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Sample records for blood predicts active

  1. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    “Recent Results on Glucose–Insulin Predictions by Means of a State Observer for Time-Delay Systems” by Pasquale Palumbo et al. introduces a prediction model which in real time predicts the insulin concentration in blood which in turn is used in a control system. The method is tested in simulation...... EEG signals to predict upcoming hypoglycemic situations in real-time by employing artificial neural networks. The results of a 30-day long clinical study with the implanted device and the developed algorithm are presented. The chapter “Meta-Learning Based Blood Glucose Predictor for Diabetic......, but the insulin amount is chosen using factors that account for this expectation. The increasing availability of more accurate continuous blood glucose measurement (CGM) systems is attracting much interest to the possibilities of explicit prediction of future BG values. Against this background, in 2014 a two...

  2. Prediction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac functional outcome after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Examination using dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Tadashi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2000-07-01

    This study evaluated whether dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy can predict improvement of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women, mean age 59{+-}13 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using tracer at 0, 5, 10 and 15 {mu}g/kg/min before treatment. Patients were divided into good responders (LVEF increase {>=}15%) 8 patients (GR Group) and poor responders (LVEF increase <15%) 8 patients (PR Group) after treatment with {beta}-blocker or amiodarone with a background treatment of digitalis, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and echocardiography were performed before and at one year after treatment. MIBG imaging was obtained 4 hours after tracer injection, and the heart/mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) calculated from the anterior planar image and the total defect score (TDS) from the single photon emission computed tomography image. LVEF and left ventricular endo-diastolic dimension (LVDd) were measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was evaluated. The GR Group showed TDS decreased from 28{+-}6 to 17{+-}12 (p<0.05), H/M ratio increased from 1.79{+-}0.26 to 2.07{+-}0.32 (p<0.05), LVEF increased from 29{+-}8% to 48{+-}10% (p<0.01), and LVDd decreased from 65{+-}4 mm to 58{+-}5 mm (p<0.05). In contrast, the PR group showed no significant changes in TDS. H/M ratio, LVEF and LVDd. NYHA functional class improved in both groups. The improvement was better in the GR Group than in the PR group. Dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy is useful to predict the improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function, and symptoms after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  3. Predictive role of the nighttime blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tine W; Li, Yan; Boggia, José

    2011-01-01

    Numerous studies addressed the predictive value of the nighttime blood pressure (BP) as captured by ambulatory monitoring. However, arbitrary cutoff limits in dichotomized analyses of continuous variables, data dredging across selected subgroups, extrapolation of cross-sectional studies...... of conclusive evidence proving that nondipping is a reversible risk factor, the option whether or not to restore the diurnal blood pressure profile to a normal pattern should be left to the clinical judgment of doctors and should be individualized for each patient. Current guidelines on the interpretation...

  4. Blood Gene Expression Predicts Bronchiolitis Obliterans Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Danger

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS, the main manifestation of chronic lung allograft dysfunction, leads to poor long-term survival after lung transplantation. Identifying predictors of BOS is essential to prevent the progression of dysfunction before irreversible damage occurs. By using a large set of 107 samples from lung recipients, we performed microarray gene expression profiling of whole blood to identify early biomarkers of BOS, including samples from 49 patients with stable function for at least 3 years, 32 samples collected at least 6 months before BOS diagnosis (prediction group, and 26 samples at or after BOS diagnosis (diagnosis group. An independent set from 25 lung recipients was used for validation by quantitative PCR (13 stables, 11 in the prediction group, and 8 in the diagnosis group. We identified 50 transcripts differentially expressed between stable and BOS recipients. Three genes, namely POU class 2 associating factor 1 (POU2AF1, T-cell leukemia/lymphoma protein 1A (TCL1A, and B cell lymphocyte kinase, were validated as predictive biomarkers of BOS more than 6 months before diagnosis, with areas under the curve of 0.83, 0.77, and 0.78 respectively. These genes allow stratification based on BOS risk (log-rank test p < 0.01 and are not associated with time posttransplantation. This is the first published large-scale gene expression analysis of blood after lung transplantation. The three-gene blood signature could provide clinicians with new tools to improve follow-up and adapt treatment of patients likely to develop BOS.

  5. Prediction Methods for Blood Glucose Concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    -day workshop on the design, use and evaluation of prediction methods for blood glucose concentration was held at the Johannes Kepler University Linz, Austria. One intention of the workshop was to bring together experts working in various fields on the same topic, in order to shed light from different angles...... discussions which allowed to receive direct feedback from the point of view of different disciplines. This book is based on the contributions of that workshop and is intended to convey an overview of the different aspects involved in the prediction. The individual chapters are based on the presentations given...... in the process of writing this book: All authors for their individual contributions, all reviewers of the book chapters, Daniela Hummer for the entire organization of the workshop, Boris Tasevski for helping with the typesetting, Florian Reiterer for his help editing the book, as well as Oliver Jackson and Karin...

  6. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Soares, Telma de Jesus; dos Reis, Luciana Araujo

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R 2 (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power. PMID:24669313

  7. Predicting increased blood pressure using machine learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golino, Hudson Fernandes; Amaral, Liliany Souza de Brito; Duarte, Stenio Fernando Pimentel; Gomes, Cristiano Mauro Assis; Soares, Telma de Jesus; Dos Reis, Luciana Araujo; Santos, Joselito

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI), waist (WC) and hip circumference (HC), and waist hip ratio (WHR) using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women) from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42), misclassification (.19), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.43). This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25), misclassification (.16), and the higher pseudo R (2) (.46). This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  8. Predicting Increased Blood Pressure Using Machine Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudson Fernandes Golino

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigates the prediction of increased blood pressure by body mass index (BMI, waist (WC and hip circumference (HC, and waist hip ratio (WHR using a machine learning technique named classification tree. Data were collected from 400 college students (56.3% women from 16 to 63 years old. Fifteen trees were calculated in the training group for each sex, using different numbers and combinations of predictors. The result shows that for women BMI, WC, and WHR are the combination that produces the best prediction, since it has the lowest deviance (87.42, misclassification (.19, and the higher pseudo R2 (.43. This model presented a sensitivity of 80.86% and specificity of 81.22% in the training set and, respectively, 45.65% and 65.15% in the test sample. For men BMI, WC, HC, and WHC showed the best prediction with the lowest deviance (57.25, misclassification (.16, and the higher pseudo R2 (.46. This model had a sensitivity of 72% and specificity of 86.25% in the training set and, respectively, 58.38% and 69.70% in the test set. Finally, the result from the classification tree analysis was compared with traditional logistic regression, indicating that the former outperformed the latter in terms of predictive power.

  9. Blood bactericidal activity in Hiroshima subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollingsworth, J W; Hamilton, H B

    1961-03-07

    A simple screening method for blood bactericidal activity was developed for study of irradiated atomic bomb survivors and nonirradiated subjects in Hiroshima. Blood bactericidal activity was found to be a relatively constant biological phenomenon in all subjects studied. No differences in activity were detected in relationship to radiation exposure in 1945. 17 references, 6 tables.

  10. The absorbed dose to blood from blood-borne activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hänscheid, H; Fernández, M; Lassmann, M

    2015-01-01

    The radiation absorbed dose to blood and organs from activity in the blood is relevant for nuclear medicine dosimetry and for research in biodosimetry. The present study provides coefficients for the average absorbed dose rates to the blood from blood-borne activity for radionuclides frequently used in targeted radiotherapy and in PET diagnostics. The results were deduced from published data for vessel radius-dependent dose rate coefficients and reasonable assumptions on the blood-volume distribution as a function of the vessel radius. Different parts of the circulatory system were analyzed separately. Vessel size information for heart chambers, aorta, vena cava, pulmonary artery, and capillaries was taken from published results of morphometric measurements. The remaining blood not contained in the mentioned vessels was assumed to reside in fractal-like vascular trees, the smallest branches of which are the arterioles or venules. The applied vessel size distribution is consistent with recommendations of the ICRP on the blood-volume distribution in the human. The resulting average absorbed dose rates to the blood per nuclear disintegration per milliliter (ml) of blood are (in 10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml) Y-90: 5.58, I-131: 2.49, Lu-177: 1.72, Sm-153: 2.97, Tc-99m: 0.366, C-11: 4.56, F-18: 3.61, Ga-68: 5.94, I-124: 2.55. Photon radiation contributes 1.1–1.2·10 −11  Gy·s −1 ·Bq −1 ·ml to the total dose rate for positron emitters but significantly less for the other nuclides. Blood self-absorption of the energy emitted by ß-particles in the whole blood ranges from 37% for Y-90 to 80% for Tc-99m. The correspondent values in vascular trees, which are important for the absorbed dose to organs, range from 30% for Y-90 to 82% for Tc-99m. (paper)

  11. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke

    2017-01-01

    Aims: To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Methods...... and results: A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events....... Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0...

  12. BOOGIE: Predicting Blood Groups from High Throughput Sequencing Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giollo, Manuel; Minervini, Giovanni; Scalzotto, Marta; Leonardi, Emanuela; Ferrari, Carlo; Tosatto, Silvio C E

    2015-01-01

    Over the last decade, we have witnessed an incredible growth in the amount of available genotype data due to high throughput sequencing (HTS) techniques. This information may be used to predict phenotypes of medical relevance, and pave the way towards personalized medicine. Blood phenotypes (e.g. ABO and Rh) are a purely genetic trait that has been extensively studied for decades, with currently over thirty known blood groups. Given the public availability of blood group data, it is of interest to predict these phenotypes from HTS data which may translate into more accurate blood typing in clinical practice. Here we propose BOOGIE, a fast predictor for the inference of blood groups from single nucleotide variant (SNV) databases. We focus on the prediction of thirty blood groups ranging from the well known ABO and Rh, to the less studied Junior or Diego. BOOGIE correctly predicted the blood group with 94% accuracy for the Personal Genome Project whole genome profiles where good quality SNV annotation was available. Additionally, our tool produces a high quality haplotype phase, which is of interest in the context of ethnicity-specific polymorphisms or traits. The versatility and simplicity of the analysis make it easily interpretable and allow easy extension of the protocol towards other phenotypes. BOOGIE can be downloaded from URL http://protein.bio.unipd.it/download/.

  13. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GB

    2014-04-02

    Apr 2, 2014 ... This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood ... values of SBP, DBP, BMI and WHR were higher among participants with low PA compared to those ..... nervous system is associated with abdominal visceral ...

  14. Expression of the activation antigen CD69 predicts functionality of in vitro expanded peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from healthy donors and HIV-infected patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, S D; Afzelius, P; Ersbøll, A K

    1998-01-01

    Gene therapy for AIDS necessitates harvest and expansion of PBMC from HIV-infected patients. We expanded PBMC from healthy blood donors and HIV-infected patients for up to 14 days using four expansion protocols: 3 days of phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) stimulation, continuous PHA stimulation, 3 days...... examined for apoptosis. Only a minor fraction was primed for apoptosis, and this fraction could be significantly reduced by addition of IL-2 to the culture medium (P

  15. Predicting blood transfusion in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Crispin; Boddy, Alex P; Fukuta, Junaid; Groom, William D; Streets, Christopher G

    2014-12-01

    To evaluate predictors of allogenic blood transfusion requirements in patients undergoing minimal invasive oesophagectomy at a tertiary high volume centre for oesophago-gastric surgery. Retrospective analysis of all patients undergoing minimal access oesophagectomy in our department between January 2010 and December 2011. Patients were divided into two groups depending on whether they required a blood transfusion at any time during their index admission. Factors that have been shown to influence perioperative blood transfusion requirements in major surgery were included in the analysis. Binary logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the impact of patient and perioperative characteristics on transfusion requirements during the index admission. A total of 80 patients underwent minimal access oesophagectomy, of which 61 patients had a laparoscopic assisted oesophagectomy and 19 patients had a minimal invasive oesophagectomy. Perioperative blood transfusion was required in 28 patients at any time during hospital admission. On binary logistic regression analysis, a lower preoperative haemoglobin concentration (p blood transfusion requirements. It has been reported that requirement for blood transfusion can affect long-term outcomes in oesophageal cancer resection. Two factors which could be addressed preoperatively; haemoglobin concentration and type of oesophageal resection, may be valuable in predicting blood transfusions in patients undergoing minimally invasive oesophagectomy. Our analysis revealed that preoperative haemoglobin concentration, occurrence of significant complications and type of minimal access oesophagectomy predicted blood transfusion requirements in the patient population examined. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Does bipolar pacemaker current activate blood platelets?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjesdal, Grunde; Hansen, Annebirthe Bo; Brandes, Axel

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether bipolar pacemaker current lead can activate blood platelets. The null hypothesis was that 1 minute of electrical stimulation of platelets would not influence their subsequent reactivity to adenosine diphosphate (ADP). BACKGROUND: Both...... platelets and muscle cells contain actin and myosin filaments, and both cells are activated following calcium influx. Muscle cells open their calcium channels and contract when exposed to an electric current. Current through a bipolar pacemaker lead will expose a small volume of blood, including platelets......, to the depolarizing current. Platelet activation may ensue, resulting in aggregation, release reaction, and contraction. In contrast, a unipolar pacemaker system will not depolarize blood, but transmit current directly into the myocardium, and the current afterward passes through other tissues before returning...

  17. Office blood pressure or ambulatory blood pressure for the prediction of cardiovascular events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortensen, Rikke Nørmark; Gerds, Thomas Alexander; Jeppesen, Jørgen Lykke; Torp-Pedersen, Christian

    2017-11-21

    To determine the added value of (i) 24-h ambulatory blood pressure relative to office blood pressure and (ii) night-time ambulatory blood pressure relative to daytime ambulatory blood pressure for 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. A total of 7927 participants were included from the International Database on Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in relation to Cardiovascular Outcomes. We used cause-specific Cox regression to predict 10-year person-specific absolute risks of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular events. Discrimination of 10-year outcomes was assessed by time-dependent area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). No differences in predicted risks were observed when comparing office blood pressure and ambulatory blood pressure. The median difference in 10-year risks (1st; 3rd quartile) was -0.01% (-0.3%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.1% (-1.1%; 0.5%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC (95% confidence interval) was 0.65% (0.22-1.08%) for cardiovascular mortality and 1.33% (0.83-1.84%) for cardiovascular events. Comparing daytime and night-time blood pressure, the median difference in 10-year risks was 0.002% (-0.1%; 0.1%) for cardiovascular mortality and -0.01% (-0.5%; 0.2%) for cardiovascular events. The difference in AUC was 0.10% (-0.08 to 0.29%) for cardiovascular mortality and 0.15% (-0.06 to 0.35%) for cardiovascular events. Ten-year predictions obtained from ambulatory blood pressure are similar to predictions from office blood pressure. Night-time blood pressure does not improve 10-year predictions obtained from daytime measurements. For an otherwise healthy population sufficient prognostic accuracy of cardiovascular risks can be achieved with office blood pressure. Published on behalf of the European Society of Cardiology. All rights reserved. © The Author 2017. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  18. Activation states of blood eosinophils in asthma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Mats W.

    2014-01-01

    Asthma is characterized by airway inflammation rich in eosinophils. Airway eosinophilia is associated with exacerbations and has been suggested to play a role in airway remodeling. Recruitment of eosinophils from the circulation requires that blood eosinophils become activated, leading to their arrest on the endothelium and extravasation. Circulating eosinophils can be envisioned as potentially being in different activation states, including non-activated, pre-activated or “primed”, or fully activated. In addition, the circulation can potentially be deficient of pre-activated or activated eosinophils, because such cells have marginated on activated endothelium or extravasated into the tissue. A number of eosinophil-surface proteins, including CD69, L-selectin, intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1, CD54), CD44, P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, CD162), cytokine receptors, Fc receptors, integrins including αM integrin (CD11b), and activated conformations of Fc receptors and integrins have been proposed to report cell activation. Variation in eosinophil activation states may be associated with asthma activity. Eosinophil-surface proteins proposed to be activation markers, with a particular focus on integrins, and evidence for associations between activation states of blood eosinophils and features of asthma are reviewed here. Partial activation of β1 and β2 integrins on blood eosinophils, reported by monoclonal antibodies (mAb) N29 and KIM-127, is associated with impaired pulmonary function and airway eosinophilia, respectively, in non-severe asthma. The association with lung function does not occur in severe asthma, presumably due to greater eosinophil extravasation, specifically of activated or pre-activated cells, in severe disease. PMID:24552191

  19. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  20. Cerebral blood flow response to functional activation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulson, Olaf B; Hasselbalch, Steen G; Rostrup, Egill

    2010-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate are normally coupled, that is an increase in metabolic demand will lead to an increase in flow. However, during functional activation, CBF and glucose metabolism remain coupled as they increase in proportion, whereas oxygen metabolism only inc...... the cerebral tissue's increased demand for glucose supply during neural activation with recent evidence supporting a key function for astrocytes in rCBF regulation....

  1. A computational model predicting disruption of blood vessel development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole Kleinstreuer

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis and remodeling (angiogenesis come from a variety of biological pathways linked to endothelial cell (EC behavior, extracellular matrix (ECM remodeling and the local generation of chemokines and growth factors. Simulating these interactions at a systems level requires sufficient biological detail about the relevant molecular pathways and associated cellular behaviors, and tractable computational models that offset mathematical and biological complexity. Here, we describe a novel multicellular agent-based model of vasculogenesis using the CompuCell3D (http://www.compucell3d.org/ modeling environment supplemented with semi-automatic knowledgebase creation. The model incorporates vascular endothelial growth factor signals, pro- and anti-angiogenic inflammatory chemokine signals, and the plasminogen activating system of enzymes and proteases linked to ECM interactions, to simulate nascent EC organization, growth and remodeling. The model was shown to recapitulate stereotypical capillary plexus formation and structural emergence of non-coded cellular behaviors, such as a heterologous bridging phenomenon linking endothelial tip cells together during formation of polygonal endothelial cords. Molecular targets in the computational model were mapped to signatures of vascular disruption derived from in vitro chemical profiling using the EPA's ToxCast high-throughput screening (HTS dataset. Simulating the HTS data with the cell-agent based model of vascular development predicted adverse effects of a reference anti-angiogenic thalidomide analog, 5HPP-33, on in vitro angiogenesis with respect to both concentration-response and morphological consequences. These findings support the utility of cell agent-based models for simulating a

  2. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, M.; Saghir, M. Z.

    2016-02-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy.

  3. Empirical modelling to predict the refractive index of human blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahya, M; Saghir, M Z

    2016-01-01

    Optical techniques used for the measurement of the optical properties of blood are of great interest in clinical diagnostics. Blood analysis is a routine procedure used in medical diagnostics to confirm a patient’s condition. Measuring the optical properties of blood is difficult due to the non-homogenous nature of the blood itself. In addition, there is a lot of variation in the refractive indices reported in the literature. These are the reasons that motivated the researchers to develop a mathematical model that can be used to predict the refractive index of human blood as a function of concentration, temperature and wavelength. The experimental measurements were conducted on mimicking phantom hemoglobin samples using the Abbemat Refractometer. The results analysis revealed a linear relationship between the refractive index and concentration as well as temperature, and a non-linear relationship between refractive index and wavelength. These results are in agreement with those found in the literature. In addition, a new formula was developed based on empirical modelling which suggests that temperature and wavelength coefficients be added to the Barer formula. The verification of this correlation confirmed its ability to determine refractive index and/or blood hematocrit values with appropriate clinical accuracy. (paper)

  4. Prediction of blood pressure and blood flow in stenosed renal arteries using CFD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jhunjhunwala, Pooja; Padole, P. M.; Thombre, S. B.; Sane, Atul

    2018-04-01

    In the present work an attempt is made to develop a diagnostive tool for renal artery stenosis (RAS) which is inexpensive and in-vitro. To analyse the effects of increase in the degree of severity of stenosis on hypertension and blood flow, haemodynamic parameters are studied by performing numerical simulations. A total of 16 stenosed models with varying degree of stenosis severity from 0-97.11% are assessed numerically. Blood is modelled as a shear-thinning, non-Newtonian fluid using the Carreau model. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out to compute the values of flow parameters like maximum velocity and maximum pressure attained by blood due to stenosis under pulsatile flow. These values are further used to compute the increase in blood pressure and decrease in available blood flow to kidney. The computed available blood flow and secondary hypertension for varying extent of stenosis are mapped by curve fitting technique using MATLAB and a mathematical model is developed. Based on these mathematical models, a quantification tool is developed for tentative prediction of probable availability of blood flow to the kidney and severity of stenosis if secondary hypertension is known.

  5. PREDICTION OF BLOOD PATTERN IN S-SHAPED MODEL OF ARTERY UNDER NORMAL BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azrul Hisham Mohd Adib

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Athletes are susceptible to a wide variety of traumatic and non-traumatic vascular injuries to the lower limb. This paper aims to predict the three-dimensional flow pattern of blood through an S-shaped geometrical artery model. This model has created by using Fluid Structure Interaction (FSI software. The modeling of the geometrical S-shaped artery is suitable for understanding the pattern of blood flow under constant normal blood pressure. In this study, a numerical method is used that works on the assumption that the blood is incompressible and Newtonian; thus, a laminar type of flow can be considered. The authors have compared the results with a previous study with FSI validation simulation. The validation and verification of the simulation studies is performed by comparing the maximum velocity at t = 0.4 s, because at this time, the blood accelerates rapidly. In addition, the resulting blood flow at various times, under the same boundary conditions in the S-shaped geometrical artery model, is presented. The graph shows that velocity increases linearly with time. Thus, it can be concluded that the flow of blood increases with respect to the pressure inside the body.

  6. Predicting bifurcation angle effect on blood flow in the microvasculature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiho; Pak, Y Eugene; Lee, Tae-Rin

    2016-11-01

    Since blood viscosity is a basic parameter for understanding hemodynamics in human physiology, great amount of research has been done in order to accurately predict this highly non-Newtonian flow property. However, previous works lacked in consideration of hemodynamic changes induced by heterogeneous vessel networks. In this paper, the effect of bifurcation on hemodynamics in a microvasculature is quantitatively predicted. The flow resistance in a single bifurcation microvessel was calculated by combining a new simple mathematical model with 3-dimensional flow simulation for varying bifurcation angles under physiological flow conditions. Interestingly, the results indicate that flow resistance induced by vessel bifurcation holds a constant value of approximately 0.44 over the whole single bifurcation model below diameter of 60μm regardless of geometric parameters including bifurcation angle. Flow solutions computed from this new model showed substantial decrement in flow velocity relative to other mathematical models, which do not include vessel bifurcation effects, while pressure remained the same. Furthermore, when applying the bifurcation angle effect to the entire microvascular network, the simulation results gave better agreements with recent in vivo experimental measurements. This finding suggests a new paradigm in microvascular blood flow properties, that vessel bifurcation itself, regardless of its angle, holds considerable influence on blood viscosity, and this phenomenon will help to develop new predictive tools in microvascular research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. CERAPP: Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Data from a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project) demonstrating using predictive computational...

  8. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Ghanem, Sara; Warshavsky, Anton; Carmel, Narin-Nard; Abu-Ghanem, Yasmin; Abergel, Avraham; Fliss, Dan M; Yehuda, Moshe

    2016-04-01

    There is growing interest in reducing the exposure of patients to allogeneic blood transfusions by lowering preoperative cross-matched blood ordering and adopting alternative practices, such as autologous blood donations. Our aim was to investigate the predictors for perioperative blood transfusion (PBT) in head and neck cancer patients undergoing neck dissection (ND). Retrospective cohort study. Retrospective observational study. All patients who underwent ND between January 2011 and August 2014. The primary outcome measure was PBT. Predictors tested included: gender, age, American Society of Anesthesiologists comorbidity score, Charlson comorbidity index, preoperative hemoglobin level, head and neck primary tumor location, tumor and nodal staging, side and laterality of ND, central versus lateral ND, elective ND, preoperative chemotherapy/radiotherapy/I(131) therapy, history of previous ND, other surgical procedures in addition to the ND, bone resection, use and type of reconstruction, and the use of bony free flap reconstruction. Twenty-one preoperative and operative variables were tested for an association with PBT using univariate and multivariate analyses. Multivariate analysis found only the following three predictors to be significantly associated with PBT in patients undergoing ND: low preoperative hemoglobin level, advanced N stage, and concurrent reconstructive surgery. Evaluation of specific risk factors for predicting the need for PBT prior to neck dissection may be helpful in identifying the head and neck cancer patients in whom preoperative ordering of cross-matched blood is required or who could benefit from alternative means, such as preoperative autologous blood donation. 4. © 2015 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  9. Predicting onset of chronic lung disease using cord blood cytokines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Daishi; Ibara, Satoshi; Tokuhisa, Takuya; Ishihara, Chie; Maede, Yoshinobu; Matsui, Takako; Tokumasu, Hironobu; Sato, Kyoko; Hirakawa, Eiji; Kabayama, Chika; Yamamoto, Masakatu

    2014-08-01

    Applicability of cord blood interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-8 (IL-8) as markers for early prediction of the onset of chronic lung disease (CLD) due to intrauterine infection was investigated in the present study. Eighty very low-birthweight infants with chorioamnionitis were divided into two groups: the CLD group (42 patients) and the non-CLD group (38 patients), according to the presence or absence of CLD, and the clinical background and cord blood IL-6 and IL-8 levels in each group were compared and investigated. The CLD group had significantly longer duration of mechanical ventilation and hospitalization (P CLD group. Using the receiver operating characteristic curves of CLD onset for both IL-6 and IL-8, the cut-off value of IL-6 for predicting onset of CLD was 48.0 pg/mL, and its sensitivity and specificity were 76% and 96%, respectively. The cut-off value for IL-8 was 66.0 pg/mL, and its sensitivity and specificity were 71% and 82%, respectively. The cord blood levels of both IL-6 and IL-8 were significantly higher in the CLD group, indicating that both IL-6 and IL-8 are useful predictors of onset of CLD. © 2014 Japan Pediatric Society.

