Sample records for blood preservation

  1. High-pressure processing for preservation of blood products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matser, A.M.; Ven, van der C.; Gouwerok, C.W.N.; Korte, de D.


    The possibilities of high pressure as a preservation method for human blood products were evaluated by examining the functional properties of blood fractions, after high-pressure processing at conditions which potentially inactivate micro-organisms and viruses. Blood platelets, red blood cells and b

  2. [Changes in the blood coagulating properties of preserved blood and the native and lyophilized plasma of cattle during storage]. (United States)

    Khubenov, Kh D


    Studied were some of the indices characterizing the blood clotting system (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, recalcified clotting time, CA-thromboplastin time, kephalin-kaolin time, thrombin time. F II, and F V) in preserved glucose-citrate blood kept at 4 degrees C, in untreated bovine plasma kept at 20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C, and in freeze-dried bovine plasma. It was concluded that bovine blood preserved with L-12 could be used as a hemostatic agent up to the 10th day after it was obtained; untreated plasma could be used up to one month after it was obtained; and freeze-dried plasma could be used up to two months after it was obtained. Following freeze-drying the coagulation properties of the plasma remained active for more than a year, and it could also be used as a hemostatic agent.

  3. Evaluation of an additive solution for preservation of canine red blood cells. (United States)

    Wardrop, K J; Owen, T J; Meyers, K M


    The effect of an additive preservative solution on canine red blood cell posttransfusion viability (PTV) and on selected canine red blood cell biochemical parameters was studied. One unit (450 mL) of blood was collected from 6 clinically normal dogs into the anticoagulant citrate phosphate dextrose, centrifuged, and the plasma removed. The red blood cells were then suspended in 100 mL of a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution and stored at 4 degrees C. Aliquots were removed for study at 1, 10, 20, 30, 37, and 44 days. The 24-hour PTV of autologous red blood cells was determined using a sodium chromate (51Cr) label. Red blood cell concentrations of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG), adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP), and pH were also determined. Canine red blood cell PTV, pH, ATP, and 2,3-DPG concentrations decreased during storage (P Food and Drug Administration (FDA) minimum standard for human red blood cells, the PTV was substandard in 75% of the day 44 units. The FDA standard was exceeded in 83% of the day 37 units. It was concluded that 37-day-old canine red blood cells preserved with a saline, adenine, dextrose, and mannitol solution are of acceptable quality for transfusion.

  4. Is red blood cell rheology preserved during routine blood bank storage?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Henkelman, Sandra; Dijkstra-Tiekstra, Margriet J.; de Wildt-Eggen, Janny; Graaff, Reindert; Rakhorst, Gerhard; van Oeveren, Willem


    BACKGROUND: Red blood cell (RBC) units stored for more than 2 weeks at 4 degrees C are currently considered of impaired quality. This opinion has primarily been based on altered RBC rheologic properties (i.e., enhanced aggregability, reduced deformability, and elevated endothelial cell interaction),

  5. Blood cell mRNAs and microRNAs: optimized protocols for extraction and preservation. (United States)

    Eikmans, Michael; Rekers, Niels V; Anholts, Jacqueline D H; Heidt, Sebastiaan; Claas, Frans H J


    Assessing messenger RNA (mRNA) and microRNA levels in peripheral blood cells may complement conventional parameters in clinical practice. Working with small, precious samples requires optimal RNA yields and minimal RNA degradation. Several procedures for RNA extraction and complementary DNA (cDNA) synthesis were compared for their efficiency. The effect on RNA quality of freeze-thawing peripheral blood cells and storage in preserving reagents was investigated. In terms of RNA yield and convenience, quality quantitative polymerase chain reaction signals per nanogram of total RNA and using NucleoSpin and mirVana columns is preferable. The SuperScript III protocol results in the highest cDNA yields. During conventional procedures of storing peripheral blood cells at -180°C and thawing them thereafter, RNA integrity is maintained. TRIzol preserves RNA in cells stored at -20°C. Detection of mRNA levels significantly decreases in degraded RNA samples, whereas microRNA molecules remain relatively stable. When standardized to reference targets, mRNA transcripts and microRNAs can be reliably quantified in moderately degraded (quality index 4-7) and severely degraded (quality index blood. The results serve as a guideline for sensitive mRNA and microRNA expression assessment in clinical material.

  6. Caloric restriction increases ketone bodies metabolism and preserves blood flow in aging brain. (United States)

    Lin, Ai-Ling; Zhang, Wei; Gao, Xiaoli; Watts, Lora


    Caloric restriction (CR) has been shown to increase the life span and health span of a broad range of species. However, CR effects on in vivo brain functions are far from explored. In this study, we used multimetric neuroimaging methods to characterize the CR-induced changes of brain metabolic and vascular functions in aging rats. We found that old rats (24 months of age) with CR diet had reduced glucose uptake and lactate concentration, but increased ketone bodies level, compared with the age-matched and young (5 months of age) controls. The shifted metabolism was associated with preserved vascular function: old CR rats also had maintained cerebral blood flow relative to the age-matched controls. When investigating the metabolites in mitochondrial tricarboxylic acid cycle, we found that citrate and α-ketoglutarate were preserved in the old CR rats. We suggest that CR is neuroprotective; ketone bodies, cerebral blood flow, and α-ketoglutarate may play important roles in preserving brain physiology in aging.

  7. Intracranial mechanisms for preserving brain blood flow in health and disease. (United States)

    McBryde, F D; Malpas, S C; Paton, J F R


    The brain is an exceptionally energetically demanding organ with little metabolic reserve, and multiple systems operate to protect and preserve the brain blood supply. But how does the brain sense its own perfusion? In this review, we discuss how the brain may harness the cardiovascular system to counter threats to cerebral perfusion sensed via intracranial pressure (ICP), cerebral oxygenation and ischaemia. Since the work of Cushing over 100 years ago, the existence of brain baroreceptors capable of eliciting increases in sympathetic outflow and blood pressure has been hypothesized. In the clinic, this response has generally been thought to occur only in extremis, to perfuse the severely ischaemic brain as cerebral autoregulation fails. We review evidence that pressor responses may also occur with smaller, physiologically relevant increases in ICP. The incoming brain oxygen supply is closely monitored by the carotid chemoreceptors; however, hypoxia and other markers of ischaemia are also sensed intrinsically by astrocytes or other support cells within brain tissue itself and elicit reactive hyperaemia. Recent studies suggest that astrocytic oxygen signalling within the brainstem may directly affect sympathetic nerve activity and blood pressure. We speculate that local cerebral oxygen tension is a major determinant of the mean level of arterial pressure and discuss recent evidence that this may be the case. We conclude that intrinsic intra- and extra-cranial mechanisms sense and integrate information about hypoxia/ischaemia and ICP and play a major role in determining the long-term level of sympathetic outflow and arterial pressure, to optimize cerebral perfusion.

  8. Factors That Influence a Mother's Willingness to Preserve Umbilical Cord Blood: A Survey of 5120 Chinese Mothers.

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    Haiyan Lu

    Full Text Available Umbilical Cord blood (UCB, which contains a substantive number of stem cells, could be widely used in transplants to treat a variety of oncologic, genetic, hematologic, and immunodeficiency disorders. However, only a small portion of mothers preserve or donate their UCB in China. The limited availability of UCB has hampered stem cell research and therapy nowadays. To date, no systemic investigations regarding factors that influence a mother's willingness to preserve UCB have been performed in China. In the current study, we are trying to determine those factors which will provide useful information for national health policy development and will raise awareness of the importance of UCB preservation.During 2011 to 2013, 5120 mothers with the average age of 26.1±8.4 years were included in this study. Those mothers participated in a standardized survey. The information gathered consisted of delivery time, occupation, level of education, knowledge of preservation of UCB, willingness to store UCB, and related concerns. The results have been analyzed with SPSS 16.0.The results showed that first-time mothers showed a greater willingness to preserve their UCB (73.3% compared to those having their second (48.9% or third child (40.3%. Mothers who were employed at Government Agencies and Organizations were more willing to preserve their UCB (87.3% than those employed at factories (62.0%, and those who were unemployed (27.3%. Mothers holding master's or college degrees were more willing to preserve their UCB (72.5% and 71.1%, respectively than mothers with high school diplomas (48.7% or those who only went to preliminary school or middle school (40.7%. The two strongest factors that influenced an unwillingness to preserve UCB were the high cost and concerns regarding the safety of the preservation.The results showed that mothers with higher education or those having better occupations are more likely to preserve their UCB in China. These mothers have

  9. Fresh Whole Blood Use for Hemorrhagic Shock: Preserving Benefit While Avoiding Complications (United States)


    with riboflavin and ultraviolet light does not affect platelet count or function. Transfusion 2011;51(s3):64A–65A 8. Spinella PC, Strandenes G, Rein EB...of fresh whole blood, stored whole blood, and components after open heart surgery in children . Blood 1991;77:930–6 11. Murphy S, Gardner FH. Platelet ...not affect platelet count or function. Transfusion 2011;51:64A–5A 51. Nilsson L, Hedner U, Nilsson IM, Robertson B. Shelf-life of bank blood and stored

  10. Bivalirudin is inferior to heparin in preservation of intraoperative autologous blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huet, Rolf C. G. Gallandat; Cernak, Vladimir; de Vries, Adrianus J.; Lisman, Ton


    Introduction: Bivalirudin is used as an alternative to heparin in cardiac surgery, and may be superior to heparin with regard to platelet function. Bivalirudin however, is prone to cleavage by thrombin resulting in coagulation in areas of stasis. Material and Methods: We compared the preservation of

  11. Establishing a cell biology platform: isolation and preservation of human blood products



    Dissertação para obtenção do Grau de Mestre em Genética Molecular e Biomedicina The use of human primary cells provide researchers in different areas with irrefutable more biologically relevant data than using cell lines or animal blood cells. The work was performed in the scope of the Cell Biology Services @ CEDOC, aiming to provide viable and trustful human primary cells and products. We had three main objectives: protocol optimizations for blood cell isolation, culture and cryopre...

  12. Preservation of Renal Blood Flow by the Antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-Treated Pigs

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    Sheldon Magder


    Full Text Available Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS, however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclideneethylene-diamine chloride, a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and portal vein. Animals were treated with saline (control, lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg·kg−1·h−1, EUK-134, or EUK-134 plus LPS. Results show that an LPS-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP as well as a trend towards lower blood pressure (BP were both attenuated by EUK-134. Renal blood flow decreased with LPS whereas superior mesenteric, portal and femoral flows did not change. Importantly, EUK-134 decreased the LPS-induced fall in renal blood flow and this was associated with a corresponding decrease in LPS-induced protein nitrotyrosinylation in the kidney. PO2, pH, base excess and systemic vascular resistance fell with LPS and were unaltered by EUK-134. EUK-134 also had no effect on LPS-associated increase in CO. Interestingly, EUK-134 alone resulted in higher CO, BP, PAP, mean circulatory filling pressure, and portal flow than controls. Taken together, these data support a protective role for EUK-134 in the renal circulation in sepsis.

  13. Preservation of renal blood flow by the antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-treated pigs. (United States)

    Magder, Sheldon; Parthenis, Dimitrios G; Ghouleh, Imad Al


    Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclidene)ethylene-diamine chloride), a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and portal vein. Animals were treated with saline (control), lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 10 µg·kg-1·h-1), EUK-134, or EUK-134 plus LPS. Results show that an LPS-induced increase in pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) as well as a trend towards lower blood pressure (BP) were both attenuated by EUK-134. Renal blood flow decreased with LPS whereas superior mesenteric, portal and femoral flows did not change. Importantly, EUK-134 decreased the LPS-induced fall in renal blood flow and this was associated with a corresponding decrease in LPS-induced protein nitrotyrosinylation in the kidney. PO2, pH, base excess and systemic vascular resistance fell with LPS and were unaltered by EUK-134. EUK-134 also had no effect on LPS-associated increase in CO. Interestingly, EUK-134 alone resulted in higher CO, BP, PAP, mean circulatory filling pressure, and portal flow than controls. Taken together, these data support a protective role for EUK-134 in the renal circulation in sepsis.

  14. Reduced peripheral arterial blood flow with preserved cardiac output during submaximal bicycle exercise in elderly heart failure

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    Leng Xiaoyan


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older heart failure (HF patients exhibit exercise intolerance during activities of daily living. We hypothesized that reduced lower extremity blood flow (LBF due to reduced forward cardiac output would contribute to submaximal exercise intolerance in older HF patients. Methods and Results Twelve HF patients both with preserved and reduced left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF (aged 68 ± 10 years without large (aorta or medium sized (iliac or femoral artery vessel atherosclerosis, and 13 age and gender matched healthy volunteers underwent a sophisticated battery of assessments including a peak exercise oxygen consumption (peak VO2, b physical function, c cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR submaximal exercise measures of aortic and femoral arterial blood flow, and d determination of thigh muscle area. Peak VO2 was reduced in HF subjects (14 ± 3 ml/kg/min compared to healthy elderly subjects (20 ± 6 ml/kg/min (p = 0.01. Four-meter walk speed was 1.35 ± 0.24 m/sec in healthy elderly verses 0.98 ± 0.15 m/sec in HF subjects (p p ≤ 0.03. Conclusion During CMR submaximal bike exercise in the elderly with heart failure, mechanisms other than low cardiac output are responsible for reduced lower extremity blood flow.

  15. Preservation of Renal Blood Flow by the Antioxidant EUK-134 in LPS-Treated Pigs


    Sheldon Magder; Parthenis, Dimitrios G.; Imad Al Ghouleh


    Sepsis is associated with an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), however, the precise role of ROS in the septic process remains unknown. We hypothesized that treatment with EUK-134 (manganese-3-methoxy N,N'-bis(salicyclidene)ethylene-diamine chloride), a compound with superoxide dismutase and catalase activity, attenuates the vascular manifestations of sepsis in vivo. Pigs were instrumented to measure cardiac output and blood flow in renal, superior mesenteric and femoral arteries, and...

  16. Melatonin Preserves Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity and Permeability via Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Inhibition.

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    Himakarnika Alluri

    Full Text Available Microvascular hyperpermeability that occurs at the level of the blood-brain barrier (BBB often leads to vasogenic brain edema and elevated intracranial pressure following traumatic brain injury (TBI. At a cellular level, tight junction proteins (TJPs between neighboring endothelial cells maintain the integrity of the BBB via TJ associated proteins particularly, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1 that binds to the transmembrane TJPs and actin cytoskeleton intracellularly. The pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β (IL-1β as well as the proteolytic enzymes, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9 are key mediators of trauma-associated brain edema. Recent studies indicate that melatonin a pineal hormone directly binds to MMP-9 and also might act as its endogenous inhibitor. We hypothesized that melatonin treatment will provide protection against TBI-induced BBB hyperpermeability via MMP-9 inhibition. Rat brain microvascular endothelial cells grown as monolayers were used as an in vitro model of the BBB and a mouse model of TBI using a controlled cortical impactor was used for all in vivo studies. IL-1β (10 ng/mL; 2 hours-induced endothelial monolayer hyperpermeability was significantly attenuated by melatonin (10 μg/mL; 1 hour, GM6001 (broad spectrum MMP inhibitor; 10 μM; 1 hour, MMP-9 inhibitor-1 (MMP-9 specific inhibitor; 5 nM; 1 hour or MMP-9 siRNA transfection (48 hours in vitro. Melatonin and MMP-9 inhibitor-1 pretreatment attenuated IL-1β-induced MMP-9 activity, loss of ZO-1 junctional integrity and f-actin stress fiber formation. IL-1β treatment neither affected ZO-1 protein or mRNA expression or cell viability. Acute melatonin treatment attenuated BBB hyperpermeability in a mouse controlled cortical impact model of TBI in vivo. In conclusion, one of the protective effects of melatonin against BBB hyperpermeability occurs due to enhanced BBB integrity via MMP-9 inhibition. In addition, acute melatonin treatment provides protection against BBB

  17. Blood Preservation Study. (United States)


    included a characterization of the enzymes responsible for the phosphorylation of DHA by erythrocytes, trio- kinase. The metabolism of 2,3-DPG by...measurements of platelet glycolytic enzymes , of platelet metabolic intermediates during platelet storage and after incubation under physiologic conditions...and Beutler, E. 1970. Effect of normal metabolites on the oxygen-hemoglobin equilibrium. Proc Soc " Bx,,E BJ. Mnp . 135: 389-391. 7. Beutler, E. 1971

  18. Aminoquinolone WR6026 as a feasible substitute for gentian violet in Chagas' disease prophylaxis in preserved blood for transfusional purposes. (United States)

    Moraes-Souza, Helio; Pianetti, Gisele Marilia; Barretto, Orlando César de Oliveira Pereira; Nonoyama, Kimyo; Grolg, M; Chiari, Egler


    The search for a colorless, nontoxic and efficient drug to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas' disease (TACD) has been underway unsuccessfully since 1953 when gentian violet was preconized and to date is still being used as the only in vitro trypanocidal agent. The recent findings of aminoquinolone "WR6026" as a trypanocidal agent, led the authors to study the metabolism of red cells stored with this compound, the main objective of which was to define its applicability in TACD control. Ten units of human whole blood collected in CPDA-1 were divided into two equal satellite bags. One had "WR6026" (final concentration 62.5 g/mL) added and the other was used as a control, both were stored at 4 C. At baseline, day 7, 14, 21 and 28, samples were taken for the following measurements: adenosine triphosphate (ATP), hemoglobin, electrolytes (sodium and potassium), gases (pO2 and pCO2) and osmotic fragility. The results of tests and control were analyzed through parametric t-student test. The results were similar in both groups throughout the experiment except for the level of ATP on day 14, which presented significantly higher values in the tests when compared with the controls (p = 0.012). It was concluded that WR6026 does not interfere in the preservation and probably the viability of the erythrocytes also until day 28 of storage. Consequently the authors suggest that WR6026 could emerge as a colorless substitute for gentian violet in the control of TACD in endemic areas.

  19. Aminoquinolone WR6026 as a feasible substitute for gentian violet in Chagas' disease prophylaxis in preserved blood for transfusional purposes

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    Moraes-Souza Helio


    Full Text Available The search for a colorless, nontoxic and efficient drug to prevent transfusion-associated Chagas' disease (TACD has been underway unsuccessfully since 1953 when gentian violet was preconized and to date is still being used as the only in vitro trypanocidal agent. The recent findings of aminoquinolone "WR6026" as a trypanocidal agent, led the authors to study the metabolism of red cells stored with this compound, the main objective of which was to define its applicability in TACD control. Ten units of human whole blood collected in CPDA-1 were divided into two equal satellite bags. One had "WR6026" (final concentration 62.5µg/mL added and the other was used as a control, both were stored at 4ºC. At baseline, day 7, 14, 21 and 28, samples were taken for the following measurements: adenosine triphosphate (ATP, hemoglobin, electrolytes (sodium and potassium, gases (pO2 and pCO2 and osmotic fragility. The results of tests and control were analyzed through parametric t-student test. The results were similar in both groups throughout the experiment except for the level of ATP on day 14, which presented significantly higher values in the tests when compared with the controls (p = 0.012. It was concluded that WR6026 does not interfere in the preservation and probably the viability of the erythrocytes also until day 28 of storage. Consequently the authors suggest that WR6026 could emerge as a colorless substitute for gentian violet in the control of TACD in endemic areas.

  20. Identification of lactic acid bacteria with bio-preservative potential isolated from contaminated avian blood obtained at the slaughterhouse

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    MV Zbrun


    Full Text Available Blood is a common by-product of the meat industry, which has several potential applications in the animal feed industry. However, since blood is highly susceptible to microbial spoilage, blood and its fractions are often not suitable ingredients for the feed industry. Biopreservation appears as an alternative for the improvement of blood's quality towards its use as an ingredient in foodstuff. The objective of this work was to isolate and identify Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB in avian blood obtained from industrial slaughterhouses and evaluate their antimicrobial activity. Ninety-six LAB were isolated from avian blood and genotyped. Eleven Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis groups were identified. Between two and five different species were detected in each blood sample (31 strains in all blood samples which were selected to study antagonistic activity. Twenty-eight of them produced antimicrobial compounds such as organic acids, 11 strains produced hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 and two released bacteriocin-like compounds. The latter, identified as Lactobacillus salivarius (DSPV 027SA and Enterococcus faecalis (DSPV 008SA, inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and some serotypes of Salmonella spp. These two LAB strains would be candidates for potential application as a blood biopreservation system. This biotechnological tool is cheaper than others sanitation techniques and could reduce the risk of pathogens transmission thought food chain.

  1. Preservation in 70% ethanol solution does not affect δ13C and δ15N values of reindeer blood samples – relevance for stable isotope studies of diet

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    Duncan J. Halley


    Full Text Available We compared duplicate samples of whole blood samples from 18 reindeer that were preserved either by immediate freezing or by immersion in 70 % ethanol. All samples were dried at 60 °C, powdered, treated with 1:1 chloroform: methanol, and dried again before isotope analysis. There were no differences in the values of δ13C and δ15N between the methods of preservation. Isotopic differences were absolutely small (δ13C = 0.1±0.10/00; δ15N=0.2±0.20/00, random in direction, and within the limits of analytical precision for the mass spectrometer. Preservation in ethanol thus appears to be an effective and efficient method for preserving blood samples for stable isotope analysis under field conditions. Abstract in Norwegian / Sammendrag:Konservering av blodprøver fra rein i 70% etanolløsning påvirker ikke verdiene av δ13C and δ15N–verdiene og er en fullgod metode for analyse av stabile isotoperVi sammenlignet to og to prøver av blodprøver fra 18 reinsdyr. Prøvene var enten konservert ved umiddelbar frysing eller ved bruk av 70% etanol. Alle prøver ble tørket ved 60 °C, pulverisert og behandlet med kloroform:metanol i forholdet 1:1. Til slutt ble de tørket på nytt før gjennomføring av isotopanalysen. Vi fant ingen forskjell i verdiene av δ13C and δ15N mellom de to konserveringsmetodene. I absolutte verdier var isotopforskjellene små (δ13C = 0.1±0.1 0/00; δ15N=0.2±0.2 0/00. Forskjellene var tilfeldige og innenfor grensene for massespektrometerets presisjon. Bruk av etanol framstår som en effektiv og fullgod metode til konservering av blodprøver for analyse av stabile isotoper under feltforhold.

  2. Low-sodium dietary approaches to stop hypertension diet reduces blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress in hypertensive heart failure with preserved ejection fraction. (United States)

    Hummel, Scott L; Seymour, E Mitchell; Brook, Robert D; Kolias, Theodore J; Sheth, Samar S; Rosenblum, Hannah R; Wells, Joanna M; Weder, Alan B


    Recent studies suggest that oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction contribute to heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). In salt-sensitive HFPEF animal models, diets low in sodium and high in potassium, calcium, magnesium, and antioxidants attenuate oxidative stress and cardiovascular damage. We hypothesized that the sodium-restricted Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet (DASH/SRD) would have similar effects in human hypertensive HFPEF. Thirteen patients with treated hypertension and compensated HFPEF consumed the DASH/SRD for 21 days (all food/most beverages provided). The DASH/SRD reduced clinic systolic (155-138 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (79-72 mm Hg; P=0.04), 24-hour ambulatory systolic (130-123 mm Hg; P=0.02) and diastolic blood pressure (67-62 mm Hg; P=0.02), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (12.4-11.0 m/s; P=0.03). Urinary F2-isoprostanes decreased by 31% (209-144 pmol/mmol Cr; P=0.02) despite increased urinary aldosterone excretion. The reduction in urinary F2-isoprostanes closely correlated with the reduction in urinary sodium excretion on the DASH/SRD. In this cohort of HFPEF patients with treated hypertension, the DASH/SRD reduced systemic blood pressure, arterial stiffness, and oxidative stress. These findings are characteristic of salt-sensitive hypertension, a phenotype present in many HFPEF animal models and suggest shared pathophysiological mechanisms linking these 2 conditions. Further dietary modification studies could provide insights into the development and progression of hypertensive HFPEF.

  3. Blood (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  4. Preserved Collateral Blood Flow in the Endovascular M2CAO Model Allows for Clinically Relevant Profiling of Injury Progression in Acute Ischemic Stroke (United States)

    Little, Philip; Kvist, Ola; Grankvist, Rikard; Jonsson, Stefan; Damberg, Peter; Söderman, Michael; Arnberg, Fabian; Holmin, Staffan


    Interventional treatment regimens have increased the demand for accurate understanding of the progression of injury in acute ischemic stroke. However, conventional animal models severely inhibit collateral blood flow and mimic the malignant infarction profile not suitable for treatment. The aim of this study was to provide a clinically relevant profile of the emergence and course of ischemic injury in cases suitable for acute intervention, and was achieved by employing a M2 occlusion model (M2CAO) that more accurately simulates middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion in humans. Twenty-five Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to Short (90 min), Intermediate (180 min) or Extended (600 min) transient M2CAO and examined longitudinally with interleaved diffusion-, T2- and arterial spin labeling perfusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging before and after reperfusion. We identified a rapid emergence of cytotoxic edema within tissue regions undergoing infarction, progressing in several distinct phases in the form of subsequent moderation and then reversal at 230 min (p < 0.0001). We identified also the early emergence of vasogenic edema, which increased consistently before and after reperfusion (p < 0.0001). The perfusion of the penumbra correlated more strongly to the perfusion of adjacent tissue regions than did the perfusion of regions undergoing infarction (p = 0.0088). This was interpreted as an effect of preserved collateral blood flow during M2CAO. Accordingly, we observed only limited recruitment of penumbra regions to the infarction core. However, a gradual increase in infarction size was still occurring as late as 10 hours after M2CAO. Our results indicate that patients suffering MCA branch occlusion stand to benefit from interventional therapy for an extended time period after the emergence of ischemic injury. PMID:28068417

  5. Detraining differentially preserved beneficial effects of exercise on hypertension: effects on blood pressure, cardiac function, brain inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

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    Deepmala Agarwal

    Full Text Available AIMS: This study sought to investigate the effects of physical detraining on blood pressure (BP and cardiac morphology and function in hypertension, and on pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (PICs and AIC and oxidative stress within the brain of hypertensive rats. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hypertension was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by delivering AngiotensinII for 42 days using implanted osmotic minipumps. Rats were randomized into sedentary, trained, and detrained groups. Trained rats underwent moderate-intensity exercise (ExT for 42 days, whereas, detrained groups underwent 28 days of exercise followed by 14 days of detraining. BP and cardiac function were evaluated by radio-telemetry and echocardiography, respectively. At the end, the paraventricular nucleus (PVN was analyzed by Real-time RT-PCR and Western blot. ExT in AngII-infused rats caused delayed progression of hypertension, reduced cardiac hypertrophy, and improved diastolic function. These results were associated with significantly reduced PICs, increased AIC (interleukin (IL-10, and attenuated oxidative stress in the PVN. Detraining did not abolish the exercise-induced attenuation in MAP in hypertensive rats; however, detraining failed to completely preserve exercise-mediated improvement in cardiac hypertrophy and function. Additionally, detraining did not reverse exercise-induced improvement in PICs in the PVN of hypertensive rats; however, the improvements in IL-10 were abolished. CONCLUSION: These results indicate that although 2 weeks of detraining is not long enough to completely abolish the beneficial effects of regular exercise, continuing cessation of exercise may lead to detrimental effects.

  6. Software preservation

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    Tadej Vodopivec


    Full Text Available Comtrade Ltd. covers a wide range of activities related to information and communication technologies; its deliverables include web applications, locally installed programs,system software, drivers, embedded software (used e.g. in medical devices, auto parts,communication switchboards. Also the extensive knowledge and practical experience about digital long-term preservation technologies have been acquired. This wide spectrum of activities puts us in the position to discuss the often overlooked aspect of the digital preservation - preservation of software programs. There are many resources dedicated to digital preservation of digital data, documents and multimedia records,but not so many about how to preserve the functionalities and features of computer programs. Exactly these functionalities - dynamic response to inputs - render the computer programs rich compared to documents or linear multimedia. The article opens the questions on the beginning of the way to the permanent digital preservation. The purpose is to find a way in the right direction, where all relevant aspects will be covered in proper balance. The following questions are asked: why at all to preserve computer programs permanently, who should do this and for whom, when we should think about permanent program preservation, what should be persevered (such as source code, screenshots, documentation, and social context of the program - e.g. media response to it ..., where and how? To illustrate the theoretic concepts given the idea of virtual national museum of electronic banking is also presented.

  7. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve blood and urine samples from astronauts collected during flight, Chromologic (CL) proposes to develop a novel Fluid...

  8. Novel Fluid Preservation System Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for a method to preserve human biological samples, mostly blood and urine, from astronauts collected during flight under ambient conditions,...

  9. Digital preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Deegan, Marilyn


    Digital preservation is an issue of huge importance to the library and information profession right now. With the widescale adoption of the internet and the rise of the world wide web, the world has been overwhelmed by digital information. Digital data is being produced on a massive scale by individuals and institutions: some of it is born, lives and dies only in digital form, and it is the potential death of this data, with its impact on the preservation of culture, that is the concern of this book. So how can information professionals try to remedy this? Digital preservation is a complex iss

  10. Effect of red blood cell preservation on blood transfusion in patients with β-thalassemia major of red blood cell%红细胞保存时长对重型β地中海贫血输血效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 侯振娇


    Objective To evaluate the effect of red blood cell preservation on blood transfusion in patients with β-thalassemia major.Methods From February 2010 to December 2015,68 children with β-thalassemia major in 6 hospitals of Kaifeng were selected.The patients were randomly divided into 3 d group and 17 d group according to the number table method,with 34 cases in each group.The patients in the 3 d group accepted the blood preservation after 3 days without white blood cell,and the patients in the 17 d group received blood preservation after 17 days without white blood cell.Concentration of hemoglobin and body weight per kilograms hemoglobin concentration improvement were compared between the two groups before blood transfusion and 24 h,14 days after blood transfusion,and the adverse reactions after transfusion were compared.Results Twenty-four hours after blood transfusion,the hemoglobin concentration in the 3 d group was significantly higher than that in the 17 d group,the difference was significant(P <0.05).Fourteen days after transfusion,there was no significant difference in hemoglobin concentration between the two groups (P > 0.05).Twenty-four hours and 14 days after blood transfusion,body mass blood red protein increasement of body weight per kilograms in the 3 d group was significantly higher than that in the 17 d group,the difference was significant(P < O.05).The hemolytic reaction,rash and non hemolytic febrile transfusion reaction rate of the 3 d group were lower than those of the 17 d group,and the incidence of adverse reactions of 3 d group was significantly lower than that of 17 d group,the difference was significant(P <0.05).Conclusions The effect of preservation of red blood cells with 3 d is significantly higher than that of red blood cells with 17 d,and the adverse reactions of the red blood cells with the preservation of 3 d are significantly lower than those of the red blood cells with 17 d,fresh red blood cells should be used in the process

  11. Digital Preservation. (United States)

    Yakel, Elizabeth


    Reviews research on digital preservation issues, including born-digital and digitally recreated documents. Discusses electronic records research; metadata and other standards; electronic mail; Web-based documents; moving images media; selection of materials for digitization, including primary sources; administrative issues; media stability…

  12. Genetic profiling of tumours using both circulating free DNA and circulating tumour cells isolated from the same preserved whole blood sample. (United States)

    Rothwell, Dominic G; Smith, Nigel; Morris, Daniel; Leong, Hui Sun; Li, Yaoyong; Hollebecque, Antoine; Ayub, Mahmood; Carter, Louise; Antonello, Jenny; Franklin, Lynsey; Miller, Crispin; Blackhall, Fiona; Dive, Caroline; Brady, Ged


    Molecular information obtained from cancer patients' blood is an emerging and powerful research tool with immense potential as a companion diagnostic for patient stratification and monitoring. Blood, which can be sampled routinely, provides a means of inferring the current genetic status of patients' tumours via analysis of circulating tumour cells (CTCs) or circulating tumour DNA (ctDNA). However, accurate assessment of both CTCs and ctDNA requires all blood cells to be maintained intact until samples are processed. This dictates for ctDNA analysis EDTA blood samples must be processed with 4 h of draw, severely limiting the use of ctDNA in multi-site trials. Here we describe a blood collection protocol that is amenable for analysis of both CTCs and ctDNA up to four days after blood collection. We demonstrate that yields of circulating free DNA (cfDNA) obtained from whole blood CellSave samples are equivalent to those obtained from conventional EDTA plasma processed within 4 h of blood draw. Targeted and genome-wide NGS revealed comparable DNA quality and resultant sequence information from cfDNA within CellSave and EDTA samples. We also demonstrate that CTCs and ctDNA can be isolated from the same patient blood sample, and give the same patterns of CNA enabling direct analysis of the genetic status of patients' tumours. In summary, our results demonstrate the utility of a simple approach that enabling robust molecular analysis of CTCs and cfDNA for genotype-directed therapies in multi-site clinical trials and represent a significant methodological improvement for clinical benefit.

  13. Effect of preservation of remnant attachment on the blood flow of tendinous graft in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction%保留残迹前交叉韧带重建对移植物血流量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李士光; 吴波; 赵宗峤; 孙磊


    [目的]探讨保留残迹重建前交叉韧带对移植物血流量恢复的影响.[方法] 48只新西兰兔一期行双侧前交叉韧带重建术,一侧保留韧带残端纤维,对侧切除韧带残端纤维.重建术后6、12、18、24周时,采用SPE-CT、激光多普勒血流计定量检测移植物血流量恢复情况.[结果]重建术后6周时SPE-CT检测结果显示保留残迹组移植物血流量较切除残迹组明显增加(P<0.05).重建术后6、12周时激光多普勒检测发现保留残迹组移植物血流量明显高于对照组(P<0.05).[结论]保留残迹重建前交叉韧带可以促进移植物血流量恢复.%[Objective]To study the effect of preservation of remnant attachment on the blood flow of tendinous graft after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction in a rabbit model. [Method] Forty-eight New Zealand rabbits were involved and both knees of rabbits received transection of anterior cruciate ligament simultaneously. One knee was reconstructed with the preservation of residual attachment of ligament, and the contralateral one was treated with the debridement of remnant attachment. The 6, 12, 18, and 24 weeks after reconstruction, the blood flow of tendinous graft was observed in vivo by SPE-CT and laser doppler flow meter respectively. [Result] The blood flow of grafts in remnant-saved group by SPE-CT testing was significantly increased the 6 weeks after reconstruction as compared with that of remnant-debrided group ( P < 0. 05 ) . Furthermore, the 6 and 12 weeks after reconstruction the blood flows of grafts were found higher in the remnant-saved group than that of control by laser doppler flow meter (P<0. 05). [ Conclusion ] The preservation of remnant attachment in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction could facilitate the recovery of blood supply of tendinous graft.

  14. Preserving Chile


    Brennand, Charlotte P.


    The best way to preserve chile depends on how you plan to use it and your available storage space. Frozen or canned chile is best for chile rellenos and salsas. Stews can use frozen, canned or dried chile. Dried chile has minimal storage requirements and is light-weight for taking on camping trips. Pickled chiles can be used on a relish plate or as an ingredient in other dishes.

  15. Preservation Priority

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China ratified the UNESCO Convention Concerning the Protection of World Cultural and Natural Heritage in 1985. This set the tone for a course of action aimed at protecting the common heritage of mankind in tandem with the international community. Recently, Chao Huashan, a renowned expert on world heritage studies in China, spoke to Beijing Review reporter Zan Jifang, sharing his understanding about the value of the World Heritage Convention and his suggestions for China’s future work on preserving its heritage. Excerpts follow:

  16. 两种不同配方保养液血袋制备冷沉淀效果评价%Effect of cryoprecipitate prepared by two different preservation solution blood bags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Objective To investigate the differences in cryoprecipitates prepared by 2 different blood bags of preservation solution so as to guarantee cryoprecipitate quality for clinical use. Methods Blood from blood donors in accordance with GB 18467-2001 Inspection Requirements for Health of Blood Donors was collected in quad blood bag filled with preservation solution of 2 different formulas and randomly divided into two groups,group A with blood bag of CPDA( anticoagulant; citrate,phosphate,glucose,adenine,imported from overseas) and group B with Blood Bag of ACD (anticoagulant: citrate, glucose, adenine, purchased from home). Factor Ⅷ and fibrinogen of 40 samples in each group were measured to obtain results for statistic analysis. Results The cryoprecipitates were prepared by factor Ⅷ (82. 6 ± 0. 05) IU in fresh frozen plasma 200 ml in group A and by factor Ⅷ (81. 2 ± 0.048) IU in fresh frozen plasma 200 ml in group B( P >0. 2) ,as well as fibrinogen(157. 5 ±0. 691) mg in fresh frozen plasma 200 ml in group A and fibrinogen (152. 3 ± 0. 036) IU in fresh frozen plasma 200 ml in group B(P > 0. 5). Conclusion Cryoprecipitates prepared from 2 different blood bags of preservation solution report no statistic difference,with both factor Ⅲ and fibrinogen content in accordance with national standards.%目的 确认两种不同配方保养液血袋制备的冷沉淀是否存在差异,保证临床使用的冷沉淀质量.方法 符合GB 18467-2001《献血者健康检查要求》的献血者血液采集于两种不同配方保养液的四联血袋,CPDA配方血袋(抗凝剂为枸橼酸盐-磷酸盐-葡萄糖-腺嘌呤,进口材料)为甲血袋,ACD血袋(抗凝剂为枸橼酸盐-葡萄糖,国产材料)为乙血袋,随机抽取两种血袋所制备的冷沉淀各40例,分别为甲组和乙组,检测其中Ⅷ因子和纤维蛋白原含量,结果进行统计学分析.结果 两种保养液血袋制备的冷沉淀中,Ⅷ因子含量甲组(82.6±0.05) IU/200 ml新

  17. Inhibition of C5a-induced inflammation with preserved C5b-9-mediated bactericidal activity in a human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sprong, T.; Brandtzaeg, P.; Fung, M.; Pharo, A.M.; Hoiby, E.A.; Michaelsen, T.E.; Aase, A.; Meer, J.W.M. van der; Deuren, M. van; Mollnes, T.E.


    The complement system plays an important role in the initial defense against Neisseria meningitidis. In contrast, uncontrolled activation in meningococcal sepsis contributes to the development of tissue damage and shock. In a novel human whole blood model of meningococcal sepsis, we studied the effe

  18. [Bacteriological control of blood preservation, production of infusion solutions and dry human plasma under conditions of aseptic work and possible sources of their contamination]. (United States)

    Bosković, S; Lucić, N; Aganović, N; Grbić, E


    In premises for blood conservation, production of dry human plasma and infusion solutions "notwithstanding the permanent measures for desinfection, new bacterial contamination occurs from time to time and whose source are the casings and material originating from non-sterile environment. Bacteriological control, which has primarily a preventive character, enables a due forecast for measures to be undertaken by the appropriate desinfection of the working surfaces and air, satisfactory conditions of aseptic work can be maintained. General hygiene should be paid attention to as well as mechanical cleansing of premises, avoidance of groups for lunch-time etc., since the treatment by desinfectors would not be sufficient for maintenance of aseptic working conditions. In order to prevent the transmission of bacterial contamination, premises for blood conservation should be strictly separated from other operations and also prevent the unnecessary movements of personnel through corridors. The results of the bacteriological control of the personnel show that greater attention should be paid to their health care since the workers there work in closed aseptic systems and thus avoid them as a bacteria transmittors in respect to danger of blood and dry human plasma contamination. It is also necessary to efficiently educate the personnel for work in aseptic conditions and also increase their elementary knowledge from bacteriology and hygiene. The bacterial skin-flora on the spot of donor's venepuncture also presents a certain danger for blood contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most optimal manner of skin desinfecate together with the most appropriate means having a fast bactericidal and fungicidal action. It would also be useful, on the basis of further test, to suggest certain standard for an allowed number of conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms which would be used by the instutions performing the blood transfusion and production of

  19. Data Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Meghini


    Full Text Available Digital information is a vital resource in our knowledge economy, valuable for research and education, science and the humanities, creative and cultural activities, and public policy (The Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, 2010. New high-throughput instruments, telescopes, satellites, accelerators, supercomputers, sensor networks, and running simulations are generating massive amounts of data (Thanos, 2011. These data are used by decision makers for improving the quality of life of citizens. Moreover, researchers are employing sophisticated technologies to analyse these data to address questions that were unapproachable just a few years ago (Helbing & Balietti, 2011. Digital technologies have fostered a new world of research characterized by immense datasets, unprecedented levels of openness among researchers, and new connections among researchers, policy makers, and the public (The National Academy of Sciences, 2009.

  20. Power Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galster, Kjeld

    Power Preservation (Abstract) In the 17th century, just as today, coalitions needed ‘lead nations’. This was assumed to be a power with great military and economic potentials, and Denmark endeavoured to act as such a leader in the Thirty Years War from 1626 to 28. The results were not encouraging...... in the military field and they were disastrous as far as fiscal matters were concerned. Sweden took over the leadership of the protestant side and she took over Denmark’s place amongst the great powers of the Baltic Region. From that time onwards, Danish influence and options on the international stage gradually...... declined. Thus, Denmark of the 17th century is not to be counted amongst the great powers, but since Christian V’s accession to the throne in 1670 Denmark-Norway has developed into one of Europe’s most highly militarised states. Apart from a permanently combat ready navy, the country maintains a standing...

  1. Coagulation Function of Stored Whole Blood is Preserved for 14 Days in Austere Conditions: A ROTEM Feasibility Study During a Norwegian Antipiracy Mission and Comparison to Equal Ratio Reconstituted Blood (United States)


    deployment registry, and names, blood type and titers, and upon presentation to the donation site were asked to identify themselves, fill out a simplified...personnel (and, presumably, hostiles) were male. The donors were placed in a half-supine position on a dining table for phlebotomy procedures. Capil- lary...and the donor/ transfusion form procedures were adequate. No out -of-range TABLE 1. Donor Blood Types and Sample Sizes Crew N Crew A 0 low 13 24 0 high

  2. [New frontiers in myocardial preservation]. (United States)

    Juffe Stein, A


    The high hospital mortality due to primary graft failure, together with the ever more frequent use of "Suboptimum" donors because of the scarcity of organs has, in the recent years, caused renewed interest in perfectioning techniques of cardiac preservation. The numerous studies supporting the benefits of a period of controlled warm reperfusion after global ischemia, and the growth of the continuous warm blood cardioplegia, led us to the evolution of our own technique for myocardial protection during transplantation. Dr John Wallwork introduced the concept of donor "resuscitation" in the attempt to improve the hemodynamic state of the donor, by preload and afterload manipulation and pharmacological treatment of the unstable or "marginal" donor. The Juan Canalejo Hospital introduced the concept "Resuscitation during the implantation" using continuous warm blood cardioplegia. Maintenance of normothermia during heart transplantation produces what is referred to as "cell repair" or "resuscitation during the implantation" and avoid the reperfusion damage. From january 1992 to april 1995, 91 orthotopic heart transplantation were performed at our institution. By harvesting we have employed the conventional preservation technique. We performed a controlled continuous anterograde/retrograde warm blood cardioplegic reperfusion of the graft, before and during the implantation in 53 patients. Since january 1994 we performed in 38 cases the same controlled continuous warm blood reperfusion, but only anterograde. Continuous warm blood cardioplegia in heart transplantation is a safety myocardial protection method. Trasplant programs require the optimal use of the available donors.

