and vegetable consumption is associated with a reduction of blood pressure (BP) measured by conventional BP measurement in Western countries; however, there is little evidence about these associations in other regions and there have been no reports on these associations using self-measured BP at home (home BP). The objective of this work was to investigate the associations of fruit and vegetable consumption and their related micronutrients with the reduction of hypertension risk by using home BP in Japanese residents. Data were obtained from 1,569 residents aged 35 and over who measured their home BP in a general population of Ohasama, Japan. Dietary intake was measured using a 141-item food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and then subjects were divided into tertiles according to fruit, vegetable, potassium, vitamin C, and beta-carotene consumption. Hypertension was defined as home systolic/ diastolic BP > or = 135/85 mmHg and/or the use of antihypertensive medication. The prevalence of home hypertension was 39.4% for men and 29.3% for women. After adjustment for all potential confounding factors, the highest-tertile consumptions of fruits, vegetables, potassium, and vitamin C were associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertension (45%, 38%, 46%, and 43% lower risk of home hypertension, respectively). In conclusion, this cross-sectional study based on home BP measurement suggests that high-level consumptions of fruits, vegetables, potassium, and vitamin C are associated with a significantly lower risk of hypertension.

  14. Association of Socioeconomic Status with Anthropometric Measures and Blood Pressure in a Representative Sample of Iranian Children and Adoles-cents: The CASPIAN-IV Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin HESHMAT

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the association of Socioeconomic Status (SES with anthropometric measures and BP in Iranian children and adolescents.Methods: This nationwide study was conducted in 2011-2012 among 14,880 students, aged 6-18 years, selected by multistage, cluster-sampling method from rural and urban areas of 30 provinces of Iran. Anthropometric indexes and BP were measured by standard protocols and with calibrated instruments. SES was estimated based on family assets and parents’ job and education using principle component analysis method. SES was considered as “low”, “intermediate” and “high” in the statistical analysis.Results: Overall, 13486 children and adolescents out of 14,880 invited students (response rate 90.6% participated in this study. They consisted of 50.8% boys, 75.6% urban residents, with a mean age of 12.47 ±3.36 years. The prevalence of overweight, obesity and abdominal obesity and also mean of all anthropometric measures increased linearly with increasing SES. Inversely, underweight decreased linearly with increasing SES. Association of BP measures with SES was not statistically significant. After adjustment for potential confounders, association of anthropometric measures and BP with SES did not change significantly.Conclusion: We found that obesity, overweight and abdominal obesity was prevalent in high SES group and underweight in low SES group. Our findings serve as confirmatory evidence that contrary to developed countries, in developing countries childhood obesity is more prevalent in families with higher SES. Keywords: Anthropometric measures, Blood pressure, Socio-economic status, Children and adolescents, Iran

  15. Evaluation the effectiveness of remote blood pressure monitoring technology in patients with hypertension on the basis of clinical recommendations performance measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Posnenkova O.M.

    2015-06-01

    Material and Methods ― Remote BP monitoring was organized on the basis of computer system which automatically in text messages send requests about BP level to Htn patients. Obtained BP results were stored in the system and automatically worked. A doctor corrected a patient’s therapy if necessary based on this information. To evaluate the effectiveness of a new technology one year observation of 97 Htn patients was organized (54.6% – male aged 49±11 years. Patients regularly responded to automated SMS requests the computer system about the level of blood pressure. The effectiveness was evaluated with the help of the following hypertension guidelines performance measures: 1 a part of patients with four or more BP results during the previous 12 months; 2 a part of patients with BP above the goal level who prescribed two or more antihypertensive drugs on the last visit during the previous 12 months; 3 a part of patients with BP above the goal level 140/90 mm Hg who prescribed two or more antihypertensive drugs on the last visit during the previous 12 months; 4 a part of patients with goal blood pressure (less than 140/90 mmHg on the last visit during the previous 12 months. To evaluate a performance of these measures before BP monitoring the data extracted from patients’ ambulatory cards were used. Results ― 62 patients completed one-year BP monitoring A part of patients with four or more BP results during the previous 12 months increased from 21% to 100% (p<0.001. From 70% to 82% increased the part of patients who were prescribed two or more antihypertensive drugs (p=0.091. From 31% to 15% reduced the part of hypertensives with uncontrolled BP who were prescribed less than two antihypertensive drugs on the last visit (p=0.044. After one-year monitoring a goal BP was registered in 77% of Htn patients versus 13% at the start of the observation (p<0.001. Conclusion ― Htn guidelines performance measures allowed evaluate quantitatively the positive influence

  16. On preventive blood pressure self-monitoring at home

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Verdezoto, Nervo; Gronvall, Erik

    2015-01-01

    -called Quantified Self). In this article, we explore socio-technical complexities that may occur when introducing preventive health-measurement technologies into older adults’ daily routines and everyday lives. In particular, the original study investigated blood pressure (BP) measurement in non-clinical settings...

  17. 1 in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in 7 Obese People Has Normal Blood Pressure, Cholesterol But that doesn't mean the excess weight ... people studied, 14 percent had normal blood sugar, cholesterol and blood pressure readings, the study found. Doctors ...

  18. High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lung, and Blood Institute Alternate Language URL Español High Blood Pressure and Children: What Parents Need to Know Page Content Children can have high blood pressure. Did you know that children could have high ...

  19. Predictive value of ambulatory blood pressure shortly after withdrawal of antihypertensive drugs in primary care patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beltman, FW; Heesen, WF; Smit, AJ; May, JF; deGraeff, PA; Havinga, TK; Schuurman, FH; vanderVeur, E; Lie, KI; MeyboomdeJong, B

    1996-01-01

    Objective-To determine whether ambulatory blood pressure eight weeks after withdrawal of antihypertensive medication is a more sensitive measure than seated blood pressure to predict blood pressure in the long term. Design-Patients with previously untreated diastolic hypertension were treated with a

  20. Ethnic Variations in Blood Pressure and Hypertension

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.O. Agyemang (Charles)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractThe objective of the study was to review published evidence on whether blood pressure levels and the prevalence of hypertension are higher or lower in South Asian adults living in the UK as compared to white populations. A systematic literature review was carried out using MEDLINE 196

  1. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    This podcast is based on the September 2012 CDC Vital Signs report. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  2. Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play an i

  3. Ethnicity, education, and blood pressure in Cuba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordunez, Pedro; Munoz, Jose Luis Bernal; Espinosa-Brito, Alfredo; Silva, Luis Carlos; Cooper, Richard S

    2005-07-01

    The causes of variation in hypertension risk by ethnicity and educational level are not well understood. To gain further insight into this issue in a nonindustrialized country, a population-based sample of 1,667 persons aged 15-74 years was recruited in Cienfuegos, Cuba. In this 2001-2002 study, interviewers classified 29% of participants as Black or mulatto and 71% as White. Educational attainment was stratified at the median number of school years. Compared with White women, non-White women had higher blood pressures (3.0/1.7, systolic blood pressure/diastolic blood pressure) and a higher prevalence of hypertension (24%, 95% confidence interval: 20, 28 vs. 15%, 95% confidence interval: 12, 18). Among men, no differences in blood pressure were observed by ethnicity. Men with a lower level of education had a 14% lower risk of hypertension compared with men above the median. However, women with a lower level of education had a 24% increase in risk. The effect of education was equally strong among Whites alone and when occupation was used for stratification. No variation was observed for body mass index or self-reported health behaviors by ethnicity or education. The narrower ethnic gradient in hypertension prevalence than seen in North America and the gender-specific social status effect, in the context of relatively equal living conditions, suggest that the influence of psychosocial stressors may be specific to cultural contexts.

  4. Familial Aggregation and Childhood Blood Pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest prog

  5. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  6. Renoprotection with and without blood pressure reduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laverman, GD; Andersen, S; Rossing, P; Navis, G; de Zeeuw, D; Parving, HH

    2005-01-01

    Background. AT1-receptor blockade dose dependently lowers blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria. Reduction of BP and albuminuria are independent treatment targets for renoprotection, but whether this requires similar dose titration is unknown. Methods. We tested this in two studies designed to find th

  7. Blood Pressure Standards for Shiraz (Southern Iran) School Children in Relation to Height

    OpenAIRE

    Ayatollahi, Seyyed Mohammad-Taghi; Zare, Marzie

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aims at providing local reference values for blood pressure by height and determining distribution pattern of systolic and diastolic blood pressure in 6.5-11.5 elementary school children for the first time in Shiraz (Southern Iran). Methods Height, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were measured with standard methods in 2270 healthy school children (1174 boys, 1096 girls) who were selected by multi-stage random sampling in 2003-2004 academic...

  8. Blood pressure and control of cardiovascular risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judith A Whitworth

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Judith A WhitworthJohn Curtin School of Medical Research, Australian National University, Canberra, ACT, AustraliaAbstract: Two key early 20th century notions, the first the primacy of diastolic pressure in determining risk, and the second that hypertension is a discrete disorder, have proved to be incorrect. We now recognize the primacy of systolic pressure as a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and that hypertension is an arbitrary definition. In the early 21st century, we are moving away from a dichotomous approach to risk classification, and away from notions of hypertension and normotension towards an appreciation that blood pressure-related risk is continuous. In parallel, there has been a paradigm shift from a single risk factor approach to comprehensive cardiovascular disease risk prevention. Accordingly, prevention of cardiovascular disease requires a focus on lowering of blood pressure and modification of associated risk factors rather than simply treatment of hypertension. This emphasis is reflected in the World Health Organization (WHO – International Society of Hypertension (ISH 2003 statement on management of hypertension.Keywords: blood pressure, hypertension, cardiovascular risk, treatment

  9. 基于容积脉搏波的无创连续血压测量系统%A Non-invasive Continuous Blood Pressure Measurement System Based on Plethysmographic Pulse Wave

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁永波; 陈真诚; 朱健铭; 殷世民

    2013-01-01

    Objective To develop a non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement system without the cuff based on plethysmographic pulse wave. Methods A blood pressure estimation equation was established by the stepwise regression analysis on blood pressure and pulse wave transit time which was extracted from a single circle of plethysmographic pulse wave, and then the non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement was realized. Results Compared blood pressure value with detection by the system and Yu-Yue brand mercury sphygmomanometer from various populations, the results indicated that the two methods exhibit good coherence , and the measurement error is better than the Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) recommendation standard. Conclusion Compared with traditional blood pressure measurement method , the non-invasive continuous blood pressure measurement method is more convenient. It can measure blood pressure continuously without cuff and invasion, and may have promising application in the future.%目的 设计一种基于容积脉搏波的无袖套连续血压测量系统.方法 从单一容积脉搏波中提取脉搏波传导时间,经逐步回归分析与血压建立血压估算方程,实现无创连续血压测量.结果 通过对不同人群血压检测,并与鱼跃牌水银血压计进行对比,结果表明该方法和传统方法具有较好的测试一致性,测量误差优于美国医疗仪器促进协会(AAMI)推荐标准.结论 该方法同传统血压测量方法相比,测量方便,可彻底摆脱缚带,并能实现无创连续测量,具有更广阔的应用前景.

  10. Magnetic sensor for arterial distension and blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruhhammer, Johannes; Herbstritt, Tamara; Ruh, Dominic; Foerster, Katharina; Heilmann, Claudia; Beyersdorf, Friedhelm; Goldschmidtboeing, Frank; Seifert, Andreas; Woias, Peter

    2014-12-01

    A novel sensor for measuring arterial distension, pulse and pressure waveform is developed and evaluated. The system consists of a magnetic sensor which is applied and fixed to arterial vessels without any blood vessel constriction, hence avoiding stenosis. The measurement principle could be validated by in vitro experiments on silicone tubes, and by in vivo experiments in an animal model, thereby indicating the non-linear viscoelastic characteristics of real blood vessels. The sensor is capable to provide absolute measurements of the dynamically varying arterial diameter. By calibrating the sensor, a long-term monitoring system for continuously measuring blood pressure and other cardiovascular parameters could be developed based on the method described. This will improve diagnostics for high risk patients and enable a better, specific treatment.

  11. Cuffless differential blood pressure estimation using smart phones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekaran, Vikram; Dantu, Ram; Jonnada, Srikanth; Thiyagaraja, Shanti; Subbu, Kalyan Pathapati

    2013-04-01

    Smart phones today have become increasingly popular with the general public for their diverse functionalities such as navigation, social networking, and multimedia facilities. These phones are equipped with high-end processors, high-resolution cameras, and built-in sensors such as accelerometer, orientation-sensor, and light-sensor. According to comScore survey, 26.2% of U.S. adults use smart phones in their daily lives. Motivated by this statistic and the diverse capability of smart phones, we focus on utilizing them for biomedical applications. We present a new application of the smart phone with its built-in camera and microphone replacing the traditional stethoscope and cuff-based measurement technique, to quantify vital signs such as heart rate and blood pressure. We propose two differential blood pressure estimating techniques using the heartbeat and pulse data. The first method uses two smart phones whereas the second method replaces one of the phones with a customized external microphone. We estimate the systolic and diastolic pressure in the two techniques by computing the pulse pressure and the stroke volume from the data recorded. By comparing the estimated blood pressure values with those measured using a commercial blood pressure meter, we obtained encouraging results of 95-100% accuracy.

  12. Effects of past and recent blood pressure and cholesterol level on coronary heart disease and stroke mortality, accounting for measurement error.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boshuizen, Hendriek C; Lanti, Mariapaola; Menotti, Alessandro; Moschandreas, Joanna; Tolonen, Hanna; Nissinen, Aulikki; Nedeljkovic, Srecko; Kafatos, Anthony; Kromhout, Daan

    2007-02-15

    The authors aimed to quantify the effects of current systolic blood pressure (SBP) and serum total cholesterol on the risk of mortality in comparison with SBP or serum cholesterol 25 years previously, taking measurement error into account. The authors reanalyzed 35-year follow-up data on mortality due to coronary heart disease and stroke among subjects aged 65 years or more from nine cohorts of the Seven Countries Study. The two-step method of Tsiatis et al. (J Am Stat Assoc 1995;90:27-37) was used to adjust for regression dilution bias, and results were compared with those obtained using more commonly applied methods of adjustment for regression dilution bias. It was found that the commonly used univariate adjustment for regression dilution bias overestimates the effects of both SBP and cholesterol compared with multivariate methods. Also, the two-step method makes better use of the information available, resulting in smaller confidence intervals. Results comparing recent and past exposure indicated that past SBP is more important than recent SBP in terms of its effect on coronary heart disease mortality, while both recent and past values seem to be important for effects of cholesterol on coronary heart disease mortality and effects of SBP on stroke mortality. Associations between serum cholesterol concentration and risk of stroke mortality are weak.

  13. 21 CFR 870.1100 - Blood pressure alarm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure alarm. 870.1100 Section 870.1100...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1100 Blood pressure alarm. (a) Identification. A blood pressure alarm is a device that accepts the signal from a blood...

  14. 24小时动态血压与偶测血压的相关性研究%The Correlation Study between ABPM and Measuring Blood Pressure by Chance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马樱; 苏泽; 肖践明

    2001-01-01

    Objective To study on the relationship between ABPM(Atraumatic Monitoring of Dynamic Blood Pressure) and measuring blood pressure by chance.Methods Comparison and correlation analysis between parameter of ABPM in 479 hypertensive disease cases coinciding with WHO diagnosis standard and numeric value of measuring blood pressure by chance.Results Numeric value of measuring blood pressure by chance was Obviously higher than that mean 24 hour's blood pressure、mean daynight blood pressure and mean nighttime blood pressure(p<0.05);there were correlations between numeric value of measuring blood pressure by chance and some parameter of ABPM(p<0.01).Conclusions The correlation between 24 hour's dynamic blood pressure and measuring blood pressure by chance is not high,of not high,if the criteria of measuring blood pressure by chance can not be used.However,ABPM is still as a reliable index of observing fluctuation of blood pressure and therapeutic efficacy.%目的探讨24小时动态血压与偶测血压的相关性.方法随机选择符合WHO诊断标准的高血压病患者479例,用无创性携带式动态血压检测仪进行24小时血压检测,检测前以标准汞柱式血压计按常规测右上臂血压,将获取的ABPM参数与偶测血压值作比较及相关分析.结果偶测血压值明显高于ABPM平均24h血压、平均白昼血压和平均夜间血压(p<0.05);偶测血压值与ABPM的几个参数值均有相关性(p<0.01),偶测SBP与白昼SBP的相关系数r=0.501,与夜间SBP的r=0.395,与24hSBP的r=0.114,偶测DBP与24hDBP的相关系数r=0.495,与夜间DBP的r=0.357,与白昼DBP的r=0.223.结论 24小时动态血压与偶测血压的相关性不高,不能用偶测血压的诊断指标,但ABPM仍不失作为观察血压波动与治疗效果的可靠指标.

  15. Dirty Air, High Blood Pressure Linked

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    应树道

    2001-01-01

    贵刊去年第6期曾刊登一短文,题目是:盐,迫升血压之元凶。读了该文,我开始严格控制每日的食盐摄入量,再附以药物治疗,血压果然趋于平稳。近日上网,遇一奇文,意思是人的血压与空气污染状况有涉!根据对2600个成年人的调查,得出了这样的结论:Pollution may cause changes in the part of the nervous system that controls blood pressure.文章又同时说明:Exactly how pollution might cause blood pressure to climb remains unclear.人体之奥妙由此可见一斑。

  16. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2009-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines re...

  17. Brachial versus central blood pressure and vascular stiffness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Susanne; Hansen, Tine; Frimodt-Møller, Marie

    2010-01-01

    Central blood pressure (BP) estimates the true load imposed on the left ventricle to a higher degree than does brachial BP. Increased aortic pulse wave velocity (aPWV) and central BP are risk markers for cardiovascular disease. Both can be measured by simple and noninvasive methods. Guidelines re...

  18. Cuff inflations do not affect night-time blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Emilie H; Theilade, Simone; Hansen, Tine W;

    2015-01-01

    Discomfort related to cuff inflation may bias 24 h ambulatory blood pressure (BP) measurements, especially during night-time. We accessed the impact of cuff inflations by comparing 24 h BP recorded with a cuff-less tonometric wrist device and an upper-arm oscillometric cuff device. Fifty...

  19. Perinatal development and adult blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Ashton

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available A growing body of evidence supports the concept of fetal programming in cardiovascular disease in man, which asserts that an insult experienced in utero exerts a long-term influence on cardiovascular function, leading to disease in adulthood. However, this hypothesis is not universally accepted, hence animal models may be of value in determining potential physiological mechanisms which could explain how fetal undernutrition results in cardiovascular disease in later life. This review describes two major animal models of cardiovascular programming, the in utero protein-restricted rat and the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. In the former model, moderate maternal protein restriction during pregnancy induces an increase in offspring blood pressure of 20-30 mmHg. This hypertensive effect is mediated, in part, by fetal exposure to excess maternal glucocorticoids as a result of a deficiency in placental 11-ß hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2. Furthermore, nephrogenesis is impaired in this model which, coupled with increased activity of the renin-angiotensin system, could also contribute to the greater blood pressure displayed by these animals. The second model discussed is the cross-fostered spontaneously hypertensive rat. Spontaneously hypertensive rats develop severe hypertension without external intervention; however, their adult blood pressure may be lowered by 20-30 mmHg by cross-fostering pups to a normotensive dam within the first two weeks of lactation. The mechanisms responsible for this antihypertensive effect are less clear, but may also involve altered renal function and down-regulation of the renin-angiotensin system. These two models clearly show that adult blood pressure is influenced by exposure to one of a number of stimuli during critical stages of perinatal development.

  20. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Juan Diego Mediavilla García; Fernando Jaén Águila; Celia Fernández Torres; Blas Gil Extremera; Juan Jiménez Alonso

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of hypertension is high in the elderly and is present in 2/3 of the patients older than 65 years. Prevalence can reach 90% in patients older than 80 years. The presence of isolated systolic hypertension (ISH) is characteristic of this population. However, the prevalence of hypertension by ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) is not well known. In this study, we analyzed the special characteristics of hypertension in this population, giving special emphasis on ABPM readings.

  1. Blood pressure: trends, determinants and consequences.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leer, van E.

    1995-01-01

    Trends in blood pressure, prevalence and treatment of hypertension were studied in 30,000 men and women aged 37-43 years during the period 1974-1980, in 80,000 men aged 33-37 years during the period 1981-1986 and 36,000 in men and women aged 20-59 years during the period 1987-1991. Between 1974 and

  2. Regulation of blood pressure by dopamine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jose, Pedro A; Eisner, Gilbert M; Felder, Robin A

    2003-01-01

    Dopamine is an important regulator of blood pressure. Its actions on renal hemodynamics, epithelial transport and humoral agents such as aldosterone, catecholamines, endothelin, prolactin, pro-opiomelanocortin, renin and vasopressin place it in central homeostatic position for regulation of extracellular fluid volume and blood pressure. Dopamine also modulates fluid and sodium intake via actions in the central nervous system and gastrointestinal tract, and by regulation of cardiovascular centers that control the functions of the heart, arteries and veins. Abnormalities in dopamine production and receptor function accompany a high percentage of human essential hypertension and several forms of rodent genetic hypertension. Some dopamine receptor genes and their regulators are in loci linked to hypertension in humans and in rodents. Furthermore, single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of genes that regulate dopamine receptors, alone or via the interaction with SNPs of genes that regulate the renin-angiotensin system, are associated with human essential hypertension. Each of the five dopamine receptor subtypes (D1, D2, D3, D4 and D5) participates in the regulation of blood pressure by mechanisms specific for the subtype. Some receptors (D2 and D5) influence the central and/or peripheral nervous system; others influence epithelial transport and regulate the secretion and receptors of several humoral agents (e.g., the D1, D3 and D4 receptors interact with the renin-angiotensin system). Modifications of the usual actions of the receptor can produce blood pressure changes. In addition, abnormal functioning of these dopamine receptor subtypes impairs their antioxidant function.

  3. What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are the Signs, Symptoms, and Complications of High Blood Pressure? Because diagnosis is based on blood pressure readings, ... damaged from chronic high blood pressure. Complications of High Blood Pressure When blood pressure stays high over time, it ...

  4. Blood Pressure Control: Stroke and Stroke Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hans-Christoph Diener

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension is the most important modifiable risk factor for primary and secondary stroke prevention.All antihypertensive drugs are effective in primary prevention: the risk reduction for stroke is 30—42%. However, not all classes of drugs have the same effects: there is some indication that angiotensin receptor blockers may be superior to other classes of antihypertensive drugs in stroke prevention.Seventy-five percent of patients who present to hospital with acute stroke have elevated blood pressure within the first 24—48 hours. Extremes of systolic blood pressure (SBP increase the risk of death or dependency. The aim of treatment should be to achieve and maintain the SBP in the range 140—160 mmHg. However, fast and drastic blood pressure lowering can have adverse consequences.The PROGRESS trial of secondary prevention with perindopril + indapamide versus placebo + placebo showed a decrease in numbers of stroke recurrences in patients given both active antihypertensive agents, more impressive for cerebral haemorrhage.There were also indications that active treatment might decrease the development of post-stroke dementia.