  10. Elevated preoperative blood pressures in adult surgical patients are highly predictive of elevated home blood pressures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Nwozuzu, Adambeke; Zafar, Jill; Chen, Eric; Kigwana, Simon; Monteiro, Miriam M; Charchaflieh, Jean; Sophanphattana, Sophisa; Dai, Feng; Burg, Matthew M

    2018-04-01

    Blood pressure (BP) measurement during the presurgical assessment has been suggested as a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. The relationship between BP measured during this assessment and home blood pressure (HBP), a better indicator of hypertension, is unknown. The purpose of the present study was to determine the positive predictive value of presurgical BP for predicting elevated HBP. We prospectively enrolled 200 patients at a presurgical evaluation clinic with clinic blood pressures (CBPs) ≥130/85 mm Hg, as measured using a previously validated automated upper-arm device (Welch Allyn Vital Sign Monitor 6000 Series), to undergo daily HBP monitoring (Omron Model BP742N) between the index clinic visit and their day of surgery. Elevated HBP was defined, per American Heart Association guidelines, as mean systolic HBP ≥135 mm Hg or mean diastolic HBP ≥85 mm Hg. Of the 200 participants, 188 (94%) returned their home blood pressure monitors with valid data. The median number of HBP recordings was 10 (interquartile range, 7-14). Presurgical CBP thresholds of 140/90, 150/95, and 160/100 mm Hg yielded positive predictive values (95% confidence interval) for elevated HBP of 84.1% (0.78-0.89), 87.5% (0.81-0.92), and 94.6% (0.87-0.99), respectively. In contrast, self-reported BP control, antihypertensive treatment, availability of primary care, and preoperative pain scores demonstrated poor agreement with elevated HBP. Elevated preoperative CBP is highly predictive of longitudinally elevated HBP. BP measurement during presurgical assessment may provide a way to improve longitudinal detection and treatment of hypertension. Copyright © 2018 American Heart Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Chao Lai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA. An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Methods: Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR] were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Results: Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%. The area under the curve (AUC of receiver operating characteristic: AUC VBI = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC VR = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. Conclusions: The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  12. Prediction of Cerebral Hyperperfusion Syndrome with Velocity Blood Pressure Index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhi-Chao; Liu, Bao; Chen, Yu; Ni, Leng; Liu, Chang-Wei

    2015-06-20

    Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome is an important complication of carotid endarterectomy (CEA). An >100% increase in middle cerebral artery velocity (MCAV) after CEA is used to predict the cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome (CHS) development, but the accuracy is limited. The increase in blood pressure (BP) after surgery is a risk factor of CHS, but no study uses it to predict CHS. This study was to create a more precise parameter for prediction of CHS by combined the increase of MCAV and BP after CEA. Systolic MCAV measured by transcranial Doppler and systematic BP were recorded preoperatively; 30 min postoperatively. The new parameter velocity BP index (VBI) was calculated from the postoperative increase ratios of MCAV and BP. The prediction powers of VBI and the increase ratio of MCAV (velocity ratio [VR]) were compared for predicting CHS occurrence. Totally, 6/185 cases suffered CHS. The best-fit cut-off point of 2.0 for VBI was identified, which had 83.3% sensitivity, 98.3% specificity, 62.5% positive predictive value and 99.4% negative predictive value for CHS development. This result is significantly better than VR (33.3%, 97.2%, 28.6% and 97.8%). The area under the curve (AUC) of receiver operating characteristic: AUC(VBI) = 0.981, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.949-0.995; AUC(VR) = 0.935, 95% CI 0.890-0.966, P = 0.02. The new parameter VBI can more accurately predict patients at risk of CHS after CEA. This observation needs to be validated by larger studies.

  13. Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-11-01

    Predicting Electrocardiogram and Arterial Blood Pressure Waveforms with Different Echo State Network Architectures Allan Fong, MS1,3, Ranjeev...the medical staff in Intensive Care Units. The ability to predict electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms can potentially help the...type of neural network for mining, understanding, and predicting electrocardiogram and arterial blood pressure waveforms. Several network

  14. Computational Prediction of Human Salivary Proteins from Blood Circulation and Application to Diagnostic Biomarker Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiaxin; Liang, Yanchun; Wang, Yan; Cui, Juan; Liu, Ming; Du, Wei; Xu, Ying

    2013-01-01

    Proteins can move from blood circulation into salivary glands through active transportation, passive diffusion or ultrafiltration, some of which are then released into saliva and hence can potentially serve as biomarkers for diseases if accurately identified. We present a novel computational method for predicting salivary proteins that come from circulation. The basis for the prediction is a set of physiochemical and sequence features we found to be discerning between human proteins known to be movable from circulation to saliva and proteins deemed to be not in saliva. A classifier was trained based on these features using a support-vector machine to predict protein secretion into saliva. The classifier achieved 88.56% average recall and 90.76% average precision in 10-fold cross-validation on the training data, indicating that the selected features are informative. Considering the possibility that our negative training data may not be highly reliable (i.e., proteins predicted to be not in saliva), we have also trained a ranking method, aiming to rank the known salivary proteins from circulation as the highest among the proteins in the general background, based on the same features. This prediction capability can be used to predict potential biomarker proteins for specific human diseases when coupled with the information of differentially expressed proteins in diseased versus healthy control tissues and a prediction capability for blood-secretory proteins. Using such integrated information, we predicted 31 candidate biomarker proteins in saliva for breast cancer. PMID:24324552

  15. Nanodiamonds activate blood platelets and induce thromboembolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, Sharda; Singh, Manoj K; Singh, Sunil K; Grácio, José J A; Dash, Debabrata

    2014-03-01

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) have been evaluated for a wide range of biomedical applications. Thus, thorough investigation of the biocompatibility of NDs has become a research priority. Platelets are highly sensitive and are one of the most abundant cell types found in blood. They have a central role in hemostasis and arterial thrombosis. In this study, we aim to investigate the direct and acute effects of carboxylated NDs on platelet function. In this study, pro-coagulant parameters such as platelet aggregability, intracellular Ca(2+) flux, mitochondrial transmembrane potential (ΔΨm), generation of reactive oxygen species, surface exposure of phosphatidylserine, electron microscopy, cell viability assay and in vivo thromboembolism were analyzed in great detail. Carboxylated NDs evoked significant activation of human platelets. When administered intravenously in mice, NDs were found to induce widespread pulmonary thromboembolism, indicating the remarkable thrombogenic potential of this nanomaterial. Our findings raise concerns regarding the putative biomedical applications of NDs pertaining to diagnostics and therapeutics, and their toxicity and prothrombotic properties should be critically evaluated.

  16. Human activity recognition and prediction

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a unique view of human activity recognition, especially fine-grained human activity structure learning, human-interaction recognition, RGB-D data based action recognition, temporal decomposition, and causality learning in unconstrained human activity videos. The techniques discussed give readers tools that provide a significant improvement over existing methodologies of video content understanding by taking advantage of activity recognition. It links multiple popular research fields in computer vision, machine learning, human-centered computing, human-computer interaction, image classification, and pattern recognition. In addition, the book includes several key chapters covering multiple emerging topics in the field. Contributed by top experts and practitioners, the chapters present key topics from different angles and blend both methodology and application, composing a solid overview of the human activity recognition techniques. .

  17. Persistent high job demands and reactivity to mental stress predict future ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steptoe, A; Cropley, M

    2000-05-01

    To test the hypothesis that work stress (persistent high job demands over 1 year) in combination with high reactivity to mental stress predict ambulatory blood pressure. Assessment of cardiovascular responses to standardized behavioural tasks, job demands, and ambulatory blood pressure over a working day and evening after 12 months. We studied 81 school teachers (26 men, 55 women), 36 of whom experienced persistent high job demands over 1 year, while 45 reported lower job demands. Participants were divided on the basis of high and low job demands, and high and low systolic pressure reactions to an uncontrollable stress task. Blood pressure and concurrent physical activity were monitored using ambulatory apparatus from 0900 to 2230 h on a working day. Cardiovascular stress reactivity was associated with waist/hip ratio. Systolic and diastolic pressure during the working day were greater in high job demand participants who were stress reactive than in other groups, after adjustment for age, baseline blood pressure, body mass index and negative affectivity. The difference was not accounted for by variations in physical activity. Cardiovascular stress reactivity and sustained psychosocial stress may act in concert to increase cardiovascular risk in susceptible individuals.

  18. Computational Prediction of Blood-Brain Barrier Permeability Using Decision Tree Induction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jörg Huwyler

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Predicting blood-brain barrier (BBB permeability is essential to drug development, as a molecule cannot exhibit pharmacological activity within the brain parenchyma without first transiting this barrier. Understanding the process of permeation, however, is complicated by a combination of both limited passive diffusion and active transport. Our aim here was to establish predictive models for BBB drug permeation that include both active and passive transport. A database of 153 compounds was compiled using in vivo surface permeability product (logPS values in rats as a quantitative parameter for BBB permeability. The open source Chemical Development Kit (CDK was used to calculate physico-chemical properties and descriptors. Predictive computational models were implemented by machine learning paradigms (decision tree induction on both descriptor sets. Models with a corrected classification rate (CCR of 90% were established. Mechanistic insight into BBB transport was provided by an Ant Colony Optimization (ACO-based binary classifier analysis to identify the most predictive chemical substructures. Decision trees revealed descriptors of lipophilicity (aLogP and charge (polar surface area, which were also previously described in models of passive diffusion. However, measures of molecular geometry and connectivity were found to be related to an active drug transport component.

  19. A simple lead dust fall method predicts children's blood lead level: New evidence from Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulson, Brian; Taylor, Alan

    2017-11-01

    We have measured dust fall accumulation in petri dishes (PDD) collected 6 monthly from inside residences in Sydney urban area, New South Wales, Australia as part of a 5-year longitudinal study to determine environmental associations, including soil. with blood lead (PbB) levels. The Pb loading in the dishes (n = 706) had geometric means (GM) of 24µg/m 2 /30d, a median value of 22µg/m 2 /30d with a range from 0.2 to 11,390µg/m 2 /30d. Observed geometric mean PbB was 2.4µg/dL at ages 2-3 years. Regression analyses showed a statistically significant relationship between predicted PbB and PDD. The predicted PbB values from dust in our study are consistent with similar analyses from the US in which floor dust was collected by wipes. Predicted PbB values from PDD indicate that an increase in PDD of about 100µg/m 2 /30d would increase PbB by about 1.5µg/dL or a doubling PbB at the low levels currently observed in many countries. Predicted PbB values from soil indicate that a change from 0 to 1000mg Pb/kg results in an increase of 1.7µg/dL in PbB, consistent with earlier investigations. Blood Pb levels can be predicted from dust fall accumulation (and soil) in cases where blood sampling is not always possible, especially in young children. Petri dish loading data could provide an alternative or complementary "action level" at about 100µg Pb/m 2 /30 days, similar to the suggested level of about 110µg Pb/m 2 for surface wipes, for use in monitoring activities such as housing rehabilitation, demolition or soil resuspension. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. CERAPP: Collaborative estrogen receptor activity prediction project

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Kamel; Abdelaziz, Ahmed; Rybacka, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    ). Risk assessors need tools to prioritize chemicals for evaluation in costly in vivo tests, for instance, within the U.S. EPA Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. oBjectives: We describe a large-scale modeling project called CERAPP (Collaborative Estrogen Receptor Activity Prediction Project...... States and Europe to predict ER activity of a common set of 32,464 chemical structures. Quantitative structure-activity relationship models and docking approaches were employed, mostly using a common training set of 1,677 chemical structures provided by the U.S. EPA, to build a total of 40 categorical......: Individual model scores ranged from 0.69 to 0.85, showing high prediction reliabilities. Out of the 32,464 chemicals, the consensus model predicted 4,001 chemicals (12.3%) as high priority actives and 6,742 potential actives (20.8%) to be considered for further testing. conclusion: This project demonstrated...

  1. Reliability of blood pressure measurement and cardiovascular risk prediction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Hoeven, N.V.

    2016-01-01

    High blood pressure is one of the leading risk factors for cardiovascular disease, but difficult to reliably assess because there are many factors which can influence blood pressure including stress, exercise or illness. The first part of this thesis focuses on possible ways to improve the

  2. Prediction models for hemoglobin deferral in whole blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.

    2013-01-01

    Each year, a relevant proportion of the invited blood donors is eventually deferred from donation because of low hemoglobin (Hb) levels. Deferrals are meant to protect donors from developing iron deficiency anemia after a blood donation, however, they may increase the risk of donor lapse, even

  3. Systems biology of coagulation initiation: kinetics of thrombin generation in resting and activated human blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manash S Chatterjee

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Blood function defines bleeding and clotting risks and dictates approaches for clinical intervention. Independent of adding exogenous tissue factor (TF, human blood treated in vitro with corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI, to block Factor XIIa will generate thrombin after an initiation time (T(i of 1 to 2 hours (depending on donor, while activation of platelets with the GPVI-activator convulxin reduces T(i to ∼20 minutes. Since current kinetic models fail to generate thrombin in the absence of added TF, we implemented a Platelet-Plasma ODE model accounting for: the Hockin-Mann protease reaction network, thrombin-dependent display of platelet phosphatidylserine, VIIa function on activated platelets, XIIa and XIa generation and function, competitive thrombin substrates (fluorogenic detector and fibrinogen, and thrombin consumption during fibrin polymerization. The kinetic model consisting of 76 ordinary differential equations (76 species, 57 reactions, 105 kinetic parameters predicted the clotting of resting and convulxin-activated human blood as well as predicted T(i of human blood under 50 different initial conditions that titrated increasing levels of TF, Xa, Va, XIa, IXa, and VIIa. Experiments with combined anti-XI and anti-XII antibodies prevented thrombin production, demonstrating that a leak of XIIa past saturating amounts of CTI (and not "blood-borne TF" alone was responsible for in vitro initiation without added TF. Clotting was not blocked by antibodies used individually against TF, VII/VIIa, P-selectin, GPIb, protein disulfide isomerase, cathepsin G, nor blocked by the ribosome inhibitor puromycin, the Clk1 kinase inhibitor Tg003, or inhibited VIIa (VIIai. This is the first model to predict the observed behavior of CTI-treated human blood, either resting or stimulated with platelet activators. CTI-treated human blood will clot in vitro due to the combined activity of XIIa and XIa, a process enhanced by platelet activators and which proceeds

  4. Renal Nerve Stimulation-Induced Blood Pressure Changes Predict Ambulatory Blood Pressure Response After Renal Denervation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Mark R; Adiyaman, Ahmet; Gal, Pim; Smit, Jaap Jan J; Delnoy, Peter Paul H M; Heeg, Jan-Evert; van Hasselt, Boudewijn A A M; Lau, Elizabeth O Y; Persu, Alexandre; Staessen, Jan A; Ramdat Misier, Anand R; Steinberg, Jonathan S; Elvan, Arif

    2016-09-01

    Blood pressure (BP) response to renal denervation (RDN) is highly variable and its effectiveness debated. A procedural end point for RDN may improve consistency of response. The objective of the current analysis was to look for the association between renal nerve stimulation (RNS)-induced BP increase before and after RDN and changes in ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) after RDN. Fourteen patients with drug-resistant hypertension referred for RDN were included. RNS was performed under general anesthesia at 4 sites in the right and left renal arteries, both before and immediately after RDN. RNS-induced BP changes were monitored and correlated to changes in ambulatory BP at a follow-up of 3 to 6 months after RDN. RNS resulted in a systolic BP increase of 50±27 mm Hg before RDN and systolic BP increase of 13±16 mm Hg after RDN (Pefficacy of RDN and predict BP response to RDN. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  5. Effect of blood activity on dosimetric calculations for radiopharmaceuticals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zvereva, Alexandra; Petoussi-Henss, Nina; Li, Wei Bo; Schlattl, Helmut; Oeh, Uwe; Zankl, Maria; Graner, Frank Philipp; Hoeschen, Christoph; Nekolla, Stephan G.; Parodi, Katia; Schwaiger, Markus

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the influence of the definition of blood as a distinct source on organ doses, associated with the administration of a novel radiopharmaceutical for positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET/CT) imaging—(S)-4-(3-18F-fluoropropyl)-L-glutamic acid (18F-FSPG). Personalised pharmacokinetic models were constructed based on clinical PET/CT images from five healthy volunteers and blood samples from four of them. Following an identifiability analysis of the developed compartmental models, person-specific model parameters were estimated using the commercial program SAAM II. Organ doses were calculated in accordance to the formalism promulgated by the Committee on Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) and the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) using specific absorbed fractions for photons and electrons previously derived for the ICRP reference adult computational voxel phantoms. Organ doses for two concepts were compared: source organ activities in organs parenchyma with blood as a separate source (concept-1); aggregate activities in perfused source organs without blood as a distinct source (concept-2). Aggregate activities comprise the activities of organs parenchyma and the activity in the regional blood volumes (RBV). Concept-1 resulted in notably higher absorbed doses for most organs, especially non-source organs with substantial blood contents, e.g. lungs (92% maximum difference). Consequently, effective doses increased in concept-1 compared to concept-2 by 3-10%. Not considering the blood as a distinct source region leads to an underestimation of the organ absorbed doses and effective doses. The pronounced influence of the blood even for a radiopharmaceutical with a rapid clearance from the blood, such as 18F-FSPG, suggests that blood should be introduced as a separate compartment in most compartmental pharmacokinetic models and blood should be considered as a distinct source in

  6. A Computational Model Predicting Disruption of Blood Vessel Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vascular development is a complex process regulated by dynamic biological networks that vary in topology and state across different tissues and developmental stages. Signals regulating de novo blood vessel formation (vasculogenesis) and remodeling (angiogenesis) come from a varie...

  7. Predicting the need for blood during cardiopulmonary bypass

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adele

    troduce cost savings and reduce the risks for immune reactions and infections.1 Furthermore ... Supply logistics of banked blood may be problematic during car- .... arin was reversed with protamine sulphate aiming to achieve a post-. CPB ACT ...

  8. Predictive factors of the nursing diagnosis sedentary lifestyle in people with high blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Nirla Gomes; Lopes, Marcos Venícios de Oliveira; Araujo, Thelma Leite de; Moreira, Rafaella Pessoa; Martins, Larissa Castelo Guedes

    2011-01-01

    To verify the reproducibility of defining the characteristics and related factors in order to identify a sedentary lifestyle in patients with high blood pressure. A cross-sectional study. 310 patients diagnosed with high blood pressure. Socio-demographics and variables related to defining the characteristics and related factors of a sedentary lifestyle. The coefficient Kappa was utilized to analyze the reproducibility. The sensitivity, specificity, and predictive value of the defining characteristics were also analyzed. Logistic regression was applied in the analysis of possible predictors. The defining characteristic with the greatest sensitivity was demonstrates physical deconditioning (98.92%). The characteristics chooses a daily routine lacking physical exercise and verbalizes preference for activities low in physical activity presented higher values of specificity (99.21% and 95.97%, respectively). The following indicators were identified as powerful predictors (85.2%) for the identification of a sedentary lifestyle: demonstrates physical deconditioning, verbalizes preference for activities low in physical activity, and lack of training for accomplishment of physical exercise. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Institute of Child Health, University of Benin, PMB 1154, Benin City, Nigeria. Abstract. Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. ..... and treatment of high blood pressure in children and ad- olescents.

  10. Creatine kinase activity is associated with blood pressure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brewster, Lizzy M.; Mairuhu, Gideon; Bindraban, Navin R.; Koopmans, Richard P.; Clark, Joseph F.; van Montfrans, Gert A.

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We previously hypothesized that high activity of creatine kinase, the central regulatory enzyme of energy metabolism, facilitates the development of high blood pressure. Creatine kinase rapidly provides adenosine triphosphate to highly energy-demanding processes, including cardiovascular

  11. Blood pressure interacts with APOE ε4 to predict memory performance in a midlife sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberlin, Lauren E; Manuck, Stephen B; Gianaros, Peter J; Ferrell, Robert E; Muldoon, Matthew F; Jennings, J Richard; Flory, Janine D; Erickson, Kirk I

    2015-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure and the Apolipoprotein ε4 allele (APOE ε4) are independent risk factors for Alzheimer's disease. We sought to determine whether the combined presence of the APOE ε4 allele and elevated blood pressure is associated with lower cognitive performance in cognitively healthy middle-aged adults. A total of 975 participants aged 30-54 (mean age = 44.47) were genotyped for APOE. Cardiometabolic risk factors including blood pressure, lipids, and glucose were assessed and cognitive function was measured using the Trail Making Test and the Visual Reproduction and Logical Memory subtests from the Wechsler Memory Scale. Multivariable regression analysis showed that the association between APOE ε4 and episodic memory performance varied as a function of systolic blood pressure (SBP), such that elevated SBP was predictive of poorer episodic memory performance only in APOE ε4 carriers (β = -.092; t = -2.614; p = .009). Notably, this association was apparent at prehypertensive levels (≥130 mmHg), even after adjusting for physical activity, depression, smoking, and other cardiometabolic risk factors. The joint presence of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP, even at prehypertensive levels, is associated with lower cognitive performance in healthy, middle-aged adults. Results of this study suggest that the combination of APOE ε4 and elevated SBP may synergistically compromise memory function well before the appearance of clinically significant impairments. Interventions targeting blood pressure control in APOE ε4 carriers during midlife should be studied as a possible means to reduce the risk of cognitive decline in genetically susceptible samples. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  12. Predicting environmental restoration activities through static simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, T.L.; King, D.A.; Wilkins, M.L.; Forward, M.F.

    1994-12-01

    This paper discusses a static simulation model that predicts several performance measures of environmental restoration activities over different remedial strategies. Basic model operation consists of manipulating and processing waste streams via selecting and applying remedial technologies according to the strategy. Performance measure prediction is possible for contaminated soil, solid waste, surface water, groundwater, storage tank, and facility sites. Simulations are performed for the U.S. Department of Energy in support of its Programmatic Environmental Impact Statement

  13. Blood-group-Ii-active gangliosides of human erythrocyte membranes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feizi, T.; Childs, R.A.; Hakomori, S.-I.; Powell, M.E.

    1978-01-01

    More than ten new types of gangliosides, in addition to haematoside and sialosylparagloboside, were isolated from human erythrocyte membranes. These were separated by successive chromatographies on DAEA-Sephadex, on porous silica-gel columns and on thin-layer silica gel as acetylated compounds. Highly potent blood-group-Ii and moderate blood-group-H activities were demonstrated in some of the ganglioside fractions. The gangliosides incorporated into chlolesterol/phosphatidylcholine liposomes stoicheiometrically inhibited binding of anti-(blood-group-I and i) antibodies to a radioiodinated blood-group-Ii-active glycoprotein. The fraction with the highest blood-group-I activity, I(g) fraction, behaved like sialosyl-deca- to dodeca-glycosylceramides on t.l.c. Certain blood-group-I and most of the i-determinants were in partially or completely cryptic form and could be unmasked by sialidase treatment. Thus the I and i antigens, which are known to occur on internal structures of blood-group-ABH-active glycoproteins in secretions, also occur in the interior of the carbohydrate chains of erythrocyte gangliosides. (author)

  14. Physical activity, body mass index and blood pressure in primary ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Lack of physical activity contributes to overweight and obesity. It is recommended that children accumulate at least one hour of moderate to vigorous intensity physical activity daily. Objective: The level of physical activity, body mass index (BMI) and blood pressure (BP) were evaluated in pupils attending private ...