  3. Catfish Preservation using Porphyra Yezoensis Composites Preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Gang Qian


    Full Text Available This study aims to preserve fresh catfish meat by using Porphyra Yezoensis extract, chitosan and lactic acid Nisin. The composite preservative obtained by sensory evaluation can effectively maintain the color, odor and texture of fresh catfish meat, as well as inhibit bacterial growth. Results show that treatment using a preservative solution (Porphyra Yezoensis extract 10%, Nisin 0.2% and chitosan 15% extended the shelf life of the fresh catfish meat from 12 h to 24 h when stored at room temperature and from 6 d to 9 d when stored at 4°C. These results provide a practical method of preserving fresh catfish meat.

  4. Blood Types (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  5. [Preservatives in ophthalmology]. (United States)

    Messmer, E M


    Preservatives are a legal requirement for eye drops in multidose containers. Moreover, they are necessary for stabilization and intraocular penetration for a number of ophthalmic preparations. Most preservatives act in a relatively unspecific manner as detergents or by oxidative mechanisms and thereby cause side effects at the ocular surface. They may also affect the lens, trabecular meshwork and the retina. Benzalkonium chloride is the most commonly used preservative in ophthalmology and is more toxic than other or newer preservatives, such as polyquaternium-1 (Polyquad), sodium perborate, oxychloro-complex (Purite®) and SofZia. Preservative-free topical medication is highly recommended for patients with ocular surface disease, frequent eye drop administration, proven allergy to preservatives and contact lens wear.

  6. Preserving Digital Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Harvey, Ross


    This book provides a single-volume introduction to the principles, strategies and practices currently applied by librarians and recordkeeping professionals to the critical issue of preservation of digital information. It incorporates practice from both the recordkeeping and the library communities, taking stock of current knowledge about digital preservation and describing recent and current research, to provide a framework for reflecting on the issues that digital preservation raises in professional practice.

  7. Modes of fossil preservation (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.


    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  8. Fertility Preservation for Female

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jack Huang; Seang Lin Tan; Ri-Cheng Chian


    Preservation of female fertility is an important issue today. However, there are few effective clinical options for preserving female fertility. Firstly, conventional in vitro fertilization (IVF) followed by embryo cryopreservation is an accepted procedure but is not applicable to all women. Embryo freezing is suitable only for women with a male partner and may not be acceptable to some patients due to moral and religious reasons. Ovarian tissue freezing is another option of female fertility preservation but is an invasive procedure and the efficacy of this technique remains to be determined.Oocyte cryopreservation is also method for fertility preservation. Egg freezing is minimally invasive and can avoid the ethical and moral concerns related to cryopreservation of embryos. However, conventional slow freezing/rapid thawing methods are associated with low survival of oocytes. Recent development in vitrification of oocytes appears promising. Therefore, vitrification of unfertilized eggs may be a novel method to preserve female fertility.

  9. Self-preserving cosmetics. (United States)

    Varvaresou, A; Papageorgiou, S; Tsirivas, E; Protopapa, E; Kintziou, H; Kefala, V; Demetzos, C


    Preservatives are added to products for two reasons: first, to prevent microbial spoilage and therefore to prolong the shelf life of the product; second, to protect the consumer from a potential infection. Although chemical preservatives prevent microbial growth, their safety is questioned by a growing segment of consumers. Therefore, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. In these formulations traditional/chemical preservatives have been replaced by other cosmetic ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to the Annex VI of the Commission Directive 76/768/EEC and the amending directives (2003/15/EC, 2007/17/EC and 2007/22/EC). 'Hurdle Technology', a technology that has been used for the control of product safety in the food industry since 1970s, has also been applied for the production of self-preserving cosmetics. 'Hurdle Technology' is a term used to describe the intelligent combination of different preservation factors or hurdles to deteriorate the growth of microorganisms. Adherence to current good manufacturing practice, appropriate packaging, careful choice of the form of the emulsion, low water activity and low or high pH values are significant variables for the control of microbial growth in cosmetic formulations. This paper describes the application of the basic principles of 'Hurdle Technology' in the production of self-preserving cosmetics. Multifunctional antimicrobial ingredients and plant-derived essential oils and extracts that are used as alternative or natural preservatives and are not listed in Annex VI of the Cosmetic Directive are also reported.

  10. Chronopolis Digital Preservation Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Minor


    Full Text Available The Chronopolis Digital Preservation Initiative, one of the Library of Congress’ latest efforts to collect and preserve at-risk digital information, has completed its first year of service as a multi-member partnership to meet the archival needs of a wide range of domains.Chronopolis is a digital preservation data grid framework developed by the San Diego Supercomputer Center (SDSC at UC San Diego, the UC San Diego Libraries (UCSDL, and their partners at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR in Colorado and the University of Maryland's Institute for Advanced Computer Studies (UMIACS.Chronopolis addresses a critical problem by providing a comprehensive model for the cyberinfrastructure of collection management, in which preserved intellectual capital is easily accessible, and research results, education material, and new knowledge can be incorporated smoothly over the long term. Integrating digital library, data grid, and persistent archive technologies, Chronopolis has created trusted environments that span academic institutions and research projects, with the goal of long-term digital preservation.A key goal of the Chronopolis project is to provide cross-domain collection sharing for long-term preservation. Using existing high-speed educational and research networks and mass-scale storage infrastructure investments, the partnership is leveraging the data storage capabilities at SDSC, NCAR, and UMIACS to provide a preservation data grid that emphasizes heterogeneous and highly redundant data storage systems.In this paper we will explore the major themes within Chronopolis, including:a The philosophy and theory behind a nationally federated data grid for preservation. b The core tools and technologies used in Chronopolis. c The metadata schema that is being developed within Chronopolis for all of the data elements. d Lessons learned from the first year of the project.e Next steps in digital preservation using Chronopolis: how we

  11. VT Historic Preservation Grant (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The State-funded Historic Preservation Grant Program helps municipalities and non-profit organizations rehabilitate the historic buildings that are a vital part of...

  12. Digital preservation for heritages

    CERN Document Server

    Lu, Dongming


    ""Digital Preservation for Heritages: Technologies and Applications"" provides a comprehensive and up-to-date coverage of digital technologies in the area of cultural heritage preservation, including digitalization, research aiding, conservation aiding, digital exhibition, and digital utilization. Processes, technical frameworks, key technologies, as well as typical systems and applications are discussed in the book. It is intended for researchers and students in the fields of computer science and technology, museology, and archaeology. Dr. Dongming Lu is a professor at College of Computer Sci

  13. Historic Preservation Information CFM Website (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — The VA Historic Preservation Office keeps information about VA's programs to comply with Federal preservation requirements, and also interesting information about VA...

  14. Food Preservation beyond the Season. (United States)

    Hanes, Phyllis


    Examines how current scientific knowledge of food preservation emerged from traditions handed down through the generations. Discusses various methods of preservation, their history, and current application. (LZ)

  15. Saliva Preservative for Diagnostic Purposes (United States)

    Pierson, Duane L.; Mehta, Satish K.


    Saliva is an important body fluid for diagnostic purposes. Glycoproteins, glucose, steroids, DNA, and other molecules of diagnostic value are found in saliva. It is easier to collect as compared to blood or urine. Unfortunately, saliva also contains large numbers of bacteria that can release enzymes, which can degrade proteins and nucleic acids. These degradative enzymes destroy or reduce saliva s diagnostic value. This innovation describes the formulation of a chemical preservative that prevents microbial growth and inactivates the degradative enzymes. This extends the time that saliva can be stored or transported without losing its diagnostic value. Multiple samples of saliva can be collected if needed without causing discomfort to the subject and it does not require any special facilities to handle after it is collected.

  16. Training for Preservation Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjam M. Foot


    Full Text Available In August 1997 the first of a series of summer schools in Preservation Management was held at the Archivschule in Marburg (Germany. The school was organised by the ECPA, the LIBER Division on Preservation, ICA and the Archivschule itself and was aimed at archivists and librarians in management positions from European institutions. It dealt with managerial, organisational and financial aspects of preservation and required active participation by those attending. Apart from introductory sessions by the teaching staff at the Archivschule, a large part of the course took the form of working groups, discussions, assignments and role play, to which participants were expected to take their own experience and problems. The school was conducted in German. Topics, spread over five days, ranged from preservation in the context of the core activities of libraries and archives; planning of preservation projects; general management issues, such as resource management, budgeting, priority setting, communication and effecting change; to more detailed considerations of day-to-day issues, such as storage, disaster control, microfilming and digitising, mass conservation processes, and moulds and fungi.

  17. Blood sugar test - blood (United States)

    ... blood glucose level ( hypoglycemia ) may be due to: Hypopituitarism (a pituitary gland disorder) Underactive thyroid gland or ... tonic-clonic seizure Glucagon blood test Glucagonoma Hyperthyroidism Hypopituitarism Hypothyroidism Insulinoma Low blood sugar Multiple endocrine neoplasia ( ...

  18. Mass Preserving Image Registration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, V.; Sporring, J.; Lo, P.;


    The paper presents results the mass preserving image registration method in the Evaluation of Methods for Pulmonary Image Registration 2010 (EMPIRE10) Challenge. The mass preserving image registration algorithm was applied to the 20 image pairs. Registration was evaluated using four different...... scores: lung boundary alignment, major fissure lignment, landmark alignment and transform singularity scores. The registration algorithm achieved an average landmark alignment score of 2.20 } 2.05 mm and the median of 1.29 mm. In 19 out of 20 image pairs, the method produced invertible deformations....... Overall, the masspreserving image registration method was ranked 20th out of 34 participants...

  19. Advanced Digital Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Giaretta, David


    There is growing recognition of the need to address the fragility of digital information, on which our society heavily depends for smooth operation in all aspects of daily life. This has been discussed in many books and articles on digital preservation, so why is there a need for yet one more? Because, for the most part, those other publications focus on documents, images and webpages -- objects that are normally rendered to be simply displayed by software to a human viewer. Yet there are clearly many more types of digital objects that may need to be preserved, such as databases, scientific da

  20. Cancer and fertility preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lambertini, Matteo; Del Mastro, Lucia; Pescio, Maria C


    in Genova (Italy) to participate in a workshop on the topic of "cancer and fertility preservation". A total of ten controversial issues were discussed at the conference. Experts were asked to present an up-to-date review of the literature published on these topics and the presentation of own unpublished...... data was encouraged. On the basis of the data presented, as well as the expertise of the invited speakers, a total of ten recommendations were discussed and prepared with the aim to help physicians in counseling their young patients interested in fertility preservation.Although there is a great...

  1. Moving Image Preservation in Libraries. (United States)

    De Stefano, Paula


    Examines the current practices of film and video preservation in libraries and examines barriers that have hindered the development of full-fledged preservation programs for them. Topics include advances in education and training; preservation paradigms; and mechanics of film production that affect preservation. (Author/LRW)

  2. Transplacental passage of antimicrobial paraben preservatives. (United States)

    Towers, Craig V; Terry, Paul D; Lewis, David; Howard, Bobby; Chambers, Wesley; Armistead, Casey; Weitz, Beth; Porter, Stephanie; Borman, Christopher J; Kennedy, Rebekah C M; Chen, Jiangang


    Parabens are widely used preservatives suspected of being endocrine disruptors, with implications for human growth and development. The most common paraben found in consumer products is methylparaben. To date, no study has examined whether these substances cross the human placenta. A total of 100 study subjects (50 mother-child pairs) were enrolled at two medical institutions, serving primarily African-American and Caucasian women, respectively. A maternal blood sample was drawn on admission and a paired cord blood sample was obtained at delivery. Of the 50 mothers, 47 (94%) showed methylparaben in their blood (mean level 20.41 ng/l), and 47 in cords bloods (mean level 36.54 ng/l). There were 45 mother-child pairs where methylparaben was found in both samples. Of these, the fetal level was higher than the maternal level in 23 (51%). For butylparaben, only 4 mothers (8%) showed detectable levels (mean 40.54 ng/l), whereas 8 cord blood samples (16%) were positive (mean 32.5 ng/l). African-American mothers and infants showed higher prevalence of detectable levels (P=0.017). Methylparaben and butylparaben demonstrate transplacental passage. Additional studies are needed to examine potential differences in exposure by geography and demographics, what products are used by pregnant women that contain these preservatives, as well as any potential long-term effects in the growth and development of exposed children.

  3. Effect of Preservation Conditions on the Quality of Whole Blood Genomic DNA%保存条件对提取全血基因组DNA质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕晓岩; 杨志岗


    Objective To compare the quality of genomic DNA extracted from fresh and frozen whole blood.Methods 300 μL fresh whole blood samples were applied to extract the genomic DNA using whole blood genomic DNA Extraction Kit. The samples also were frozen at -75℃ for three months, and then the genomic DNA was extracted by the same method. UV spectrophotometer, electrophoresis and PCR were used to detect the purity and quantity.Results The total genomic DNA extracted from fresh and frozen blood samples were (16.2±12.12)μg and (7.94±4.18)μg, respectively, the A260/A280 purity was: (1.85±0.01) and (1.84±0.02). Conclusion The total genomic DNA extracted from fresh blood samples was signiifcantly more than that from frozen blood samples, while the purity was observed with no signiifcant difference between the two groups. In this way, low temperature freezing could decrease the yield of genomic DNA from whole blood cells.%目的:比较从新鲜和冻存全血中提取基因组DNA的效果。方法分别取300μL抗凝新鲜和-75℃冻存3个月的血样,用全血基因组DNA提取试剂盒抽提基因组DNA,通过紫外分光光度计、电泳、PCR进行检测。结果抗凝新鲜和冻存血样提取的基因组DNA总量分为:(16.62±12.12)μg和(7.94±4.18)μg;纯度分别为(1.85±0.01)和(1.84±0.02)。结论新鲜血样提取的基因组DNA总量要高于冻存血样差异显著,纯度无显著差别,低温冷冻保存使提取全血基因组DNA的产量降低。

  4. Preservation in New Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Kitching


    Full Text Available In the United Kingdom (as in many other countries increasing attention is being paid to the importance of each library and archive having a written preservation strategy endorsed by its governing body. So increasingly we are asking: where does „preservation“ begin and what are its top priorities? Some would say preservation begins with the definition of collecting policies to ensure that only relevant items are acquired in the first place, and therefore that no unnecessary costs are incurred on the long-term care of unwanted and unconsulted items. Others might argue that the first priority must be the careful appraisal of existing holdings to determine their preservation and conservation requirements and to prioritise their treatment. Or should preservation begin with damage-limitation: restricting the physical handling of books and documents, on the one hand by providing whenever possible surrogate copies in digital formats or microform, and on the other hand by offering at least basic protection through appropriate boxing and packaging? This, surely, goes hand-in-hand with the education of staff and readers about the importance of treating rare or unique materials with proper respect.

  5. Preserving Southwest Virginia's Folklore. (United States)

    Burgin, Ramond


    Describes Southwest Virginia's rich tradition of folklore and culture and the need for its preservation. Summarizes the author's time-consuming process of preparing an inventory and indexing the vast archival collections gathered by students in American Folklore classes at Mountain Empire Community College and by the Southwest Virginia Folklore…

  6. Paints and Preservatives. (United States)

    Powell, Larry E.; Miller, Larry E.

    The publication contains an outline for use by agriculture teachers in developing a teaching plan for a unit on paints and preservatives. The topics included are (1) recognizing, solving, and preventing paint problems and (2) operating and using power spray painting equipment. Items presented for each topic are: the situation, (intended to inform…

  7. Educating for preserving biodiversity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Méndez, I. E.


    Full Text Available The notion of “culture of diversity” is presented in a new dimension. “That of educating for preserving biodiversity” is advanced together with its main challenges. The need of educating the masses for preserving biodiversity is perhaps the most outstanding to be faced, particularly if pedagogic requirements and the diversity of population is to be met. Likewise, it should help to put individuals in contact with the many elements conforming biodiversity and lead them to recognize its value ethically and esthetically. The research presents the framework for designing educating programs enhancing the genetic level, the ecosystem and the qualitative dimension and including materials and energy flood and its meaning for the homeostasis and autopoiesis of the system, together with its interactions with other components for achieving an equilibrium and stability. The importance of the natural evolution tendency is highlighted.

  8. Patch test with preservatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kar Sumit


    Full Text Available Of the 705 patients patch tested between March 88 to March 91, 317 were tested for sensitivity to preservatives with antigens obtained from Chemo technique AB, Sweden. Paraben was the commonest sensitizer (22.4% followed by Groton B K (8.1% and Triclosan (6.5%. We stress the need to consider these allergens as source of dermatitis and advocate complete labelling of topical preparations marketed.

  9. Small amounts of tissue preserve pancreatic function (United States)

    Lu, Zipeng; Yin, Jie; Wei, Jishu; Dai, Cuncai; Wu, Junli; Gao, Wentao; Xu, Qing; Dai, Hao; Li, Qiang; Guo, Feng; Chen, Jianmin; Xi, Chunhua; Wu, Pengfei; Zhang, Kai; Jiang, Kuirong; Miao, Yi


    Abstract Middle-segment preserving pancreatectomy (MPP) is a novel procedure for treating multifocal lesions of the pancreas while preserving pancreatic function. However, long-term pancreatic function after this procedure remains unclear. The aims of this current study are to investigate short- and long-term outcomes, especially long-term pancreatic endocrine function, after MPP. From September 2011 to December 2015, 7 patients underwent MPP in our institution, and 5 cases with long-term outcomes were further analyzed in a retrospective manner. Percentage of tissue preservation was calculated using computed tomography volumetry. Serum insulin and C-peptide levels after oral glucose challenge were evaluated in 5 patients. Beta-cell secreting function including modified homeostasis model assessment of beta-cell function (HOMA2-beta), area under the curve (AUC) for C-peptide, and C-peptide index were evaluated and compared with those after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and total pancreatectomy. Exocrine function was assessed based on questionnaires. Our case series included 3 women and 2 men, with median age of 50 (37–81) years. Four patients underwent pylorus-preserving PD together with distal pancreatectomy (DP), including 1 with spleen preserved. The remaining patient underwent Beger procedure and spleen-preserving DP. Median operation time and estimated intraoperative blood loss were 330 (250–615) min and 800 (400–5500) mL, respectively. Histological examination revealed 3 cases of metastatic lesion to the pancreas, 1 case of chronic pancreatitis, and 1 neuroendocrine tumor. Major postoperative complications included 3 cases of delayed gastric emptying and 2 cases of postoperative pancreatic fistula. Imaging studies showed that segments representing 18.2% to 39.5% of the pancreas with good blood supply had been preserved. With a median 35.0 months of follow-ups on pancreatic functions, only 1 patient developed new-onset diabetes mellitus of the 4

  10. The influence of storage time and preserving temperature on infant children′s peripheral blood cell count%放置时间及保存温度对幼儿末梢全血细胞计数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秋瑾; 王宇


    目的 探讨放置时间、保存温度对2~6岁幼儿末梢全血细胞计数结果的影响,以指导体检工作流程的合理安排.方法 取40名幼儿末梢全血用乙二胺四乙酸三钾(EDTA-K3)抗凝,分组标记后保存于不同温度中.应用ABX-Micros 60全自动血液分析仪,将分装标本分别在0.5、4、8和10 h测定.结果 保存于室温和4 ℃冰箱冷藏环境下,随着放置时间的延长,白细胞(WBC)、红细胞(RBC)、平均血小板体积(MPV)、血小板分布宽度(PDW)、淋巴细胞百分率(LY)均有逐渐上升的趋势;血小板(PLT)计数、中性粒细胞百分率(GRA)均有下降的趋势.标本于室温8 h 及4 ℃冷藏10 h以后检测结果与对照组比较,大多数指标差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05).10 h时室温与4 ℃冷藏放置2组数据比较,大多数指标差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 标本放置时间及保存温度对幼儿末梢全血细胞计数结果中的一些参数有明显影响,在4 h之内检测,室温与4 ℃冷藏2种环境对检测结果无明显影响;末梢血标本放置在4 ℃冷藏条件下10 h内完成检测还是可行的.%Objective To investigate the influence of storage time and preserving temperature on 2-6 years old infant children's peripheral blood cell count, and improve the process of health examination. Methods 40 cases of infant children's peripheral blood specimens were anticoagulated by ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-K3 (EDTA-K3 ).The blood specimens were classified and stored in different temperatures after being labeled. The blood specimens were determined by ABX-Mieros 60 at 0.5, 4,8 and 10 h respectively. Results The levels of white blood cell ( WBC), red blood cell (RBC), mean platelet volume (MPV), platelet distribution width (PDW), lymphocyte% (LY) were increased, and platelet (PLT) and nentrophilicgranulocyte % (GRA) were decreased with prolonging storage time in room temperature and refrigerator 4 ℃. After 8 h in room temperature and


    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A micro-structured optical fibre having a cladding comprising a number of elements having a non-circular cross-section. Each element has at least one part extending outside a circle having the same cross-sectional area as the element. These extending parts are directed in the same direction....... This cladding structure provides polarisation preserving properties to the optical fibre. Optical fibres using this technology may have claddings with elements placed non-periodically as well as in a two-dimensional periodic lattice - such as cladding providing Photonic Band Gap (PBG) effects....

  12. A simple technique for long-term preservation of leptospires. (United States)

    Samir, Ahmed; Wasfy, Momtaz O


    The viability of six serovars of Leptospira spp. was studied after long storage at -70°C. The bacteria were either preserved in Ellinghausen-McCullough-Johnson-Harris (EMJH) liquid growth medium or in sheep blood added as a cryoprotectant. The viability of the strains was observed on a monthly basis by dark-ground microscopy over a period of 20 months at -70°C. Addition of sheep blood was not significantly advantageous, since leptospires that were stored in EMJH showed a slight increase in number after recovery. The results suggest a very simple and useful technique for long-term preservation of such Leptospira.

  13. Neurotization of Denervated Muscle With Preserved Blood Supply%去神经带血管肌肉移植后神经再支配的实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏刚; 刘贵麟; 王德文


    研究了大白鼠去神经带血管骨骼肌移植后的神经再生过程,同时对切除肌膜和保留肌膜神经再生的结果进行了比较.经过术后不同时期进行的肌电图、组织学、组织化学及电子显微镜等项检查,结果显示:①去神经带血管移植肌可以通过一个正常神经支配的肌肉获得神经支配.②这一过程是通过肌肉神经再支配的方式进行.③去神经带血管肌肉移植后4周即出现初期神经再支配的证据,14周后神经再支配已比较完全.④移植肌的筋膜妨碍神经再生过程,移植前必须予以切除.%This study was designed to search for some further information about the reinnervtion of the denervated but vascular preserved skeletal muscle by muscular neurotization.In our experiment,rats were assigned randomly to either of two groups:the group with the muscle fascia intact and the group with the muscle fascia removed.The fibularis nerve being removed,the fibularis longus muscle was transplanted to the gastrocnemiu muscle.At different times after operation,the grafted muscle was studied under electromyogram,electronic microscope and histological and histochemical examination.The results showed that the grafted muscle was reinnervated completely by tibialis nerve in the group with muscle fascia removed,however only few reinnervation occurred in the group with muscle fascia intact.It is concluded that muscle fascia is an obstacle to reinnervation.In order to achieve a successful reinnervation,the muscle fascia must be removed.The findings agree with the clinical results.

  14. Preserving reptiles for research (United States)

    Gotte, Steve W.; Jacobs, Jeremy F.; Zug, George R.; Dodd, C. Kenneth


    What are voucher specimens and why do we collect them? Voucher specimens are animals and/or their parts that are deposited in a research museum to document the occurrence of a taxon at a specific location in space and time (Pleijel et al., 2008; Reynolds and McDiarmid, 2012). For field biologists, vouchers are the repeatable element of a field study as they allow other biologists, now and in the future, to confirm the identity of species that were studied. The scientific importance of a voucher specimen or series of specimens is that other people are afforded the opportunity to examine the entire animal and confirm or correct identifications. A photographic record is somewhat useful for recording the occurrence of a species, but such records can be insufficient for reliable confirmation of specific identity. Even if a photo shows diagnostic characters of currently recognized taxa, it may not show characters that separate taxa that may be described in the future. Substantial cryptic biodiversity is being found in even relatively well-known herpetofaunas (Crawford et al., 2010), and specimens allow researchers to retroactively evaluate the true diversity in a study as understanding of taxonomy evolves. They enable biologists to study the systematic relationships of populations by quantifying variation in different traits. Specimens are also a source of biological data such as behaviour, ecology, epidemiology, and reproduction through examination of their anatomy, reproductive and digestive tracts, and parasites (Suarez and Tsutsui, 2004). Preserving reptiles as vouchers is not difficult, although doing it properly requires care, effort, and time. Poorly preserved vouchers can invalidate the results and conclusions of your study because of the inability to confirm the identity of your study animals. Good science requires repeatability of observations, and the absence of vouchers or poorly preserved ones prevents such confirmation. Due to space restrictions, we are

  15. Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Lavialle, Olivier; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick


    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  16. Seismic fault preserving diffusion (United States)

    Lavialle, Olivier; Pop, Sorin; Germain, Christian; Donias, Marc; Guillon, Sebastien; Keskes, Naamen; Berthoumieu, Yannick


    This paper focuses on the denoising and enhancing of 3-D reflection seismic data. We propose a pre-processing step based on a non-linear diffusion filtering leading to a better detection of seismic faults. The non-linear diffusion approaches are based on the definition of a partial differential equation that allows us to simplify the images without blurring relevant details or discontinuities. Computing the structure tensor which provides information on the local orientation of the geological layers, we propose to drive the diffusion along these layers using a new approach called SFPD (Seismic Fault Preserving Diffusion). In SFPD, the eigenvalues of the tensor are fixed according to a confidence measure that takes into account the regularity of the local seismic structure. Results on both synthesized and real 3-D blocks show the efficiency of the proposed approach.

  17. Antarctic science preserve polluted (United States)

    Simarski, Lynn Teo

    Geophysicists are alarmed at the electromagnetic pollution of a research site in the Antarctic specifically set aside to study the ionosphere and magnetosphere. A private New Zealand communications company called Telecom recently constructed a satellite ground station within the boundaries of this Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI), protected since the mid-1970s. The placement of a commercial facility within this site sets an ominous precedent not only for the sanctity of other SSSIs, but also for Specially Protected Areas—preserves not even open to scientific research, such as certain penguin rookeries.The roughly rectangular, one-by-one-half mile site, located at Arrival Heights not far from McMurdo Station, is one of a number of areas protected under the Antarctic treaty for designated scientific activities. Many sites are set aside for geological or biological research, but this is the only one specifically for physical science.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    COVER STORY The Chinese art of paper cutting has long been a popular pastime in the country’s rural areas.For more than 1,000 years,farming families have used it as a method for decorating their homes,but the tradition has struggled for survival in recent years.In Yanchuan County in China’s northwestern Shaanxi Province,however,the art form has experienced a revival thanks to the efforts of a local woman.Paper cutting master Gao Fenglian has invested her own money in establishing a paper cutting gallery in the region.The craft’s growing popularity has also fuelled a new wave of people wanting to learn how to cut.More than 10,000 of the county’s 200,000 are now skilled in the ancient craft,and its revival could serve as a model for the preservation of other Chinese traditions.

  19. Evaluation of Bit Preservation Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Kulovits, Hannes


    This article describes a methodology which supports evaluation of bit preservation strategies for different digital materials. This includes evaluation of alternative bit preservation solution. The methodology presented uses the preservation planning tool Plato for evaluations, and a BR...... for different digital material with different requirements for bit integrity and confidentiality. This case shows that the methodology, including the tools used, is useful for this purpose....

  20. Modelling Organizational Preservation Goals to Guide Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert


    Full Text Available This paper is an extended and updated version of the work reported at iPres 2008. Digital preservation activities can only succeed if they go beyond the technical properties of digital objects. They must consider the strategy, policy, goals, and constraints of the institution that undertakes them and take into account the cultural and institutional framework in which data, documents and records are preserved. Furthermore, because organizations differ in many ways, a one-size-fits-all approach cannot be appropriate. Fortunately, organizations involved in digital preservation have created documents describing their policies, strategies, work-flows, plans, and goals to provide guidance. They also have skilled staff who are aware of sometimes unwritten considerations. Within Planets (Farquhar & Hockx-Yu, 2007, a four-year project co-funded by the European Union to address core digital preservation challenges, we have analyzed preservation guiding documents and interviewed staff from libraries, archives, and data centres that are actively engaged in digital preservation. This paper introduces a conceptual model for expressing the core concepts and requirements that appear in preservation guiding documents. It defines a specific vocabulary that institutions can reuse for expressing their own policies and strategies. In addition to providing a conceptual framework, the model and vocabulary support automated preservation planning tools through an XML representation.

  1. Privacy Preserving Data Publishing: A Classification Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A N K Zaman


    Full Text Available The concept of privacy is expressed as release of information in a controlled way. Privacy could also be defined as privacy decides what type of personal information should be released and which group or person can access and use it. Privacy Preserving Data Publishing (PPDP is a way to allow one to share anonymous data to ensure protection against identity disclosure of an individual. Data anonymization is a technique for PPDP, which makes sure the published data, is practically useful for processing (mining while preserving individuals sensitive information. Most works reported in literature on privacy preserving data publishing for classification task handle numerical data. However, most real life data contains both numerical and non-numerical data. Another shortcoming is that use of distributed model called Secure Multiparty Computation (SMC. For this research, a centralized model is used for independent data publication by a single data owner. The key challenge for PPDP is to ensure privacy as well as to keep the data usable for research. Differential privacy is a technique that ensures the highest level of privacy for a record owner while providing actual information of the data set. The aim of this research is to develop a framework that satisfies differential privacy standards and to ensure maximum data usability for a classification tasks such as patient data classification in terms of blood pressure.

  2. Assessment of blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide levels in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction%射血分数正常的心力衰竭患者全血N-末端脑钠肽前体浓度变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈广胜; 徐崇利; 张郁青; 林涛


    Objectives To assess ihe changes of blood N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-pro-BNP) levels in patients with heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFPEF). Methods Totally 78 patients with cardiovascular diseases were classified into three groups: 22 cases with normal heart function, 33 cases with HFPEF and 23 cases with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFREF). Blood NT-pro-BNP levels were measured and echoeardiograms were performed in all patients. Results Blood NT-pro-BNP levels in patients with HFPEF were significantly higher than those in patients with normal heart function [(1 424+996 )pg/mL vs. (167+ 117 )pg/mL,P<0.01 ] and significantly lower than those in patients with HFREF [(1 424±996)mg/L vs. (5 910±2828)mg/L,P<0.01 ]. For heart failure patients, blood NT-pro-BNP levels were negatively correlated with ejection fraction (r=—0.72,P<0.01 ), positively correlated with left atrial diameter (r=0.34,-P<0.05), left end-diastolic ventricular diameter (r=0.61 ,P<0.05) , left end-systolic ventricular diameter (r=0.62,P<0.05) and E/A ratio (r=0.40, P<0.05). Conclusions Compared with that of HFREF, HFPEF is associated with a less elevated level of NT-pro-BNP.%目的 评估射血分数正常的心力衰竭(心衰)患者全血N-末端脑钠肽前休(N-terminal pro-brain natriureticpeptide,NT-pro-BNP)浓度的变化.方法 入选78例心脏病患者分为3组:心功能正常组22例,射血分数正常心衰(heart failure with preserved ejection fretion,HFPEF)组33例,射血分数减低心衰(heart failure with reduced ejection fraction,HFREF)组23例.测定患者的全血NT-pro-BNP浓度并进行超声心动图检查.结果 HFPEF组患者全血NT-proBNP浓度高于心功能正常组[(1 424±996)pg/mL vs.(167±117) pg/mL,P<0.01],低于HFREF组[(1 424±996)mg/L vs.(5 910±2 828)mg/L,P<0.01],差异有统计学意义.心衰患者全血NT-proBNP浓度与射血分数呈负相关(r=-0.72,P<0.01),与左心房内径(r=0.34,P<0.05)

  3. Blood smear (United States)

    ... some red blood cells shaped like spheres ( hereditary spherocytosis ) Increased breakdown of RBCs Presence of RBCs with ... normal Red blood cells, elliptocytosis Red blood cells, spherocytosis Acute lymphocytic leukemia - photomicrograph Red blood cells, multiple ...

  4. Blood culture (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  5. Blood Thinners (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  6. Blood transfusions (United States)

    ... this page: // Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  7. Preservation Methods for Digital Library (United States)

    Rajendran, L.; Venkatesan, M.; Kanthimathi, S.


    Going digital is the way to minimize handling of damaged materials, but the imaging process is demanding and must be done with oversight by preservation staff and with a high enough level of quality to ensure the reusability of the archival electronic file for as long as possible. This paper focuses on the scope and needs of digital preservation,…

  8. User Experience and Heritage Preservation (United States)

    Orfield, Steven J.; Chapman, J. Wesley; Davis, Nathan


    In considering the heritage preservation of higher education campus buildings, much of the attention gravitates toward issues of selection, cost, accuracy, and value, but the model for most preservation projects does not have a clear method of achieving the best solutions for meeting these targets. Instead, it simply relies on the design team and…

  9. Contact dermatitis caused by preservatives. (United States)

    Yim, Elizabeth; Baquerizo Nole, Katherine L; Tosti, Antonella


    Preservatives are biocidal chemicals added to food, cosmetics, and industrial products to prevent the growth of microorganisms. They are usually nontoxic and inexpensive and have a long shelf life. Unfortunately, they commonly cause contact dermatitis. This article reviews the most important classes of preservatives physicians are most likely to encounter in their daily practice, specifically isothiazolinones, formaldehyde and formaldehyde-releasers, iodopropynyl butylcarbamate, methyldibromoglutaronitrile, and parabens. For each preservative mentioned, the prevalence of sensitization, clinical presentation of contact dermatitis, patch testing concentrations, cross reactions, and related legislation will be discussed. Mandatory labeling of preservatives is required in some countries, but not required in others. Until policies are made, physicians and patients must be proactive in identifying potential sensitizers and removing their use. We hope that this article will serve as a guide for policy makers in creating legislation and future regulations on the use and concentration of certain preservatives in cosmetics and industrial products.

  10. Comparison of Preservation Solutions for Washout of Kidney Grafts: An Experimental Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.C.J.M. Schreinemachers; B.M. Doorschodt; S. Florquin; R.H. Tolba


    Objective. The impact of different preservation solutions for washout of kidney grafts was evaluated regarding temperature, kidney weight, remaining red blood cells (RBCs) and histological evaluation after ex vivo washout using 500 mL cold preservation solution at 4 degrees C followed by 24 hours co

  11. Bit Preservation: A Solved Problem?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David S. H. Rosenthal


    Full Text Available For years, discussions of digital preservation have routinely featured comments such as “bit preservation is a solved problem; the real issues are ...”. Indeed, current digital storage technologies are not just astoundingly cheap and capacious, they are astonishingly reliable. Unfortunately, these attributes drive a kind of “Parkinson’s Law” of storage, in which demands continually push beyond the capabilities of systems implementable at an affordable price. This paper is in four parts:Claims, reviewing a typical claim of storage system reliability, showing that it provides no useful information for bit preservation purposes.Theory, proposing “bit half-life” as an initial, if inadequate, measure of bit preservation performance, expressing bit preservation requirements in terms of it, and showing that the requirements being placed on bit preservation systems are so onerous that the experiments required to prove that a solution exists are not feasible.Practice, reviewing recent research into how well actual storage systems preserve bits, showing that they fail to meet the requirements by many orders of magnitude.Policy, suggesting ways of dealing with this unfortunate situation.

  12. [Blood reinfusion in treatment of thoracic and abdominal trauma]. (United States)

    Baramiia, N M; Antoniuk, M H; Dorosh, V M; Zavorits'kyĭ, O O; Sheptyts'kyĭ, V V; Pachkoriia, A V


    The experience of application of the blood reinfusion in complex of reanimational measures in treatment of 280 injured persons with thoracoabdominal damage in an acute period of trauma was summarized. Reinfusion was done in 42.8% of operated injured persons, promoting to preserve 243.1 l of preserved blood and simplifying rendering the assistance in an acute period of trauma.

  13. Contamination versus preservation of cosmetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, Michael Dyrgaard; Moesby, Lise; Zachariae, Claus


    Cosmetics with high water content are at a risk of being contaminated by micro-organisms that can alter the composition of the product or pose a health risk to the consumer. Pathogenic micro-organisms such as Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa are frequently found in contaminated...... cosmetics. In order to avoid contamination of cosmetics, the manufacturers add preservatives to their products. In the EU and the USA, cosmetics are under legislation and all preservatives must be safety evaluated by committees. There are several different preservatives available but the cosmetic market...

  14. Blood Donation (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Blood donation By Mayo Clinic Staff Blood donation is a voluntary procedure. You agree to have blood drawn so that it can ... have a disease that requires blood components. Blood donation makes all of this possible. There are several ...


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CHARTRAND, RICK [Los Alamos National Laboratory


    The authors show that using a nonconvex penalty term to regularize image reconstruction can substantially improve the preservation of object shapes. The commonly-used total-variation regularization, {integral}|{del}u|, penalizes the length of the object edges. They show that {integral}|{del}u|{sup p}, 0 < p < 1, only penalizes edges of dimension at least 2-p, and thus finite-length edges not at all. We give numerical examples showing the resulting improvement in shape preservation.

  16. A Black Hole Life Preserver

    CERN Document Server

    Gott, J R; Freedman, Deborah L.


    Since no one lives forever, all a life preserver can really do is prolong life for longer than would have otherwise been the case. With this rather limited definition in mind we explore in this paper whether in principle you can take a life preserver with you to protect you (for a while at least) against the tidal forces encountered on a trip inside a black hole.

  17. Symmetries in Connection Preserving Deformations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher M. Ormerod


    Full Text Available e wish to show that the root lattice of Bäcklund transformations of the q-analogue of the third and fourth Painlevé equations, which is of type (A_2+A_1^{(1}, may be expressed as a quotient of the lattice of connection preserving deformations. Furthermore, we will show various directions in the lattice of connection preserving deformations present equivalent evolution equations under suitable transformations. These transformations correspond to the Dynkin diagram automorphisms.

  18. Hereditary History Preserving Bisimilarity Is Undecidable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurdzinski, Marcin; Nielsen, Mogens


    History preserving bisimilarity (hp-bisimilarity) and hereditary history preserving bisimilarity (hhp-bisimilarity) are behavioural equivalences taking into account causal relationships between events of concurrent systems. Their prominent feature is being preserved under action refinement...

  19. Donating Blood (United States)

    ... can't get an infection or disease from giving blood. The needles and other equipment used are sterile ... part of blood (plasma) within 72 hours after giving blood. It generally takes about 4–8 weeks to ...

  20. Tratamento endovascular de aneurisma da artéria renal por embolização com micromolas preservando o fluxo sangüíneo renal: relato de caso Endovascular treatment of renal artery aneurysm using microcoil embolization and renal blood flow preservation: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Aurélio Cardozo


    Full Text Available O tratamento endovascular da doença aneurismática da artéria renal tem sido, cada vez mais, aceito como uma alternativa à cirurgia convencional, especialmente em casos de aneurismas complexos intra-parenquimatosos ou que comprometam a bifurcação da artéria renal. Os autores relatam a experiência do tratamento endovascular de uma paciente com aneurisma sacular da bifurcação da artéria renal direita, associado à hipertensão renovascular de difícil controle. Foi realizada a cateterização seletiva da artéria renal, com a inserção de micromolas no saco aneurismático. O aneurisma foi completamente ocluído com preservação total do fluxo sanguíneo renal. A evolução clínica foi satisfatória com redução significativa das medicações anti-hipertensivas. A angio-tomografia de controle, após o oitavo mês do procedimento, confirmou o sucesso do tratamento.Endovascular treatment of renal artery aneurysmal disease has been increasingly accepted as an alternative to conventional surgery, especially in cases of renal artery bifurcation or complex intrarenal aneurysms. The authors report a case of endovascular treatment of a saccular aneurysm of the right renal artery bifurcation associated with poorly controlled renovascular hypertension. Selective catheterization of the renal artery was performed and microcoils were inserted into the aneurysmal sac. The aneurysm was completely obliterated with total preservation of renal blood flow. Clinical evolution was satisfactory with significant reduction in anti-hypertensive drugs. Control tomographic angiography, after eight months, confirmed treatment success.

  1. Fertility preservation in Turner syndrome. (United States)

    Grynberg, Michaël; Bidet, Maud; Benard, Julie; Poulain, Marine; Sonigo, Charlotte; Cédrin-Durnerin, Isabelle; Polak, Michel


    Premature ovarian insufficiency is a relatively rare condition that can appear early in life. In a non-negligible number of cases the ovarian dysfunction results from genetic diseases. Turner syndrome (TS), the most common sex chromosome abnormality in females, is associated with an inevitable premature exhaustion of the follicular stockpile. The possible or probable infertility is a major concern for TS patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The severely reduced follicle pool even during prepubertal life represents the major limit for fertility preservation and is the root of numerous questions regarding the competence of gametes or ovarian tissue crybanked. In addition, patients suffering from TS show higher than usual rates of spontaneous abortion, fetal anomaly, and maternal morbidity and mortality, which should be considered at the time of fertility preservation and before reutilization of the cryopreserved gametes. Apart from fulfillment of the desire of becoming genetic parents, TS patients may be potential candidates for egg donation, gestational surrogacy, and adoption. The present review discusses the different options for preserving female fertility in TS and the ethical questions raised by these approaches.