  5. Dietary spermidine for lowering high blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Andreas; Schroeder, Sabrina; Pendl, Tobias; Harger, Alexandra; Stekovic, Slaven; Schipke, Julia; Magnes, Christoph; Schmidt, Albrecht; Ruckenstuhl, Christoph; Dammbrueck, Christopher; Gross, Angelina S; Herbst, Viktoria; Carmona-Gutierrez, Didac; Pietrocola, Federico; Pieber, Thomas R; Sigrist, Stephan J; Linke, Wolfgang A; Mühlfeld, Christian; Sadoshima, Junichi; Dengjel, Joern; Kiechl, Stefan; Kroemer, Guido; Sedej, Simon; Madeo, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Loss of cardiac macroautophagy/autophagy impairs heart function, and evidence accumulates that an increased autophagic flux may protect against cardiovascular disease. We therefore tested the protective capacity of the natural autophagy inducer spermidine in animal models of aging and hypertension, which both represent major risk factors for the development of cardiovascular disease. Dietary spermidine elicits cardioprotective effects in aged mice through enhancing cardiac autophagy and mitophagy. In salt-sensitive rats, spermidine supplementation also delays the development of hypertensive heart disease, coinciding with reduced arterial blood pressure. The high blood pressure-lowering effect likely results from improved global arginine bioavailability and protection from hypertension-associated renal damage. The polyamine spermidine is naturally present in human diets, though to a varying amount depending on food type and preparation. In humans, high dietary spermidine intake correlates with reduced blood pressure and decreased risk of cardiovascular disease and related death. Altogether, spermidine represents a cardio- and vascular-protective autophagy inducer that can be readily integrated in common diets. PMID:28118075

  6. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana V. Do

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure.OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes.METHODS:Search methods: We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria: We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis: Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We

  7. Blood pressure control for diabetic retinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Diana V; Wang, Xue; Vedula, Satyanarayana S; Marrone, Michael; Sleilati, Gina; Hawkins, Barbara S; Frank, Robert N

    2015-01-01

    Background Diabetic retinopathy is a common complication of diabetes and a leading cause of visual impairment and blindness. Research has established the importance of blood glucose control to prevent development and progression of the ocular complications of diabetes. Simultaneous blood pressure control has been advocated for the same purpose, but findings reported from individual studies have supported varying conclusions regarding the ocular benefit of interventions on blood pressure. Objectives The primary aim of this review was to summarize the existing evidence regarding the effect of interventions to control or reduce blood pressure levels among diabetics on incidence and progression of diabetic retinopathy, preservation of visual acuity, adverse events, quality of life, and costs. A secondary aim was to compare classes of anti-hypertensive medications with respect to the same outcomes. Search methods We searched a number of electronic databases including CENTRAL as well as ongoing trial registries. We last searched the electronic databases on 25 April 2014. We also reviewed reference lists of review articles and trial reports selected for inclusion. In addition, we contacted investigators of trials with potentially pertinent data. Selection criteria We included in this review randomized controlled trials (RCTs) in which either type 1 or type 2 diabetic participants, with or without hypertension, were assigned randomly to intense versus less intense blood pressure control, to blood pressure control versus usual care or no intervention on blood pressure, or to different classes of anti-hypertensive agents versus placebo. Data collection and analysis Pairs of review authors independently reviewed titles and abstracts from electronic and manual searches and the full text of any document that appeared to be relevant. We assessed included trials independently for risk of bias with respect to outcomes reported in this review. We extracted data regarding trial

  8. The relationship between symptoms and blood pressure during maintenance hemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meredith, David J; Pugh, Christopher W; Sutherland, Sheera; Tarassenko, Lionel; Birks, Jacqueline

    2015-10-01

    Intradialytic hypotension (IDH) is a detrimental complication of maintenance hemodialysis, but how it is defined and reported varies widely in the literature. European Best Practice Guideline and Kidney Disease Outcomes Quality Initiative guidelines require symptoms and a mitigating intervention to fulfill the diagnosis, but morbidity and mortality outcomes are largely based on blood pressure alone. Furthermore, little is known about the incidence of asymptomatic hypotension, which may be an important cause of hypoperfusion injury and impaired outcome. Seventy-seven patients were studied over 456 dialysis sessions. Blood pressure was measured at 15-minute intervals throughout the session and compared with post-dialysis symptom questionnaire results using mixed modeling to adjust for repeated measures in the same patient. The frequency of asymptomatic hypotension was estimated by logistic regression using a variety of commonly cited blood pressure metrics that describe IDH. In 113 sessions (25%) where symptoms were recorded on the questionnaire, these appear not to have been reported to dialysis staff. When symptoms were reported (293 sessions [64%]), an intervention invariably followed. Dizziness and cramp were strongly associated with changes in systolic blood pressure (SBP), but not diastolic blood pressure. Nausea occurred more frequently in younger patients but was not associated with falls in blood pressure. Thresholds that maximized the probability of an intervention rather than a session remaining asymptomatic were SBP hemodialysis, which leads to an underestimation of IDH if symptom-based definitions are used. A revised definition of IDH excluding patient-reported symptoms would be in line with literature reporting morbidity and mortality outcomes and include sessions in which potentially detrimental asymptomatic hypotension occurs.

  9. Integrating Out-of-Office Blood Pressure in the Diagnosis and Management of Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Jordana B; Cohen, Debbie L

    2016-11-01

    Guidelines for the diagnosis and monitoring of hypertension were historically based on in-office blood pressure measurements. However, the US Preventive Services Task Force recently expanded their recommendations on screening for hypertension to include out-of-office blood pressure measurements to confirm the diagnosis of hypertension. Out-of-office blood pressure monitoring modalities, including ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and home blood pressure monitoring, are important tools in distinguishing between normotension, masked hypertension, white-coat hypertension, and sustained (including uncontrolled or drug-resistant) hypertension. Compared to in-office readings, out-of-office blood pressures are a greater predictor of renal and cardiac morbidity and mortality. There are multiple barriers to the implementation of out-of-office blood pressure monitoring which need to be overcome in order to promote more widespread use of these modalities.

  10. Classification of High Blood Pressure Persons Vs Normal Blood Pressure Persons Using Voice Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saloni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The human voice is remarkable, complex and delicate. All parts of the body play some role in voice production and may be responsible for voice dysfunction. The larynx contains muscles that are surrounded by blood vessels connected to circulatory system. The pressure of blood in these vessels should be related with dynamic variation of vocal cord parameters. These parameters are directly related with acoustic properties of speech. Acoustic voice analysis can be used to characterize the pathological voices. This paper presents the classification of high blood pressure and normal with the aid of voice signal recorded from the patients. Various features have been extracted from the voice signal of healthy persons and persons suffering from high blood pressure. Simulation results show differences in the parameter values of healthy and pathological persons. Then an optimum feature vector is prepared and kmean classification algorithm was implemented for data classification. The 79% classification efficiency was obtained.

  11. Oscillometric continuous blood pressure sensing for wearable health monitoring system

    CERN Document Server

    Gelao, Gennaro; Passaro, Vittorio M N; Perri, Anna Gina

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present an acquisition chain for the measurement of blood arterial pressure based on the oscillometric method. This method does not suffer from any limitation as the well-known auscultatory method and it is suited for wearable health monitoring systems. The device uses a pressure sensor whose signal is filtered, digitalized and analyzed by a microcontroller. Local analysis allows the evaluation of the systolic and diastolic pressure values which can be used for local alarms, data collection and remote monitoring.

  12. CDC Vital Signs: High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the MMWR Science Clips High Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Out of Control Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share ... cdc.gov/GISCVH2/ High Blood Pressure and High Cholesterol Among US Adults SOURCES: National Health and Nutrition ...

  13. High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162069.html High Blood Pressure Rates Have Doubled Worldwide Since 1975 Most of ... News) -- The number of people worldwide with high blood pressure has nearly doubled over the past 40 years, ...

  14. Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_162363.html Normal Blood Pressure in Clinic May Mask Hypertension Young, lean patients can have high blood pressure that's not caught during regular exams, study finds ...

  15. Blood Pressure Medications: Can They Raise My Triglycerides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some blood pressure medications cause an increase in triglycerides? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M.D. Yes, some blood pressure medications can affect triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Hydrochlorothiazide is commonly prescribed for ...

  16. High Blood Pressure and Cold Remedies: Which Are Safe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... counter cold remedies safe for people who have high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon G. Sheps, M. ... remedies aren't off-limits if you have high blood pressure, but it's important to make careful ...

  17. High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More High Blood Pressure, Afib and Your Risk of Stroke Updated:Sep ... have a stroke for the first time have high blood pressure . And an irregular atrial heart rhythm — a condition ...

  18. High blood pressure - what to ask your doctor

    Science.gov (United States)

    What to ask your doctor about high blood pressure; Hypertension - what to ask your doctor ... problems? What medicines am I taking to treat high blood pressure? Do they have any side effects? What should ...

  19. Menopause and High Blood Pressure: What's the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... hypertension) Is there a connection between menopause and high blood pressure? Answers from Shannon K. Laughlin-Tommaso, M.D. ... hormonal shifts related to menopause may contribute to high blood pressure. Others think an increase in body mass index ( ...

  20. A Nutritional Strategy for the Treatment of High Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podell, Richard N.

    1984-01-01

    Some physicians wonder if high blood pressure can be controlled without the use of drugs and their potential side effects. Current findings concerning nutrition and high blood pressure are presented. (RM)

  1. Can Whole-Grain Foods Lower Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions High blood pressure (hypertension) Can eating more whole-grain foods help lower my blood pressure? Answers from ... G. Sheps, M.D. It might. Eating more whole-grain foods on a regular basis may help reduce ...

  2. Sleep Deprivation: A Cause of High Blood Pressure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... High blood pressure (hypertension) Is it true that sleep deprivation can cause high blood pressure? Answers from Sheldon ... Cirelli C, et al. Definition and consequences of sleep deprivation. http://www.uptodate.com/home. Accessed March 24, ...

  3. Acute effects of consumption of energy drinks on intraocular pressure and blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilechie AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A Alex Ilechie, Sandra TettehDepartment of Optometry, University of Cape Coast, GhanaBackground: Energy drinks contain a wide variety of ingredients including caffeine, for which there have been conflicting reports regarding its effects on intraocular pressure (IOP and blood pressure. The aim of this study was to investigate the acute effects of an energy drink (Red Bull® on the IOP and blood pressure of healthy young adults.Methods: Thirty healthy university students of either gender, aged 18–30 (mean 23.20 ± 2.81 years were randomly selected to participate in this study. The subjects were randomly divided into two groups (experimental and control and were asked to abstain from caffeine for 48 hours prior to and during the study. Baseline IOP and blood pressure were measured. The experimental group (n = 15 consumed one can of the energy drink (containing 85 mg of caffeine in 250 mL and measurements were repeated at 30, 60, and 90 minutes, while the control group drank 250 mL of water and were tested over the same time period.Results: When compared with baseline, a significant decrease (P < 0.05 in mean IOP at 60 and 90 minutes was observed in the experimental group. There was no corresponding change in systolic or diastolic blood pressure.Conclusion: Our results suggest that energy drinks (ie, Red Bull produce a significant reduction in IOP but have no effect on blood pressure. These findings may be interpreted as reflecting the effect of the combination of caffeine and taurine in the Red Bull energy drink. This effect may result from the known hypotensive effect of taurine, and warrants further study.Keywords: acute effect, intraocular pressure, blood pressure, glaucoma, caffeine, taurine

  4. Magnesium nitrate attenuates blood pressure rise in SHR rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilskersts, Reinis; Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Cirule, Helena; Gulbe, Anita; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-01-01

    The administration of magnesium supplements and nitrates/nitrites decreases arterial blood pressure and attenuates the development of hypertension-induced complications. This study was performed to examine the effects of treatment with magnesium nitrate on the development of hypertension and its complications in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Male SHR rats with persistent hypertension at the age of 12-13 weeks were allocated to two groups according to their arterial blood pressure. Rats from the control group received purified water, while the experimental animals from the second group received magnesium nitrate dissolved in purified water at a dose of 50 mg/kg. After four weeks of treatment, blood pressure was measured, the anatomical and functional parameters of the heart were recorded using an ultrasonograph, vascular reactivity was assayed in organ bath experiments and the cardioprotective effects of magnesium nitrate administration was assayed in an ex vivo experimental heart infarction model. Treatment with magnesium nitrate significantly increased the nitrate concentration in the plasma (from 62 ± 8 μmol/l to 111 ± 8 μmol/L), and attenuated the increase in the arterial blood pressure. In the control and magnesium nitrate groups, the blood pressure rose by 21 ± 3 mmHg and 6 ± 4 mmHg, respectively. The administration of magnesium nitrate had no effect on the altered vasoreactivity, heart function or the size of the heart infarction. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that magnesium nitrate effectively attenuates the rise in arterial blood pressure. However, a longer period of administration or earlier onset of treatment might be needed to delay the development of complications due to hypertension.

  5. Is aerobic workload positively related to ambulatory blood pressure?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korshøj, Mette; Clays, Els; Lidegaard, Mark;

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE: Cardiovascular disease is prevalent among workers with high levels of occupational physical activity. The increased risk may be due to a high relative aerobic workload, possibly leading to increased blood pressure. However, studies investigating the relation between relative aerobic...... workload and ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) are lacking. The aim was to explore the relationship between objectively measured relative aerobic workload and ABP. METHODS: A total of 116 cleaners aged 18-65 years were included after informed consent was obtained. A portable device (Spacelabs 90217......) was mounted for 24-h measurements of ABP, and an Actiheart was mounted for 24-h heart rate measurements to calculate relative aerobic workload as percentage of relative heart rate reserve. A repeated-measure multi-adjusted mixed model was applied for analysis. RESULTS: A fully adjusted mixed model...

  6. Automated Versus Manual Blood Pressure Measurement: A Randomized Crossover Trial in the Emergency Department of a Tertiary Care Hospital in Karachi, Pakistan: Are Third World Countries Ready for the Change?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansoor, Kanaan; Shahnawaz, Saba; Rasool, Mariam; Chaudhry, Huwad; Ahuja, Gul; Shahnawaz, Sara

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Hypertension has proven to be a strong liability with 13.5% of all mortality worldwide being attributed to elevated blood pressures in 2001. An accurate blood pressure measurement lies at the crux of an appropriate diagnosis. Despite the mercury sphygmomanometer being the gold standard, the ongoing deliberation as to whether mercury sphygmomanometers should be replaced with the automated oscillometric devices stems from the risk mercury poses to the environment. AIM: This study was performed to check the validity of automated oscillometric blood pressure measurements as compared to the manual blood pressure measurements in Karachi, Pakistan. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Blood pressure was recorded in 200 individuals aged 15 and above using both, an automated oscillometric blood pressure device (Dinamap Procare 100) and a manual mercury sphygmomanometer concomitantly. Two nurses were assigned to each patient and the device, arm for taking the reading and nurses were randomly determined. SPSS version 20 was used for analysis. Mean and standard deviation of the systolic and diastolic measurements from each modality were compared to each other and P values of 0.05 or less were considered to be significant. Validation criteria of British Hypertension Society (BHS) and the US Association for the Advancement of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) were used. RESULTS: Two hundred patients were included. The mean of the difference of systolic was 8.54 ± 9.38 while the mean of the difference of diastolic was 4.21 ± 7.88. Patients were further divided into three groups of different systolic blood pressure 120 to = 150 and > 150, their means were 6.27 ± 8.39 (p-value 0.175), 8.91 ± 8.96 (p-value 0.004) and 10.98 ± 10.49 (p-value 0.001) respectively. In our study 89 patients were previously diagnosed with hypertension; their difference of mean systolic was 9.43 ± 9.89 (p-value 0.000) and difference of mean diastolic was 4.26 ± 7.35 (p-value 0.000). CONCLUSIONS: Systolic

  7. Fluid input control in burned patients with the aid of ultrasonic arterial blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banssillon, V; Latarjet, J

    1975-01-01

    Arterial blood pressure is nowadays easily and reliably measured with ultrasonic equipment. It correlates well with blood volume, and may therefore be used to guide fluid infusion in burned patients. Monitoring of blood pressure, instead of application of old-fashioned recipes, helps to avoid dangerous situations of hypovolemia or overload.

  8. Microcirculation impairment and blood pressure in sepsis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domagoj Drenjančević

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Blood pressure is crucial for the tissue perfusion, oxygenation andelimination of metabolites in normal tissue. In septic patients itmay be altered by several mechanisms. Endothelial lesions andimpaired vasoregulation resulting from bacteriemia may producevasodilatation, hypotension, tissue hypoxia and decrease in theblood velocity. These events may favour disseminated intravascularcoagulation in septic patients, and thus pronounce perfusionmisdistribution. Since hypotension is commonly treated byvasoactive drugs to increase vascular tone toward normal values,more pronounced peripheral tissue ischemia may result. Duringthe process of blood pressure regulation in septic patients a diversityof physiological parameters should be encountered, i.e. age,body weight, core temperature, overall patients’ cardiovascularperformance, anemia, and protein status. In a healthy, adult person,in the absence of other causes of hypotension systolic bloodpressure of > 90 mmHg or mean arterial pressure ≥ 70 mmHgshould maintain adequate tissue perfusion. Together with specificantibiotics, therapeutic procedures like haemodilution, use of vasoconstrictors,vasopressin and its analogue terlipressin, corticosteroidsare currently used to improve outcome of hypotensive septicpatients. Numerous studies were undertaken to point the valuesof the biochemical tests suggesting a need for prompt intervention.The arterial lactate, cortisol response, TNF, interleukin (IL6, IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 production, together with submucosal(gastric intramucosal or sublingual CO2 values were proven as indicative.These may suggest whether microcirculatory impairmentis reversible or not, and which therapeutic maneuver should beappropriate.

  9. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  10. 21 CFR 870.1120 - Blood pressure cuff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure cuff. 870.1120 Section 870.1120...) MEDICAL DEVICES CARDIOVASCULAR DEVICES Cardiovascular Diagnostic Devices § 870.1120 Blood pressure cuff. (a) Identification. A blood pressure cuff is a device that has an inflatable bladder in an...

  11. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.

    2005-01-01

    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  12. Risk of cardiovascular events among women with high normal blood pressure or blood pressure progression: prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Conen, David; Ridker, Paul M.; Buring, Julie E.; Glynn, Robert J.

    2007-01-01

    Objective To compare cardiovascular risk among women with high normal blood pressure (130-9/85-9 mm Hg) against those with normal blood pressure (120-9/75-84 mm Hg) and those with baseline hypertension.

  13. Effects of fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Samad

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Muslims all over the world fast in the holy month of Ramadan. Fasting means abstinence from drinking any liquids, eating, smoking and taking anything parenterally.  It is intermittent in nature from the start of dawn to end at dusk. Fasting has various physiological effects on different biological parameters of the human body. Previous studies that look at effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure have focused mainly on hypertensive patients and patients with already established heart disease.(1,2There is very limited data regarding the effect of fasting on the normal population. (3,4 A few previous studies have advocated a hypotensive role of fasting.(5 In our study published in Journal of Ayub Medical College Abbottabad (JAMC in 2015, “Effects of Ramadan Fasting on Blood pressure in normotensive males”, we investigated the effect of Ramadan fasting on blood pressure of normotensive men. We conducted a repeated measure observational study in Karachi, Pakistan on 70 individuals who were normotensive, non-smokers between the ages of 18–50 years. . Blood pressure, pulse, BMI of each participant was recorded one week before the start of Ramadan and in the first, second and third week of Ramadan. The results of our study show that intermittent fasting has a hypotensive effect in normotensive males as proven in animal models and certain human population. There was an average drop of 8/3 mmHg and while the results are significant, their clinical relevance needs to be analysed. Studies on animal models have suggested atrial natriuretic peptide, catecholamines, opiates and body mass index as possible reasons for the decrease in blood pressure due to fasting.(3, 6  Dewanti et al suggested that the cause of drop in blood pressure was the drop in BMI however in our study we found that a drop in BMI only occurred before Iftar towards the end of the fast. There was no significant drop in post-Iftar BMI although there was a significant drop in blood

  14. Comparison of noninvasive pulse transit time estimates as markers of blood pressure using invasive pulse transit time measurements as a reference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Mingwu; Olivier, N Bari; Mukkamala, Ramakrishna

    2016-05-01

    Pulse transit time (PTT) measured as the time delay between invasive proximal and distal blood pressure (BP) or flow waveforms (invasive PTT [I-PTT]) tightly correlates with BP PTT estimated as the time delay between noninvasive proximal and distal arterial waveforms could therefore permit cuff-less BP monitoring. A popular noninvasive PTT estimate for this application is the time delay between ECG and photoplethysmography (PPG) waveforms (pulse arrival time [PAT]). Another estimate is the time delay between proximal and distal PPG waveforms (PPG-PTT). PAT and PPG-PTT were assessed as markers of BP over a wide physiologic range using I-PTT as a reference. Waveforms for determining I-PTT, PAT, and PPG-PTT through central arteries were measured from swine during baseline conditions and infusions of various hemodynamic drugs. Diastolic, mean, and systolic BP varied widely in each subject (group average (mean ± SE) standard deviation between 25 ± 2 and 36 ± 2 mmHg). I-PTT correlated well with all BP levels (group average R(2) values between 0.86 ± 0.03 and 0.91 ± 0.03). PPG-PTT also correlated well with all BP levels (group average R(2) values between 0.81 ± 0.03 and 0.85 ± 0.02), and its R(2) values were not significantly different from those of I-PTT PAT correlated best with systolic BP (group average R(2) value of 0.70 ± 0.04), but its R(2) values for all BP levels were significantly lower than those of I-PTT (P < 0.005) and PPG-PTT (P < 0.02). The pre-ejection period component of PAT was responsible for its inferior correlation with BP In sum, PPG-PTT was not different from I-PTT and superior to the popular PAT as a marker of BP.

  15. Cuff inflation during ambulatory blood pressure monitoring and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mia Skov-Madsen

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Mia Skov-Madsen, My Svensson, Jeppe Hagstrup ChristensenDepartment of Nephrology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aalborg, DenmarkIntroduction: Twenty four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is a clinically validated procedure in evaluation of blood pressure (BP. We hypothesised that the discomfort during cuff inflation would increase the heart rate (HR measured with 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring compared to a following HR measurement with a 24-h Holter monitor.Methods: The study population (n = 56 were recruited from the outpatient’s clinic at the Department of Nephrology, Aalborg Hospital, Aarhus University Hospital at Aalborg, Denmark. All the patients had chronic kidney disease (CKD. We compared HR measured with a 24-h Holter monitor with a following HR measured by a 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring.Results: We found a highly significant correlation between the HR measured with the Holter monitor and HR measured with 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (r = 0.77, p < 0.001. Using the Bland-Altman plot, the mean difference in HR was only 0.5 beat/min during 24 hours with acceptable limits of agreement for both high and low HR levels. Dividing the patients into groups according to betablocker treatment, body mass index, age, sex, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor treatment, statins treatment, diuretic treatment, or calcium channel blocker treatment revealed similar results as described above.Conclusion: The results indicate that the discomfort induced by cuff inflation during 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring does not increase HR. Thus, 24-h ambulatory BP monitoring may be a reliable measurement of the BP among people with CKD.Keywords: ambulatory blood pressure monitoring, Holter monitoring, heart rate, chronic kidney disease, hypertension

  16. Effect of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background: High blood pressure is the most important risk factor of cardiovascular diseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of spiritual therapy on blood pressure, anxiety and quality of life in patients with high blood pressure. Method: This study was quasi-experimentalwith apretest-posttest and control group design. The sample consisted of 30 patients with high blood pressure refering to Kangavar Healthcare center that were selected through convenience sampling and...

  17. Blood pressure among the Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, Peter; Dewailly, Eric; Young, T Kue

    2003-01-01

    Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...... and lifestyle. This study compared the blood pressure among the major Inuit population groups with other populations and examined the associations with factors like age, gender, obesity and smoking.......Studies of blood pressure among various Inuit (Eskimo) populations in the Arctic have given inconsistent results. Most studies reported lower blood pressure among the Inuit as compared with the predominantly white national populations. This has been attributed to traditional subsistence practices...

  18. Single Agent Antihypertensive Therapy and Orthostatic Blood Pressure Behaviour in Older Adults Using Beat-to-Beat Measurements: The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Canney

    Full Text Available Impaired blood pressure (BP stabilisation after standing, defined using beat-to-beat measurements, has been shown to predict important health outcomes. We aimed to define the relationship between individual classes of antihypertensive agent and BP stabilisation among hypertensive older adults.Cross-sectional analysis from The Irish Longitudinal Study on Ageing, a cohort study of Irish adults aged 50 years and over. Beat-to-beat BP was recorded in participants undergoing an active stand test. We defined grade 1 hypertension according to European Society of Cardiology criteria (systolic BP [SBP] 140-159 mmHg ± diastolic BP [DBP] 90-99 mmHg. Outcomes were: (i initial orthostatic hypotension (IOH (SBP drop ≥40 mmHg ± DBP drop ≥20 mmHg within 15 seconds [s] of standing accompanied by symptoms; (ii sustained OH (SBP drop ≥20 mmHg ± DBP drop ≥10 mmHg from 60 to 110 s inclusive; (iii impaired BP stabilisation (SBP drop ≥20 mmHg ± DBP drop ≥10 mmHg at any 10 s interval during the test. Outcomes were assessed using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression.A total of 536 hypertensive participants were receiving monotherapy with a renin-angiotensin-aldosterone-system inhibitor (n = 317, 59.1%, beta-blocker (n = 89, 16.6%, calcium channel blocker (n = 89, 16.6% or diuretic (n = 41, 7.6%. A further 783 untreated participants met criteria for grade 1 hypertension. Beta-blockers were associated with increased odds of initial OH (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.31-3.21 and sustained OH (OR 3.36, 95% CI 1.87-6.03 versus untreated grade 1 hypertension. Multivariable adjustment did not attenuate the results. Impaired BP stabilisation was evident at 20 s (OR 2.59, 95% CI 1.58-4.25 and persisted at 110 s (OR 2.90, 95% CI 1.64-5.11. No association was found between the other agents and any study outcome.Beta-blocker monotherapy was associated with a >2-fold increased odds of initial OH and a >3-fold increased odds of sustained OH and impaired BP stabilisation

  19. Women, Hypertension, and the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Nanette K; Ferdinand, Keith C; Bairey Merz, C Noel; Walsh, Mary Norine; Gulati, Martha; Pepine, Carl J

    2016-10-01

    Hypertension accounts for approximately 1 in 5 deaths in American women and is the major contributor to many comorbid conditions. Although blood pressure lowering reduces cardiovascular disease outcomes, considerable uncertainty remains on best management in women. Specifically, female blood pressure treatment goals have not been established, particularly among older and African American and Hispanic women, for whom hypertension prevalence, related adverse outcomes, and poor control rates are high. The Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) planned to clarify optimal blood pressure management in both sexes. Although confirming that a lower blood pressure goal is generally better, because female enrollment and event rates were low and follow-up shortened, outcomes differences in women were not statistically significant. Thus optimal blood pressure goals for women have not been established with the highest evidence. This review addresses SPRINT's significance and key remaining knowledge gaps in optimal blood pressure management to improve women's health.