  15. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Robert W.; Somerville, Stephen E.; Guillette, Matthew P.; Botha, Hannes; Hoffman, Andre; Luus-Powell, Wilmien J.; Smit, Willem J.; Lebepe, Jeffrey; Myburgh, Jan; Govender, Danny; Tucker, Jonathan; Boggs, Ashley S. P.

    2016-01-01

    One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various “outbreaks” of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus) collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin), in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight) were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River. PMID:27115488

  16. Predictive Blood Chemistry Parameters for Pansteatitis-Affected Mozambique Tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A Bowden

    Full Text Available One of the largest river systems in South Africa, the Olifants River, has experienced significant changes in water quality due to anthropogenic activities. Since 2005, there have been various "outbreaks" of the inflammatory disease pansteatitis in several vertebrate species. Large-scale pansteatitis-related mortality events have decimated the crocodile population at Lake Loskop and decreased the population at Kruger National Park. Most pansteatitis-related diagnoses within the region are conducted post-mortem by either gross pathology or histology. The application of a non-lethal approach to assess the prevalence and pervasiveness of pansteatitis in the Olifants River region would be of great importance for the development of a management plan for this disease. In this study, several plasma-based biomarkers accurately classified pansteatitis in Mozambique tilapia (Oreochromis mossambicus collected from Lake Loskop using a commercially available benchtop blood chemistry analyzer combined with data interpretation via artificial neural network analysis. According to the model, four blood chemistry parameters (calcium, sodium, total protein and albumin, in combination with total length, diagnose pansteatitis to a predictive accuracy of 92 percent. In addition, several morphometric traits (total length, age, weight were also associated with pansteatitis. On-going research will focus on further evaluating the use of blood chemistry to classify pansteatitis across different species, trophic levels, and within different sites along the Olifants River.

  17. Safe surgery: how accurate are we at predicting intra-operative blood loss?

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    2012-02-01

    Introduction Preoperative estimation of intra-operative blood loss by both anaesthetist and operating surgeon is a criterion of the World Health Organization\\'s surgical safety checklist. The checklist requires specific preoperative planning when anticipated blood loss is greater than 500 mL. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of surgeons and anaesthetists at predicting intra-operative blood loss. Methods A 6-week prospective study of intermediate and major operations in an academic medical centre was performed. An independent observer interviewed surgical and anaesthetic consultants and registrars, preoperatively asking each to predict expected blood loss in millilitre. Intra-operative blood loss was measured and compared with these predictions. Parameters including the use of anticoagulation and anti-platelet therapy as well as intra-operative hypothermia and hypotension were recorded. Results One hundred sixty-eight operations were included in the study, including 142 elective and 26 emergency operations. Blood loss was predicted to within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of cases. Consultant surgeons tended to underestimate blood loss, doing so in 43% of all cases, while consultant anaesthetists were more likely to overestimate (60% of all operations). Twelve patients (7%) had underestimation of blood loss of more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. Thirty per cent (n = 6\\/20) of patients requiring transfusion of a blood product within 24 hours of surgery had blood loss underestimated by more than 500 mL by both surgeon and anaesthetist. There was no significant difference in prediction between patients on anti-platelet or anticoagulation therapy preoperatively and those not on the said therapies. Conclusion Predicted intra-operative blood loss was within 500 mL of measured blood loss in 89% of operations. In 30% of patients who ultimately receive a blood transfusion, both the surgeon and anaesthetist significantly underestimate

  18. Angiogenic Factors in Cord Blood of Preterm Infants Predicts Subsequently Developing Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Chien Yang

    2015-12-01

    Conclusion: Cord blood level of PlGF, rather than VEGF or sFlt-1, was significantly increased in the BPD group. Consistent with our previous report, cord blood level of PlGF may be considered as a biomarker to predict subsequently developing BPD in preterm infants.

  19. Partial Least Square with Savitzky Golay Derivative in Predicting Blood Hemoglobin Using Near Infrared Spectrum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Idrus Mohd Nazrul Effendy

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS is a reliable technique that widely used in medical fields. Partial least square was developed to predict blood hemoglobin concentration using NIRS. The aims of this paper are (i to develop predictive model for near infrared spectroscopic analysis in blood hemoglobin prediction, (ii to establish relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum using a predictive model, (iii to evaluate the predictive accuracy of a predictive model based on root mean squared error (RMSE and coefficient of determination rp2. Partial least square with first order Savitzky Golay (SG derivative preprocessing (PLS-SGd1 showed the higher performance of predictions with RMSE = 0.7965 and rp2= 0.9206 in K-fold cross validation. Optimum number of latent variable (LV and frame length (f were 32 and 27 nm, respectively. These findings suggest that the relationship between blood hemoglobin and near infrared spectrum is strong, and the partial least square with first order SG derivative is able to predict the blood hemoglobin using near infrared spectral data.

  20. Value of routine blood tests for prediction of mortality risk in hip fracture patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosfeldt, Mathias; Pedersen, Ole Birger Vesterager; Riis, Troels

    2012-01-01

    There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission.......There is a 5- to 8-fold increased risk of mortality during the first 3 months after a hip fracture. Several risk factors are known. We studied the predictive value (for mortality) of routine blood tests taken on admission....

  1. Utility of the theory of planned behavior to predict nursing staff blood pressure monitoring behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Joan M; Cook, Paul F; Ingram, Jennifer C

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate constructs from the theory of planned behavior (TPB, Ajzen 2002) - attitudes, sense of control, subjective norms and intentions - as predictors of accuracy in blood pressure monitoring. Despite numerous initiatives aimed at teaching blood pressure measurement techniques, many healthcare providers measure blood pressures incorrectly. Descriptive, cohort design. Medical assistants and licensed practical nurses were asked to complete a questionnaire on TPB variables. These nursing staff's patients had their blood pressures measured and completed a survey about techniques used to measure their blood pressure. We correlated nursing staff's responses on the TBP questionnaire with their intention to measure an accurate blood pressure and with the difference between their actual blood pressure measurement and a second measurement taken by a researcher immediately after the clinic visit. Patients' perceptions of MAs' and LPNs' blood pressure measurement techniques were examined descriptively. Perceived control and social norm predicted intention to measure an accurate blood pressure, with a negative relationship between knowledge and intention. Consistent with the TPB, intention was the only significant predictor of blood pressure measurement accuracy. Theory of planned behavior constructs predicted the healthcare providers' intention to measure blood pressure accurately and intention predicted the actual accuracy of systolic blood pressure measurement. However, participants' knowledge about blood pressure measurement had an unexpected negative relationship with their intentions. These findings have important implications for nursing education departments and organisations which traditionally invest significant time and effort in annual competency training focused on knowledge enhancement by staff. This study suggests that a better strategy might involve efforts to enhance providers' intention to change, particularly by changing social norms or increasing

  2. Prediction of postpartum blood transfusion – risk factors and recurrence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wikkelsø, Anne J; Hjortøe, Sofie; Gerds, Thomas A

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The aim was to find clinically useful risk factors for postpartum transfusion and to assess the joint predictive value in a population of women with a first and second delivery. METHODS: All Danish women with a first and second delivery from January 2001 to September 2009 who gave birt...

  3. Cord Blood Acute Phase Reactants Predict Early Onset Neonatal Sepsis in Preterm Infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leena B Mithal

    Full Text Available Early onset sepsis (EOS is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm infants, yet diagnosis remains inadequate resulting in missed cases or prolonged empiric antibiotics with adverse consequences. Evaluation of acute phase reactant (APR biomarkers in umbilical cord blood at birth may improve EOS detection in preterm infants with intrauterine infection.In this nested case-control study, infants (29.7 weeks gestation, IQR: 27.7-32.2 were identified from a longitudinal cohort with archived cord blood and placental histopathology. Patients were categorized using culture, laboratory, clinical, and antibiotic treatment data into sepsis groups: confirmed sepsis (cEOS, n = 12; presumed sepsis (PS, n = 30; and no sepsis (controls, n = 30. Nine APRs were measured in duplicate from cord blood using commercially available multiplex immunoassays (Bio-Plex Pro™. In addition, placental histopathologic data were linked to biomarker results.cEOS organisms were Escherichia coli, Streptococcus agalactiae, Proteus mirabilis, Haemophilus influenzae and Listeria monocytogenes. C-reactive protein (CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA, haptoglobin (Hp, serum amyloid P and ferritin were significantly elevated in cEOS compared to controls (p<0.01. SAA, CRP, and Hp were elevated in cEOS but not in PS (p<0.01 and had AUCs of 99%, 96%, and 95% respectively in predicting cEOS. Regression analysis revealed robust associations of SAA, CRP, and Hp with EOS after adjustment for covariates. Procalcitonin, fibrinogen, α-2-macroglobulin and tissue plasminogen activator were not significantly different across groups. Placental acute inflammation was associated with APR elevation and was present in all cEOS, 9 PS, and 17 control infants.This study shows that certain APRs are elevated in cord blood of premature infants with EOS of intrauterine origin. SAA, CRP, and Hp at birth have potential diagnostic utility for risk stratification and identification of infants with EOS.

  4. Development of Multivariable Models to Predict and Benchmark Transfusion in Elective Surgery Supporting Patient Blood Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayn, Dieter; Kreiner, Karl; Ebner, Hubert; Kastner, Peter; Breznik, Nada; Rzepka, Angelika; Hofmann, Axel; Gombotz, Hans; Schreier, Günter

    2017-06-14

    Blood transfusion is a highly prevalent procedure in hospitalized patients and in some clinical scenarios it has lifesaving potential. However, in most cases transfusion is administered to hemodynamically stable patients with no benefit, but increased odds of adverse patient outcomes and substantial direct and indirect cost. Therefore, the concept of Patient Blood Management has increasingly gained importance to pre-empt and reduce transfusion and to identify the optimal transfusion volume for an individual patient when transfusion is indicated. It was our aim to describe, how predictive modeling and machine learning tools applied on pre-operative data can be used to predict the amount of red blood cells to be transfused during surgery and to prospectively optimize blood ordering schedules. In addition, the data derived from the predictive models should be used to benchmark different hospitals concerning their blood transfusion patterns. 6,530 case records obtained for elective surgeries from 16 centers taking part in two studies conducted in 2004-2005 and 2009-2010 were analyzed. Transfused red blood cell volume was predicted using random forests. Separate models were trained for overall data, for each center and for each of the two studies. Important characteristics of different models were compared with one another. Our results indicate that predictive modeling applied prior surgery can predict the transfused volume of red blood cells more accurately (correlation coefficient cc = 0.61) than state of the art algorithms (cc = 0.39). We found significantly different patterns of feature importance a) in different hospitals and b) between study 1 and study 2. We conclude that predictive modeling can be used to benchmark the importance of different features on the models derived with data from different hospitals. This might help to optimize crucial processes in a specific hospital, even in other scenarios beyond Patient Blood Management.

  5. Association of physical activity and physical fitness with blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arun Kumar Agnihotri

    mean arterial pressure were found to be significantly higher in Moderate Physical Activity. Group as ... than a higher physical activity level can keep the blood pressure in check in Indian ... Female - PVO2 max = 50.513 + 1.589 (PA-R) –.

  6. Social Inclusion Predicts Lower Blood Glucose and Low-Density Lipoproteins in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd, Kory; Veksler, Alice E; McEwan, Bree; Hesse, Colin; Boren, Justin P; Dinsmore, Dana R; Pavlich, Corey A

    2017-08-01

    Loneliness has been shown to have direct effects on one's personal well-being. Specifically, a greater feeling of loneliness is associated with negative mental health outcomes, negative health behaviors, and an increased likelihood of premature mortality. Using the neuroendocrine hypothesis, we expected social inclusion to predict decreases in both blood glucose levels and low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) and increases in high-density lipoproteins (HDLs). Fifty-two healthy adults provided self-report data for social inclusion and blood samples for hematological tests. Results indicated that higher social inclusion predicted lower levels of blood glucose and LDL, but had no effect on HDL. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  7. Effect of vigorous physical activity on blood lipid and glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyoung-Jeong; Lee, Han-Joon

    2017-12-01

    The aim of the study is to investigate how the participation of vigorous physical activities in the health examination contributes to blood lipid and blood glucose. A total of 56,810 workers from the Ulsan University Hospital in Ulsan, Subjects were tested for health checkups from February to November in 2016. The subject is those who does not have medical history, current ailments, and medication histories, and selected those who conducted the study of subjects tested to research. And this study did not consider their drinking and smoking. The final selected population was 11,557 and categorized as a vigorous physical activity of the health survey items. In this study, the group participated by the vigorous physical activity activities, group 1 (n= 70) had more than 6 days of vigorous physical activity, group 2 (n= 2,960) is 3 to 5 days of vigorous physical activity, the group 3 (n= 7,389) is 1 to 2 days of vigorous physical activity. The group 4 (n= 1,138) were classified as those who did not perform vigorous physical activity. To achieve the purpose of the study, the questionnaire examined blood lipid and blood glucose, using questions related to physical activity related to health examination in the Ulsan University Hospital. We obtained the mean and standard deviation for each group and conducted the one-way analysis of variance as an independent variable. Post hoc is least significant difference test and significant level is 0.05. Vigorous physical activity more than 3 days of participation had a positive affect high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride. But participation in vigorous physical activity did not affect blood glucose.

  8. Predictive simulation of bidirectional Glenn shunt using a hybrid blood vessel model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Leow, Wee Kheng; Chiu, Ing-Sh

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for performing predictive simulation of cardiac surgery. It applies a hybrid approach to model the deformation of blood vessels. The hybrid blood vessel model consists of a reference Cosserat rod and a surface mesh. The reference Cosserat rod models the blood vessel's global bending, stretching, twisting and shearing in a physically correct manner, and the surface mesh models the surface details of the blood vessel. In this way, the deformation of blood vessels can be computed efficiently and accurately. Our predictive simulation system can produce complex surgical results given a small amount of user inputs. It allows the surgeon to easily explore various surgical options and evaluate them. Tests of the system using bidirectional Glenn shunt (BDG) as an application example show that the results produc by the system are similar to real surgical results.

  9. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prauße, Maria T E; Lehnert, Teresa; Timme, Sandra; Hünniger, Kerstin; Leonhardt, Ines; Kurzai, Oliver; Figge, Marc Thilo

    2018-01-01

    Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata . However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be observed for the

  10. Predictive Virtual Infection Modeling of Fungal Immune Evasion in Human Whole Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria T. E. Prauße

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Bloodstream infections by the human-pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Candida glabrata increasingly occur in hospitalized patients and are associated with high mortality rates. The early immune response against these fungi in human blood comprises a concerted action of humoral and cellular components of the innate immune system. Upon entering the blood, the majority of fungal cells will be eliminated by innate immune cells, i.e., neutrophils and monocytes. However, recent studies identified a population of fungal cells that can evade the immune response and thereby may disseminate and cause organ dissemination, which is frequently observed during candidemia. In this study, we investigate the so far unresolved mechanism of fungal immune evasion in human whole blood by testing hypotheses with the help of mathematical modeling. We use a previously established state-based virtual infection model for whole-blood infection with C. albicans to quantify the immune response and identified the fungal immune-evasion mechanism. While this process was assumed to be spontaneous in the previous model, we now hypothesize that the immune-evasion process is mediated by host factors and incorporate such a mechanism in the model. In particular, we propose, based on previous studies that the fungal immune-evasion mechanism could possibly arise through modification of the fungal surface by as of yet unknown proteins that are assumed to be secreted by activated neutrophils. To validate or reject any of the immune-evasion mechanisms, we compared the simulation of both immune-evasion models for different infection scenarios, i.e., infection of whole blood with either C. albicans or C. glabrata under non-neutropenic and neutropenic conditions. We found that under non-neutropenic conditions, both immune-evasion models fit the experimental data from whole-blood infection with C. albicans and C. glabrata. However, differences between the immune-evasion models could be

  11. Data Based Prediction of Blood Glucose Concentrations Using Evolutionary Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, J Ignacio; Colmenar, J Manuel; Kronberger, Gabriel; Winkler, Stephan M; Garnica, Oscar; Lanchares, Juan

    2017-08-08

    Predicting glucose values on the basis of insulin and food intakes is a difficult task that people with diabetes need to do daily. This is necessary as it is important to maintain glucose levels at appropriate values to avoid not only short-term, but also long-term complications of the illness. Artificial intelligence in general and machine learning techniques in particular have already lead to promising results in modeling and predicting glucose concentrations. In this work, several machine learning techniques are used for the modeling and prediction of glucose concentrations using as inputs the values measured by a continuous monitoring glucose system as well as also previous and estimated future carbohydrate intakes and insulin injections. In particular, we use the following four techniques: genetic programming, random forests, k-nearest neighbors, and grammatical evolution. We propose two new enhanced modeling algorithms for glucose prediction, namely (i) a variant of grammatical evolution which uses an optimized grammar, and (ii) a variant of tree-based genetic programming which uses a three-compartment model for carbohydrate and insulin dynamics. The predictors were trained and tested using data of ten patients from a public hospital in Spain. We analyze our experimental results using the Clarke error grid metric and see that 90% of the forecasts are correct (i.e., Clarke error categories A and B), but still even the best methods produce 5 to 10% of serious errors (category D) and approximately 0.5% of very serious errors (category E). We also propose an enhanced genetic programming algorithm that incorporates a three-compartment model into symbolic regression models to create smoothed time series of the original carbohydrate and insulin time series.

  12. Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry in patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma using 124-iodine. Predicted blood doses correlate with changes in blood cell counts after radioiodine therapy and depend on modes of TSH stimulation and number of preceding radioiodine therapies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartung-Knemeyer, V.; Nagarajah, J.; Jentzen, W.; Ruhlmann, M.; Freudenberg, L.S.; Stahl, A.R.; Bockisch, A.; Rosenbaum-Krumme, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    Pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry prior to a high-dose radioiodine therapy (RAIT) is recommended and a blood dose of 2 Gy is considered to be safe. In this study, changes in the blood cell count after radioiodine therapy of high risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) were analyzed and compared with the results of the pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. Moreover, the influence of different modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding radioiodine therapies on the blood dose were assessed. 198 patients with locally advanced or metastasized DTC received a pre-therapeutic blood dosimetry using 124 I. To analyze the influence of the modes of TSH stimulation and the number of preceding RAITs on blood dose subgroups were built as follows: patients with endogenous TSH stimulation versus patients with exogenous TSH stimulation and patients with no preceding RAIT versus patients with at least one preceding RAIT. In 124/198 patients subsequent RAIT was performed. In 73/124 patients, hemograms were performed from day 2 to 12 month after RAIT. There was no high-grade bone marrow toxicity (id est (i.e.) ≥grade 3) in patients receiving less than 2 Gy blood dose-independent of the therapeutic history. Within the first month after radioiodine therapy, there was an overall decrease in the white blood cell and platelet counts. The erythrocyte count was essentially stable. There was a correlation between cell count decrease and predicted blood doses (Spearman's correlation coefficient >-0.6 each) for the white cell line and the platelets. With regard to the subgroups, the blood dose per administered 131 I activity (BDpA) was significantly higher in patients with endogenous TSH stimulation (median 0.08 Gy/GBq) than in patients with exogenous TSH stimulation (0.06 Gy/GBq) and in patients with no previous RAIT (0.08 Gy/GBq) compared to patients who had previously undergone at least one RAIT (0.07 Gy/GBq). The range of BDpA among DTC patients is rather wide. Our

  13. Predicting operative blood loss during spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ialenti, Marc N; Lonner, Baron S; Verma, Kushagra; Dean, Laura; Valdevit, Antonio; Errico, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    Patient and surgical factors are known to influence operative blood loss in spinal fusion for adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS), but have only been loosely identified. To date, there are no established recommendations to guide decisions to predonate autologous blood, and the current practice is based primarily on surgeon preference. This study is designed to determine which patient and surgical factors are correlated with, and predictive of, blood loss during spinal fusion for AIS. Retrospective analysis of 340 (81 males, 259 females; mean age, 15.2 y) consecutive AIS patients treated by a single surgeon from 2000 to 2008. Demographic (sex, age, height, weight, and associated comorbidities), laboratory (hematocrit, platelet, PT/PTT/INR), standard radiographic, and perioperative data including complications were analyzed with a linear stepwise regression to develop a predictive model of blood loss. Estimated blood loss was 907±775 mL for posterior spinal fusion (PSF, n=188), 323±171 mL for anterior spinal fusion (ASF, n=124), and 1277±821 mL for combined procedures (n=28). For patients undergoing PSF, stepwise analysis identified sex, preoperative kyphosis, and operative time to be the most important predictors of increased blood loss (Ploss in PSF: blood loss (mL)=C+Op-time (min)×(6.4)-pre-op T2-T12 kyphosis (degrees)×(8.7), C=233 if male and -270 if female. We find sex, operative time, and preoperative kyphosis to be the most important predictors of increased blood loss in PSF for AIS. Mean arterial pressure and operative time were predictive of estimated blood loss in ASF. For posterior fusions, we also present a model that estimates blood loss preoperatively and can be used to guide decisions regarding predonation of blood and the use of antifibrinolytic agents. Retrospective study: Level II.

  14. Kidney Rehabilitation Technology by Improving Blood Flow and Nerve Activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Jamil Hashim

    2016-01-01

    The rehabilitation of kidney is impossible from doctors point of view. Kidney failure happens when nephron in kidney fail to filter blood and water. Two major causes of kidney failure. First is the shrinkage of kidney and the second is the blockage of kidney medulla. Kidney shrinkage is because nephron damage due to long term diabetes (Nephrology expert point of view). Whereas blockage of kidney is due to food consume which in turn build up deposit at the blood duct connecting to the medulla. Experiment specimen own body. The rehabilitation methodology is to build up your blood flow system and nerve activation. Result from the study is through analyzing blood components such as creatinine, hemoglobin, urea and potassium. Conclusion, creatinine value has lowered and kidney shrinkage has normalize to its original size. It is hopeful I regain my health 100 % when my GFR reading achieved below 100. (author)

  15. Habitual intake of fruit juice predicts central blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pase, Matthew P; Grima, Natalie; Cockerell, Robyn; Pipingas, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Despite a common perception that fruit juice is healthy, fruit juice contains high amounts of naturally occurring sugar without the fibre content of the whole fruit. Frequent fruit juice consumption may therefore contribute to excessive sugar consumption typical of the Western society. Although excess sugar intake is associated with high blood pressure (BP), the association between habitual fruit juice consumption and BP is unclear. The present study investigated the association of fruit juice consumption with brachial and central (aortic) BP in 160 community dwelling adults. Habitual fruit juice consumption was measured using a 12 month dietary recall questionnaire. On the same day, brachial BP was measured and central (aortic) BP was estimated through radial artery applanation. Frequency of fruit juice consumption was classified as rare, occasional or daily. Those who consumed fruit juice daily, versus rarely or occasionally, had significantly higher central systolic BP (F (2, 134) = 6.09, p juice daily rather than rarely or occasionally. In conclusion, more frequent fruit juice consumption was associated with higher central BPs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The prediction of blood-tissue partitions, water-skin partitions and skin permeation for agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Ibrahim, Adam; Acree, William E; Liu, Xiangli

    2014-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the blood-tissue distribution of agrochemicals, and a number of researchers have developed experimental methods for in vitro distribution. These methods involve the determination of saline-blood and saline-tissue partitions; not only are they indirect, but they do not yield the required in vivo distribution. The authors set out equations for gas-tissue and blood-tissue distribution, for partition from water into skin and for permeation from water through human skin. Together with Abraham descriptors for the agrochemicals, these equations can be used to predict values for all of these processes. The present predictions compare favourably with experimental in vivo blood-tissue distribution where available. The predictions require no more than simple arithmetic. The present method represents a much easier and much more economic way of estimating blood-tissue partitions than the method that uses saline-blood and saline-tissue partitions. It has the added advantages of yielding the required in vivo partitions and being easily extended to the prediction of partition of agrochemicals from water into skin and permeation from water through skin. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Predicting blood transfusion using automated analysis of pulse oximetry signals and laboratory values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Stacy; Yang, Shiming; Hu, Peter; Miller, Catriona; Anazodo, Amechi; Galvagno, Samuel; Wang, Yulei; Hartsky, Lauren; Fang, Raymond; Mackenzie, Colin

    2015-10-01

    Identification of hemorrhaging trauma patients and prediction of blood transfusion needs in near real time will expedite care of the critically injured. We hypothesized that automated analysis of pulse oximetry signals in combination with laboratory values and vital signs obtained at the time of triage would predict the need for blood transfusion with accuracy greater than that of triage vital signs or pulse oximetry analysis alone. Continuous pulse oximetry signals were recorded for directly admitted trauma patients with abnormal prehospital shock index (heart rate [HR] / systolic blood pressure) of 0.62 or greater. Predictions of blood transfusion within 24 hours were compared using Delong's method for area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) curves to determine the optimal combination of triage vital signs (prehospital HR + systolic blood pressure), pulse oximetry features (40 waveform features, O2 saturation, HR), and laboratory values (hematocrit, electrolytes, bicarbonate, prothrombin time, international normalization ratio, lactate) in multivariate logistic regression models. We enrolled 1,191 patients; 339 were excluded because of incomplete data; 40 received blood within 3 hours; and 14 received massive transfusion. Triage vital signs predicted need for transfusion within 3 hours (AUROC, 0.59) and massive transfusion (AUROC, 0.70). Pulse oximetry for 15 minutes predicted transfusion more accurately than triage vital signs for both time frames (3-hour AUROC, 0.74; p = 0.004) (massive transfusion AUROC, 0.88; p transfusion prediction (3-hour AUROC, 0.84; p transfusion AUROC, 0.91; p blood transfusion during trauma resuscitation more accurately than triage vital signs or pulse oximetry analysis alone. Results suggest automated calculations from a noninvasive vital sign monitor interfaced with a point-of-care laboratory device may support clinical decisions by recognizing patients with hemorrhage sufficient to need transfusion. Epidemiologic

  18. Blood glucose level prediction based on support vector regression using mobile platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reymann, Maximilian P; Dorschky, Eva; Groh, Benjamin H; Martindale, Christine; Blank, Peter; Eskofier, Bjoern M

    2016-08-01

    The correct treatment of diabetes is vital to a patient's health: Staying within defined blood glucose levels prevents dangerous short- and long-term effects on the body. Mobile devices informing patients about their future blood glucose levels could enable them to take counter-measures to prevent hypo or hyper periods. Previous work addressed this challenge by predicting the blood glucose levels using regression models. However, these approaches required a physiological model, representing the human body's response to insulin and glucose intake, or are not directly applicable to mobile platforms (smart phones, tablets). In this paper, we propose an algorithm for mobile platforms to predict blood glucose levels without the need for a physiological model. Using an online software simulator program, we trained a Support Vector Regression (SVR) model and exported the parameter settings to our mobile platform. The prediction accuracy of our mobile platform was evaluated with pre-recorded data of a type 1 diabetes patient. The blood glucose level was predicted with an error of 19 % compared to the true value. Considering the permitted error of commercially used devices of 15 %, our algorithm is the basis for further development of mobile prediction algorithms.