  2. New alternatives to cosmetics preservation. (United States)

    Papageorgiou, S; Varvaresou, A; Tsirivas, E; Demetzos, C


    In recent years, there is a considerable interest in the development of preservative-free or self-preserving cosmetics. The aim of our work was to develop new cosmetic formulations by replacing chemical preservatives with ingredients with antimicrobial properties that are not legislated as preservatives according to Annex VI of Commission Directive 76/768/EEC. This paper describes the preservative efficacy of the well-known antimicrobial extracts of Lonicera caprifoleum and Lonicera japonica in combination with glyceryl caprylate and/or levulinic acid, p-anisic acid, and ethanol. We prepared a series of acidic (pH = 5.5) aqueous and O/W formulations, i.e., tonic lotion, shampoo, shower gel, conditioning cream, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk and peeling cream, containing (0.2% w/w) Lonicera extracts, alone in the case of tonic lotion and in combination with (1% w/w) glyceryl caprylate in the other products, and we performed challenge tests according to the European Pharmacopoeia procedures and criteria. Formulations such as shampoo, shower gel, and conditioning cream fulfilled criterion A, while tonic lotion, anticellulite cream, cleansing milk, and peeling cream fulfilled criterion B, in regard to contamination from A. niger. Furthermore, we evaluated the efficacy of the antimicrobial systems in two states of use: the intact product and after three weeks of consumer use. The results showed that A. niger was also detected during use by consumers in the products that satisfied only criterion B in challenge tests. The addition of antimicrobial fragrance ingredients such (safe during use. The small quantity (5% w/w) of ethanol gave an important assistance in order to boost the self-preserving system and to produce stable and safe products.

  3. Fibres and cellular structures preserved in 75-million-year-old dinosaur specimens. (United States)

    Bertazzo, Sergio; Maidment, Susannah C R; Kallepitis, Charalambos; Fearn, Sarah; Stevens, Molly M; Xie, Hai-nan


    Exceptionally preserved organic remains are known throughout the vertebrate fossil record, and recently, evidence has emerged that such soft tissue might contain original components. We examined samples from eight Cretaceous dinosaur bones using nano-analytical techniques; the bones are not exceptionally preserved and show no external indication of soft tissue. In one sample, we observe structures consistent with endogenous collagen fibre remains displaying ∼ 67 nm banding, indicating the possible preservation of the original quaternary structure. Using ToF-SIMS, we identify amino-acid fragments typical of collagen fibrils. Furthermore, we observe structures consistent with putative erythrocyte remains that exhibit mass spectra similar to emu whole blood. Using advanced material characterization approaches, we find that these putative biological structures can be well preserved over geological timescales, and their preservation is more common than previously thought. The preservation of protein over geological timescales offers the opportunity to investigate relationships, physiology and behaviour of long extinct animals.

  4. Polarization-preserving holey fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Broeng, Jes; Mogilevtsev, Dmitri; Libori, Stig E. Barkou


    In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization......In this work we suggest and discuss a microstructure of air capillaries with elliptical cross-section in a tread of glass that gives opportunity for Creation of polarization-preserving fiber with very small beat length between the fundamental modes of different polarization...

  5. Active preservation - otherwise no archives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Norberg, E. [National Swedish Archives, Stockholm (Sweden)


    The role and history of national and regional archives in Sweden is discussed. It is noted that large portions of our cultural heritage can not be set aside for long-term preservation due to several facts: Some events are never documented, Important records are never set aside, Important information is stored on media that are not suitable for long-term preservation, Information can not be accessed due to inadequate search aids, Eliminations are made due to lack of space. Strategies for an action plan to save valuable material are briefly outlined, and the importance of international cooperation is stressed.

  6. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman


    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  7. Artificial blood. (United States)

    Sarkar, Suman


    Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  8. Implementing Metadata that Guide Digital Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Dappert


    Full Text Available Effective digital preservation depends on a set of preservation services that work together to ensure that digital objects can be preserved for the long-term. These services need digital preservation metadata, in particular, descriptions of the properties that digital objects may have and descriptions of the requirements that guide digital preservation services. This paper analyzes how these services interact and use these metadata and develops a data dictionary to support them.

  9. Preservation and Archives in Vietnam. (United States)

    Henchy, Judith

    This report, based on visits to Vietnamese libraries and archives between 1987 and 1997, examines the largely unexplored corpus of Vietnamese textual resources in research institutions and libraries there and elsewhere, the associated problems of bibliographic control, and issues of preservation. The following topics are addressed: the history of…

  10. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives. (United States)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C; Moesby, L


    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives and known allergens of various potency [diazolidinyl urea, methylchloroisothiazolinone/methylisothiazolinone (MCI/MI), methylisothiazolinone (MI) and phenoxyethanol] was tested alone and in various combinations of two or three preservatives together. The preservatives were tested for minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values and possible synergy using fractional inhibitory concentration. MCI/MI was the only preservative showing low-level MIC against all four tested microorganisms: Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Different combinations of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C. albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well as 10-20 times below the maximum permitted concentrations. By using combinations of preservatives, effective preservation can be achieved with lower concentrations of allergenic preservatives.

  11. Hybrid Food Preservation Program Improves Food Preservation and Food Safety Knowledge (United States)

    Francis, Sarah L.


    The growing trend in home food preservation raises concerns about whether the resulting food products will be safe to eat. The increased public demand for food preservation information led to the development of the comprehensive food preservation program, Preserve the Taste of Summer (PTTS). PTTS is a comprehensive hybrid food preservation program…

  12. Blood Clots (United States)

    ... or prevent blood clots from dissolving properly. Risk factors for excessive blood clotting include Certain genetic disorders Atherosclerosis Diabetes Atrial fibrillation Overweight, obesity, and metabolic syndrome Some medicines Smoking deep vein ...

  13. Blood Transfusion (United States)

    ... to their work or home. The availability of plastic bags that can have one or more satellite bags ... in preparing the donated blood. The use of plastic bags allows the blood center to make a variety ...

  14. Low-level efficacy of cosmetic preservatives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundov, M D; Johansen, J D; Zachariae, C


    Preservation using combinations of preservatives has several advantages. This study shows that the concentration of some of the most frequently used allergenic preservatives can be markedly lowered when they are combined with phenoxyethanol. The antimicrobial efficacy of cosmetic preservatives...... of the preservatives indicated additive effects against the microorganisms. No combination of preservatives showed any inhibitory action on each other. Challenge tests with different concentrations and combinations were performed in a cosmetic cream. Diazolidinyl urea and MCI/MI alone were ineffective against C....... albicans in a challenge test at concentrations up to 16 times higher than the observed MIC values. When combining phenoxyethanol with either one of the allergenic preservatives diazolidinyl urea, MCI/MI or MI, the cosmetic cream was adequately preserved at concentrations well below the preservatives' MIC values as well...

  15. Preservation Planning in the OAIS Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The OAIS model has gained widespread acceptance as the fundamental design reference model for an archival system by the digital library community.One of its core entities is Preservation Planning,for which central functional entities are given yet without every detail breaking down into activities requirements.The Planets Preservation Planning approach addresses this by providing a way to make informed and accountable decisions on which preservation strategy to implement in order to most suitably preserve digital objects for a given preservation context.It allows the explicit definition of requirements and goals and offers a systematic way to evaluate preservation strategies.This paper shows the implementation of the Develop Preservation Strategies and Standards function of the OAIS model through the Planets Preservation Planning approach.Moreover,the paper examines the information flows within the OAIS Preservation Planning entity and with other functional entities with respect to the Planets model.

  16. Preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. (United States)

    Canfield, Paul C; Bud'ko, Sergey L


    A large swath of quantum critical and strongly correlated electron systems can be associated with the phenomena of preserved entropy and fragile magnetism. In this overview we present our thoughts and plans for the discovery and development of lanthanide and transition metal based, strongly correlated systems that are revealed by suppressed, fragile magnetism, quantum criticality, or grow out of preserved entropy. We will present and discuss current examples such as YbBiPt, YbAgGe, YbFe2Zn20, PrAg2In, BaFe2As2, CaFe2As2, LaCrSb3 and LaCrGe3 as part of our motivation and to provide illustrative examples.

  17. The Preservation of Adobe Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Plian


    Full Text Available Whether built in the 17th or in the 20th centuries, adobe buildings share common problems of maintenance and deterioration. These types of buildings represent today in Romania a traditional house for country people. It also makes recommendations for preserving adobe buildings. By its composition, adobe construction is inclined to deteriorate; however, the buildings can be made durable and renewable when properly maintained.



    Guedes, AMM; Novello, D; Mendes, GMD; Cristianini, M


    ULTRAVIOLET TECHNOLOGY FOR FOOD PRESERVATION This literature review article had as objective to gather information about ultraviolet (UV) technology utilization on the food industry, its effects and potential application. Aspects as the origin, concept and applications of the technology on the equipment industry and running mechanisms were approached. The application of UV radiation on food decontamination is still little used due its low penetration, but it is known that it can be easily app...

  19. Food Preservation by Irradiation (Rev.)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urrows, Grace M.


    Up to 30% of food harvests are lost in some parts of the world because of animal pests and microorganisms. Nuclear techniques can help reduce and extend the shelf life of these foods. Around 55 countries now have food irradiation programs. The use of radiation is the most recent step in man's attempts to preserve some of his harvest for the lean part of the year.

  20. Blood Facts and Statistics (United States)

    ... Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts about the blood ... to Top Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells ...

  1. Phase-preserved optical elevator (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Han, Tiancheng; Chen, Zhi; Duan, Yubo; Chu, Chia-Wei; Barbastathis, George; Qiu, Cheng Wei


    The unique superiority of transformation optics devices designed from coordinate transformation is their capability of recovering both ray trajectory and optical path length in light manipulation. However, very few experiments have been done so far to verify this dual-recovery property from viewpoints of both ray trajectory and optical path length simultaneously. The experimental difficulties arise from the fact that most previous optical transformation optics devices only work at the nano-scale; the lack of intercomparison between data from both optical path length and ray trajectory measurement in these experiments obscured the fact that the ray path was subject to a subwavelength lateral shift that was otherwise not easily perceivable and, instead, was pointed out theoretically [B. Zhang et al. Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 233903, (2010)]. Here, we use a simple macroscopic transformation optics device of phase-preserved optical elevator, which is a typical birefringent optical phenomenon that can virtually lift an optical image by a macroscopic distance, to demonstrate decisively the unique optical path length preservation property of transformation optics. The recovery of ray trajectory is first determined with no lateral shift in the reflected ray. The phase preservation is then verified with incoherent white-light interferometry without ambiguity and phase unwrapping. PMID:23546046

  2. Preservation Is Not a Place

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Abrams


    Full Text Available Normal 0 The Digital Preservation Program of the California Digital Library (CDL is engaged in a process of reinvention involving significant transformations of its outlook, effort, and infrastructure. This includes a re-articulation of its mission in terms of digital curation, rather than preservation; encouraging a programmatic, rather than a project-oriented approach to curation activities; and a renewed emphasis on services, rather than systems. This last shift was motivated by a desire to deprecate the centrality of the repository as place. Having the repository as the locus for curation activity has resulted in the deployment of a somewhat cumbersome monolithic system that falls short of desired goals for responsiveness to rapidly changing user needs and operational and administrative sustainability. The Program is pursuing a path towards a new curation environment based on the principle of devolving curation function to a set of small, simple, loosely coupled services. In considering this new infrastructure, the Program is relying upon a highly deliberative process starting from first principles drawn from library and archival science. This is followed by a stagewise progression of identifying core preservable values, devising strategies promoting those values, defining abstract services embodying those strategies, and, finally, developing systems that instantiate those services. This paper presents a snapshot of the Program's transformative efforts in its early phase.

  3. Power Preservation Friendly Congestion Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ittipong Khemapech


    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks (WSNs are an important area with a major technological impact. Power preservation is one of the important issues in communication protocol development for WSNs. This article presents a review of Event-to-Sink Reliable Transport (ESRT which is specifically developed for an event-based WSNs application. Five characteristic regions and corresponding algorithms have been proposed in ESRT. At the end of each cycle, the reliability is observed and the data reporting rate is adjusted accordingly. Two main contributions of this study include an evaluation of the algorithms proposed by ESRT on their capabilities of power preservation and convergence to the optimal state where a sink receives a desired number of received packets and there is no congestion. According to the results, all of the algorithms demonstrate profound reporting rate adjustments. Moreover, both transmitting and receiving powers can be significantly preserved in the case when the sources generated more packets than required and the network is congested. Therefore, the proposed algorithms unlikely require any enhancements. Moreover, ESRT is analysed how well it can fit in some of the existing WSNs applications. The application category which may deploy ESRT is the event detection and tracking where complete reliability is not required.

  4. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun


    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  5. Tailor made preservation strategies : Food Innovation Concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankestijn, J.


    High quality, long shelf life, clean label, less salt: food must comply with many requirements. From genomics and mild preservation to a ‘Quick Scan’ for process hygiene, TNO helps manufacturers to develop a tailor made preservation strategy.


    The objective of this project was to evaluate the potential synergistic combinations of environmentally-safe biocides as wood preservatives. These wood preservatives could be potential replacements for the heavy-metal based CCA.Didecyldimethylammonium chloride [DDAC] was...

  7. Digital preservation technology for cultural heritage

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Mingquan; Wu, Zhongke


    ""Digital Preservation Technology for Cultural Heritage"" discusses the technology and processes in digital preservation of cultural heritage. It covers topics in five major areas: Digitization of cultural heritage; Digital management in the cultural heritage preservation; Restoration techniques for rigid solid relics; Restoration techniques for paintings; Digital museum. It also includes application examples for digital preservation of cultural heritage. The book is intended for researchers, advanced undergraduate and graduate students in Computer Graphics and Image Processing as well as Cu

  8. Preservation management for libraries, archives and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Gorman, G E


    Memory institutions such as libraries, archives, galleries and museums all share pressing concerns about preserving heritage. This book charts the diversity of preservation management in the contemporary information landscape, and offers guidance on preservation methods for the sustainability of collections from a range of international experts.

  9. The Digital Preservation Consortium: Mission and Goals. (United States)

    Walters, Donald J.; Kenney, Anne

    The development of the National Information Infrastructure (NII) and the growing use of the Internet are creating a rapidly-changing environment for collaborative preservation and access. Within this environment, the Digital Preservation Consortium (DPC) seeks to advance the use and utility of digital technology for the preservation of and access…

  10. 76 FR 74721 - Preserving the Open Internet (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 0 and 8 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission... protections for broadband service to preserve and reinforce Internet freedom and openness. DATES: Oppositions... any rules of particular applicability. Subject: In the Matter of Preserving the Open...

  11. Orthogonality preserving infinite dimensional quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akın, Hasan [Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Education, Zirve University, Gaziantep, 27260 (Turkey); Mukhamedov, Farrukh [Department of Computational & Theoretical Sciences Faculty of Science, International Islamic University Malaysia P.O. Box, 141, 25710, Kuantan Pahang (Malaysia)


    In the present paper, we consider a notion of orthogonal preserving nonlinear operators. We introduce π-Volterra quadratic operators finite and infinite dimensional settings. It is proved that any orthogonal preserving quadratic operator on finite dimensional simplex is π-Volterra quadratic operator. In infinite dimensional setting, we describe all π-Volterra operators in terms orthogonal preserving operators.

  12. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  13. Privacy-Preserving Trajectory Collection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gidofalvi, Gyozo; Xuegang, Huang; Pedersen, Torben Bach


    In order to provide context--aware Location--Based Services, real location data of mobile users must be collected and analyzed by spatio--temporal data mining methods. However, the data mining methods need precise location data, while the mobile users want to protect their location privacy....... To remedy this situation, this paper first formally defines novel location privacy requirements. Then, it briefly presents a system for privacy--preserving trajectory collection that meets these requirements. The system is composed of an untrusted server and clients communicating in a P2P network. Location...

  14. Blogs as Objects of Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stepanyan, Karen; Gkotsis, George; Kalb, Hendrik;


    on the existing InSPECT framework and improving its capabilities of working with complex/compound objects like blogs. The modifications enable a more thorough analysis of object structures, accentuate the differences and similarities between the framework’s two streams of analysis (i.e. Object and Stakeholder...... analysis) and, subsequently, improve the final reformulation of the properties. To demonstrate the applicability of the modified framework, the paper presents a use case of a blog preservation initiative that is informed by stakeholder interviews and evaluation of structural and technological foundations...... of blogs. It concludes by discussing the limitations of the approach and suggesting directions for future research....

  15. Digital preservation for libraries, archives, and museums

    CERN Document Server

    Corrado, Edward M


    Digital Preservation for Libraries, Archives, & Museums is designed for all types of information professionals who are interested in digital preservation. This is not a how-to book giving step-by-step processes for certain materials in a given kind of system. Instead, it addresses a broad group of resources that could be housed in any number of digital preservation systems. Finally, this book is about "Things (not technology; not how-to; not theory) I wish I had known before I got started." It is divided into four parts based on the Digital Preservation Triad: Situating Digital Preservation, I

  16. Non-uniform force allocation for area preservation in spring network models

    CERN Document Server

    Cimrak, Ivan


    In modelling of elastic objects in a flow such as red blood cells, white blood cells, or tumour cells, several elastic moduli are involved. One of them is the area conservation modulus. In this paper, we focus on spring network models and we introduce a new way of modeling the area preservation modulus. We take into account the current shape of the individual triangles and find the proportional allocation of area conservation forces, which would for individual triangles preserve their shapes. The analysis shows that this approach tends to regularize the triangulation. We demonstrate this effect on individual triangles as well as on the complete triangulations.

  17. Understanding Blood Counts (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  18. Distributed privacy preserving data collection

    KAUST Repository

    Xue, Mingqiang


    We study the distributed privacy preserving data collection problem: an untrusted data collector (e.g., a medical research institute) wishes to collect data (e.g., medical records) from a group of respondents (e.g., patients). Each respondent owns a multi-attributed record which contains both non-sensitive (e.g., quasi-identifiers) and sensitive information (e.g., a particular disease), and submits it to the data collector. Assuming T is the table formed by all the respondent data records, we say that the data collection process is privacy preserving if it allows the data collector to obtain a k-anonymized or l-diversified version of T without revealing the original records to the adversary. We propose a distributed data collection protocol that outputs an anonymized table by generalization of quasi-identifier attributes. The protocol employs cryptographic techniques such as homomorphic encryption, private information retrieval and secure multiparty computation to ensure the privacy goal in the process of data collection. Meanwhile, the protocol is designed to leak limited but non-critical information to achieve practicability and efficiency. Experiments show that the utility of the anonymized table derived by our protocol is in par with the utility achieved by traditional anonymization techniques. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

  19. Preservation of forest wood chips

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kofman, P.D.; Thomsen, I.M.; Ohlsson, C.; Leer, E.; Ravn Schmidt, E.; Soerensen, M.; Knudsen, P.


    As part of the Danish Energy Research Programme on biomass utilisation for energy production (EFP), this project concerns problems connected to the handling and storing of wood chips. In this project, the possibility of preserving wood chips of the Norway Spruce (Picea Abies) is addressed, and the potential improvements by anaerobic storage are tested. Preservation of wood chips aims at reducing dry matter losses from extensive heating during storage and to reduce production of fungal spores. Fungal spores pose a health hazards to workers handling the chips. Further the producers of wood chips are interested in such a method since it would enable them to give a guarantee for the delivery of homogeneous wood chips also during the winter period. Three different types of wood chips were stored airtight and further one of these was stored in accordance with normal practise and use as reference. The results showed that airtight storage had a beneficial impact on the quality of the chips: no redistribution of moisture, low dry matter losses, unfavourable conditions for microbial activity of most fungi, and the promotion of yeasts instead of fungi with airborne spores. Likewise the firing tests showed that no combustion problems, and no increased risk to the environment or to the health of staff is caused by anaerobic storage of wood chips. In all, the tests of the anaerobic storage method of forest wood chips were a success and a large-scale test of the method will be carried out in 1999. (au)

  20. Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories: TIPR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Caplan


    Full Text Available Towards Interoperable Preservation Repositories (TIPR is a project funded by the Institute of Museum and Library Services to create and test a Repository eXchange Package (RXP. The package will make it possible to transfer complex digital objects between dissimilar preservation repositories.  For reasons of redundancy, succession planning and software migration, repositories must be able to exchange copies of archival information packages with each other. Every different repository application, however, describes and structures its archival packages differently. Therefore each system produces dissemination packages that are rarely understandable or usable as submission packages by other repositories. The RXP is an answer to that mismatch. Other solutions for transferring packages between repositories focus either on transfers between repositories of the same type, such as DSpace-to-DSpace transfers, or on processes that rely on central translation services.  Rather than build translators between many dissimilar repository types, the TIPR project has defined a standards-based package of metadata files that can act as an intermediary information package, the RXP, a lingua franca all repositories can read and write.

  1. Modelling the Costs of Preserving Digital Assets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex


    and the benefits accrued by preserving the assets. Cost data is also needed for optimizing activities and comparing the costs of different preservation alternatives. The purpose of this study is to analyse generic requirements for modelling the cost of preserving digital assets. The analysis was based......Information is increasingly being produced in digital form, and some of it must be preserved for the longterm. Digital preservation includes a series of actively managed activities that require on-going funding. To obtain sufficient resources, there is a need for assessing the costs...... on experiences from a Danish project to develop a cost model. It was found that a generic cost model should account for the nature of the organisation and the assets to be preserved, and for all major preservation activities and cost drivers. In addition, it should describe accounting principles. It was proposed...

  2. A Framework for Distributed Preservation Workflows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Schmidt


    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing a service-oriented environment for the definition and evaluation of preservation strategies for human-centric data. It focuses on the question of logically preserving digital materials, as opposed to the physical preservation of content bit-streams. This includes the development of preservation tools for the automated characterisation, migration, and comparison of different types of Digital Objects as well as the emulation of their original runtime environment in order to ensure long-time access and interpretability. The Planets integrated environment provides a number of end-user applications that allow data curators to execute and scientifically evaluate preservation experiments based on composable preservation services. In this paper, we focus on the middleware and programming model and show how it can be utilised in order to create complex preservation workflows.

  3. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity


    Gupta Rajinder K; Gupta Deepika


    Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabar...


    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit


    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  5. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department


    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  6. The Lost Art of Whole Blood Transfusion in Austere Environments (United States)


    use of antiplatelet agents or blood thinners taken for underlying cardiovascu- lar conditions. It is just this patient subgroup, patients with... antiplatelet agents and blood thinners, helping promote clotting (Fig. 1). Practical Approach V How to Prepare the Expedition for a WFWB Backup As mentioned... anticoagulants and red cell additive solutions. Whole blood (approximately 450 mL of blood + 63 mL of preservation solution) has an average hematocrit

  7. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus


    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  8. What Happens to Donated Blood? (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  9. Beyond the Scope of Preservation?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rikke, Stenbro,; Riesto, Svava


    Why are some parts of the built environment protected as national heritage and others not? Listing is the most restrictive tool of Norwegian and Danish preservation in the built environment and creates a specific version of the past told through buildings and sites. The heritage authorities in both...... countries present listing as an instrument to protect a representative sample of all the country’s built structures and environments (in theory for eternity). The article examines the role of mass housing complexes, a significant product of the welfare states from the 1950s and onwards, in the practice...... established in architectural history and other mechanisms effect contemporary decisions about whether to list mass housing areas. In conclusion, we question the role of the official criteria for listing and instead call for a more open discussion about why and how listing creates national history....


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Rodríguez-Sauceda


    Full Text Available One of the biggest challenges of the food industry is the preservation of its products, that is, to prevent them from being attacked by microorganisms that decompose them hauling economic losses and severe health damage to the consumer. Today, competition in the food industry is very high and any company that does not offer the quality products is doomed to fail. Consumers demand more and the industry still stands offering what is asked: quality, security and safety. The package, in addition to fulfilling its core functions is becoming a means of sophisticated interactions with content and a record of relevant information for both the end consumer and intermediate players in the value chain and concepts are born of active and intelligent packaging. A smart container is defined as a system that monitors the condition of the packaged product, being able to register and provide information about product quality or condition of the container, showing the possible "abnormal" practices that have suffered the product or the container during the entire supply chain, such as transportation or storage. These systems monitor the mechanisms of altered food due to physiological, chemical and biological processes that respond and communicate changes in the status of the product as time-temperature, Oxygen, Carbon dioxide, microbial growth, etc. There are different types of smart packaging such as time-temperature indicators, color indicators, indicators of pathogens and indicators of leaks, to name a few. Through literature review, arguments that demonstrate the usefulness and necessity of the use of smart packaging to preserve the quality and safety of the product it contains, from manufacturing to the time it is used by consumers were found, as these besides communicating or providing information about their state, acting as a marketing tool.

  11. Preservation Copying Endangered Historic Negative Collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad


    This article discusses preservation copying of unstable B&W nitrate and acetate still photographic negatives. It focuses on evaluating two different strategies for preserving the copies from a point of view of quality and cost-effectiveness. The evaluated strategies are preservation of the master...... by describing essential characteristics of negatives, which must be passed on to the copies, and the required metadata and technical imaging specifications. Next the paper discusses strategies for preservation and makes an analysis with the LIFE2 Costing Model. The paper concludes that the most beneficial...... and cost-effective preservation solution for large format negatives is to keep the preservation copies as digital files. However, it also acknowledges that it is important to revisit such strategies regularly to monitor changes in user expectations, technologies and costs....

  12. Autonomous Preservation Tools in Minimal Effort Ingest

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette Ammitzbøll; Blekinge, Asger Askov; Andersen, Thorbjørn Ravn


    This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after con...... content is ingested for preservation, rather than before. We present our Newspaper Digitisation Project as a case-study of real-world implementations of Autonomous Preservation Tools.......This poster presents the concept of Autonomous Preservation Tools, as developed by the State and University Library, Denmark. The work expands the idea of Minimal Effort Ingest, where most preservation actions such as Quality Assurance and enrichment of the digital objects are performed after...

  13. Towards Building a Blog Preservation Platform

    CERN Document Server

    Kasioumis, Nikos; Kalb, Hendrik


    Social media content and user participation has increased dramatically since the advent of Web 2.0. Blogs have become relevant to every aspect of business and personal life. Nevertheless, we do not have the right tools to aggregate and preserve blog content correctly, as well as to manage blog archives effectively. Given the rising importance of blogs, it is crucial to build systems to facilitate blog preservation, safeguarding an essential part of our heritage that will prove valuable for current and future generations. In this paper, we present our work in progress towards building a novel blog preservation platform featuring robust digital preservation, management and dissemination facilities for blogs. This work is part of the BlogForever project which is aiming to make an impact to the theory and practice of blog preservation by creating guidelines and software that any individual or organization could use to preserve their blogs.

  14. Ocular preservatives: associated risks and newer options. (United States)

    Kaur, Indu Pal; Lal, Shruti; Rana, Cheena; Kakkar, Shilpa; Singh, Harinder


    Presence of a preservative in an ocular medication has often been considered a culprit in damaging the epithelium. However, the inclusion of a preservative is equally necessary, especially in multiple-dose containers, in order to protect against dangerous organisms accidentally gaining access during instillation. Benzalkonium chloride (BAK), chlorobutanol, chlorhexidine acetate (CHA), and phenylmercuric nitrate or acetate are some commonly used preservatives in eye preparations. New preservatives with a wide range of activity and good safety profiles have been introduced in the market, such as stabilized oxychloro complex (SOC), sofZia, and sodium perborate. In the present review, we discuss various conventional and newly proposed and patented preservative molecules for ocular use. Reasons for discontinuing traditional preservatives and the need for less-toxic molecules are discussed at length, along with newer options coming up in this area.

  15. Blood Typing (United States)

    ... if you need repeated transfusions, as sickle cell anemia and thalassemia patients do. If blood transfusions are not closely ... the News Article Index About This Site Send Us Your Comments For ...

  16. Blood Disorders (United States)

    ... people with blood disorders. Magnitude of the Problem Complications from deep vein thrombosis (DVT) kill more people each year than breast cancer, motor vehicle accidents, and HIV combined. Sickle cell trait ...

  17. What's Blood? (United States)

    ... Rh" because scientists found it while studying Rhesus monkeys. If your blood is positive, you have this ... doctor. © 1995- The Nemours Foundation. All rights reserved. Images provided by The Nemours Foundation, iStock, Getty Images, ...

  18. Artificial blood.



    #Blood substitutes have been developed for almost a century. The various type of artificial blood was continuously available on the market. The theme of this report is to identify the best substitute in emergency situation for some patients and science students. The definition of best is given; thus, as the vital part of the report, the comparison between them is described and discussed. Modified hemoglobin, bovine-based hemoglobin and PFCs are three basic types. In terms of the perfor...

  19. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation


    Robert R. Gaines; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E.; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E.


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott’s initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemic...

  20. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review


    Cichello, Simon Angelo


    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen imperme...

  1. Science Data Infrastructure for Preservation - Earth Science


    Albani, Mirko; Marelli, Fulvio; Giaretta, David; Shaon, Arif


    The proper preservation of both current and historical scientific data will underpin a multitude of ecological, economic and political decisions in the future of our society. The SCIDIP-ES project addresses the long-term persistent storage, access and management needs of scientific data by providing preservation infrastructure services. Taking exemplars from the Earth Science domain we highlight the key preservation challenges and barriers to be overcome by the SCIDIP-ES infrastructure. SCIDI...

  2. The ZEUS long term data preservation project

    CERN Document Server



    The ZEUS data preservation (ZEUS DP) project assures continued access to the data and documentation related to the experiment. It aims to provide the ability to continue the generation of valuable scientific results from these data in the future. This talk presents analysis opportunities within the ZEUS DP project and its benefits for the physics community. The implications of the preserved data are discussed in the context of current data analyses, verification of contemporary and future theoretical models and the planning of future experiments and analyses. The detailed documentation on the data preservation effort can serve as an example for the data preservation efforts in current and future experiments.

  3. A holistic approach to bit preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld


    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to point out the importance of taking a holistic approach to bit preservation when setting out to find an optimal bit preservation solution for specific digital materials. In the last decade there has been an increasing awareness that bit preservation, which...... preservation strategies as well as pointing to how such strategies can be evaluated. Research limitations/implications The operational results described here are still missing work to be fully operational. However, the holistic approach is in itself an important result. Furthermore, in spite...

  4. The non-uniformity of fossil preservation. (United States)

    Holland, Steven M


    The fossil record provides the primary source of data for calibrating the origin of clades. Although minimum ages of clades are given by the oldest preserved fossil, these underestimate the true age, which must be bracketed by probabilistic methods based on multiple fossil occurrences. Although most of these methods assume uniform preservation rates, this assumption is unsupported over geological timescales. On geologically long timescales (more than 10 Myr), the origin and cessation of sedimentary basins, and long-term variations in tectonic subsidence, eustatic sea level and sedimentation rate control the availability of depositional facies that preserve the environments in which species lived. The loss of doomed sediments, those with a low probability of preservation, imparts a secular trend to fossil preservation. As a result, the fossil record is spatially and temporally non-uniform. Models of fossil preservation should reflect this non-uniformity by using empirical estimates of fossil preservation that are spatially and temporally partitioned, or by using indirect proxies of fossil preservation. Geologically, realistic models of preservation will provide substantially more reliable estimates of the origination of clades.This article is part of the themed issue 'Dating species divergences using rocks and clocks'.

  5. Blood Transfusion and Donation (United States)

    ... receiving the blood transfusion. To keep blood safe, blood banks carefully screen donated blood. The risk of catching ... one or more times before the surgery. A blood bank will store your blood for your use. NIH: ...

  6. Blood (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood A A A What's ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  7. Catecholamine blood test (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  8. Biology of Blood (United States)

    ... here for the Professional Version Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Resources In This ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  9. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  10. Managing your blood sugar (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control; Blood glucose - managing ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  11. Privacy-preserving distributed clustering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erkin, Zekeriya; Veugen, Thijs; Toft, Tomas


    Clustering is a very important tool in data mining and is widely used in on-line services for medical, financial and social environments. The main goal in clustering is to create sets of similar objects in a data set. The data set to be used for clustering can be owned by a single entity, or in s...... provider with computations. Experimental results clearly indicate that the work we present is an efficient way of deploying a privacy-preserving clustering algorithm in a distributed manner......., or in some cases, information from different databases is pooled to enrich the data so that the merged database can improve the clustering effort. However, in either case, the content of the database may be privacy sensitive and/or commercially valuable such that the owners may not want to share their data...... with any other entity, including the service provider. Such privacy concerns lead to trust issues between entities, which clearly damages the functioning of the service and even blocks cooperation between entities with similar data sets. To enable joint efforts with private data, we propose a protocol...

  12. Ambient overnight hold of whole blood prior to the manufacture of blood components. (United States)

    Thomas, Stephen


    Blood services routinely separate whole blood into components that are then stored under different conditions. The storage conditions used for whole blood prior to separation must therefore be a compromise between the needs of the red cells (which benefit from refrigeration) and plasma and platelets (which are better preserved at ambient temperature). For many years, the approach has been to manufacture plasma and platelet components on the day of blood collection, and to refrigerate any unprocessed blood for manufacture into red cell components on the following day. However, this can make it challenging to maintain adequate stocks of all components. The European practice of 'ambient hold' of whole blood for up to 24 hours prior to processing allows greater flexibility in blood component manufacture, and the data reviewed suggest there is relatively little impact on the quality of red cell or plasma components, and an improvement in the quality of platelet components.

  13. A Big Problem for Magellan: Food Preservation (United States)

    Galvao, Cecilia; Reis, Pedro; Freire, Sofia


    In this paper, we present data related to how a Portuguese teacher developed the module "A big problem for Magellan: Food preservation." Students were asked to plan an investigation in order to identify which were the best food preservation methods in the XV and XVI centuries of Portuguese overseas navigation, and then establish a…

  14. Home Food Preservation Training for Extension Educators (United States)

    Goard, Linnette Mizer; Hill, Melinda; Shumaker, Katharine; Warrix, Marisa


    During times of economic downturn, there has been an increased interest in home food preservation. As the primary resource for current research-based recommendations, a team of Extension Family and Consumer Sciences educators with specialization in food safety and food preservation responded to this demand by developing a standardized food…

  15. Whale Preservation. Grades Five to Nine. (United States)

    Racicot, Darlene

    Dedicated to the conservation and preservation of whales, dolphins, and porpoises through public education, this instructional unit for grades 5-9 provides current (1993) facts, lesson plans, activities, and conservation and preservation techniques. Interdisciplinary activities involve students in debates, critical thinking, research, and…

  16. Concise Review: Fertility Preservation: An Update


    González, Clara; Boada, Montserrat; Devesa, Marta; Veiga, Anna


    Fertility preservation is an emerging field in medicine that enables men, women, and children to maintain reproductive health when it is threatened by gonadotoxic treatment or nononcologic malignancies that can impair spermatogenesis and ovogenesis. Established methods include sperm cryopreservation or experimental testicular tissue cryopreservation for males, and oocyte cryopreservation or ovarian tissue cryopreservation for females. Fertility preservation treatments must be addressed throug...

  17. Discretising geometry and preserving topology I

    CERN Document Server

    de Beauce, V; Beauce, Vivien de; Sen, Siddhartha


    A discretisation scheme that preserves topological features of a physical problem is extended so that differential geometric structures can be approximated while preserving topological features present. Issues of convergence and a numerical implementation are discussed. The follow-up article covers the resulting discretisation of Riemannian geometry and some applications.

  18. Corn, alfalfa and grass silage preservation principles (United States)

    Ensiling is the primary means of preserving moist forages for feeding livestock. In ensiling, the crop is stored anaerobically, and sugars in the crop are fermented by lactic acid bacteria naturally on the crop. The crop is preserved by the combination of the acids produced by the lactic acid bacter...

  19. Orthogonality preserving property, Wigner equation, and stability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chmieliński Jacek


    Full Text Available We deal with the stability of the orthogonality preserving property in the class of mappings phase-equivalent to linear or conjugate-linear ones. We give a characterization of approximately orthogonality preserving mappings in this class and we show some connections between the considered stability and the stability of the Wigner equation.

  20. [Application on food preservative of antimicrobial peptides]. (United States)

    Zhao, Hongyan; Mu, Yu; Zhao, Baohua


    Antimicrobial peptides are an integral component of the innate immune system, it can counteract outer membrane pathogen such as bacteria, fungi, viruses, protozoan and so on. Owing to the sterilization and innocuity, it has the potential to be crude food preservative. In this paper the uses of antibacterial peptides in the food preservative were analyzed.

  1. Digital Preservation and Metadata: History, Theory, Practice. (United States)

    Lazinger, Susan S.

    This book addresses critical issues of digital preservation, providing guidelines for protecting resources from dealing with obsolescence, to responsibilities, methods of preservation, cost, and metadata formats. It also shows numerous national and international institutions that provide frameworks for digital libraries and archives. The first…

  2. 76 FR 60754 - Preserving the Open Internet (United States)


    ... COMMISSION 47 CFR Part 0 Preserving the Open Internet AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION... of September 23, 2011, a document establishing rules to preserve the open Internet. Inadvertently the...) Resolve complaints alleging violations of the open Internet rules. Federal Communications Commission....

  3. Anuran artifacts of preservation: 27 years later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica L. Deichmann


    Full Text Available Measurements made on preserved anuran specimens are often used in studies of systematics, ecology and evolution. Here, we examine the effect of preservation on one of the most common measurement of frogs, snout-urostyle length (SUL. Preservation had significanteffects on the SUL of 13 of the 14 species of North American frogs included in this study, with all species decreasing in SUL by 0.31-5.62%. Smaller frog species did not shrink proportionally more or less than larger species. Absolute shrinkage was correlated with SUL and was greater in larger species. Within species, percent shrinkage was not significantly correlated with SUL in 10 species, but significantly greater for larger individuals in 3 species, and decreased with size in 1 species. Absolute shrinkage was statistically greater for larger individuals in 4 species. Our results agree with studies of morphological permutations in fish which show that most preservation-related changes take place within the first few months after initial preservation. We suggest that the potential consequences of using preserved specimens in research must be considered and that future studies continue to examine preservation effects, not only on frogs, but on all preserved specimens used in scientific investigations.

  4. The Challenge of Preserving Digital Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jani Stenvall


    Full Text Available This paper addresses some general matters on the preservation of different types of digital materials. The well-known technical problems are explained and also some of the usual strategies to resolve these problems. Digital maps and their preservation is considered in the light of the future legal deposit act in Finland.

  5. Preservation in the Age of Google: Digitization, Digital Preservation, and Dilemmas (United States)

    Conway, Paul


    The cultural heritage preservation community now functions largely within the environment of digital technologies. This article begins by juxtaposing definitions of the terms "digitization for preservation" and "digital preservation" within a sociotechnical environment for which Google serves as a relevant metaphor. It then reviews two reports…

  6. Flexible Bit Preservation on a National Basis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jurik, Bolette; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Zierau, Eld


    In this paper we present the results from The Danish National Bit Repository project. The project aim was establishment of a system that can offer flexible and sustainable bit preservation solutions to Danish cultural heritage institutions. Here the bit preservation solutions must include support...... of bit safety as well as other requirements like e.g. confidentiality and availability. The Danish National Bit Repository is motivated by the need to investigate and handle bit preservation for digital cultural heritage. Digital preservation relies on the integrity of the bits which digital material...... consists of, and it is with this focus that the project was initiated. This paper summarizes the requirements for a general system to offer bit preservation to cultural heritage institutions. On this basis the paper describes the resulting flexible system which can support such requirements. The paper...

  7. Preserving and documenting the Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deniz Özkut


    Full Text Available The phenomenon of preservation may be described as a physical process that depends onconceptual facts. When observed from a conceptual point of view, ‘values’ cause the divergencesin the preservation process, which could be named as the pre-requisites of the construction.Values carry emotional and physical points of view. The emotional context, of course, dependson recognizing and remembering while physical context depends on direction of research. They are indicators of cultural characteristics and historical identity. ‘Cultural values’1, more over, explains the meanings attributed to the cultural property, which meanings will be preserved, and the reasons for their preservation. On behalf of this context, the preservation process may be defined as the preservation of the cultural heritage within an effective system. This effective system isaimed at attaining the total quality as a result of a synthesis of the technology, technique, and material originally deployed with those of the present. Besides, one of the most important inputin the preservation process is the priorities of the intervention to be held, as the latter will determine the decisions and types of intervention during the implementation phase of the preservation project. As a significant paradox, the most important parameter that shapes both a preservationproject and its process appears to be the risks that consist of indefinite input preventing theproject from a proper definition of its context. Since all physical problems and the social statusof the cultural property to be preserved have direct impact upon the design process of thepreservation project, these priorities and the risks should be clarified in the course of pre-assessment phase at the beginning of the preservation process.

  8. Blood Basics (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  9. Blood Clots (United States)

    ... of ASH ASH Meeting on Hematologic Malignancies Consultative Hematology Course ASH Meeting on Lymphoma Biology ASH Workshop on Genome Editing Publications Blood The Hematologist ASH Clinical News ASH Self-Assessment Program Hematology , ASH Education Program About Awards Membership ASH Foundation ...

  10. Fertility preservation in female classic galactosemia patients. (United States)

    van Erven, Britt; Gubbels, Cynthia S; van Golde, Ron J; Dunselman, Gerard A; Derhaag, Josien G; de Wert, Guido; Geraedts, Joep P; Bosch, Annet M; Treacy, Eileen P; Welt, Corrine K; Berry, Gerard T; Rubio-Gozalbo, M Estela


    Almost every female classic galactosemia patient develops primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) as a diet-independent complication of the disease. This is a major concern for patients and their parents, and physicians are often asked about possible options to preserve fertility. Unfortunately, there are no recommendations on fertility preservation in this group. The unique pathophysiology of classic galactosemia with a severely reduced follicle pool at an early age requires an adjusted approach. In this article recommendations for physicians based on current knowledge concerning galactosemia and fertility preservation are made. Fertility preservation is only likely to be successful in very young prepubertal patients. In this group, cryopreservation of ovarian tissue is currently the only available technique. However, this technique is not ready for clinical application, it is considered experimental and reduces the ovarian reserve. Fertility preservation at an early age also raises ethical questions that should be taken into account. In addition, spontaneous conception despite POI is well described in classic galactosemia. The uncertainty surrounding fertility preservation and the significant chance of spontaneous pregnancy warrant counseling towards conservative application of these techniques. We propose that fertility preservation should only be offered with appropriate institutional research ethics approval to classic galactosemia girls at a young prepubertal age.