  20. [Development of an automatic pneumatic tourniquet system that determines pressures in synchrony with systolic blood pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hongyun; Li, Kaiyuan; Zhang, Zhengbo; Guo, Junyan; Wang, Weidong

    2012-11-01

    The correlation coefficients between arterial occlusion pressure and systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, limb circumference, body mass etc were obtained through healthy volunteer experiments, in which tourniquet were applied on upper/lower extremities. The prediction equations were derived from the data of experiments by multiple regression analysis. Based on the microprocessor C8051F340, a new pneumatic tourniquet system that can determine tourniquet pressure in synchrony with systolic blood pressure was developed and verified the function and stability of designed system. Results showed that the pneumatic tourniquet which automatically adjusts occlusion pressure in accordance with systolic blood pressure could stop the flow of blood to get a bloodless field.

  1. Temporal changes in clinic and ambulatory blood pressure during cyclic post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M B; Rasmussen, Verner; Jensen, Gorm Boje

    2000-01-01

    cyclic norethisterone acetate (NETA) or placebo in two 12-week periods separated by a 3-month washout Clinic blood pressure was measured sitting by the same observer with a mercury manometer at four visits in each period. Twenty-four hour ambulatory blood pressure was measured at baseline...

  2. [Uncontrolled factors of blood pressure in essential hypertension: from "patient's high blood pressure" to "hypertensive patient"].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xing-Jiang; Wang, Jie

    2014-04-01

    Hypertension is a significant medical and public health issue which puts an enormous burden on health care resources and the community. It is a chronic medical condition in which the systemic arterial blood pressure (BP) is elevated. Serious complications including cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases would be preventable if the rise in BP with age could be prevented or diminished. The majority of hypertensive patients require long-term treatment. Oral antihypertensive drugs, lifestyle modification including exercise and dietary modification are milestones for hypertension therapy. However, the control rate of hypertension hasn't reached the expected requirements currently. "Three lows" status quo, just low awareness, low treatment, and low control, are still the major problems confronting modern medicine. Recently, uncontrolled factors of blood pressure are widely concerned, which include insomnia, constipation, mood disorders, exogenous, etc. What's more, the control strategies of hypertension should not only pay close attention to "patient's high blood pressure", but also to "hypertensive patient". Therefore, the treatment of uncontrolled factors of blood pressure plays an important role in hypertensive therapy, which could be further research priorities.

  3. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  4. Estimation of blood pressure variability from 24-hour ambulatory finger blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omboni, S.; Parati, G.; Castiglioni, P.; Rienzo, M. di; Imholz, B.P.M.; Langewouters, G.J.; Wesseling, K.H.; Mancia, G.

    1998-01-01

    Portapres is a noninvasive, beat-to-beat finger blood pressure (BP) monitor that has been shown to accurately estimate 24-hour intra-arterial BP at normal and high BPs. However, no information is available on the ability of this device to accurately track ambulatory BP variability. In 20 ambulatory

  5. Medida da pressão arterial em crianças e adolescentes: recomendações das diretrizes de hipertensão arterial e prática médica atual Blood pressure measurement in children and adolescents: guidelines of high blood pressure recommendations and current clinical practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Alayde Mendonça da Silva

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Identificar, em crianças e adolescentes (7 a 17 anos, rede pública e privada de ensino, a freqüência de indivíduos já submetidos à medida da pressão arterial (MPA, o número de vezes, os locais em que foi realizada a aferição e o resultado informado. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal. Amostragem por conglomerados em 40 escolas, nível fundamental e médio, sorteadas. Cálculo da amostra baseado na prevalência esperada de HAS em crianças e adolescentes. Protocolo: questionário sobre realização prévia de MPA (em caso afirmativo, quantas vezes, quando foi a última medida, o local e o resultado da medida e duas MPA. Variáveis independentes: sexo, faixa etária, classe econômica, escola pública ou privada. RESULTADOS: Amostra constituída de 1253 estudantes 1215 responderam ao questionário (97% 531 do sexo masculino média de 12,4 ± 3 anos. Prevalência de HAS: 7,7% 348 estudantes (29% já haviam medido a PA (54% 1 vez 35% 2 a 4 vezes 11% 5 ou mais 53% há menos de 1 ano. Posto de Saúde, residência, hospital e consultório foram os locais mais mencionados (27%, 16%, 15% e 14%, respectivamente. Houve associação significante entre prévia MPA com faixa etária de 15 a 17 anos, classes econômicas A e B e ser estudante de escola privada. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar das recomendações, há baixa freqüência de MPA (29% em crianças e adolescentes, demonstrando que a mesma não foi ainda incorporada na prática clínica.OBJECTIVE: To determine, in a school-based sample of children and adolescents, aged from 7 to 17 years, of both gender, in public and private schools, the frequency of students already submitted to blood pressure measure. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was carried out, sampling from a population pool of elementary and middle schools, randomly selected. The sample was calculated based on the expected prevalence of hypertension for the age group. Data were collected through a questionnaire. Blood pressure was

  6. Wearable Beat-to-Beat Blood Pressure Monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jin

    2015-01-01

    Linea Research Corporation has developed a wearable noninvasive monitor that provides continuous blood pressure and heart rate measurements in extreme environments. Designed to monitor the physiological effects of astronauts' prolonged exposure to reduced-gravity environments as well as the effectiveness of various countermeasures, the device offers wireless connectivity to allow transfer of both real-time and historical data. It can be modified to monitor the health status of astronaut crew members during extravehicular missions.

  7. Salt intake and blood pressure in rural and metropolitan Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Castillo, C P; Solano, M L; Flores, J; Franklin, M F; Limón, N; Martínez del Cerro, V; Velázquez, C; Villa, A R; James, W P

    1996-01-01

    A selected group of 155 Mexican adults aged 20-64 years were studied to investigate the role of sodium (Na) intake in explaining blood pressure (BP) differences in a rural town and urban Mexico City. The subjects had their BP, height, weight and skinfolds measured and they collected 3 continuous 24 h urines. Adjusted for age differences, average BPs were significantly higher (p significant (p significance. Differences in the body mass index (BMI) accounted for 41% of the observed variance in BP.

  8. Salt, endogenous ouabain and blood pressure interactions in the general population

    OpenAIRE

    Manunta, P.; Wang,JG; G. Bianchi; Messaggio, E.; Fagard, Robert; Nawrot, Tim; Staessen, Jan A.; Hamlyn, JM

    2003-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Experimental data show that ouabain is a modulator of the sodium-potassium pump, which plays an important role in sodium homeostasis and blood pressure regulation. We investigated the distribution of plasma ouabain in the general population in relation to blood pressure and other determinants of sodium homeostasis. METHODS: In 379 subjects enrolled in a Belgian population study, we measured plasma ouabain, clinical characteristics including blood pressure, serum and urinary electro...

  9. Heritability of blood pressure traits and the genetic contribution to blood pressure variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijn, M.J. van; Schut, A.F.; Aulchenko, Y.S.; Deinum, J.; Sayed-Tabatabaei, F.A.; Yazdanpanah, M.; Isaacs, A.; Axenovich, T.I.; Zorkoltseva, I.V.; Zillikens, M.C.; Pols, H.A.; Witteman, J.C.; Oostra, B.A.; Duijn, C.M. van

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study the heritability of four blood pressure traits and the proportion of variance explained by four blood-pressure-related genes. METHODS: All participants are members of an extended pedigree from a Dutch genetically isolated population. Heritability and genetic correlations of systo

  10. Mobile Health:IEEE Standard for Wearable Cuflfess Blood Pressure Measuring Devices%移动医疗:IEEE可穿戴无袖带血压测量仪标准

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周霞; 吴文莉; 鲍淑娣

    2015-01-01

    IEEE Std 1708-2014突破了传统袖带式血压测量仪标准,建立了可穿戴无袖带血压测量仪的规范性定义及其客观性能评估方法。该文首先介绍新标准的出台背景;然后描述新标准的具体内容,并基于其特点阐述无袖带血压仪及其移动医疗应用给制造商和用户带来的影响。%IEEE Std 1708-2014 breaks through the traditional standards of cuff based blood pressure measuring devices and establishes a normative definition of wearable cuffless blood pressure measuring devices and the objective performance evaluation of this kind of devices. This study firstly introduces the background of the new standard. Then, the standard details wil be described, and the impact of cuffless blood pressure measuring devices with the new standard on manufacturers and end users wil be addressed.

  11. Pharmacological attenuation of blood pressure variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Claude JULIEN

    2005-01-01

    @@ Over the past few years, the research team of Professor Ding-feng SU has reported an impressive quantity of experimental data about the relationships between blood pressure variability (BPV) and end-organ damage, a topic of obvious clinical interest. This research work has been summarized in a paper that appeared in the August issue of the renowned journal Trends in Pharmacological Sciences[1]. The studies by Su et al provide convincing evidence that BPV is an independent cardiovascular risk factor that should be considered as such and, therefore, might become an important target for therapeutic interventions. Besides these exciting perspectives in the prevention and treatment of cardiovasculardiseases, the work by Su et al raises a series of physiological questions.

  12. Familial aggregation and childhood blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaoling; Xu, Xiaojing; Su, Shaoyong; Snieder, Harold

    2015-01-01

    There is growing concern about elevated blood pressure (BP) in children. The evidence for familial aggregation of childhood BP is substantial. Twin studies have shown that a large part of the familial aggregation of childhood BP is due to genes. The first part of this review provides the latest progress in gene finding for childhood BP, focusing on the combined effects of multiple loci identified from the genome-wide association studies on adult BP. We further review the evidence on the contribution of the genetic components of other family risk factors to the familial aggregation of childhood BP including obesity, birth weight, sleep quality, sodium intake, parental smoking, and socioeconomic status. At the end, we emphasize the promise of using genomic-relatedness-matrix restricted maximum likelihood (GREML) analysis, a method that uses genome-wide data from unrelated individuals, in answering a number of unsolved questions in the familial aggregation of childhood BP.

  13. Economic evaluation of home blood pressure telemonitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Line Bille; Christiansen, Terkel; Kirkegaard, Peder

    2011-01-01

    Aims. The purpose of the present study was to compare the costs of home blood pressure (BP) telemonitoring (HBPM) with the costs of conventional office BP monitoring. In a randomized controlled trial, 105 hypertensive patients performed HBPM and 118 patients received usual care with conventional......-time ambulatory BP (ABP) were reduced in both groups. The uncertainty around the incremental cost effectiveness ratio point estimates was considerable for both systolic and diastolic ABP. For systolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 256 Danish kroner (DKK)/mmHg [95......% uncertainty interval, UI -860 to 4544]. For diastolic ABP, the difference in cost effectiveness ratio between the two groups was 655 DKK/mmHg [95% UI -674 to 69315]. Medication and consultation costs were lowest in the intervention group, but were offset by the cost of the telemonitoring equipment...

  14. Automated compared to manual office blood pressure and to home blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipovský, Jan; Seidlerová, Jitka; Kratochvíl, Zdeněk; Karnosová, Petra; Hronová, Markéta; Mayer, Otto

    2016-08-01

    We studied the relationships of automated blood pressure (BP), measured in the healthcare centre, with manual office BP and home BP. Stable outpatients treated for hypertension were measured automatically, seated alone in a quiet room, six times after a 5 min rest with the BpTRU device, and immediately afterwards using the auscultatory method. Home BP was measured in a subgroup during 7 days preceding the visit. The automated, office and home BP values were 131.2 ± 21.8/77.8 ± 12.1 mmHg, 146.9 ± 20.8/85.8 ± 12.4 mmHg and 137.7 ± 17.7/79.4 ± 8.2 mmHg, respectively. Limits of agreement between office and automated BP (2 SDs in Bland-Altman plots) were +42.6 to -12.6/+22.6 to -6.6 mmHg for systolic/diastolic BP; for home and automated BP they were +45.8 to -25.8/+20.8 to -12.6 mmHg. For patients with two visits, intraclass correlation coefficients of BP values measured during the first and second visits were 0.66/0.72 for systolic/diastolic automated BP and 0.68/0.74 for systolic/diastolic office BP. Automated BP was lower than home BP and no more closely related to home BP than to office BP. It did not show better repeatability than office BP. Whether automated BP and the "white-coat effect", calculated cas the office BP-automated BP difference, have clinical and prognostic importance deserves further studies.

  15. Effects of vegetarian diets on blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yokoyama Y

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Yoko Yokoyama,1,2 Kazuo Tsubota,2,3 Mitsuhiro Watanabe1,2,4,5 1Graduate School of Media and Governance, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, 2Health Science Laboratory, 3Department of Ophthalmology, 4Department of Internal Medicine, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo, 5Faculty of Environment and Information Studies, Keio University, Fujisawa, Kanagawa, Japan Abstract: Hypertension is a major independent risk factor for coronary artery diseases, and the prevalence of hypertension is continuously increasing. Diet is an important factor that can be modified to prevent hypertension. According to the US Department of Health and Human Services, dietary patterns are defined as the quantities, proportions, and variety or combinations of different foods and beverages in diets and the frequency with which they are habitually consumed. In this review, the vegetarian dietary pattern is introduced with a focus on the effect on blood pressure (BP. Although the available evidence is limited, according to a previous meta-analysis of controlled trials, vegetarian dietary patterns significantly reduced systolic and diastolic BPs. One of the common features of a vegetarian diet is weight loss, which might, at least partially, explain the effect on BP. Other possible factors such as sodium, potassium, protein, amino acids, vitamin B-12, antioxidants, fiber, and the microbiome are introduced as possible mechanisms. Further studies are needed with non-Western populations to determine the most effective vegetarian dietary pattern and to explore the exact mechanisms by which these dietary patterns affect BP. Keywords: vegetarian diet, plant-based diet, blood pressure, hypertension, meta-analysis

  16. Has blood pressure increased in children in response to the obesity epidemic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiolero, Arnaud; Bovet, Pascal; Paradis, Gilles; Paccaud, Fred

    2007-03-01

    The associations between elevated blood pressure and overweight, on one hand, and the increasing prevalence over time of pediatric overweight, on the other hand, suggest that the prevalence of elevated blood pressure could have increased in children over the last few decades. In this article we review the epidemiologic evidence available on the prevalence of elevated blood pressure in children and trends over time. On the basis of the few large population-based surveys available, the prevalence of elevated blood pressure is fairly high in several populations, whereas there is little direct evidence that blood pressure has increased during the past few decades despite the concomitant epidemic of pediatric overweight. However, a definite conclusion cannot be drawn yet because of the paucity of epidemiologic studies that have assessed blood pressure trends in the same populations and the lack of standardized methods used for the measurement of blood pressure and the definition of elevated blood pressure in children. Additional studies should examine if favorable secular trends in other determinants of blood pressure (eg, dietary factors, birth weight, etc) may have attenuated the apparently limited impact of the epidemic of overweight on blood pressure in children.

  17. Associations of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolite excretions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guessous, Idris; Pruijm, Menno; Ponte, Belén; Ackermann, Daniel; Ehret, Georg; Ansermot, Nicolas; Vuistiner, Philippe; Staessen, Jan; Gu, Yumei; Paccaud, Fred; Mohaupt, Markus; Vogt, Bruno; Pechère-Bertschi, Antoinette; Pechère-Berstchi, Antoinette; Martin, Pierre-Yves; Burnier, Michel; Eap, Chin B; Bochud, Murielle

    2015-03-01

    Intake of caffeinated beverages might be associated with reduced cardiovascular mortality possibly via the lowering of blood pressure. We estimated the association of ambulatory blood pressure with urinary caffeine and caffeine metabolites in a population-based sample. Families were randomly selected from the general population of Swiss cities. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was conducted using validated devices. Urinary caffeine, paraxanthine, theophylline, and theobromine excretions were measured in 24 hours urine using ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. We used mixed models to explore the associations of urinary excretions with blood pressure although adjusting for major confounders. The 836 participants (48.9% men) included in this analysis had mean age of 47.8 and mean 24-hour systolic and diastolic blood pressure of 120.1 and 78.0 mm Hg. For each doubling of caffeine excretion, 24-hour and night-time systolic blood pressure decreased by 0.642 and 1.107 mm Hg (both P values theobromine excretion was not associated with blood pressure. Anti-hypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, and alcohol consumption modify the association of caffeine urinary excretion with systolic blood pressure. Ambulatory systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with urinary excretions of caffeine and other caffeine metabolites. Our results are compatible with a potential protective effect of caffeine on blood pressure.

  18. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring: Five Decades of More Light and Less Shadows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nobre, Fernando; Mion Junior, Décio

    2016-01-01

    Casual blood pressure measurements have been extensively questioned over the last five decades. A significant percentage of patients have different blood pressure readings when examined in the office or outside it. For this reason, a change in the paradigm of the best manner to assess blood pressure has been observed. The method that has been most widely used is the Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring - ABPM. The method allows recording blood pressure measures in 24 hours and evaluating various parameters such as mean BP, pressure loads, areas under the curve, variations between daytime and nighttime, pulse pressure variability etc. Blood pressure measurements obtained by ABPM are better correlated, for example, with the risks of hypertension. The main indications for ABPM are: suspected white coat hypertension and masked hypertension, evaluation of the efficacy of the antihypertensive therapy in 24 hours, and evaluation of symptoms. There is increasing evidence that the use of ABPM has contributed to the assessment of blood pressure behaviors, establishment of diagnoses, prognosis and the efficacy of antihypertensive therapy. There is no doubt that the study of 24-hour blood pressure behavior and its variations by ABPM has brought more light and less darkness to the field, which justifies the title of this review. PMID:27168473

  19. High pressure rinsing parameters measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cavaliere, E. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Fusetti, M. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Michelato, P. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Pagani, C. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)]. E-mail: carlo.pagani@mi.infn.it; Pierini, P. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Paulon, R. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy); Sertore, D. [INFN Milano - LASA, Via F.lli Cervi 201, I-20090 Segrate (MI) (Italy)

    2006-07-15

    High pressure rinsing with ultra pure water jet is an essential step in the high field superconducting cavity production process. In this paper, we illustrate the experimental characterization of a HPR system, in terms of specific power and energy deposition on the cavity surfaces and on the damage threshold for niobium. These measurements are used to tentatively derive general rules for the optimization of the free process parameters (nozzle geometry, speeds and water pressure)

  20. How the python heart separates pulmonary and systemic blood pressures and blood flows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Bjarke; Nielsen, Jan M; Axelsson, Michael; Pedersen, Michael; Löfman, Carl; Wang, Tobias

    2010-05-01

    The multiple convergent evolution of high systemic blood pressure among terrestrial vertebrates has always been accompanied by lowered pulmonary pressure. In mammals, birds and crocodilians, this cardiac separation of pressures relies on the complete division of the right and left ventricles by a complete ventricular septum. However, the anatomy of the ventricle of most reptiles does not allow for complete anatomical division, but the hearts of pythons and varanid lizards can produce high systemic blood pressure while keeping the pulmonary blood pressure low. It is also known that these two groups of reptiles are characterised by low magnitudes of cardiac shunts. Little, however, is known about the mechanisms that allow for this pressure separation. Here we provide a description of cardiac structures and intracardiac events that have been revealed by ultrasonic measurements and angioscopy. Echocardiography revealed that the atrioventricular valves descend deep into the ventricle during ventricular filling and thereby greatly reduce the communication between the systemic (cavum arteriosum) and pulmonary (cavum pulmonale) ventricular chambers during diastole. Angioscopy and echocardiography showed how the two incomplete septa, the muscular ridge and the bulbuslamelle - ventricular structures common to all squamates - contract against each other in systole and provide functional division of the anatomically subdivided ventricle. Washout shunts are inevitable in the subdivided snake ventricle, but we show that the site of shunting, the cavum venosum, is very small throughout the cardiac cycle. It is concluded that the python ventricle is incapable of the pronounced and variable shunts of other snakes, because of its architecture and valvular mechanics.

  1. Salt Really Does Boost Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ransdell; pierson; 张仙根

    2000-01-01

    盐的摄入与高血压到底存在怎样的关系?多年来,人们对这个问题争论不休。现在,终于有了可靠的结论:A salty diet really does drive up bloodpressure;both in people with and without elevated pressure.本文出现了一个新的首字母缩略词DASH。《英汉大词典补编》尚未收入此词。所幸的是,本文作者对此DASH作了说明,DASH=Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension,我们是否可将它译成“食疗降血压法”?高血压是诱发各种心血管疾病的元凶,我们不能掉以轻心。本文的一个观点可供我们参考:An intake of sodium below thecurrent recommended daily level of 2,400 milligrams(毫克)could help Americansprevent blood pressure rises that occur especially with advancing age.

  2. Prognostic and diagnostic value of moderate intensity stress test with blood pressure control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Marchenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In spite of age and blood pressure values at rest,hypertensive response to moderate intensity stress testingis characterized by increasing ofprobable beginning of cardiac infarction, stroke or coronary disease in 1.36 times. The hypertensive response to stress test in people with normal blood pressure values at rest (independent of other risk factors is characterized by increasing risk of future hypertension more than in 2 times. Antihypertensive drugs affect blood pressure values differently during the stress testing. The prognosis of blood pressure values during daily physical activity is necessary for antihypertensive treatment. Low availability of convenient instruments and methodological tools for continuous measurement of blood pressure (similar to Spiroarteriocardiorhythmograph, Finapres duringthe dosed physical loads constrain wide use of stress tests with controlled blood pressure in medical practice.

  3. The effect on blood pressure of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, N; Düsterberg, B; Weber-Diehl, F; Mühe, B

    1995-06-01

    To obtain an overview of the effect of monophasic gestodene on blood pressure and to determine the frequency of "OC elevated BP/hypertension," the results of blood pressure monitoring from four clinical studies of contraceptive efficacy and safety have been retrospectively analyzed. A total of 1930 women took part in the studies, which recorded BP for up to 24 cycles. Analysis of results revealed that 97 women (5.0%) showed an increase in blood pressure from previously normal to elevated values while taking monophasic gestodene, with only 26 (1.35%) fulfilling the criteria of "OC elevated BP/hypertension." Only four women dropped out of the trials due to hypertensive blood pressure values, while 67 women (3.5%) experienced a normalization of previously elevated blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, this analysis has confirmed that gestodene has a negligible effect on blood pressure, with increased BP a relatively rare event.

  4. The Search for High-Impact Diagnostic and Management Tools for Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Self-Powered Low-Cost Blood Pressure Measurement Device Powered by a Solid-State Vibration Energy Harvester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilgen, Onur; Kenerson, John G; Akpinar-Elci, Muge; Hattery, Rebecca; Hanson, Lisbet M

    2015-08-01

    The World Health Organization has established recommendations for blood pressure measurement devices for use in low-resource venues, setting the "triple A" expectations of Accuracy, Affordability, and Availability. Because of issues related to training and assessment of proficiency, the pendulum has swung away from manual blood pressure devices and auscultatory techniques towards automatic oscillometric devices. As a result of power challenges in the developing world, there has also been a push towards semiautomatic devices that are not dependent on external power sources or batteries. Beyond solar solutions, disruptive technology related to solid-state vibrational energy harvesting may be the next iterative solution to attain the ultimate goal of a self-powered low-cost validated device that is simple to use and reliable.