  19. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergara, Rodrigo C; Moënne-Loccoz, Cristóbal; Maldonado, Pedro E

    2017-01-01

    Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT), a flanker task (FT) and a counting task (CT). Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s) were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  20. Cold-Blooded Attention: Finger Temperature Predicts Attentional Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo C. Vergara

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Thermal stress has been shown to increase the chances of unsafe behavior during industrial and driving performances due to reductions in mental and attentional resources. Nonetheless, establishing appropriate safety standards regarding environmental temperature has been a major problem, as modulations are also be affected by the task type, complexity, workload, duration, and previous experience with the task. To bypass this attentional and thermoregulatory problem, we focused on the body rather than environmental temperature. Specifically, we measured tympanic, forehead, finger and environmental temperatures accompanied by a battery of attentional tasks. We considered a 10 min baseline period wherein subjects were instructed to sit and relax, followed by three attentional tasks: a continuous performance task (CPT, a flanker task (FT and a counting task (CT. Using multiple linear regression models, we evaluated which variable(s were the best predictors of performance. The results showed a decrement in finger temperature due to instruction and task engagement that was absent when the subject was instructed to relax. No changes were observed in tympanic or forehead temperatures, while the environmental temperature remained almost constant for each subject. Specifically, the magnitude of the change in finger temperature was the best predictor of performance in all three attentional tasks. The results presented here suggest that finger temperature can be used as a predictor of alertness, as it predicted performance in attentional tasks better than environmental temperature. These findings strongly support that peripheral temperature can be used as a tool to prevent unsafe behaviors and accidents.

  1. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  2. Somatotype, blood pressure and physical activity among 10- to 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Awareness of blood pressure issues in the pediatric population has increased, leading to conceptual changes in the diagnosis and treatment of childhood hypertension. Physical activity may be utilized in the prevention and treatment of an unhealthy body composition due to the increase in resting metabolic rate, and the ...

  3. Physical Activity and Pattern of Blood Pressure in Postmenopausal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Hormonal changes during menopause have been attributed to hypertension-a common public health concern. This study investigated physical activity (PA) and pattern of blood pressure (BP) in postmenopausal women newly diagnosed with hypertension and referred for treatment at the medicine outpatient ...

  4. Basal blood DHEA-S/cortisol levels predicts EMDR treatment response in adolescents with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usta, Mirac Baris; Gumus, Yusuf Yasin; Say, Gokce Nur; Bozkurt, Abdullah; Şahin, Berkan; Karabekiroğlu, Koray

    2018-04-01

    In literature, recent evidence has shown that the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis can be dysregulated in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and HPA axis hormones may predict the psychotherapy treatment response in patients with PTSD. In this study, it was aimed to investigate changing cortisol and DHEA-S levels post-eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) therapy and the relationship between treatment response and basal cortisol, and DHEA-S levels before treatment. The study group comprised 40 adolescents (age, 12-18 years) with PTSD. The PTSD symptoms were assessed using the Child Depression Inventory (CDI) and Child Post-traumatic Stress Reaction Index (CPSRI) and the blood cortisol and DHEA-S were measured with the chemiluminescence method before and after treatment. A maximum of six sessions of EMDR therapy were conducted by an EMDR level-1 trained child psychiatry resident. Treatment response was measured by the pre- to post-treatment decrease in self-reported and clinical PTSD severity. Pre- and post-treatment DHEA-S and cortisol levels did not show any statistically significant difference. Pre-treatment CDI scores were negatively correlated with pre-treatment DHEA-S levels (r: -0.39). ROC analysis demonstrated that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio predicts treatment response at a medium level (AUC: 0.703, p: .030, sensitivity: 0.65, specificity: 0.86). The results of this study suggested that the DHEA-S/cortisol ratio may predict treatment response in adolescents with PTSD receiving EMDR therapy. The biochemical parameter of HPA-axis activity appears to be an important predictor of positive clinical response in adolescent PTSD patients, and could be used in clinical practice to predict PTSD treatment in the future.

  5. Performance of a coincidence based blood activity monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moses, W.W.

    1989-12-01

    A new device has been constructed that measures the positron emitting radio-tracer concentration in arterial blood by extracting blood with a peristaltic pump, then measuring the activity concentration by detecting coincident pairs of 511 keV photons with a pair of heavy inorganic scintillators attached to photomultiplier tubes. The sensitivity of this device is experimentally determined to be 610 counts/second per μCi/ml, and has a paralyzing dead time of 1.2 μs, so is capable of measuring blood activity concentration as high as 1 mCi/ml. Its performance is compared to two other blood monitoring methods: discrete blood samples counted with a well counter and device that uses a plastic scintillator to directly detect positrons. The positron detection efficiency of this device for 18 F is greater than the plastic scintillation counter, and also eliminates the radioisotope dependent correction factors necessary to convert count rate to absolute concentration. Coincident photon detection also has the potential of reducing the background compared to direct positron detection, thereby increasing the minimum detectable isotope concentration. 10 refs., 6 figs

  6. Blood lactate clearance after maximal exercise depends on active recovery intensity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devlin, J; Paton, B; Poole, L; Sun, W; Ferguson, C; Wilson, J; Kemi, O J

    2014-06-01

    High-intensity exercise is time-limited by onset of fatigue, marked by accumulation of blood lactate. This is accentuated at maximal, all-out exercise that rapidly accumulates high blood lactate. The optimal active recovery intensity for clearing lactate after such maximal, all-out exercise remains unknown. Thus, we studied the intensity-dependence of lactate clearance during active recovery after maximal exercise. We constructed a standardized maximal, all-out treadmill exercise protocol that predictably lead to voluntary exhaustion and blood lactate concentration>10 mM. Next, subjects ran series of all-out bouts that increased blood lactate concentration to 11.5±0.2 mM, followed by recovery exercises ranging 0% (passive)-100% of the lactate threshold. Repeated measurements showed faster lactate clearance during active versus passive recovery (P40%>passive recovery, Pexercise clears accumulated blood lactate faster than passive recovery in an intensity-dependent manner, with maximum clearance occurring at active recovery of 80% of lactate threshold.

  7. Permeability of the blood-brain barrier predicts conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cramer, Stig P; Modvig, Signe; Simonsen, Helle Juhl

    2015-01-01

    in the permeability of the blood-brain barrier in normal-appearing white matter of patients with multiple sclerosis and here, for the first time, we present a study on the capability of blood-brain barrier permeability in predicting conversion from optic neuritis to multiple sclerosis and a direct comparison...... with cerebrospinal fluid markers of inflammation, cellular trafficking and blood-brain barrier breakdown. To this end, we applied dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging at 3 T to measure blood-brain barrier permeability in 39 patients with monosymptomatic optic neuritis, all referred for imaging...... fluid as well as levels of CXCL10 and MMP9 in the cerebrospinal fluid. These findings suggest that blood-brain barrier permeability, as measured by magnetic resonance imaging, may provide novel pathological information as a marker of neuroinflammation related to multiple sclerosis, to some extent...

  8. Repeated Blood Pressure Measurements in Childhood in Prediction of Hypertension in Adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oikonen, Mervi; Nuotio, Joel; Magnussen, Costan G; Viikari, Jorma S A; Taittonen, Leena; Laitinen, Tomi; Hutri-Kähönen, Nina; Jokinen, Eero; Jula, Antti; Cheung, Michael; Sabin, Matthew A; Daniels, Stephen R; Raitakari, Olli T; Juonala, Markus

    2016-01-01

    Hypertension may be predicted from childhood risk factors. Repeated observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood may enhance prediction of hypertension and subclinical atherosclerosis in adulthood compared with a single observation. Participants (1927, 54% women) from the Cardiovascular Risk in Young Finns Study had systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements performed when aged 3 to 24 years. Childhood/youth abnormal blood pressure was defined as above 90th or 95th percentile. After a 21- to 31-year follow-up, at the age of 30 to 45 years, hypertension (>140/90 mm Hg or antihypertensive medication) prevalence was found to be 19%. Carotid intima-media thickness was examined, and high-risk intima-media was defined as intima-media thickness >90th percentile or carotid plaques. Prediction of adulthood hypertension and high-risk intima-media was compared between one observation of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth and multiple observations by improved Pearson correlation coefficients and area under the receiver operating curve. When compared with a single measurement, 2 childhood/youth observations improved the correlation for adult systolic (r=0.44 versus 0.35, Phypertension in adulthood (0.63 for 2 versus 0.60 for 1 observation, P=0.003). When compared with 2 measurements, third observation did not provide any significant improvement for correlation or prediction (P always >0.05). A higher number of childhood/youth observations of abnormal blood pressure did not enhance prediction of adult high-risk intima-media thickness. Compared with a single measurement, the prediction of adult hypertension was enhanced by 2 observations of abnormal blood pressure in childhood/youth. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  9. Microbiology of liver abscesses and the predictive value of abscess gram stain and associated blood cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemaly, Roy F; Hall, Gerri S; Keys, Thomas F; Procop, Gary W

    2003-08-01

    Although rare, pyogenic liver abscesses are potentially fatal. We evaluated the predictive value of Gram stain of liver abscess aspirates and temporally associated blood cultures. Gram stains detected bacteria in 79% of the liver abscesses tested. The sensitivity and specificity of Gram stain of the liver abscesses were 90% and 100% for Gram-positive cocci (GPC) and 52% and 94% for Gram-negative bacilli (GNB). The sensitivities of the blood cultures for any GPC and GNB present in the liver abscess were 30% and 39%, respectively. Although, Gram stains and blood cultures offer incomplete detection of the microbial contents of pyogenic liver abscesses, both tests should always accompany liver abscess cultures.

  10. The magnesium reference value in whole blood using nuclear activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish an indicative interval for reference value for Mg in whole blood, using the Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis Technique. The necessity of this measurement is related to the fact that the conventional clinical analysis for Mg quantification is performed using plasma, so there is no reference values established for Mg in whole blood for Brazilian population. Ours results provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients and permit to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations. (author)

  11. Enhancing anaerobic digestion of poultry blood using activated carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José Cuetos

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The potential of using anaerobic digestion for the treatment of poultry blood has been evaluated in batch assays at the laboratory scale and in a mesophilic semi-continuous reactor. The biodegradability test performed on residual poultry blood was carried out in spite of high inhibitory levels of acid intermediaries. The use of activated carbon as a way to prevent inhibitory conditions demonstrated the feasibility of attaining anaerobic digestion under extreme ammonium and acid conditions. Batch assays with higher carbon content presented higher methane production rates, although the difference in the final cumulative biogas production was not as sharp. The digestion of residual blood was also studied under semi-continuous operation using granular and powdered activated carbon. The average specific methane production was 216 ± 12 mL CH4/g VS. This result was obtained in spite of a strong volatile fatty acid (VFA accumulation, reaching values around 6 g/L, along with high ammonium concentrations (in the range of 6–8 g/L. The use of powdered activated carbon resulted in a better assimilation of C3-C5 acid forms, indicating that an enhancement in syntrophic metabolism may have taken place. Thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were applied as analytical tools for measuring the presence of organic material in the final digestate and evidencing modifications on the carbon surface. The addition of activated carbon for the digestion of residual blood highly improved the digestion process. The adsorption capacity of ammonium, the protection this carrier may offer by limiting mass transfer of toxic compounds, and its capacity to act as a conductive material may explain the successful digestion of residual blood as the sole substrate.

  12. Connective tissue-activating peptide III: a novel blood biomarker for early lung cancer detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, John; Sadar, Marianne D; Sin, Don D; Kuzyk, Michael; Xing, Li; Kondra, Jennifer; McWilliams, Annette; Man, S F Paul; Lam, Stephen

    2009-06-10

    There are no reliable blood biomarkers to detect early lung cancer. We used a novel strategy that allows discovery of differentially present proteins against a complex and variable background. Mass spectrometry analyses of paired pulmonary venous-radial arterial blood from 16 lung cancer patients were applied to identify plasma proteins potentially derived from the tumor microenvironment. Two differentially expressed proteins were confirmed in 64 paired venous-arterial blood samples using an immunoassay. Twenty-eight pre- and postsurgical resection peripheral blood samples and two independent, blinded sets of plasma from 149 participants in a lung cancer screening study (49 lung cancers and 100 controls) and 266 participants from the National Heart Lung and Blood Institute Lung Health Study (45 lung cancer and 221 matched controls) determined the accuracy of the two protein markers to detect subclinical lung cancer. Connective tissue-activating peptide III (CTAP III)/ neutrophil activating protein-2 (NAP-2) and haptoglobin were identified to be significantly higher in venous than in arterial blood. CTAP III/NAP-2 levels decreased after tumor resection (P = .01). In two independent population cohorts, CTAP III/NAP-2 was significantly associated with lung cancer and improved the accuracy of a lung cancer risk prediction model that included age, smoking, lung function (FEV(1)), and an interaction term between FEV(1) and CTAP III/NAP-2 (area under the curve, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.77 to 0.91) compared to CAPIII/NAP-2 alone. We identified CTAP III/NAP-2 as a novel biomarker to detect preclinical lung cancer. The study underscores the importance of applying blood biomarkers as part of a multimodal lung cancer risk prediction model instead of as stand-alone tests.

  13. ATLS Hypovolemic Shock Classification by Prediction of Blood Loss in Rats Using Regression Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Soo Beom; Choi, Joon Yul; Park, Jee Soo; Kim, Deok Won

    2016-07-01

    In our previous study, our input data set consisted of 78 rats, the blood loss in percent as a dependent variable, and 11 independent variables (heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial pressure, pulse pressure, respiration rate, temperature, perfusion index, lactate concentration, shock index, and new index (lactate concentration/perfusion)). The machine learning methods for multicategory classification were applied to a rat model in acute hemorrhage to predict the four Advanced Trauma Life Support (ATLS) hypovolemic shock classes for triage in our previous study. However, multicategory classification is much more difficult and complicated than binary classification. We introduce a simple approach for classifying ATLS hypovolaemic shock class by predicting blood loss in percent using support vector regression and multivariate linear regression (MLR). We also compared the performance of the classification models using absolute and relative vital signs. The accuracies of support vector regression and MLR models with relative values by predicting blood loss in percent were 88.5% and 84.6%, respectively. These were better than the best accuracy of 80.8% of the direct multicategory classification using the support vector machine one-versus-one model in our previous study for the same validation data set. Moreover, the simple MLR models with both absolute and relative values could provide possibility of the future clinical decision support system for ATLS classification. The perfusion index and new index were more appropriate with relative changes than absolute values.

  14. Balancing Model Performance and Simplicity to Predict Postoperative Primary Care Blood Pressure Elevation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schonberger, Robert B; Dai, Feng; Brandt, Cynthia A; Burg, Matthew M

    2015-09-01

    Because of uncertainty regarding the reliability of perioperative blood pressures and traditional notions downplaying the role of anesthesiologists in longitudinal patient care, there is no consensus for anesthesiologists to recommend postoperative primary care blood pressure follow-up for patients presenting for surgery with an increased blood pressure. The decision of whom to refer should ideally be based on a predictive model that balances performance with ease-of-use. If an acceptable decision rule was developed, a new practice paradigm integrating the surgical encounter into broader public health efforts could be tested, with the goal of reducing long-term morbidity from hypertension among surgical patients. Using national data from US veterans receiving surgical care, we determined the prevalence of poorly controlled outpatient clinic blood pressures ≥140/90 mm Hg, based on the mean of up to 4 readings in the year after surgery. Four increasingly complex logistic regression models were assessed to predict this outcome. The first included the mean of 2 preoperative blood pressure readings; other models progressively added a broad array of demographic and clinical data. After internal validation, the C-statistics and the Net Reclassification Index between the simplest and most complex models were assessed. The performance characteristics of several simple blood pressure referral thresholds were then calculated. Among 215,621 patients, poorly controlled outpatient clinic blood pressure was present postoperatively in 25.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 25.5%-25.9%) including 14.2% (95% CI, 13.9%-14.6%) of patients lacking a hypertension history. The most complex prediction model demonstrated statistically significant, but clinically marginal, improvement in discrimination over a model based on preoperative blood pressure alone (C-statistic, 0.736 [95% CI, 0.734-0.739] vs 0.721 [95% CI, 0.718-0.723]; P for difference 1 of 4 patients (95% CI, 25

  15. Use of Repeated Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Measurements to Improve Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paige, Ellie; Barrett, Jessica; Pennells, Lisa

    2017-01-01

    The added value of incorporating information from repeated blood pressure and cholesterol measurements to predict cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk has not been rigorously assessed. We used data on 191,445 adults from the Emerging Risk Factors Collaboration (38 cohorts from 17 countries with data...

  16. Sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultures from cattle clinically suspected of bacterial endocarditis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Houe, Hans; Eriksen, L.; Jungersen, Gregers

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the number of blood culture-positive cattle among 215 animals clinically suspected of having bacterial endocarditis. For animals that were necropsied, the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of the diagnosis of endocarditis were calculated on the basis...... of the isolation of the causative bacteria from blood. Furthermore, it was investigated whether the glutaraldehyde coagulation time, total leucocyte count, per cent neutrophil granulocytes, pulse rate and duration of disease could help to discriminate endocarditis from other diseases. Among 138 animals necropsied...... the sensitivity, specificity and predictive value of blood cultivation were 70.7 per cent, 93.8 per cent and 89.1 per cent, respectively. None of the other measurements could be used to discriminate between endocarditis and non-endocarditis cases....

  17. Determination of manganese in blood by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocsis, E.; Kovats, M.; Molnar, M.

    1981-01-01

    A new method has been elaborated: the manganese content of a blood sample was precipitated by H 2 O 2 , and analysed by neutron activation analysis. The mean value was 2.67x10 -8 g/g in men, 3.25x10 -8 g/g in women and 3.57x10 -8 g/g in men working as welders for several years. (L.E.)

  18. Prediction of passive blood-brain partitioning: straightforward and effective classification models based on in silico derived physicochemical descriptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Chakrabarti, Mayukh; Costanzi, Stefano

    2010-06-01

    The distribution of compounds between blood and brain is a very important consideration for new candidate drug molecules. In this paper, we describe the derivation of two linear discriminant analysis (LDA) models for the prediction of passive blood-brain partitioning, expressed in terms of logBB values. The models are based on computationally derived physicochemical descriptors, namely the octanol/water partition coefficient (logP), the topological polar surface area (TPSA) and the total number of acidic and basic atoms, and were obtained using a homogeneous training set of 307 compounds, for all of which the published experimental logBB data had been determined in vivo. In particular, since molecules with logBB>0.3 cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) readily while molecules with logBB<-1 are poorly distributed to the brain, on the basis of these thresholds we derived two distinct models, both of which show a percentage of good classification of about 80%. Notably, the predictive power of our models was confirmed by the analysis of a large external dataset of compounds with reported activity on the central nervous system (CNS) or lack thereof. The calculation of straightforward physicochemical descriptors is the only requirement for the prediction of the logBB of novel compounds through our models, which can be conveniently applied in conjunction with drug design and virtual screenings. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Cord Blood Metabolome Is Highly Associated with Birth Weight, but Less Predictive for Later Weight Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Hellmuth

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Fetal metabolism may be changed by the exposure to maternal factors, and the route to obesity may already set in utero. Cord blood metabolites might predict growth patterns and later obesity. We aimed to characterize associations of cord blood with birth weight, postnatal weight gain, and BMI in adolescence. Methods: Over 700 cord blood samples were collected from infants participating in the German birth cohort study LISAplus. Glycerophospholipid fatty acids (GPL-FA, polar lipids, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA, and amino acids were analyzed with a targeted, liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry based metabolomics platform. Cord blood metabolites were related to growth factors by linear regression models adjusted for confounding variables. Results: Cord blood metabolites were highly associated with birth weight. Lysophosphatidylcholines C16:1, C18:1, C20:3, C18:2, C20:4, C14:0, C16:0, C18:3, GPL-FA C20:3n-9, and GPL-FA C22:5n-6 were positively related to birth weight, while higher cord blood concentrations of NEFA C22:6, NEFA C20:5, GPL-FA C18:3n-3, and PCe C38:0 were associated with lower birth weight. Postnatal weight gain and BMI z-scores in adolescents were not significantly associated with cord blood metabolites after adjustment for multiple testing. Conclusion: Potential long-term programming effects of the intrauterine environment and metabolism on later health cannot be predicted with profiling of the cord blood metabolome.

  20. Metabolites in Blood for Prediction of Bacteremic Sepsis in the Emergency Room.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna M Kauppi

    Full Text Available A metabolomics approach for prediction of bacteremic sepsis in patients in the emergency room (ER was investigated. In a prospective study, whole blood samples from 65 patients with bacteremic sepsis and 49 ER controls were compared. The blood samples were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Multivariate and logistic regression modeling using metabolites identified by chromatography or using conventional laboratory parameters and clinical scores of infection were employed. A predictive model of bacteremic sepsis with 107 metabolites was developed and validated. The number of metabolites was reduced stepwise until identifying a set of 6 predictive metabolites. A 6-metabolite predictive logistic regression model showed a sensitivity of 0.91(95% CI 0.69-0.99 and a specificity 0.84 (95% CI 0.58-0.94 with an AUC of 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-1.01. Myristic acid was the single most predictive metabolite, with a sensitivity of 1.00 (95% CI 0.85-1.00 and specificity of 0.95 (95% CI 0.74-0.99, and performed better than various combinations of conventional laboratory and clinical parameters. We found that a metabolomics approach for analysis of acute blood samples was useful for identification of patients with bacteremic sepsis. Metabolomics should be further evaluated as a new tool for infection diagnostics.