  11. Blood pressure measurement (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The lower ...

  12. Blood Count Tests (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  13. Preservation Methods Utilized for Space Food (United States)

    Vodovotz, Yael; Bourland, Charles


    Food for manned space flight has been provided by NASA-Johnson Space Center since 1962. The various mission scenarios and space craft designs dictated the type of food preservation methodologies required to meet mission objectives. The preservation techniques used in space flight include freeze-dehydration, thermostabilization, irradiation, freezing and moisture adjustment. Innovative packaging material and techniques enhanced the shelf-stability of the food items. Future space voyages may include extended duration exploration missions requiring new packaging materials and advanced preservation techniques to meet mission goals of up to 5-year shelf-life foods.

  14. On orthogonality preserving quadratic stochastic operators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh; Taha, Muhammad Hafizuddin Mohd [Department of Computational and Theoretical Sciences, Faculty of Science International Islamic University Malaysia, P.O. Box 141, 25710 Kuantan, Pahang Malaysia (Malaysia)


    A quadratic stochastic operator (in short QSO) is usually used to present the time evolution of differing species in biology. Some quadratic stochastic operators have been studied by Lotka and Volterra. In the present paper, we first give a simple characterization of Volterra QSO in terms of absolutely continuity of discrete measures. Further, we introduce a notion of orthogonal preserving QSO, and describe such kind of operators defined on two dimensional simplex. It turns out that orthogonal preserving QSOs are permutations of Volterra QSO. The associativity of genetic algebras generated by orthogonal preserving QSO is studied too.

  15. A Holistic Approach to Bit Preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld Maj-Britt Olmütz


    for confidentiality, availability, costs, additional to the requirements of ensuring bit safety. A few examples are: • The way that digital material is represented in files and structures has an influence on whether it is possible to interpret and use the bits at a later stage. Consequentially, the way bits represent....... • There will be requirements for the availability of the bit preserved digital material in order to meet requirements on use of the digital material, e.g. libraries often need to give fast access to preserved digital material to the public, i.e. the availability of the bit preserved material must support the use...

  16. Strategies for preserving residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients. (United States)

    Nongnuch, Arkom; Assanatham, Montira; Panorchan, Kwanpeemai; Davenport, Andrew


    Although there have been many advancements in the treatment of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) over the last 50 years, in terms of reducing cardiovascular risk, mortality remains unacceptably high, particularly for those patients who progress to stage 5 CKD and initiate dialysis (CKD5d). As mortality risk increases exponentially with progressive CKD stage, the question arises as to whether preservation of residual renal function once dialysis has been initiated can reduce mortality risk. Observational studies to date have reported an association between even small amounts of residual renal function and improved patient survival and quality of life. Dialysis therapies predominantly provide clearance for small water-soluble solutes, volume and acid-base control, but cannot reproduce the metabolic functions of the kidney. As such, protein-bound solutes, advanced glycosylation end-products, middle molecules and other azotaemic toxins accumulate over time in the anuric CKD5d patient. Apart from avoiding potential nephrotoxic insults, observational and interventional trials have suggested that a number of interventions and treatments may potentially reduce the progression of earlier stages of CKD, including targeted blood pressure control, reducing proteinuria and dietary intervention using combinations of protein restriction with keto acid supplementation. However, many interventions which have been proven to be effective in the general population have not been equally effective in the CKD5d patient, and so the question arises as to whether these treatment options are equally applicable to CKD5d patients. As strategies to help preserve residual renal function in CKD5d patients are not well established, we have reviewed the evidence for preserving or losing residual renal function in peritoneal dialysis patients, as urine collections are routinely collected, whereas few centres regularly collect urine from haemodialysis patients, and haemodialysis dialysis

  17. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaines, Robert R.; Hammarlund, Emma U.; Hou, Xianguang;


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted...... soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits......, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique...

  18. Ambient Preservation of Clinical Analytes Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The proposed research is in response to the In-flight Biological Sample Preservation and Analysis topic and offers a non-invasive, proven, space and cost and time...

  19. Proposed Desert Pupfish Preserve : Supplemental LARC Report (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document contains supplements to a previous report on the desert pupfish preserve proposal. The attachments are titled: “Vertebrate Animals and Vascular...

  20. Improved Edge Awareness in Discontinuity Preserving Smoothing

    CERN Document Server

    Heinrich, Stuart B


    Discontinuity preserving smoothing is a fundamentally important procedure that is useful in a wide variety of image processing contexts. It is directly useful for noise reduction, and frequently used as an intermediate step in higher level algorithms. For example, it can be particularly useful in edge detection and segmentation. Three well known algorithms for discontinuity preserving smoothing are nonlinear anisotropic diffusion, bilateral filtering, and mean shift filtering. Although slight differences make them each better suited to different tasks, all are designed to preserve discontinuities while smoothing. However, none of them satisfy this goal perfectly: they each have exception cases in which smoothing may occur across hard edges. The principal contribution of this paper is the identification of a property we call edge awareness that should be satisfied by any discontinuity preserving smoothing algorithm. This constraint can be incorporated into existing algorithms to improve quality, and usually ha...

  1. A Monograph on St. Vincent's Game Preserve (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — This document describes the geography, history, climate, and wildlife of St. Vincent’s Game Preserve. Photographs, maps, articles, and letters are included.

  2. Package Formats for Preserved Digital Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld


    This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up requireme......This paper presents an investigation of the best suitable package formats for long term digital preservation. The choice of a package format for preservation is crucial for future access, thus a thorough analysis of choice is important. The investigation presented here covers setting up...... the listed requirements will ensure mitigating a number of risks of information loss. Thus WARC is the best choice for a package format in cases where these same risks are judged most important. Similar analysis will need to be carried out in cases where the requirements differ from the ones described here...

  3. The CASPAR Approach to Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Giaretta


    Full Text Available A description of some of the fundamental concepts in CASPAR as well as the metrics by which CASPAR believes that it, and other projects which claim to aid the practice of digital preservation, should be judged.

  4. Epimenides: Interoperability Reasoning for Digital Preservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kargakis, Yannis; Tzitzikas, Yannis; van Horik, M.P.M.


    This paper presents Epimenides, a system that implements a novel interoperability dependency reasoning approach for assisting digital preservation activities. A distinctive feature is that it can model also converters and emulators, and the adopted modelling approach enables the automatic reasoning

  5. Towards the Preservation of the Scientific Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian Matthews


    Full Text Available In this paper we consider the requirements for preserving the memory of science.  This is becoming more challenging as data volumes and rates continue to increase.  Further, to capture a full picture of the scientific memory we need to move beyond the bit preservation challenge to consider how to capture research in context, represent the meaning of the data, and how to interpret data in relation to other scientific artefacts distributed in multiple information spaces. We review the progress of scientific research into the digital preservation of science over the last decade, emphasising in particular the research and development programme of STFC. We conclude with a number of observations into the future directions of research and also the practical deployment of policy and infrastructure to effectively preserve the scientific memory.

  6. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau


    inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...... into a standard image registration framework with a composition of a global affine and several free-form B-Spline transformations with increasing grid resolution. The proposed mass preserving registration method is compared to registration using the sum of squared intensity differences as a similarity function...

  7. Treatment of Preserved Wastewater with UASB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongli


    Full Text Available The preserved wastewater was treated by the upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB reactor, the effects of the anaerobic time on COD, turbidity, pH, conductivity, SS, absorbance, and decolorization rate of the preserved wastewater were investigated. The results showed that with the increase of the anaerobic time, the treatment effect of the UASB reactor on the preserved wastewater was improved. Under the optimum anaerobic time condition, the COD removal rate, turbidity removal rate, pH, conductivity, SS removal rate, absorbance, and decoloration rate of the wastewater were 49.6%, 38.5%, 5.68, 0.518×104, 24%, 0.598, and 32.4%, respectively. Therefore, the UASB reactor can be used as a pretreatment for the preserved wastewater, in order to reduce the difficulty of subsequent aerobic treatment.

  8. Diameter Preserving Surjection on Alternate Matrices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ping HUANG


    Let F be a field with |F| ≥ 3, Km be the set of all m × m (m ≥ 4) alternate matrices over F. The arithmetic distance of A, B ∈ Km is d(A, B) := rank(A- B). If d(A, B) = 2, then A and B are said to be adjacent. The diameter of Km is max{d(A, B) : A, B ∈ Km}. Assume that ψ : Km→ Km is a map. We prove the following are equivalent: (a) ψ is a diameter preserving surjection in both directions, (b) ψ is both an adjacency preserving surjection and a diameter preserving map, (c) ψ is a bijective map which preserves the arithmetic distance.

  9. Laboratory Exercise to Evaluate Hay Preservatives. (United States)

    McGraw, R. L.; And Others


    Presented is a laboratory exercise designed to demonstrate the effects of moisture on hay preservation products in a manner that does not require large amounts of equipment or instructor time. Materials, procedures, and probable results are discussed. (CW)

  10. Digitisation for access to preserved documents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majlis Bremer-Laamanen


    Full Text Available Today the digitisation of our collections is a goal for libraries all over Europe. The choices we make in digitisation and preservation now will have a significant impact on the future. Do we only emphasise access? How do we enable access and preserve our originals in a qualitative and productive way? What will actually be left of our cultural heritage in the next millennium? In this paper I am going to look at promoting access to preserved originals mirrored by the experience at the Helsinki University Library, the National Library of Finland: · Preservation activities as platform for digitisation and OCR · Processing access to collections · The future - looking ahead

  11. Preservation of methane hydrate at 1 atm (United States)

    Stern, L.A.; Circone, S.; Kirby, S.H.; Durham, W.B.


    A "pressure-release" method that enables reproducible bulk preservation of pure, porous, methane hydrate at conditions 50 to 75 K above its equilibrium T (193 K) at 1 atm is refined. The amount of hydrate preserved by this method appears to be greatly in excess of that reported in the previous citations, and is likely the result of a mechanism different from ice shielding.

  12. Linear Maps Preserving Idempotence on Nest Algebras

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lian CUI; Jin Chuan HOU


    In this paper, we discuss the rank-1-preserving linear maps on nest algebras of Hilbertspace operators. We obtain several characterizations of such linear maps and apply them to show that a weakly continuous linear bijection on an atomic nest algebra is idempotent preserving if and only if it is a Jordan homomorphism, and in turn, if and only if it is an automorphism or an anti-automorphism.

  13. Shape preserving rational bi-cubic function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Zawwar Hussain


    Full Text Available The study is dedicated to the development of shape preserving interpolation scheme for monotone and convex data. A rational bi-cubic function with parameters is used for interpolation. To preserve the shape of monotone and convex data, the simple data dependent constraints are developed on these parameters in each rectangular patch. The developed scheme of this paper is confined, cheap to run and produce smooth surfaces.

  14. How far we plan to preserve


    Krishnamurthy, M.; Sajana,, C.


    International audience; PurposeDigital content is a strategic asset that has observed an exponential growth in recent years. Like the physical universe, the digital universe is large. It is doubling in size every two years, and by 2020 the digital universe i.e. all the data we create and copy is tend reach 44 trillion gigabytes. Digital data is useful if it is suitably organized, tagged and preserved. So, to better understand current research trends in Digital Preservation and create awarenes...

  15. Planets: Integrated Services for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Farquhar


    Full Text Available The Planets Project is developing services and technology to address core challenges in digital preservation. This article introduces the motivation for this work, describes the extensible technical architecture and places the Planets approach into the context of the Open Archival Information System (OAIS Reference Model. It also provides a scenario demonstrating Planets’ usefulness in solving real-life digital preservation problems and an overview of the project’s progress to date.

  16. Privacy Preserving Recommendation System Based on Groups


    Shang, Shang; Hui, Yuk; Hui, Pan; Cuff, Paul; Kulkarni, Sanjeev


    Recommendation systems have received considerable attention in the recent decades. Yet with the development of information technology and social media, the risk in revealing private data to service providers has been a growing concern to more and more users. Trade-offs between quality and privacy in recommendation systems naturally arise. In this paper, we present a privacy preserving recommendation framework based on groups. The main idea is to use groups as a natural middleware to preserve ...

  17. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elinder, C.G.; Lundgren, G.; Nordberg, M.; Palm, B.; Piscator, M.


    Thirteen rabbits were given cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70/sup 0/C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4/sup 0/C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidney from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation. 27 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  18. Metallothionein in rabbit kidneys preserved for transplantation. (United States)

    Elinder, C G; Lundgren, G; Nordberg, M; Palm, B; Piscator, M


    Thirteen rabbits were given repeated cadmium injections to achieve cadmium concentrations in kidney cortex ranging from 0.05 to 1 mmole Cd/kg wet weight. Another four animals served as controls. One kidney from each animal was frozen directly to -70 degrees C whereas the other kidney was kept for 24 hr at +4 degrees C in a preservative (Sachs' solution) to simulate conditions for preservation of human donor kidneys before transplantation. Protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper in kidney homogenates and the concentration of metallothionein (MT) were measured in the kidney that was frozen directly and in the kidney that had been preserved. No gross differences in either the protein binding of cadmium, zinc and copper or in the MT content were seen between the directly frozen and preserved kidneys from the same animal. This indicates that MT is not rapidly broken down in rabbit kidneys which have been preserved similarly to human donor kidneys for 24 hr in a standard preservative solution prior to a transplantation.

  19. Innovations in food preservation in pastoral zones. (United States)

    Jans, C; Mulwa Kaindi, D W; Meile, L


    Food preservation makes a significant contribution to food security and food safety in pastoral communities with limited access to external food sources. Raw materials are preserved by heating, drying, smoking, pickling, salting, curing or fermentation with microorganisms. This article describes preservation techniques in the pastoral context, targeting the major dietary components of milk, meat and cereals; related health risks; and potential innovations for food preservation. Sustainable elimination of pathogenic microorganisms, preventing re-contamination, sporulation and the growth of zoonotic and foodborne microorganisms, is necessary to enhance food safety and ensure food security by reducing post-harvest losses and food waste. However, modern preservation procedures are difficult to adapt to the lifestyles of pastoralists and so are rarely implemented or accepted. Innovations should therefore focus on improving existing accepted procedures by promoting synergistic combinations to compensate for the disadvantages of these traditional techniques and ensure the quality of the raw material right up until consumption. Drying and spontaneous fermentation are key preservation techniques among pastoralists that serve as opportunities for innovation and can be shared across pastoral communities. Further potential for innovation lies in the unique, largely uncharacterised, microflora biodiversity of fermented products. The characterisation, safety assessment and conservation of these microorganisms are needed to develop locally adapted starter cultures that retain or improve on the desired characteristics of the finished product. Careful sensitisation of stakeholders, the study of social acceptance and capacitybuilding at all levels are required to achieve the sustainable implementation of such innovations, which will contribute to enhanced food security and safety.

  20. Fertility preservation options in breast cancer patients. (United States)

    Kasum, Miro; von Wolff, Michael; Franulić, Daniela; Čehić, Ermin; Klepac-Pulanić, Tajana; Orešković, Slavko; Juras, Josip


    The purpose of this review is to analyse current options for fertility preservation in young women with breast cancer (BC). Considering an increasing number of BC survivors, owing to improvements in cancer treatment and delaying of childbearing, fertility preservation appears to be an important issue. Current fertility preservation options in BC survivors range from well-established standard techniques to experimental or investigational interventions. Among the standard options, random-start ovarian stimulation protocol represents a new technique, which significantly decreases the total time of the in vitro fertilisation cycle. However, in patients with oestrogen-sensitive tumours, stimulation protocols using aromatase inhibitors are currently preferred over tamoxifen regimens. Cryopreservation of embryos and oocytes are nowadays deemed the most successful techniques for fertility preservation in BC patients. GnRH agonists during chemotherapy represent an experimental method for fertility preservation due to conflicting long-term outcome results regarding its safety and efficacy. Cryopreservation of ovarian tissue, in vitro maturation of immature oocytes and other strategies are considered experimental and should only be offered within the context of a clinical trial. An early pretreatment referral to reproductive endocrinologists and oncologists should be suggested to young BC women at risk of infertility, concerning the risks and benefits of fertility preservation options.

  1. Production and Preservation of Passion Fruit Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. G. AKPAN


    Full Text Available Production and preservation of Passion Fruit Juice was examined to reduce the spoilage and to increase the shelf life of the juice using chemical preservatives. The preservation of the juice was carried out using sugar, benzoic acid, citric and a combination of citric and benzoic acid under room temperature.The result revealed that the juice maintained its color, aroma and tastes for at least one month when 30% benzoic acid was used as preservative. This happens to be the best among all. The juice under other preservation like 4% sugar went bad after three days, while that of 4% citric acid maintained its qualities for one week and some days, but thereafter the aroma started to fade. The combination of 3% benzoic acid and 4% citric acid maintained the qualities of the juice fairly between two to three weeks. The alcoholic content was also estimated and it was discovered that the juice containing citric acid and sugar has the highest percentage of alcohol. The preservation used also altered the pH so that it is impossible for pathogens to exist at such a low pH environment.

  2. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage using acetic acid and food preservatives. (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F


    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to ensure preservation were low enough so that stored cucumbers could be converted to the finished product without the need to wash out and discard excess acid or preservative. Since no thermal process was required, this method of preservation would be applicable for storing cucumbers in bulk containers. Acid tolerant pathogens died off in less than 24 h with the pH, acetic acid, and sodium benzoate concentrations required to assure the microbial stability of cucumbers stored at 30 degrees C. Potassium sorbate as a preservative in this application was not effective. Yeast growth was observed when sulfite was used as a preservative.

  3. A modified CZ-1 preserving solution for organ transplantation:comparative study with UW preserving solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jun-hua; MIN Zhi-lian; LI Yu-li; ZHU You-hua; YE Ting-jun; LI Jian-qiu; PAN Tie-wen; DING Guo-shan; WANG Meng-long


    Background The University of Wisconsin colloid based preserving solution (UW solution) is the most efficient preserving solution for multiorgan transplantation. Unfortunately, unavailability of delayed organ preserving solutions hindered further progression of cardinal organ transplantation in China. In this study, we validated an organ preserving Changzheng Organ Preserving Solution (CZ-1 solution) and compared it with UW solution.Methods A series of studies were conducted on how and how long CZ-1 solution could preserve the kidneys, livers,hearts, lungs and pancreas of New Zealand rabbits and SD rats. Morphology of transplanted organs was studied by visible microscopy and electron microscopy; biochemical and physiological functions and the survival rate of the organs during prolonged cold storage were studied.Results There was no significant difference between CZ-1 and UW solutions in preserving the kidneys, livers, hearts or lungs of rabbits; kidneys, livers, intestinal mucosa or pancreases of SD rats or five deceased donors' testicles. In some aspects, such as preserving rabbits' hearts, rats' intestinal mucosa and pancreases, the effect of CZ-1 solution was superior to UW solution. CZ-1 could safely preserve kidneys for 72 hours, livers for 24 hours, hearts for 18 hours and lungs for 8 hours for SD rats. Twelve kidneys preserved in cold CZ-1 solution for 22-31 hours were transplanted successfully and the mean renal function recovery time was (3.83±1.68) days.Conclusions CZ-1 solution is as effective as UW solution for organ preservation. The development of CZ-1 solution not only reduces costs and improves preservation of organs, but also promotes future development of organ transplantation in China.

  4. Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Low Blood Glucose (Hypoglycemia) What is hypoglycemia? Hypoglycemia, also called low blood glucose or low blood sugar, occurs when ...

  5. Preservation of the recipient inferior vena cava in liver transplantation. (United States)

    Pereira, F; Herrera, J; Mora, N P; Nuño, J; Turrión, V S; Vicente, E; Ardaiz, J


    Twenty piggy-back (PB) liver transplantations (LT) were compared with 20 LT performed by the standard technique in order to evaluate whether or not the theoretical haemodynamic advantages of the preservation of the inferior vena cava (IVC) have any impact on the final results of the LT. Statistically significant differences were observed in the duration of the hepatectomy, which was longer for PB LT (192 min vs. 146 min), and in the duration of the anhepatic phase, which was shorter in that group (52 min vs. 76 min). There were no differences in the duration of the complete surgical procedure, consumption of blood products, incidence of postoperative acute renal failure, number of reoperations or survival.

  6. Palm Vein Verification Using Multiple Features and Locality Preserving Projections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Mohsin Al-juboori


    Full Text Available Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person’s skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP, and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  7. Palm vein verification using multiple features and locality preserving projections. (United States)

    Al-Juboori, Ali Mohsin; Bu, Wei; Wu, Xiangqian; Zhao, Qiushi


    Biometrics is defined as identifying people by their physiological characteristic, such as iris pattern, fingerprint, and face, or by some aspects of their behavior, such as voice, signature, and gesture. Considerable attention has been drawn on these issues during the last several decades. And many biometric systems for commercial applications have been successfully developed. Recently, the vein pattern biometric becomes increasingly attractive for its uniqueness, stability, and noninvasiveness. A vein pattern is the physical distribution structure of the blood vessels underneath a person's skin. The palm vein pattern is very ganglion and it shows a huge number of vessels. The attitude of the palm vein vessels stays in the same location for the whole life and its pattern is definitely unique. In our work, the matching filter method is proposed for the palm vein image enhancement. New palm vein features extraction methods, global feature extracted based on wavelet coefficients and locality preserving projections (WLPP), and local feature based on local binary pattern variance and locality preserving projections (LBPV_LPP) have been proposed. Finally, the nearest neighbour matching method has been proposed that verified the test palm vein images. The experimental result shows that the EER to the proposed method is 0.1378%.

  8. Bacteriocins and Their Applications in Food Preservation. (United States)

    Ramu, Ramith; Shirahatti, Prithvi S; Devi, Aishwarya T; Prasad, Ashwini; J, Kumuda; M S, Lochana; F, Zameer; B L, Dhananjaya; M N, Nagendra Prasad


    Bacteriocins are ribosomally-synthesized antimicrobial peptides or proteinaceous compounds produced by bacterial strains. They are generally effective in inhibiting the growth of similar or closely related bacterial strains. A high diversity of various bacteriocins is produced by many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and is found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods. Several bacteriocins from LAB extend potential applications in food preservation, thus help foods to be naturally preserved and richer in organoleptic and nutritional properties. Though chemical preservatives for the preservation of food are successful to some extent, their quality is not as satisfying as fresh food. Hence, an alternative is required and bacteriocins serve the purpose. Nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Numerous bacteriocins have been characterized chemically, biochemically, genetically and also at the molecular level to understand their basic mode of action. This article gives an overview of classification of bacteriocins, isolation & characterization, and mode of action. Besides, article highlights the optimized parameters for growth of bacteria in the production of bacteriocins and various bioassays for their determination. Special emphasis has been provided on explaining the beneficial aspects of nisin.

  9. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Kogler, Roman; Steder, Michael


    Data from high-energy physics experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. However, until recently no coherent strategy existed for data preservation and re-use, and many important and complex data sets have simply been lost. While the current focus is on the LHC at CERN, in the current period several important and unique experimental programs at other facilities are coming to an end, including those at HERA, b-factories and the Tevatron. To address this issue, an inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis (DPHEP) was convened at the end of 2008. The group now aims to publish a full and detailed review of the present status of data preservation in high energy physics. This contribution summarises the results of the DPHEP study group, describing the challenges of data preservation in high energy physics and the group's first conclusions and recommendations. The physics motivation for data preservation, generic computing and pre...

  10. Selective Preservation of Fossil Ghost Fish (United States)

    Meacham, Amanda


    A unique type of fossil fish preservation has been discovered in the Angelo Member (Fossil Lake) of the Green River Formation. The Angelo Member is a predominately evaporative deposit dominated by dolomite, but contains facies of fossiliferous laminated calcimicrite. Fossil fish occurring in two beds conspicuously lack bones. Fish in the lower bed are only preserved as organic material, including skin, pigments, and eyes. Fish in the upper bed have three-dimensional etching where bones once existed but also contain skin, pigments, and eyes. The top third of the upper bed often contains calcite crystals that are pseudomorphs after trona and possibly halite. Preliminary mineralogical analysis and mapping of evaporate facies suggests that this unique preservation may be related to lake geochemical conditions, such as high pH and alkalinity. To our knowledge, this is the first time this type of preservation has been observed and studied. Fossils and sediments within these beds are being studied both vertically and laterally through the one-meter thick sequence containing the fossil fish using XRD, isotopic, SEM, thin section, and total organic carbon analysis. Nine quarries, 0.5-1 meter square, were excavated for both fossils and rock samples along with 17 additional rock sample locations across an approximately 25-kilometer square region. This investigation has the capability of reconstructing the paleoenvironment and lake chemistry of Fossil Lake during the deposition of the "ghost-fish" beds and solving the mystery of the "missing bones" and the unusual process of preservation.

  11. Fertility preservation in young patients with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virender Suhag


    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the forefront the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Many survivors will maintain their reproductive potential after the successful completion of treatment for cancer. However total body irradiation, radiation to the gonads, and certain high dose chemotherapy regimens can place women at risk for acute ovarian failure or premature menopause and men at risk for temporary or permanent azoospermia. Providing information about risk of infertility and possible interventions to maintain reproductive potential are critical for the adolescent and young adult population at the time of diagnosis. There are established means of preserving fertility before cancer treatment; specifically, sperm cryopreservation for men and in vitro fertilization and embryo cryopreservation for women. Several innovative techniques are being actively investigated, including oocyte and ovarian follicle cryopreservation, ovarian tissue transplantation, and in vitro follicle maturation, which may expand the number of fertility preservation choices for young cancer patients. Fertility preservation may also require some modification of cancer therapy; thus, patients' wishes regarding future fertility and available fertility preservation alternatives should be discussed before initiation of therapy.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The increasing demand for high quality safe foods that are not extensively processed has created a niche for natural food preservative. Studies confirm that food allergies due to chemical preservatives affect as much as 2.5% of the population. Recent research had suggested bacteriocins (Nisin are the ideal biological food preservative. Nisin was proteinaceous antibacterial substances produced by Lactococcus lactis, a homofermentative bacterium. Naturally nisin occurs in two different forms nisin A and nisin Z. Nisin has wide range of inhibitory mode of action on Gram negative bacteria and food borne pathogens. Food preservation is a continuous war against the microorganisms spoiling the food or making it unsafe. So, nisin is actually the only lantibiotic bacteriocins used as a food preservative. This review paper will discuss about the Lactococcal strain used for the production of nisin, different forms of nisin, the mode of action of nisin, the cost reductive methods for the production and purification of nisin. So that it can be used in large scale industry for the high yield of nisin and the wide application of nisin in food industries.

  13. Oxygen absorbers in food preservation: a review. (United States)

    Cichello, Simon Angelo


    The preservation of packaged food against oxidative degradation is essential to establish and improve food shelf life, customer acceptability, and increase food security. Oxygen absorbers have an important role in the removal of dissolved oxygen, preserving the colour, texture and aroma of different food products, and importantly inhibition of food spoilage microbes. Active packaging technology in food preservation has improved over decades mostly due to the sealing of foods in oxygen impermeable package material and the quality of oxygen absorber. Ferrous iron oxides are the most reliable and commonly used oxygen absorbers within the food industry. Oxygen absorbers have been transformed from sachets of dried iron-powder to simple self-adhesive patches to accommodate any custom size, capacity and application. Oxygen concentration can be effectively lowered to 100 ppm, with applications spanning a wide range of food products and beverages across the world (i.e. bread, meat, fish, fruit, and cheese). Newer molecules that preserve packaged food materials from all forms of degradation are being developed, however oxygen absorbers remain a staple product for the preservation of food and pharmaceutical products to reduce food wastage in developed nations and increased food security in the developing & third world.

  14. Cancer and fertility: strategies to preserve fertility. (United States)

    Diedrich, K; Fauser, B C J M; Devroey, P


    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented published data and ongoing research on cancer and fertility, with particular focus on strategies to preserve fertility. This report is based on the expert presentations and group discussions, supplemented with publications from literature searches and the authors' knowledge. Fertility preservation should be considered for all young people undergoing potentially gonadotoxic cancer treatment. A variety of options are required to facilitate safe and effective fertility preservation for individual patients. Sperm banking is a simple and low-cost intervention. Embryo cryopreservation is the only established method of female fertility preservation. Oocyte cryopreservation offers a useful option for women without a male partner. Emergency ovarian stimulation and cryopreservation of ovarian tissue (followed by tissue transplantation or in-vitro maturation of oocytes) are experimental techniques for women who require urgent cancer treatment. Further prospective studies are required to validate cryopreservation of oocytes and ovarian tissue, in-vitro maturation of oocytes and new vitrification techniques and to identify any long-term sequelae of slow freezing of embryos.

  15. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Initiative Research Programs and Awards View all Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ... Get email updates View all meetings Publications Blood Current Issue First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer- ...

  16. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) Print ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  17. White Blood Cell Count (United States)

    ... limited. Home Visit Global Sites Search Help? White Blood Cell Count Share this page: Was this page helpful? ... Count; Leukocyte Count; White Count Formal name: White Blood Cell Count Related tests: Complete Blood Count , Blood Smear , ...

  18. Lead levels - blood (United States)

    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  19. Blood donation before surgery (United States)

    ... page: // Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features on ... described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most common source of blood given during ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... infection) back to top How are Blood Clots in Pregnant Women Treated? Typically, blood clots are treated ... history of blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. ...

  1. High Blood Cholesterol (United States)

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. High Blood Cholesterol What is High Blood Cholesterol? What is Cholesterol? Cholesterol is a ... heart disease. If Your Blood Cholesterol Is Too High Too much cholesterol in your blood is called ...

  2. Low Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... a problem. Sometimes blood pressure that is too low can also cause problems. Blood pressure is the ... reading is 90/60 or lower, you have low blood pressure. Some people have low blood pressure ...

  3. Blood Transfusion (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions A A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  4. The homorphisms from order preserving transformation semigroup to order preserving partial transformation semigroup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAO Jingnan


    Full Text Available Let n be a positive integer.Let On and POn denote the order-preserving transformation semigroup and the order-preserving partial transformation semigroup on Xn={1,2,…,n} under composition respectively.We describe all homorphisms from On to POn,and give the number of homorphisms from On to POn.

  5. Preservation Concerns in Construction and Remodeling of Libraries: Planning for Preservation. (United States)

    Trinkley, Michael

    To help libraries and other holdings institutions better incorporate preservation concerns in construction, renovation, and routine maintenance, various techniques are presented that allow preservation concerns to be integrated. The following topics are considered: (1) site selection; (2) design of the building envelope; (3) the library interior;…

  6. Microbiological preservation of cucumbers for bulk storage by the use of acetic acid and food preservatives (United States)

    Microbial growth did not occur when cucumbers were preserved without a thermal process by storage in solutions containing acetic acid, sodium benzoate, and calcium chloride to maintain tissue firmness. The concentrations of acetic acid and sodium benzoate required to assure preservation were low en...

  7. Broadband phase-preserved optical elevator

    CERN Document Server

    Luo, Yuan; Zhang, Baile; Qiu, Cheng-Wei; Barbastathis, George


    Phase-preserved optical elevator is an optical device to lift up an entire plane virtually without distortion in light path or phase. Using transformation optics, we have predicted and observed the realization of such a broadband phase-preserved optical elevator, made of a natural homogeneous birefringent crystal without resorting to absorptive and narrowband metamaterials involving time-consuming nano-fabrication. In our demonstration, the optical elevator is designed to lift a sheet upwards, and the phase is verified to be preserved always. The camouflage capability is also demonstrated in the presence of adjacent objects of the same scale at will. The elevating device functions in different surrounding media over the wavelength range of 400-700 nm. Our work opens up prospects for studies of light trapping, solar energy, illusion optics, communication, and imaging.

  8. BlogForever: Intelligent Blog Preservation

    CERN Multimedia

    Katarina Anthony


    A new EU co-funded project, BlogForever, has set its sights on a developing region of the Internet: the blogosphere. With society growing ever more online-oriented, blogs have become rich repositories of cultural, scientific and social information. The BlogForever software platform is designed to manage and distribute this content and preserve it for posterity.   The BlogForever project will gather blog content into a safeguarded, online archive, turning the once temporary into a well-preserved resource. The project is scheduled for completion in 2013, with partners spread across 12 different companies, universities and research organisations, including CERN. While the CERN team is primarily involved in the technical aspect of the project – designing and implementing the repository – it will also contribute to the preservation guidelines that will be used to choose what content will be kept. “Building on the success of Invenio, the digital library software used by th...


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯绳照; 侯晋川


    Let B(X) be the Banach algebra of all bounded linear operators on a complcx Banach space X. Let k ≥ 2 be an integer and φ a weakly continuous linear surjective map from B(X) into itself. It is shown that φ is k-potent preserving if and only if it is k-th-power preserving, and in turn, if and only if it is either an automorphism or an antiautomorphism on B(X) multiplied by a complex number λ satisfying λk-1 = 1. Let A be avon Neumann algebra andB be a Banach algebra, it is also shown that a bounded surjective linear map from A onto B is k-potent preserving if and only if it is a Jordan homomorphism multiplied by an invertible element with (k - 1)-th power I.

  10. Towards Smart Storage for Repository Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steve Hitchcock


    Full Text Available The move to digital is being accompanied by a huge rise in volumes of (born-digital content and data. As a result the curation lifecycle has to be redrawn. Processes such as selection and evaluation for preservation have to be driven by automation. Manual processes will not scale, and the traditional signifiers and selection criteria in older formats, such as print publication, are changing. The paper will examine at a conceptual and practical level how preservation intelligence can be built into software-based digital preservation tools and services on the Web and across the network ‘cloud’ to create ‘smart’ storage for long-term, continuous data monitoring and management. Some early examples will be presented, focussing on storage management and format risk assessment.

  11. The Planets Testbed: Science for Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seamus Ross


    Full Text Available The preservation of digital objects requires specific software tools or services. These can be characterisation tools that abstract the essential characteristics of a digital object from a file, migration tools that convert digital objects to different formats, or emulation tools that render digital objects in their original context on a new infrastructure. Until recently digital preservation has been characterised by practices and processes that could best be described as more art and craft than science. The Planets Testbed provides a controlled environment where preservation tools can be tested and evaluated, and where experiment results can be empirically compared. This paper presents an overview of the Testbed application, an analysis of the experiment methodology and a description of the Testbed's web service approach.

  12. Tertiary Treatment Process of Preserved Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Qingyu


    Full Text Available The effects of the composite coagulants on coagulation sedimentation for the preserved wastewater was investigated by changing the composite coagulant dosages, and the coagulant was composed of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS, polyaluminium chloride (PAC, and polyaluminum ferric silicate (PAFSC, while the effect of the tertiary treatment process on the preserved wastewater was tested, which was exceeded the standard seriously. The results showed that 400 mg/L was the optimum composite coagulant dosage. The removal rates of salt and sugar were as high as 99.1% and 99.5% respectively, and the removal rates of CODCr and SS were 99.3% and 96.0%, respectively after the preserved wastewater was treated by the tertiary treatment technology, which both reached the primary standard of “The Integrated Wastewater Discharge Standard” (GB8978-1996.

  13. Mass preserving image registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Sporring, Jon; Lo, Pechin;


    on four groups of data: 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with small difference in lung volume; 44 pairs of longitudinal inspiratory chest CT scans with large difference in lung volume; 16 pairs of expiratory and inspiratory CT scans; and 5 pairs of images extracted at end exhale and end...... inhale phases of 4D-CT images. Registration errors, measured as the average distance between vessel tree centerlines in the matched images, are significantly lower for the proposed mass preserving image registration method in the second, third and fourth group, while there is no statistically significant......This paper presents a mass preserving image registration algorithm for lung CT images. To account for the local change in lung tissue intensity during the breathing cycle, a tissue appearance model based on the principle of preservation of total lung mass is proposed. This model is incorporated...

  14. 开放前热血加甘露醇灌注在危重心脏瓣膜疾病患者术中的应用%Warm Blood with Mannitol Reperfusion Before Aortic Unclamping as a Myocardial Preservation Measure for Patients with Severe Valvular Heart Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李志刚; 王军; 王连才; 张宝仁


    目的 为了较好地进行心肌保护,研究主动脉开放前热血加甘露醇灌注在危重心脏瓣膜病患者体外循环术中的应用。 方法 选取我院1998年6月~1999年6月间80例心脏瓣膜病患者,随机分为实验组和对照组,每组各40例,常规行二尖瓣和/或主动脉瓣置换术。两组均采用中度低温含血心肌保护,实验组于主动脉开放前给予热血加甘露醇灌注。比较两组患者体外循环术后心功能恢复情况。 结果 在自动复跳率、主动脉开放后体外循环时间、24小时内心排血指数恢复速度、肌酸激酶下降幅度等指标实验组明显优于对照组(P<0.05),在术后呼吸机支持时间、ICU滞留时间、正性肌力药物使用率、手术死亡率等方面两组无明显差异(P>0.05)。 结论 主动脉开放前热血加甘露醇灌注能明显减轻再灌注损伤,加快术后早期心功能恢复。%Objective To assess the efficacy of warm blood and mannitol reperfusion in extracorporeal circulation for patients with severe valvular heart diseases. Methods Eighty patients with valvular heart diseases between 1998-6 and 1999-6 were selected and randomly divided into test group and control group. Mitral valve replacement, aortic valve replacement or double valve replacement was performed in those patients. All the patients were given continuous mild hypothermia(28±3℃) blood myocardial protection, while only the patients in test group were exposed to warm blood and mannitol reperfusion before unclamping the aortic artery. The auto-beating ratio, assistant time after unclamping aortic artery, trend of cardiac index and creatine kinase change after operation, supporting time by respirator, time in ICU and mortality of two groups were compared. Results The patients in test group performed better in auto-beating ratio, assistant time after unclamping aortic artery and velocity of cardiac index resumed and creatine kinase

  15. Exceptional fossil preservation and the cambrian explosion. (United States)

    Butterfield, Nicholas J


    Exceptionally preserved, non-biomineralizing fossils contribute importantly to resolving details of the Cambrian explosion, but little to its overall patterns. Six distinct "types" of exceptional preservation are identified for the terminal Proterozoic-Cambrian interval, each of which is dependent on particular taphonomic circumstances, typically restricted both in space and time. Taphonomic pathways yielding exceptional preservation were particularly variable through the Proterozoic-Cambrian transition, at least in part a consequence of contemporaneous evolutionary innovations. Combined with the reasonably continuous record of "Doushantuo-type preservation," and the fundamentally more robust records of shelly fossils, phytoplankton cysts and trace fossils, these taphonomic perturbations contribute to the documentation of major evolutionary and biogeochemical shifts through the terminal Proterozoic and early Cambrian.Appreciation of the relationship between taphonomic pathway and fossil expression serves as a useful tool for interpreting exceptionally preserved, often problematic, early Cambrian fossils. In shale facies, for example, flattened non-biomineralizing structures typically represent the remains of degradation-resistant acellular and extracellular "tissues" such as chaetae and cuticles, whereas three-dimensional preservation represents labile cellular tissues with a propensity for attracting and precipitating early diagenetic minerals. Such distinction helps to identify the acuticular integument of hyolithids, the chaetae-like nature of Wiwaxia sclerites, the chaetognath-like integument of Amiskwia, the midgut glands of various Burgess Shale arthropods, and the misidentification of deposit-feeding arthropods in the Chengjiang biota. By the same reasoning, putative lobopods in the Sirius Passet biota and putative deuterostomes in the Chengiang biota are better interpreted as arthropods.

  16. Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mount, Richard; Brooks, Travis; /SLAC; Le Diberder, Francois; /Orsay, LAL; Dubois-Felsmann, Gregory; Neal, Homer; /SLAC; Bellis, Matt; /Stanford U.; Boehnlein, Amber; Votava, Margaret; White, Vicky; Wolbers, Stephen; /Fermilab; Konigsberg, Jacobo; /Florida U.; Roser, Robert; Snider, Rick; /Fermilab; Lucchesi, Donatella; /INFN, Padua; Denisov, Dmitri; /Fermilab; Soldner-Rembold, Stefan; /Manchester U.; Li, Qizhong; /Fermilab; Varnes, Erich; /Arizona U.; Jonckheere, Alan; /Fermilab; Gasthuber, Martin; Gulzow, Volker; /DESY /Marseille, CPPM /Dortmund U. /DESY /Gent U. /DESY, Zeuthen /KEK, Tsukuba /CC, Villeurbanne /CERN /INFN, Bari /Gjovik Coll. Engineering /Karlsruhe, Forschungszentrum /Beijing, Inst. High Energy Phys. /Carleton U. /Cornell U. /Rutherford


    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. At the same time, HEP has no coherent strategy for data preservation and re-use. An inter-experimental Study Group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened at the end of 2008 and held two workshops, at DESY (January 2009) and SLAC (May 2009). This document is an intermediate report to the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA) of the reflections of this Study Group. Large data sets accumulated during many years of detector operation at particle accelerators are the heritage of experimental HEP. These data sets offer unique opportunities for future scientific studies, sometimes long after the shut-down of the actual experiments: new theoretical input; new experimental results and analysis techniques; the quest for high-sensitivity combined analyses; the necessity of cross checks. In many cases, HEP data sets are unique; they cannot and most likely will not be superseded by data from newer generations of experiments. Once lost, or in an unusable state, HEP data samples cannot be reasonably recovered. The cost of conserving this heritage through a collaborative, target-oriented long-term data preservation program would be small, compared to the costs of past experimental projects or to the efforts to re-do experiments. However, this cost is not negligible, especially for collaborations close or past their end-date. The preservation of HEP data would provide today's collaborations with a secure way to complete their data analysis and enable them to seize new scientific opportunities in the coming years. The HEP community will benefit from preserved data samples through reanalysis, combination, education and outreach. Funding agencies would receive more scientific return, and a positive image, from their initial investment leading to the production and the first analysis of preserved data.

  17. Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation in pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Yu Yin; Xiao-Dong Ni; Feng Jiang; Ning Li; You-Sheng Li; Xiao-Ming Wang; Jie-Shou Li


    AIM: The aim of this study was to describe an auxiliary combined liver-small bowel transplantation model with the preservation of duodenum, head of pancreas and hepatic biliary system in pigs. The technique, feasibility, security and immunosuppression were commented.METHODS: Forty outbred long-white pigs were randomized into two groups, and the auxiliary composite liver/small bowel allotransplantations were undertaken in 10 long-white pigs in each group with the recipient liver preserved.Group A was not treated with immunosuppressive drugs while group B was treated with cyclosporine A and methylprednisolone after operation. The hemodynamic changes and amylase of body fluid (including blood, urine and abdominal drain) were analyzed.RESULTS: The average survival time of the animals was 10±1.929 d (6 to 25 d) in group A while more than 30 d in group B. The pigs could tolerate the hemodynamic fluctuation during operation and the hemodynamic parameters recovered to normal 2 h after blood reperfusion. The transient high amylase level was decreased to normal one week after operation and autopsy showed no pancreatitis.CONCLUSION: Auxiliary en-bloc liver-small bowel transplantation with partial pancreas preservation is a feasible and safe model with simplified surgical techniques for composite liver/small bowel transplantation. This model may be used as a preclinical training model for clinical transplantation method, clinical liver-small bowel transplantation related complication research, basic research including immunosuppressive treatment, organ preservation, acute rejection, chronic rejection, immuno-tolerance and xenotransplantation.