  5. [Usefulness for detection of inappropriate blood pressure variability using 'wearable blood pressure sensor'].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iijima, Katsuya

    2015-11-01

    In the clinical settings, it has frequently seen that the elderly have rapid blood pressure (BP) elevation and decline, leading to such as orthostatic disorders and post-urination syncope. Excessive blood pressure variability (BPV) according to aging leads to aggravation of hypertensive target organ damage due to both disturbed baroreflex function and arterial stiffening. We developed continuous BP monitoring sensor using newly developing device 'wearable BP sensor', as our advantageous approach of without a cuff-stress. The new mobile device could reflect continuous beat-to-beat systolic BP, heart rate(HR), these very close changes and double product(sBPX HR) as a major indicator of cardiac lead, in consistent with cuff-based BP value. Our new challenge using this device might approach to the potential to achieve the quality-up of treatment strategy with consideration for very short-term BPV.

  6. Announcement: National High Blood Pressure Education Month - May 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-05-27

    May is National High Blood Pressure Education Month. High blood pressure (hypertension) is a major contributor to heart disease and stroke, two leading causes of death in the United States.* High blood pressure affects one third of U.S. adults, or approximately 75 million persons, yet approximately 11 million of these persons are not aware they have hypertension, and approximately 18 million are not being treated (unpublished data) (1,2).

  7. Do maternal and intrauterine factors influence blood pressure in childhood?

    OpenAIRE

    1992-01-01

    It has been proposed that maternal health and nutrition may be important in the development of adult cardiovascular risk, and that blood pressure may be an important intermediate step in this process. To examine the relevance of this hypothesis in contemporary British children, the relationships of several maternal factors to blood pressure were studied in 3360 children of European origin aged 5-7 years. Maternal age, height, and body mass index were all positively related to blood pressure i...

  8. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Aline de Freitas; de Oliveira, Caio Victor Coutinho; Brasileiro-Santos, Maria do Socorro; Santos, Amilton da Cruz

    2014-01-01

    Background The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects. Methods The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2) subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1), and exercise with three sets (S3). For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention) in the supine position. Results Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05). Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05). Conclusion Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular resistance. PMID:25540580

  9. Agreement Between Doppler and Invasive Blood Pressure Monitoring in Anesthetized Dogs Weighing <5 kg.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Martin J; Barletta, Michele

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if Doppler (DOP) blood pressure measurements more closely estimate either invasive systolic or invasive mean arterial blood pressures (ISAP or IMAP, respectively) in small dogs under general anesthesia and to assess the ability of DOP to detect anesthesia-related hypotension in small dogs. Blood pressure measurements (n = 203) were obtained from 10 client-owned dogs. DOP, ISAP, and IMAP were recorded simultaneously, and the data were categorized into two groups: hypotensive (ISAP dogs, suggesting that DOP measures systolic arterial blood pressure in dogs dogs with hypotension, DOP met all of the performance criteria for noninvasive blood pressure monitors recommended by the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. DOP is an acceptably accurate and highly specific means of detecting hypotension in small dogs under general anesthesia.

  10. Air pollution, blood pressure, and the risk of hypertensive complications during pregnancy: The generation r study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Pierik, F.H.; Hofman, A.; Ratingen, S.W. van; Zandveld, P.Y.J.; MacKenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.P.; Miedema, H.M.E.; Jaddoe, V.W.V.

    2011-01-01

    Exposure to air pollution is associated with elevated blood pressure and cardiovascular disease. We assessed the associations of exposure to particulate matter (PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) levels with blood pressure measured in each trimester of pregnancy and the risks of pregnancy-induced hype

  11. Changes in subcutaneous blood flow during locally applied negative pressure to the skin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skagen, K; Henriksen, O

    1983-01-01

    The effect of locally applied subatmospheric pressure on subcutaneous blood flow was studied in 12 healthy subjects. Blood flow was measured on the forearm by the local 133Xe wash-out technique. Air suction between 10 mmHg and 250 mmHg was applied to the skin. Subatmospheric pressure of 20 mmHg c...

  12. Ouabain induces cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xing JIANG; Yan-ping REN; Zhuo-ren L(U)

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the ouabain's effects on cardiac remodeling in rats. Methods:Male Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with ouabain. Systolic blood pressure(SBP) was recorded weekly. After 4 and 6 weeks, echocardiography were performed,hemodynamic parameters were measured by invasive cardiac catheterization,changes in cardiac ultrastructure were analyzed using transmission electron microscopy, the collagen fraction of the left ventricle was assessed with Picrosirius red stain, and RT-PCR was applied to evaluate the mRNA level of myosin heavy chain-α and-β in the left ventricle. Results: Having been treated with ouabain for 4 weeks, there was no significant difference in the mean SBP of the two groups.However, left ventricular hypertrophy, myocardial ultrastructure deterioration,and extracellular matrix remodeling were induced by ouabain treatment; meanwhile,cardiac systolic and diastolic performance were both worsened. Moreover, the cardiac MHC-β mRNA was upregulated by ouabain treatment, whereas MHC-αmRNA was downregulated. After 4 weeks, the mean SBP in the ouabain group began to increase and was significantly higher than that in control group after 6 weeks (P<0.01); the rats' cardiac structure and function were worsened.Conclusion: These results suggested that ouabain induces alterations in cardiac structure and function, and the effects happened before the increase of blood pressure. The results indicated that ouabain induced cardiac remodeling in rats independent of blood pressure.

  13. Ambulatory blood pressure status in children: comparing alternate limit sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Cynthia S; Poffenbarger, Tim S; Samuels, Joshua A

    2011-12-01

    The American Heart Association has included alternate ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) limits for children published by Wühl in 2002. These updated limits employ the same pediatric cohort data as the previous ABP limits published by Soergel in 1997 but differ in analysis technique. The implications of changing ABP limit source on the diagnosis of hypertension has yet to be examined in a large pediatric cohort. We reviewed 741 ABP monitorings performed in children referred to our hypertension clinic between 1991-2007. Hypertension was defined as 24-h mean blood pressure ≥ 95 th percentile or 24-h blood pressure load ≥ 25%, by Soergel and Wühl limits separately. Six hundred seventy-three (91%) children were classified the same by both limit sources. Wühl limits were more likely than Soergel to classify a child as hypertensive (443 vs. 409, respectively). There was an increased classification of prehypertension and decreased white-coat hypertension by the Wühl method, whereas ambulatory and severe hypertension counts remained relatively the same by both limits sources. The use of either limit source will not significantly affect most clinical outcomes but should remain consistent over long-term research projects. Collection of new normative data from a larger, multiethnic population is needed for better measurement of ABP in children.

  14. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  15. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  16. Neurohumoral blood pressure regulation in lead exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boscolo, P.; Carmignani, M.

    1988-06-01

    Previous human studies demonstrated that lead exposure may modify the metabolism of catecholamines and of hormones controlled by the hypothalamo-pituitary axis and may affect the kallikrein-kinin system. This paper reports unpublished data on the plasma renin activity of lead-exposed workers; these results are in agreement with those of previous human and experimental studies suggesting that the synthesis or release of renin is increased after short and moderate exposure to inorganic lead and reduced whenever the exposure is prolonged. Previous experimental investigations demonstrated that lead may act on the cardiovascular system, with effects on the renin-angiotensin system, on the reactivity to stimulation of peripheral catecholaminergic receptors, on sympathetic and vagal tone, and on reactivity to the stimulation of baroreceptors. This paper reports the results of a study on male Sprague-Dawley rats that received 0, 15, 30, and 60 ..mu..g/mL of lead in drinking water for 18 months. Blood pressure was increased in the rats receiving 30 and 60 ppm of lead; cardiac inotropism was augmented only in those receiving the higher dose of the metal, and heart rate was not modified. Cardiovascular responses to agonists indicated that lead exposure affects the renin-angiotensin system and induces sympathetic hyperactivity be acting on central and peripheral sympathetic junctions increasing the responsiveness to stimulation of ..cap alpha../sub 2/-adrenoreceptors and by increasing the reactivity to stimulation of cardiac and vascular ..beta..-adrenergic and dopaminergic receptors.

  17. Brewer's Yeast Improves Blood Pressure in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Payam Hosseinzadeh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of Brewer's yeast supplementation on serum lipoproteins and blood pressure in patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.Methods: In a randomized double blind clinical trial, 90 adults with type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited, and divided randomly into 2 groups, trial group received brewer's yeast (1800 mg/day and control group received placebo for 12 weeks. Weight, BMI, food consumption (based on 24 hour food recall, fasting serum lipoproteins (Cholesterol, Triglyceride, LDL-c, HDL-c, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after the intervention. Data analyses were performed by Statistical Package for Social Sciences ver. 18.0, and the statistical tests included Independent t-test, Paired t-test, Kolmogorov-Smirnov and analysis of covariance. This trial was registered in Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT, No.IRCT138807062513N1.Results: Eighty-four subjects (21 men and 63 women aged 46.3±6.1 years completed the study. After 12 weeks supplementation, systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased in the group receiving brewer's yeast (4.1±1.5, P=0.007 and 5.7±0.6, P=0.001 respectively. No-significant changes in LDL-c, HDL-c, Triglyceride and Cholesterol were shown.Conclusion: Supplementation with Brewer's yeast besides the usual treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus can reduce systolic and diastolic blood pressures in diabetic patients.

  18. Accuracy of the Dinamap 1846 XT automated blood pressure monitor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaubien, E R; Card, C M; Card, S E; Biem, H J; Wilson, T W

    2002-09-01

    Accurate blood pressure (BP) measurement is important for the detection and treatment of hypertension. Despite widespread use of automated devices, there is limited published evidence for their reliability and accuracy. To determine the reliability and accuracy of the Dinamap 1846XT (Critikon Corporation, Tampa, FL, USA), a commonly used non-invasive oscillometric BP monitor The Dinamap was evaluated against the mercury manometer in 70 randomly selected adult hospitalised medical patients. Each individual underwent three sets of standardised BP measurement by automated method and three sets by mercury manometer by two independent observers. Reliability of BP measurement was assessed by repeated measures analysis. Dinamap accuracy was evaluated according to the American Association of Medical Instrumentation (AAMI) and British Hypertension Society (BHS) guidelines. Most patients were either normotensive or had stage I hypertension. The Dinamap tended to overestimate lower diastolic BP, and displayed poor reliability (P mercury manometer and 84% of systolic and 80% of diastolic readings were within 10 mm hg (bhs grade c). systolic and diastolic accuracy were worse with pressures >160/90 mm Hg (grade D) although these measures were based on a smaller sample of subjects. In conclusion the Dinamap yields inaccurate estimates of both systolic and diastolic BP even under standardised, and thus optimal conditions. This inaccuracy is exaggerated at higher BP (>160/90 mm Hg), although the number of measurements at higher pressures was small. We recommend that this device not be used when accurate BP measurement is needed for therapeutic decision-making.

  19. Relationship of anthropometric measurements and blood pressure in primary and secondary students in Ningbo%宁波市中小学生人体测量学指标与血压相关性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚清海; 杨秀珍; 应焱燕; 张涛

    2012-01-01

    Objective To know the epidemic status of hypertension among primary and secondary students, and to investigate the relationships between anthropometric measurements and blood pressure. Methods A total 3 087 residential students from two districts in Ningbo were surveyed by using of random cluster sampling. Blood pressure, weight, height, hip circumference and other anthropometric measurements were measured. The relations between blood pressure and different anthropometric variables were investigated in linear regression models. Results The prevalence of hypertension was 2. 49% , there was no significant difference between girls ( 1.99% ) and boys(3.01% ). The prevalence of hypertension in urban and in rural areas was 2.45% and 2. 54% respectively, which there was no difference as well. Further analysis showed that body mass index ( BMI) , waist circumference ( WC) , hip circumference ( Hip) and waist / height ratio ( WHtR) had significant positive correlation with the systolic and diastolic blood pressure. Hip, BMI, age, and waist/height ratio (WHtR) index had greater impact on blood pressure in boys while waist indicators and age had a greater impact on blood pressure in girls. Conclusion Anthropometric measurements are closely related with blood pressure, which imply that they may be used to predict or screen for hypertension among primary and secondary students.%目的 了解宁波市6~18岁中小学生高血压的流行现状及人体测量学指标对血压的影响,为中小学生高血压的评估或预测提供依据.方法 随机整群抽取宁波市2个区县7所中小学本市户籍6 ~ 18岁汉族学生共3087名,测量血压、身高、体重等指标.结果 宁波市6~18岁儿童青少年高血压患病率为2.49%,其中男生为3.01%,女生为1.99%;城市学生为2.45%,农村学生为2.54%,差异无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).体质量指数、腰围、臀围、腰围身高比与男、女生的收缩压和舒张压

  20. Asymmetric features of short-term blood pressure variability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guzik, Przemyslaw; Piskorski, Jaroslaw; Krauze, Tomasz; Narkiewicz, Krzysztof; Wykretowicz, Andrzej; Wysocki, Henryk

    2010-11-01

    Prolongations of cardiac cycles have a significantly larger contribution to short-term heart rate variability than shortenings--this is called heart rate asymmetry. Our aim is to establish the existence of blood pressure asymmetry phenomenon, which has not been done so far. We used 30-min resting continuous recordings of finger pressure waveforms from 227 healthy young volunteers (19-31 years old; 97 female), and performed Poincaré plot analysis of systolic blood pressure (SBP) to quantify the effect. Median contribution of SBP increases (C(i)) to short-term blood pressure variability was 52.8% (inter-quartile range: 50.9-55.1%) and median number of SBP increases (N(i)) was 48.8% (inter-quartile range: 47.2-50.1%). The C(i)>50% was found in 82% (P<0.0001; binomial test) and N(i)<50% in 75% (P<0.0001) of the subjects. Although SBP increases are significantly less abundant than reductions, their contribution to short-term blood pressure variability is significantly larger, which means that short-term blood pressure variability is asymmetric. SBP increases and reductions have unequal contribution to short-term blood pressure variability at supine rest in young healthy people. As this asymmetric behavior of blood pressure variability is present in most of the healthy studied people at rest, it can be concluded that blood pressure asymmetry is a physiological phenomenon.

  1. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  2. Association between birth weight and blood pressure is robust, amplifies with age, and may be underestimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Anna A; Smith, George Davey; May, Margaret T; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav

    2006-09-01

    Data on the early life origins of adult hypertension have been widely reported: however, recent research shows that the strength of association between small size at birth and higher blood pressure weakens as study size increases. In this article, we retest the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure in a large cohort, examine whether age interacts with birth weight to predict blood pressure, and explore reasons why birth weight-blood pressure associations tend to weaken with increasing study size. Measurements from 25874 employees of a large United Kingdom company (mean [SD] age: 38.0 [7.9] years), undertaking voluntary occupational health screening, were available. Using linear regression analysis, we observed that systolic blood pressure changed -0.8 (95% CI: -1.1 to -0.5) mmHg per 1-kg increase in birth weight (P<0.001) adjusted for age and sex and -1.1 (95% CI: -1.3 to -0.8) mmHg/kg (P<0.001) after further adjustment for body size. This inverse association amplified with age (age/birth weight interaction term P<0.001). In participants reporting birth weight from hospital records (n=744), systolic blood pressure changed -1.4 (95% CI: -3.1 to 0.2) mmHg/kg compared with -0.8 (95% CI: -1.0 to -0.5) mmHg/kg in all of the other participants. Finally, the data show evidence of "fixed-category blood pressure allocation," where participants are allocated certain blood pressure values, such as 120/80 mmHg, independent of actual blood pressure. Although the association between birth weight and systolic blood pressure was weaker than observed in smaller studies, recalled birth weight and fixed blood pressure measurement error may generate a trend toward weaker associations in larger studies.

  3. Short-term effects of nitrate-rich green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondonno, Catherine P; Liu, Alex H; Croft, Kevin D; Ward, Natalie C; Yang, Xingbin; Considine, Michael J; Puddey, Ian B; Woodman, Richard J; Hodgson, Jonathan M

    2014-12-01

    Evidence for a beneficial effect of dietary nitrate, through the nitrate-nitrite-NO pathway, on measures of cardiovascular function in healthy individuals is accumulating. It is less clear whether increased dietary nitrate intake from green leafy vegetables would have similar beneficial vascular effects in those at increased risk of developing hypertension. Our aim was to assess the effects of short-term regular consumption of increased nitrate from green leafy vegetables on blood pressure and arterial stiffness in individuals with high-normal blood pressure. Thirty-eight men and women ages 30-70 years with systolic blood pressure 120 to 139 mm Hg were recruited to a randomized controlled crossover trial. The effects of a 7-day high-nitrate diet intervention (increased nitrate intake by at least 300 mg/day from green leafy vegetables) were compared to a 7-day low-nitrate diet intervention. Outcome measures included pre- and postintervention salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations; ambulatory, home, and office blood pressure; augmentation index; and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity. The high-nitrate diet intervention resulted in at least a fourfold increase in salivary and plasma nitrate and nitrite (Pblood pressure and arterial stiffness were not different between the high-nitrate diet and the low-nitrate diet. Increasing dietary nitrate intake in those with high-normal blood pressure and at increased risk of hypertension may not be an effective short-term strategy to lower blood pressure.

  4. High blood pressure in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mossello, Enrico; Simoni, David

    2016-06-22

    High blood pressure and cognitive impairment often coexist in old age, but their pathophysiological association is complex. Several longitudinal studies have shown that high blood pressure at midlife is a risk factor for cognitive impairment and dementia, although this association is much less clear in old age. The effect of blood pressure lowering in reducing the risk of dementia is only borderline significant in clinical trials of older subjects, partly due to the insufficient follow-up time. Conversely, dementia onset is associated with a decrease of blood pressure values, probably secondary to neurodegeneration. Prognostic effect of blood pressure values in cognitively impaired older subjects is still unclear, with aggressive blood pressure lowering being potentially harmful in this patients category. Brief cognitive screening, coupled with simple motor assessment, are warranted to identify frail older subjects who need a more cautious approach to antihypertensive treatment. Values obtained with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring seem more useful than clinical ones to predict the outcome of cognitively impaired older subjects. Future studies should identify the most appropriate blood pressure targets in older subjects with cognitive impairment.

  5. 21 CFR 870.1110 - Blood pressure computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood pressure computer. 870.1110 Section 870.1110 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... computer. (a) Identification. A blood pressure computer is a device that accepts the electrical signal...

  6. What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aortic Aneurysm More What You Should Know About High Blood Pressure and Medications Updated:Jan 18,2017 Is medication ... resources . This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  7. Heart and Artery Damage and High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More How High Blood Pressure Can Lead to a Heart Attack Updated:Dec ... sheet This content was last reviewed October 2016. High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  8. Americans with High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163977.html Americans With High Blood Pressure Still Eating Too Much Salt Average sodium intake ... March 8, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- For Americans with high blood pressure, cutting back on salt is an important way ...

  9. Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Aneurysm More Changes You Can Make to Manage High Blood Pressure Updated:Mar 10,2017 Fighting back against the “ ... Follow us on Twitter Follow us on Facebook High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the Facts About HBP • Know Your ...

  10. Role of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, Guido; Bombelli, Michele; Seravalle, Gino; Brambilla, Gianmaria; Dell'oro, Raffaella; Mancia, Giuseppe

    2013-06-01

    Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring has gained growing popularity in the diagnosis and treatment of essential hypertension for several reasons, such as the lack of the so-called white-coat effect, the greater reproducibility as compared with clinic blood pressure, the ability to provide information on blood pressure phenomena of prognostic value and the closer relationship with the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. All the above-mentioned main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring are also true for resistant hypertension. In addition, however, in resistant hypertension, blood pressure monitoring allows one to precisely define the diagnosis of this clinical condition, by excluding the presence of white-coat hypertension, which is responsible for a consistent number of "false" resistant hypertensive cases. The approach also allows one to define the patterns of blood pressure variability in this clinical condition, as well as its relationships with target organ damage. Finally, it allows one to assess the effects of therapeutic interventions, such as renal nerves ablation, aimed at improving blood pressure control in this hypertensive state. The present paper will critically review the main features of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in resistant hypertension, with particular emphasis on the diagnosis and treatment of this high-risk hypertensive state.

  11. Managing Blood Pressure with a Heart-Healthy Diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fat — factors that can raise your cholesterol . Eating foods that are high in sodium (salt) can increase blood pressure. Generally, the higher ... more tips, visit our healthy eating website . This content was last reviewed October 2016. Subscribe ... High Blood Pressure • Home • Get the ...

  12. Longitudinal correlates of change in blood pressure in adolescent girls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daniels, [No Value; McMahon, RP; Obarzanek, E; Waclawiw, MA; Similo, SL; Biro, FM; Schreiber, GB; Kimm, SYS; Morrison, JA; Barton, BA

    1998-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the longitudinal changes in blood pressure in black and white adolescent girls and evaluate potential determinants of changes in blood pressure, including sexual maturation and body size. A total of 1213 black and 1166 white girls, ages 9 or 10 years at stud

  13. Normalization effect of sports training on blood pressure in hypertensives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yi-Liang; Liu, Yuh-Feng; Huang, Chih-Yang; Lee, Shin-Da; Chan, Yi-Sheng; Chen, Chiu-Chou; Harris, Brennan; Kuo, Chia-Hua

    2010-02-01

    Exercise is recommended as a lifestyle intervention in preventing hypertension based on epidemiological findings. However, previous intervention studies have presented mixed results. This discrepancy could be associated with shortcomings related to sample sizes or the inclusion of normotensive participants. The aim of this prospective cohort study (N = 463) was to compare the chronic effect of increasing sports training time on resting blood pressure for normotensives and hypertensives. We assessed systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) for 69 untreated hypertensive patients (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years, systolic blood pressure >140 mmHg) and 394 normotensive controls (age 20.6 +/- 0.1 years) before training and at follow-up visits at 12 months. All participants enrolled in various sports training lessons for 8 hours a week. The baseline BMI and HOMA-IR in the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those in the control group. For the normotensive control group, no significant changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure were observed after training. However, for the hypertensives, systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly reduced after training by approximately 15 mmHg and approximately 4 mmHg, respectively, and HOMA-IR was reduced by approximately 25%. In conclusion, the effect of sports training to lower blood pressure was confined to the group of hypertensives, which may account for the overall minimal reduction in blood pressure observed in previous intervention studies.

  14. Prenatal air pollution exposure and newborn blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossem, Lenie; Rifas-Shiman, Sheryl L.; Melly, Steven J.; Kloog, Itai; Luttmann-Gibson, Heike; Zanobetti, Antonella; Coull, Brent A.; Schwartz, Joel D.; Mittleman, Murray A.; Oken, Emily; Gillman, Matthew W.; Koutrakis, Petros; Gold, Diane R.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Air pollution exposure has been associated with increased blood pressure in adults. oBjective: We examined associations of antenatal exposure to ambient air pollution with newborn systolic blood pressure (SBP). Methods: We studied 1,131 mother–infant pairs in a Boston, Massachusetts, are

  15. Beyond salt: lifestyle modifications and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frisoli, Tiberio M; Schmieder, Roland E; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Messerli, Franz H

    2011-12-01

    Lifestyle changes have been shown to effect significant blood pressure (BP) reductions. Although there are several proposed neurohormonal links between weight loss and BP, body mass index itself appears to be the most powerful mediator of the weight-BP relationship. There appears to be a mostly linear relationship between weight and BP; as weight is regained, the BP benefit is mostly lost. Physical activity, but more so physical fitness (the physiological benefit obtained from physical activity), has a dose-dependent BP benefit but reaches a plateau at which there is no further benefit. However, even just a modest physical activity can have a meaningful BP effect. A diet rich in fruits and vegetables with low-fat dairy products and low in saturated and total fat (DASH) is independently effective in reducing BP. Of the dietary mineral nutrients, the strongest data exist for increased potassium intake, which reduces BP and stroke risk. Vitamin D is associated with BP benefit, but no causal relationship has been established. Flavonoids such as those found in cocoa and berries may have a modest BP benefit. Neither caffeine nor nicotine has any significant, lasting BP effect. Biofeedback therapies such as those obtained with device-guided breathing have a modest and safe BP benefit; more research is needed before such therapies move beyond those having an adjunctive treatment role. There is a strong, linear relationship between alcohol intake and BP; however, the alcohol effects on BP and coronary heart disease are divergent. The greatest BP benefit seems to be obtained with one drink per day for women and with two per day for men. This benefit is lost or attenuated if the drinking occurs in a binge form or without food. Overall, the greatest and most sustained BP benefit is obtained when multiple lifestyle interventions are incorporated simultaneously.