  1. Predictive factors for perioperative blood transfusion in surgeries for correction of idiopathic, neuromuscular or congenital scoliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Fogaça Cristante

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of clinical and demographic variables in patients requiring blood transfusion during elective surgery to treat scoliosis with the aim of identifying markers predictive of the need for blood transfusion. METHODS: Based on the review of medical charts at a public university hospital, this retrospective study evaluated whether the following variables were associated with the need for red blood cell transfusion (measured by the number of packs used during scoliosis surgery: scoliotic angle, extent of arthrodesis (number of fused levels, sex of the patient, surgery duration and type of scoliosis (neuromuscular, congenital or idiopathic. RESULTS: Of the 94 patients evaluated in a 55-month period, none required a massive blood transfusion (most patients needed less than two red blood cell packs. The number of packs was not significantly associated with sex or type of scoliosis. The extent of arthrodesis (r = 0.103, surgery duration (r = 0.144 and scoliotic angle (r = 0.004 were weakly correlated with the need for blood transfusion. Linear regression analysis showed an association between the number of spine levels submitted to arthrodesis and the volume of blood used in transfusions (p = 0.001. CONCLUSION: This study did not reveal any evidence of a significant association between the need for red blood cell transfusion and scoliotic angle, sex or surgery duration in scoliosis correction surgery. Submission of more spinal levels to arthrodesis was associated with the use of a greater number of blood packs.

  2. Outcome prediction value of determination of cord blood ADM concentrations in neonates with perinatal asphyxia events

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Shifa; Zhou Mingxiong; Zhang Xinlu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the clinical value of determination of cord blood adrenomedullin (ADM) concentration for predicting development of hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) in neonates suffered from perinatal asphyxia. Methods: Cord blood plasma ADM concentrations were measured with RIA in 77 full-ferm neonates with perinatal asphyxia and 30 controls. Results: In the 77 neonates with perinatal asphyxia, 32 developed clinical evidence of HIE within 7 days after birth (HIE group) and 45 didn't (non-HIE group). Cord blood plasma ADM concentrations in the HIE group (160.30 ± 41.3pg/ml) were significantly higher than those in the non-HIE group (112.26 ± 22.90 pg/ml) and controls (102.90 ± 19.43pg/ml). The cord blood plasma ADH concentrations in HIE group were also significantly positively correlated with the severity of the disease (r s = 0. 752, P < 0. 01 ). From our data, taking 117.93pg/ml as cut-off value for diagnosis of HIE would result in a sensitivity of 90.63%, specificity of 80%, and accuracy of 84.42%. Conclusion: High level of ADM in cord blood of neonates with perinatal asphyxia (≥117.93pg/ml) would predict development of HIE with a reasonable accuracy. (authors)

  3. Blood eosinophil counts for the prediction of the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Y I; Choi, S

    2002-02-01

    It has been suggested that airway eosinophilic inflammation is associated with the severity of exercise-induced bronchospasm (EIB). Blood eosinophils are known to be an indirect marker of airway inflammation in asthma. The aim of this study is to investigate that a simple and easy blood test for blood eosinphil counts may predict the severity of EIB in asthma. Seventy-seven men with perennial asthma (age range 18-23 years) were included. Lung function test, skin prick test, and blood tests for eosinophils counts and total IgE levels were performed. Methacholine bronchial provocation test and, 24 h later, free running test were carried out. EIB was defined as a 15% reduction or more in post-exercise FEV1 compared with pre-exercise FEV1 value. Atopy score was defined as a sum of mean wheal diameters to allergens. EIB was observed in 60 (78%) of 77 subjects. Asthmatics with EIB showed significantly increased percentages of eosinophils (P 700 microl(-1) (36.9 +/- 12.7%) had significantly greater maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise than asthmatics with eosinophils of 350 microl(-1) yielded the specificity of 88% and positive predictive value of 93% for the presence of EIB. When a multiple regression analysis of maximal % fall in FEV1 according to log eosinophil counts, log PC20, log IgE and atopy score was performed, only blood eosinophil counts were significant factor contributing to the maximal % fall in FEV1 after exercise. These findings not only suggest that a simple blood test for eosinophils may be useful in the prediction of the severity of EIB, but also reinforce the view that airway eosinophilic inflammation may play a major role in EIB in asthma.

  4. In vitro blood-brain barrier permeability predictions for GABAA receptor modulating piperine analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenmann, Daniela Elisabeth; Dürig, Carmen; Jähne, Evelyn Andrea; Smieško, Martin; Culot, Maxime; Gosselet, Fabien; Cecchelli, Romeo; Helms, Hans Christian Cederberg; Brodin, Birger; Wimmer, Laurin; Mihovilovic, Marko D; Hamburger, Matthias; Oufir, Mouhssin

    2016-06-01

    The alkaloid piperine from black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) and several synthetic piperine analogs were recently identified as positive allosteric modulators of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptors. In order to reach their target sites of action, these compounds need to enter the brain by crossing the blood-brain barrier (BBB). We here evaluated piperine and five selected analogs (SCT-66, SCT-64, SCT-29, LAU397, and LAU399) regarding their BBB permeability. Data were obtained in three in vitro BBB models, namely a recently established human model with immortalized hBMEC cells, a human brain-like endothelial cells (BLEC) model, and a primary animal (bovine endothelial/rat astrocytes co-culture) model. For each compound, quantitative UHPLC-MS/MS methods in the range of 5.00-500ng/mL in the corresponding matrix were developed, and permeability coefficients in the three BBB models were determined. In vitro predictions from the two human BBB models were in good agreement, while permeability data from the animal model differed to some extent, possibly due to protein binding of the screened compounds. In all three BBB models, piperine and SCT-64 displayed the highest BBB permeation potential. This was corroborated by data from in silico prediction. For the other piperine analogs (SCT-66, SCT-29, LAU397, and LAU399), BBB permeability was low to moderate in the two human BBB models, and moderate to high in the animal BBB model. Efflux ratios (ER) calculated from bidirectional permeability experiments indicated that the compounds were likely not substrates of active efflux transporters. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Predicting acute cardiac rejection from donor heart and pre-transplant recipient blood gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollander, Zsuzsanna; Chen, Virginia; Sidhu, Keerat; Lin, David; Ng, Raymond T; Balshaw, Robert; Cohen-Freue, Gabriela V; Ignaszewski, Andrew; Imai, Carol; Kaan, Annemarie; Tebbutt, Scott J; Wilson-McManus, Janet E; McMaster, Robert W; Keown, Paul A; McManus, Bruce M

    2013-02-01

    Acute rejection in cardiac transplant patients remains a contributory factor to limited survival of implanted hearts. Currently, there are no biomarkers in clinical use that can predict, at the time of transplantation, the likelihood of post-transplant acute cellular rejection. Such a development would be of great value in personalizing immunosuppressive treatment. Recipient age, donor age, cold ischemic time, warm ischemic time, panel-reactive antibody, gender mismatch, blood type mismatch and human leukocyte antigens (HLA-A, -B and -DR) mismatch between recipients and donors were tested in 53 heart transplant patients for their power to predict post-transplant acute cellular rejection. Donor transplant biopsy and recipient pre-transplant blood were also examined for the presence of genomic biomarkers in 7 rejection and 11 non-rejection patients, using non-targeted data mining techniques. The biomarker based on the 8 clinical variables had an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) of 0.53. The pre-transplant recipient blood gene-based panel did not yield better performance, but the donor heart tissue gene-based panel had an AUC = 0.78. A combination of 25 probe sets from the transplant donor biopsy and 18 probe sets from the pre-transplant recipient whole blood had an AUC = 0.90. Biologic pathways implicated include VEGF- and EGFR-signaling, and MAPK. Based on this study, the best predictive biomarker panel contains genes from recipient whole blood and donor myocardial tissue. This panel provides clinically relevant prediction power and, if validated, may personalize immunosuppressive treatment and rejection monitoring. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of Platelets on Platelet Concentrate Product on the Activation of Human Peripheral Blood Monocyte Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Sadat Razavi Hoseini

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monocytes can interact with platelets due to their surface molecules such as P-selectin glycoprotein ligand-1 (PSGL-1, and form monocyte-platelet complex. In the present study, the effects of platelets interaction of platelet concentrates (PCs and peripheral blood monocytes were investigated in vitro as a model to predict the probable interactions of these cells and consequently activation of monocytes. Methods: In this experimental study, units of whole blood and PCs were prepared from Tehran Blood Transfusion Center. After isolation of monocytes from the whole blood, these cells were treated with PC- derived platelets. The activation of monocytes was assessed before and after treatment by the analysis of the respiratory burst of monocytes using dihydrorhodamine 123 (DHR-123. The study data were analyzed using the non-parametric test of Wilcoxon. Results: The purity of monocytes was determined as 86.1±2 using NycoPrep method. The respiratory burst of monocytes was increased after exposure with platelets. In fact, the difference was significant when platelets were used on the 5th day of storage (P=0.001. Conclusions: The study findings revealed that platelets have an efficient capacity to stimulate and activate monocytes. The possible involvement of molecules in the interaction of platelet-monocyte demand to be further studied in future.

  7. Predictive factors for red blood cell transfusion in children undergoing noncomplex cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulaj, Muj; Faraoni, David; Willems, Ariane; Sanchez Torres, Cristel; Van der Linden, Philippe

    2014-08-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion is frequently required in pediatric cardiac surgery and is associated with altered outcome and increased costs. Determining which factors predict transfusion in this context will enable clinicians to adopt strategies that will reduce the risk of RBC transfusion. This study aimed to assess predictive factors associated with RBC transfusion in children undergoing low-risk cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Children undergoing surgery to repair ventricular septal defect or atrioventricular septal defect from 2006 to 2011 were included in this retrospective study. Demography, preoperative laboratory testing, intraoperative data, and RBC transfusion were reviewed. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analysis were used to define factors that were able to predict RBC transfusion. Then, we employed receiver operating characteristic analysis to design a predictive score. Among the 334 children included, 261 (78%) were transfused. Age (43 mL/kg), type of oxygenator used, minimal temperature reached during CPB (<32°C), and preoperative hematocrit (<34%) were independently associated with RBC transfusion in the studied population. A predictive score 2 or greater was the best predictor of RBC transfusion. The present study identified several factors that were significantly associated with perioperative RBC transfusion. Based on these factors, we designed a predictive score that can be used to develop a patient-based blood management program with the aim of reducing the incidence of RBC transfusion. Copyright © 2014 The Society of Thoracic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Admission Systolic Blood Pressure Predicts the Number of Blood Pressure Medications at Discharge in Patients With Primary Intracerebral Hemorrhage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khawaja, Ayaz M; Shiue, Harn; Boehme, Amelia K; Albright, Karen C; Venkatraman, Anand; Kumar, Gyanendra; Lyerly, Michael J; Hays-Shapshak, Angela; Mirza, Maira; Gropen, Toby I; Harrigan, Mark R

    2018-03-01

    Control of systolic blood pressure (SBP) after primary intracerebral hemorrhage improves outcomes. Factors determining the number of blood pressure medications (BPM) required for goal SBP<160 mm Hg at discharge are unknown. We hypothesized that higher admission-SBPs require a greater number of BPM for goal discharge-SBP<160 mm Hg, and investigated factors influencing this goal. We conducted a retrospective review of 288 patients who presented with primary intracerebral hemorrhage. Admission-SBP was obtained. Primary outcome was the number of BPM at discharge. Comparison was made between patients presenting with and without a history of hypertension, and patients discharged on <3 and ≥3 BPM. Patients with hypertension history had a higher median admission-SBP compared with those without (180 vs. 157 mm Hg, P=0.0001). In total, 133 of 288 (46.2%) patients were discharged on <3 BPM; 155/288 (53.8%) were discharged on ≥3 BPM. Hypertension history (P<0.0001) and admission-SBP (P<0.0001) predicted the number of BPM at discharge. In patients without hypertension history, every 10 mm Hg increase in SBP resulted in an absolute increase of 0.5 BPM at discharge (P=0.0011), whereas in those with hypertension, the absolute increase was 1.3 BPM (P=0.0012). In comparison with patients discharged on <3 BPM, patients discharged on ≥3 BPM were more likely to have a higher median admission-SBP, be younger in age, belong to the African-American race, have a history of diabetes, have higher median admission-National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale and modified Rankin Scale of 4 to 5 at discharge. An understanding of the factors influencing BPM at discharge may help clinicians better optimize blood pressure control both before and after discharge.

  9. Early predictive value of cord blood bilirubin and dynamic monitoring of transcutaneous bilirubin for hyperbilirubinemia of newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haishan Guan

    2017-12-01

    Conclusions: The increase of cord blood bilirubin effectively predict the occurrence of neonatal hyperbilirubinemia. There is a good correlation between levels of transcutaneous bilirubin and serum bilirubin. Moreover, combined detection of transcutaneous bilirubin and cord blood bilirubin can significantly improve the prediction accuracy of hyperbilirubinemia.

  10. [The activity of blood cholinesterase in rats exposed to dimehypo].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weiguo; Xu, Mailing; Zou, Hejian; Lu, Ailing; Shen, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2002-12-01

    To determine whether and to what degree the activity of cholinesterase(ChE) is inhibited by dimehypo at different doses of dimehypo [scientific name: 2-dimethylamine-1,3-bi(sodium hyposulfit)]. Rats were dosed with dimehypo or methamidophos orally, and were randomly divided into four subgroups according to the pesticide doses, which were 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 and 1/2 of LD50 respectively(the LD50 of dimethypo and methamidophos is 342 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg respectively). The activity of ChE in blood was determined before and 30 min, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after exposure. The modified Ellman Method was employed to measure the activity of ChE. 1/16 LD50 dose of dimehypo did not affect the activity of ChE. When the dose increased, the activity of ChE decreased accordingly. 1/2 LD50 dose of dimehypo inhibited the activity of ChE by 35.9% compared with that of control group(P dimehypo at various doses was significantly lower than that in the rats dosed with corresponding doses of methamidophos(P dimehypo may inhibit the activity of ChE. However, as compared with methamidophos, dimehypo is a weaker inhibitor of ChE.

  11. Multiple Linear Regression and Artificial Neural Network to Predict Blood Glucose in Overweight Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J; Wang, F; Liu, Y; Xu, J; Lin, H; Jia, B; Zuo, W; Jiang, Y; Hu, L; Lin, F

    2016-01-01

    Overweight individuals are at higher risk for developing type II diabetes than the general population. We conducted this study to analyze the correlation between blood glucose and biochemical parameters, and developed a blood glucose prediction model tailored to overweight patients. A total of 346 overweight Chinese people patients ages 18-81 years were involved in this study. Their levels of fasting glucose (fs-GLU), blood lipids, and hepatic and renal functions were measured and analyzed by multiple linear regression (MLR). Based the MLR results, we developed a back propagation artificial neural network (BP-ANN) model by selecting tansig as the transfer function of the hidden layers nodes, and purelin for the output layer nodes, with training goal of 0.5×10(-5). There was significant correlation between fs-GLU with age, BMI, and blood biochemical indexes (P<0.05). The results of MLR analysis indicated that age, fasting alanine transaminase (fs-ALT), blood urea nitrogen (fs-BUN), total protein (fs-TP), uric acid (fs-BUN), and BMI are 6 independent variables related to fs-GLU. Based on these parameters, the BP-ANN model was performed well and reached high prediction accuracy when training 1 000 epoch (R=0.9987). The level of fs-GLU was predictable using the proposed BP-ANN model based on 6 related parameters (age, fs-ALT, fs-BUN, fs-TP, fs-UA and BMI) in overweight patients. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  12. Next-generation sequencing for antenatal prediction of KEL1 blood group status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rieneck, Klaus; Clausen, Frederik Banch; Dziegiel, Morten Hanefeld

    2015-01-01

    The KEL1 antigen can give rise to immunization of KEL2 mothers. Maternal antibodies can be transferred to the fetus and destroy fetal red blood cells and their stem cell precursors and give rise to serious fetal disease. It is important to be able to predict the fetal KEL status in order...... to intervene in those pregnancies where the fetus is at risk, and to ascertain when the fetus is not at risk. Technically it can be demanding to predict KEL1 status from a maternal blood sample. The KEL1 allele is based on a single SNP present in about 1–10 % of cell-free maternal DNA after gestation week 10...

  13. Prediction of intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration by computational methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, D E

    2001-09-01

    This review surveys the computational methods that have been developed with the aim of identifying drug candidates likely to fail later on the road to market. The specifications for such computational methods are outlined, including factors such as speed, interpretability, robustness and accuracy. Then, computational filters aimed at predicting "drug-likeness" in a general sense are discussed before methods for the prediction of more specific properties--intestinal absorption and blood-brain barrier penetration--are reviewed. Directions for future research are discussed and, in concluding, the impact of these methods on the drug discovery process, both now and in the future, is briefly considered.

  14. Prediction of delayed neurological deficit after subarachnoid haemorrhage: a CT blood load and Doppler velocity approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grosset, D.G.; McDonald, I.; Cockburn, M.; Straiton, J.; Bullock, R.R.

    1994-01-01

    The predictive value of cranial computed tomography (CT) blood load and serial transcranial Doppler sonography for the development of delayed ischaemic neurological deficit was assessed in 121 patients following subarachnoid haemorrhage. Of the 121 patients, 81 (67 %) had thick layers of blood or haematoma, including intraventricular bleeding. The proportion of patients who developed delayed deficit was higher with increasing amounts of subarachnoid blood on the admission CT (51 % of 53 cases in Fisher grade 3; 35 % of 33 cases in grade 2; 28 % of 7 cases in grade 1, P < 0.01). Doppler velocities obtained from readings at least every 2 days following admission were higher in patients with delayed neurological deficit (peak velocity for grade 3 patients 176 ± 6 cm/s (mean ± SE), versus grade 2: 164 ± 7 cm/s; grade 4 149 ± 9, both P = 0.04, Mann-Whitney). Peak velocity and maximal 24-h rise tended to be higher within different CT grades in patients with a deficit than in those without; this difference was significant for grade 3 patients (P < 0.01). We conclude that a combined approach with CT and Doppler sonography provides greater predictive value for the development of delayed ischaemic neurological deficit than either test considered independently. The value of Doppler sonography may be greatest for patients with Fisher grade 3 blood, in whom the risk of delayed ischaemia is greatest. (orig.)

  15. Cardiovascular reactivity to video game predicts subsequent blood pressure increases in young men: The CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovitz, J H; Raczynski, J M; Wallace, D; Chettur, V; Chesney, M A

    1998-01-01

    This study was undertaken to determine the relationship between heightened reactivity of blood pressure (BP) during stress and 5-year changes in blood pressure and hypertensive status, using the CARDIA study. A total of 3364 participants (910 white men, 909 white women, 678 black men, and 867 black women), initially 20 to 32 years old and normotensive, were included. Cardiovascular reactivity to psychological stressors (video game and star-tracing tasks for 3 minutes, cold pressor test for 1 minute) was measured in 1987-1988. We then examined reactivity as a predictor of significant BP change (> or = 8 mm Hg, thought to represent a clinically significant increase) over the next 5 years. Logistic regression models were used to control for potential covariates. Significant BP change and the development of hypertension (BP greater than 140/90 or taking medication for hypertension) over the 5-year follow-up were examined in separate analyses. Increased systolic blood pressure (SBP) reactivity to the video game was associated with a significant 5-year SBP increase among the entire cohort, independent of resting SBP (p men but not for women. Reactivity to the star-tracing task or the cold pressor test did not predict significant BP change. Among black men only, new hypertensives (N = 36) had greater diastolic blood pressure (DBP) reactivity to the video game (p = .01). Although BP reactivity to all physical and mental stressors used in this study did not consistently predict 5-year change in BP in this young cohort, the results indicate that reactivity to a video game stressor predicts 5-year change in BP and early hypertension among young adult men. These findings are consistent with other studies showing the usefulness of stressors producing a primarily beta-adrenergic response in predicting BP change and hypertension. The results may be limited by the shortened initial rest and recovery periods used in the CARDIA protocol.

  16. Is blood pressure during the night more predictive of cardiovascular outcome than during the day?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Boggia, Jose; Thijs, Lutgarde

    2008-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of the ambulatory blood pressure (BP) during night and day and of the night-to-day BP ratio (NDR). We studied 7458 participants (mean age 56.8 years; 45.8% women) enrolled in the International Database on Ambulatory BP.......01). Daytime BP lost its prognostic significance for cardiovascular events in patients on antihypertensive treatment. Adjusted for the 24-h BP, NDR predicted mortality (P

  17. The role of stress hormones in the relationship between resting blood pressure and coagulation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirtz, Petra H; Ehlert, Ulrike; Emini, Luljeta; Rüdisüli, Katharina; Groessbauer, Sara; Mausbach, Brent T; von Känel, Roland

    2006-12-01

    Systemic hypertension confers a hypercoagulable state. We hypothesized that resting mean blood pressure (MBP) interacts with stress hormones in predicting coagulation activity at rest and with acute mental stress. We measured plasma clotting factor VII activity (FVII:C), FVIII:C, fibrinogen, D-dimer, epinephrine and norepinephrine, and saliva cortisol in 42 otherwise healthy normotensive and hypertensive medication-free men (mean age 43 +/- 14 years) at rest, immediately after stress, and twice during 60 min of recovery from stress. At rest, the MBP-by-epinephrine interaction predicted FVII:C (beta = -0.33, P AUC) predicted D-dimer AUC (beta = 0.34, P = 0.04) independent of MBP. The MBP-by-epinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVII:C AUC (beta = 0.28) and fibrinogen AUC (beta = -0.30), and the MBP-by-norepinephrine AUC interaction predicted FVIII:C AUC (beta = -0.28), all with borderline significance (Ps < 0.09) and independent of age and BMI. MBP significantly altered the association between stress hormones and coagulation activity at rest and, with borderline significance, across the entire stress and recovery interval. Independent of MBP, catecholamines were associated with procoagulant effects and cortisol reactivity dampened the acute procoagulant stress response.

  18. Using the area under the curve to reduce measurement error in predicting young adult blood pressure from childhood measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nancy R; Rosner, Bernard A; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2004-11-30

    Tracking correlations of blood pressure, particularly childhood measures, may be attenuated by within-person variability. Combining multiple measurements can reduce this error substantially. The area under the curve (AUC) computed from longitudinal growth curve models can be used to improve the prediction of young adult blood pressure from childhood measures. Quadratic random-effects models over unequally spaced repeated measures were used to compute the area under the curve separately within the age periods 5-14 and 20-34 years in the Bogalusa Heart Study. This method adjusts for the uneven age distribution and captures the underlying or average blood pressure, leading to improved estimates of correlation and risk prediction. Tracking correlations were computed by race and gender, and were approximately 0.6 for systolic, 0.5-0.6 for K4 diastolic, and 0.4-0.6 for K5 diastolic blood pressure. The AUC can also be used to regress young adult blood pressure on childhood blood pressure and childhood and young adult body mass index (BMI). In these data, while childhood blood pressure and young adult BMI were generally directly predictive of young adult blood pressure, childhood BMI was negatively correlated with young adult blood pressure when childhood blood pressure was in the model. In addition, racial differences in young adult blood pressure were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for childhood blood pressure, childhood BMI, and young adult BMI, suggesting that other genetic or lifestyle factors contribute to this difference. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. Blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices: changes in normal and preeclamptic pregnancies and predictive values for preeclampsia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Han

    Full Text Available Preeclampsia (PE is an obstetric disorder with high morbidity and mortality rates but without clear pathogeny. The dysfunction of the blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system is a salient characteristic of PE that varies in severity, and necessitates different treatments. Therefore, it is necessary to find suitable predictors for the onset and severity of PE.We aimed to evaluate blood coagulation parameters and platelet indices as potential predictors for the onset and severity of PE.Blood samples from 3 groups of subjects, normal pregnant women (n = 79, mild preeclampsia (mPE (n = 53 and severe preeclampsia (sPE (n = 42, were collected during early and late pregnancy. The levels of coagulative parameters and platelet indices were measured and compared among the groups. The receiver-operating characteristic (ROC curves of these indices were generated, and the area under the curve (AUC was calculated. The predictive values of the selected potential parameters were examined in binary regression analysis.During late pregnancy in the normal pregnancy group, the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT, prothrombin time (PT, thrombin time (TT and platelet count decreased, while the fibrinogen level and mean platelet volume (MPV increased compared to early pregnancy (p<0.05. However, the PE patients presented with increased APTT, TT, MPV and D-dimer (DD during the third trimester. In the analysis of subjects with and without PE, TT showed the largest AUC (0.743 and high predictive value. In PE patients with different severities, MPV showed the largest AUC (0.671 and ideal predictive efficiency.Normal pregnancy causes a maternal physiological hypercoagulable state in late pregnancy. PE may trigger complex disorders in the endogenous coagulative pathways and consume platelets and FIB, subsequently activating thrombopoiesis and fibrinolysis. Thrombin time and MPV may serve as early monitoring markers for the onset and severity of PE

  20. Impact of predictive scoring model and e-mail messages on African American blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bachegowda, Lohith S; Timm, Brad; Dasgupta, Pinaki; Hillyer, Christopher D; Kessler, Debra; Rebosa, Mark; France, Christopher R; Shaz, Beth H

    2017-06-01

    Expanding the African American (AA) donor pool is critical to sustain transfusion support for sickle cell disease patients. The aims were to: 1) apply cognitive computing on donation related metrics to develop a predictive model that effectively identifies repeat AA donors, 2) determine whether a single e-mail communication could improve AA donor retention and compare retention results on higher versus lower predictive score donors, and 3) evaluate the effect of e-mail marketing on AA donor retention with culturally versus nonculturally tailored message. Between 2011 and 2012, 30,786 AA donors donated blood at least once on whom predictive repeat donor scores (PRDSs) was generated from donor-related metrics (frequency of donations, duration between donations, age, blood type, and sex). In 2013, 28% (8657/30,786) of 2011 to 2012 donors returned to donate on whom PRDS was validated. Returning blood donors had a higher mean PRDS compared to nonreturning donors (0.649 vs. 0.268; p e-mail pilot, high PRDS (≥0.6) compared to low PRDS (e-mail opening rate (p e-mail, 159% higher presentation rate (p e-mail communication has the potential to increase the efficiency of donor marketing. © 2017 AABB.