  18. Preservation and storage of prepared ballistic gelatine. (United States)

    Mattijssen, E J A T; Alberink, I; Jacobs, B; van den Boogaard, Y


    The use of ballistic gelatine, generally accepted as a human muscle tissue simulant in wound ballistic studies, might be improved by adding a preservative (Methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate) which inhibits microbial growth. This study shows that replacing a part of the gelatine powder by the preservative does not significantly alter the penetration depth of projectiles. Storing prepared blocks of ballistic gelatine over time decreased the penetration depth of projectiles. Storage of prepared gelatine for 4 week already showed a significant effect on the penetration depth of projectiles.

  19. Privacy-Preserving Data Publishing An Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Wong, Raymond Chi-Wing


    Privacy preservation has become a major issue in many data analysis applications. When a data set is released to other parties for data analysis, privacy-preserving techniques are often required to reduce the possibility of identifying sensitive information about individuals. For example, in medical data, sensitive information can be the fact that a particular patient suffers from HIV. In spatial data, sensitive information can be a specific location of an individual. In web surfing data, the information that a user browses certain websites may be considered sensitive. Consider a dataset conta

  20. Nonlinear edge: preserving smoothing by PDEs (United States)

    Ha, Yan; Liu, Jiejing


    This work introduces a new algorithm for image smoothing. Nonlinear partial differential equations (PDEs) are employed to smooth the image while preserving the edges and corners. Compared with other filters such as average filter and median filter, it is found that the effects of image denoising by the new algorithm are better than that by other filters. The experimental results show that this method can not only remove the noise but also preserve the edges and corners. Due to its simplicity and efficiency, the algorithm becomes extremely attractive.

  1. JPEG 2000 standards in digital preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clark, Richard, E-mail: [Elysium Ltd and JPEG Honorary Webmaster Milton House, Whitehill Road, Crowborough, East Sussex TN6 1LB (United Kingdom)


    Although JPEG 2000 is now a preferred format for archival image preservation, its use still requires care and consideration. This paper addresses how some of these issues can be addressed from a pragmatic perspective, and also looks at how the technology and file formats are developing to provide a full and consistent architecture for handling and searching large visual archives. New methods of addressing perceptual quality are discussed, showing that JPEG 2000 offers the best quality compression, although the metrics indicate that lower compression rates are recommended for preservation formats than might be assumed from previous simple metrics such as PSNR.

  2. In Situ Preservation of Historic Spacecraft (United States)

    Barclay, R.; Brooks, R.

    The loss of the Mir space station is shown to symbolize a new consciousness of the value of space artefacts. The reasons why such artefacts as Mir become historic objects worthy of preservation are examined. Preservation of space vehicles in situ is discussed, with particular reference to safety, monitoring and long term costs. An argument is made for a wider definition for World Heritage designations to include material beyond the surface of the Earth, and for international bodies to assess, monitor and oversee these projects. Such heritage sites are seen as an economic driver for the development of space tourism in the 21st century.

  3. Discontinuity-preserving optical flow algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuan Lei; Li Jinzong; Li Dongdong


    A modification of Horn and Schunk's approach is investigated, which leads to a better preservation of flow discontinuities.It improves Horn-Schunk model in three aspects: (1) It replaces the smooth weight coefficient in the energy equation by the variable weight coefficient.(2) It adopts a novel method to compute the mean velocity.The novel method also reflects the effect of the intensity difference on the image velocity diffusion.(3) It introduces a more efficient iterative method than the Gauss-Seidel method to solve the associated Euler-Lagrange equation.The experiment results validate the better effect of the improved method on preserving discontinuities.

  4. Avian artificial insemination and semen preservation (United States)

    Gee, G.F.; Risser, Arthur C.; Todd, Frank S.


    Summary: Artificial insemination is a practical propagation tool that has been successful with a variety of birds. Cooperative, massage, and electroejaculation and modifications of these three basic methods of semen collection are described for a variety of birds. Semen color and consistency and sperm number, moti!ity, and morphology, as discussed, are useful indicators of semen quality, but the most reliable test of semen quality is the production of fertile eggs. Successful cryogenic preservation of avian semen with DMSO or glycerol as the cryoprotectant has been possible. Although the methods for preservation require special equipment, use of frozen semen requires only simple insemination supplies

  5. Temporal trends of preservative allergy in Denmark (1985-2008)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thyssen, Jacob P; Engkilde, Kåre; Lundov, Michael D;


    Most cosmetics and industrial products contain preservatives. Preservative allergy is common and, historically, changing contact allergy epidemics caused by preservatives have been observed. In 1997, Alan Dillarstone predicted a stable development of preservative allergy following mandatory...... ingredient labelling on cosmetic products....

  6. Preservation of Digitised Books in a Library Context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zierau, Eld; Jensen, Claus


    The focus of this paper is on which digital objects to preserve when preserving digital library materials derived from original paper materials. It will investigate preservation strategies for digital objects from digitised paper material that must both be preserved and simultaneously retain a sh...

  7. Histologic and radiographic evaluation of different bone grafts in ridge preservation procedures


    Barallat Sendagorta, Lucía


    The main goal of this PhD project was to better understand how different types of bone grafts behave in ridge preservation procedures. There is clear evidence that, after tooth removal, a healing process takes place in which the blood clot that fills the socket is gradually substituted with new bone. This process is accompanied by a reduction in height and width of the alveolar ridge. These events may result in limited bone availability, which may compromise an adequate implant pl...

  8. Use of the new preservation solution Custodiol-N supplemented with dextran for hypothermic machine perfusion of the kidney. (United States)

    Gallinat, Anja; Lüer, Bastian; Swoboda, Sandra; Rauen, Ursula; Paul, Andreas; Minor, Thomas


    Custodiol-N is a new preservation solution specifically designed to prevent free radical-induced tissue alterations and to protect vascular integrity of the graft. Thus, Custodiol-N appears particularly suitable as base solution for oxygenated machine preservation and its putative benefit for renal preservation by hypothermic machine perfusion (HMP) was investigated using a porcine in vitro model. Kidneys were retrieved from German Landrace pigs and preserved for 20 h by pulsatile oxygenated HMP on a Lifeport kidney transporter (syst. pressure 30 mmHg, 30cycles/min). Each graft was randomly assigned to the use of one of the following preservation solutions: Custodiol-N solution supplemented with 50 g/l dextran 40 (CND) or kidney perfusion solution 1 (KPS-1). Renal viability was evaluated upon reperfusion in vitro with diluted autologous blood from the donor for 120 min at 37°C. After 2h of postischemic reperfusion CND-preserved kidneys exhibited significantly higher renal blood flow and urine production. Oxygen consumption was also higher in the CND group than in KPS-1 kidneys. Clearance of creatinine increased during reperfusion of CND kidneys but declined in KPS-1 grafts ending in significantly higher values in CND kidneys. No differences between the groups were seen for enzyme release or fractional excretion of sodium. In conclusion the data presented provide first experimental evidence for adequate organ protective potential of CND in HMP as compared to the gold standard KPS-KPS-11.

  9. Comparative evaluation of phenol and thimerosal as preservatives for a candidate vaccine against American cutaneous leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Mayrink


    Full Text Available For decades thimerosal has been used as a preservative in the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis, which was developed by Mayrink et al. The use of thimerosal in humans has been banned due to its mercury content. This study addresses the standardization of phenol as a new candidate vaccine preservative. We have found that the proteolytic activity was abolished when the test was conducted using the candidate vaccine added to merthiolate (MtVac as well as to phenol (PhVac. The Montenegro's skin test conversion rates induced by MtVac and by PhVac was 68.06% and 85.9%, respectively, and these values were statistically significant (p < 0.05. The proliferative response of peripheral mononuclear blood cells shows that the stimulation index of mice immunized with both candidate vaccines was higher than the one in control animals (p < 0.05. The ability of the candidate vaccines to induce protection in C57BL/10 mice against a challenge with infective Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes was tested and the mice immunized with PhVac developed smaller lesions than the mice immunized with MtVac. Electrophoresis of phenol-preserved antigen revealed a number of proteins, which were better preserved in PhVac. These results do in fact encourage the use of phenol for preserving the immunogenic and biochemical properties of the candidate vaccine for cutaneous leishmaniasis.

  10. Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Trauma: A Series of Six Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thakur Deen Yadav


    Full Text Available Context Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy is a well-accepted procedure for benign tumors of the distal pancreas. Its safety and feasibility have been proven. However many doctors have not used this procedure due to the trauma involved. Objective We present our experience of six cases of distal pancreatic trauma where we managed to preserve the spleen during distal pancreatectomy in an emergency procedure. Design Prospective analysis of the data. Participants Patients with distal pancreatic trauma admitted to the Department of Surgery, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, Chandigarh between July 2001 and June 2005. Intervention A spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy was performed by preserving the splenic vessels to maintain a reliable splenic blood flow. Patients who were unstable after adequate resuscitation were excluded. Main outcome measures The preoperative characteristics, intraoperative findings and postoperative complications with follow-up were studied. Results Six patients were found suitable for spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy based on their general condition and a preoperative spleen CECT. Five patients had been injured in car accidents and one patient had sustained a stab injury. The average duration of the surgery was 4.75±0.25 hours. All patients had associated hollow viscus injury which was repaired along with the spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. The most common post-operative complication was fever with basal atelectasis. One patient died postoperatively from hemodynamic instability. The other five patients are doing well and have not developed pancreatic endocrine insufficiency. Conclusion Although technically demanding, a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy can be performed safely in an emergency, and it avoids splenectomy-related problems in the post-operative period.

  11. The State of the Art and Practice in Digital Preservation. (United States)

    Lee, Kyong-Ho; Slattery, Oliver; Lu, Richang; Tang, Xiao; McCrary, Victor


    The goal of digital preservation is to ensure long-term access to digitally stored information. In this paper, we present a survey of techniques used in digital preservation. We also introduce representative digital preservation projects and case studies that provide insight into the advantages and disadvantages of different preservation strategies. Finally, the pros and cons of current strategies, critical issues for digital preservation, and future directions are discussed.

  12. CERN Services for Long Term Data Preservation

    CERN Document Server

    Shiers, Jamie; Blomer, Jakob; Ganis, Gerardo; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Simko, Tibor; Cancio Melia, German; CERN. Geneva. IT Department


    In this paper we describe the services that are offered by CERN for Long Term preservation of High Energy Physics (HEP) data, with the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as a key use case. Data preservation is a strategic goal for European High Energy Physics (HEP), as well as for the HEP community worldwide and we position our work in this global content. Specifically, we target the preservation of the scientific data, together with the software, documentation and computing environment needed to process, (re-)analyse or otherwise (re-)use the data. The target data volumes range from hundreds of petabytes (PB – 10^15 bytes) to hundreds of exabytes (EB – 10^18 bytes) for a target duration of several decades. The Use Cases driving data preservation are presented together with metrics that allow us to measure how close we are to meeting our goals, including the possibility for formal certification for at least part of this work. Almost all of the services that we describe are fully generic – the exception being A...

  13. Mechanism for Burgess Shale-type preservation. (United States)

    Gaines, Robert R; Hammarlund, Emma U; Hou, Xianguang; Qi, Changshi; Gabbott, Sarah E; Zhao, Yuanlong; Peng, Jin; Canfield, Donald E


    Exceptionally preserved fossil biotas of the Burgess Shale and a handful of other similar Cambrian deposits provide rare but critical insights into the early diversification of animals. The extraordinary preservation of labile tissues in these geographically widespread but temporally restricted soft-bodied fossil assemblages has remained enigmatic since Walcott's initial discovery in 1909. Here, we demonstrate the mechanism of Burgess Shale-type preservation using sedimentologic and geochemical data from the Chengjiang, Burgess Shale, and five other principal Burgess Shale-type deposits. Sulfur isotope evidence from sedimentary pyrites reveals that the exquisite fossilization of organic remains as carbonaceous compressions resulted from early inhibition of microbial activity in the sediments by means of oxidant deprivation. Low sulfate concentrations in the global ocean and low-oxygen bottom water conditions at the sites of deposition resulted in reduced oxidant availability. Subsequently, rapid entombment of fossils in fine-grained sediments and early sealing of sediments by pervasive carbonate cements at bed tops restricted oxidant flux into the sediments. A permeability barrier, provided by bed-capping cements that were emplaced at the seafloor, is a feature that is shared among Burgess Shale-type deposits, and resulted from the unusually high alkalinity of Cambrian oceans. Thus, Burgess Shale-type preservation of soft-bodied fossil assemblages worldwide was promoted by unique aspects of early Paleozoic seawater chemistry that strongly impacted sediment diagenesis, providing a fundamentally unique record of the immediate aftermath of the "Cambrian explosion."

  14. Organ preservation solutions : clinical and pharmaceutical aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leuvenink, Henri G. D.; Ploeg, Rutger J.


    Systematic research has led to continuing improvements in the solutions and techniques of preserving donated hearts. The persistent shortage of donors means that organs of lower quality are increasingly being accepted and we are turning more and more to machine perfusion of donated hearts.

  15. Cancer and fertility : strategies to preserve fertility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diedrich, K.; Fauser, B. C. J. M.; Devroey, P.


    Fertility preservation is a key component of cancer management in young people. The Fourth Evian Annual Reproduction Workshop Meeting was held in April 2009 to discuss cancer and fertility in young adults. Specialists in oncology, assisted reproduction, embryology and clinical genetics presented pub

  16. Radiation preservation of strawberry fruit: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quaranta, H.O.; Piccini, J.L.


    This paper reviews the up-to-date literature on strawberry fruit preservation by irradiation, including microbiological and nutritional aspects, as well as chemical alterations in its components through analysis of vitamin content, carbohydrates, amino acids and fatty acids present, estimation of content of volatiles, and influence of irradiation on shelf-life and appearance.

  17. Dignity-preserving dementia care: a metasynthesis. (United States)

    Tranvåg, Oscar; Petersen, Karin A; Nåden, Dagfinn


    Research indicates the essentiality of dignity as a vital component for quality of life, reconfirming the emphasis on dignity preservation in the international code of nursing ethics. Applying Noblit and Hare's meta-ethnography, the aim of the study was to develop a theory model by synthesizing 10 qualitative articles from various cultural contexts, exploring nurse and allied healthcare professional perception/practice concerning dignity-preserving dementia care. "Advocating the person's autonomy and integrity," which involves "having compassion for the person," "confirming the person's worthiness and sense of self," and "creating a humane and purposeful environment," was identified as a primary foundation for dignity-preserving dementia care. "Balancing individual choices among persons no longer able to make sound decisions, against the duty of making choices on behalf of the person," which involves "persuasion" and/or "mild restraint," was considered a crucial aspect in certain situations. "Sheltering human worth-remembering those who forget" was identified as a comprehensive motive and core value within dignity-preserving dementia care.

  18. Coatings Preserve Metal, Stone, Tile, and Concrete (United States)


    John B. Schutt, a chemist at Goddard Space Flight Center, created a coating for spacecraft that could resist corrosion and withstand high heat. After retiring from NASA, Schutt used his expertise to create new formulations for Daytona Beach, Florida-based Adsil Corporation, which now manufactures a family of coatings to preserve various surfaces. Adsil has created 150 jobs due to the products.

  19. Privacy Preserving Mapping Schemes Supporting Comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tang, Qiang


    To cater to the privacy requirements in cloud computing, we introduce a new primitive, namely Privacy Preserving Mapping (PPM) schemes supporting comparison. An PPM scheme enables a user to map data items into images in such a way that, with a set of images, any entity can determine the $<, =, >$ re

  20. Parsing with Structure-Preserving Categorial Grammars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capelletti, M.


    This book is a study of the logical and computational properties of structure-preserving categorial grammars. The first part of the book presents chart-parsers for non-associative categorial grammars in the style of Ajdukiewicz and Bar-Hillel. These are proposed in Chapter 3 as deductive parsers, th

  1. Hearing Preservation after Cochlear Implantation: UNICAMP Outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho


    Full Text Available Background. Electric-acoustic stimulation (EAS is an excellent choice for people with residual hearing in low frequencies but not high frequencies and who derive insufficient benefit from hearing aids. For EAS to be effective, subjects' residual hearing must be preserved during cochlear implant (CI surgery. Methods. We implanted 6 subjects with a CI. We used a special surgical technique and an electrode designed to be atraumatic. Subjects' rates of residual hearing preservation were measured 3 times postoperatively, lastly after at least a year of implant experience. Subjects' aided speech perception was tested pre- and postoperatively with a sentence test in quiet. Subjects' subjective responses assessed after a year of EAS or CI experience. Results. 4 subjects had total or partial residual hearing preservation; 2 subjects had total residual hearing loss. All subjects' hearing and speech perception benefited from cochlear implantation. CI diminished or eliminated tinnitus in all 4 subjects who had it preoperatively. 5 subjects reported great satisfaction with their new device. Conclusions. When we have more experience with our surgical technique we are confident we will be able to report increased rates of residual hearing preservation. Hopefully, our study will raise the profile of EAS in Brazil and Latin/South America.

  2. Hearing Preservation in Acoustic Neuroma Surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Dongyi; YU Limei; YANG Shiming; YU Liming


    Objective To report the authors' experiences in hearing preservation during acoustic neuroma (AN)resection procedures. Methods Two cases of AN removal via retrosigmoid approach were reviewed. Hearing preservation was attempted in the aid of endoscopic technique along with continuous monitoring of the compound action potential (CAP) and auditory brainstem response(ABR) during the surgery. Results The tumor in Case 1 was 1.5 cm in diameter. The average pure-tone hearing threshold was 30 dB HL and ABR was normal. Waves Ⅰ, Ⅲ and V of ABR were present following tumor removal. At 7th month follow-up, audiometric thresholds and ABR inter-peak intervals had recovered to pre-operative levels, with normal facial nerve function. The patient in Case 2 had bilateral AN. The tumors measured 4.0 cm (left) and 5.0 cm (right) on MRI scans. The AN on the right side was removed first, followed by removal of the left AN four months later. Intraoperative CAP monitoring was employed during removal of the left AN. While efforts to preserve the cochlear nerve were not successful, CAPs were still present after tumor removal. Conclusions Intraoperatively recorded CAPs are not reliable in predicting postoperative hearing outcomes. In contrast, ABRs are an indicator of function of the peripheral auditory pathway. Presence of waves Ⅰ, Ⅲ and V following tumor removal may represent preservation of useful hearing.

  3. Transition to chaos in area preserving maps (United States)

    Nicolini, Piero; Tessarotto, Massimo


    As is well known, area-preserving maps are a characteristic aspect of Hamiltonian systems, such as those arising from the velocity field in incompressible fluids or magnetofluids. In this connection, a fundamental issue and a popular subject of numerous investigations [see, in particular, [1-4

  4. Building Digital Audio Preservation Infrastructure and Workflows (United States)

    Young, Anjanette; Olivieri, Blynne; Eckler, Karl; Gerontakos, Theodore


    In 2009 the University of Washington (UW) Libraries special collections received funding for the digital preservation of its audio indigenous language holdings. The university libraries, where the authors work in various capacities, had begun digitizing image and text collections in 1997. Because of this, at the onset of the project, workflows (a…

  5. Digital Preservation and the Cedars Project. (United States)

    Russell, Kelly


    Defines and discusses strategies for digital preservation. Describes the United Kingdom's CURL (Consortium of University Research Libraries) exemplars in digital archives project "Cedars" led by the Universities of Oxford, Cambridge, and Leeds to address strategic, methodological, and practical issues, and to provide guidance in best…

  6. Digital Preservation of Ethnic Cultural Heritage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Nonja; Marinova, Dora; van Faassen, M.; Stasiuk, Glen; Zacher, L.


    This chapter focuses on the state of the art of digitisation of cultural heritage in Australian archives and libraries in a comparative way. Globalisation and the digital age not only brings new possibilities but also entails on questions of how we perceive ourselves and how we want to preserve our

  7. Preserving History in a Digital World (United States)

    Baumann, Jim


    Stanford University's (California) Julie Sweetkind-Singer is a recognized authority on digital preservation, and has been honored by the Library of Congress for her work in the field. She currently serves as both the assistant director of Stanford's Geospatial, Cartographic and Scientific Data and Services and as head of the Branner Earth Sciences…

  8. 2015 Site Environmental Report Fernald Preserve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertel, Bill [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hooten, Gwen [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016). Remediation of the Fernald Preserve has been successfully completed with the exception of the groundwater. During 2015, activities at the Fernald Preserve included: environmental monitoring activities related to direct radiation, groundwater, and surface water; ecological restoration monitoring and maintenance as well as inspections, care, and monitoring of the site and the OSDF to ensure that provisions of the LMICP are fully implemented; OSDF leak detection monitoring and collection, monitoring, and treatment of leachate from the OSDF; extraction, monitoring, and treatment of contaminated groundwater from the Great Miami Aquifer (Operable Unit 5); ongoing operation of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, associated outreach, and educational activities; and monitoring as specified in the site’s National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) permit. Environmental monitoring programs were developed to ensure that the remedy remains protective of the environment. The requirements of these programs are described in detail in the LMICP and reported in this Site Environmental Report.

  9. Scientific Data: Preserving, Archiving and Sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xianxue; YANG Congke


    Scientific data refers to the data or data sets generated from scientific research process through observations, experiments, calculations and analyses. These data are fundamental components for developing new knowledge, advancing technological progress, and creating wealth. In recent years, scientific data has been attracting more and more attention for its preserving, archiving and sharing.

  10. Fossil avian eggshell preserves ancient DNA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oskam, Charlotte L; Haile, James Seymour; McLay, Emma


    Owing to exceptional biomolecule preservation, fossil avian eggshell has been used extensively in geochronology and palaeodietary studies. Here, we show, to our knowledge, for the first time that fossil eggshell is a previously unrecognized source of ancient DNA (aDNA). We describe the successful...

  11. Hearing Preservation in Cochlear Implant Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Carvalho Miranda


    Full Text Available In the past, it was thought that hearing loss patients with residual low-frequency hearing would not be good candidates for cochlear implantation since insertion was expected to induce inner ear trauma. Recent advances in electrode design and surgical techniques have made the preservation of residual low-frequency hearing achievable and desirable. The importance of preserving residual low-frequency hearing cannot be underestimated in light of the added benefit of hearing in noisy atmospheres and in music quality. The concept of electrical and acoustic stimulation involves electrically stimulating the nonfunctional, high-frequency region of the cochlea with a cochlear implant and applying a hearing aid in the low-frequency range. The principle of preserving low-frequency hearing by a “soft surgery” cochlear implantation could also be useful to the population of children who might profit from regenerative hair cell therapy in the future. Main aspects of low-frequency hearing preservation surgery are discussed in this review: its brief history, electrode design, principles and advantages of electric-acoustic stimulation, surgical technique, and further implications of this new treatment possibility for hearing impaired patients.

  12. Preservation of panorama mesdag, the Haque

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stoel, van der A.E.C.; Koning, de M.


    This paper deals with the preservation of the Panorama Mesdag, a cylindrical painting, more than 14 meters high and 120 meters in circumference. The vista of the sea, the dunes and Scheveningen village was painted by one of the most famous painters of the Hague School, Hendrik Willem Mesdag. It is t

  13. 36 CFR 910.32 - Historic preservation. (United States)


    ... GUIDELINES AND UNIFORM STANDARDS FOR URBAN PLANNING AND DESIGN OF DEVELOPMENT WITHIN THE PENNSYLVANIA AVENUE.... Rehabilitation of buildings within the Development Area, which, according to the Plan and the Historic... with the Secretary of the Interior's “Standards for Historic Preservation Projects”: (36 CFR part...

  14. Preservation of generalized bathtub-shaped functions


    Savits, Thomas H.


    Block, Savits and Singh previously presented a preservation result for bathtub-shaped functions. In this paper, we strengthen and extend their results to a class of functions which allow for more than one change of monotonicity. Various applications are also considered.

  15. Fertility preservation in young cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Revel


    Full Text Available As a result of advances in treatment, almost 80% of children and adolescents who receive a diagnosis of cancer become long-term survivors. The increased survival rate of children and adolescents with cancer has resulted in a major interest in the long-term effects of cancer treatment on the possibility for future fertility. Currently established methods for the preservation of fertility are available only for pubertal males and females. Pubertal male cancer patients should be encouraged to freeze numerous sperm samples even when sperm count and motility are poor. In these cases, intracytoplasmic sperm injection is a powerful technique compared with intrauterine insemination since thawed sperm samples with poor parameters can produce relatively high fertilization rates resulting in normal pregnancies and deliveries. Married pubertal women should be proposed ovulation induction, follicular aspiration, and fertilization with husband sperm. Single women could benefit from vitrification of oocytes. This requires a delay of about 3 weeks in the commencement of chemotherapy to enable follicular growth. Fertility preservation for prepubertal patients is more of a problem. Young girls could be offered cryopreservation of gametes in the gonadal tissue. Cryopreservation of testicular tissue was suggested for fertility preservation for young boys, but this method is totally experimental and not currently offered. Discussing future fertility is part of the consultation of young female and male patients facing potentially gonadotoxic cancer therapy. It is the role of reproductive specialists to create various options in their laboratory to preserve fertility potential of cancer patients.

  16. Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin suppress Th1-type immune response in vitro. (United States)

    Maier, Elisabeth; Kurz, Katharina; Jenny, Marcel; Schennach, Harald; Ueberall, Florian; Fuchs, Dietmar


    Food preservatives sodium benzoate and propionic acid and colorant curcumin are demonstrated to suppress in a dose-dependent manner Th1-type immune response in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) in vitro. Results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which however could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity.

  17. Preservation of samples for dissolved mercury (United States)

    Hamlin, S.N.


    Water samples for dissolved mercury requires special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a large variety of concentrations and dissolved forms. Because this acid-oxidant preservative acts as a sink for airborne mercury and plastic containers are permeable to mercury vapor, glass bottles are preferred for sample collection. To maintain a healthy work environment and minimize the potential for contamination of water samples, mercury and its compounds are isolated from the atmosphere while in storage. Concurrently, a program to monitor environmental levels of mercury vapor in areas of potential contamination is needed to define the extent of mercury contamination and to assess the effectiveness of mercury clean-up procedures.Water samples for dissolved mercury require special treatment because of the high chemical mobility and volatility of this element. Widespread use of mercury and its compounds has provided many avenues for contamination of water. Two laboratory tests were done to determine the relative permeabilities of glass and plastic sample bottles to mercury vapor. Plastic containers were confirmed to be quite permeable to airborne mercury, glass containers were virtually impermeable. Methods of preservation include the use of various combinations of acids, oxidants, and complexing agents. The combination of nitric acid and potassium dichromate successfully preserved mercury in a


    NARCIS (Netherlands)



    Chloroform should be considered as an obsolete preservative for,pharmaceutical preparations, because of its toxicological implications and its physical instability. The effectiveness oi possible alternatives for chloroform in three-oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations was investigated, using a mi

  19. Preserving the Context of Science Data (United States)

    Janée, G.; Frew, J.


    Preserving any type of digital information requires preserving both the "bits" comprising the information, and sufficient context (metadata) to support interpreting the bits in the future. Unfortunately, this context is often implicit or embedded in organizations (e.g., communities of practice) or artifacts (e.g., computing platforms) that are not as survivable as the information itself. Therefore, digital preservation must explicitly preserve context. Two necessary components of digital scientific information context are formats and provenance. Formats describe the syntax and low-level semantics of digital information objects (e.g., files). The library community has promulgated format registries (e.g, PRONOM, GDFR, that allow archival objects to refer to format definitions using standardized persistent identifiers. Format registries maintain this context separately from the information that references it, but make no archival guarantees about the context's survival. Meanwhile, the scientific community has focused on capturing the provenance of scientific information, typically as a formal workflow specification of the processing steps that created the information. Unfortunately, there is as yet no standard for scientific workflows, nor any guarantee that a specification that can reproduce information is sufficient for understanding it. We describe new technologies that may prove a better fit for preserving scientific information context. The National Geospatial Digital Archive (NGDA) data model represents formats as archival objects containing specifications, software implementations, and other documentation. A format registry is simply an archive that happens to hold archival objects representing formats. Both format and provenance relationships are represented by typed references. Any archival object may reference any other object for its interpretation: the referenced object may be a "file format" object or an object containing dataset

  20. Blood vessels, circulation and blood pressure. (United States)

    Hendry, Charles; Farley, Alistair; McLafferty, Ella

    This article, which forms part of the life sciences series, describes the vessels of the body's blood and lymphatic circulatory systems. Blood pressure and its regulatory systems are examined. The causes and management of hypertension are also explored. It is important that nurses and other healthcare professionals understand the various mechanisms involved in the regulation of blood pressure to prevent high blood pressure or ameliorate its damaging consequences.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. S. Gevorgyan


    Full Text Available Nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy is one of the high-tech operations in urology, and the challenge of the surgeon is not only to remove the prostate tumor, but also to provide a high quality of life. The fact that most questions devoted from patients in a conversation with the surgeon before the operation are devoted to this issue, shows the importance and relevance. At present, the diagnostic methods allow significantly more likely to detect early  prostate cancer, making finding and treatment of these patients more affordable and allows to apply this operation.Lately, it seems urgent to explore the possibility of water jet dissection in the field of urology, in particular, for nerve-sparing prostatectomy. Preservation of erectile function depends largely on the quality of separating the neurovascular bundle. Standard use of electrocautery is associated with damage to the neurovascular bundle.  When performing operations using water-jet mobilization of prostate the selective dissection of tissue is performed. This avoids injury of neurovascular bundle and further postoperative complications. The use of this technique may allow the surgeon to provide a more accurate mobilization prostate and selectively controlled intersection vessels heading to the prostate from the neurovascular bundle, reduce intraoperative blood loss,  maintaining continence, erectile function.This literature review is considered by the experience of using nerve-sparing radical prostatectomy using a water-jet dissector, estimated intraoperative parameters using this method.However, we have the lack of extensive research capabilities of this technique when performing nerve-preserving radical prostatectomy, that does not allow to make a comprehensive presentation on the benefits of this technique and its effects on erectile function and quality of urination, further study of this issue in such a difficult category of patients.

  2. Application of natural antimicrobials for food preservation. (United States)

    Tiwari, Brijesh K; Valdramidis, Vasilis P; O'Donnell, Colm P; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Bourke, Paula; Cullen, P J


    In this review, antimicrobials from a range of plant, animal, and microbial sources are reviewed along with their potential applications in food systems. Chemical and biochemical antimicrobial compounds derived from these natural sources and their activity against a range of pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms pertinent to food, together with their effects on food organoleptic properties, are outlined. Factors influencing the antimicrobial activity of such agents are discussed including extraction methods, molecular weight, and agent origin. These issues are considered in conjunction with the latest developments in the quantification of the minimum inhibitory (and noninhibitory) concentration of antimicrobials and/or their components. Natural antimicrobials can be used alone or in combination with other novel preservation technologies to facilitate the replacement of traditional approaches. Research priorities and future trends focusing on the impact of product formulation, intrinsic product parameters, and extrinsic storage parameters on the design of efficient food preservation systems are also presented.

  3. Preservation of cycad and Ginkgo pollen (United States)

    Frederiksen, N.O.


    Pollen grains of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos were chemically treated together with pollen of Quercus, Alnus, and Pinus, the latter three genera being used as standards. The experiments showed that: (1) boiling the pollen for 8-10 hours in 10% KOH had little if any effect on any of the grains; (2) lengthy acetolysis treatment produced some degradation or corrosion, particularly in Ginkgo and Cycas, but the grains of even these genera remained easily recognizable; (3) oxidation with KMnO4 followed by H2O2 showed that pollen of Ginkgo, Cycas, and Encephalartos remains better preserved than that of Quercus and Alnus, and although Ginkgo and Encephalartos probably are slightly less resistant to oxidation than Pinus, no great differences exists between these monosulcate types and Pinus. Thus the experiments show that, at least for sediments low in bacteria, cycad and Ginkgo pollen should be well represented in the fossil record as far as their preservational capabilities are concerned. ?? 1978.

  4. Modelling OAIS Compliance for Disaggregated Preservation Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gareth Knight


    Full Text Available The reference model for the Open Archival Information System (OAIS is well established in the research community as a method of modelling the functions of a digital repository and as a basis in which to frame digital curation and preservation issues. In reference to the 5th anniversary review of the OAIS, it is timely to consider how it may be interpreted by an institutional repository. The paper examines methods of sharing essential functions and requirements of an OAIS between two or more institutions, outlining the practical considerations of outsourcing. It also details the approach taken by the SHERPA DP Project to introduce a disaggregated service model for institutional repositories that wish to implement preservation services.

  5. Irradiation preservation of seafood: Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Molton, P.M.


    The application of gamma-irradiation for extending the shelf life of seafood has been of interest for many years. This report reviews a number of studies on seafood irradiation conducted over the past several years. Topics covered include seafood irradiation techniques and dosages, species applicability and differences, the effects of packaging on seafood preservation, and changes in organoleptic acceptability as a result of irradiation. Particular attention is given to radiation effects (likely and unlikely) of concern to the public. These include the potential for generation of toxic chemical products, botulinum toxin production, and other health concerns. No scientifically defensible evidence of any kind was found for any harmful effect of irradiation of seafoods at the doses being considered (less than 300 krad), and all indications are that irradiation is an acceptable and needed additional tool for seafood preservation. 49 refs., 14 figs., 14 tabs.

  6. Workshop on Preserving High Purity Uranium-233

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krichinsky, Alan M [ORNL; Giaquinto, Joseph [ORNL; Canaan, R Douglas {Doug} [ORNL


    A workshop was held on at the MARC X conference to provide a forum for the scientific community to communicate needs for high-purity 233U and its by-products in order to preserve critical items otherwise slated for downblending and disposal. Currently, only a small portion of the U.S. holdings of separated 233U is being preserved. However, many additional kilograms of 233U (>97% pure) still are destined to be downblended which will permanently destroy their potential value for many other applications. It is not likely that this material will ever be replaced due to a lack of operating production capability. Summaries of information conveyed at the workshop and feedback obtained from the scientific community are presented herein.

  7. Techniques and results for open hip preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David eLevy


    Full Text Available While hip arthroscopy grows in popularity, there are still many circumstances under which open hip preservation is most appropriately indicated. This article specifically reviews open hip preservation procedures for a variety of hip conditions. Femoral acetabular impingement may be corrected using an open surgical hip dislocation. Acetabular dysplasia may be corrected using a periacetabular osteotomy. Acetabular protrusio may require surgical hip dislocation with rim trimming and a possible valgus intertrochanteric osteotomy. Legg-Calve ́-Perthes disease produces complex deformities that may be better served with osteotomies of the proximal femur and/ or acetabulum. Chronic slipped capital femoral epiphysis (SCFE may also benefit from a surgical hip dislocation and/or proximal femoral osteotomy.

  8. Nanomaterials and preservation mechanisms of architecture monuments (United States)

    Ion, Rodica-Mariana; Radu, Adrian; Teodorescu, Sofia; Fierǎscu, Irina; Fierǎscu, Radu-Claudiu; Ştirbescu, Raluca-Maria; Dulamǎ, Ioana Daniela; Şuicǎ-Bunghez, Ioana-Raluca; Bucuricǎ, Ioan Alin; Ion, Mihaela-Lucia


    Knowledge of the chemical composition of the building materials of the monuments may help us to preserve and protect them from the pollution of our cities. The aim of this work is to characterize the materials of the walls from ancient buildings, the decay products that could be appear due to the action of pollution and a new method based on nanomaterials (hydroxyapatite -HAp) for a conservative preservation of the treated walls. Some analytical techniques have been used, as follow: X-ray fluorescence energy dispersive (EDXRF) (for the relative abundance of major, minor and trace elements), FTIR and Raman spectroscopy (for stratigraphic study of cross-sections of multi-layered materials found in wall paintings), Optical microscopy (OM), (for morphology of the wall samples). The nanomaterial suspension HAp applied on the sample surface by spraying, decreased the capillary water uptake, do not modify significantly the color of the samples and induced a reduced mass loss for the treated samples.

  9. Majorization preservation of Gaussian bosonic channels (United States)

    Jabbour, Michael G.; García-Patrón, Raúl; Cerf, Nicolas J.


    It is shown that phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channels are majorization-preserving over the set of passive states of the harmonic oscillator. This means that comparable passive states under majorization are transformed into equally comparable passive states by any phase-insensitive Gaussian bosonic channel. Our proof relies on a new preorder relation called Fock-majorization, which coincides with regular majorization for passive states but also induces another order relation in terms of mean boson number, thereby connecting the concepts of energy and disorder of a quantum state. The consequences of majorization preservation are discussed in the context of the broadcast communication capacity of Gaussian bosonic channels. Because most of our results are independent of the specific nature of the system under investigation, they could be generalized to other quantum systems and Hamiltonians, providing a new tool that may prove useful in quantum information theory and especially quantum thermodynamics.

  10. Economics of Historic Preservation: Dollars and Sense

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    April D. ALLEN


    Full Text Available The built environment expresses diversity, identity, individuality, and differentiation. In economics, it is the differentiated product that commands a monetary premium. Historic preservation protects our diverse building stock while creating more construction jobs, returning under-utilized buildings to the tax rolls, attracting heritage tourists, and maximizing the use of existing infrastructure. It has been said that the greenest building is the one that is already built. Four out of five existing buildings will be renovated over the next generation while two new buildings are added. With an overwhelming vastness of existing building stock, this becomes the elephant in the room. We cannot build our way to sustainability but must conserve our way to it. Economically, this makes good sense. Historic preservation, sustainability and conservation go hand in hand to protect our built environment while providing healthy, aesthetically pleasing buildings in which to live, work, and play, thus growing the local economy.

  11. Blood Culture (For Parents) (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Blood Culture KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Culture Print A A ... adjust the treatment choice. Why Do a Blood Culture? During some illnesses, certain infection-causing bacteria and ...

  12. Coughing up blood (United States)

    ... gastrointestinal tract. Blood that comes up with a cough often looks bubbly because it is mixed with ... conditions, diseases, and medical tests may make you cough up blood. These include: Blood clot in the ...

  13. High Blood Pressure (United States)

    ... normal blood pressure 140/90 or higher is high blood pressure Between 120 and 139 for the top number, ... prehypertension. Prehypertension means you may end up with high blood pressure, unless you take steps to prevent it. High ...

  14. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) (United States)

    ... Print Page Text Size: A A A Listen High Blood Pressure (Hypertension) Nearly 1 in 3 American adults has ... weight. How Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you ...

  15. What Is Blood? (United States)

    ... Foundation for America's Blood Centers ADRP What is blood? PUBLICATIONS EDUCATION PRESS ROOM BLOG CAREERS CONTACT ABC ... for patients who need it. One unit of blood can be separated into the following components: Nearly ...

  16. Ketones blood test (United States)

    ... Ketones - serum; Nitroprusside test; Ketone bodies - serum; Ketones - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight ... there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  17. Magnesium blood test (United States)

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  18. CEA blood test (United States)

    Carcinoembryonic antigen blood test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel moderate pain. Others feel only a prick or stinging sensation. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. ...

  19. Glucagon blood test (United States)

    ... type I - glucagon test; Hypoglycemia - glucagon test; Low blood sugar - glucagon test ... A blood sample is needed . ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel ... Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This ...

  20. Special Blood Donation Procedures (United States)

    ... takes about 10 minutes. Double red blood cell donation In the so-called double red blood cell ... can be cured with apheresis. Directed or designated donation Family members or friends can donate blood specifically ...

  1. Home blood sugar testing (United States)

    Diabetes - home glucose testing; Diabetes - home blood sugar testing ... Usual times to test your blood sugar are before meals and at bedtime. Your provider may ask you to check your blood sugar 2 hours after a meal. Ask ...

  2. High blood sugar (United States)

    ... High blood glucose - self-care; Diabetes - high blood sugar ... Symptoms of high blood sugar can include: Being very thirsty or having a dry mouth Having blurry vision Having dry skin Feeling weak or tired ...

  3. Hyperglycemia (High Blood Glucose)

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Pressure Physical Activity High Blood Glucose My Health Advisor Tools To Know Your Risk Alert Day ... DKA (Ketoacidosis) & Ketones Kidney Disease (Nephropathy) Gastroparesis Mental Health Step On Up Treatment & Care Blood Glucose Testing ...

  4. Blood and Diversity (United States)

    ... patient diversity. For example, U-negative and Duffy-negative blood types are unique to the African-American community. ... most common blood type and because type O negative blood, in particular, is the universal type needed for ...

  5. Blood Pressure Test (United States)

    ... an online personal health record or blood pressure tracker, for example. This gives you the option of ... lower your blood pressure. Exercise regularly. Regular physical activity can help lower your blood pressure and keep ...

  6. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Edition Abstracts Blood Advances A peer-reviewed, online only, open access journal with a unique focus ... help: Results of Clinical Studies Published in Blood Search Blood , the official journal of ASH, for the ...

  7. Symptoms of Blood Disorders (United States)

    ... leg (causing most often swelling, redness, and/or warmth of the leg or shortness of breath) Petechiae ( ... Disorders Symptoms of Blood Disorders Medical History and Physical Examination for Blood Disorders Laboratory Tests for Blood ...

  8. Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension) (United States)

    ... and rises sharply on waking. Blood pressure: How low can you go? What's considered low blood pressure ... even life-threatening disorders. Conditions that can cause low blood pressure Some medical conditions can cause low ...

  9. Red blood cell production (United States)

    ... to one part of the body or another. Red blood cells are an important element of blood. Their job ... is carried to and eliminated by the lungs. Red blood cells are formed in the red bone marrow of ...