  16. Walking speed and high blood pressure mortality risk in a Spanish elderly population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez-Misis, A; Sánchez-Santos, M T; Banegas, J R; Castell, M V; González-Montalvo, J I; Otero, A

    2015-09-01

    This study analyzed the relationship between blood pressure and all-cause mortality according to objectively measured walking speed in a Mediterranean population-based sample of older persons. We used data from the longitudinal 'Peñagrande' Cohort Study, initiated in 2008 in a sex- and age-stratified random sample of 1250 people aged ⩾65 years living in Madrid (Spain). A total of 814 individuals participated in the first study wave. The average of two standardized blood pressure readings was used. Walking speed was measured over a 3-m walk and classified as faster (⩾0.8 m s(-1)) or slower. A total of 314 individuals were slower walkers, 475 were faster walkers and 25 did not complete the walk test. Cox proportional hazards models stratified by walking speed were used to assess the association between blood pressure and all-cause death. Non-linear relationship between BP and mortality was explored by a restricted cubic spline analysis. There were 171 deaths from study entry through 31 March 2013. Systolic blood pressure blood pressure blood pressure values above 140 and 90 mm Hg, respectively, but this association reached statistical significance only for systolic blood pressure and only in the slower walkers. In conclusion, systolic blood pressure levels <140 mm Hg were found associated with higher risk of total mortality among slower walkers in an old Spaniard population cohort.

  17. High Blood Pressure in Adolescents of Curitiba: Prevalence and Associated Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Bozza

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background: Arterial hypertension is a major public health problem and has increased considerably in young individuals in past years. Thus, identifying factors associated with this condition is important to guide intervention strategies in this population. Objective: To determine high blood pressure prevalence and its associated factors in adolescents. Methods: A random sample of 1,242 students enrolled in public schools of the city of Curitiba (PR was selected. Self-administered questionnaires provided family history of hypertension, daily energy expenditure, smoking habit, daily fat intake, and socioeconomic status. Waist circumference was measured following standardized procedures, and blood pressure was measured with appropriate cuffs in 2 consecutive days to confirm high blood pressure. Relative frequency and confidence interval (95%CI indicated high blood pressure prevalence. Bivariate and multivariate analyses assessed the association of risk factors with high blood pressure. Results: The high blood pressure prevalence was 18.2% (95%CI 15.2-21.6. Individuals whose both parents had hypertension [odds ratio (OR, 2.22; 95%CI 1.28-3.85] and those with high waist circumference (OR, 2.1; 95%CI 1.34-3.28 had higher chances to develop high blood pressure. Conclusion: Positive family history of hypertension and high waist circumference were associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. These factors are important to guide future interventions in this population.

  18. Nutrition, physical activity, and blood pressure in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ideno, K T; Kubena, K S

    1989-01-01

    Forty noninstitutionalized elderly subjects, ages 65-86 years, were recruited for a study to determine relationships between nutritional status, physical activity, and blood pressure. A 24-hour recall of dietary intake and activities, health history, skinfolds, circumferences, height, weight, and blood pressure were obtained. Obesity was associated with hypertension in this group of elderly subjects. Truncal skinfolds (abdomen and subscapula) were positively correlated (P less than .05) with systolic blood pressure while body mass index, dietary magnesium and dietary calcium to magnesium ratio were directly related (P less than .05) to diastolic blood pressure. Physical activity and energy expenditure were not correlated (P greater than .05) with blood pressure in this study; however, the level of activity did not include strenuous exercise.

  19. Heritability of retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taarnhøj, Nina C B B; Larsen, Michael; Sander, Birgit

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: To assess the relative influence of genetic and environmental effects on retinal vessel diameters and blood pressure in healthy adults, as well as the possible genetic connection between these two characteristics. METHODS: In 55 monozygotic and 50 dizygotic same-sex healthy twin pairs......%-80%) for CRAE, 83% (95% CI: 73%-89%) for CRVE, and 61% (95% CI: 44%-73%) for mean arterial blood pressure (MABP). Retinal artery diameter decreased with increasing age and increasing arterial blood pressure. Mean vessel diameters in the population were 165.8 +/- 14.9 microm for CRAE, 246.2 +/- 17.7 microm...... and blood glucose, variations in retinal blood vessel diameters and blood pressure were predominantly attributable to genetic effects. A genetic influence may have a role in individual susceptibility to hypertension and other vascular diseases. The results suggest that retinal vessel diameters...

  20. Resveratrol Treatment Normalizes the Endothelial Function and Blood Pressure in Ovariectomized Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabricio, Victor; Oishi, Jorge Camargo; Biffe, Bruna Gabriele; Ruffoni, Leandro Dias Gonçalves; da Silva, Karina Ana; Nonaka, Keico Okino; Rodrigues, Gerson Jhonatan

    2017-01-01

    Background Despite knowing that resveratrol has effects on blood vessels, blood pressure and that phytostrogens can also improve the endothelium-dependent relaxation/vasodilation, there are no reports of reveratrol's direct effect on the endothelial function and blood pressure of animals with estrogen deficit (mimicking post-menopausal increased blood pressure). Objective To verify the effect of two different periods of preventive treatment with resveratrol on blood pressure and endothelial function in ovariectomized young adult rats. Methods 3-month old female Wistar rats were used and distributed in 6 groups: intact groups with 60 or 90 days, ovariectomized groups with 60 or 90 days, and ovariectomized treated with resveratrol (10 mg/kg of body weight per day) for 60 or 90 days. The number of days in each group corresponds to the duration of the experimental period. Vascular reactivity study was performed in abdominal aortic rings, systolic blood pressure was measured and serum nitric oxide (NO) concentration was quantified. Results Ovariectomy induced blood pressure increase 60 and 90 days after surgery, whereas the endothelial function decreased only 90 days after surgery, with no difference in NO concentration among the groups. Only longer treatment (90 days) with resveratrol was able to improve the endothelial function and normalize blood pressure. Conclusion Our results suggest that 90 days of treatment with resveratrol is able to improve the endothelial function and decrease blood pressure in ovariectomized rats.

  1. Resistance exercise with different volumes: blood pressure response and forearm blood flow in the hypertensive elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brito AF

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aline de Freitas Brito,1 Caio Victor Coutinho de Oliveira,2 Maria do Socorro Brasileiro-Santos,1 Amilton da Cruz Santos1 1Physical Education Department, 2Research Laboratory for Physical Training Applied to Performance and Health, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil Background: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of two sessions of resistance exercise with different volumes on post-exercise hypotension, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance in hypertensive elderly subjects.Methods: The study was conducted with ten hypertensive elderly (65±3 years, 28.7±3 kg/m2 subjected to three experimental sessions, ie, a control session, exercise with a set (S1, and exercise with three sets (S3. For each session, the subjects were evaluated before and after intervention. In the pre-intervention period, blood pressure, forearm blood flow, and forearm vascular resistance were measured after 10 minutes of rest in the supine position. Thereafter, the subjects were taken to the gym to perform their exercise sessions or remained at rest during the same time period. Both S1 and S3 comprised a set of ten repetitions of ten exercises, with an interval of 90 seconds between exercises. Subsequently, the measurements were again performed at 10, 30, 50, 70, and 90 minutes of recovery (post-intervention in the supine position.Results: Post-exercise hypotension was greater in S3 than in S1 (systolic blood pressure, −26.5±4.2 mmHg versus −17.9±4.7 mmHg; diastolic blood pressure, −13.8±4.9 mmHg versus −7.7±5 mmHg, P<0.05. Similarly, forearm blood flow and forearm vascular resistance changed significantly in both sessions with an increase and decrease, respectively, that was more evident in S3 than in S1 (P<0.05.Conclusion: Resistance exercises with higher volume were more effective in causing post-exercise hypotension, being accompanied by an increase in forearm blood flow and a reduction of forearm vascular

  2. BiSpectral Index (BIS monitoring may detect critical hypotension before automated non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement during general anaesthesia; a case report. [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/2oi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew M. J. Smith

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A patient undergoing general anaesthesia for neurosurgery exhibited an unexpected sudden decrease in the BiSpectral Index (BIS value to near-zero. This prompted the detection of profound hypotension using non-invasive blood pressure (NIBP measurement and expedited urgent assessment and treatment, with the patient making a full recovery. Widely regarded as a ‘depth of anaesthesia’ monitor, this case demonstrates the potential extra clinical benefit BIS may have in the detection of critical incidents such as anaphylaxis during general anaesthesia.

  3. Euglycemic clamp insulin sensitivity and longitudinal systolic blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrie, John R; Malik, Muhammad Omar; Balkau, Beverley;

    2013-01-01

    and Cardiovascular disease (RISC) study, we measured insulin sensitivity (M/I) using the euglycemic clamp technique in 1073 healthy European adults (587 women, 486 men) aged 30 to 60 years followed up 3 years later. Systolic BP (SBP) at baseline was higher in insulin-resistant women (ie, those in the low sex......Insulin resistance may be an independent risk factor for the development of hypertension, but change in blood pressure (BP) over time has not been adequately studied in healthy individuals fully characterized for insulin sensitivity. In the Relationship between Insulin Sensitivity...

  4. [Effects of solcoseryl on the cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and EEG in acute intracranial hypertensive cats (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, S; Asakura, T; Kitamura, K

    1976-02-01

    The experiment was performed on 86 cases under intraperitoneal pentobarbital anesthesia. One balloon was placed in the extradural space of right frontal region, and the other balloon was placed in the left extradural space and the intracranial pressure was measured. A needle was stereotaxically inserted into the subcortical area in order to measure the cerebral blood flow. Systemic blood pressure was recorded by inserting a catheter into the femoral artery, and electrocorticogram was also recorded. An expanding intracranial lesion was made by inflating the extradural balloon with physiological saline. The animals were arbitrarily divided into two groups.: 1) light or moderate groups which intracranial pressure before the injection of drug was below 400 mmH2O. 2) severe groups above 400 mmH2O. After the maintenance of the pressure, Solcoseryl was infused intravenously. The investigation was focused to observe whether Solcoseryl reveales any potent effect on cerebral blood flow, intracranial pressure, systemic blood pressure and on electroencephalogram in acute intracranial hypertension. Results 1) Intravenous injection of Solcoseryl had the effect of lowering intracranial pressure in the light or moderate and severe groups. Particularly, dose of 80 mg/kg showed the marked effect, though with a rebound phenomenon in the light or moderate groups. Furthermore, the effect was more marked and lasting by drip infusion of Solcoseryl and also by intravenous injection of Solcoseryl after pretreatment with hydrocortisone, and at this time no rebound phenomenon was recognized. 2) Solcoseryl had the effect of increasing the cerebral blood flow accompained with the lowering of intracranial pressure. 3) Systemic blood pressure was transiently lowered by the injection of Solcoseryl 20 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg and recovered immediately. 4) Solcoseryl had no effect on electroencephalogram in the severe groups. Conclusion On the basis of these results, it is rational to conclude that

  5. Increased blood pressure in adult offspring of families with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georgieva Rossitza B

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have linked smaller kidney dimensions to increased blood pressure. However, patients with Balkan Endemic Nephropathy (BEN, whose kidneys shrink during the course of the disease, do not manifest increased blood pressure. The authors evaluated the relationship between kidney cortex width, kidney length, and blood pressure in the offspring of BEN patients and controls. Methods 102 offspring of BEN patients and 99 control offspring of non-BEN hospital patients in the Vratza District, Bulgaria, were enrolled in a prospective study and examined twice (2003/04 and 2004/05. Kidney dimensions were determined using ultrasound, blood pressure was measured, and medical information was collected. The parental disease of BEN was categorized into three groups: mother, father, or both parents. Repeated measurements were analyzed with mixed regression models. Results In all participants, a decrease in minimal kidney cortex width of 1 mm was related to an increase in systolic blood pressure of 1.4 mm Hg (p = 0.005. There was no association between kidney length and blood pressure. A maternal history of BEN was associated with an increase in systolic blood pressure of 6.7 mm Hg (p = 0.03; paternal BEN, +3.2 mm Hg (p = 0.35; or both parents affected, +9.9 mm Hg (p = 0.002. There was a similar relation of kidney cortex width and parental history of BEN with pulse pressure; however, no association with diastolic blood pressure was found. Conclusion In BEN and control offspring, a smaller kidney cortex width predisposed to higher blood pressure. Unexpectedly, a maternal history of BEN was associated with average increased systolic blood pressure in offspring.

  6. Skin perfusion pressure on the legs measured as the external pressure required for skin reddening after blanching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P; Nielsen, P.E.; Lund, P

    1980-01-01

    The skin perfusion on the calf was measured photo-electrically and by isotope washout technique using external counter pressure by a blood pressure cuff. By the photocell the skin blanching threshold external pressure (BTEP) was recorded on histamine flared red skin. By isotope washout technique......Hg (SD 8.7). As compared to the intra-arterial blood pressure the BTEP was found to lie close to the mean blood pressure in normal subjects as well as in hypertensive subjects. The present data indicate that the skin perfusion pressure on the legs can be measured by the rapid photo-electric technique...

  7. Impact of systolic blood pressure on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability in middle-aged and elderly people

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈朔华

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the impact of systolic blood pressure(SBP)on visit-to-visit blood pressure variability(BPV) in middle-aged and elderly people.Methods Visit-to-visit BPV was determined in 5440 workers in the

  8. Harmonics tracking of intracranial and arterial blood pressure waves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahsavari, Sima; McKelvey, Tomas

    2008-01-01

    Considering cardiorespiratory interaction and heart rate variability, a new approach is proposed to decompose intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure to their different harmonics. The method is based on tracking the amplitudes of the harmonics by a Kalman filter based tracking algorithm. The algorithm takes benefit of combined frequency estimation technique which uses both Fast Fourier Transform and RR-interval detection. The result would be of use in intracranial pressure and arterial blood pressure waveform analysis as well as other investigations which need to estimate contribution of specific harmonic in above mentioned signals such as Pressure-Volume Compensatory Reserve assessment.

  9. High altitude hypoxia and blood pressure dysregulation in adult chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera, E A; Salinas, C E; Blanco, C E; Villena, M; Giussani, D A

    2013-02-01

    Although it is accepted that impaired placental perfusion in complicated pregnancy can slow fetal growth and programme an increased risk of cardiovascular dysfunction at adulthood, the relative contribution of reductions in fetal nutrition and in fetal oxygenation as the triggering stimulus remains unclear. By combining high altitude (HA) with the chick embryo model, we have previously isolated the direct effects of HA hypoxia on embryonic growth and cardiovascular development before hatching. This study isolated the effects of developmental hypoxia on cardiovascular function measured in vivo in conscious adult male and female chickens. Chick embryos were incubated, hatched and raised at sea level (SL, nine males and nine females) or incubated, hatched and raised at HA (seven males and seven females). At 6 months of age, vascular catheters were inserted under general anaesthesia. Five days later, basal blood gas status, basal cardiovascular function and cardiac baroreflex responses were investigated. HA chickens had significantly lower basal arterial PO2 and haemoglobin saturation, and significantly higher haematocrit than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. HA chickens had significantly lower arterial blood pressure than SL chickens, independent of the sex of the animal. Although the gain of the arterial baroreflex was decreased in HA relative to SL male chickens, it was increased in HA relative to SL female chickens. We show that development at HA lowers basal arterial blood pressure and alters baroreflex sensitivity in a sex-dependent manner at adulthood.

  10. Intraspecific scaling of arterial blood pressure in the Burmese python.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enok, Sanne; Slay, Christopher; Abe, Augusto S; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-07-01

    Interspecific allometric analyses indicate that mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) increases with body mass of snakes and mammals. In snakes, MAP increases in proportion to the increased distance between the heart and the head, when the heart-head vertical distance is expressed as ρgh (where ρ is the density of blood, G: is acceleration due to gravity and h is the vertical distance above the heart), and the rise in MAP is associated with a larger heart to normalize wall stress in the ventricular wall. Based on measurements of MAP in Burmese pythons ranging from 0.9 to 3.7 m in length (0.20-27 kg), we demonstrate that although MAP increases with body mass, the rise in MAP is merely half of that predicted by heart-head distance. Scaling relationships within individual species, therefore, may not be accurately predicted by existing interspecific analyses.

  11. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Huseyin Altug; Cakmak, Burcu Dincgez; Yumru, Ayse Ender; Aslan, Serkan; Enhos, Asim; Kalkan, Ali Kemal; Coskun, Ebru Inci; Acikgoz, Abdullah Serdar; Karatas, Suat

    2015-01-01

    Background Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD) in postmenopausal Turkish women. Methods In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups. Results Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003), and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001) were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.382; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.290; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001). Moreover, diastolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=−0.318; P=0.001), lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=−0.340; P=0.001), and proximal femoral T-scores (r=−0.304; P=0.001). Hypertension (odds ratio [OR]: 2.541, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.46–3.48, P=0.003), diabetes mellitus (OR: 2.136, 95% CI: 1.254–3.678, P=0.006), and age (OR: 1.069, 95% CI: 1.007–1.163, P=0.022) were found to be significant independent predictors of osteopenia in a multivariate analysis, after adjusting for other risk parameters. Conclusion The present study is the first to evaluate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose

  12. Inverse-model-based cuffless blood pressure estimation using a single photoplethysmography sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Arata

    2015-07-01

    This paper proposes an inverse-model-based cuffless method for estimating blood pressure using a single photoplethysmography sensor. The proposed method, which is based on the relationship between blood pressure and the features of pulse waves, employs an inverse estimation and uses the blood pressure as the explanatory variable. Using this method, the blood pressure can be estimated with high accuracy even in situations where the pulse wave features are scattered, as the method uses the dynamic signal-to-noise ratio of the Taguchi method. In order to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, we employed it to measure the systolic blood pressure. It could be confirmed that the estimation accuracy of the proposed method is higher than that of similar methods.

  13. Biological consequences of stress: conflicting findings on the association between job strain and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fornari, C; Ferrario, M; Menni, C; Sega, R; Facchetti, R; Cesana, G C

    2007-11-01

    The primary objective is to verify the relation between job strain and clinic blood pressure in a working population from the Milan municipality (1,909 men, 3,786 women) enrolled from 1992 to 1996. Job strain was investigated through the Karasek model. Clinic blood pressure was evaluated using standard procedures from the MONICA project. The association between the two was calculated controlling for age, education, smoking, body mass index, total and high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol. Significantly, associations were found for systolic blood pressure in men and for both systolic and diastolic blood pressure in women. However, these results do not reflect biological plausibility. The relationship between job strain and blood pressure is an unfinished business: sample characteristics and measurement methods should be carefully considered.

  14. Community-based intervention for blood pressure reduction in Nepal (COBIN trial)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Neupane, Dinesh; McLachlan, Craig S; Christensen, Bo

    2016-01-01

    proportion size, 929 individuals for the intervention group and 709 individuals for the control group will participate in the study. Due to the nature of the study, study participants are not compensated or insured. As part of the blood pressure intervention, trained female community health volunteers...... study is to determine the effect of family-based home health education and blood pressure monitoring by trained female community health volunteers. The primary outcome is change in mean systolic blood pressure. A community-based, open-masked, two-armed, cluster-randomized trial will be conducted...... will conduct home visits for health education and blood pressure measurement. The primary outcomes will be modeled by using multiple linear regression analysis. DISCUSSION: This project will be an investigation of a community-based intervention to control blood pressure in countries with limited resources...

  15. Improvement of a sensor unit for wrist blood pressure monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Sangjun; Kwon, Jongwon; Park, Yongman; Ayuzenara, Odgerel; Kim, Hiesik

    2007-12-01

    A blood pressure sensor unit for ubiquitous healthcare monitoring was newly developed. The digital wrist band-type blood pressure devices for home are popular already in the market. It is useful for checking blood pressure level at home and control of hypertension. Especially, it is very essential home device to check the health condition of blood circulation disease. Nowadays many product types are available. But the measurement of blood pressure is not accurate enough compared with the mechanical type. It needs to be upgraded to assure the precise health data enough to use in the hospital. The structure, feature and output signal of capacitor type pressure sensors are analyzed. An improved design of capacitor sensor is suggested. It shows more precise health data after use on a wrist band type health unit. They can be applied for remote u-health medical service.

  16. Blood pressure in Afghan male immigrants to Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Asmar, Ali; Bülow, Jens; Simonsen, Lene

    2013-01-01

    -day high (250 mmol per 24-h) salt intake were in addition instituted in subgroups of the young groups (n = 18). RESULTS: Young and middle-aged Afghans exhibited a lower 24-h mean arterial pressure (24-h MAP) than the same respective age groups of Danes (83 ± 1 versus 90 ± 1 mm Hg, P...PURPOSE: Immigration from a Third-World society to a Western society can be associated with higher blood pressure and salt sensitivity. We therefore tested whether immigrants from Afghanistan to Denmark compared with non-immigrant Danes exhibit a (i) higher 24-h ambulatory blood pressure (24-h ABP......) and (ii) blunted renin response to a change in salt intake. METHODS: Twenty-four-hour ABP was measured in 40 men of Afghan (Afghans) and 40 men of Danish (Danes) origin. Each group was divided into young (20-30 years, n = 20) and middle aged (40-60 years, n = 20). A 3-day low (70 mmol per 24-h) and a 3...

  17. [Professional stress and blood pressure reactivity to stress do not predict blood pressure at 5 years].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fauvel, J P; Mpio, I; Quelin, P; Rigaud, J P; Laville, M; Ducher, M L

    2004-01-01

    High job strain has been reported to be associated with higher blood pressure. Job strain could lead to hypertension if individual perception of stress or cardiovascular reactivity to stress are high. We report the results of the first five-year follow up study, which aimed to assess the respective influences of perception of professional strain and cardiovascular reactivity to a mental stress test on BP. A cohort of 292 healthy subjects (mean +/- SEM, 38 +/- 1 years) was followed for progression to hypertension outcome which was defined as an increase in SBP or DBP higher than 7 mmHg or a DBP higher than 95 mmHg during the follow-up. The high strain (HS) group representing 20.9% of the subjects was compared with the remaining subjects (NHS). Similarly the 20.9% subjects with the highest BP stress reactivity (HR) were compared with the remaining subjects (NHR). The Kaplan-Meier survival estimates revealed that neither high job strain, nor high stress reactivity, increased incidence of progression to hypertension. Age, alcohol, salt diet, BMI, and occupation did not interfere with our results. In conclusion, high stress cardiovascular reactivity and high job strain do not appear to be major risk markers for future high BP in healthy young adults. Stress could be associated with high BP at a short term and could explain high blood pressure in a long run only in stress-sensible subjects.

  18. Effect of citicoline on blood pressure variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. D. Ostroumova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The authors give the results of their investigation dealing with citicoline therapy in patients with hypertension and cognitive impairments.Objective: to determine the efficiency of citicoline therapy on the level and variability of both systolic and diastolic blood pressures (BP (SBP and DBP.Patients and methods. The investigation covered 60 patients with Stage II hypertension and a goal BP of < 140/90 mm Hg within ≥3 months before their inclusion. The patients were randomized into 2 groups: 30 patients in the study group were assigned to receive a cycle of 10 injections of citicoline in a daily dose of 1000 mg dropwise intravenously, then 1000 mg/day orally for as long as 3 months. 30 patients comprised the control group.Results and discussion. 24-hour BP monitoring indicated that during 4-week citicoline therapy there were significant (p<0.05 reductions in average nocturnal SBP (by 4.1±2.24 mm Hg, average daytime (-1.5±0.39 mm Hg and average nighttime (-1.5±0.37 mm Hg BP variabilities; such changes were not found in the control group. In the study group, normal daytime SBP variability at baseline (≤15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 21 (70%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 14 (46.7% patients before and after 4-week therapy, respectively. In the study group, normal nocturnal SBP variability at baseline (≤ 15 mm Hg was seen in 15 (50% patients; that after citicoline treatment was in 23 (76.7%; in the control group, this was in 15 (50% and 16 (53.3% patients, respectively.Twenty-one (70% patients in each group had baseline normal daytime DBP variability (<14 mm Hg; following 4 weeks of treatment, the number of patients with normal daytime DBP variability remained unchanged in the control group and that increased by one patient (n = 22 (73.3% in the citicoline group. Normal nocturnal DBP variability at baseline (<12 mm Hg was observed in 19 (63.3% patients in each group

  19. Experience with noninvasive ambulatory 24-hour blood pressure recording in a community hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Weijgert, E J; Braun, J J

    1992-04-01

    In 40 subjects (23 treated with antihypertensive medication), 24-h ambulatory blood pressure was measured with an oscillometric blood pressure monitor (Spacelabs model 90202). We studied applicability in the out-patient department with regard to patient tolerance, correlation with mercury manometer measurements, 24-h blood pressure variability and the use in detecting "white-coat" hypertension. The measurements were tolerated quite well except for complaints of sleep disturbance and local irritation from the cuff. The average percentage of missed measuring points was 9.2%. Correlation between blood pressure with the mercury manometer and the Spacelabs monitor (averages of three consecutive readings) was: systolic 0.87 and diastolic 0.73 (P less than 0.001). No evidence for systematic error between the two methods was found. Diurnal blood pressure variation was significant with an average night-time drop of 12 +/- 15 mmHg systolic and 12 +/- 11 mmHg diastolic. "Office" blood pressure measured with the Spacelabs monitor was in the hypertensive range for 28 patients (systolic greater than or equal to 160 and/or diastolic greater than or equal to 95 mmHg). Only 15 of these subjects still met the hypertension criteria on the basis of mean daytime ambulatory blood pressure values. When ambulatory blood pressures during arbitrary 3-h periods of the daytime were studied, the number of patients with established hypertension did not change. The patients with this "office" or "white-coat" hypertensive response could not be distinguished on the basis of variability in daytime blood pressure.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Kathryn S; Heneghan, Carl J; Stevens, Richard J; Adams, Emily C; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison

    2015-01-01

    In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0). Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods.