  1. Usefulness of Clinical Prediction Rules, D-dimer, and Arterial Blood Gas Analysis to Predict Pulmonary Embolism in Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shazia Awan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Pulmonary embolism (PE is seven times more common in cancer patients than non-cancer patients. Since the existing clinical prediction rules (CPRs were validated predominantly in a non-cancer population, we decided to look at the utility of arterial blood gas (ABG analysis and D-dimer in predicting PE in cancer patients. Methods: Electronic medical records were reviewed between December 2005 and November 2010. A total of 177 computed tomography pulmonary angiograms (CTPAs were performed. We selected 104 individuals based on completeness of laboratory and clinical data. Patients were divided into two groups, CTPA positive (patients with PE and CTPA negative (PE excluded. Wells score, Geneva score, and modified Geneva score were calculated for each patient. Primary outcomes of interest were the sensitivities, specificities, positive, and negative predictive values for all three CPRs. Results: Of the total of 104 individuals who had CTPAs, 33 (31.7% were positive for PE and 71 (68.3% were negative. There was no difference in basic demographics between the two groups. Laboratory parameters were compared and partial pressure of oxygen was significantly lower in patients with PE (68.1 mmHg vs. 71 mmHg, p = 0.030. Clinical prediction rules showed good sensitivities (88−100% and negative predictive values (93−100%. An alveolar-arterial (A-a gradient > 20 had 100% sensitivity and negative predictive values. Conclusions: CPRs and a low A-a gradient were useful in excluding PE in cancer patients. There is a need for prospective trials to validate these results.

  2. Prediction of inflammatory responses induced by biomaterials in contact with human blood using protein fingerprint from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Anna E; Nilsson, Per H; Huang, Shan; Fromell, Karin; Hamad, Osama A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Rosengren-Holmberg, Jenny P; Sandholm, Kerstin; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A; Nilsson, Bo; Ekdahl, Kristina N

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate complement activation is often responsible for incompatibility reactions that occur when biomaterials are used. Complement activation is therefore a criterion included in legislation regarding biomaterials testing. However, no consensus is yet available regarding appropriate complement-activation-related test parameters. We examined protein adsorption in plasma and complement activation/cytokine release in whole blood incubated with well-characterized polymers. Strong correlations were found between the ratio of C4 to its inhibitor C4BP and generation of 10 (mainly pro-inflammatory) cytokines, including IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-6. The levels of complement activation products correlated weakly (C3a) or not at all (C5a, sC5b-9), confirming their poor predictive values. We have demonstrated a direct correlation between downstream biological effects and the proteins initially adhering to an artificial surface after contact with blood. Consequently, we propose the C4/C4BP ratio as a robust, predictor of biocompatibility with superior specificity and sensitivity over the current gold standard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Adhesion molecules levels in blood correlate with MRI activity and clinical activity in multiple sclerosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millers, A.; Enina, G.; Platkajis, A.; Metra, M.; Kukaine, R.

    2002-01-01

    Research into pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS) has prompted efforts to identify immunological markers associated with disease activity. Adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 are associated with inflammatory mediated blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. In this study investigates the correlation between blood level of circulating ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) activity in different clinical phases of patients with MS. We show that RRMS and SPMS patients in clinically active phase with Gd-enhancing lesions in CNS had higher blood levels of cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 compared these parameters levers of RRMS patients in remission stage. These results suggest that cICAM-1 and cVCAM-1 is a sensitive indicator of disease activity associated with BBB inflammatory dysfunction. Elevated blood level of cICAM-1 more strongly correlated with clinical activity and BBB damage, than cVCAM-1 and that could be used as biological marker of disease activity. Circulating VCAM-1 as an early indicator of BBB disturbance, may also serve as marker of beneficial activity in relapses phase of MS course. (authors)

  4. Enhancing Predictive Accuracy of Cardiac Autonomic Neuropathy Using Blood Biochemistry Features and Iterative Multitier Ensembles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abawajy, Jemal; Kelarev, Andrei; Chowdhury, Morshed U; Jelinek, Herbert F

    2016-01-01

    Blood biochemistry attributes form an important class of tests, routinely collected several times per year for many patients with diabetes. The objective of this study is to investigate the role of blood biochemistry for improving the predictive accuracy of the diagnosis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) progression. Blood biochemistry contributes to CAN, and so it is a causative factor that can provide additional power for the diagnosis of CAN especially in the absence of a complete set of Ewing tests. We introduce automated iterative multitier ensembles (AIME) and investigate their performance in comparison to base classifiers and standard ensemble classifiers for blood biochemistry attributes. AIME incorporate diverse ensembles into several tiers simultaneously and combine them into one automatically generated integrated system so that one ensemble acts as an integral part of another ensemble. We carried out extensive experimental analysis using large datasets from the diabetes screening research initiative (DiScRi) project. The results of our experiments show that several blood biochemistry attributes can be used to supplement the Ewing battery for the detection of CAN in situations where one or more of the Ewing tests cannot be completed because of the individual difficulties faced by each patient in performing the tests. The results show that AIME provide higher accuracy as a multitier CAN classification paradigm. The best predictive accuracy of 99.57% has been obtained by the AIME combining decorate on top tier with bagging on middle tier based on random forest. Practitioners can use these findings to increase the accuracy of CAN diagnosis.

  5. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstom, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after technetium-99m in vivo red blood cell labeling was studied. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased in erythrocyte count (r=0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. It was concluded that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  6. Epileptic Seizure Detection and Prediction Based on Continuous Cerebral Blood Flow Monitoring – a Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senay Tewolde

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the third most common neurological illness, affecting 1% of the world’s population. Despite advances in medicine, about 25 to 30% of the patients do not respond to or cannot tolerate the severe side effects of medical treatment, and surgery is not an option for the majority of patients with epilepsy. The objective of this article is to review the current state of research on seizure detection based on cerebral blood flow (CBF data acquired by thermal diffusion flowmetry (TDF, and CBF-based seizure prediction. A discussion is provided on the applications, advantages, and disadvantages of TDF in detecting and localizing seizure foci, as well as its role in seizure prediction. Also presented are an overview of the present challenges and possible future research directions (along with methodological guidelines of the CBF-based seizure detection and prediction methods.

  7. Modulation of blood pressure response to exercise by physical activity and relationship with resting blood pressure during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisson, Michèle; Rhéaume, Caroline; Bujold, Emmanuel; Tremblay, Angelo; Marc, Isabelle

    2014-07-01

    To determine whether physical activity and blood pressure (BP) response to exercise in early pregnancy are related to resting BP at the end of pregnancy. Understanding physiological BP responses to exercise during pregnancy will help in improving BP profile and guiding exercise recommendations in pregnant women. Maternal physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and BP (systolic and diastolic) at rest and during exercise (submaximal and relative response) were assessed at 16 weeks of gestation in 61 normotensive pregnant women. BP at 36 weeks of gestation and obstetrical outcomes were collected from maternal charts. Related to resting DBP at 16 weeks (r =  -0.28, P = 0.028), total energy expenditure spend at any physical activity in early pregnancy was also associated with resting SBP at 36 weeks (r =  -0.27, P = 0.038). On the contrary, although related to VO2peak (r =  -0.57, P sports and exercise (r =  -0.29, P = 0.024), the relative SBP response to exercise at 16 weeks was not associated with resting BP at 36 weeks. Strongly associated with resting BP at 16 weeks and also with total energy expenditure, submaximal BP response to exercise at 16 weeks was related to resting SBP and DBP at 36 weeks (r = 0.41, P = 0.001 and r = 0.26, P = 0.051, respectively). In normotensive women, physical activity performed in early pregnancy appears to slightly modulate resting BP in early and late pregnancy. However, further investigations are needed to determine which physical activity-related parameter in response to exercise best predicts BP variations during pregnancy.

  8. Vitamin E nanoemulsion activity on stored red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, C A L; Azevedo Filho, C A; Pereira, G; Silva, D C N; Castro, M C A B; Almeida, A F; Lucena, S C A; Santos, B S; Barjas-Castro, M L; Fontes, A

    2017-06-01

    Stored red blood cells (RBCs) undergo numerous changes that have been termed RBC storage lesion, which can be related to oxidative damage. Vitamin E is an important antioxidant, acting on cell lipids. Thus, this study aimed to investigate vitamin E activity on stored RBCs. We prepared a vitamin E nanoemulsion that was added to RBC units and stored at 4 °C. Controls, without vitamin E, were kept under the same conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production was monitored for up to 35 days of storage. RBC elasticity was also evaluated using an optical tweezer system. Vitamin E-treated samples presented a significant decrease in ROS production. Additionally, the elastic constant for vitamin E-treated RBCs did not differ from the control. Vitamin E decreased the amount of ROS in stored RBCs. Because vitamin E acts on lipid oxidation, results suggest that protein oxidation should also be considered a key factor for erythrocyte elastic properties. Thus, further studies combining vitamin E with protein antioxidants deserve attention, aiming to better preserve overall stored RBC properties. © 2017 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  9. Prediction of Human Activity by Discovering Temporal Sequence Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kang; Fu, Yun

    2014-08-01

    Early prediction of ongoing human activity has become more valuable in a large variety of time-critical applications. To build an effective representation for prediction, human activities can be characterized by a complex temporal composition of constituent simple actions and interacting objects. Different from early detection on short-duration simple actions, we propose a novel framework for long -duration complex activity prediction by discovering three key aspects of activity: Causality, Context-cue, and Predictability. The major contributions of our work include: (1) a general framework is proposed to systematically address the problem of complex activity prediction by mining temporal sequence patterns; (2) probabilistic suffix tree (PST) is introduced to model causal relationships between constituent actions, where both large and small order Markov dependencies between action units are captured; (3) the context-cue, especially interactive objects information, is modeled through sequential pattern mining (SPM), where a series of action and object co-occurrence are encoded as a complex symbolic sequence; (4) we also present a predictive accumulative function (PAF) to depict the predictability of each kind of activity. The effectiveness of our approach is evaluated on two experimental scenarios with two data sets for each: action-only prediction and context-aware prediction. Our method achieves superior performance for predicting global activity classes and local action units.

  10. Effect of PTA on blood pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous renin activity in renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.; Dewitz, H. von; Rosenthal, J.

    1983-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is more and more accepted for interventional management of renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to assess the behaviour of arterial blood-pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous rening activity in renovascular hypertension following catheter dilatation. Using the data the possibility is calculated to predict the effect of PTA on blood pressure preinterventionally. The results demonstrate that a successful employment of PTA depends on a normal contralateral renal plasma flow and a normalization of plasma flow of the poststenotic kidney. Determination of plasma renin activity is only of restricted value. (orig.)

  11. Response of selenium changes in blood using cyclic activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spyrou, N.M.; Akanle, O.B.; Damyanova, A.A.

    1986-01-01

    A study was undertaken to investigate the response of selenium uptake and washout in whole blood and its components in healthy subjects, aged 20 to 30 yr, who were given selenium as a supplement to their usual diet, in the form of a yeast tablet (200 mg) containing 100 μg of the element together with vitamins A, C, and E (natural). Selenium has gained worldwide interest not only as an essential trace element but as a potent modifier of environmental hazards and as a naturally occurring toxicant. It is important therefore to investigate the character and the degree of the changes in healthy people on selenium supplementation. Cyclic activation analysis was used for the determination of selenium concentration through the detection of /sup 77m/Se (17.5 s), because of the increased sensitivity of the method and the large number of samples involved

  12. Immunosuppressive activity of human cord-blood lipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, T.M.; Davis, P.A.; Curtiss, L.K.

    1985-01-01

    It is now known that the role of plasma lipoproteins is multifunctional. More recently it has been shown that lipoproteins may regulate immune responses as well. Low-density lipoproteins carrying apolipoprotein B (apoB) are known to suppress phytohemagglutinin (PHA) activated lymphocytes by inhibiting DNA synthesis. More recently, an immunoregulatory role has been described for another apolipoprotein, apoE, which is found in low quantities in normal plasma. In these studies with human umbilical-cord blood the authors were intrigued by two factors: the low level of LDL and hence apoB, and the elevated quantity of apoE. This study examines the hypothesis that apoE may regulate lymphocyte function in the human fetus

  13. Predicting future blood supply and demand in Japan with a Markov model: application to the sex- and age-specific probability of blood donation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akita, Tomoyuki; Tanaka, Junko; Ohisa, Masayuki; Sugiyama, Aya; Nishida, Kazuo; Inoue, Shingo; Shirasaka, Takuma

    2016-11-01

    Simulation studies were performed to predict the future supply and demand for blood donations, and future shortfalls. Using data from all donations in 2006 to 2009, the Markov model was applied to estimate future blood donations until 2050. Based on data concerning the actual use of blood products, the number of blood products needed was estimated based on future population projections. We estimated that the number of blood donations increased from 5,020,000 in 2008 to 5,260,000 in 2012, but will decrease to 4,770,000 units by 2025. In particular, the number of donors in their 20s and 30s decreased every year. Moreover, the number of donations required to supply blood products would have been increased from 5,390,000 in 2012 to 5,660,000 units in 2025. Thus, the estimated shortfall of blood donations is expected to increase each year from 140,000 in 2012 to 890,000 in 2025 and then more than double to 1,670,000 in 2050. If the current blood donation behaviors continue, a shortfall of blood availability is likely to occur in Japan. Insufficient blood donations are mainly related to a projected reduction in population of 20 to 30 year olds, a significant group of donors. Thus, it is crucial to recruit and retain new donors and to develop recommendations for proper use of blood products to minimize unnecessary use. This study provides useful information that can be used by governments to help ensure the adequacy of the blood supply through promoting donations and conserving blood resources. © 2016 AABB.

  14. Recruitable collateral blood flow index predicts coronary instent restenosis after percutaneous coronary intervention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisette Okkels; Thayssen, Per; Lassen, Jens Flensted

    2007-01-01

    AIMS: Collateral flow may influence long-term results after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) because of haemodynamic forces compete with the antegrade flow through the dilated lesion. The aim of the study was to assess the influence of recruitable collateral blood flow on restenosis...... in patients undergoing PCI with bare metal stents and using optimal antithrombotic treatment. METHODS AND RESULTS: In 95 patients, 95 de novo lesions were treated with PCI and a bare metal stent. Fractional flow reserve (FFR) at maximum hyperaemia induced by intravenous adenosine was determined. The pressure.......02-1.12, P = 0.016). CONCLUSION: Recruitable collateral blood flow measured during balloon inflation predicts angiographic instent restenosis in PCI patients treated with bare metal stents. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Aug...

  15. Getting along and getting ahead: Affiliation and dominance predict ambulatory blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Carolynne E; Smith, Timothy W; Uchino, Bert N; Baucom, Brian R; Birmingham, Wendy C

    2016-03-01

    Based in interpersonal theory, the present study tested associations of trait affiliation (i.e., warmth vs. hostility) and control (i.e., dominance vs. submissiveness) with ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) and momentary affective experiences. Ninety-four married couples (mean age 29.6) completed trait affiliation and control measures, and a 1-day protocol with random interval-contingent measurements of ABP and affective experience. Higher trait control (i.e., dominance) predicted higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP, DBP) in men, but not in women. For both men and women, high affiliation predicted lower SBP. These associations occurred within individuals (i.e., actor effects) but not between spouses (i.e., partner effects). Dominance and affiliation also predicted momentary affect. Associations of dominance and affiliation with ABP may indicate a mechanism by which trait social behavior influences CVD risk. These findings also illustrate the interpersonal perspective as an integrative framework for research on psychosocial risk for CVD. (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Blood DNA methylation biomarkers predict clinical reactivity in food-sensitized infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, David; Dang, Thanh; Sexton-Oates, Alexandra; Prescott, Susan; Tang, Mimi L K; Dharmage, Shyamali; Gurrin, Lyle; Koplin, Jennifer; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Allen, Katrina J; Saffery, Richard

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of food allergy (FA) can be challenging because approximately half of food-sensitized patients are asymptomatic. Current diagnostic tests are excellent makers of sensitization but poor predictors of clinical reactivity. Thus oral food challenges (OFCs) are required to determine a patient's risk of reactivity. We sought to discover genomic biomarkers of clinical FA with utility for predicting food challenge outcomes. Genome-wide DNA methylation (DNAm) profiling was performed on blood mononuclear cells from volunteers who had undergone objective OFCs, concurrent skin prick tests, and specific IgE tests. Fifty-eight food-sensitized patients (aged 11-15 months) were assessed, half of whom were clinically reactive. Thirteen nonallergic control subjects were also assessed. Reproducibility was assessed in an additional 48 samples by using methylation data from an independent population of patients with clinical FA. Using a supervised learning approach, we discovered a DNAm signature of 96 CpG sites that predict clinical outcomes. Diagnostic scores were derived from these 96 methylation sites, and cutoffs were determined in a sensitivity analysis. Methylation biomarkers outperformed allergen-specific IgE and skin prick tests for predicting OFC outcomes. FA status was correctly predicted in the replication cohort with an accuracy of 79.2%. DNAm biomarkers with clinical utility for predicting food challenge outcomes are readily detectable in blood. The development of this technology in detailed follow-up studies will yield highly innovative diagnostic assays. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Increasing the predictive accuracy of amyloid-β blood-borne biomarkers in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watt, Andrew D; Perez, Keyla A; Faux, Noel G; Pike, Kerryn E; Rowe, Christopher C; Bourgeat, Pierrick; Salvado, Olivier; Masters, Colin L; Villemagne, Victor L; Barnham, Kevin J

    2011-01-01

    Diagnostic measures for Alzheimer's disease (AD) commonly rely on evaluating the levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides within the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of affected individuals. These levels are often combined with levels of an additional non-Aβ marker to increase predictive accuracy. Recent efforts to overcome the invasive nature of CSF collection led to the observation of Aβ species within the blood cellular fraction, however, little is known of what additional biomarkers may be found in this membranous fraction. The current study aimed to undertake a discovery-based proteomic investigation of the blood cellular fraction from AD patients (n = 18) and healthy controls (HC; n = 15) using copper immobilized metal affinity capture and Surface Enhanced Laser Desorption/Ionisation Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry. Three candidate biomarkers were observed which could differentiate AD patients from HC (ROC AUC > 0.8). Bivariate pairwise comparisons revealed significant correlations between these markers and measures of AD severity including; MMSE, composite memory, brain amyloid burden, and hippocampal volume. A partial least squares regression model was generated using the three candidate markers along with blood levels of Aβ. This model was able to distinguish AD from HC with high specificity (90%) and sensitivity (77%) and was able to separate individuals with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) who converted to AD from MCI non-converters. While requiring further characterization, these candidate biomarkers reaffirm the potential efficacy of blood-based investigations into neurodegenerative conditions. Furthermore, the findings indicate that the incorporation of non-amyloid markers into predictive models, function to increase the accuracy of the diagnostic potential of Aβ.

  18. Traumatic Brain Injury Induces Genome-Wide Transcriptomic, Methylomic, and Network Perturbations in Brain and Blood Predicting Neurological Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingying Meng

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The complexity of the traumatic brain injury (TBI pathology, particularly concussive injury, is a serious obstacle for diagnosis, treatment, and long-term prognosis. Here we utilize modern systems biology in a rodent model of concussive injury to gain a thorough view of the impact of TBI on fundamental aspects of gene regulation, which have the potential to drive or alter the course of the TBI pathology. TBI perturbed epigenomic programming, transcriptional activities (expression level and alternative splicing, and the organization of genes in networks centered around genes such as Anax2, Ogn, and Fmod. Transcriptomic signatures in the hippocampus are involved in neuronal signaling, metabolism, inflammation, and blood function, and they overlap with those in leukocytes from peripheral blood. The homology between genomic signatures from blood and brain elicited by TBI provides proof of concept information for development of biomarkers of TBI based on composite genomic patterns. By intersecting with human genome-wide association studies, many TBI signature genes and network regulators identified in our rodent model were causally associated with brain disorders with relevant link to TBI. The overall results show that concussive brain injury reprograms genes which could lead to predisposition to neurological and psychiatric disorders, and that genomic information from peripheral leukocytes has the potential to predict TBI pathogenesis in the brain.

  19. Radionuclide assay of membrane Na+, K+-ATPase activity of peserved red blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trusov, V.V.; Zelenin, A.A.; Marizin, S.A.

    1986-01-01

    The radionuclide tests were used to investigate the influence of varying blood preservatives on erythrocylic membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity in samples of whole blood and packed red blood cells from normal donors prepared by standard methods. The tests were performed before and after seven days of preservation under standard conditions. It was found that blood preservations lowered membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity: its minimum reduction was recorded with citroglucopnosphate, while glugicir induced a significant drop in Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells regardless of the type of the blood transfusion solution. The assay of membrane Na + , K + -ATPase activity of preserved red blood cells with the use of 86 Rb could be recommended as an evaluation test for preserved blood and its components

  20. Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manicardi Gian-Carlo

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs is ubiquitous and found in all individuals. Studies have documented endocrine disrupting effects and impact on reproduction. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of xenoestrogenic activity in serum of groups with varying POP exposure, and to evaluate correlations to the POP biomarkers, 2,2',4,4',5,5'-hexachlorobiphenyl (CB-153 and 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis (p-chlorophenyl-ethylene (p,p'-DDE. Methods The study included 358 men: Greenlandic Inuit's, Swedish fishermen, and Warsaw (Poland and Kharkiv (Ukraine inhabitants. Xenoestrogenicity of serum extracts alone (XER and XER competitive (XERcomp effect on 17β-estradiol induced estrogen receptor (ER transactivity were assessed in the hormone free, lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the MVLN human breast cancer cell line. Results No agonistic XER activity was exhibited for Inuit serum samples, while 12 – 24% of the European samples had detectable agonistic XER activity. On the contrary, 71% of Inuit serum samples antagonized XERcomp compared to 7 – 30 % in the other regions. XER and XERcomp were not or weakly correlated to the two POP markers. XER activity of Inuit samples was negatively associated to levels of CB-153 and p,p'-DDE. For the Warsaw group a positive and negative correlation between XER and p,p'-DDE and estradiol equivalence level and CB-153 levels was found. Conclusion No strong consistent association between xenoestrogenic net activity and the two POP markers was found. The results showed that the selected POP markers alone can not predict the integrated xenoestrogenic serum activity. Correlations to the POP markers were found at the extreme edge; the Inuit's and Warsaw study groups eliciting high frequency of samples with ER antagonistic and agonistic activity, respectively. We suggest that the variation in xenoestrogenic serum activity reflects differences in POP exposure

  1. Designing and Constructing Blood Flow Monitoring System to Predict Pressure Ulcers on Heel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akbari H.