  10. Structure Preserving Anonymization of Router Configuration Data (United States)


    2009 IEEE Authorized licensed use limited to: Naval Postgraduate School. Downloaded on December 18, 2009 at 13:53 from IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. MALTZ et al.: STRUCTURE PRESERVING ANONYMIZATION OF ROUTER CONFIGURATION DATA 351 1 hostname 2 ! 3... IEEE Xplore . Restrictions apply. 352 IEEE JOURNAL ON SELECTED AREAS IN COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. 27, NO. 3, APRIL 2009 lines 14 and 30 (

  11. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples (United States)

    Kurt, Yasemin Gulcan; Kurt, Bulent; Ozcan, Omer; Topal, Turgut; Kilic, Abdullah; Muftuoglu, Tuba; Acikel, Cengizhan; Sener, Kenan; Sahiner, Fatih; Yigit, Nuri; Aydin, Ibrahim; Alay, Semih; Ekinci, Safak


    Context: Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80°C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO) solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW) solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours. PMID:26019417

  12. Preservative solution for skeletal muscle biopsy samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasemin Gulcan Kurt


    Full Text Available Context : Muscle biopsy samples must be frozen with liquid nitrogen immediately after excision and maintained at -80 o C until analysis. Because of this requirement for tissue processing, patients with neuromuscular diseases often have to travel to centers with on-site muscle pathology laboratories for muscle biopsy sample excision to ensure that samples are properly preserved. Aim: Here, we developed a preservative solution and examined its protectiveness on striated muscle tissues for a minimum of the length of time that would be required to reach a specific muscle pathology laboratory. Materials and Methods: A preservative solution called Kurt-Ozcan (KO solution was prepared. Eight healthy Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed; striated muscle tissue samples were collected and divided into six different groups. Muscle tissue samples were separated into groups for morphological, enzyme histochemical, molecular, and biochemical analysis. Statistical method used: Chi-square and Kruskal Wallis tests. Results: Samples kept in the KO and University of Wisconsin (UW solutions exhibited very good morphological scores at 3, 6, and 18 hours, but artificial changes were observed at 24 hours. Similar findings were observed for the evaluated enzyme activities. There were no differences between the control group and the samples kept in the KO or UW solution at 3, 6, and 18 hours for morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features. The messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA of β-actin gene was protected up to 6 hours in the KO and UW solutions. Conclusion: The KO solution protects the morphological, enzyme histochemical, and biochemical features of striated muscle tissue of healthy rats for 18 hours and preserves the mRNA for 6 hours.

  13. Application of irradiated chitosan for fruit preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lan, K.N. [Post-harvest Technology Institute, 4, Ngo Quyen-Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Lam, N.D. [Ha Noi Radiation Center, VAEC, 5T-160, Nghiado, Tuliem, Ha Noi (Viet Nam); Kume, Tamikazu [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment


    Preliminary test of mango (Mangifera indica) preservation by irradiated chitosan coating has been investigated. The coating by using irradiated chitosan in 1.5% solution has extended the shelf life of mango from 7 to 15 days. At the 15th day mango coated by irradiated chitosan has been keeping good color, natural ripening, without spoilage, weight loss 10%, whereas the mango without coating was spoiled completely and the coating of fruit with unirradiated chitosan inhibited the ripening. (author)

  14. Biopolymers for Sample Collection, Protection, and Preservation (United States)


    Cielenski PR, de Pablo JJ (2000) Stabilization and preservation of Lactobacillus acidophilus in saccharide matrices. Cryobiology 41(1):17–24 Corcoran BM... Lactobacillus paracasei F19 was characterized by drying process in the presence of trehalose (Foerst et al. 2012). The D-value of the stored bac- teria...Trehalose E. coli NCIB 9484, unprotected/protected 25 3.3/36.3 days (Welsh and Herbert 1999) Trehalose Lactobacillus Paracasei Unprotected/protected 37 6.6

  15. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun


    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  16. Socioemotional wealth preservation in family firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matias Kalm

    Full Text Available Abstract In this article, we review literature on socioemotional wealth. We explain how the concept of socioemotional wealth builds on previous family firm research showing that family-owners derive utility from the nonfinancial aspects of their firm. We also discuss how family firms' need for socioemotional wealth preservation explains behavioral differences between family and nonfamily firms in managerial decision making. Finally, we discuss the current state of socioemotional wealth research and propose potential directions for future research.

  17. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdel E. Ghaly


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish have always gained the attention by Food Regulatory Agencies and Food Processing Industry. Proper handling, pretreatment and preservation techniques can improve the quality fish and fish products and increase their shelf life. Methodology: Historically salting, drying, smoking, fermentation and canning were the methods to prevent fish spoilage and extend its shelf life. In response to consumer demand for texture, appearance and taste, new methods were developed including: Cooling, freezing and chemical preservation. A comprehensive review of the literature on the subject of fish spoilage and modern preservation techniques was carried out. Conclusion: Fish spoilage results from three basic mechanisms: Enzymatic autolysis, oxidation, microbial growth. Low temperature storage and chemical techniques for controlling water activity, enzymatic, oxidative and microbial spoilage are the most common in the industry today. A process involving the addition of an EDTA (1 mM-TBHQ (0.02% combination and ascorbic acid and storage at refrigerated temperatures (5°C in darkness can be the most positive for controlling the spoilage of fish and fish product. The suggested process would address antimicrobial activity as well as destructive oxidation of the desired lipids and fats. However, more efforts are required to understand the role of proximate composition of fish, post harvest history, environmental conditions, initial microbial load, type and nature of bacteria and their

  18. Fish Spoilage Mechanisms and Preservation Techniques: Review


    Abdel E. Ghaly; Dave, D; Budge, S; M. S. Brooks


    Problem statement: Spoilage of food products is due to chemical, enzymatic or microbial activities One-fourth of the worlds food supply and 30% of landed fish are lost through microbial activity alone. With the ever growing world population and the need to store and transport the food from one place to another where it is needed, food preservation becomes necessary in order to increase its shelf life and maintain its nutritional value, texture and flavor. The freshness and quality of fish hav...

  19. David’s Deer Natural Preserve

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    China is the ground for championing the survival of David’s deer. In ten years, the number of the endangered deer has increased six times, creating three world records of the number for David’s deer living in the wild, the species’ fertility rate and survival Located in Dafeng County, Jiangsu Province. David’s Deer Natural Preserve covers 1.000 hectares of land Established in 1986 under the sponsorship of the World Nature Fund and he

  20. Biopolymers for sample collection, protection, and preservation. (United States)

    Sorokulova, Iryna; Olsen, Eric; Vodyanoy, Vitaly


    One of the principal challenges in the collection of biological samples from air, water, and soil matrices is that the target agents are not stable enough to be transferred from the collection point to the laboratory of choice without experiencing significant degradation and loss of viability. At present, there is no method to transport biological samples over considerable distances safely, efficiently, and cost-effectively without the use of ice or refrigeration. Current techniques of protection and preservation of biological materials have serious drawbacks. Many known techniques of preservation cause structural damages, so that biological materials lose their structural integrity and viability. We review applications of a novel bacterial preservation process, which is nontoxic and water soluble and allows for the storage of samples without refrigeration. The method is capable of protecting the biological sample from the effects of environment for extended periods of time and then allows for the easy release of these collected biological materials from the protective medium without structural or DNA damage. Strategies for sample collection, preservation, and shipment of bacterial, viral samples are described. The water-soluble polymer is used to immobilize the biological material by replacing the water molecules within the sample with molecules of the biopolymer. The cured polymer results in a solid protective film that is stable to many organic solvents, but quickly removed by the application of the water-based solution. The process of immobilization does not require the use of any additives, accelerators, or plastifiers and does not involve high temperature or radiation to promote polymerization.

  1. Preserving idealism in global health promotion. (United States)

    Franco-Paredes, Carlos; Zeuli, Julia; Hernández-Ramos, Isabel; Santos-Preciado, Jose I


    If the field of global health is to evolve in the second decade of the new millennium, we need to revive the idealistic spirit and by using the lens of health equity work toward improved health status around the world. Morality and empathy are considered by-products of our evolutionary history as a human species. Idealism may be a trait that we may choose to preserve in our modern evolutionary history.

  2. Working Group Proposed to Preserve Archival Records (United States)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.


    The AAS and AIP co-hosted a Workshop in April 2012 with NSF support (AST-1110231) that recommends establishing a Working Group on Time Domain Astronomy (WGTDA) to encourage and advise on preserving historical observations in a form meaningful for future scientific analysis. Participants specifically considered archival observations that could describe how astronomical objects change over time. Modern techniques and increased storage capacity enable extracting additional information from older media. Despite the photographic plate focus, other formats also concerned participants. To prioritize preservation efforts, participants recommended considering the information density, the amount of previously published data, their format and associated materials, their current condition, and their expected deterioration rate. Because the best digitization still produces an observation of an observation, the originals should be retained. For accessibility, participants recommended that observations and their metadata be available digitally and on-line. Standardized systems for classifying, organizing, and listing holdings should enable discovery of historical observations through the Virtual Astronomical Observatory. Participants recommended pilot projects that produce scientific results, demonstrate the dependence of some advances on heritage data, and open new avenues of exploration. Surveying a broad region of the sky with a long time-base and high cadence should reveal new phenomena and improve statistics for rare events. Adequate financial support is essential. While their capacity to produce new science is the primary motivation for preserving astronomical records, their potential for historical research and citizen science allows targeting cultural institutions and other private sources. A committee was elected to prepare the WGTDA proposal. The WGTDA executive committee should be composed of ~10 members representing modern surveys, heritage materials, data management

  3. Energy preserving QMF for image processing. (United States)

    Lian, Jian-ao; Wang, Yonghui


    Implementation of new biorthogonal filter banks (BFB) for image compression and denoising is performed, using test images with diversified characteristics. These new BFB’s are linear-phase, have odd lengths, and with a critical feature, namely, the filters preserve signal energy very well. Experimental results show that the proposed filter banks demonstrate promising performance improvement over the filter banks of those widely used in the image processing area, such as the CDF 9/7.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.G.Gal; J.Szabados


    Extending the results of [4] in the univariate case, in this paper we prove that the bivariate interpolation polynomials of Hermite-Fejer based on the Chebyshev nodes of the first kind, those of Lagrange based on the Chebyshev nodes of second kind and ± 1, and those of bivariate Shepard operators, have the property of partial preservation of global smoothness, with respect to various bivariate moduli of continuity.

  5. Preserving Communities in Anonymized Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Campan


    Full Text Available Social media and social networks are embedded in our society to a point that could not have been imagined only ten years ago. Facebook, LinkedIn, and Twitter are already well known social networks that have a large audience in all age groups. The amount of data that those social sites gather from their users is continually increasing and this data is very valuable for marketing, research, and various other purposes. At the same time, this data usually contain a significant amount of sensitive information which should be protected against unauthorized disclosure. To protect the privacy of individuals, this data must be anonymized such that the risk of re-identification of specific individuals is very low. In this paper we study if anonymized social networks preserve existing communities from the original social networks. To perform this study, we introduce two approaches to measure the community preservation between the initial network and its anonymized version. In the first approach we simply count how many nodes from the original communities remained in the same community after the processes of anonymization and de-anonymization. In the second approach we consider the community preservation for each node individually. Specifically, for each node, we compare the original and final communities to which the node belongs. To anonymize social networks we use two models, namely, k-anonymity for social networks and k-degree anonymity. To determine communities in social networks we use an existing community detection algorithm based on modularity quality function. Our experiments on publically available datasets show that anonymized social networks satisfactorily preserve the community structure of their original networks.

  6. Effect of Chitosan on Meat Preservation


    Darmadji, Purnama; Izumimoto, Masathoshi


    The effect of chitosan as preservative on the qualities of meat including microbiological, chemical, sensory and color qualities were examined In liquid medium chitosan 0.01% inhibited the growth of some spoilage and pathogenic bacteria such as Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas fragi and Staphylococcus aureus. At 0.1% concentration it also inhibited the growth of meat starter cultures, Lactoba¬cillus plantarum, Pediococcus Pentosaceus and Micro-coccus varians. In meat, during ...

  7. Position index preserving compression of text data


    Akhtar, Nasim; Rashid, Mamunur; Islam, Shafiqul; Kashem, Mohammod Abul; Kolybanov, Cyrll Y.


    Data compression offers an attractive approach to reducing communication cost by using available bandwidth effectively. It also secures data during transmission for its encoded form. In this paper an index based position oriented lossless text compression called PIPC ( Position Index Preserving Compression) is developed. In PIPC the position of the input word is denoted by ASCII code. The basic philosopy of the secure compression is to preprocess the text and transform it into some intermedia...

  8. Money for Blood and Markets for Blood. (United States)

    Derpmann, Simon; Quante, Michael


    Ontario's Bill 178 proposing a Voluntary Blood Donations Act declares the offer or acceptance of payment for the donation of blood a legal offence and makes it subject to penalty. The bill reinvigorates a fundamental debate about the ethical problems associated with the payment of money for blood. Scarcity of blood donors is a recurring problem in most health systems, and monetary remuneration of the willingness to donate blood is regularly discussed--and sometimes practiced--as a means to overcome scarcity in blood. However, making blood an object of economic exchange has long aroused ethical concerns that often refer to the specific meaning of blood. From the perspective of a modern understanding of money as a metric of economic value, the exchange of money for blood--shed or given--is seen as ethically troubling, because it appears to imply a commensurability of the value of human life and economic wealth. In this paper, we begin with a general taxonomy of the types of arguments that speak in favour or against compensating donors for giving blood. We then describe the context in which the discussion about payment for blood arises, and of the specific aims and concerns that are brought forward in this context. This is used to reconstruct the normative background that supports the rejection of payment for blood as it is envisaged in Bill 178 and the aims of the proposal. We then argue that while a payment indeed changes the nature of a blood donation in an ethically considerable way, we do not believe that decisive arguments against the monetary remuneration of blood donations can be substantiated, at least not independently of assuming specific societal circumstances. Thus it may be possible to establish a stable and safe blood supply through just gratification while at the same time taking strong provisions against social disconnection, injustice, exploitation or heteronomy.

  9. LIBER Workshop "Microfilming and Digitisation for Preservation"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Luisa Cabral


    Full Text Available The Workshop on "Microfilming and Digitisation for Preservation" which is presented here through papers brought forward held at The Hague on 14-15 April 2003 in the Koninklijke Bibliotheek, the National Library of the Netherlands, was the outcome of a long process which started nearly three years ago. Cooperation is a good thing - the right thing, hélas! - in all circumstances of life. For libraries, the European Union has been an elected stage to perform all sorts of alliances. We all have memories of successful partnerships; we all have tried to learn from each others 'projects' which swept over Europe. This Workshop was the result of our previous cooperative experience, but also of our conviction about library needs. The LIBER Preservation Division together with the Koninklijke Bibliotheek and European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA elaborated a programme based on different inputs and viewpoints which after long discussions via e-mail finally built up a structure. To identify the appropriate speaker, and to guarantee his/her presence was another organizational level not less arduous, though. Sharing the same commitment was decisive to the success of the Workshop.

  10. Penile-preserving surgery in penile carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Gowardhan


    Full Text Available Penile cancer is an uncommon cancer involving the glans, prepuce or both in over 75% cases. Historically, the standard treatment of the primary tumor has been a partial or total penectomy. Although these are still widely practiced procedures for control of the disease, as our understanding of the natural history of the disease has evolved, the treatment options have broadened, focusing more and more on penile-preserving techniques such as Mohs′s micrographic surgery, wide local excision, subtotal and total glansectomy, laser, brachytherapy, external beam radiotherapy and topical application of chemotherapeutic agents such as 5-Fluorouracil. Penile-preserving options are increasingly being used as a first-line treatment, not restricted to Tis/Ta tumors, but for T1, T2 and even T3 tumors in selected cases. The metastatic stage of the tumor does not influence the treatment of the primary lesion. In this review, we discuss the various penile-preserving options currently available and their role in the management of penile carcinoma of various stages.

  11. Establishment of a world food preservation center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson Charles L


    Full Text Available Abstract A World Food Preservation Center (WFPC is proposed in response to a pending civilization-threatening food shortage and our limited ability to adequately increase food production. Some estimates put losses of food in developing countries after it is produced and before it is consumed at 50%. These losses are particularly threatening to individuals and farmers who are living in the midst of food insecurity. Although numerous organizations have attempted to address this problem worldwide, the magnitude of the effort has not come close to the enormity of the problem. Most of these programs are also short-term and require continuous input by postharvest specialists from developed countries in order to be sustainable. A critical need exists for a substantial and sustainable worldwide program that can significantly reduce losses and waste of food in developing countries. The World Food Preservation Center proposed here meets this need by educating young scientists in developing countries about low-input, appropriate technologies for preserving food postharvest. It also conducts research on postharvest technologies especially suited for application in developing countries such as biological control, solar refrigeration, and coordinated transport and marketing schemes that support and sustain the local production of food commodities.

  12. Organic Entrainment and Preservation in Volcanic Glasses (United States)

    Wilhelm, Mary Beth; Ojha, Lujendra; Brunner, Anna E.; Dufek, Josef D.; Wray, James Joseph


    Unaltered pyroclastic deposits have previously been deemed to have "low" potential for the formation, concentration and preservation of organic material on the Martian surface. Yet volcanic glasses that have solidified very quickly after an eruption may be good candidates for containment and preservation of refractory organic material that existed in a biologic system pre-eruption due to their impermeability and ability to attenuate UV radiation. Analysis using NanoSIMS of volcanic glass could then be performed to both deduce carbon isotope ratios that indicate biologic origin and confirm entrainment during eruption. Terrestrial contamination is one of the biggest barriers to definitive Martian organic identification in soil and rock samples. While there is a greater potential to concentrate organics in sedimentary strata, volcanic glasses may better encapsulate and preserve organics over long time scales, and are widespread on Mars. If volcanic glass from many sites on Earth could be shown to contain biologically derived organics from the original environment, there could be significant implications for the search for biomarkers in ancient Martian environments.


    CERN Document Server



    The preservation of data for future re-use is a topic that is becoming increasingly important across a wide range of disciplines and is expected to become essential in the coming years as a cornerstone of the digital society. The strategy of this project is to combine the forces of several large-scale organizations to ensure that research work in this area is well coordinated and that the results are made available to a wide range of disciplines. The project aims to both document and verify techniques for the preservation of digital data with a strong focus on the continued ability to fully re-use the data, to raise awareness of the importance of this issue as widely as possible, to act as a forum for the interchange of information and best practices, and to develop a roadmap for the coming decade in order that digital preservation moves from being a challenge to a solution. Disciplines targeted range from Life Sciences to High Energy Physics – fields that have diverse needs in terms of data volume and life...

  14. Fertility Preservation for Cancer Patients: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tosin Ajala


    Full Text Available Infertility can arise as a consequence of treatment of oncological conditions. The parallel and continued improvement in both the management of oncology and fertility cases in recent times has brought to the fore-front the potential for fertility preservation in patients being treated for cancer. Oncologists must be aware of situations where their treatment will affect fertility in patients who are being treated for cancer and they must also be aware of the pathways available for procedures such as cryopreservation of gametes and/or embryos. Improved cancer care associated with increased cure rates and long term survival, coupled with advances in fertility treatment means that it is now imperative that fertility preservation is considered as part of the care offered to these patients. This can only be approached within a multidisciplinary setting. There are obvious challenges that still remain to be resolved, especially in the area of fertility preservation in prepubertal patients. These include ethical issues, such as valid consent and research in the area of tissue retrieval, cryopreservation, and transplantation.

  15. Methods to preserve potentially toxigenic fungi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucas Costa Guimarães


    Full Text Available Microorganisms are a source of many high-value compounds which are useful to every living being, such as humans, plants and animals. Since the process of isolating and improving a microorganism can be lengthy and expensive, preserving the obtained characteristic is of paramount importance, so the process does not need to be repeated. Fungi are eukaryotic, achlorophyllous, heterotrophic organisms, usually filamentous, absorb their food, can be either macro or microscopic, propagate themselves by means of spores and store glycogen as a source of storage. Fungi, while infesting food, may produce toxic substances such as mycotoxins. The great genetic diversity of the Kingdom Fungi renders the preservation of fungal cultures for many years relevant. Several international reference mycological culture collections are maintained in many countries. The methodologies that are most fit for preserving microorganisms for extended periods are based on lowering the metabolism until it reaches a stage of artificial dormancy . The goal of this study was to analyze three methods for potentially toxigenic fungal conservation (Castellani's, continuous subculture and lyophilization and to identify the best among them.

  16. Riverscape and Groundwater Preservation: A Choice Experiment (United States)

    Tempesta, T.; Vecchiato, D.


    This study presents a quantitative approach to support policy decision making for the preservation of riverscapes, taking into account the EC Water Framework Directive (2000/60/EC) and the EC Nitrates Directive (91/676/EEC) concerning the protection of waters against nitrate pollution from agricultural sources. A choice experiment was applied to evaluate the benefits, as perceived by inhabitants, of the implementation of policies aiming to reduce the concentration of nitrates in groundwater, preserve the riverscape by maintaining a minimum water flow and increasing hedges and woods along the Serio River in central northern Italy. Findings suggested that people were particularly concerned about groundwater quality, probably because it is strongly linked to human health. Nevertheless, it was interesting to observe that people expressed a high willingness to pay for actions that affect the riverscape as a whole (such as the minimum water flow maintenance plus reforestation). This is probably due to the close connection between the riverscape and the functions of the river area for recreation, health purposes, and biodiversity preservation.

  17. Microfilm and digitization as choices in preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yola de Lusenet


    Full Text Available The first conference the European Commission on Preservation and Access (ECPA organized, 'Choosing to preserve', took place in Leipzig in 1996. For the keynote lecture we had invited a scholar, Professor Bernhard Fabian. This was a very deliberate choice, as the ECPA subscribed to the view that academic researchers, as users of the resources kept in libraries and archives, have to be involved in discussions about their preservation. The conference had attracted quite a crowd, around 150 people who were of course all there for the opening lecture. We invited Professor Fabian because he was a very good speaker, who could really present a convincing case to an audience, which he did also on that occasion. He devoted a large part of his presentation of 45 minutes to the horrors of microfilm, showing us pictures of illegible film, with bits missing, that was impossible to use. He explained how distressing it was for scholars to be forced to use surrogates that don't do justice to the originals that they need to study.

  18. Preservation technologies for fresh meat - a review. (United States)

    Zhou, G H; Xu, X L; Liu, Y


    Fresh meat is a highly perishable product due to its biological composition. Many interrelated factors influence the shelf life and freshness of meat such as holding temperature, atmospheric oxygen (O(2)), endogenous enzymes, moisture, light and most importantly, micro-organisms. With the increased demand for high quality, convenience, safety, fresh appearance and an extended shelf life in fresh meat products, alternative non-thermal preservation technologies such as high hydrostatic pressure, superchilling, natural biopreservatives and active packaging have been proposed and investigated. Whilst some of these technologies are efficient at inactivating the micro-organisms most commonly related to food-borne diseases, they are not effective against spores. To increase their efficacy against vegetative cells, a combination of several preservation technologies under the so-called hurdle concept has also been investigated. The objective of this review is to describe current methods and developing technologies for preserving fresh meat. The benefits of some new technologies and their industrial limitations is presented and discussed.

  19. Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with conservation of the spleen vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MA Jin-ping; CHEN Chuang-qi; PENG Lin; ZHAO Gang; CAI Shi-rong; HU Shi-xiong; HE Yu-long; ZHAN Wen-hua


    Background Distal pancreatectomy traditionally included splenectomy; the spleen, however, is an important organ in the immunologic defense of the host and is worthy of preservation. The aim of this research was to study the feasibility,safety and clinical effects of spleen and splenic vessel-preserving distal pancreatectomy.Methods A retrospective review was performed for 26 patients undergoing distal pancreatectomy for benign or low grade malignant disease with splenectomy (n=13) or splenic preservation (n=13) at the First Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University and Guangdong General Hospital in Southern China from May 2002 to April 2009.Results All 26 pancreatectomies with splenectomy or splenic preservation were performed successfully. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in mean operative time ((172±47) minutes vs. (157±52) minutes, P >0.05), intraoperative estimated blood loss ((183±68) ml vs. (160±51) ml, P >0.05), incidence of noninfectious and infection complication and mean length of postoperative hospital stay ((10.1±2.2) days vs. (12.1 ±4.6) days, P >0.05). The platelet counts examined one week after operation were significantly higher in the distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy group than the other group ((37.3±12.8)×109/L vs. (54.7±13.2)×109/L, P <0.05).Conclusions Spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy appears to be a feasible and safe procedure. In selected cases of benign or low-grade malignant disease, spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy is recommended.

  20. Evidence of preserved collagen in an Early Jurassic sauropodomorph dinosaur revealed by synchrotron FTIR microspectroscopy (United States)

    Lee, Yao-Chang; Chiang, Cheng-Cheng; Huang, Pei-Yu; Chung, Chao-Yu; Huang, Timothy D.; Wang, Chun-Chieh; Chen, Ching-Iue; Chang, Rong-Seng; Liao, Cheng-Hao; Reisz, Robert R.


    Fossilized organic remains are important sources of information because they provide a unique form of biological and evolutionary information, and have the long-term potential for genomic explorations. Here we report evidence of protein preservation in a terrestrial vertebrate found inside the vascular canals of a rib of a 195-million-year-old sauropodomorph dinosaur, where blood vessels and nerves would normally have been present in the living organism. The in situ synchrotron radiation-based Fourier transform infrared (SR-FTIR) spectra exhibit the characteristic infrared absorption bands for amide A and B, amide I, II and III of collagen. Aggregated haematite particles (α-Fe2O3) about 6∼8 μm in diameter are also identified inside the vascular canals using confocal Raman microscopy, where the organic remains were preserved. We propose that these particles likely had a crucial role in the preservation of the proteins, and may be remnants partially contributed from haemoglobin and other iron-rich proteins from the original blood. PMID:28140389

  1. 29 CFR 1915.33 - Chemical paint and preservative removers. (United States)


    ... or alkalies, employees shall be protected by suitable face shields to prevent chemical burns on the... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chemical paint and preservative removers. 1915.33 Section... Preparation and Preservation § 1915.33 Chemical paint and preservative removers. (a) Employees shall...

  2. Preservation Health Check: Monitoring Threats to Digital Repository Content (United States)

    Kool, Wouter; van der Werf, Titia; Lavoie, Brian


    The Preservation Health Check (PHC) project, undertaken as a joint effort by Open Planets Foundation (OPF) and OCLC Research, aims to evaluate the usefulness of the preservation metadata created and maintained by operational repositories for assessing basic preservation properties. The PHC project seeks to develop an implementable logic to support…

  3. 21 CFR 146.154 - Concentrated orange juice with preservative. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Concentrated orange juice with preservative. 146... are any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is... the percent by weight of the preservative used. If the food is packed in container sizes that are...

  4. 10 CFR 1303.115 - Preservation of records. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of records. 1303.115 Section 1303.115 Energy NUCLEAR WASTE TECHNICAL REVIEW BOARD PUBLIC INFORMATION AND REQUESTS § 1303.115 Preservation of records. The Board shall preserve all correspondence pertaining to the requests that it receives under...

  5. 10 CFR 1015.504 - Preservation of evidence. (United States)


    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Preservation of evidence. 1015.504 Section 1015.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY (GENERAL PROVISIONS) COLLECTION OF CLAIMS OWED THE UNITED STATES Referrals to the Department of Justice § 1015.504 Preservation of evidence. DOE will take care to preserve all files...

  6. Implementing digital preservation in repositories: Knowledge and practices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caterina Groposo Pavão


    Full Text Available Digital preservation has to be undertaken by institutional repositories, which are responsible for the preservation of the scientific output from academic institutions. However, due to the constant evolution of the field, to gain domain knowledge and recognise best practices is a complex task for people responsible for digital preservation in those institutions. Digital preservation research, practices and solutions address specific problems, such as formats, curation, reference models, authenticity, policies and preservation plans, tools, etc., while stakeholders need an integrated, contextualized and applicable overview. This paper focuses on the implementation of digital preservation in repositories, from the perspective of the team responsible for the project, regarding the necessary knowledge and best practices. Initially, it defines and contextualizes digital preservation repositories. The following section presents a conceptual model of digital preservation, synthesized from conceptual models developed in influential projects in the field, which allows us to identify the domain knowledge in digital preservation. Finally, aspects represented in the model are discussed in the light of the performance of teams implementing digital preservation repositories. It provides recommendations, guides and examples that may be useful for the implementation of digital preservation. It points to the need to strengthen the relationship between domain knowledge in digital preservation repositories with practices developed in numerous projects developed worldwide.

  7. Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy with Resection of the Splenic Vessels. Should One Rely on the Short Gastric Arteries?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vyacheslav Ivanovich Egorov


    Full Text Available Context Knowing the collaterals is essential for a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels. Objective To ascertain the sources of the blood supply to the spleen after a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels. Methods Perfusion of the cadaveric left gastric and right gastroepiploic arteries with methylene blue after occlusion of all the arteries except the short gastric arteries (n=10. Intraoperative color Doppler ultrasound was used for the evaluation of the hilar arterial blood flow at distal pancreatectomy (n=23 after 1 clamping of the splenic artery alone, 2 clamping of the splenic and left gastroepiploic arteries and 3 clamping of the splenic and short gastric arteries. CT angiography of the gastric and splenic vessels before and after a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (n=10. Results Perfusion of the cadaveric arteries revealed no effective direct or indirect (through the submucous gastric arterial network communication between the left gastric and the branches of the short gastric arteries. In no case did intraoperative color Doppler ultrasound detect any hilar arterial blood flow after the clamping of the splenic and left gastroepiploic arteries. The clamping of the short gastric arteries did not change the flow parameters. In none of the cases did a post-spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels CT angiography delineate the short gastric vessels supplying the spleen. In all cases, the gastroepiploic arcade was the main arterial pathway feeding the spleen. Conclusion Experimental, intra- and postoperative instrumental investigations did not show the short gastric arteries to be engaged in the blood supply to the spleen after a spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy with resection of the splenic vessels. In all cases, the left gastroepiploic artery was the main collateral vessel.

  8. Treating High Blood Pressure (United States)

    About High Blood Pressure Many people in the United States die from high blood pressure. This condition usually does not cause symptoms. Most ... until it is too late. A person has high blood pressure when the blood pushes against Visit your doctor ...

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) (United States)

    ... Loss Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) KidsHealth > For Teens > Hypertension (High Blood Pressure) A ... rest temperature diet emotions posture medicines Why Is High Blood Pressure Bad? High blood pressure means a person's heart ...

  10. BUN - blood test (United States)

    Blood urea nitrogen ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... Many medicines can interfere with blood test results. Your health ... if you need to stop taking any medicines before you have this ...

  11. Preserving urban objects of historicaland architectural heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal'zannikova Ekaterina Mikhailovna


    Full Text Available Large cities of central Russia were built under the influence of the factors that played an important role in protecting their population; natural resources and opportunities for trading were also essential. The industrial development and construction of large industrial facilities were significant for the formation of urban environment. As a result architectural monuments of great historical value that have a significant influence on the formation of the modern city image were preserved.Nowadays, a great number of buildings of historical and architectural heritage turned out to be in poor condition. Funding and its efficient use are rational means of saving the most valuable objects of historical and cultural heritage. In order to do this it is necessary to solve the problems of developing complex and effective measures for preserving these objectsThe existing method of preserving urban objects does not focus on urban architectural objects of historical and architectural value. It does not cover the study of urban development features in architectural and town-planning environment surrounding this object, it does not determine the historical and architectural value of the object and it does not identify the relationship of the object and the surrounding objects as well as architectural frame of the total area. That is why the existing method cannot be considered an appropriate system for preserving the objects of historical and architectural heritage.In order to avoid the disadvantages mentioned above and to increase tourist interest to the architecturally valuable buildings in urban areas, the author has proposed a complex approach to improve the method of reconstructing urban objects of great historical and architectural significance.The existing method of preserving historical objects includes the preparatory period of studying the degree of historical and architectural heritage wear and decay, developing the techniques for strengthening

  12. Calibrating ensemble reliability whilst preserving spatial structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Flowerdew


    Full Text Available Ensemble forecasts aim to improve decision-making by predicting a set of possible outcomes. Ideally, these would provide probabilities which are both sharp and reliable. In practice, the models, data assimilation and ensemble perturbation systems are all imperfect, leading to deficiencies in the predicted probabilities. This paper presents an ensemble post-processing scheme which directly targets local reliability, calibrating both climatology and ensemble dispersion in one coherent operation. It makes minimal assumptions about the underlying statistical distributions, aiming to extract as much information as possible from the original dynamic forecasts and support statistically awkward variables such as precipitation. The output is a set of ensemble members preserving the spatial, temporal and inter-variable structure from the raw forecasts, which should be beneficial to downstream applications such as hydrological models. The calibration is tested on three leading 15-d ensemble systems, and their aggregation into a simple multimodel ensemble. Results are presented for 12 h, 1° scale over Europe for a range of surface variables, including precipitation. The scheme is very effective at removing unreliability from the raw forecasts, whilst generally preserving or improving statistical resolution. In most cases, these benefits extend to the rarest events at each location within the 2-yr verification period. The reliability and resolution are generally equivalent or superior to those achieved using a Local Quantile-Quantile Transform, an established calibration method which generalises bias correction. The value of preserving spatial structure is demonstrated by the fact that 3×3 averages derived from grid-scale precipitation calibration perform almost as well as direct calibration at 3×3 scale, and much better than a similar test neglecting the spatial relationships. Some remaining issues are discussed regarding the finite size of the output

  13. [Peculiarities of application of a cell saver apparatus in neonathal cardiosurgery using artificial blood circulation]. (United States)

    Kuz'menko, S O; Chasovs'kyĭ, K S


    Elaborated and introduced into the practice method of the blood preservation, while correction of complex inborn heart failures (IHF) in a newborn babies, was proposed. It assumes application of system for intraoperative reinfusion of own erythrocytes with processing of residual perfusate and their reinfusion in a postperfusion period. Impact of the blood preservation on volume of a donor's blood components, hematological indices and methods of application of washed erythrocytes while correction of complex IHF in a newborn babies were presented. The method was applied in 47 newborn babies, to whom an arterial switch was performed for the main vessels transposition.

  14. Cold blood and clinical research during World War I. (United States)

    Hanigan, W C; King, S C


    Therapeutic transfusion was not a common procedure at the turn of the century. Although its safety was enhanced by the discovery of blood groups and preinfusion testing in the decade prior to World War I, techniques and indications remained cumbersome and clinically naive. By 1916, a stable Western Front, an efficient line of transport, and the operative requirements of a large number of wounded demonstrated the futility of pharmacotherapy or saline infusion for traumatic shock. In the same year, Rous and Turner at the Rockefeller Institute developed a preservative solution for whole blood. Rous' student, Dr. O.H. Robertson, arrived in France with Base Hospital 5 in June 1917 during a period of growing recognition by military surgeons that transfused blood was an effective therapy, although a practical delivery system was not available. Over the next 8 months, Robertson clinically tested a transfusion technique using preserved blood in glass jars carried to the front in specially designed cases. The method was accepted immediately, and by the Armistice transfusion was used frequently on the front line or during the perioperative period. The accessibility of preserved blood with an efficient transfusion system reinforced the introduction of "resuscitation teams" attached to Casualty Clearing Hospitals for the specialized management of traumatic shock. Robertson's success at technical innovation during World War I associated with a large clinical population resulted in the development of the indications and procedures for modern transfusion therapy.

  15. Plasma Technology as a New Preservation Technique (United States)

    Rincón, R.; Calzada, M. D.

    The preliminary results of using the surface wave discharge at the atmospheric pressure on groups of lentils and sherry Fino wine samples are presented. In this research, the capability of active species and UV radiation from the plasma, has been assessed on preservation of food. Besides, the generation and emission of both excited molecules in a metastable state N2}(B3Π {g-> A3}Σ u{+) and the de-excitation of species NO(A2}Σ {+) producing UV radiation have been also studied.

  16. Nuclear knowledge management and preservation in Lithuania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karaliute, R. [Nuclear Energy Division, Ministry of Economy, Gedimino ave. 28/2, Vilnius LT 01104 (Lithuania)]. E-mail:


    Problems of nuclear knowledge management and preservation in Lithuania are presented in the paper. The support provided through bilateral cooperation projects was very important for Lithuania. The main projects implemented in the last 14 years are described in this paper. Lithuania joined INIS (International Nuclear Information System) in 1994 and established its own INIS national centre in the premises of the Ministry of Economy. To educate the public about the processes going on in Ignalina NPP, the information centre of Ignalina NPP was founded. Nuclear and nuclear related education in Lithuania is provided in the Kaunas Technological University. (author)

  17. Privacy Preserving Linear Regression on Distributed Databases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fida K. Dankar


    Full Text Available Studies that combine data from multiple sources can tremendously improve the outcome of the statistical analysis. However, combining data from these various sources for analysis poses privacy risks. A number of protocols have been proposed in the literature to address the privacy concerns; however they do not fully deliver on either privacy or complexity. In this paper, we present a (theoretical privacy preserving linear regression model for the analysis of data owned by several sources. The protocol uses a semi-trusted third party and delivers on privacy and complexity.

  18. Privacy Preservation over Untrusted Mobile Networks (United States)

    Ardagna, Claudio A.; Jajodia, Sushil; Samarati, Pierangela; Stavrou, Angelos

    The proliferation of mobile devices has given rise to novel user-centric applications and services. In current mobile systems, users gain access to remote servers over mobile network operators. These operators are typically assumed to be trusted and to manage the information they collect in a privacy-preserving way. Such information, however, is extremely sensitive and coveted by many companies, which may use it to improve their business. In this context, safeguarding the users’ privacy against the prying eyes of the network operators is an emerging requirement.

  19. Neighborhood-preserving mapping between trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Ibragimov, R.; Guo, Jian-Ying


    (v)). Here, for a graph G and a vertex v, we use N(v) to denote the set of vertices which have distance at most i to v in G. We call this problem Neighborhood-Preserving Mapping (NPM). The main result of this paper is a complete dichotomy of the classical complexity of NPM on trees with respect to different...... values of l,d,k. Additionally, we present two dynamic programming algorithms for the case that one of the input trees is a path. © 2013 Springer-Verlag....

  20. Positivity Preserving Interpolation Using Rational Bicubic Spline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samsul Ariffin Abdul Karim


    Full Text Available This paper discusses the positivity preserving interpolation for positive surfaces data by extending the C1 rational cubic spline interpolant of Karim and Kong to the bivariate cases. The partially blended rational bicubic spline has 12 parameters in the descriptions where 8 of them are free parameters. The sufficient conditions for the positivity are derived on every four boundary curves network on the rectangular patch. Numerical comparison with existing schemes also has been done in detail. Based on Root Mean Square Error (RMSE, our partially blended rational bicubic spline is on a par with the established methods.

  1. Preserving competence in nuclear technology. Workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steinwarz, Wolfgang [Siempelkamp Behaeltertechnik GmbH, Krefeld (Germany)


    On the 17th workshop Preserving Competence in Nuclear Technology 21 young scientists presented the scientific results from their thesis work for a diploma, mastership or a PhD covering a broad spectrum of technical areas. This demonstrated again the strong engagement of the younger generation as part of the German nuclear society. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Eckart Laurin, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Marco K. Koch and Dr.-Ing. Wolfgang Steinwarz as members of the jury assessed the written compacts and the oral presentations to award the Siempelkamp Competence Price 2015 to Tobias Seidel from Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf e.V.

  2. Mass Preserving Registration for lung CT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gorbunova, Vladlena; Lo, Pechin Chien Pau; Loeve, Martin;


    In this paper, we evaluate a novel image registration method on a set of expiratory-inspiratory pairs of computed tomography (CT) lung scans. A free-form multi resolution image registration technique is used to match two scans of the same subject. To account for the differences in the lung...... and inspiration CT scans of children with cystic fibrosis lung disease. The proposed method with mass preserving adjustment results in significantly better alignment of the vessel trees. Analysis of local volume change for regions with trapped air compared to normally ventilated regions revealed larger...

  3. LIFE:Costing the Digital Preservation Lifecycle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The LIFE projeet creates a digital lifecycle model based on previous work undertaken on the lifeeycle of paper-based material.Web Archiving,Voluntarity Deposited Electronic Publications(VDEP),and E-Journal are chosen as cases tudy for application and evaluation of the LIFE Mode.Case studies show its potential for further USe in a numble of roles,such as improving assessment of the financial commitment,more effective planning for preservation activities etc.The LIFE Mode will be revised and refined in LIFE2 Project.

  4. UC hierarchy and monodromy preserving deformation

    CERN Document Server

    Tsuda, Teruhisa


    The UC hierarchy is an extension of the KP hierarchy, which possesses not only an infinite set of positive time evolutions but also that of negative ones. Through a similarity reduction we derive from the UC hierarchy a class of the Schlesinger systems including the Garnier system and the sixth Painleve equation, which describes the monodromy preserving deformations of Fuchsian linear differential equations with certain spectral types. We also present a unified formulation of the above Schlesinger systems as a canonical Hamiltonian system whose Hamiltonian functions are polynomials in the canonical variables.

  5. Controller reduction by preserving impulse response energy (United States)

    Craig, Roy R., Jr.; Su, Tzu-Jeng


    A model order reduction algorithm based on a Krylov recurrence formulation is developed to reduce order of controllers. The reduced-order controller is obtained by projecting the full-order LQG controller onto a Krylov subspace in which either the controllability or the observability grammian is equal to the identity matrix. The reduced-order controller preserves the impulse response energy of the full-order controller and has a parameter-matching property. Two numerical examples drawn from other controller reduction literature are used to illustrate the efficacy of the proposed reduction algorithm.

  6. Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voisard, Karen [Navarro Research and Engineering, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Smiley, Sue [U.S. Department of Energy Office of Legacy Management, Washington, DC (United States)


    The Fernald Preserve 2015 Site Environmental Report provides stakeholders with the results from the Fernald, Ohio, Site’s environmental monitoring programs for 2015; a summary of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) activities conducted onsite; and a summary of the Fernald Preserve’s compliance with the various environmental regulations, compliance agreements, and DOE policies that govern site activities. This report has been prepared in accordance with the “Integrated Environmental Monitoring Plan,” which is Attachment D of the Comprehensive Legacy Management and Institutional Controls Plan (LMICP) (DOE 2016).