  1. Heterogeneity of prognostic studies of 24-hour blood pressure variability: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kathryn S Taylor

    Full Text Available In addition to mean blood pressure, blood pressure variability is hypothesized to have important prognostic value in evaluating cardiovascular risk. We aimed to assess the prognostic value of blood pressure variability within 24 hours. Using MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library to April 2013, we conducted a systematic review of prospective studies of adults, with at least one year follow-up and any day, night or 24-hour blood pressure variability measure as a predictor of one or more of the following outcomes: all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, all cardiovascular events, stroke and coronary heart disease. We examined how blood pressure variability is defined and how its prognostic use is reported. We analysed relative risks adjusted for covariates including the appropriate mean blood pressure and considered the potential for meta-analysis. Our analysis of methods included 24 studies and analysis of predictions included 16 studies. There were 36 different measures of blood pressure variability and 13 definitions of night- and day-time periods. Median follow-up was 5.5 years (interquartile range 4.2-7.0. Comparing measures of dispersion, coefficient of variation was less well researched than standard deviation. Night dipping based on percentage change was the most researched measure and the only measure for which data could be meaningfully pooled. Night dipping or lower night-time blood pressure was associated with lower risk of cardiovascular events. The interpretation and use in clinical practice of 24-hour blood pressure variability, as an important prognostic indicator of cardiovascular events, is hampered by insufficient evidence and divergent methodologies. We recommend greater standardisation of methods.

  2. Elevated blood pressure in offspring of rats exposed to diverse chemicals during pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adverse intrauterine environments are associated with increased risk of later disease, including cardiovascular disease and hypertension. As a potential bioindicator of such an adverse environment, we measured blood pressure (BP), renal nephron endowment, renal glucocorticoid rec...

  3. More Young Adults at Risk for High Blood Pressure | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... develop high blood pressure without preventative measures. Today, clinical guidelines recommend that physicians work with patients to keep ... is the Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH) clinical study, which ... the importance of lowering sodium (salt) intake. Most Americans consume ...

  4. Characteristic of Ambulatory Blood Pressure in Normotensive Subjects With Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Xiaochao; Xu Mingtong; Kong Minyi; Xue Shengneng

    2005-01-01

    Objectives To observe the characteristic of ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in normotensive diabetic subjects with normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria. Methods Fifty-two normotensive patients with type 2 diabetes received ambulatory blood pressure monitoring were divided into normoalbuminuric and microalbuminuric groups according to their albumin excretion rate, the other 28 normotensive subjects without diabetes were contributed as control group. Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed on a working day and measurement of blood pressure circadian rhythm was analyzed. Results Normotensive microalbuminuric diabetic patients had higher night-time systolic blood pressure and more blood pressure burden than normotensive normoalbuminuric diabetic patients. Additionally, the microalbuminuric patients had a higher frequency of non-dippers than normoalbuminuric ones, although they were all normotensive. Compared to the normotensive non-diabetic control subjects, the nighttime systolic blood pressure and frequency of nondippers of the normoalbuminuric diabetic patients were significantly higher. Conclusions Intensive attention should be paid in control of blood pressure in diabetic patients to prevent and limit damage of target organ including kidney, even in those normotensive subjects.

  5. Perceived unfairness at work, social and personal resources, and resting blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, Michael T

    2014-02-01

    By drawing from theoretical perspectives suggesting that unfair conditions threaten fundamental psychological needs, perceived unfairness at work was proposed and tested as a predictor of resting blood pressure. As part of the Midlife Development in the United States Biomarkers project, participants completed questionnaires measuring perceived unfairness, self-esteem and coworker support. Resting blood pressure readings were also recorded as part of a larger physical examination. Results indicate that perceived unfairness at work was associated with higher resting diastolic and systolic blood pressure. Perceived unfairness was most strongly related to diastolic and systolic blood pressure among women with low levels of coworker support. Contrary to predictions, self-esteem did not moderate the association between perceived unfairness and blood pressure. These results suggest that high blood pressure may be a mechanism linking unfairness to negative health outcomes and point to coworker support as a moderator of the perceived unfairness-blood pressure relationship among women. Further research is needed exploring the mediating mechanisms linking unfair treatment at work to blood pressure and health.

  6. Effects of Atorvastatin on Warfarin-induced Aortic Medial Calcification and Systolic Blood Pressure in Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chengyun LIU; Jingjing WAN; Qunfang YANG; Benling QI; Wen PENG; Xuelin CHEN

    2008-01-01

    Summary: The effect of atorvastatin on warfarin-induced aortic medial calcification and systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats induced by warfarin was studied. Thirty healthy and adult rats were randomly divided into Warfarin group (n=10), Atorvastatin group (n=10) and normal control group (n=10). Caudal arterial pressure of rats was measured once a week, and 4 weeks later, aorta was obtained. Elastic fiber, collagen fiber and calcium accumulation in tunica media of cells were measured by Von Kossa staining. The results showed that warfarin treatment led to elevation of systolic blood pressure and aortic medial calcification. The chronic treatment also increased collagen, but decreased elastin in the aorta. However, the atorvastatin treatment had adverse effects. It was concluded that treatment with atorvastatin presented evidence of blood pressure lowing and calcification reducing. These data demonstrate that atorvastatin protected aortic media from warfarin-induced calcification and elevation of systolic blood pressure.

  7. Predicting Out-of-Office Blood Pressure in the Clinic (PROOF-BP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Richard; Gill, Paramjit; Martin, Una; Godwin, Marshall; Hanley, Janet; Heneghan, Carl; Hobbs, F.D. Richard; Mant, Jonathan; McKinstry, Brian; Myers, Martin; Nunan, David; Ward, Alison; Williams, Bryan; McManus, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Patients often have lower (white coat effect) or higher (masked effect) ambulatory/home blood pressure readings compared with clinic measurements, resulting in misdiagnosis of hypertension. The present study assessed whether blood pressure and patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict the difference between ambulatory/home and clinic blood pressure readings (the home–clinic difference). A linear regression model predicting the home–clinic blood pressure difference was derived in 2 data sets measuring automated clinic and ambulatory/home blood pressure (n=991) using candidate predictors identified from a literature review. The model was validated in 4 further data sets (n=1172) using area under the receiver operator characteristic curve analysis. A masked effect was associated with male sex, a positive clinic blood pressure change (difference between consecutive measurements during a single visit), and a diagnosis of hypertension. Increasing age, clinic blood pressure level, and pulse pressure were associated with a white coat effect. The model showed good calibration across data sets (Pearson correlation, 0.48–0.80) and performed well-predicting ambulatory hypertension (area under the receiver operator characteristic curve, 0.75; 95% confidence interval, 0.72–0.79 [systolic]; 0.87; 0.85–0.89 [diastolic]). Used as a triaging tool for ambulatory monitoring, the model improved classification of a patient’s blood pressure status compared with other guideline recommended approaches (93% [92% to 95%] classified correctly; United States, 73% [70% to 75%]; Canada, 74% [71% to 77%]; United Kingdom, 78% [76% to 81%]). This study demonstrates that patient characteristics from a single clinic visit can accurately predict a patient’s ambulatory blood pressure. Usage of this prediction tool for triaging of ambulatory monitoring could result in more accurate diagnosis of hypertension and hence more appropriate treatment. PMID:27001299

  8. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F

    2009-08-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM tempol (antioxidant). Compared with V, NaCl intake for 10 days doubled sodium intake and increased urinary dopamine level but reduced urinary nitric oxide content. NaCl intake also reduced basal renal proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity with no effect on blood pressure. However, NaCl intake in BSO-treated rats failed to reduce basal Na-K-ATPase activity despite higher urinary dopamine levels. Also, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity and these rats exhibited reduced urinary nitric oxide levels and high blood pressure. Tempol supplementation in NaCl plus BSO-treated rats reduced blood pressure. BSO treatment alone did not affect the urinary nitric oxide and dopamine levels or blood pressure. However, dopamine failed to inhibit proximal tubular Na-K-ATPase activity in BSO-treated rats. BSO treatment also increased basal protein kinase C activity, D1 receptor serine phosphorylation, and oxidative markers like malondialdehyde and 8-isoprostane. We suggest that NaCl-mediated reduction in nitric oxide does not increase blood pressure due to activation of D1 receptor signaling. Conversely, oxidative stress-provoked inhibition of D1 receptor signaling fails to elevate blood pressure due to presence of normal nitric oxide. However, simultaneously decreasing nitric oxide levels with NaCl and inhibiting D1 receptor signaling with BSO elevated blood pressure.

  9. High blood pressure in school children: prevalence and risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivers Patrick A

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence of high blood pressure (HBP and associated risk factors in school children 8 to 13 years of age. Methods Elementary school children (n = 1,066 were examined. Associations between HBP, body mass index (BMI, gender, ethnicity, and acanthosis nigricans (AN were investigated using a school based cross-sectional study. Blood pressure was measured and the 95th percentile was used to determine HBP. Comparisons between children with and without HBP were utilized. The crude and multiple logistic regression adjusted odds ratios were used as measures of association. Results Females, Hispanics, overweight children, and children with AN had an increased likelihood of HBP. Overweight children (BMI ≥ 85th percentile and those with AN were at least twice as likely to present with HBP after controlling for confounding factors. Conclusion Twenty one percent of school children had HBP, especially the prevalence was higher among the overweight and Hispanic group. The association identified here can be used as independent markers for increased likelihood of HBP in children.

  10. Teaming Up Against High Blood Pressure PSA (:60)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-09-04

    Nearly one-third of American adults have high blood pressure, and more than half of them don’t have it under control. Simply seeing a doctor and taking medications isn’t enough for many people who have high blood pressure. A team-based approach by patients, health care systems, and health care providers is one of the best ways to treat uncontrolled high blood pressure.  Created: 9/4/2012 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 9/4/2012.

  11. Preeclampsia and High Blood Pressure During Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... have certain medical conditions such as diabetes mellitus , thrombophilia , or lupus • are obese •had in vitro fertilization ... an abnormal amount of protein in the urine. Thrombophilia: A condition in which the blood does not ...

  12. Exercise blood pressure and the risk of future hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmqvist, L; Mortensen, L; Kanckos, C; Ljungman, C; Mehlig, K; Manhem, K

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this prospective cohort study was to identify which blood pressure measurement during exercise is the best predictor of future hypertension. Further we aimed to create a risk chart to facilitate the evaluation of blood pressure reaction during exercise testing. A number (n=1047) of exercise tests by bicycle ergometry, performed in 1996 and 1997 were analysed. In 2007-2008, 606 patients without hypertension at the time of the exercise test were sent a questionnaire aimed to identify current hypertension. The response rate was 58% (n=352). During the 10-12 years between exercise test and questionnaire, 23% developed hypertension. The strongest predictors of future hypertension were systolic blood pressure (SBP) before exercise (odds ratios (OR) 1.63 (1.31-2.01) for 10 mm Hg difference) in combination with the increase of SBP over time during exercise testing (OR 1.12 (1.01-1.24) steeper increase for every 1 mm Hg min(-1)). A high SBP before exercise and a steep rise in SBP over time represented a higher risk of developing hypertension. A risk chart based on SBP before exercise, increase of SBP over time and body mass index was created. SBP before exercise, maximal SBP during exercise and SBP at 100 W were significant single predictors of future hypertension and the prediction by maximal SBP was improved by adjusting for time/power at which SBP max was reached during exercise testing. Recovery ratio (maximal SBP/SBP 4 min after exercise) was not predictive of future hypertension.

  13. Trends in population blood pressure and determinant factors for population blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Ulla Overgaard

    2017-03-01

    Strategies to reduce the burden of blood pressure attributable diseases require knowledge of secular trend in PBP and its determinants. The issues were investigated in the Copenhagen City Heart Study. The design of CCHS is a repeated measures study. Such designs are uniquely suited to studying changes of an outcome and what risk factors may be associated with that outcome. Repeated measures studies are very well suited for trend analysis by using mixed effect analyses. SBP decreased about 2 mmHg in 25 years. The risk factors age, gender and BMI were found valid as determinant factors for secular trends in SBP. In addition, the following factors were identified: household income and the interactions ''gender*age'' and ''survey*age''. The interaction ''gender*age'' stated that the difference between SBP in the two genders was great in the young individuals and diminished by age. The interaction ''survey*age'' stated that SBP in the young individuals decreased more with survey than SBP in the older individuals. Thus, the 20 years old subjects in survey 2, 3 and 4 have lower SBP than the 20 years old subjects in preceding surveys. The slopes were less steep in higher ages. In the group of elderly and old subjects the trend is partly explained by treatment bias because more and more subjects leave the untreated group and start treatment. The factor ''household income'' was significant only in the female population and stated that high-income women had lower SBP and a more beneficial secular trend in SBP than low-income women. Marital status, self-reported physical exercise and alcohol intake were not significant factors. A number of factors, that are interesting in relation to SBP, were not included in the CCHS and therefore not investigated. Among them are salt intake, childhood factors, genetic factors and the DASH diet. A survival study was performed to investigate the mortality rate in relation to SBP changes during the observation period. A Cox regression analysis

  14. STUDY OF EFFECT OF BMI AND WAIST CIRCUMFERENCE ON BLOOD PRESSURE IN FIRST YEAR MEDICAL STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedada

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is undertaken to evaluate any association between BMI, WC and Blood pressure and any tendency to develop prehypertension. The study comprises of 100 medical students of NRI medical college, Sangivalasa near Visakhapatnam. It was carried out ongirl students with age of 17 ye ars. Their BMI, WC and Blood pressure were determined. The examination included measurement of weight, height of the student to determine BMI, measurement of waist circumference, and measurement of blood pressure by sphygmomanometer. In the present study t he results are consistent with early clinical studies reporting that there is elevated systolic and diastolic blood pressure with increasing BMI and waist circumference and there is tendency to develop prehypertension in students with higher BMI. Modificat ion of life style factors should be emphasized.

  15. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  16. Quantification of peripheral and central blood pressure variability using a time-frequency method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouchaki, Z; Butlin, M; Qasem, A; Avolio, A P; Kouchaki, Z; Butlin, M; Qasem, A; Avolio, A P; Kouchaki, Z; Avolio, A P; Butlin, M; Qasem, A

    2016-08-01

    Systolic blood pressure variability (BPV) is associated with cardiovascular events. As the beat-to-beat variation of blood pressure is due to interaction of several cardiovascular control systems operating with different response times, assessment of BPV by spectral analysis using the continuous measurement of arterial pressure in the finger is used to differentiate the contribution of these systems in regulating blood pressure. However, as baroreceptors are centrally located, this study considered applying a continuous aortic pressure signal estimated noninvasively from finger pressure for assessment of systolic BPV by a time-frequency method using Short Time Fourier Transform (STFT). The average ratio of low frequency and high frequency power band (LFPB/HFPB) was computed by time-frequency decomposition of peripheral systolic pressure (pSBP) and derived central aortic systolic blood pressure (cSBP) in 30 healthy subjects (25-62 years) as a marker of balance between cardiovascular control systems contributing in low and high frequency blood pressure variability. The results showed that the BPV assessed from finger pressure (pBPV) overestimated the BPV values compared to that assessed from central aortic pressure (cBPV) for identical cardiac cycles (P<;0.001), with the overestimation being greater at higher power.

  17. [Evaluation of the hypomagnetic environment effects on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure and heart rate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurfinkel, Iu I; Vasin, A L; Matveeva, T A; Sasonko, M L

    2014-01-01

    Impact of attenuated magnetic field (MF) on human health is a hard-core issue of present-day cosmonautics. A series of experiments with animals exposed in attenuated MF revealed violent disorders in cardiovascular system development. Purpose of the work was to study effects of the hypomagnetic environment (HME) on capillary blood circulation, blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in normal people. Participants (n = 34) were 24 men and 10 women free from cardiovascular symptoms. Mean age was 43.3 +/- 15.4 years. Thirteen participants, i.e. 8 men and 5 women, were randomly selected for a repeated investigation in the usual conditions (imaginary exposure); mean age in the group made up 47.9 +/- 18 years. Cardiac rhythm and heart rate were recorded using cardiac monitor Astrocard (Russia). BP was measured with the help of automatic blood pressure monitor Tonocard (Russia). Capillary circulation was determined using a digital capillaroscope (Russia) with high-speed CMOS-camera (100 frames/s). Time of HME exposure was 60 min. It was demonstrated that in healthy people free from cardiovascular symptoms HME increases capillary circulation rate by 22.4% as compared with records made under the usual conditions. There was a reliable HR reduction by the end of HME exposure with reference to the measurements taken at the onset. At the end of exposure, diastolic BP dropped considerably relative to mid-exposure values and systolic BP, on the contrary, made a significant rise.

  18. 老年高血压患者抑郁相关因素及干预对策分析%Analysis of Depression Relative Factors and Intervention Measures for Elderly Patients with High Blood Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石文富

    2012-01-01

    Objective To discuss depression relative factors and intervention measures for elderly patients with high blood pressure. Methods Self-rating depression scale( SDS )was used to judge patients depression state, depression related factors in elderly patients with high blood pressure was analyzed with the questionnaire , intervention on life , psychology, and drugs were given to patients diagnosed in depression state. Results Among the 760 valid questionnaires obtained, there were 161 patients with depression, the depression rate was 21. 2% ;and was related with gender,age,high blood pressure course,whether accepted system treatment, with coronary heart disease, diabetes or not, single or not, educational level, economic status, and family depression history( P <0. 05 or 0.01); after intervention SDS score significantly decreased( t = 7. 8897 ,P <0. 01 ) , antihypertensive medication compliance rate significantly increased( x2 =6. 1618, P< 0.05 ),and blood pressure were significantly reduced( P <0.05 or 0. 01 ). Conclusion Understanding the depression related factors of the elderly patients with high blood pressure, and then giving targeted intervention on patients life, psychological and drugs can effectively reduce the blood pressure, improve treatment compliance, and alleviate depression condition, which are positive for the prognosis.%目的 探讨老年高血压患者产生抑郁心理的相关因素及其干预措施.方法 通过患者抑郁自评量表(SDS)判断患者抑郁状态,通过调查表形式分析老年高血压患者抑郁相关因素,对判断为抑郁的患者进行生活、心理以及用药方面的干预.结果 产生的760份有效调查表中,抑郁发生率为21.2%,与性别、年龄、高血压病程长短、高血压是否系统治疗、是否合并冠心病糖尿病等、是否单身、文化程度、经济状况以及抑郁家族史有显著相关(P<0.05或0.01);干预后SDS评分显著降低(t=7.8897,P<0.01),降压药物

  19. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... some blood pressure medications. Interactions may occur with: Thiazide diuretics. Taking 1,500 milligrams (mg) or more of calcium with thiazide diuretics — such as chlorothiazide (Diuril), hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Oretic) and ...

  20. Wearable Beat to Beat Blood Pressure Monitor Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A key component of NASA's human exploration programs is a system that monitors the health of the crew during space missions. The wearable beat-to-beat blood pressure...

  1. Racial differences in hypertension: implications for high blood pressure management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackland, Daniel T

    2014-08-01

    The racial disparity in hypertension and hypertension-related outcomes has been recognized for decades with African Americans with greater risks than Caucasians. Blood pressure levels have consistently been higher for African Americans with an earlier onset of hypertension. Although awareness and treatment levels of high blood pressure have been similar, racial differences in control rates are evident. The higher blood pressure levels for African Americans are associated with higher rates of stroke, end-stage renal disease and congestive heart failure. The reasons for the racial disparities in elevated blood pressure and hypertension-related outcomes risk remain unclear. However, the implications of the disparities of hypertension for prevention and clinical management are substantial, identifying African American men and women with excel hypertension risk and warranting interventions focused on these differences. In addition, focused research to identify the factors attributed to these disparities in risk burden is an essential need to address the evidence gaps.

  2. Let's Talk about High Blood Pressure and Stroke

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What Are Heart Disease and Stroke? What is Metabolic Syndrome? What is Peripheral Vascular Disease? Stroke, Recovery and ... Blood Pressure Readings 4 Heart Attack Symptoms in Women 5 How to Eat Healthy 6 All About ...

  3. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnussen, Costan G; Smith, Kylie J

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention could be focused. In the absence of substantive data directly linking childhood blood pressure levels to overt adult CV disease, this review outlines the available literature that examines the association between pediatric blood pressure and adult preclinical markers of CV disease.

  4. How Potassium Can Help Control High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... natural sources of potassium. For example, a medium banana has about 420 mg of potassium and half ... high blood pressure. Learn more Get a fact sheet on following a heart-healthy diet: English | Spanish ...

  5. Rationale and design for the blood pressure intervention of the Action to Control Cardiovascular Risk in Diabetes (ACCORD) trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cushman, William C; Grimm, Richard H; Cutler, Jeffrey A; Evans, Gregory W; Capes, Sarah; Corson, Marshall A; Sadler, Laurie S; Alderman, Michael H; Peterson, Kevin; Bertoni, Alain; Basile, Jan N

    2007-06-18

    The Action to Control Cardiovascular Disease in Diabetes (ACCORD) blood pressure trial is an unmasked, open-label, randomized trial with a sample size of 4,733 participants. This report describes the rationale, design, and methods of the blood pressure interventions in ACCORD. Participants eligible for the blood pressure trial are randomized to 1 of 2 groups with different treatment goals: systolic blood pressure <120 mm Hg for the more intensive goal and systolic blood pressure <140 mm Hg for the less intensive goal. The primary outcome measure for the trial is the first occurrence of a major cardiovascular disease (CVD) event, specifically nonfatal myocardial infarction or stroke, or cardiovascular death during a follow-up period ranging from 4-8 years. The ACCORD blood pressure trial should provide the first definitive clinical trial data on the possible benefit of treating to a more aggressive systolic blood pressure goal in reducing CVD events in patients with diabetes mellitus.

  6. The correlation between serum leptin and blood pressure after exposure to noise at work

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muayad S Rahma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Several epidemiologic studies have reported that exposure to noise is associated with cardiovascular disease. The increased body weight is often associated with metabolic as well as increased blood pressure. The aim of this study is to investigate the correlation between the elevation of blood pressure and serum leptin hormones due to the effects of noise in the work place. A total of 80 volunteer males where included in this study with an age range between of 20 and 45 years, they were divided in two groups equally, the 1 st group were exposed to noise in the workplace while the 2 nd group were not. The individual noise exposure was determined by using a sound level meter. The range of noise was 80-100 dBA. Body Mass Index was also taken for each individual by a standard measure, blood pressure was measured by OMRON sphygmomanometer and serum leptin was measured through venous blood sample analysis enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. Spearman rank order correlation was used to examine the correlations between Blood pressure value (Systolic, Diastolic and Leptin. All the relationships between parameters showed a positive correlation. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure values had a significant correlation to leptin hormone level in comparison to the control. There was a significant relation between leptin and blood pressure. leptin effects on the sympathetic nervous system may provide a partial explanation. Therefore, Leptin might have diverse cardiovascular actions.

  7. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linneberg, Allan René; Sørensen, Thorkild I.A.

    2017-01-01

    ·7 mm Hg (77·9-79·5) for men and 76·7 mm Hg (75·9-77·6) for women. Global age-standardised prevalence of raised blood pressure was 24·1% (21·4-27·1) in men and 20·1% (17·8-22·5) in women in 2015. Mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure decreased substantially from 1975 to 2015 in high...

  8. Spontaneous blood pressure oscillations in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Ronan M G; Plovsing, Ronni R; Greve, Anders M;

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: In the present hypothesis-generating study, we investigated whether spontaneous blood pressure oscillations are suppressed to lower frequencies, and whether abolished oscillations are associated with an adverse outcome in mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis. METHODS: We...... retrospectively subjected invasive steady-state blood pressure recordings from 65 mechanically ventilated patients with sepsis to spectral analysis. Modified spectral bands were visually identified by plotting spectral power against frequency. RESULTS: Modified middle-frequency and low-frequency (MF' and LF...