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: A pressure ulcer is a complication related to the need for the care and treatment of primarily disabled and elderly people. With the decrease of the blood flow caused by the pressure loaded, ulcers are formed and the tissue will be wasted with the passage of time. Objective: The aim of this study was to construct blood flow monitoring system on the heel tissue which was under external pressure in order to evaluate the tissue treatment in the ulcer. Methods: To measure the blood flow changes, three infrared optical transmitters were used at the distances of 5, 10, and 15 mm to the receiver. Blood flow changes in heels were assessed in pressures 0, 30, and 60 mmHg. The time features were extracted for analysis from the recorded signal by MATLAB software. Changes of the time features under different pressures were evaluated at the three distances by ANOVA in SPSS software. The level of significance was considered at 0.05. Results: In this study, 15 subjects, including both male and female, with the mean age of 54±7 participated. The results showed that the signal amplitude, power and absolute signal decreased significantly when pressure on the tissue increased in different layers (p<0.05. Heart rate only decreased significantly in pressures more than 30 mmHg (p=0.02. In pressures more than 30 mmHg, in addition to a decrease in the time features, the pattern of blood flow signal changed and it wasn’t the same as noload signal. Conclusion: By detecting the time features, we can reach an early diagnosis to prognosticate the degeneration of the tissue under pressure and it can be recommended as a method to predict bedsores in the heel.

  2. The Predictive Value of Inflammation-Related Peripheral Blood Measurements in Cancer Staging and Prognosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna L. Sylman

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we discuss the interaction between cancer and markers of inflammation (such as levels of inflammatory cells and proteins in the circulation, and the potential benefits of routinely monitoring these markers in peripheral blood measurement assays. Next, we discuss the prognostic value and limitations of using inflammatory markers such as neutrophil-to-lymphocyte and platelet-to-lymphocyte ratios and C-reactive protein measurements. Furthermore, the review discusses the benefits of combining multiple types of measurements and longitudinal tracking to improve staging and prognosis prediction of patients with cancer, and the ability of novel in silico frameworks to leverage this high-dimensional data.

  3. Preeclampsia prediction in type 1 diabetes and diurnal blood pressure methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauszus, Finn

    2016-01-01

    of the papers with the best, validated methodology on BP measurements, which is by no way guaranteed in numerous recent publications. Inherent characteristics of the measurements to be considered are reproducibility, consistency, precision, and trend over scale of measurement. Studies on these issues suggest....... Preeclampsia is associated with urinary albumin excretion rate, reduced night/day ratio, and elevated diurnal blood pressure from first trimester and onwards. However, due to blunting of the diurnal variation, the night/day rhythm provides no good prediction of preeclampsia. Diurnal measurement is a valuable...

  4. Patient Blood Management in Europe: surveys on top indications for red blood cell use and Patient Blood Management organization and activities in seven European university hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruun, M T; Pendry, K; Georgsen, J; Manzini, P; Lorenzi, M; Wikman, A; Borg-Aquilina, D; van Pampus, E; van Kraaij, M; Fischer, D; Meybohm, P; Zacharowski, K; Geisen, C; Seifried, E; Liumbruno, G M; Folléa, G; Grant-Casey, J; Babra, P; Murphy, M F

    2016-11-01

    Patient Blood Management (PBM) in Europe is a working group of the European Blood Alliance with the initial objective to identify the starting position of the participating hospitals regarding PBM for benchmarking purposes, and to derive good practices in PBM from the experience and expertise in the participating teams with the further aim of implementing and strengthening these practices in the participating hospitals. We conducted two surveys in seven university hospitals in Europe: Survey on top indications for red blood cell use regarding usage of red blood cells during 1 week and Survey on PBM organization and activities. A total of 3320 units of red blood cells were transfused in 1 week at the seven hospitals. Overall, 61% of red cell units were transfused to medical patients and 36% to surgical patients, although there was much variation between hospitals. The organization and activities of PBM in the seven hospitals were variable, but there was a common focus on optimizing the treatment of bleeding patients, monitoring the use of blood components and treatment of preoperative anaemia. Although the seven hospitals provide a similar range of clinical services, there was variation in transfusion rates between them. Further, there was variable implementation of PBM activities and monitoring of transfusion practice. These findings provide a baseline to develop joint action plans to further implement and strengthen PBM across a number of hospitals in Europe. © 2016 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  5. Body Size Predicts Cardiac and Vascular Resistance Effects on Men's and Women's Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce M. Evans

    2017-08-01

    index. When supine: lack of correlation between diastolic pressure and body size, resulted from the combination of positive SV correlation and negative TPR correlation with body size. The positive systolic pressure vs. body size relationship resulted from a positive SV vs. height relationship. In response to standing: the positive diastolic blood pressure vs. body size relationship resulted from the standing-induced, positive increase in TPR vs. body size relationship. The relationships between body weight or height with SV and TPR contribute new insight into mechanisms of BP regulation that may aid in the prediction of health in young adults by providing a more effective way to scale BP with body size.

  6. Activities: Plotting and Predicting from Pairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulte, Albert P.; Swift, Jim

    1984-01-01

    This teacher's guide provides objectives, procedures, and list of materials needed for activities which center around the use of a scatter plot to examine relationships shown by bivariate data. The activities are suitable for grades 7 to 12. Four student worksheets are included. (JN)

  7. Prediction of healthy blood with data mining classification by using Decision Tree, Naive Baysian and SVM approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalilinezhad, Mahdieh; Minaei, Behrooz; Vernazza, Gianni; Dellepiane, Silvana

    2015-03-01

    Data mining (DM) is the process of discovery knowledge from large databases. Applications of data mining in Blood Transfusion Organizations could be useful for improving the performance of blood donation service. The aim of this research is the prediction of healthiness of blood donors in Blood Transfusion Organization (BTO). For this goal, three famous algorithms such as Decision Tree C4.5, Naïve Bayesian classifier, and Support Vector Machine have been chosen and applied to a real database made of 11006 donors. Seven fields such as sex, age, job, education, marital status, type of donor, results of blood tests (doctors' comments and lab results about healthy or unhealthy blood donors) have been selected as input to these algorithms. The results of the three algorithms have been compared and an error cost analysis has been performed. According to this research and the obtained results, the best algorithm with low error cost and high accuracy is SVM. This research helps BTO to realize a model from blood donors in each area in order to predict the healthy blood or unhealthy blood of donors. This research could be useful if used in parallel with laboratory tests to better separate unhealthy blood.

  8. Activity, exposure rate and spectrum prediction with Java programming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sahin, D.; Uenlue, K.

    2009-01-01

    In order to envision the radiation exposure during Neutron Activation Analysis (NAA) experiments, a software called Activity Predictor is developed using Java TM programming language. The Activity Predictor calculates activities, exposure rates and gamma spectra of activated samples for NAA experiments performed at Radiation Science and Engineering Center (RSEC), Penn State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). The calculation procedure for predictions involves both analytical and Monte Carlo methods. The Activity Predictor software is validated with a series of activation experiments. It has been found that Activity Predictor software calculates the activities and exposure rates precisely. The software also predicts gamma spectrum for each measurement. The predicted spectra agreed partially with measured spectra. The error in net photo peak areas varied from 4.8 to 51.29%, which is considered to be due to simplistic modeling, statistical fluctuations and unknown contaminants in the samples. (author)

  9. Neutropenia Prediction Based on First-Cycle Blood Counts Using a FOS-3NN Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elize A. Shirdel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Delivery of full doses of adjuvant chemotherapy on schedule is key to optimal breast cancer outcomes. Neutropenia is a serious complication of chemotherapy and a common barrier to this goal, leading to dose reductions or delays in treatment. While past research has observed correlations between complete blood count data and neutropenic events, a reliable method of classifying breast cancer patients into low- and high-risk groups remains elusive. Patients and Methods. Thirty-five patients receiving adjuvant chemotherapy for early-stage breast cancer under the care of a single oncologist are examined in this study. FOS-3NN stratifies patient risk based on complete blood count data after the first cycle of treatment. All classifications are independent of breast cancer subtype and clinical markers, with risk level determined by the kinetics of patient blood count response to the first cycle of treatment. Results. In an independent test set of patients unseen by FOS-3NN, 19 out of 21 patients were correctly classified (Fisher’s exact test probability P<0.00023 [2 tailed], Matthews’ correlation coefficient +0.83. Conclusions. We have developed a model that accurately predicts neutropenic events in a population treated with adjuvant chemotherapy in the first cycle of a 6-cycle treatment.

  10. High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol, Blood Urea Nitrogen, and Serum Creatinine Can Predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Wandong; Lin, Suhan; Zippi, Maddalena; Geng, Wujun; Stock, Simon; Zimmer, Vincent; Xu, Chunfang; Zhou, Mengtao

    2017-01-01

    Early prediction of disease severity of acute pancreatitis (AP) would be helpful for triaging patients to the appropriate level of care and intervention. The aim of the study was to develop a model able to predict Severe Acute Pancreatitis (SAP). A total of 647 patients with AP were enrolled. The demographic data, hematocrit, High-Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-C) determinant at time of admission, Blood Urea Nitrogen (BUN), and serum creatinine (Scr) determinant at time of admission and 24 hrs after hospitalization were collected and analyzed statistically. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours (hrs) were independently associated with SAP. A logistic regression function (LR model) was developed to predict SAP as follows: -2.25-0.06 HDL-C (mg/dl) at admission + 0.06 BUN (mg/dl) at 24 hours + 0.66 Scr (mg/dl) at 24 hours. The optimism-corrected c-index for LR model was 0.832 after bootstrap validation. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for LR model for the prediction of SAP was 0.84. The LR model consists of HDL-C at admission and BUN and Scr at 24 hours, representing an additional tool to stratify patients at risk of SAP.

  11. Dietary acculturation and body composition predict American Hmong children's blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Chery; Franzen-Castle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Determine how dietary acculturation, anthropometric measures (height, weight, circumferences, and skinfolds), body mass index (BMI), and waist hip ratios (WHRs) are associated with blood pressure (BP) measures in Hmong children living in Minnesota. Acculturation was measured using responses to questions regarding language usage, social connections, and diet. Dietary assessment was completed using the multiple-pass 24-h dietary recall method on two different days. Anthropometric and BP measurement were taken using standard procedures, and BMI and WHR were calculated. Data analyses included descriptive statistics, ANOVA, and stepwise regression analyses. Using stepwise regression analysis, hip circumference (HC) predicted boys' systolic (S)BP (R(2) = 0.55). For girls' SBP, mid-upper arm circumference, WHR, low calcium consumption, and height percentile jointly explained 41% of the total variation. Mid upper arm circumference (MAC) and carbohydrate consumption predicted 35% of the variance for boys' diastolic (D)BP, and HC, dairy consumption, and calcium intake predicted 31% of the total variance for girls' DBP. Responses to dietary acculturation questions revealed between group differences for breakfast with half of the younger Born-Thailand/Laos (Born-T/L) consuming mostly Hmong food, while at dinner Born-US consumed a mixed diet and Born-T/L were more likely to consume Hmong food. Dietary acculturation and body composition predict Hmong children's BP. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Peripheral blood cell microRNA quantification during the first trimester predicts preeclampsia: Proof of concept.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward E Winger

    Full Text Available We investigated the capacity of microRNAs isolated from peripheral blood buffy coat collected late during the first trimester to predict preeclampsia.The cohort study comprised 48 pregnant women with the following pregnancy outcomes: 8 preeclampsia and 40 with normal delivery outcomes. Quantitative rtPCR was performed on a panel of 30 microRNAs from buffy coat samples drawn at a mean of 12.7±0.5 weeks gestation. MicroRNA Risk Scores were calculated and AUC-ROC calculations derived.The AUC-ROC for preeclampsia risk was 0.91 (p<0.0001. When women with normal delivery and high-risk background (those with SLE/APS, chronic hypertension and/or Type 2 Diabetes were compared to women who developed preeclampsia but with a normal risk background (without these mentioned risk factors, preeclampsia was still predicted with an AUC-ROC of 0.92 (p<0.0001.MicroRNA quantification of peripheral immune cell microRNA provides sensitive and specific prediction of preeclampsia in the first trimester of pregnant women. With this study, we extend the range during which disorders of the placental bed may be predicted from early to the end of the first trimester. This study confirms that buffy coat may be used as a sample preparation.

  13. Genetic parameters for the prediction of abdominal fat traits using blood biochemical indicators in broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, H L; Xu, Z Q; Yang, L L; Wang, Y X; Li, Y M; Dong, J Q; Zhang, X Y; Jiang, X Y; Jiang, X F; Li, H; Zhang, D X; Zhang, H

    2018-02-01

    1. Excessive deposition of body fat, especially abdominal fat, is detrimental in chickens and the prevention of excessive fat accumulation is an important problem. The aim of this study was to identify blood biochemical indicators that could be used as criteria to select lean Yellow-feathered chicken lines. 2. Levels of blood biochemical indicators in the fed and fasted states and the abdominal fat traits were measured in 332 Guangxi Yellow chickens. In the fed state, the genetic correlations (r g ) of triglycerides and very low density lipoprotein levels were positive for the abdominal fat traits (0.47 ≤ r g  ≤ 0.67), whereas total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) showed higher negative correlations with abdominal fat traits (-0.59 ≤ r g  ≤ -0.33). Heritabilities of these blood biochemical parameters were high, varying from 0.26 to 0.60. 3. In the fasted state, HDL-C:LDL-C level was positively correlated with abdominal fat traits (0.35 ≤ r g  ≤ 0.38), but triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, total protein, albumin, aspartate transaminase, uric acid and creatinine levels were negatively correlated with abdominal fat traits (-0.79 ≤ r g  ≤ -0.35). The heritabilities of these 10 blood biochemical parameters were high (0.22 ≤ h 2  ≤ 0.59). 4. In the fed state, optimal multiple regression models were constructed to predict abdominal fat traits by using triglycerides and LDL-C. In the fasted state, triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C, total protein, albumin and uric acid could be used to predict abdominal fat content. 5. It was concluded that these models in both nutritional states could be used to predict abdominal fat content in Guangxi Yellow broiler chickens.

  14. Diagnostic prediction of renal failure from blood serum analysis by FTIR spectrometry and chemometrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanmohammadi, Mohammdreza; Ghasemi, Keyvan; Garmarudi, Amir Bagheri; Ramin, Mehdi

    2015-02-01

    A new diagnostic approach based on Attenuated Total Reflectance-Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectrometry and classification algorithm has been introduced which provides a rapid, reliable, and easy way to perform blood test for the diagnosis of renal failure. Blood serum samples from 35 renal failure patients and 40 healthy persons were analyzed by ATR-FTIR spectrometry. The resulting data was processed by Quadratic Discriminant Analysis (QDA) and QDA combined with simple filtered method. Spectroscopic studies were performed in 900-2000 cm-1 spectral region with 3.85 cm-1 data space. Results showed 93.33% and 100% of accuracy for QDA and filter-QDA models, respectively. In the first step, 30 samples were applied to construct the model. In order to modify the capability of QDA in prediction of test samples, filter-based feature selection methods were applied. It was found that the filtered spectra coupled with QDA could correctly predict the test samples in most of the cases.

  15. Validity of Some Anthropometric Indicators in the Prediction of High Systolic Blood Pressure among Indian Adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shobha Rao

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In view of the increasing prevalence of obesity in children, it is necessary to investigate the relative performance of different indicators used for its assessment and health consequences. Objectives To examine concordance between various indicators used for assessing obesity among adolescents and to examine their ability to predict risk of high systolic blood pressure. Design Cross-sectional study, from two schools catering to affluent class. Subjects Children in age 9–16 yr (n = 1146 boys and 1036 girls. Measurements Body weight, height, skinfold thickness at triceps (TSFT and body fat percent by trained investigators and blood pressure measurement by a pediatrician using sphygmomanometer. Results Prevalence of overweight was lowest with criterion of TSFT (11.7% in boys; 7.6% in girls and was highest using criterion of body fat percent (53.7% in boys and 28.4% in girls. Body mass index (BMI had high significant correlation with each of the indicator and with systolic blood pressure (SBP as well, in both sexes. All the indicators with conventional cut offs showed poor sensitivity for predicting high SBP. However, receiver operating characteristics (ROC cut-offs improved sensitivity considerably, but the values were much lower compared to conventional cut-offs. Conclusions There is considerable disparity in the estimates of overweight children obtained by different indicators. Lower values of ROC cut-offs highlights the need for population specific customized classification systems for assessing obesity in view of the probable population differences in relative risks of non-communicable adult diseases.

  16. Crime scene reconstruction-Sex prediction from blood stained foot sole impressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basu, Nabanita; Bandyopadhyay, Samir Kumar

    2017-09-01

    It is often difficult to predict the sex of an individual based on bloody incomplete footprints. However, such prints/impressions are particularly common in a crime scene. Again variability in the texture, color of the target surface has an impact on the bloodstained impression formed. The study of bare foot, footprint, footwear (i.e. shoe, canvas etc.) within the legal context is referred to as forensic podiatry. Based on the fact that it is possible to predict the sex of an individual from footprint impressions, an automated model has been proposed in this paper for analyzing the sex of an individual from his/her broken/incomplete footprint impressions based on morphological features alone. Five male and female volunteers aged between 20 to 65 years participated in dataset development. Keeping the blood volume constant and having stepped on differently shaped porcine blood pools, the individuals were asked to walk on herbarium sheets. The footprints were recorded and documented in accordance with the guidelines in place for physical evidence documentation within the forensic domain. The morphological features that were extracted from each of the footprint impressions are footprint length, footprint breadth, angle of walking, approximated heel radius etc. Using exhaustive cross validation technique, the dataset was divided into training and test set. Non-redundant, relevant features that are particularly effective at sex prediction were marked out using the relief algorithm in coherence with the correlation metric. Supervised learning techniques were used on the dataset to predict the sex of the owner of an unknown footprint. The study concentrates on morphological features in order to deal with bloodstain footprint transfer stains formed on any non-porous/non-absorbent surfaces such as cemented floor, glass, mosaic floor space, colored and designed tiled floor spaces. Features such as the angle of walking and foot breadth were found to be particularly influential

  17. Is it possible to predict the presence of colorectal cancer in a blood test? A probabilistic approach method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro Rodríguez, José Manuel; Gallego Plazas, Javier; Borrás Rocher, Fernando; Calpena Rico, Rafael; Ruiz Macia, José Antonio; Morcillo Ródenas, Miguel Ángel

    2017-10-01

    The assessment of the state of immunosurveillance (the ability of the organism to prevent the development of neoplasias) in the blood has prognostic implications of interest in colorectal cancer. We evaluated and quantified a possible predictive character of the disease in a blood test using a mathematical interaction index of several blood parameters. The predictive capacity of the index to detect colorectal cancer was also assessed. We performed a retrospective case-control study of a comparative analysis of the distribution of blood parameters in 266 patients with colorectal cancer and 266 healthy patients during the period from 2009 to 2013. Statistically significant differences (p indexes (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio), hemoglobin, hematocrit and eosinophil levels. These differences allowed the design of a blood analytical profile that calculates the risk of colorectal cancer. This risk profile can be quantified via a mathematical formula with a probabilistic capacity to identify patients with the highest risk of the presence of colorectal cancer (area under the ROC curve = 0.85). We showed that a colorectal cancer predictive character exists in blood which can be quantified by an interaction index of several blood parameters. The design and development of interaction indexes of blood parameters constitutes an interesting research line for the development and improvement of programs for the screening of colorectal cancer.

  18. Is it possible to predict the presence of colorectal cancer in a blood test?: a probabilistic approach method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Manuel Navarro-Rodríguez

    Full Text Available Introduction: The assessment of the state of immunosurveillance (the ability of the organism to prevent the development of neoplasias in the blood has prognostic implications of interest in colorectal cancer. We evaluated and quantified a possible predictive character of the disease in a blood test using a mathematical interaction index of several blood parameters. The predictive capacity of the index to detect colorectal cancer was also assessed. Methods: We performed a retrospective case-control study of a comparative analysis of the distribution of blood parameters in 266 patients with colorectal cancer and 266 healthy patients during the period from 2009 to 2013. Results: Statistically significant differences (p < 0.05 were observed between patients with colorectal cancer and the control group in terms of platelet counts, fibrinogen, total leukocytes, neutrophils, systemic immunovigilance indexes (neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio and platelet to lymphocyte ratio, hemoglobin, hematocrit and eosinophil levels. These differences allowed the design of a blood analytical profile that calculates the risk of colorectal cancer. This risk profile can be quantified via a mathematical formula with a probabilistic capacity to identify patients with the highest risk of the presence of colorectal cancer (area under the ROC curve = 0.85. Conclusions: We showed that a colorectal cancer predictive character exists in blood which can be quantified by an interaction index of several blood parameters. The design and development of interaction indexes of blood parameters constitutes an interesting research line for the development and improvement of programs for the screening of colorectal cancer.

  19. Predicting mining activity with parallel genetic algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaie, S.; Leigh, R.; Louis, S.J.; Raines, G.L.; Beyer, H.G.; O'Reilly, U.M.; Banzhaf, Arnold D.; Blum, W.; Bonabeau, C.; Cantu-Paz, E.W.; ,; ,

    2005-01-01

    We explore several different techniques in our quest to improve the overall model performance of a genetic algorithm calibrated probabilistic cellular automata. We use the Kappa statistic to measure correlation between ground truth data and data predicted by the model. Within the genetic algorithm, we introduce a new evaluation function sensitive to spatial correctness and we explore the idea of evolving different rule parameters for different subregions of the land. We reduce the time required to run a simulation from 6 hours to 10 minutes by parallelizing the code and employing a 10-node cluster. Our empirical results suggest that using the spatially sensitive evaluation function does indeed improve the performance of the model and our preliminary results also show that evolving different rule parameters for different regions tends to improve overall model performance. Copyright 2005 ACM.

  20. Pro blood clotting activity of Scoparia dulcis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ediriweera, E R H S S; Jayakody, J R A C; Ratnasooriya, W D

    2011-04-01

    Scoparia dulcis Linn (Family: Scrophulariaceae, Sinhala: WalKoththamalli) is a perennial herb growing in many tropical countries including Sri Lanka. Traditional Physicians in rural down south areas apply crushed S. dulcis plant on cuts and bruises to stop bleeding. S. dulcis may also have Rakta Sthambhana property. The study on effect of decoction (water extract) of S. dulcis on blood clotting time in rats was carried out to investigate this. Two groups of rats, 12 males and 42 females were used in this experimental study. Forty-two female rats were assigned into seven equal groups (n = 6/gp). Different doses of DE (25, 50, 100, 1000, 1500 mg/kg) (group 1-5) or 2 ml of distilled water (DW) (group 6) were orally administered. 0.1 ml of vitamin K was injected intramuscularly (group 7) as reference drug to seventh the group. Twelve male rats were assigned into two equal groups (n = 6/gp), 2 ml of distilled water (DW) and doses of DE (1500 mg/kg) were orally administered. Clotting time was determined on the Days 1, 2, and 7 using Lee and White method. In the DE treated groups with all doses, there was no reduction in clotting time on the Day 1 but a significant reduction of clotting time (P dulcis has proclotting activity (rakthasthambhana property) and this was faster than vitamin K.

  1. Prediction of iodine activity peak during refuelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hozer, Z.; Vajda, N.

    2001-01-01

    The increase of fission product activities in the primary circuit of a nuclear power plant indicates the existence of defects in some fuel rods. The power change leads to the cooling down of the fuel and results in the fragmentation of the UO 2 pellets, which facilitates the release of fission products from the intergranular regions. Furthermore the injection of boric acid after shutdown will increase the primary activity, due to the solution of deposited fission products from the surface of the core components. The calculation of these phenomena usually is based on the evaluation of activity measurements and power plant data. The estimation of iodine spiking peak during reactor transients is based on correlation with operating parameters, such as reactor power and primary pressure. The approach used in the present method was applied for CANDU reactors. The VVER-440 specific correlations were determined using the activity measurements of the Paks NPP and the data provided by the Russian fuel supplier. The present method is used for the evaluation of the iodine isotopes, as well as the noble gases. A numerical model has been developed for iodine spiking simulation and has been validated against several shutdown transients, measured at Paks NPP. (R.P.)

  2. A review of studies of the activation of the blood coagulation mechanism in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ten Cate, H.; Schenk, B. E.; Biemond, B. J.; Levi, M. [=Marcel M.; van der Poll, T.; Buller, H. R.; ten Cate, J. W.