  7. Modified Madigan Prostatectomy: A Procedure Preserved Prostatic Urethra Intact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Jun; YE Zhangqun; HU Weilie


    Summary: A total of 92 patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) were subjected to modified Madigan prostatectomy (MPC) for a much satisfactory effect in open prostatectomy surgery. Exposing anterior prostatic urethra near the bladder neck and conjunct cystotomy modified the MPC procedure. This modified procedure preserved prostatic urethra intact and could also deal with intracystic lesions at the same time. The intact of prostatic urethra was kept completely or largely in 86 cases. The amount of blood loss during modified procedure was less. The mean operative time was 105 min. Seventy patients had been followed up for 3-24 months. The postoperative average Qmax was 19.2 ml/s. The cystourethrography revealed that the urethra and bladder neck were intact in 10 patients postoperatively. Furthermore, the prostatic urethra was obviously wider after modified MPC. The modified MPC can reduce the occurrence of urethra injury and enlarge the MPC indications. The modified technique is easy to perform with less complications and much satisfactory clinical result.

  8. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.


    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13, range 3.6-10.3 Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29, 1.2-14 comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31, 5.3-8.6 The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39, 2.08-39.35 Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  9. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and life-cyle of information management at NASA GES DISC (United States)

    Khayat, M. G.; Deshong, B.; Esfandiari, A. E.; Gerasimov, I. V.; Johnson, J. E.; Kempler, S. J.; Wei, J. C.


    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for "information loss". This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input/output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of "information preservation"; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important "metadata" about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions.Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of "information lifecycle management". By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The "NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification" is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long

  10. Data Preservation, Information Preservation, and Lifecyle of Information Management at NASA GES DISC (United States)

    Khayat, Mo; Kempler, Steve; Deshong, Barbara; Johnson, James; Gerasimov, Irina; Esfandiari, Ed; Berganski, Michael; Wei, Jennifer


    Data lifecycle management awareness is common today; planners are more likely to consider lifecycle issues at mission start. NASA remote sensing missions are typically subject to life cycle management plans of the Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC), and NASA invests in these national centers for the long-term safeguarding and benefit of future generations. As stewards of older missions, it is incumbent upon us to ensure that a comprehensive enough set of information is being preserved to prevent the risk for information loss. This risk is greater when the original data experts have moved on or are no longer available. Preservation of items like documentation related to processing algorithms, pre-flight calibration data, or input-output configuration parameters used in product generation, are examples of digital artifacts that are sometimes not fully preserved. This is the grey area of information preservation; the importance of these items is not always clear and requires careful consideration. Missing important metadata about intermediate steps used to derive a product could lead to serious challenges in the reproducibility of results or conclusions. Organizations are rapidly recognizing that the focus of life-cycle preservation needs to be enlarged from the strict raw data to the more encompassing arena of information lifecycle management. By understanding what constitutes information, and the complexities involved, we are better equipped to deliver longer lasting value about the original data and derived knowledge (information) from them. The NASA Earth Science Data Preservation Content Specification is an attempt to define the content necessary for long-term preservation. It requires new lifecycle infrastructure approach along with content repositories to accommodate artifacts other than just raw data. The NASA Goddard Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) setup an open-source Preservation System capable of long-term archive of

  11. LIBER's Involvement in Supporting Digital Preservation in Member Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Ayris


    Full Text Available Digital curation and preservation represent new challenges for universities. LIBER has invested considerable effort to engage with the new agendas of digital preservation and digital curation. Through two successful phases of the LIFE project, LIBER is breaking new ground in identifying innovative models for costing digital curation and preservation. Through LIFE’s input into the US-UK Blue Ribbon Task Force on Sustainable Digital Preservation and Access, LIBER is aligned with major international work in the economics of digital preservation. In its emerging new strategy and structures, LIBER will continue to make substantial contributions in this area, mindful of the needs of European research libraries.

  12. Optimization of preservatives in a topical formulation using experimental design. (United States)

    Rahali, Y; Pensé-Lhéritier, A-M; Mielcarek, C; Bensouda, Y


    Optimizing the preservative regime for a preparation requires the antimicrobial effectiveness of several preservative combinations to be determined. In this study, three preservatives were tested: benzoic acid, sorbic acid and benzylic alcohol. Their preservative effects were evaluated using the antimicrobial preservative efficacy test (challenge-test) of the European Pharmacopeia (EP). A D-optimal mixture design was used to provide a maximum of information from a limited number of experiments. The results of this study were analysed with the help of the Design Expert software and enabled us to formulate emulsions satisfying both requirements A and B of the EP.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄惠民; 丁文祥; 苏肇伉; 张伟忠


    The deficiency of platelet function is the main defect of hemostatic mechanism during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), which attributed to the postoperative bleeding complication to a great extent. The proteinase inhibitor aprotinin was reported to have preserving effect on platelet adhesion during CPB. In this clinical reserch we found that CPB caused plasma alpha 2-antiplasmin decreasing, indicating the fibrinolytic system activation. Meanwhile, the ristocetin-induced aggregation declined to 39.6% and platelet GPIb decreased to 50% of preoperative value. However, by treatment with aprotinin, the plasma alpha 2-antiplasmin during CPB did not change, platelet aggregation was improved and platelet GPIb was preserved, and consequently resulted in a 46% lower blood loss postoperatively. These results confirmed that aprotinin could inhibit the fibrinolysis during CPB, and thus relieve the platelet damage and improve the postoperative hemostatic mechanism.

  14. Preparation and Preservation of Hypoxia UW Solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WAN Chidang; WANG Chunyou; LIU Tan; CHENG Rui; YANG Zhiyong


    In order to explore the method to prepare hypoxia UW solution and the stability and preservation of hypoxia UW solution, UW solution was purged by argon or air for 15 min or 60 at a flow rate of 0.8 or 2 L/min, and the oxygen partial pressure of UW solution was detected. The hy-poxia UW solution was exposed to the air or sealed up to preserve by using different methods, and the changes of oxygen partial pressure was tested. The results showed that oxygen partial pressure of 50 mL UW solution, purged by argon for 15 min at a flow rate of 2 L/min, was declined from 242±6 mmHg to 83±10 mmHg. After exposure to the air, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was gradually increased to 160±7 mmHg at 48 h. After sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bad filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of hypoxia UW solution was stable, about 88±13 mmHg at 72 h. It was concluded that oxygen of UW solution could be purged by argon efficiently. Sealed up by the centrifuge tube and plastic bag filled with argon, oxygen partial pressure of UW so- lution could be stabilized.

  15. Carbonaceous preservation of Cambrian hexactinellid sponge spicules. (United States)

    Harvey, Thomas H P


    Early fossil sponges offer a direct window onto the evolutionary emergence of animals, but insights are limited by the paucity of characters preserved in the conventional fossil record. Here, a new preservational mode for sponge spicules is reported from the lower Cambrian Forteau Formation (Newfoundland, Canada), prompting a re-examination of proposed homologies and sponge inter-relationships. The spicules occur as wholly carbonaceous films, and are interpreted as the remains of robust organic spicule sheaths. Comparable sheaths are restricted among living taxa to calcarean sponges, although the symmetries of the fossil spicules are characteristic of hexactinellid sponges. A similar extinct character combination has been documented in the Burgess Shale fossil Eiffelia. Interpreting the shared characters as homologous implies complex patterns of spicule evolution, but an alternative interpretation as convergent autapomorphies is more parsimonious. In light of the mutually exclusive distributions of these same characters among the crown groups, this result suggests that sponges exhibited an early episode of disparity expansion followed by comparatively constrained evolution, a pattern shared with many other metazoans but obscured by the conventional fossil record of sponges.

  16. Chlorhexidine preserves dentin bond in vitro. (United States)

    Carrilho, M R O; Carvalho, R M; de Goes, M F; di Hipólito, V; Geraldeli, S; Tay, F R; Pashley, D H; Tjäderhane, L


    Loss of hybrid layer integrity compromises resin-dentin bond stability. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) may be partially responsible for hybrid layer degradation. Since chlorhexidine inhibits MMPs, we hypothesized that chlorhexidine would decelerate the loss of resin-dentin bonds. Class I preparations in extracted third molars were sectioned into two halves. One half was customarily restored (etch-and-rinse adhesive/resin composite), and the other was treated with 2% chlorhexidine after being acid-etched before restoration. Specimens were stored in artificial saliva with/without protease inhibitors. Microtensile bond strengths and failure mode distribution under SEM were analyzed immediately after specimens' preparation and 6 months later. With chlorhexidine, significantly better preservation of bond strength was observed after 6 months; protease inhibitors in the storage medium had no effect. Failure analysis showed significantly less failure in the hybrid layer with chlorhexidine, compared with controls after 6 months. In conclusion, this in vitro study suggests that chlorhexidine might be useful for the preservation of dentin bond strength.

  17. Efficient Privacy Preserving Protocols for Similarity Join

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilal Hawashin


    Full Text Available During the similarity join process, one or more sources may not allow sharing its data with other sources. In this case, a privacy preserving similarity join is required. We showed in our previous work [4] that using long attributes, such as paper abstracts, movie summaries, product descriptions, and user feedbacks, could improve the similarity join accuracy using supervised learning. However, the existing secure protocols for similarity join methods can not be used to join sources using these long attributes. Moreover, the majority of the existing privacy‐preserving protocols do not consider the semantic similarities during the similarity join process. In this paper, we introduce a secure efficient protocol to semantically join sources when the join attributes are long attributes. We provide two secure protocols for both scenarios when a training set exists and when there is no available training set. Furthermore, we introduced the multi‐label supervised secure protocol and the expandable supervised secure protocol. Results show that our protocols can efficiently join sources using the long attributes by considering the semantic relationships among the long string values. Therefore, it improves the overall secure similarity join performance.

  18. Central Vein Preservation in Critical Venous Access. (United States)

    Davidson, J; Paul, A; Patel, S; Davenport, M; Ade-Ajayi, N


    Introduction The lack of suitable veins in children with critical central venous access requirements is a major obstacle to optimal care and is potentially life-threatening. We present outcomes following the use of vein-preserving (VP) surgical techniques, notably the sheath exchange for tunneled lines (SETL). Materials and Methods A retrospective, single observer analysis of a prospectively maintained departmental logbook as well as the medical records of patients. Two broad groups of central line replacements were identified; those inserted following removal of a previous line and a traditional "plastic-free" (PF) period and those exchanged without such an interval. Results Overall, 19 lines were directly exchanged during the study period and compared with 34 inserted after a PF period. Similar catheter life spans and infection rates were demonstrated in each group; 125 (range, 78-173) days in VP exchanges versus 122 (range, 70-175) days in PF replacements (p = 0.41). Line Sepsis resulting in removal or change of line occurred at 103 (range, 60-147) days in VP group versus 104 (range, 45-164) days in PF (p = 0.73). Conclusion For children with critical venous access requirements, direct line exchange procedures are a robust and reproducible means of vein preservation. The outcomes compare favorably with those following the more traditional removal, a PF period and reinsertion.

  19. MRI after patellofemoral replacement: The preserved compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heyse, Thomas J., E-mail: [Department of Orthopedics and Rheumatology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Figiel, Jens [Department of Radiology, University Hospital Marburg, Marburg (Germany); Hähnlein, Ulrike [Department of Orthopedics and Rheumatology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany); Timmesfeld, Nina [Institute for Medical Biometry and Epidemiology, Marburg (Germany); Lakemeier, Stefan; Schofer, Markus D.; Fuchs-Winkelmann, Susanne; Efe, Turgay [Department of Orthopedics and Rheumatology, University Hospital Marburg, Baldingerstrasse, 35043 Marburg (Germany)


    Introduction: The aim of this study was to assess the reproducibility of magnet resonance imaging (MRI) analysis of preserved anatomic structures of the knee after patellofemoral replacement (PFR). It was hypothesized that evaluation of cartilage, ligaments, meniscus and tendons would result in high inter-observer reliability after PFR. Material and methods: MRI, tailored to reduce metallic artefacts of the knee, after PFR was performed in seven patients. Two independent investigators evaluated cartilage, menisci, collateral and cruciate ligaments, the quadriceps and patellar tendons and the presence of joint effusion. The reviewers used a five-point scale to give a degree of confidence to their evaluation of each parameter. Inter-observer reliability was determined by calculation of Cohen's Kappas. Results: Artefact provoked by the implants was not observed. For all assessed structures, there was excellent inter-observer reliability, with high Cohen's Kappas. There were also high levels of inter-observer agreement and observer confidence in the evaluation of cartilage, meniscus, tendons, ligaments and joint effusion. Conclusion: Tailored MRI allows reproducible analysis of the preserved knee joint structures after PFR. It might prove helpful in assessment of painful knee joints after PFR.

  20. Volume-preserving Fields and Reeb Fields on 3-manifolds

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Jun LI


    Volume-preserving field X on a 3-manifold is the one that satisfies LxΩ≡ 0 for some volume Ω. The Reeb vector field of a contact form is of volume-preserving, but not conversely. On the basis of Geiges-Gonzalo's parallelization results, we obtain a volume-preserving sphere, which is a triple of everywhere linearly independent vector fields such that all their linear combinations with constant coefficients are volume-preserving fields. From many aspects, we discuss the distinction between volume-preserving fields and Reeb-like fields. We establish a duality between volume-preserving fields and h-closed 2-forms to understand such distinction. We also give two kinds of non-Reeb-like but volume-preserving vector fields to display such distinction.

  1. 78 FR 12034 - Certain Preserved Mushrooms From India: Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review... (United States)


    ... and pieces. The preserved mushrooms covered under this order are the species Agaricus bisporus and Agaricus bitorquis. ``Preserved mushrooms'' refer to mushrooms that have been prepared or preserved...

  2. Red blood cell alloimmunization after blood transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schonewille, Henk


    Current pretransfusion policy requires the patients’ serum to be tested for the presence of irregular red blood cell antibodies. In case of an antibody, red blood cells lacking the corresponding antigen are transfused after an antiglobulin crossmatch. The aim of the studies in this thesis is primari

  3. Preservation of the liver for transplantation: Machine perfusion-based strategies for extended preservation and recovery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruinsma, B.G.


    The field of liver transplantation remains burdened by a severe shortage of donor organs. An important limitation to the use of many livers is the ex vivo preservation of the organ, as maintaining the viability of the donor organ while outside the body is essential for successful transplantation. Th

  4. Y-12 National Security Complex National Historic Preservation Act Historic Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) recognizes that the Y-12 National Security Complex is a vital and long-term component of DOE and NNSA. In addition to NNSA missions, the Office of Science and Energy, the Office of Nuclear Energy, and the Office of Environmental Management have properties located at Y-12 that must be taken into consideration. The HPP also recognizes that the challenge for cultural resource management is incorporating the requirements of NNSA, SC, NE, and EM missions while preserving and protecting its historic resources. The HPP seeks to find an effective way to meet the obligations at Y-12 for historic and archeological protection while at the same time facilitating effective completion of ongoing site mission activities, including removal of obsolete or contaminated facilities, adaptive reuse of existing facilities whenever feasible, and construction of new facilities in order to meet site mission needs. The Y-12 Historic Preservation Plan (HPP) defines the preservation strategy for the Y-12 National Security Complex and will direct efficient compliance with the NHPA and federal archaeological protection legislation at Y-12 as DOE and NNSA continues mission activities of the site.

  5. Preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion chemotherapy for locally invasive bladder cancer. Accurate staging for bladder preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayashi, Norio; Arima, Kiminobu; Kawamura, Juichi [Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine; Tochigi, Hiromi


    The possibility of bladder preservation by preoperative balloon occluded arterial infusion (BOAI) chemotherapy was studied in 111 patients with locally invasive bladder cancer. BOAI was performed by blocking the blood flow of the internal iliac artery and by performing intra-arterial infusion of adriamycin (50 mg/body) and cisplatin (100 mg/body). Before BOAI the clinical diagnosis was T2 in 36, T3a in 29, T3b in 27, T4 in 11 and after BOAI it was T0 in 1, T1 in 27, T2 in 25, T3a in 20, T3b in 20, and T4 in 10. Down staging was observed on diagnostic images in 46.6%. Thirty patients (27.0%) received transurethral resection of bladder tumor (TUR-Bt) and their bladder could be preserved. The 5-year cancer-specific survival rate was 100% in pT0 (n=9), 97.5% in pT1 (n=47), 79.9% in pT2 (n=21), 80.0% in pT3a (n=6), 39.9% in pT3b (n=18) and 51.9% in pT4 cases (n=9). For the bladder preservation, accurate staging diagnosis is required. Since 1992, endorectal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been used in addition to imaging diagnosis for improving the accuracy of staging diagnosis. The accuracies of staging diagnosis with and without endorectal MRI were 62.5% and 44.0%, respectively. BOAI as a neoadjuvant chemotherapy has the possibility of bladder-preserving therapy in locally invasive bladder cancer. Also, the endorectal MRI can improve the accuracy of staging diagnosis, which is important for the bladder preservation. (author)

  6. Patient blood management equals patient safety. (United States)

    Zacharowski, Kai; Spahn, Donat R


    Patient blood management (PBM) can be defined in many ways and may consist of hundreds of single measures to improve patient safety. Traditionally, PBM is based on three pillars and defined as (i) optimization of the endogenous red blood cell (RBC) mass through the targeted stimulation of erythropoiesis and the treatment of modifiable underlying disorders; (ii) minimization of diagnostic, interventional, and surgical blood loss to preserve the patient's RBC mass; and (iii) optimization of the patient-specific tolerance to anemia through strict adherence to physiological transfusion thresholds [1-4]. However, for this review, we have chosen the following three peri-interventional parts: (1) diagnosis and therapy of anemia, (2) optimal hemotherapy, and (3) minimization of hospital-acquired anemia. PBM is an evidence-based, multidisciplinary preventive, and therapeutic approach focusing each patient. The PBM concept involves the use of safe and effective medical and surgical methods and techniques designed to prevent peri-interventional anemia, rationalize use of blood products, and set good blood management measures in an effort to improve patient safety and outcome.

  7. Alterations in cell surface area and deformability of individual human red blood cells in stored blood

    CERN Document Server

    Park, HyunJoo; Lee, SangYun; Kim, Kyoohyun; Sohn, Yong-Hak; Jang, Seongsoo; Park, YongKeun


    The functionality and viability of stored human red blood cells (RBCs) is an important clinical issue in transfusion. To systematically investigate changes in stored whole blood, the hematological properties of individual RBCs were quantified in blood samples stored for various periods with and without a preservation solution called CPDA-1. With 3-D quantitative phase imaging techniques, the optical measurements of the 3-D refractive index (RI) distributions and membrane fluctuations were done at the individual cell level. From the optical measurements, the morphological (volume, surface area and sphericity), biochemical (hemoglobin content and concentration), and mechanical parameters (dynamic membrane fluctuation) were simultaneously quantified to investigate the functionalities and their progressive alterations in stored RBCs. Our results show that the stored RBCs without CPDA-1 had a dramatic morphological transformation from discocytes to spherocytes within 2 weeks which was accompanied with significant ...

  8. Light pattern preservation in rodent's cortical tissue during optogenetic neuro-stimulation (Conference Presentation) (United States)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Atry, Farid; Pashaie, Ramin


    Optogenetics provides a tool for modulating activity of specific cell types by light pulses. Different light delivery mechanisms such as single optical fiber implanted on a skull or patterned illumination can be employed to direct light to a target area. For a highly scattering medium such as brain tissue, light distribution significantly depends on the scattering parameters of the tissue as well as the inherent inhomogeneity of the specimen. For in vivo studies, blood vessels which have considerable absorption coefficient in the visible spectrum play a major role in producing such inhomogeneity. Therefore, detailed information about brain optical properties and network of blood vessels which was ignored in previous studies is necessary to accurately predict light distribution and designing light delivery mechanism during optogenetic experiments to achieve the desired optical stimulation. In this paper, light pattern preservation while considering the impact of blood vessels is investigated in a rat cortex. First, the typical optical properties of rat cortical tissue were extracted by employing double integrated sphere technique, and then, optical coherence tomography was employed to obtain structure of blood vessels on the cortex. By combining the extracted optical properties and the network of blood vessels, a three-dimensional model of a rat cortical tissue was developed. Then, a Monte Carlo simulation code was used to predict light distribution in this model for different light source configurations and wavelengths. The results confirm that presence of vessels can significantly impact the light pattern in the tissue and affect the practical depth of penetration.

  9. Organic solderability preservation evaluation. Topical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becka, G.A.; McHenry, M.R.; Slanina, J.T.


    An evaluation was conducted to determine the possible replacement of the hot air solder leveling (HASL) process used in the Allied Signal Federal Manufacturing & Technologies (FM&T) Printed Wiring Board Facility with an organic solderability preservative (OSP). The drivers for replacing HASL include (1) Eliminating lead from PWB fabrication processes; (2) Potential legislation restricting use of lead, (3) Less expensive processing utilizing OSP rather than HASL processing; (4) Avoiding solder dross disposal inherent with HASL processing, (5) OSP provides flat, planar surface required for surface mount technology product, and (6) Trend to thinner PWB designs. A reduction in the cost of nonconformance (CONC) due to HASL defects (exposed copper, solderability, dewetting and non-wetting) would be realized with the incorporation of the OSP process. Several supplier HASL replacement candidates were initially evaluated. One supplier chemistry was chosen for potential use in the FM&T PWB and assembly areas.

  10. Bacteriocins: safe, natural antimicrobials for food preservation. (United States)

    Cleveland, J; Montville, T J; Nes, I F; Chikindas, M L


    Bacteriocins are antibacterial proteins produced by bacteria that kill or inhibit the growth of other bacteria. Many lactic acid bacteria (LAB) produce a high diversity of different bacteriocins. Though these bacteriocins are produced by LAB found in numerous fermented and non-fermented foods, nisin is currently the only bacteriocin widely used as a food preservative. Many bacteriocins have been characterized biochemically and genetically, and though there is a basic understanding of their structure-function, biosynthesis, and mode of action, many aspects of these compounds are still unknown. This article gives an overview of bacteriocin applications, and differentiates bacteriocins from antibiotics. A comparison of the synthesis. mode of action, resistance and safety of the two types of molecules is covered. Toxicity data exist for only a few bacteriocins, but research and their long-time intentional use strongly suggest that bacteriocins can be safely used.

  11. Manifold Learning by Preserving Distance Orders. (United States)

    Ataer-Cansizoglu, Esra; Akcakaya, Murat; Orhan, Umut; Erdogmus, Deniz


    Nonlinear dimensionality reduction is essential for the analysis and the interpretation of high dimensional data sets. In this manuscript, we propose a distance order preserving manifold learning algorithm that extends the basic mean-squared error cost function used mainly in multidimensional scaling (MDS)-based methods. We develop a constrained optimization problem by assuming explicit constraints on the order of distances in the low-dimensional space. In this optimization problem, as a generalization of MDS, instead of forcing a linear relationship between the distances in the high-dimensional original and low-dimensional projection space, we learn a non-decreasing relation approximated by radial basis functions. We compare the proposed method with existing manifold learning algorithms using synthetic datasets based on the commonly used residual variance and proposed percentage of violated distance orders metrics. We also perform experiments on a retinal image dataset used in Retinopathy of Prematurity (ROP) diagnosis.

  12. Precambrian organic geochemistry - Preservation of the record (United States)

    Hayes, J. M.; Wedeking, K. W.; Kaplan, I. R.


    A review of earlier studies is presented, and new results in Precambrian organic geochemistry are discussed. It is pointed out that two lines of evidence can be developed. One is based on structural organic chemistry, while the other is based on isotopic analyses. In the present investigation, the results of both structural and isotopic investigations of Precambrian organic matter are discussed. Processes and products related to organic geochemistry are examined, taking into account the carbon cycle, an approximate view of the principal pathways of carbon cycling associated with organic matter in the present global ecosystem, processes affecting sedimentary organic matter, and distribution and types of organic matter. Attention is given to chemical fossils in Precambrian sediments, kerogen analyses, the determination of the structural characteristics of kerogen, and data concerning the preservation of the Precambrian organic geochemical record.

  13. Digital preservation putting it to work

    CERN Document Server

    Ogryczak, Włodzimierz; Pałka, Piotr; Śliwiński, Tomasz


    This book addresses the process of maintaining digital objects through time to ensure continued access, an aspect that has become a crucial issue in recent years. It offers a concise yet comprehensive discussion of key concepts and requirements for long-term digital preservation, and presents a pioneering framework for digital repositories that enables the long-term archiving and metadata management for large volumes of digital resources based on a system that has already been completely designed and launched. In the framework, the reliability of information readouts is ensured by the repository with two-level data recording replication and monitoring mechanisms in the repository management system (RMS) and the file systems, and by the RMS’s distributed nature. The advanced RMS allows operations on the archival storage to be scheduled, while also taking into account low energy consumption requirements. After presenting the framework in detail, the book assesses and demonstrates the approach’s viability ...

  14. Nonlinear Preserver Problems on B(H)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Lian CUI


    Let H be a complex Hilbert space of dimension greater than 2, and B(H) denote the Banach algebra of all bounded linear operators on H. For A, B ∈ B(H), define the binary relation A ≤* B by A*A = A*B and AA* = AB*. Then (B(H), "≤*") is a partially ordered set and the relation "≤*" is called the star order on B(H). Denote by Bs(H) the set of all self-adjoint operators in B(H). In this paper, we first characterize nonlinear continuous bijective maps on Bs (H) which preserve the star order in both directions. We characterize also additive maps (or linear maps) on B(H) (or nest algebras) which are multiplicative at some invertible operator.

  15. Research on physical shape preserving curve reconstruction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TANG Kelun; ZHANG Xiangwei; CHENG Siyuan; XIONG Hanwei; ZHANG Hong


    Fusion of various data is an effective way to improve the precision and efficiency of acquiring information in reverse engineering.A method of physical shape preserving curve reconstruction is proposed to better realize the data fusion of coordinate measuring machine (CMM) and visual information.From the principle of materials mechanics,the strain energy of the curve corresponding to the distortion is advanced as the internal energy,and the elastic potential energy of the curve is established,using a few precise measured data points as the equilibrium position,to be the external energy.On the basis of the principle of variation calculus,the basic spline finite element method (B-spline FEM) is used to determine the equilibrium position of curve deformation.Numerical simulation indicates that there is an extremely good agreement between the new fitted curve and the actual curve.

  16. Fertility preservation in young patients′ with cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmila Dudani


    Full Text Available Preservation of fertility is an important issue in the management of young cancer patients. Though embryo cryostorage is a well-established procedure, it can only be availed by couples. Recent studies have indicated increasing success rates with mature and immature oocyte cryopreservation. Cryostorage induces injuries on the human oocytes which can be minimized by slow freezing and vitrification. Selection of candiidates is crucial so that the most suitable technique can be offered without any delay in initiation of cancer therapy. Factors affecting suitability are age of patient, assessment of ovarian reserve, hormonal status and type and stage of neoplastic disease. Encouraging results have been obtained with oocyte in vitro maturation (IVM followed by vitrification for cryostorage. Data on the use of vitrified eggs in routine in vitro fertilization (IVF show that pregnancy rates can be comparable to those achieved with fresh oocytes.

  17. Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinesh Kumar S.


    Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server.

  18. Privacy Preserving Location Proof Updating System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhinesh Kumar S.


    Full Text Available Location-sensitive service broadcasting on user’s mobile devices to discover the current location. A privacy preserving Location proof updating system(APPLAUS,which does not rely on the wide deployement of network infrastructure or the expensive trusted computing module.In APPLAUS, Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs,which are uploaded to a untrusted location proof. An authorized verifier can query and retrieve location proofs from the server.Moreover,our location proof system guarantees user location privacy from every party.Bluetooth enabled mobile devices in range mutually generate location proofs.CA used to be the bridges between the verifier and the location proof server..

  19. [Preservatives from the perspective of glaucoma surgery]. (United States)

    Thieme, H; van der Velden, K K


    Trabeculectomy is still the gold standard in the surgical treatment of glaucoma patients. Development of a bleb is the primary goal of this procedure and the conjunctival status is therefore decisive. Only a good functioning bleb renders good intraocular pressure (IOP) control. Scar tissue formation leads to bleb failure which is quite common despite the use of antiproliferative agents, such as mitomycin C and 5 fluoruracil. Wound healing is important and is influenced and impaired by the chronic use of topical antiglaucoma drugs. Therefore, complete abstinence is recommended from 4-6 weeks prior to a planned trabeculectomy; however, it seems mandatory to completely abolish preservatives such as drops containing benzalkonium chloride to enhance trabeculectomy success rates.

  20. A prospective cohort study of novel functional types of parathyroid glands in thyroidectomy: In situ preservation or auto-transplantation? (United States)

    Cui, Qiuxia; Li, Zhihua; Kong, Deguang; Wang, Kun; Wu, Gaosong


    The best method of preventing hypoparathyroidism after thyroidectomy is to keep parathyroid glands in situ. However, hypoparathyroidism still regularly occurs with the existing parathyroid classification system, and the incidence of permanent hypoparathyroidism has not been reduced. We created a novel system for classifying parathyroid glands that can guide parathyroid preservation in thyroidectomy.We prospectively observed parathyroid glands using the new system in 218 neck surgeries, compared with 132 under the traditional system from January 2014 to September 2015 at a single clinic center. Briefly, we classified parathyroid glands as follows: Type A, no dependency on the thyroid; B1, partial blood supply from the thyroid but retains adequate blood supply after removal of the thyroid; B2, partial blood supply from the thyroid and becomes devascularized after the removal of the thyroid; B3, blood supply mostly from the thyroid; and C, blood supply completely dependent on the thyroid. The classifications were used to decide between in situ preservation or auto-transplantation.The most common type of parathyroid gland was type B1 (53.77%), followed by type A (20.89%), which are the perfect categories for in situ preservation. Type B2 (17.52%) and type B3 (1.21%) have a chance to be kept in situ. For type C (6.61%), in situ preservation is impossible. When in-situ preservation is ruled out, parathyroid auto-transplantation is an alternative, with partial or total gland tissue, depending on the classification and the surgeon's discretion. Among the patients who were classified under the new system, 43.6% presented with transient hypoparathyroidism (symptoms lasting ≤6 months) after surgery, versus 42.4% in the old system, which was not a significant difference. However, permanent hypothyroidism (symptoms lasting >6 months) was not detected in the applied group, but in 3.0% of patients in the nonapplied group (P = 0.01).Our novel functional nomenclature system

  1. Genetics Blood Card Use (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — SOP guiding collection of blood for genetics analysis. Provides stepwise instructions and guidance on how to collect DNA sample using a whole blood blot card

  2. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... known as venous thromboembolism, are highly preventable (see prevention tips below). The U.S. Surgeon General has issued ... blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood clots are also potentially dangerous ...

  3. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... pregnancy: Be aware of risk factors. Know your family history. Make sure your doctor knows about any ... blood clots or blood clotting disorders in your family. Remain active, with your doctor's approval. Be aware ...

  4. Chloride test - blood (United States)

    ... disease Antidiuretic hormone blood test Gastric suction Heart failure - overview Hyperventilation Ions Metabolic acidosis Multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN) II Proximal renal tubular acidosis Respiratory acidosis Sodium blood test Review Date 5/3/2015 Updated by: Laura J. ...

  5. High blood pressure medications (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood pressure medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Treating high blood pressure will help prevent problems such as heart disease, ...

  6. Blood Pressure Medicines (United States)

    High blood pressure, also called hypertension, usually has no symptoms. But it can cause serious problems such as stroke, ... kidney failure. If you cannot control your high blood pressure through lifestyle changes such as losing weight ...

  7. White Blood Cell Disorders (United States)

    ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ... Fundamentals Heart and Blood Vessel Disorders Hormonal and Metabolic Disorders Immune Disorders Infections Injuries and Poisoning Kidney and ...

  8. Low blood sugar - newborns (United States)

    ... Low blood sugar - newborns To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A low blood sugar level in newborn babies is also called neonatal ...

  9. Blood Transfusions (For Teens) (United States)

    ... many precautions to confirm a patient's and donor's blood are compatible before giving a transfusion. In almost every situation, the benefits of having a blood transfusion far outweigh the risks. The Red Cross ...

  10. High blood cholesterol levels (United States)

    ... this page: // High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  11. 75 FR 26270 - Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning... (United States)


    ... SECURITY Federal Emergency Management Agency Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Compliance Costs Policy; Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation Mitigation Policy AGENCY: Federal... Preservation Compliance Costs policy and a draft Environmental Planning and Historic Preservation...

  12. Fluid Mechanics of Blood Clot Formation. (United States)

    Fogelson, Aaron L; Neeves, Keith B


    Intravascular blood clots form in an environment in which hydrodynamic forces dominate and in which fluid-mediated transport is the primary means of moving material. The clotting system has evolved to exploit fluid dynamic mechanisms and to overcome fluid dynamic challenges to ensure that clots that preserve vascular integrity can form over the wide range of flow conditions found in the circulation. Fluid-mediated interactions between the many large deformable red blood cells and the few small rigid platelets lead to high platelet concentrations near vessel walls where platelets contribute to clotting. Receptor-ligand pairs with diverse kinetic and mechanical characteristics work synergistically to arrest rapidly flowing cells on an injured vessel. Variations in hydrodynamic stresses switch on and off the function of key clotting polymers. Protein transport to, from, and within a developing clot determines whether and how fast it grows. We review ongoing experimental and modeling research to understand these and related phenomena.

  13. Rh Factor Blood Test (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Rh factor blood test By Mayo Clinic Staff Rhesus (Rh) factor is an inherited protein found on the surface of ... If your blood has the protein, you're Rh positive. If your blood lacks the protein, you' ...

  14. High Blood Pressure Facts (United States)

    ... More black women than men have high blood pressure. 2 Race of Ethnic Group Men (%) Women (%) African Americans 43.0 45.7 Mexican Americans 27.8 28.9 Whites 33.9 31.3 All 34.1 32.7 Top of Page Why Blood Pressure Matters View this graphic snapshot of blood pressure ...

  15. Image segmentation on adaptive edge-preserving smoothing (United States)

    He, Kun; Wang, Dan; Zheng, Xiuqing


    Nowadays, typical active contour models are widely applied in image segmentation. However, they perform badly on real images with inhomogeneous subregions. In order to overcome the drawback, this paper proposes an edge-preserving smoothing image segmentation algorithm. At first, this paper analyzes the edge-preserving smoothing conditions for image segmentation and constructs an edge-preserving smoothing model inspired by total variation. The proposed model has the ability to smooth inhomogeneous subregions and preserve edges. Then, a kind of clustering algorithm, which reasonably trades off edge-preserving and subregion-smoothing according to the local information, is employed to learn the edge-preserving parameter adaptively. At last, according to the confidence level of segmentation subregions, this paper constructs a smoothing convergence condition to avoid oversmoothing. Experiments indicate that the proposed algorithm has superior performance in precision, recall, and F-measure compared with other segmentation algorithms, and it is insensitive to noise and inhomogeneous-regions.

  16. Cost Model for Digital Preservation: Cost of Digital Migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad; Nielsen, Anders Bo; Thirifays, Alex


    The Danish Ministry of Culture has funded a project to set up a model for costing preservation of digital materials held by national cultural heritage institutions. The overall objective of the project was to increase cost effectiveness of digital preservation activities and to provide a basis...... for comparing and estimating future cost requirements for digital preservation. In this study we describe an activity-based costing methodology for digital preservation based on the Open Archice Information System (OAIS) Reference Model. Within this framework, which we denote the Cost Model for Digital...... Preservation (CMDP), the focus is on costing the functional entity Preservation Planning from the OAIS and digital migration activities. In order to estimate these costs we have identified cost-critical activities by analysing the functions in the OAIS model and the flows between them. The analysis has been...

  17. Application of Bacillus sp. as a biopreservative for food preservation


    S. Nath,; Chowdhury, S.


    Food preservation is enhancing shelf-life and food quality to eliminate food-related illness and product spoilage, especially by the use of food additives.The growing consumer demand for effective preservation of food without altering its nutritional quality and free of potential health risks andto find an attractive and alternative approach to chemical preservatives, have stimulated research in the field of biopreservation by the use of natural or controlled microbiota and/or the...

  18. Study on Bamboo Treatment Technology with CuAz Preservative

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In order to research the effect of preservative penetrability, CuAz (copper azole) was used for the preservative, and pieces of Moso bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens) were used for the experimental materials in this study. The vacuum pressure process was used to treat bamboo pieces. The results showed as follows: 1) Main treatment factors were preservative concentration and applied pressure; 2) In the same technology, both the retention and the weight proportion gain of the samples without node were less tha...

  19. Linear Maps Preserving Invertibility or Related Spectral Properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jin Chuan HOU; Peter SEMRL


    We survey some recent results on linear maps on operator algebras that preserve invert-ibility. We also consider related problems such as the problem of the characterization of linear mapspreserving spectrum, various parts of spectrum, spectral radius, quasinilpotents, etc. We present someresults on elementary operators and additive operators preserving invertibility or related properties. Inparticular, we give a negative answer to a problem posed by Gao and Hou on characterizing spectrum-preserving elementary operators. Several open problems are also mentioned.

  20. Resveratrol nanosuspensions: interaction of preservatives with nanocrystal production. (United States)

    Kobierski, S; Ofori-Kwakye, K; Müller, R H; Keck, C M


    The effect of six different preservatives on the production process and stability of resveratrol nanosuspensions was investigated. Nanosuspensions of the anti-oxidant resveratrol were prepared by high pressure homogenization (1,500 bar, 20 homogenization cycles). The preservatives used were: caprylyl glycol (0.75%), Euxyl PE 9010 (1.0%), Hydrolite-5 (2.0), Phenonip (0.75%), Rokonsal PB-5 (0.5%) and MultiEx Naturotics (2.0%). Preservation is essential for oral and dermal nanosuspensions, but can impair the stability. The effect of the preservatives on stability as a function of cycle numbers was determined by size measurements (photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), laser diffraction (LD) and light microscopy). Zeta potential measurements were performed for determination of the Stern potential (measurements in water) and as stability criterion (measurements in original dispersion medium), to elucidate the mechanism of destabilization. The preservatives could be placed into three groups. Hydrolite-5 did not affect the production process and the short term stability, sizes were practically identical to the preservative-free nanosuspension (e.g. PCS diameters 196 nm and 184 nm, respectively). All other preservatives impaired the stability medium to pronounced, being most pronounced for MultiEx Naturotics. Hydrolite-5 is recommended as preservative of choice. A mechanistic model was developed to explain the absence and the different degrees of destabilization. In general, when screening for suitable preservatives, suspensions are produced, different preservatives added and the size changes are monitored over long-term. The destabilizing effect of the preservatives on nanosuspensions became evident when added in the production process immediately, thus this can be used as a screening tool for optimal, non-destabilizing preservatives, replacing or minimizing time-consuming long-term stability studies.

  1. Preserved to preservative free prostaglandin analogues in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha S. Morge


    POAG develops gradually and take long time to get detected and require long term treatment with topical prostaglandin analogues (PGF2 which is the most common as well as most widely used drugs. These PGF2 analogues need to be taken for longer time and more prone to develop adverse drug reactions. Common ADR seen with PG analogues are irritation on instillation, foreign body sensation, dryness of eyes, pain in eye, increased pigmentation of iris, increased eyelash growth, changes in periorbital sulcus and fat. Some ADRs (Adverse Drug Reaction are explained by the inherent properties of Prostaglandins and those are not explained are because of preservative used in medication and these ADRs can be minimised by using preservative free drug like Tafluprost which are having same efficacy in decreasing IOP. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 696-704

  2. Switching patients from preserved prostaglandin-analog monotherapy to preservative-free tafluprost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hommer A


    Full Text Available Anton Hommer¹, Friedemann Kimmich²¹Sanatorium Hera, Vienna, Austria; ²eyecons, Pfinztal, GermanyPurpose: Efficacy, tolerability and safety of the novel preservative-free prostaglandin tafluprost 0.0015% were investigated for the treatment of patients with glaucoma or ocular hypertension in a clinical setting.Patients and methods: Data were collected in a non-interventional, prospective, multi-center, observational, open label study. 118 patients were treated with a prostaglandin analog (PGA monotherapy (preserved formulations of latanoprost, travoprost or bimatoprost prior to baseline. Intraocular pressure (IOP readings were recorded for each eye at baseline (previous therapy, 4–6 weeks, and 12 weeks after changing medical treatment to preservative-free tafluprost once-daily. We analyzed the change in IOP over the study period for all patients as well as for a subgroup of patients with prior PGA monotherapy. Subjective symptoms and objective ocular signs were determined. Comfort was measured using a 4 step scale. All adverse events were recorded. Paired t-tests were conducted to compare IOP values at baseline to IOP values after treatment with tafluprost 0.0015%. Bowker’s test of symmetry was used for statistical evaluation of changes of clinical signs (hyperemia.Results: In total 118 patients were eligible for evaluation. In these patients with prior PGA monotherapy (n = 118 IOP decreased significantly from 16.2 ± 4.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.55 at treated baseline to 14.8 ± 3.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.43; P < 0.001 at final visit on tafluprost. In a subset of patients with prior latanoprost monotherapy (n = 68 mean IOP at baseline (±SD was reduced from 16.2 ± 4.6 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.77 14.8 ± 3.1 mm Hg at final visit (95% CI: 0.54, P < 0.001, in patients with prior travoprost monotherapy (n = 32 from 16.2 ± 4.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 1.05 to 14.9 ± 3.3 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.91; P < 0.05 and in patients with prior bimatoprost monotherapy (n = 18 from 16.4 ± 3

  3. Preservation vs Innovation. Sustainable rehabilitation in architectural preservation contexts: knowledge, techniques, languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riccardo Gulli


    Full Text Available The theme of the preservation of the characteristics of protected architectural heritage must nowadays be correlated to new requirements for the adaptation of existing buildings to performance standards. This subject raises new questions about the theoretical assumptions and tools to be adopted to coherently answer that request. Focusing on the theme of energy requalification of heritage buildings - the primary focus of interest for the reduction of pollution emissions, according to Horizon 2020 objectives - the preservation of the meanings of an architecture work and of its linguistic, typological and material characteristics proofs to be essential for protection interventions on buildings. However this can’t be considered exhaustive, as the raised issue necessarily requires to be further addressed within the speculative domain of Technique, or rather to open out to the contribution that innovation processes and methods belonging to the field of scientific knowledge could offer.

  4. Anterior cruciate ligament remnant and its values for preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Muneta


    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the remnant-preserving anterior cruciate ligament surgery. Advantages of remnant preservation have been reported in regard to better healing and knee function, although no consensus has been reached. This review article discussed the value and meaning of anterior cruciate ligament remnant preservation in several sections such as effects on healing, remnant classification, biomechanical evaluation, relation to proprioception, animal studies, and clinical studies. We hope that this review will facilitate further discussion and investigation for better treatment of anterior cruciate ligament injuries. So far, the current reviews have not provided sufficient scientific evidence to support the value of preserving the remnant.