  9. Pediatric Blood Pressure and Adult Preclinical Markers of Cardiovascular Disease

    OpenAIRE

    Magnussen, Costan G.; Smith, Kylie J.

    2016-01-01

    A high blood pressure level in adults is considered the single most important modifiable risk factor for global disease burden, especially those of cardiovascular (CV) origin such as stroke and ischemic heart disease. Because blood pressure levels have been shown to persist from childhood to adulthood, elevations in pediatric levels have been hypothesized to lead to increased CV burden in adulthood and, as such, might provide a window in the life course where primordial and primary prevention...

  10. Validation of four devices: Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800, and Polygreen KP-7670 for home blood pressure measurement according to the European Society of Hypertension International Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Topouchian J

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jirar Topouchian,1 Davide Agnoletti,1 Jacques Blacher,1 Ahmed Youssef,1 Mirna N Chahine,2,3 Isabel Ibanez,3 Nathalie Assemani,3 Roland Asmar1–31Centre de Diagnostic, Hôpital Hôtel-Dieu, Paris, France; 2Faculty of Medicine of the Lebanese University, 3Foundation-Medical Research Institutes, Beirut, LebanonBackground: Four oscillometric devices, including the Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800, and Polygreen KP-7670, designed for self-blood pressure measurement (SBPM were evaluated according to the European Society of Hypertension (ESH International Protocol Revision 2010 in four separate studies.Methods: The four devices measure brachial blood pressure (BP using the oscillometric method. The Withings BP-800 has to be connected to an Apple® iOS device such as an iPhone®, iPad®, or iPod®. The ESH International Protocol Revision 2010 includes a total number of 33 subjects. The difference between observer and device BP values was calculated for each measure. Ninety-nine pairs of BP differences were classified into three categories (≤5 mmHg, ≤10 mmHg, ≤15 mmHg. The protocol procedures were followed precisely in each of the four studies.Results: All four tested devices passed the validation process. The mean differences between the device and mercury readings were: −1.8±5.1 mmHg and −0.4±2.8 mmHg for systolic and diastolic BP, respectively, using the Omron M6 Comfort device; 2.5±4.6 mmHg and −1.2±4.3 mmHg for the Omron HEM-7420 device; −0.2±5.0 mmHg and 0.4±4.2 mmHg for the Withings BP-800 device; and 3.0±5.3 mmHg and 0.3±5.2 mmHg for the Polygreen KP-7670 device.Conclusion: Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800, and Polygreen KP-7670 readings differing by less than 5 mmHg, 10 mmHg, and 15 mmHg fulfill the ESH International Protocol Revision 2010 requirements, and therefore are suitable for use by patients for SBPM, if used correctly.Keywords: Omron M6 Comfort, Omron HEM-7420, Withings BP-800

  11. Effects of genetic variation in H3K79 methylation regulatory genes on clinical blood pressure and blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duarte Julio D

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Nearly one-third of the United States adult population suffers from hypertension. Hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ, one of the most commonly used medications to treat hypertension, has variable efficacy. The renal epithelial sodium channel (ENaC provides a mechanism for fine-tuning sodium excretion, and is a major regulator of blood pressure homeostasis. DOT1L, MLLT3, SIRT1, and SGK1 encode genes in a pathway that controls methylation of the histone H3 globular domain at lysine 79 (H3K79, thereby modulating expression of the ENaCα subunit. This study aimed to determine the role of variation in these regulatory genes on blood pressure response to HCTZ, and secondarily, untreated blood pressure. Methods We investigated associations between genetic variations in this candidate pathway and HCTZ blood pressure response in two separate hypertensive cohorts (clinicaltrials.gov NCT00246519 and NCT00005520. In a secondary, exploratory analysis, we measured associations between these same genetic variations and untreated blood pressure. Associations were measured by linear regression, with only associations with P ≤ 0.01 in one cohort and replication by P ≤ 0.05 in the other cohort considered significant. Results In one cohort, a polymorphism in DOT1L (rs2269879 was strongly associated with greater systolic (P = 0.0002 and diastolic (P = 0.0016 blood pressure response to hydrochlorothiazide in Caucasians. However, this association was not replicated in the other cohort. When untreated blood pressure levels were analyzed, we found directionally similar associations between a polymorphism in MLLT3 (rs12350051 and greater untreated systolic (P P Conclusions Our data suggest polymorphisms in DOT1L, MLLT3, SIRT1, and SGK1 are not likely associated with blood pressure response to HCTZ. However, a possibility exists that rs2269879 in DOT1L could be associated with HCTZ response in Caucasians. Additionally, exploratory analyses suggest rs

  12. Potential benefits of exercise on blood pressure and vascular function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Sebely; Radavelli-Bagatini, Simone; Ho, Suleen

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity seems to enhance cardiovascular fitness during the course of the lifecycle, improve blood pressure, and is associated with decreased prevalence of hypertension and coronary heart disease. It may also delay or prevent age-related increases in arterial stiffness. It is unclear if specific exercise types (aerobic, resistance, or combination) have a better effect on blood pressure and vascular function. This review was written based on previous original articles, systematic reviews, and meta-analyses indexed on PubMed from years 1975 to 2012 to identify studies on different types of exercise and the associations or effects on blood pressure and vascular function. In summary, aerobic exercise (30 to 40 minutes of training at 60% to 85% of predicted maximal heart rate, most days of the week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure and reduce augmentation index. Resistance training (three to four sets of eight to 12 repetitions at 10 repetition maximum, 3 days a week) appears to significantly improve blood pressure, whereas combination exercise training (15 minutes of aerobic and 15 minutes of resistance, 5 days a week) is beneficial to vascular function, but at a lower scale. Aerobic exercise seems to better benefit blood pressure and vascular function.

  13. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  14. Evaluation of the Colin STBP-680 at rest and during exercise: an automated blood pressure monitor using R-wave gating.

    OpenAIRE

    Bond, V.; Bassett, D R; Howley, E T; Lewis, J.; Walker, A J; Swan, P D; Tearney, R J; Adams, R.G.

    1993-01-01

    The application of automated blood pressure measurement during exercise has been limited by inaccuracies introduced by the effects of accompanying motion and noise. We evaluated a newly developed automated blood pressure monitor for measuring exercise blood pressure (Colin STBP-680; Colin, San Antonio, Texas, USA). The STBP-680 uses acoustic transduction with the assistance of the electrocardiogram R-wave to trigger the sampling period for blood pressure measurement. The automated monitor rea...

  15. Mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide and blood pressure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goharian, Tina S; Gimsing, Anders N; Goetze, Jens P;

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about blood pressure in relation to circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations and gender in generally healthy adolescents. We studied 15-year-old females and males (n = 335) from the Danish site of the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Blood pressure was measured using...... a standardized protocol, sexual maturity was assessed according to Tanner stage, and as a surrogate for atrial natriuretic peptide, we measured mid-regional pro-atrial natriuretic peptide (MR-proANP) in plasma. Compared with boys, girls had lower systolic blood pressure (SBP) (mean ± SD: 109.6 ± 9.9 mmHg vs 116.......9 ± 11.4 mmHg, p blood pressure...

  16. Preeclampsia prediction in type 1 diabetes and diurnal blood pressure methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn

    2016-01-01

    of ambulatory blood pressure measurements in pregnancy and in particular in women with type 1 diabetes. Diabetic pregnancy is complicated with a 50% risk of hypertension/preeclampsia. In the nonpregnant, diabetic women minute increases in blood pressure as well as in albuminuria are forerunners for incipient...... that consistency and precision depend on which monitor is used. During pregnancy, the reproducibility and specificity depend on the timing and whether measurements are performed repeatedly. Over- and underestimations of blood pressure are typical for 24-h monitoring in high- as well as low risk pregnancies......-risk population is invaluable to protect the mother’s kidney function and, if possible, prolong pregnancy for the benefit of the fetus. Estimates of risk by blood pressure evaluation in these women are influenced by pregnancy per se and diabetes vasculopathy. Several factors have to be considered as few monitors...

  17. Leisure-Time Exercise Could Lower Your Risk of High Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Leisure-time exercise could lower your risk of high blood pressure American Heart Association Rapid Access Journal Report September ... copyright American Heart Association Download (1.4 MB) High Blood Pressure A high blood pressure reading. copyright American Heart ...

  18. Anger Expression and Blood Pressure in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starner, Tamie M.; Peters, Rosalind M.

    2004-01-01

    The clinical significance of childhood hypertension is important as elevated pressures during childhood are found to follow a progressively increasing track into adulthood. Little work has been done to examine the relationship of emotions and emotional behavioral factors to the development of hypertension in children. Using the Roy Adaptation…

  19. 10.5.Blood pressure and atherosclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1992-01-01

    920274 The effect of lowered pressure onthe diastolic ventricular function after anti-hypertension treatment.CAI Bohin (蔡伯林),etal.Ruijin Hosp,Shanghai 2nd Med Univ,200025.Chin J Cardiol 1991;19(6):366-368.

  20. The vascular Ca2+-sensing receptor regulates blood vessel tone and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schepelmann, M; Yarova, P L; Lopez-Fernandez, I; Davies, T S; Brennan, S C; Edwards, P J; Aggarwal, A; Graça, J; Rietdorf, K; Matchkov, V; Fenton, R A; Chang, W; Krssak, M; Stewart, A; Broadley, K J; Ward, D T; Price, S A; Edwards, D H; Kemp, P J; Riccardi, D

    2016-02-01

    The extracellular calcium-sensing receptor CaSR is expressed in blood vessels where its role is not completely understood. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the CaSR expressed in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) is directly involved in regulation of blood pressure and blood vessel tone. Mice with targeted CaSR gene ablation from vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) were generated by breeding exon 7 LoxP-CaSR mice with animals in which Cre recombinase is driven by a SM22α promoter (SM22α-Cre). Wire myography performed on Cre-negative [wild-type (WT)] and Cre-positive (SM22α)CaSR(Δflox/Δflox) [knockout (KO)] mice showed an endothelium-independent reduction in aorta and mesenteric artery contractility of KO compared with WT mice in response to KCl and to phenylephrine. Increasing extracellular calcium ion (Ca(2+)) concentrations (1-5 mM) evoked contraction in WT but only relaxation in KO aortas. Accordingly, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures of KO animals were significantly reduced compared with WT, as measured by both tail cuff and radiotelemetry. This hypotension was mostly pronounced during the animals' active phase and was not rescued by either nitric oxide-synthase inhibition with nitro-l-arginine methyl ester or by a high-salt-supplemented diet. KO animals also exhibited cardiac remodeling, bradycardia, and reduced spontaneous activity in isolated hearts and cardiomyocyte-like cells. Our findings demonstrate a role for CaSR in the cardiovascular system and suggest that physiologically relevant changes in extracellular Ca(2+) concentrations could contribute to setting blood vessel tone levels and heart rate by directly acting on the cardiovascular CaSR.

  1. A simple model of cerebral blood flow dependence on arterial blood pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    It is shown that the dependence of the cerebral blood flow (CBF) on mean arterial blood pressure (MABP) can be described with a simple model having the following assumptions. Below certain MABP (denoted as MABP1) there are no autoregulatory or feedback mechanisms influencing CBF. Between MABP1 and MABP2 (MABP at which breakthrough accurs) there is a linear (on MABP) dependent feedback with a sloap depending very much on the individual considered. The classical autoregulation model with a plateau in between MABP1 and MABP2 is a particular case of this model. The model describes well the experiments performed on dogs (Harper 1966), for which the individual feedback sloap parameter varied to great extent, indicating the importance of mesurments on individuals against averaged mesurments (or measurments on diffent individuals) which superficially support the classical autoregulation. New effect of decreased CBF, while increasing MABP, was observed.

  2. Trends in blood pressure among adults with hypertension: United States, 2003 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung Sug; Gu, Qiuping; Nwankwo, Tatiana; Wright, Jacqueline D; Hong, Yuling; Burt, Vicki

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to describe trends in the awareness, treatment, and control of hypertension; mean blood pressure; and the classification of blood pressure among US adults 2003 to 2012. Using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003 to 2012, a total of 9255 adult participants aged ≥18 years were identified as having hypertension, defined as measured blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg or taking prescription medication for hypertension. Awareness and treatment among hypertensive adults were ascertained via an interviewer administered questionnaire. Controlled hypertension among hypertensive adults was defined as systolic blood pressure hypertension. Between 2003 and 2012, the percentage of adults with controlled hypertension increased (P-trend Hypertensive adults with optimal blood pressure and with prehypertension increased from 13% to 19% and 27% to 33%, respectively (P-trend hypertensive adults who were taking antihypertensive medication, uncontrolled hypertension decreased from 38% to 30% (P-trend hypertensive adults resulting in a higher percentage with blood pressure at the optimal or prehypertension level and a lower percentage in stage I and stage II hypertension. Overall, mean systolic blood pressure decreased as did the prevalence of uncontrolled hypertension among the treated hypertensive population.

  3. Peripheral arterial blood pressure monitoring adequately tracks central arterial blood pressure in critically ill patients: an observational study

    OpenAIRE

    Mignini, Mariano Alejandro; Piacentini, Enrique; Dubin,Arnaldo

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Invasive arterial blood pressure monitoring is a common practice in intensive care units (ICUs). Accuracy of invasive blood pressure monitoring is crucial in evaluating the cardiocirculatory system and adjusting drug therapy for hemodynamic support. However, the best site for catheter insertion is controversial. Lack of definitive information in critically ill patients makes it difficult to establish guidelines for daily practice in intensive care. We hypothesize that peripheral ...

  4. Pressure and wall shear stress in blood hammer - Analytical theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Chiang C; Jing, Haixiao

    2016-10-01

    We describe an analytical theory of blood hammer in a long and stiffened artery due to sudden blockage. Based on the model of a viscous fluid in laminar flow, we derive explicit expressions of oscillatory pressure and wall shear stress. To examine the effects on local plaque formation we also allow the blood vessel radius to be slightly nonuniform. Without resorting to discrete computation, the asymptotic method of multiple scales is utilized to deal with the sharp contrast of time scales. The effects of plaque and blocking time on blood pressure and wall shear stress are studied. The theory is validated by comparison with existing water hammer experiments.

  5. Non-invasive estimation of blood pressure using ultrasound contrast agents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Scheldrup; Jensen, Jørgen Arendt

    2009-01-01

    Local blood pressure measurements provide important information on the state of health of organs in the body and can be used to diagnose diseases in the heart, lungs, and kidneys. This paper presents an experimental setup for investigating the ambient pressure sensitivity of a contrast agent using...

  6. Percentile distribution of blood pressure readings in relation to body mass index: a populationbased cross-sectional study ADOPOLNOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzyżaniak Alicja

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent upward trends toward elevated blood pressure and increased weight expressed in terms of body mass index in children and adolescents call for regular monitoring of their physical growth and age-related changes in blood pressure. This requires adequate tools - reference values of a normal blood pressure range. The main objective of this study was to provide sex- and BMI-specific percentile reference values for systolic and diastolic blood pressure based on the adolescent Polish population, participants in the ADOPOLNOR study. A cross-sectional survey was carried out on a representative, randomly selected cohort of 4,941; 2,451 male and 2,490 female students aged 10-18 years, residents in Wielkopolska province and its capital, the city of Poznań. All examinations were performed in school nursery rooms during morning hours according to standard procedures. Body height and weight were measured and BMI was calculated. Blood pressure was measured twice on each occasion on the right arm using a fully calibrated TECH MED TM-Z mercury gauge sphygmomanometer with sets of exchangeable cuffs and a clinical stethoscope. The blood pressure classification was determined using the surveillance method. For each participant, the mean of measurements taken on each of the three occasions was calculated and served as his/her final blood pressure value. Using the LMS method, fitted percentile curves were created for BMI-related systolic and diastolic blood pressure. The findings revealed that age related blood pressure pattern was similar in boys and girls. It showed a steady increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure with age. There was a positive correlation between the systolic and diastolic blood pressure indicating that when systolic blood pressure increased so diastolic did (r=0.61 at p<0.01. Boys were likely to have relatively higher mean values of systolic and diastolic blood pressure and steeper slope for BMI-related change in blood pressure

  7. BLOOD PRESSURE CHANGE WITH AGE IN SALT-SENSITIVE TEENAGERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao Ye; Zhi-quan Liu; Jian-jun Mu; Xi-han Fu; Jun Yang; Bao-lin Gao; Xiao-hong Zhang

    2004-01-01

    Objective To observe blood pressure change with age in salt-sensitive teenagers whose salt sensitivity were determined by repeated testing.Methods Salt sensitivity was determined through intravenous infusion of normal saline combined with volume-depletion by oral diuretic furosemide in 55 teenagers. After five years, salt sensitivity was re-examined and subject blood pressure was followed up. Blood pressure changes in salt-sensitive teenagers were compared to that of non-salt sensitive teenagers over five years.Results After 5 years, the repetition rate of salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading is 92.7%. In teenagers with salt sensitivity on the baseline, both the systolic blood pressure increments and increment rates were much higher than non-salt sensitive teenagers (12.7±12.1 mmHg vs. 2.8±5.2 mmHg, P< 0.01; 12.2%± 12.0% vs. 2.5% ±4.4%, P< 0.001,respectively). There was a similar trend for diastolic blood pressure (8.4 ± 6.4 mmHg vs. 3.7 ± 6.4 mmHg, P = 0.052; 13.2% ±10.6 % vs. 6.8%± 10.1%, P = 0.053, respectively).Conclusions Salt sensitivity determined by intravenous saline loading showed good reproducibility. Blood pressure increments with age were much higher in salt-sensitive teenagers than non-salt sensitive teenagers, especially in terms of systolic blood pressure.

  8. CONFOUNDING EFFECTS OF AGE, DIET AND PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ON BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhavi Latha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE Elevated blood pressure is one of the most common and important risk factors for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. Both hypertension and cardiovascular diseases are prevalent in epidemic proportions due to genetic, environmental and metabolic factors associated with modern lifestyle. In the present study we investigated the role of age, diet and physical activity on arterial blood pressure. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on randomly selected subjects with different dietary preferences and physical activity levels. They were placed in various groups based on their age, diet (Vegetarians/Non-vegetarians and physical activity (sedentary/physically active. General body measurements, blood pressure and cardiac output were measured and using ANOVA, the data was analysed. RESULTS All the three age groups showed changes in mean arterial pressure and cardiac output. The cardiac output values were raised in the non-vegetarian groups in comparison with the vegetarian groups of all the ages and in the physically active groups when comparing with the physically inactive groups. The physically active vegetarian group has significantly lower mean blood pressure values when compared with the physically inactive vegetarians. Similarly, non-vegetarians who are physically active have lower mean blood pressure values in comparison with the physically inactive non-vegetarian group. But when only diet was compared, non-vegetarians showed higher blood pressure values. CONCLUSION Vegetarian diet and increased physical activity act as confounding factors due to their varied action on blood pressure changes associated with age. Both diet and physical activity levels modify the blood pressure and cardiac output values, but the influence of vegetarian diet seems to be more than that of physical activity in the elderly age groups and impact of physical activity is more than diet in the younger age groups.

  9. Determinants of blood pressure among Bidi workers of Sagar District of Madhya Pradesh, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Kumar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available For present cross sectional study 253 Bidi workers of 18-75 years of age were selected randomly from 119 household of Bidi workers of district Sagar of M.P. Out of 253 samples 114 were male and 139 were female. A pre tested, semi structure schedule was used for collecting information by physiological and anthropometric measurement. Before taking measurements the instruments were standardized. Technical error of measurement (TEM was calculated to remove the error. After collecting data, indices were computed and statistical analysis was done by using SPSS 16.0 and MS excel software. Linear bivariate and multivariate regression analysis was done using Systolic and Diastolic blood pressure as dependent variable. The main objective of present study was to find out the extent and determinants of Blood pressure among Bidi worker of Sagar district of M.P. On the basis of systolic blood pressure majority (66.18% of bidi worker were found as pre hypertensive out of which (39.1% were male and (33.8% were female. Only 2.3% of Bidi worker were suffering with hypertensive emergency crises. The highest mean systolic blood pressure (135.0±16.1mmHg was found among male of 30-34 years of age; whereas among female the highest mean systolic blood pressure (138.6±23.61mmHg was found among female of above 50+ years of age. According to age wise diastolic blood pressure the mean diastolic blood pressure of male was higher than female in all age group except 40-45 year of age. It can be concluded that majority of Bidi worker (50-60% were pre hypertensive. A small proportion (2.3%-3.2% was suffering with hypertensive emergency. As per bivariate and multivariate regression analysis the blood pressure is determined by age, body fat, BMI, body weight, height and BMR.

  10. [Is blood pressure control different in women than in men?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveras, A; Sans-Atxer, L; Vázquez, S

    2015-01-01

    Blood pressure (BP) evolves with age; until the 50's it is higher in men than in women, equaling and even then increasing in women. The prevalence of controlled BP appears to be similar between the sexes, but the prevalence of cardiovascular disease is higher in women than in men. The possibility that BP influences the cardiovascular risk differently according to sex must therefore be considered. While some studies suggest no difference exists, others have shown evidence of an increased risk in women with respect to men despite equal BP. In this way, it seems that the measurement of ambulatory BP, but not office BP, would mark the differences in the association between BP-gender and cardiovascular risk. It should therefore be investigated the possibility of a different BP goal for women and men, especially by evaluating ambulatory BP.

  11. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring – Clinical Practice Recommendations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Mako

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM became a subject of considerable scientific interest. Due to the increasing use of the ABPM in everyday clinical practice it is important that all the users have a correct knowledge on the clinical indications, the methodology of using the device including some technical issues and the interpretation of results. In the last years several guidelines and position papers have been published with recommendations for the monitoring process, reference values, for clinical practice and research. This paper represents a summary of the most important aspects related to the use of ABPM in daily practice, being a synthesis of recommendations from the recent published guidelines and position papers. This reference article presents the practical and technical issues of ABPM, the use of this method in special situations, the clinical interpretation of measured values including the presentation of different ABPM patterns, derived parameters, the prognostic significance and the limitations of this method.

  12. Pediatric ambulatory blood pressure monitoring: indications and interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Joseph T; Urbina, Elaine M

    2012-06-01

    The prevalence of hypertension in children and adolescents is increasing, especially in obese and ethnic children. The adverse long-term effects of hypertension beginning in youth are known; therefore, it is important to identify young patients who need intervention. Unfortunately, measuring blood pressure (BP) is difficult due to the variety of techniques available and innate biologic variation in BP levels. Ambulatory BP monitoring may overcome some of the challenges clinicians face when attempting to categorize a young patient's BP levels. In this article, the authors review the use of ambulatory BP monitoring in pediatrics, discuss interpretation of ambulatory BP monitoring, and discuss gaps in knowledge in usage of this technique in the management of pediatric hypertension.

  13. High blood pressure and cerebral white matter lesion progression in the general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhaaren, Benjamin F J; Vernooij, Meike W; de Boer, Renske; Hofman, Albert; Niessen, Wiro J; van der Lugt, Aad; Ikram, M Arfan

    2013-06-01

    High blood pressure is considered an important risk factor for cerebral white matter lesions (WMLs) in the aging population. In a longitudinal population-based study of 665 nondemented persons, we investigated the longitudinal relationship of systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and pulse pressure with annual progression of WMLs. Means of blood pressure were calculated over a 5-year period before longitudinal MRI scanning. WML progression was subsequently measured on 2 scans 3.5 years apart. We performed analyses with linear regression models and evaluated adjustments for age, sex, cardiovascular risk factors, and baseline WML volume. In addition, we evaluated whether treatment of hypertension is related to less WML progression. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressures were significantly associated with annual WML progression (regression coefficient [95% confidence interval], 0.08 [0.03; 0.14] mL/y and 0.09 [0.03; 0.15] mL/y per SD increase in systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively). Pulse pressure was also significantly associated with WML progression, but not independent from hypertension. After adjustment for baseline WML volume, only systolic blood pressure remained significantly associated: 0.05 (0.00; 0.09) mL/y per SD increase. People with uncontrolled untreated hypertension had significantly more WML progression than people with uncontrolled treated hypertension (difference [95% confidence interval], 0.12 [0.00; 0.23] mL/y). The present study further establishes high blood pressure to precede WMLs and implies that hypertension treatment could reduce WML progression in the general population.

  14. Pressures Detector Calibration and Measurement

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2156315

    2016-01-01

    This is report of my first and second projects (of 3) in NA61. I did data taking and analysis in order to do calibration of pressure detectors and verified it. I analyzed the data by ROOT software using the C ++ programming language. The first part of my project was determination of calibration factor of pressure sensors. Based on that result, I examined the relation between pressure drop, gas flow rate of in paper filter and its diameter.