  5. A Study on the Preservation of Fresh Amniotic Membrane

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liying Xu; Shiyou Zhou; Jiaqi Chen; Longshan Chen; Mei Zhang


    Objective: To establish the standard preservation methods of fresh amniotic membranefor clinical use.Methods: Human placentas were collected aseptically from selective caesarean sectionsin normal women in time. Amniotic or placental membrane were peeled and preserved inN.S, P.B. SorDMEM at4°C or cultured in DMEM at 37°C, 5% CO2. Trypan-bluestaining, light and electronic microscopy were observed every six hours after preservation.Results: Seventy percent of amniotic epithelial cells survived after preservation in N. Sfor 6 hours, PBS 12 hours, DMEM 24 hours and 1 week in tissue culture. The amountof living epithelial cells maintained in placental membrane preservation was less thanthat in amniotic membrane preservation at the same time (t-test, P < 0. 01) . Nocollagen degeneration was found during preservation.Conclusion: Preservative solution and time will affect the maintenance time of freshamniotic membrane greatly. Fresh amniotic membrane should be preserved within 6hours in N.S, 12 hours in P.B.S, 24 hours in DMEM at 4 °C and 1 week in tissteculture for clinical use.

  6. Biological Sample Ambient Preservation (BioSAP) Device Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — To address NASA's need for alternative methods for ambient preservation of human biological samples collected during extended spaceflight and planetary operations,...

  7. Practical Limits to the Scope of Digital Preservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Kastellec


    Full Text Available This paper examines factors that limit the ability of institutions to digitally preserve the cultural heritage of the modern era. The author takes a wide-ranging approach to shed light on limitations to the scope of digital preservation.  The author finds that technological limitations to digital preservation have been addressed but still exist, and that non-technical aspects—access, selection, law, and finances—move into the foreground as technological limitations recede.  The author proposes a nested model of constraints to the scope of digital preservation and concludes that costs are digital preservation’s most pervasive limitation.


    Coroi, Mihaela Cristina; Bungau, Simona; Tit, Mirela


    The use of preservatives in eye drops (eyewashes) has known glory at the beginning, but the side effects that they have on the ocular surface have led to a decrease of their popularity. Lachrymal film dysfunction, ocular hyperemia, dotted keratitis or toxic keratopathy were reported and analyzed in terms of pathophysiological mechanism of the role played by preservatives in ophthalmic drops (eyewashes). This article reviews the most common preservatives and the existing alternatives for the maintenance of the eye sterile drops. Keywords: preservatives, eye drops, ocular surface

  9. Cancer and blood coagulation. (United States)

    Boccaccio, C; Medico, E


    In human patients, blood coagulation disorders often associate with cancer, even in its early stages. Recently, in vitro and in vivo experimental models have shown that oncogene expression, or inactivation of tumour suppressor genes, upregulate genes that control blood coagulation. These studies suggest that activation of blood clotting, leading to peritumoral fibrin deposition, is instrumental in cancer development. Fibrin can indeed build up a provisional matrix, supporting the invasive growth of neoplastic tissues and blood vessels. Interference with blood coagulation can thus be considered as part of a multifaceted therapeutic approach to cancer.

  10. Blood groups systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranadhir Mitra


    Full Text Available International Society of Blood Transfusion has recently recognized 33 blood group systems. Apart from ABO and Rhesus system, many other types of antigens have been noticed on the red cell membranes. Blood grouping and cross-matching is one of the few important tests that the anaesthesiologist orders during perioperative period. Hence, a proper understanding of the blood group system, their clinical significance, typing and cross-matching tests, and current perspective are of paramount importance to prevent transfusion-related complications. Nonetheless, the knowledge on blood group system is necessary to approach blood group-linked diseases which are still at the stage of research. This review addresses all these aspects of the blood groups system.

  11. Knowledge, change and the preservation of progress. (United States)

    Morales-gomez, D A


    Respect for traditional knowledge is urges as a source of learning to understand where societies originate. A Western understanding of traditional cultural knowledge must go beyond an understanding of fundamental values that give meaning; there must be a change in the cultural perception of development. There operates a complex interaction among artistic and spiritual practices, language and communication, patterns of social reproduction, practices in community governance, and management of natural and human resources. There are contradictions because cultural expression is a diverse combination of individual and collective capacities to manage the social, political, economic, and environmental aspects of life. Quick solutions sometimes lead to romanticized notions of cultural knowledge, rather than being systematic and historical and part of the cultural milieu. From the ethnic perspective, traditional knowledge is seen as "indigenous" or an expression of "curious" traditions and practices of native peoples which are different from one's own perspective. Viewing traditional knowledge in this fashion detaches it from rites, languages, and community practices. When reduced to a utilitarian economic notion, traditional knowledge is separated from the lessons drawn from survival strategies and practices of "materially impoverished peoples." Sometimes, the application of this knowledge bypasses recognition of the part played by traditional peoples. People in the North or industrialized countries neglect the human and sociocultural basis of knowledge, even though there have been attempts to reclaim cultural knowledge as part of development efforts. There remain many questions about how to better understand traditional knowledge, how to preserve it in a meaningful way, and how to apply it to sustain development. There is no consensus about what traditional knowledge is and how it is "genuinely" expressed. The definition of traditional knowledge is as a body of

  12. Educating for the Preservation of Dark Skies (United States)

    Preston, Sandra Lee; Cianciolo, Frank; Wetzel, Marc; Finkelstein, Keely; Wren, William; Nance, Craig


    The stars at night really are big and bright deep in the heart of Texas at the McDonald Observatory near Fort Davis, Texas. Each year 80,000 visitors from all over the world make the pilgrimage to the Observatory to attend one of the three-times-a-week star parties. Many experience, for the first time, the humbling, splendor of a truly dark night sky. Over the last several years, the Observatory has experienced dramatic increases in visitation demonstrating the public’s appetite for science education, in general, and interest in the night sky, in particular. This increasing interest in astronomy is, ironically, occurring at a time when most of humanity’s skies are becoming increasingly light-polluted frustrating this natural interest. Dark skies and knowledgeable education and outreach staff are an important resource in maintaining the public’s interest in astronomy, support for astronomical research, and local tourism.This year Observatory educators were inspired by the observance of the International Year of Light to promote healthy outdoor lighting through its popular Astronomy Day distance learning program. This program reaches tens of thousands of K-12 students in Texas and other states with a message of how they can take action to preserve dark skies. As well, more than a thousand Boy Scouts visiting during the summer months receive a special program, which includes activities focusing on good lighting practices, thereby earning them credits toward an astronomy badge.The Observatory also offers a half-a-dozen K-12 teacher professional development workshops onsite each year, which provide about 90 teachers with dark skies information, best-practice lighting demonstrations, and red flashlights. Multi-year workshops for National Park and State of Texas Parks personnel are offered on dark sky preservation and sky interpretation at McDonald and a Dark Skies fund for retrofitting lights in the surrounding area has been established. The Observatory also uses

  13. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  14. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  15. Potential role of antioxidant food supplements, preservatives and colorants in the pathogenesis of allergy and asthma. (United States)

    Zaknun, Daniela; Schroecksnadel, Sebastian; Kurz, Katharina; Fuchs, Dietmar


    A significant increase in the incidence of allergy and asthma has been observed during the past decades. The background of this phenomenon has not been well explained, but changes in lifestyle and habits are heavily discussed as contributing factors. Among these is a too clean environment, which may predispose individuals to increased sensitivity to allergic responses. Also the increase in dietary supplements including preservatives and colorants may contribute to this. In vitro, we and others have shown in freshly isolated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells that antioxidant compounds like vitamins C and E as well as food preservatives and colorants exert significant suppressive effects on the Th1 immune activation cascade. The effects observed may be based on the interaction of antioxidant compounds with proinflammatory cascades involving important signal transduction elements such as nuclear factor-κB. Although only obtained in vitro, these results show an anti-inflammatory property of compounds which could shift the Th1-Th2-type immune balance towards Th2-type immunity. This review article discusses the potential role of increased use of antioxidant food supplements as well as preservatives and colorants in the increase in allergy and asthma in the Western world.

  16. [Effect of preservatives on survival of Campylobacter jejuni in ground pork meat]. (United States)

    Uradziński, J; Szteyn, J


    Campylobacter jejuni strains: Pen 2, 3, 6, 10 and 20 isolated from the food-borne infections in humans were tested. Fresh ground pork samples supplemented with chemical preservatives: sodium chloride--24,000 mg/kg, sodium nitrite--125 mg/kg, potassium nitrate--500 mg/kg, sodium ascorbate--300 mg/kg and polyphosphate (Hamine S)--3000 mg/kg were contaminated by C. jejuni strains. Survival of C. jejuni in ground pork was determined immediate after the contamination and over a 2-d period at 4 degrees C on Brucella agar (Difco) containing 10% horse blood, which were incubated 48 hrs at 42 degrees C under microaerobic conditions (5% O2, 5% CO2 and 90% N2). Campylobacter jejuni was isolated from all tested samples at the initial inoculum 2.5 x 10(5) to 1.7 x 10(8) cfu/1 g of meat. It was proved that chemical preservatives, added to meat samples in concentration usually used in meat processing, were affected in differential way on the survival of different strains of C. jejuni. Campylobacter jejuni Pen 2 was resistant to all preservatives used in this studies. Campylobacter jejuni Pen 3 and Pen 10 were sensitive to sodium nitrite, and Pen 10 was sensitive also to sodium chloride, potassium nitrate and composition of all tested chemicals. Also, Campylobacter jejuni Pen 20 was sensitive to sodium chloride, but potassium nitrate, sodium ascorbate and Hamine S stimulated growth of this strain.

  17. Processing and storage of blood components: strategies to improve patient safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietersz RNI


    Full Text Available Ruby NI Pietersz, Pieter F van der Meer Department of Product and Process Development, Sanquin Blood Bank, Amsterdam, the Netherlands Abstract: This review focuses on safety improvements of blood processing of various blood components and their respective storage. A solid quality system to ensure safe and effective blood components that are traceable from a donor to the patient is the foundation of a safe blood supply. To stimulate and guide this process, National Health Authorities should develop guidelines for blood transfusion, including establishment of a quality system. Blood component therapy enabled treatment of patients with blood constituents that were missing, only thus preventing reactions to unnecessarily transfused elements. Leukoreduction prevents many adverse reactions and also improves the quality of the blood components during storage. The safety of red cells and platelets is improved by replacement of plasma with preservative solutions, which results in the reduction of isoantibodies and plasma proteins. Automation of blood collection, separation of whole blood into components, and consecutive processing steps, such as preparation of platelet concentrate from multiple donations, improves the consistent composition of blood components. Physicians can better prescribe the number of transfusions and therewith reduce donor exposure and/or the risk of pathogen transmission. Pathogen reduction in cellular blood components is the latest development in improving the safety of blood transfusions for patients. Keywords: blood components, red cell concentrates, platelet concentrates, plasma, transfusion, safety 

  18. Preservation versus non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement: a meta-analysis of 3835 patients. (United States)

    Sá, Michel Pompeu Barros de Oliveira; Ferraz, Paulo Ernando; Escobar, Rodrigo Renda; Martins, Wendell Santos; de Araújo e Sá, Frederico Browne Correia; Lustosa, Pablo César; Vasconcelos, Frederico Pires; Lima, Ricardo Carvalho


    Resection of the chordopapillary apparatus during mitral valve replacement has been associated with a negative impact on survival. Mitral valve replacement with the preservation of the mitral valve apparatus has been associated with better outcomes, but surgeons remain refractory to its use. To determine if there is any real difference in preservation vs non-preservation of mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement in terms of outcomes, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis using MEDLINE, EMBASE, CENTRAL/CCTR, SciELO, LILACS, Google Scholar and reference lists of relevant articles to search for clinical studies that compared outcomes (30-day mortality, postoperative low cardiac output syndrome or 5-year mortality) between preservation vs non-preservation during mitral valve replacement from 1966 to 2011. The principal summary measures were odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence interval and P-values (that will be considered statistically significant when mitral valve replacement preservation and 1917 for mitral valve replacement non-preservation). There was significant difference between mitral valve replacement preservation and mitral valve replacement non-preservation groups in the risk of 30-day mortality (OR 0.418, P mitral valve apparatus during mitral valve replacement.

  19. Current status and perspective of liver preservation solutions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Ning Feng; Xiao Xu; Shu-Sen Zheng


    BACKGROUND:A safe and effective preservation solution is a precondition for liver transplantation, which is accepted as the radical treatment for patients with end-stage liver disease. The increasing use of marginal donors and non-heart beating donors as well as the establishment of a national organ allocation network call for better preservation. New preservation solutions like histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and Celsior solution have been introduced to liver preservation, and protective gene intervention and other modiifcations have also been investigated. In this article, we review recent advances in liver preservation solutions. DATA SOURCES: An English-language literature search was conducted using MEDLINE (1990-2005) on liver preservation solution, biliary complication, protective gene and other related subjects. RESULTS:Although the high viscosity of the University of Wisconsin (UW) solution proved harmful to the hepatic microcirculation, three solutions showed equivalent preservation effects. When the cold ischemia time was short, there were no signiifcant differences among the three solutions in the incidence of biliary complications. So far, modiifcations of preservation solutions have achieved great success. Several types of protective genes like A20, Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and HO-1 were reported to have deifnite liver protective effects. The addition of other substrates like TNF-α antibody, tacrolimus (FK506) and fructose-1, 6-bisphosphate (FBP) can also improve the preservation effect. However, addition of insulin to UW solution is harmful to the graft. CONCLUSIONS:In centers with highly-developed transplantation techniques, HTK and Celsior solutions are acceptable in liver preservation. Protective gene modiifcation and addition of substrates like TNF-αantibody, FK506 and FBP are prominent approaches to improve liver preservation.

  20. Attribute association based privacy preservation for multi trust level environment

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Praveena Priyadarsini; M L Valarmathi; S Sivakumari


    Enormous amount of e-data is collected world-wide by organizations for the purpose of their research and decision making. The availability of this heterogeneous, sensitive information in e-databases poses a threat to the privacy of the individual or organization on which the data is collected. Privacy Preserving Data Mining [PPDM] is a field of research which concentrates on preserving data privacy during the process of data mining. This paper proposes a two level partition and perturbation frame work to release multiple copies of privacy preserved datasets in Multi Trust Level [MTL] scenario that can prevent linking and diversity attack. The framework proposes two methods namely, Entropy based Attribute Privacy Preservation [EAPP] and Information Gain based Attribute Privacy Preservation [IGAPP] for privacy preservation in MTL environment. The two methods perform vertical and horizontal partitioning of data for privacy preservation. Simple K-Means clustering algorithm with cluster size 2 using both Euclidean and Manhattan distance functions are used for horizontal partitioning. The vertical partitioning of attributes within the cluster is performed based on their entropy value that indicates its one way association with its class in EAPP method and Information Gain [IG] value of the attributes that indicates the two way associations with class in IGAPP method. The attributes in the clusters are subjected to privacy preservation technique based on their entropy and IG values in EAPP and IGAPP methods, respectively. The effect of distance in clustering the data points on privacy preservation and the ability of the privacy preserved datasets generated using the proposed methods to prevent privacy attacks are studied using variance, rank distortion and utility metrics. Real life medical and bench mark adult data sets have been used here for experimentation. The results show that the generated datasets exhibit good variance and rank distortion values and hence can

  1. Preserved semantic access in neglect dyslexia. (United States)

    Làdavas, E; Shallice, T; Zanella, M T


    The aim of this study was to investigate the preservation of semantic access in patients with severe neglect dyslexia for words and non-words. Patients were given the following tasks: (1) reading aloud letter strings (first basic reading task), (2) making semantic decisions (categorial and inferential judgements), (3) making semantic decisions and reading the letter strings immediately afterwards (semantic-reading tasks), (4) reading letter strings again (final basic reading tasks) and (5) auditory control tasks. Of 23 patients with visual neglect, four showed neglect dyslexia for both words and non-words. Of these four patients, three showed a performance in the semantic tasks that was as good as in the auditory condition. Moreover, the reading of the patients improved dramatically in the semantic-reading tasks but this was not maintained in the final basic reading task. Non-words showed only a minor improvement. Findings are discussed in terms of an interaction between the attentional system and the different reading routes, and provide evidence that semantic routes are less affected by neglect.

  2. Preservation of Laboratory Instruments in Static Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregg, J. L.; Shackelford, M. A.


    It is desirable to place laboratory instruments in static storage so that they may be put into operation with only normal servicing. Such instruments may be subject to many forms of deterioration. There may be deterioration of metal parts due to chemical and electrolytic corrosion and the effects of moisture, excessive dryness, and microorganisms, i.e., mildew on organic parts. To preserve such instruments without disassembly or troublesome surface coatings, requires methods that will remove the major cause of deterioration - that is, excessive humidity, by reducing and maintaining the relative humidity of the air surrounding the item at 30 per cent or less. It is also necessary to eliminate or separate hygroscopic materials from the item since they will cause corrosion, by surface adsorption and condensation, even though a dry atmosphere is maintained. The methods and materials used must not only be efficient and economical but also require a minimun of maintenance, Protection against physical damage and temperature extremes is dependent upon the storage site and is not considered in this report.

  3. Energy Preserved Sampling for Compressed Sensing MRI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yudong Zhang


    Full Text Available The sampling patterns, cost functions, and reconstruction algorithms play important roles in optimizing compressed sensing magnetic resonance imaging (CS-MRI. Simple random sampling patterns did not take into account the energy distribution in k-space and resulted in suboptimal reconstruction of MR images. Therefore, a variety of variable density (VD based samplings patterns had been developed. To further improve it, we propose a novel energy preserving sampling (ePRESS method. Besides, we improve the cost function by introducing phase correction and region of support matrix, and we propose iterative thresholding algorithm (ITA to solve the improved cost function. We evaluate the proposed ePRESS sampling method, improved cost function, and ITA reconstruction algorithm by 2D digital phantom and 2D in vivo MR brains of healthy volunteers. These assessments demonstrate that the proposed ePRESS method performs better than VD, POWER, and BKO; the improved cost function can achieve better reconstruction quality than conventional cost function; and the ITA is faster than SISTA and is competitive with FISTA in terms of computation time.

  4. Perturbative expansions for area-preserving maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Servizi, G.; Turchetti, G.


    The structure of perturbation series for area-preserving maps is investigated. A basically different behaviour is found between the Birkhoff series, which formally conjugate with circles all the orbits in a neighbourhood of the origin, and the series which map into circles the individual invariant curves with fixed diophantine winding number. The former series exhibit an asymptotic character, the latter a convergent one, as one should expect from the KAM theorem. The source of this difference is found to be the different way in which the contributions of the relevant resonances propagate. In the first case, if epsilon is the size of the divisor associated to a resonance M/N, then at each order n>N an epsilon/sup -1/ contribution occurs, in the second case subtle cancellations provide a new epsilon/sup -1/ only when a harmonic (that is n=pN) is reached. This precise asymptotic statement and the properties of the relevant resonances obtained from the continued fraction expansion allow us, in the case of quadratic irrationals, to understand the limit process which leads to divergence or convergence. In the divergent case the asymptotic properties of the series are exhaustively described.

  5. A diffuse interface model with immiscibility preservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, Arpit, E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Freund, Jonathan B., E-mail: [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Department of Aerospace Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Pantano, Carlos [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)


    A new, simple, and computationally efficient interface capturing scheme based on a diffuse interface approach is presented for simulation of compressible multiphase flows. Multi-fluid interfaces are represented using field variables (interface functions) with associated transport equations that are augmented, with respect to an established formulation, to enforce a selected interface thickness. The resulting interface region can be set just thick enough to be resolved by the underlying mesh and numerical method, yet thin enough to provide an efficient model for dynamics of well-resolved scales. A key advance in the present method is that the interface regularization is asymptotically compatible with the thermodynamic mixture laws of the mixture model upon which it is constructed. It incorporates first-order pressure and velocity non-equilibrium effects while preserving interface conditions for equilibrium flows, even within the thin diffused mixture region. We first quantify the improved convergence of this formulation in some widely used one-dimensional configurations, then show that it enables fundamentally better simulations of bubble dynamics. Demonstrations include both a spherical-bubble collapse, which is shown to maintain excellent symmetry despite the Cartesian mesh, and a jetting bubble collapse adjacent a wall. Comparisons show that without the new formulation the jet is suppressed by numerical diffusion leading to qualitatively incorrect results.

  6. Preserving & Serving 150 years of KNMI data (United States)

    van de Vegte, J.; Som de Cerff, W. J.


    The Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI) has over 150 years of knowledge and gathered information related to weather, Climate and Seismology. A huge part of this information is from numerical models, insitu sensor networks and remote sensing satellites. This digital collection is mostly internal only available and is a collection of non searchable , non standardized file formats, lacking documentation and has no references to scientific publications. With the Dutch funded KNMI Data Centre (KDC) project we aim to tackle al these issues. In the project a user driven development approach with SCRUM is chosen to get maximum user involvement in a relative short development timeframe. Building on open standards and proven opensource technology (which includes in-house developed software like ADAGUC WMS and Portal) should result in a solid first release in 2012-Q3. This presentation will focus on the aspects of developing the KDC relating to its technical challenges, the human factor and the development strategy to come to a future-proof centre that will preserve our data en make it usable for the community.

  7. Chronic blood pressure control. (United States)

    Brands, Michael W


    Chronic blood pressure is maintained within very narrow limits around an average value. However, the multitude of physiologic processes that participate in blood pressure control present a bewildering array of possibilities to explain how such tight control of arterial pressure is achieved. Guyton and Coleman and colleagues addressed this challenge by creating a mathematical model that integrated the short- and long-term control systems for overall regulation of the circulation. The hub is the renal-body fluid feedback control system, which links cardiac function and vascular resistance and capacitance with fluid volume homeostasis as the foundation for chronic blood pressure control. The cornerstone of that system is renal sodium excretory capability, which is defined by the direct effect of blood pressure on urinary sodium excretion, that is, "pressure natriuresis." Steady-state blood pressure is the pressure at which pressure natriuresis balances sodium intake over time; therefore, renal sodium excretory capability is the set point for chronic blood pressure. However, this often is misinterpreted as dismissing, or minimizing, the importance of nonrenal mechanisms in chronic blood pressure control. This article explains the renal basis for the blood pressure set point by focusing on the absolute dependence of our survival on the maintenance of sodium balance. Two principal threats to sodium balance are discussed: (1) a change in sodium intake or renal excretory capability and (2) a change in blood pressure. In both instances, circulatory homeostasis is maintained because the sodium balance blood pressure set point is reached.

  8. Changes in Parental Depression Symptoms during Family Preservation Services (United States)

    Chaffin, Mark; Bard, David


    Objectives: Parental depression symptoms often change over the course of child welfare family preservation and parenting services. This raises the question of whether certain processes in family preservation services might be associated with depression symptom change. This study tests three correlational models of change among family preservation…

  9. Home Food Preservation among Families with Young Children (United States)

    Lorenz, Lorraine J.; Sawicki, Marjorie A.; Elliott, Michael; White, Melissa


    The purpose of this study was to determine preservation practices, perceived barriers, and likelihood of parents with young children to home preserve food in the future. Implications of this research relate to family and consumer sciences professionals who endeavor to improve fruit and vegetable intake and provide resources to families and…

  10. 21 CFR 1305.27 - Preservation of electronic orders. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of electronic orders. 1305.27 Section 1305.27 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Electronic Orders § 1305.27 Preservation of electronic orders. (a)...

  11. 36 CFR 13.35 - Preservation of natural features. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Preservation of natural... INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA General Provisions § 13.35 Preservation of natural features... food items, including fruits, berries and mushrooms, but not including threatened or endangered...

  12. 21 CFR 1002.31 - Preservation and inspection of records. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation and inspection of records. 1002.31 Section 1002.31 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) RADIOLOGICAL HEALTH RECORDS AND REPORTS Manufacturers' Records § 1002.31 Preservation...

  13. 21 CFR 1305.17 - Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of DEA Forms 222. 1305.17 Section 1305.17 Food and Drugs DRUG ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE ORDERS FOR SCHEDULE I AND II CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES DEA Form 222 § 1305.17 Preservation of DEA Forms 222. (a) The purchaser...

  14. 21 CFR 26.74 - Preservation of regulatory authority. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Preservation of regulatory authority. 26.74 Section 26.74 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL... COMMUNITY âFrameworkâ Provisions § 26.74 Preservation of regulatory authority. (a) Nothing in this...

  15. 48 CFR 552.211-75 - Preservation, Packaging and Packing. (United States)


    ... and Packing. 552.211-75 Section 552.211-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES....211-75 Preservation, Packaging and Packing. As prescribed in 511.204(b)(2), insert the following clause: Preservation, Packaging, and Packing (FEB 1996) Unless otherwise specified, all items shall...

  16. 48 CFR 211.272 - Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. (United States)


    ..., packaging, and packing. 211.272 Section 211.272 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Requirements Documents 211.272 Alternate preservation, packaging, and packing. Use the provision at 252.211-7004, Alternate Preservation, Packaging, and Packing, in solicitations which include...

  17. 9 CFR 114.10 - Antibiotics as preservatives. (United States)


    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Antibiotics as preservatives. 114.10... AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PRODUCTION REQUIREMENTS FOR BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS § 114.10 Antibiotics as preservatives. Antibiotics are authorized for use...

  18. Jewelry History: A Core Bibliography in Support of Preservation. (United States)

    Klein, Christine De Bow

    The intent of this project was to create a core bibliography in support of preservation of scholarly jewelry research, and to encourage the interest and involvement of jewelry historians, appraisers, professionals, collectors, and connoisseurs in preservation initiatives. The bibliography identifies a core of jewelry history books that are…

  19. 24 CFR 570.202 - Eligible rehabilitation and preservation activities. (United States)


    ..., abatement of asbestos hazards, lead-based paint hazard evaluation and reduction, and the correction of code...) Historic preservation. CDBG funds may be used for the rehabilitation, preservation or restoration of... or to rehabilitate such buildings for housing. (f) Lead-based paint activities. Lead-based...

  20. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence. (United States)


    ... in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... Records and Files of the Patent and Trademark Office § 1.14 Patent applications preserved in confidence... published under 35 U.S.C. 122(b) are generally preserved in confidence pursuant to 35 U.S.C....

  1. Hepatitis B viral breakthrough associated with inappropriate preservation of entecavir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oguz Karabay


    Full Text Available If virologic breakthrough is observed during chronic hepatitis B treatment, drug resistance or compliance problem should be considered. But in some cases, breakthrough depends on drug preservation conditions. We report the case of a 30-years-old man, who experienced viral breakthrough due to wrong preservation conditions of the drug.

  2. Direct-to-PCR tissue preservation for DNA profiling. (United States)

    Sorensen, Amy; Berry, Clare; Bruce, David; Gahan, Michelle Elizabeth; Hughes-Stamm, Sheree; McNevin, Dennis


    Disaster victim identification (DVI) often occurs in remote locations with extremes of temperatures and humidities. Access to mortuary facilities and refrigeration are not always available. An effective and robust DNA sampling and preservation procedure would increase the probability of successful DNA profiling and allow faster repatriation of bodies and body parts. If the act of tissue preservation also released DNA into solution, ready for polymerase chain reaction (PCR), the DVI process could be further streamlined. In this study, we explored the possibility of obtaining DNA profiles without DNA extraction, by adding aliquots of preservative solutions surrounding fresh human muscle and decomposing human muscle and skin tissue samples directly to PCR. The preservatives consisted of two custom preparations and two proprietary solutions. The custom preparations were a salt-saturated solution of dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) with ethylenediaminetetraacetic (EDTA) and TENT buffer (Tris, EDTA, NaCl, Tween 20). The proprietary preservatives were DNAgard (Biomatrica(®)) and Tissue Stabilising Kit (DNA Genotek). We obtained full PowerPlex(®) 21 (Promega) and GlobalFiler(®) (Life Technologies) DNA profiles from fresh and decomposed tissue preserved at 35 °C for up to 28 days for all four preservatives. The preservative aliquots removed from the fresh muscle tissue samples had been stored at -80 °C for 4 years, indicating that long-term archival does not diminish the probability of successful DNA typing. Rather, storage at -80 °C seems to reduce PCR inhibition.

  3. 36 CFR 7.85 - Big Thicket National Preserve. (United States)


    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Big Thicket National Preserve... INTERIOR SPECIAL REGULATIONS, AREAS OF THE NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM § 7.85 Big Thicket National Preserve. (a... animals or fur-bearing animals is prohibited. (4) The use or construction of stands, blinds or...

  4. 21 CFR 146.152 - Orange juice with preservative. (United States)


    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Orange juice with preservative. 146.152 Section... any safe and suitable preservatives or combinations thereof. (c) The name of the food is “Orange juice with preservative”. (d) Label declaration. Each of the ingredients used in the food shall be...

  5. Preservation of viable Francisella tularensis for forensic analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valentine, Nancy B.; Wunschel, Sharon C.; Valdez, Catherine O.; Kreuzer-Martin, Helen W.; Bartholomew, Rachel A.; Straub, Tim M.; Wahl, Karen L.


    As a preservation solution, (1%) ammonium chloride may be preferred over other conventionally used storage solutions because of its compatibility with analytical techniques such as Mass Spectrometry. In this study, ammonium chloride performed as well or better than phosphate buffered saline with Tween or Butterfields/Tween for preserving Francisella tularensis novicida.

  6. On Design of Parity Preserving Reversible Adder Circuits (United States)

    Haghparast, Majid; Bolhassani, Ali


    In this paper novel parity preserving reversible logic blocks are presented and verified. Then, we present cost-effective parity preserving reversible implementations of Full Adder, 4:2 Compressor, Binary to BCD converter, and BCD adder using these blocks. The proposed parity preserving reversible BCD adder is designed by cascading the presented 4-digit parity preserving reversible Full Adder and a parity preserving reversible Binary to BCD Converter. In this design, instead of realizing the detection and correction unit, we design a Binary to BCD converter that its inputs are the output of parity preserving binary adder, and its output is a parity preserving BCD digit. In addition, several theorems on the numbers of garbage outputs, constant inputs, quantum cost and delay of the designs have been presented to show its optimality. In the presented circuits, the delay and the quantum cost are reduced by deriving designs based on the proposed parity preserving reversible blocks. The advantages of the proposed designs over the existing ones are quantitatively described and analysed. All the scales are in the Nano-metric area.

  7. To Preserve or To Perish: A Call for Action. (United States)

    Ames, Charlotte


    Argues that a national preservation effort is needed to protect Catholic newspapers. Discusses the American Theological Library Association, the Center for Research Libraries, the Catholic Archives of Texas, the Philadelphia Archdiocesan Historical Research Center, as well as digital preservation efforts and grant possibilities. (AEF)

  8. Digital Preservation: A Time Bomb for Digital Libraries. (United States)

    Hedstrom, Margaret


    Argues that the difficulty and expense of preserving digital information is a potential impediment to digital library development. Discusses the present state of digital preservation, articulates requirements for users and custodians, and suggests research topics in storage media, migration, conversion, and overall management strategies. (DSK)

  9. Linear energy-preserving integrators for Poisson systems


    Cohen, David; Hairer, Ernst


    For Hamiltonian systems with non-canonical structure matrix a new class of numerical integrators is proposed. The methods exactly preserve energy, are invariant with respect to linear transformations, and have arbitrarily high order. Those of optimal order also preserve quadratic Casimir functions. The discussion of the order is based on an interpretation as partitioned Runge-Kutta method with infinitely many stages.

  10. Preservation techniques for donors after cardiac death kidneys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wind, J.; Hoogland, E.R.; Heurn, L.W. van


    PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of the present review is to describe the techniques currently used to preserve kidneys from donors after cardiac death. RECENT FINDINGS: Automated chest compression devices may be used to improve organ perfusion between cardiac death and preservation measures. Normothe

  11. Preserving local writers, genealogy, photographs, newspapers, and related materials

    CERN Document Server

    Smallwood, Carol


    Preserving Local Writers, Genealogy, Photographs, Newspapers, and Related Materials draws on the practical knowledge of archivists, preservationists, librarians, and others who share the goal of making local history accessible to future generations. Anyone who plans to start a local history project or preserve important historical materials will find plenty of tips, techniques, sample documents, project ideas, and inspiration in its pages.

  12. Archiving Software Systems: Approaches to Preserve Computational Capabilities (United States)

    King, T. A.


    A great deal of effort is made to preserve scientific data. Not only because data is knowledge, but it is often costly to acquire and is sometimes collected under unique circumstances. Another part of the science enterprise is the development of software to process and analyze the data. Developed software is also a large investment and worthy of preservation. However, the long term preservation of software presents some challenges. Software often requires a specific technology stack to operate. This can include software, operating systems and hardware dependencies. One past approach to preserve computational capabilities is to maintain ancient hardware long past its typical viability. On an archive horizon of 100 years, this is not feasible. Another approach to preserve computational capabilities is to archive source code. While this can preserve details of the implementation and algorithms, it may not be possible to reproduce the technology stack needed to compile and run the resulting applications. This future forward dilemma has a solution. Technology used to create clouds and process big data can also be used to archive and preserve computational capabilities. We explore how basic hardware, virtual machines, containers and appropriate metadata can be used to preserve computational capabilities and to archive functional software systems. In conjunction with data archives, this provides scientist with both the data and capability to reproduce the processing and analysis used to generate past scientific results.

  13. [A correct understanding of preservatives in eye drops]. (United States)

    Liu, Zuguo; Huang, Caihong


    Eye drops are the most commonly used preparations in ophthalmology. Preservatives are usually added in order to protect eye drops against pathogenic organisms and increase the solubility of the drugs in multi-dose containers. Ophthalmologists have paid a lot of attention to the preservatives in eye drops because they remain one of the main reasons for ocular surface damage, and even may lead to serious visual impairment in patients with inappropriate use of eye drops. However, it should be noted that the dangers of preservatives become overstated nowadays. It is necessary to completely evaluate the effects of preservatives in ophthalmic preparations, so that ophthalmologists can guide patients to correctly select eye drops containing preservatives and avoid dangerous side effects, according to their eye disease situation, state of tear function and ocular surface changes, cultural background and financial income, cost and benefit and convenience of the use of drugs, and other factors. The direction of the future development in this field is to establish the clinical guideline for use of eye drops containing preservatives, carry out continuing education courses on preservatives and develop ideal preservatives.

  14. An Experimental Study in the Preservation of Poetry Shape. (United States)

    Brown, Susan H.; Lashbrook, William B.


    Study determines whether the preservation of poetry shape by an oral interpreter enhances the listener's mental perception and comprehension of selected poetry. Evidence supports the hypothesis that receivers could identify, comprehend, and appreciate the oral interpretation of poetry which stressed the preservation of its shape. (JMF)

  15. The evaluation of aprotinin contained preservation solution with a new animal model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FU Qing-lin; ZHANG Xin-zhong; HAN Pei-li; SHI Rui-feng


    Objective To explore the protective effect of aprotinin contained LPD ( low potassium dextran) solution via an in situ rabbit lung preservation model. Methods Thirty New Zealand rabbits were divided randomly into 3 groups, 10 in each group. In group A (control group), the left lung hilus was clamped without solution perfusion; In group B ( LPD group) and group C ( aprotinin group), the lungs were perfused with LPD solution and aprotinin contained LPD, respectively. The lungs in all groups were stored at 10 centigrade in a specially made lung preservation container for 2 hours and then unclamped the lung hilus to rcperfuse the lung for 2 hours. Pulmonary venous blood samples were collected at pre-clamping of lung hilus,5 minutes and 120 minutes after reperfusion for analysis of blood gas. Biopsy of lung tissue was excised for morphological examination at pre-unclamping of lung hilas and 2 hours after reperfusion. Examination of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was taken for the evaluation of inflammation status. Results Pulmonary venous partial pressure of oxygen ( PvPO2) in the 3 groups at 5 minutes and 120 minutes after reperfusion were significantly higher than those before clamping of lung hilus,respectively. PvPO2 in group A and group B at 120 minutes after reperfusion were significantly higher than those at 5 minutes after reperfusion. There was no significant difference of PvPO2 in group C between 5 minutes and 120 minutes after reperfusion. PvPO2 in group C at 5 minutes and 120 minutes after reperfusion were significantly higher than those in group A and group B. The morphological lesion was more severe in group A and B than that in group C. The PMN percentage in bronchoalveelar lavage fluid in group A and B was significantly higher than that in group C. Conclusions The protective effect of aprotinin is obvious for lung protection in animal model. Aprotinin contained lung preservation solution is superior to LPD for lung protection.

  16. Does your preservative preserve? A comparison of the efficacy of some pitfall trap solutions in preserving the internal reproductive organs of dung beetles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marios Aristophanous


    Full Text Available Eight pitfall trap preservatives, brine, saturated borax solution, propylene glycol (33%, 50%, 75%, white vinegar, 100% ethylene glycol, FAACC (Formaldehyde 4%, Acetic acid 5%, Calcium chloride 1.3%, 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde and 96% ethanol, were compared for their ability to preserve the internal reproductive organs of the dung beetle Liatongus militaris (Laporte (Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae for up to 28 days in the field. Relative evaporation rates of the preservatives in riparian vine thicket and low open woodland environments were also compared. 96% ethanol, FAACC and 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde were the only solutions found to preserve all of the internal reproductive organs. Evaporation rates were lower in the vine thicket and some preservatives such as ethanol completely evaporated within seven days. 4% phosphate buffered formaldehyde is recommended as a preservative for pitfall traps left in the field for periods longer than one week. Possible ways to prevent trap interference by mammals and risks to the environment due to overspill are also discussed.

  17. nestor Guideline for Preservation Planning – a Process Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabine Schrimpf


    Full Text Available The nestor guideline for preservation planning is the latest in a series of nestor publications. nestor is the German competence network for digital preservation and it offers all interested parties from the private and public domains the possibility to participate in working groups. The guideline for preservation planning is the result of such a working group, which discussed the conceptual and practical issues of implementing the OAIS Functional Entity “Preservation Planning”.The guideline describes a process model and offers some guidance on potential implementations. It integrates and builds on recognized community concepts like Significant Properties, the OAIS Designated Community, the National Archives of Australia’s Performance Model, the PREMIS concept of Intellectual Entities and Representations, and the PLANET’s approach to preservation planning. Furthermore, it introduces the concepts “intended use” (Nutzungsziele, “information type” (Informationstyp and “preservation group” (Erhaltungsgruppe. The purpose of these new categories is that information objects shall be grouped by information type (e.g., audio, video, text… and intended use (e.g., reading for pleasure, search for specific information… to preservation groups for automatic processing. Significant properties can then be derived for whole preservation groups. The file format alone is considered as not completely sufficient for such categorisation. Some exemplary implementation solutions of the new concepts are presented in an annex.The guideline takes into account that resources for preservation planning and preservation actions are limited and has therefore adopted 4 premises: adequacy, financial viability, automation, and authenticity of archived objects. Its pragmatic approach becomes apparent in the definition and explanation of these dimensions. The guideline is written from the point of view of representatives of memory institutions, i

  18. Computational modeling of red blood cells: A symplectic integration algorithm (United States)

    Schiller, Ulf D.; Ladd, Anthony J. C.


    Red blood cells can undergo shape transformations that impact the rheological properties of blood. Computational models have to account for the deformability and red blood cells are often modeled as elastically deformable objects. We present a symplectic integration algorithm for deformable objects. The surface is represented by a set of marker points obtained by surface triangulation, along with a set of fiber vectors that describe the orientation of the material plane. The various elastic energies are formulated in terms of these variables and the equations of motion are obtained by exact differentiation of a discretized Hamiltonian. The integration algorithm preserves the Hamiltonian structure and leads to highly accurate energy conservation, hence he method is expected to be more stable than conventional finite element methods. We apply the algorithm to simulate the shape dynamics of red blood cells.

  19. Addition of ulinastatin to preservation solution promotes protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury in rabbit lung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Ming; WEN Xiao-hong; CHEN Shu-ping; AN Xiao-xia; XU He-yun


    Background The composition of the lung preservation solution used in lung graft procurement has been considered the key to minimize lung injury during the period of ischemia. Low-potassium dextran glucose (LPDG), an extracellular-type solution, has been adopted by most lung transplantation centers, due to the experimental and clinical evidences that LPDG is superior to intracellular-type solutions. Ulinastatin has been shown to attenuate ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury in various organs in animals. We supposed that the addition of ulinastatin to LPDG as a flushing solution, would further ameliorate I/R lung injury than LPDG solution alone.Methods Twelve male New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into 2 groups. Using an alternative in situ lung I/R model, the left lung in the control group was supplied and preserved with LPDG solution for 120 minutes. In the study group 50 000 U/kg of ulinastatin was added to the LPDG solution for lung preservation. Then re-ventilation and reperfusion of the left lung were performed for 90 minutes. Blood gas analysis (PaO2, PaCO2), mean pulmonary artery pressure (MPAP) and serum TNF-α level were measured intermittently. The pulmonary water index (D/W), tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) content and morphologic changes were analyzed.Results The study group showed significantly higher PaO2 and lower MPAP at the end of reperfusion. Serum TNF-α level, left lung tissue MPO and MDA in the study group were significantly lower than those in the control group. D/W and pathologic evaluation were also remarkably different between the two groups.Conclusions This study indicated that better lung preservation could be achieved with the use of an ulinastatin modified LPDG solution. Ulinastatin further attenuated lung I/R injury, at least partly by reducing oxidative reactions,inhibiting the release of inflammatory factors and neutrophils immigration.

  20. Modelling the Cost and Quality of Preservation Imaging and Archiving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kejser, Ulla Bøgvad


    in the OAIS Reference Model. The cost model divides the OAIS functions in a hierarchy of cost critical activities and measurable components, which are implemented as formulas in a spreadsheet. So far the model has only been completed for activities relating to preservation planning and digital migrations......, fire and other risks. In this PhD thesis it is examined how one may evaluate the long‐term costs and benefits to cultural heritage institutions of different preservation strategies for digital copies. The investigated alternatives are preserving the copies in a digital repository, and printing...... the files out on microfilm and preserving them in a non‐digital repository. In order to obtain empirical data and to understand the decisive cost factors in preservation copying, a case study was set up in which degrading sheet‐film negatives were digitised. Requirements for image quality and metadata were...