  15. Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT) and Target Systolic Blood Pressure in Future Hypertension Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egan, Brent M; Li, Jiexiang; Wagner, C Shaun

    2016-08-01

    The Systolic Blood Pressure (SBP, mm Hg) Intervention Trial (SPRINT) showed that targeting SBP SPRINT has 2 implicit assumptions that could impact future US hypertension guidelines: (1) standard therapy controlled SBP similarly to that in adults with treated hypertension and (2) intensive therapy produced a lower mean SBP than in adults with treated hypertension and SBP SPRINT-like participants aged ≥50 years; group 2 consisted of participants all aged ≥18 years; and group 3 consisted of participants aged ≥18 years excluding group 1 but otherwise similar to SPRINT-like participants except high cardiovascular risk. Mean SBPs in groups 1, 2, and 3 were 133.0, 130.1, and 124.6, with 66.2%, 72.2%, and 81.9%, respectively, controlled to SBP SPRINT-like group had higher mean SBP than comparison groups, yet lower than SPRINT standard treatment group and (2) among groups 1 to 3 with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment. SPRINT results suggest that treatment should be continued and not reduced when treated SBP is SPRINT-like subset. Furthermore, increasing the percentage of treated adults with SBP SPRINT intensive treatment SBP without lowering treatment goals.

  16. Blood Pressure over Height Ratios: Simple and Accurate Method of Detecting Elevated Blood Pressure in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ovidiu Galescu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Blood pressure (BP percentiles in childhood are assessed according to age, gender, and height. Objective. To create a simple BP/height ratio for both systolic BP (SBP and diastolic BP (DBP. To study the relationship between BP/height ratios and corresponding BP percentiles in children. Methods. We analyzed data on height and BP from 2006-2007 NHANES data. BP percentiles were calculated for 3775 children. Receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses were performed to calculate sensitivity and specificity of BP/height ratios as diagnostic tests for elevated BP (>90%. Correlation analysis was performed between BP percentiles and BP/height ratios. Results. The average age was 12.54 ± 2.67 years. SBP/height and DBP/height ratios strongly correlated with SBP & DBP percentiles in both boys (<0.001, 2=0.85, 2=0.86 and girls (<0.001, 2=0.85, 2=0.90. The cutoffs of SBP/height and DBP/height ratios in boys were ≥0.75 and ≥0.46, respectively; in girls the ratios were ≥0.75 and ≥0.48, respectively with sensitivity and specificity in range of 83–100%. Conclusion. BP/height ratios are simple with high sensitivity and specificity to detect elevated BP in children. These ratios can be easily used in routine medical care of children.

  17. Participant adherence indicatiors predict changes in blood pressure, anthropometric measures, and self-reported physical activity in a lifestyle intervention: HUB City Steps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purpose. To evaluate several adherence indicators, created using 2 measures, separately and in combination, for predicting health outcome changes. Design. Non-experimental with pre-post measures. Setting. Mid-sized city in southern region of United States. Subjects. 269 primarily African-America...

  18. Detrended Fluctuation Analysis of Systolic Blood Pressure Control Loop

    CERN Document Server

    Galhardo, C E C; de Menezes, M Argollo; Soares, P P S

    2009-01-01

    We use detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to study the dynamics of blood pressure oscillations and its feedback control in rats by analyzing systolic pressure time series before and after a surgical procedure that interrupts its control loop. We found, for each situation, a crossover between two scaling regions characterized by exponents that reflect the nature of the feedback control and its range of operation. In addition, we found evidences of adaptation in the dynamics of blood pressure regulation a few days after surgical disruption of its main feedback circuit. Based on the paradigm of antagonistic, bipartite (vagal and sympathetic) action of the central nerve system, we propose a simple model for pressure homeostasis as the balance between two nonlinear opposing forces, successfully reproducing the crossover observed in the DFA of actual pressure signals.

  19. Effect of partial sports massage on blood pressure and heart rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pystupa T.D.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available With the growing popularity and demand for different types of massages (including sports is a growing need for research on specific forms. There is also a need to study the advantages and effects on various body functions. The objective was to study the effect of partial sports massage on blood pressure and heart rate in both men and women. Material and methods. Research has been extended 80 healthy men and women are physically active (age 20-25 years. Blood pressure and heart rate were made on the left arm automatic digital device (model HEM - 907. The device is intended to measure blood pressure. It is established that it is possible to verify the existing beliefs. This promotes more efficient use of massage therapy. Conclusions . Sports massage has an effect on hemodynamic changes, the increase (decrease in blood pressure acceleration (deceleration of the heart rate. It depends on what part of the body exposed to the massage procedure.

  20. Efficacy of flavonoids in the management of high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Jaime L; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2015-12-01

    Plant compounds such as flavonoids have been reported to exert beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease, including hypertension. Information on the effects of isolated individual flavonoids for management of high blood pressure, however, is more limited. This review is focused on the flavonoids, as isolated outside of the food matrix, from the 5 main subgroups consumed in the Western diet (flavones, flavonols, flavanones, flavan-3-ols, and anthocyanins), along with their effects on hypertension, including the potential mechanisms for regulating blood pressure. Flavonoids from all 5 subgroups have been shown to attenuate a rise in or to reduce blood pressure during several pathological conditions (hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and diabetes mellitus). Flavones, flavonols, flavanones, and flavanols were able to modulate blood pressure by restoring endothelial function, either directly, by affecting nitric oxide levels, or indirectly, through other pathways. Quercetin had the most consistent blood pressure-lowering effect in animal and human studies, irrespective of dose, duration, or disease status. However, further research on the safety and efficacy of the flavonoids is required before any of them can be used by humans, presumably in supplement form, at the doses required for therapeutic benefit.

  1. Spatial resolution in plantar pressure measurement revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pataky, Todd C

    2012-08-09

    Plantar pressures are typically measured using sensors of finite area, so the accuracy with which one can measure true maximum pressure is dependent on sensor size. Measurement accuracy has been modeled previously for one patient's metatarsals (Lord, 1997), but has not been modeled either for general subjects or for other parts of the foot. The purposes of this study were (i) to determine whether Lord's (1997) model is also valid for heel and hallux pressures, and (ii) to examine how sensor size relates to measurement accuracy in the context of four factors common to many measurement settings: pressure pulse size, foot positioning, pressure change quantification, and gross pressure redistribution. Lord's (1997) model was first generalized and was then validated using 10 healthy walking subjects, with relatively low RMSE values on the order of 20 kPa. Next, postural data were used to show that gross pressure redistributions can be accurately quantified (ppressure measurement tasks.

  2. Mortality and blood pressure in emergency patients with traumatic brain injury: a retrospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pizza-Restrepo, María Juliana

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood pressure is of special relevance in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI at admission to emergency services, since it is the basis of cerebral perfusion pressure. The purpose of this research was to estimate the association between blood pressure values measured on admission and hospital mortality in patients with TBI. Methods: Retrospective cohort study in patients older than 18 years admitted with TBI to Hospital Pablo Tobón Uribe, in Medellín (Colombia between January 2012 and January 2014. A multivariate logistic regression model was performed to estimate the independent effect of blood pressure values on mortality. Results: 582 patients with a median age of 36 years (IQR = 25-59 77.1 % of them males (n = 449 were evaluated. Mortality according to categories of systolic blood pressure at admission (150 mmHg was as follows: 34.6 % (18/52, 13.3 % (56/421 and 29.4 % (32/109, respectively. Univariate analysis showed that blood pressure less than 100 or greater than 150 mm Hg were associated with hospital mortality, but that association lost magnitude and statistical significance (OR = 1.81; 95 % CI = 0.94-3.48 and OR = 1.91; 95 % CI = 0.86-4.54, respectively after adjustment by Glasgow coma scale, oxygen saturation and cerebral edema. Conclusions: We did not demonstrate a statistically significant association between blood pressure values at admission to the emergency service and mortality in patients with TBI.

  3. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  4. Low Birth Weight, Renal Morphometry and Blood Pressure in Adolescent Females

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    Ninive Núñez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays, hypertension is a health problem directly causing disability and death. Epidemiological data suggest that pre- and postnatal nutrition can be an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. Objective: to evaluate the effects of low birth weight on blood pressure and kidney size in adolescent females. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 adolescent females from Marianao, Havana. The following variables were measured: weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, birth weight and length and body mass index. Kidney length, width, parenchyma and volume were measured by ultrasound. Results: differences in blood pressure related to weight and length at birth were nonsignificant. Renal variables did not show significant changes in the classification by birth weight. An important relationship between systolic blood pressure and two indicators of the relative kidney size was found. Conclusion: results did not show an association between low birth weight and high blood pressure. It is demonstrated that blood pressure values are positively related to body adiposity and small kidney size.

  5. Ethnic Differences in Physical Fitness, Blood Pressure and Blood Chemistry in Women (AGES 20-63)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, G. W.; Wier, L. T.; Jackson, A. S.; Stuteville, J. E.; Keptra, Sean (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the role of ethnicity on the aerobic fitness, blood pressure, and selected blood chemistry values of women. One hundred twenty-four females (mean age 41.37 +/- 9.0) were medically Examined at the NASA/Johnson Space Center occupational health clinic. Ethnic groups consisted of 23 Black (B), 18 Hispanic (H) and 83 Non-minority (NM). Each woman had a maximum Bruce treadmill stress test (RER greater than or = 1.1) and a negative ECG. Indirect calorimetry, skinfolds, self-report physical activity (NASA activity scale), seated blood pressure, and blood chemistry panel determined VO2max, percent fat, level of physical activity, blood pressure and blood chemistry values. ANOVA revealed that the groups did not differ (p greater than 0.05) in age, VO2 max, weight, percent fat, level of physical activity, total cholesterol, or HDL-C. However, significant differences (p greater than 0.05) were noted in BMI, diastolic blood pressure, and blood chemistries. BMI was 3.17 higher in H than in NM; resting diastolic pressures were 5.69 and 8.05 mmHg. lower in NM and H than in B; triglycerides were 48.07 and 37.21 mg/dl higher in H than in B and NM; hemoglobin was .814 gm/dl higher in NM than B; fasting blood sugar was 15.41 mg/dl higher in H than NM; The results of this study showed that ethnic groups differed in blood pressure and blood chemistry values but not aerobic fitness or physical activity. There was an ethnic difference in BMI but not percent fat.

  6. Vapor pressure measured with inflatable plastic bag

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Deflated plastic bag in a vacuum chamber measures initial low vapor pressures of materials. The bag captures the test sample vapors and visual observation of the vapor-inflated bag under increasing external pressures yields pertinent data.

  7. Blood pressure rhythmicity and visceral fat in children with hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemirska, Anna; Litwin, Mieczysław; Feber, Janusz; Jurkiewicz, Elżbieta

    2013-10-01

    Primary hypertension is associated with disturbed activity of the sympathetic nervous system and altered blood pressure rhythmicity. We analyzed changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and its relation with target organ damage during 12 months of antihypertensive treatment in 50 boys with hypertension (median, 15.0 years). The following parameters were obtained before and after 12 months of antihypertensive treatment: 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, left ventricular mass, carotid intima-media thickness, and MRI for visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue. Amplitudes and acrophases of mean arterial pressure and heart rate rhythms were obtained for 24-, 12-, and 8-hour periods. After 1 year of treatment, 68% of patients were normotensive, and left ventricular mass and carotid intima-media thickness decreased in 60% and 62% of patients, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate rhythmicity patterns did not change. Changes in blood pressure amplitude correlated with the decrease of waist circumference (P=0.035). Moreover, the decrease of visceral fat correlated with the decrease of 24-hour mean arterial pressure and heart rate acrophases (both Phypertension despite effective antihypertensive treatment, which suggests that it may be the primary abnormality. The correlation between changes in cardiovascular rhythmicity and visceral obesity may indicate that the visceral fat plays an important role in the sympathetic activity of adolescents with hypertension.

  8. The relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density in postmenopausal Turkish women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cakmak HA

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Huseyin Altug Cakmak,1 Burcu Dincgez Cakmak,2 Ayse Ender Yumru,3 Serkan Aslan,4 Asim Enhos,1 Ali Kemal Kalkan,4 Ebru Inci Coskun,5 Abdullah Serdar Acikgoz,6 Suat Karatas3 1Department of Cardiology, Mustafakemalpasa Government Hospital, Bursa, 2Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Rize Kackar Government Hospital, Rize, 3Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Sisli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital, 4Department of Cardiology, Mehmet Akif Ersoy Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery Training and Research Hospital, Istanbul, 5Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Inonu University, Malatya, 6Department of Obstetric and Gynecology, Cerrahpasa Medical Faculty, Istanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey Background: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and osteoporosis are important comorbidities commonly seen in postmenopausal women. The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationships between blood pressure, blood glucose, and bone mineral density (BMD in postmenopausal Turkish women.Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 270 consecutive patients who were admitted to an outpatient clinic with vasomotor symptoms and/or at least 1 year of amenorrhea were included. The patients were categorized into three groups according to their blood pressure and metabolic status as follows: normotensive, hypertensive nondiabetics, and hypertensive diabetics. The T- and z-scores of the proximal femur and lumbar vertebrae were measured with the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method to assess the BMD of the study groups.Results: Lumbar vertebral T-scores (P<0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (P<0.003, and proximal femoral T-scores (P<0.001 were demonstrated to be significantly lower in the hypertensive diabetic group compared to the hypertensive nondiabetic and normotensive groups. Systolic blood pressure was significantly inversely correlated with lumbar vertebral T-scores (r=-0.382; P=0.001, lumbar vertebral z-scores (r=-0.290; P=0.001, and

  9. Blood pressure and expression of microRNAs in whole blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhou; Kresovich, Jacob K.; Zheng, Yinan; Zhong, Jia; Patel, Ruchi; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Lei; Dou, Chang; McCracken, John P.; Díaz, Anaité; Motta, Valeria; Sanchez-Guerra, Marco; Bian, Shurui; Bertazzi, Pier Alberto; Schwartz, Joel; Baccarelli, Andrea A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Blood pressure (BP) is a complex, multifactorial clinical outcome driven by genetic susceptibility, behavioral choices, and environmental factors. Many molecular mechanisms have been proposed for the pathophysiology of high BP even as its prevalence continues to grow worldwide, increasing morbidity and marking it as a major public health concern. To address this, we evaluated miRNA profiling in blood leukocytes as potential biomarkers of BP and BP-related risk factors. Methods The Beijing Truck Driver Air Pollution Study included 60 truck drivers and 60 office workers examined in 2008. On two days separated by 1–2 weeks, we examined three BP measures: systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial pressure measured at both pre- and post-work exams for blood NanoString nCounter miRNA profiles. We used covariate-adjusted linear mixed-effect models to examine associations between BP and increased miRNA expression in both pooled and risk factor-stratified analyses. Results Overall 43 miRNAs were associated with pre-work BP (FDR<0.05). In stratified analyses different but overlapping groups of miRNAs were associated with pre-work BP in truck drivers, high-BMI participants, and usual alcohol drinkers (FDR<0.05). Only four miRNAs were associated with post-work BP (FDR<0.05), in ever smokers. Conclusion Our results suggest that many miRNAs were significantly associated with BP in subgroups exposed to known hypertension risk factors. These findings shed light on the underlying molecular mechanisms of BP, and may assist with the development of a miRNA panel for early detection of hypertension. PMID:28278198

  10. The effects of blood pressure reduction and of different blood pressure-lowering regimens on major cardiovascular events according to baseline blood pressure : meta-analysis of randomized trials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Czernichow, Sebastien; Zanchetti, Alberto; Turnbull, Fiona; Barzi, Federica; Ninomiya, Toshiaru; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Lambers Heerspink, Hiddo J.; Perkovic, Vlado; Huxley, Rachel; Arima, Hisatomi; Patel, Anushka; Chalmers, John; Woodward, Mark; MacMahon, Stephen; Neal, Bruce

    2011-01-01

    Background The benefits of reducing blood pressure are well established, but there remains uncertainty about whether the magnitude of the effect varies with the initial blood pressure level. The objective was to compare the risk reductions achieved by different blood pressure-lowering regimens among

  11. Pancreatic islet blood flow and its measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Leif; Barbu, Andreea; Bodin, Birgitta; Drott, Carl Johan; Espes, Daniel; Gao, Xiang; Grapensparr, Liza; Källskog, Örjan; Lau, Joey; Liljebäck, Hanna; Palm, Fredrik; Quach, My; Sandberg, Monica; Strömberg, Victoria; Ullsten, Sara; Carlsson, Per-Ola

    2016-05-01

    Pancreatic islets are richly vascularized, and islet blood vessels are uniquely adapted to maintain and support the internal milieu of the islets favoring normal endocrine function. Islet blood flow is normally very high compared with that to the exocrine pancreas and is autonomously regulated through complex interactions between the nervous system, metabolites from insulin secreting β-cells, endothelium-derived mediators, and hormones. The islet blood flow is normally coupled to the needs for insulin release and is usually disturbed during glucose intolerance and overt diabetes. The present review provides a brief background on islet vascular function and especially focuses on available techniques to measure islet blood perfusion. The gold standard for islet blood flow measurements in experimental animals is the microsphere technique, and its advantages and disadvantages will be discussed. In humans there are still no methods to measure islet blood flow selectively, but new developments in radiological techniques hold great hopes for the future.

  12. Heritability of Blood Pressure in an Iranian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saadat

    2001-07-01

    Full Text Available The fact that life styles and personal interests, aggregate within families suggests that shared environment in addition to shared bioligical factors could play a role in determining the phenotypic similarity of idividuals living in the same household. It is a major concern of cardiovascular epidemiologists to know how much of the familial aggregation of blood pressure is attributable to shared genes and/or shared family environment. Genetic and environmental influences on blood pressure was examined in a sample representative of the adult population of Shiraz, Fars province, south of Iran. The studied population was the 107 pairs of mother and dauther. Analysis of the data suggest that the genetic heritabilities were estimated to be 0.58,0.30, 0.60 for systolic, diastolic, and mean blood pressure, respectively.

  13. On-line dynamic measurement of blood viscosity, hematocrit and change of blood volume

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To develop an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit. The dynamic changes of the macrovascular blood volumes,microvascular blood volumes and the total blood volume were observed by means of calculating from the testing result. Methods: Applying traditional viscosity measurement principle and specific wavelength optic density measurement method, an on-line system for the measurement of blood viscosity and hematocrit was developed, and the A/D multifunctionai board and the testing circuit were designed by ourselves. The system was validated by experiments both in vitro and in vivo. Therapeutic effects of hypertonic saline dextran solution (HSD) and Lactatic Ringer's solution at the early stage after burn-blast combined injury were compared by this method. Results: The results showed that the system has attained the goal of the design. The changes of the blood viscosity and hematocrit could be detected effectively and continuously. The changes of macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volume could be calculated approximately. Conclusions: The system and the method can continuously on-line test the blood viscosity and hematocrit, and reveal the change and distribution of blood volumes more accurately and dearly in the therapy process by estimating changes of the macrovascular, microvascular and total blood volumes, respectively. It has confirmed that HSD treatment could increase blood pressure and attenuate tissue edema by significantly increasing total blood volume,improving macrocirculatory and microcirculatory blood volumes. This study suggested that it could be desirable to develop an experiment technique based on the method mentioned above.

  14. Methyl mercury, but not inorganic mercury, associated with higher blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Ellen M; Herbstman, Julie B; Lin, Yu Hong; Hibbeln, Joseph R; Halden, Rolf U; Witter, Frank R; Goldman, Lynn R

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies addressing associations between mercury and blood pressure have produced inconsistent findings; some of this may result from measuring total instead of speciated mercury. This cross-sectional study of 263 pregnant women assessed total mercury, speciated mercury, selenium, and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in umbilical cord blood and blood pressure during labor and delivery. Models with a) total mercury or b) methyl and inorganic mercury were evaluated. Regression models adjusted for maternal age, race/ethnicity, prepregnancy body mass index, neighborhood income, parity, smoking, n-3 fatty acids and selenium. Geometric mean total, methyl, and inorganic mercury concentrations were 1.40µg/L (95% confidence interval: 1.29, 1.52); 0.95µg/L (0.84, 1.07); and 0.13µg/L (0.10, 0.17), respectively. Elevated systolic BP, diastolic BP, and pulse pressure were found, respectively, in 11.4%, 6.8%, and 19.8% of mothers. In adjusted multivariable models, a one-tertile increase of methyl mercury was associated with 2.83mmHg (0.17, 5.50) higher systolic blood pressure and 2.99mmHg (0.91, 5.08) higher pulse pressure. In the same models, an increase of one tertile of inorganic mercury was associated with -1.18mmHg (-3.72, 1.35) lower systolic blood pressure and -2.51mmHg (-4.49, -0.53) lower pulse pressure. No associations were observed with diastolic pressure. There was a non-significant trend of higher total mercury with higher systolic blood pressure. We observed a significant association of higher methyl mercury with higher systolic and pulse pressure, yet higher inorganic mercury was significantly associated with lower pulse pressure. These results should be confirmed with larger, longitudinal studies.

  15. Inhibition of natriuretic factors increases blood pressure in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Banday, Anees Ahmad; Lokhandwala, Mustafa F.

    2009-01-01

    Renal dopamine and nitric oxide contribute to natriuresis during high-salt intake which maintains sodium and blood pressure homeostasis. We wanted to determine whether concurrent inhibition of these natriuretic factors increases blood pressure during high-sodium intake. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following groups: 1) vehicle (V)-tap water, 2) NaCl-1% NaCl drinking water, 3) 30 mM l-buthionine sulfoximine (BSO), an oxidant, 4) BSO plus NaCl, and 5) BSO plus NaCl with 1 mM t...

  16. Impact of extracorporeal blood flow rate on blood pressure, pulse rate and cardiac output during haemodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schytz, Philip Andreas; Mace, Maria Lerche; Soja, Anne Merete Boas

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: If blood pressure (BP) falls during haemodialysis (HD) [intradialytic hypotension (IDH)] a common clinical practice is to reduce the extracorporeal blood flow rate (EBFR). Consequently the efficacy of the HD (Kt/V) is reduced. However, only very limited knowledge on the effect of redu...

  17. The distal blood pressure predicts healing of amputations on the feet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P

    1984-01-01

    The healing of digital and transmetatarsal forefoot amputations was compared with the systolic digital and ankle blood pressure, both measured with a strain-gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the forefoot measured with the isotope washout technique. In 85 out of 134 legs (63 per cent)...... 20-29 mm Hg: 13 out of 22; SDBP greater than or equal to 30 mm Hg: 51 out of 65. Ankle pressures and skin perfusion pressures were less useful. Invasive infection was present in 40 out of 102 diabetic legs and, next to ischaemia, was the major determinant of the healing results....

  18. A microwave pressure sounder. [for remote measurement of atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peckham, G. E.; Flower, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    A technique for the remote measurement of atmospheric surface pressure will be described. Such measurements could be made from a satellite in polar orbit and would cover many areas for which conventional meteorological data are not available. An active microwave instrument is used to measure the strength of return echoes from the ocean surface at a number of frequencies near the 60 GHz oxygen absorption band. Factors which affect the accuracy with which surface pressure can be deduced from these measurements will be discussed and an instrument designed to test the method by making measurements from an aircraft will be described.

  19. Accuracy and precision of oscillometric blood pressure in standing conscious horses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Emil; Pedersen, Tilde Louise Skovgaard; Robinson, Rebecca;

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Arterial blood pressure (BP) is a relevant clinical parameter that can be measured in standing conscious horses to assess tissue perfusion or pain. However, there are no validated oscillometric noninvasive blood pressure (NIBP) devices for use in horses. ANIMALS: Seven healthy horses...... arterial BP. METHODS: An arterial catheter was placed in the facial or transverse facial artery and connected to a pressure transducer. A cuff for NIBP was placed around the tail base. The BP was recorded during normotension, dobutamine-induced hypertension, and subnormal BP induced by acepromazine...

  20. Differences Between Right and Left Arm Blood Pressures in the Elderly

    OpenAIRE

    Hashimoto, Fred; Hunt, William C.; Hardy, Linda

    1984-01-01

    Recommendations vary on whether blood pressures should be measured in the right or in the left arm because no frequency distributions for a pressure difference between the arms exist. We took a total of 12 blood pressure determinations in both arms of 174 elderly persons and analyzed the data by a least-squares components of variance method. The mean difference between the arms (right minus left) was 0.93 mm of mercury for systole and 0.70 mm of mercury for diastole. For systole the proportio...