    1994-01-01

    This paper reviews our recent studies of blood coagulation activation in the chimpanzee which were carried out employing sensitive immunoassays that measure activation markers of blood coagulation in plasma. Infused factor VIIa activated both factors IX and X in vivo; this reaction depended on the

  3. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  4. Association of physical activity with a systolic blood pressure difference between arms in older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Koichi; Sugiura, Tomonori; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2018-01-01

    A increase in interarm systolic blood pressure difference (IASBPD) is believed to lead to increased risk of cardiovascular disease and to be a predictor of future cardiovascular events. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that an increased IASBPD is associated with reduced physical activity in older people. Older people who used a geriatric health services facility (n = 147, mean age 83.3 years) were enrolled. The prevalence of IASBPD in individuals with different levels of physical activity and factors that have a crucial effect on IASBPD were investigated. The study participants were divided into three groups according to their physical activity; ambulant persons (group A), wheelchair users (group B) and bedridden persons (group C). Blood pressure around the both brachiums was simultaneously measured using two automated devices. An IASBPD of ≥10 mmHg was considered to be significant IASBPD. The median IASBPD was 4.5 mmHg in the present study participants, and 28 participants (19.0%) had an IASBPD ≥10 mmHg. The IASBPD in group C was greater than that in group A or B. Multivariate linear regression analysis showed that physical activity was the independent predictor of IASBPD after adjustment for possible factors. Furthermore, a logistic regression analysis with the end-point of significant IASBPD showed that physical activity is an independent predictor of significant IASBPD. Physical activity simply assessed by moving ability can predict IASBPD in older individuals. In older people, reduced physical activity might indicate the progression of silent or clinical atherosclerosis and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2018; 18: 95-100. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.

  5. Predictive Value of Whole Blood and Plasma Coagulation Tests for Intra- and Postoperative Bleeding Risk: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Brogaard; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    review of the existing literature assessing the ability of whole blood coagulation (thromboelastography [TEG]/thromboelastometry [ROTEM]/Sonoclot), platelet function tests, and standard plasma-based coagulation tests to predict bleeding in the perioperative setting. We searched PubMed and Embase...... value of testing in patients receiving antithrombotic medication. In general, studies reported low positive predictive values for perioperative testing, whereas negative predictive values were high. The studies yielded moderate areas under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (for the majority...... recommend that both whole blood and plasma-based coagulation tests are primarily used in case of bleeding and not for screening in unselected patients prior to surgery....

  6. Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karschner, Erin L; Schwope, David M; Schwilke, Eugene W; Goodwin, Robert S; Kelly, Deanna L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-10-01

    Determining time since last cannabis/Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5h after the last THC dose, respectively. Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  7. Endocan Levels in Peripheral Blood Predict Outcomes of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Tang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To investigate the prognostic significance of endocan, compared with procalcitonin (PCT, C-reactive protein (CRP,white blood cells (WBC, neutrophils (N, and clinical severity scores in patients with ARDS. Methods. A total of 42 patients with ARDS were initially enrolled, and there were 20 nonsurvivors and 22 survivors based on hospital mortality. Plasma levels of biomarkers were measured and the acute physiology and chronic health evaluation II (APACHE II was calculated on day 1 after the patient met the defining criteria of ARDS. Results. Endocan levels significantly correlated with the APACHE II score in the ARDS group (r=0.676, P=0.000, n=42. Of 42 individuals with ARDS, 20 were dead, and endocan was significantly higher in nonsurvivors than in survivors (median (IQR 5.01 (2.98–8.44 versus 3.01 (2.36–4.36 ng/mL, P=0.017. According to the results of the ROC-curve analysis and COX proportional hazards models, endocan can predict mortality of ARDS independently with a hazard ratio of 1.374 (95% CI, 1.150–1.641 and an area of receiver operator characteristic curve (AUROC of 0.715 (P=0.017. Moreover, endocan can predict the multiple-organ dysfunction of ARDS. Conclusion. Endocan is a promising biomarker to predict the disease severity and mortality in patients with ARDS.

  8. Exploring the Limitations of Peripheral Blood Transcriptional Biomarkers in Predicting Influenza Vaccine Responsiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Marchetti

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Systems biology has been recently applied to vaccinology to better understand immunological responses to the influenza vaccine. Particular attention has been paid to the identification of early signatures capable of predicting vaccine immunogenicity. Building from previous studies, we employed a recently established algorithm for signature-based clustering of expression profiles, SCUDO, to provide new insights into why blood-derived transcriptome biomarkers often fail to predict the seroresponse to the influenza virus vaccination. Specifically, preexisting immunity against one or more vaccine antigens, which was found to negatively affect the seroresponse, was identified as a confounding factor able to decouple early transcriptome from later antibody responses, resulting in the degradation of a biomarker predictive power. Finally, the broadly accepted definition of seroresponse to influenza virus vaccine, represented by the maximum response across the vaccine-targeted strains, was compared to a composite measure integrating the responses against all strains. This analysis revealed that composite measures provide a more accurate assessment of the seroresponse to multicomponent influenza vaccines.

  9. Predicting the degradability of waste activated sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Richard; Parker, Wayne; Zhu, Henry; Houweling, Dwight; Murthy, Sudhir

    2009-08-01

    The objective of this study was to identify methods for estimating anaerobic digestibility of waste activated sludge (WAS). The WAS streams were generated in three sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) treating municipal wastewater. The wastewater and WAS properties were initially determined through simulation of SBR operation with BioWin (EnviroSim Associates Ltd., Flamborough, Ontario, Canada). Samples of WAS from the SBRs were subsequently characterized through respirometry and batch anaerobic digestion. Respirometry was an effective tool for characterizing the active fraction of WAS and could be a suitable technique for determining sludge composition for input to anaerobic models. Anaerobic digestion of the WAS revealed decreasing methane production and lower chemical oxygen demand removals as the SRT of the sludge increased. BioWin was capable of accurately describing the digestion of the WAS samples for typical digester SRTs. For extended digestion times (i.e., greater than 30 days), some degradation of the endogenous decay products was assumed to achieve accurate simulations for all sludge SRTs.

  10. Dietary Sodium Consumption Predicts Future Blood Pressure and Incident Hypertension in the Japanese Normotensive General Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takase, Hiroyuki; Sugiura, Tomonori; Kimura, Genjiro; Ohte, Nobuyuki; Dohi, Yasuaki

    2015-07-29

    Although there is a close relationship between dietary sodium and hypertension, the concept that persons with relatively high dietary sodium are at increased risk of developing hypertension compared with those with relatively low dietary sodium has not been studied intensively in a cohort. We conducted an observational study to investigate whether dietary sodium intake predicts future blood pressure and the onset of hypertension in the general population. Individual sodium intake was estimated by calculating 24-hour urinary sodium excretion from spot urine in 4523 normotensive participants who visited our hospital for a health checkup. After a baseline examination, they were followed for a median of 1143 days, with the end point being development of hypertension. During the follow-up period, hypertension developed in 1027 participants (22.7%). The risk of developing hypertension was higher in those with higher rather than lower sodium intake (hazard ratio 1.25, 95% CI 1.04 to 1.50). In multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis, baseline sodium intake and the yearly change in sodium intake during the follow-up period (as continuous variables) correlated with the incidence of hypertension. Furthermore, both the yearly increase in sodium intake and baseline sodium intake showed significant correlations with the yearly increase in systolic blood pressure in multivariate regression analysis after adjustment for possible risk factors. Both relatively high levels of dietary sodium intake and gradual increases in dietary sodium are associated with future increases in blood pressure and the incidence of hypertension in the Japanese general population. © 2015 The Authors. Published on behalf of the American Heart Association, Inc., by Wiley Blackwell.

  11. Red Blood Cell Distribution Width: A Novel Predictive Indicator for Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The red blood cell distribution width (RDW obtained from a standard complete blood count (CBC is a convenient and inexpensive biochemical parameter representing the variability in size of circulating erythrocytes. Over the past few decades, RDW with mean corpuscular volume (MCV has been used to identify quite a few hematological system diseases including iron-deficiency anemia and bone marrow dysfunction. In recent years, many clinical studies have proved that the alterations of RDW levels may be associated with the incidence and prognosis in many cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases (CVDs. Therefore, early detection and intervention in time of these vascular diseases is critical for delaying their progression. RDW as a new predictive marker and an independent risk factor plays a significant role in assessing the severity and progression of CVDs. However, the mechanisms of the association between RDW and the prognosis of CVDs remain unclear. In this review, we will provide an overview of the representative literatures concerning hypothetical and potential epidemiological associations between RDW and CVDs and discuss the underlying mechanisms.

  12. Nucleated red blood cells and early EEG: predicting Sarnat stage and two year outcome.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Walsh, B H

    2012-01-31

    AIMS: Hypoxic Ischaemic Encephalopathy (HIE) causes characteristic changes of the electroencephalogram (EEG), and a raised Nucleated Red Blood Cell (NRBC) count compared to controls. We wished to examine whether combining these markers could improve their ability to predict HIE severity in the first 24h. METHODS: Term infants with HIE were recruited. NRBC count and continuous multi-channel EEG were recorded within the first 24h. Neurological assessment was carried out at 24 months. A control population with NRBC counts in the first 24h was recruited. RESULTS: 44 infants with HIE and 43 control infants were recruited. Of the HIE population 39 completed a 2 year follow-up. The median NRBC count differed significantly between the controls and those with HIE (3\\/100 WBC [range of 0-11] vs 12.3\\/100 WBC [0-240]) (p<0.001). Within the HIE population the median NRBC count was significantly greater in infants with moderate\\/severe HIE than mild (16\\/100 WBC [range of 0-240] vs 8\\/100 WBC [1-23]) (p=0.016), and among infants with abnormal outcome compared to normal (21.3\\/100 WBC [1-239.8] vs 8.3\\/100 WBC [0-50])(p=0.03). The predictive ability of EEG changed with time post-delivery, therefore results are given at both 12 and 24h of age. At both time points the combined marker had a stronger correlation than EEG alone; with HIE severity (12h: r=0.661 vs r=0.622), (24h: r=0.645 vs r=0.598), and with outcome at 2 years (12h: r=0.756 vs r=0.652), (24h: r=0.802 vs r=0.746). CONCLUSION: Combining early EEG and NRBC count to predict HIE severity and neurological outcome, improved the predictive ability of either in isolation.

  13. Uric Acid Excretion Predicts Increased Blood Pressure Among American Adolescents of African Descent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mrug, Sylvie; Mrug, Michal; Morris, Anjana Madan; Reynolds, Nina; Patel, Anita; Hill, Danielle C; Feig, Daniel I

    2017-04-01

    Hyperuricemia predicts the incidence of hypertension in adults and its treatment has blood pressure (BP)-lowering effects in adolescents. To date, no studies have examined the predictive usage of hyperuricemia or urinary uric acid excretion on BP changes in adolescents. Mechanistic models suggest that uric acid impairs both endothelial function and vascular compliance, which would potentially exacerbate a myriad of hypertensive mechanisms, yet little is known about interaction of uric acid and other hypertension risk factors. The primary study was aimed at the effects of stress on BP in adolescents. A community sample of 84 low-income, urban adolescents (50% male, 95% African American, mean age = 13.36 ± 1 years) was recruited from public schools. Youth completed a 12-hour (overnight) urine collection at home and their BP was measured during rest and in response to acute psychosocial stress. Seventy-six of the adolescents participated in a follow-up visit at 1.5 years when their resting BP was reassessed. In this substudy, we assessed the relationship of renal urate excretion and BP reactivity. After adjusting for resting BP levels at baseline and other covariates, higher levels of uric acid excretion predicted greater BP reactivity to acute psychosocial stress and higher resting BP at 18 months. Urinary excretion of uric acid can serve as an alternative, noninvasive measure of serum uric acid levels that are predictive of BP changes. As hyperuricemia-associated hypertension is treatable, urban adolescents may benefit from routine screening for hyperuricemia or high uric acid excretion. Copyright © 2017 Southern Society for Clinical Investigation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Hypotension Risk Prediction via Sequential Contrast Patterns of ICU Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Shameek; Feng, Mengling; Nguyen, Hung; Li, Jinyan

    2016-09-01

    Acute hypotension is a significant risk factor for in-hospital mortality at intensive care units. Prolonged hypotension can cause tissue hypoperfusion, leading to cellular dysfunction and severe injuries to multiple organs. Prompt medical interventions are thus extremely important for dealing with acute hypotensive episodes (AHE). Population level prognostic scoring systems for risk stratification of patients are suboptimal in such scenarios. However, the design of an efficient risk prediction system can significantly help in the identification of critical care patients, who are at risk of developing an AHE within a future time span. Toward this objective, a pattern mining algorithm is employed to extract informative sequential contrast patterns from hemodynamic data, for the prediction of hypotensive episodes. The hypotensive and normotensive patient groups are extracted from the MIMIC-II critical care research database, following an appropriate clinical inclusion criteria. The proposed method consists of a data preprocessing step to convert the blood pressure time series into symbolic sequences, using a symbolic aggregate approximation algorithm. Then, distinguishing subsequences are identified using the sequential contrast mining algorithm. These subsequences are used to predict the occurrence of an AHE in a future time window separated by a user-defined gap interval. Results indicate that the method performs well in terms of the prediction performance as well as in the generation of sequential patterns of clinical significance. Hence, the novelty of sequential patterns is in their usefulness as potential physiological biomarkers for building optimal patient risk stratification systems and for further clinical investigation of interesting patterns in critical care patients.

  15. Active Recovery between Interval Bouts Reduces Blood Lactate While Improving Subsequent Exercise Performance in Trained Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Harutiun M. Nalbandian

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to examine the blood lactate and blood pH kinetics during high-intensity interval training. Seventeen well-trained athletes exercised on two different occasions. Exercises consisted of three 30 s bouts at a constant intensity (90% of peak power with 4 min recovery between bouts followed by a Wingate test (WT. The recoveries were either active recovery (at 60% of the lactate threshold intensity or passive recovery (resting at sitting position. During the exercise, blood samples were taken to determine blood gasses, blood lactate, and blood pH, and peak and average power were calculated for the WT. When performing the active recovery trials, blood pH was significantly higher (p < 0.01 and blood lactate was significantly lower (p < 0.01 compared with the passive recovery trials. WT performance was significantly higher in the active recovery trials: peak power was 671 ± 88 and 715 ± 108 watts, and average power was 510 ± 70 and 548 ± 73 watts (passive and active respectively; p < 0.01. However, no statistically significant correlations were found between the increased pH and the increased performance in the active recovery trials. These results suggest that active recovery performed during high-intensity interval exercise favors the performance in a following WT. Moreover, the blood pH variations associated with active recovery did not explain the enhanced performance.

  16. Prediction for the occurrence of clonal chromosome aberrations in human blood lymphocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakano, M.; Kadama, Y.; Ohtaki, K.; Itoh, M.; Awa, A.; Cologne, J.; Nakamura, N.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: Identical chromosome aberrations among multiple blood lymphocytes in a blood sample (clonal aberrations) are encountered occasionally during cytogenetic examination of radiation-exposed people. Clonal aberrations are found primarily among high-dose exposed people but no systematic surveys were ever conducted. Therefore, the underlying mechanism is unknown. Here we conducted a large-scale screening for detecting clonal aberrations using FISH followed by Q-banding. Examinations of 500 cells from each of 513 A-bomb survivors led us to detect 96 clones. The clonal cell fraction (Cf) varied from 0.6% to 20% among the 500 cells. As the number of clonal event was inversely proportional to Cf, we hypothesized that the progenitor cells vary extensively in the number of offspring that they can produce and relative number of progenitor cells decreases as the increase of treatment, while other genes such as DNA repair proteinsnumber of progenitor cells capable to form clones (Cf >=0.6%) to be 2 (1 to 3) in non-exposed individuals. The number increased to up to 7 among the high-dose exposed survivors. Further, our preliminary results for the origins of 10 clones indicated that both hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and mature T cells contributed to the clone formation roughly equally. Thus, the estimated number of 2 in non-exposed individuals is shared as one HSC and one mature T cells. The model could neatly explain the frequency of clones in two reports. Our model predicts that clonal aberrations are rarely found but clonal expansion of T lymphocytes occurs commonly. In fact, clonal expansions of non-aberrant cells are reported using TCR gene rearrangement patterns as a marker. We now understand the rough structure of lymphocyte pool in humans and can predict the probability of detecting a clone if the individual frequency of non-clonal translocations and the number of cells scored are given

  17. An acute rat in vivo screening model to predict compounds that alter blood glucose and/or insulin regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brott, David A; Diamond, Melody; Campbell, Pam; Zuvich, Andy; Cheatham, Letitia; Bentley, Patricia; Gorko, Mary Ann; Fikes, James; Saye, JoAnne

    2013-01-01

    Drug-induced glucose dysregulation and insulin resistance have been associated with weight gain and potential induction and/or exacerbation of diabetes mellitus in the clinic suggesting they may be safety biomarkers when developing antipsychotics. Glucose and insulin have also been suggested as potential efficacy biomarkers for some oncology compounds. The objective of this study was to qualify a medium throughput rat in vivo acute Intravenous Glucose Tolerance Test (IVGTT) for predicting compounds that will induce altered blood glucose and/or insulin levels. Acute and sub-chronic studies were performed to qualify an acute IVGTT model. Double cannulated male rats (Han-Wistar and Sprague-Dawley) were administered vehicle, olanzapine, aripiprazole or other compounds at t=-44min for acute studies and at time=-44min on the last day of dosing for sub-chronic studies, treated with dextrose (time=0min; i.v.) and blood collected using an automated Culex® system for glucose and insulin analysis (time=-45, -1, 2, 10, 15, 30, 45, 60, 75, 90, 120, 150 and 180min). Olanzapine significantly increased glucose and insulin area under the curve (AUC) values while aripiprazole AUC values were similar to control, in both acute and sub-chronic studies. All atypical antipsychotics evaluated were consistent with literature references of clinical weight gain. As efficacy biomarkers, insulin AUC but not glucose AUC values were increased with a compound known to have insulin growth factor-1 (IGF-1) activity, compared to control treatment. These studies qualified the medium throughput acute IVGTT model to more quickly screen compounds for 1) safety - the potential to elicit glucose dysregulation and/or insulin resistance and 2) efficacy - as a surrogate for compounds affecting the glucose and/or insulin regulatory pathways. These data demonstrate that the same in vivo rat model and assays can be used to predict both clinical safety and efficacy of compounds. © 2013.

  18. Leptospira interrogans activation of peripheral blood monocyte glycolipoprotein demonstrated in whole blood by the release of IL-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Dorigatti

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Glycolipoprotein (GLP from pathogenic serovars of Leptospira has been implicated in the pathogenesis of leptospirosis by its presence in tissues of experimental animals with leptospirosis, the inhibition of the Na,K-ATPase pump activity, and induced production of cytokines. The aims of the present study were to investigate the induction of IL-6 by GLP in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC and to demonstrate monocyte stimulation at the cellular level in whole blood from healthy volunteers. PBMC were stimulated with increasing concentrations (5 to 2500 ng/ml of GLP extracted from the pathogenic L. interrogans serovar Copenhageni, lipopolysaccharide (positive control or medium (negative control, and supernatants were collected after 6, 20/24, and 48 h, and kept at -80ºC until use. Whole blood was diluted 1:1 in RPMI medium and cultivated for 6 h, with medium, GLP and lipopolysaccharide as described above. Monensin was added after the first hour of culture. Supernatant cytokine levels from PBMC were measured by ELISA and intracellular IL-6 was detected in monocytes in whole blood cultures by flow-cytometry. Monocytes were identified in whole blood on the basis of forward versus side scatter parameters and positive reactions with CD45 and CD14 antibodies. GLP ( > or = 50 ng/ml-induced IL-6 levels in supernatants were detected after 6-h incubation, reaching a peak after 20/24 h. The percentage of monocytes staining for IL-6 increased with increasing GLP concentration. Thus, our findings show a GLP-induced cellular activation by demonstrating the ability of GLP to induce IL-6 and the occurrence of monocyte activation in whole blood at the cellular level.

  19. Transthyretin-Binding Activity of Contaminants in Blood from Polar Bear (Ursus maritimus) Cubs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bytingsvik, J.; Simon, E.; Leonards, P.E.G.; Lamoree, M.H.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Derocher, A. E.; Wiig, O.; Jenssen, B.M.; Hamers, T.

    2013-01-01

    We determined the transthyretin (TTR)-binding activity of blood-accumulating contaminants in blood plasma samples of approximately 4-months-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs from Svalbard sampled in 1998 and 2008. The TTR-binding activity was measured as thyroxine (T4)-like equivalents (T4-EQ

  20. Validation of Automated Prediction of Blood Product Needs Algorithm Processing Continuous Non Invasive Vital Signs Streams (ONPOINT4)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-25

    ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) University of Maryland, Baltimore 22 S. Greene St. R Adams Cowley Shock Trauma Center, T5R46 Baltimore, MD 21201 8...the revised trauma score, shock index (= heart rate/systolic blood pressure), and assessment of blood consumption, our M2 (bleeding risk index...11 4.2 Transfusion Prediction Model Evaluation in Special Subsets (Model Stress Test) ....... 15 4.3 Feature Sets and Model Stability

  1. A Genetic Algorithm Based Support Vector Machine Model for Blood-Brain Barrier Penetration Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daqing Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood-brain barrier (BBB is a highly complex physical barrier determining what substances are allowed to enter the brain. Support vector machine (SVM is a kernel-based machine learning method that is widely used in QSAR study. For a successful SVM model, the kernel parameters for SVM and feature subset selection are the most important factors affecting prediction accuracy. In most studies, they are treated as two independent problems, but it has been proven that they could affect each other. We designed and implemented genetic algorithm (GA to optimize kernel parameters and feature subset selection for SVM regression and applied it to the BBB penetration prediction. The results show that our GA/SVM model is more accurate than other currently available log BB models. Therefore, to optimize both SVM parameters and feature subset simultaneously with genetic algorithm is a better approach than other methods that treat the two problems separately. Analysis of our log BB model suggests that carboxylic acid group, polar surface area (PSA/hydrogen-bonding ability, lipophilicity, and molecular charge play important role in BBB penetration. Among those properties relevant to BBB penetration, lipophilicity could enhance the BBB penetration while all the others are negatively correlated with BBB penetration.

  2. Blood pressure reactivity to psychological stress predicts hypertension in the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Karen A; Katholi, Charles R; McCreath, Heather; Whooley, Mary A; Williams, David R; Zhu, Sha; Markovitz, Jerry H

    2004-07-06

    A longstanding but controversial hypothesis is that individuals who exhibit frequent, large increases in blood pressure (BP) during psychological stress are at risk for developing essential hypertension. We tested whether BP changes during psychological stress predict incident hypertension in young adults. We used survival analysis to predict hypertensive status during 13 years of follow-up in a sample of >4100 normotensive black and white men and women (age at entry, 18 to 30 years) enrolled in the CARDIA study. BP responses to 3 psychological challenges--cold pressor, star tracing, and video game tasks--were measured. Hypertensive status was defined as use of antihypertensive medication or measured BP > or =140/90 mm Hg. After adjustment for race, gender, covariates (education, body mass index, age, and resting pressure), and their significant interactions, the larger the BP responses were to each of the 3 tasks, the earlier hypertension occurred (Pvideo game was apparent for men. Young adults who show a large BP response to psychological stress may be at risk for hypertension as they approach midlife.

  3. A combination of routine blood analytes predicts fitness decrement in elderly endurance athletes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmuth Haslacher

    Full Text Available Endurance sports are enjoying greater popularity, particularly among new target groups such as the elderly. Predictors of future physical capacities providing a basis for training adaptations are in high demand. We therefore aimed to estimate the future physical performance of elderly marathoners (runners/bicyclists using a set of easily accessible standard laboratory parameters. To this end, 47 elderly marathon athletes underwent physical examinations including bicycle ergometry and a blood draw at baseline and after a three-year follow-up period. In order to compile a statistical model containing baseline laboratory results allowing prediction of follow-up ergometry performance, the cohort was subgrouped into a model training (n = 25 and a test sample (n = 22. The model containing significant predictors in univariate analysis (alanine aminotransferase, urea, folic acid, myeloperoxidase and total cholesterol presented with high statistical significance and excellent goodness of fit (R2 = 0.789, ROC-AUC = 0.951±0.050 in the model training sample and was validated in the test sample (ROC-AUC = 0.786±0.098. Our results suggest that standard laboratory parameters could be particularly useful for predicting future physical capacity in elderly marathoners. It hence merits further research whether these conclusions can be translated to other disciplines or age groups.

  4. Physical Activity, BMI, and Blood Pressure in US Youth: NHANES 2003-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betz, Heather Hayes; Eisenmann, Joey C; Laurson, Kelly R; DuBose, Katrina D; Reeves, Mathew J; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A

    2018-03-15

    The objective of this study was to examine the independent and combined association of physical activity and body mass index (BMI) with blood pressure in youth. Youth aged 8-18 years from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) with BMI, blood pressure, and physical activity (accelerometer) were included in the analyses. A total of 2585 subjects (1303 males; 47% of all 8- to 18-year-olds) met these criteria. Obese youth had a systolic blood pressure that was 8 mm Hg higher than normal weight youth. A significant interaction between BMI and physical activity on blood pressure was found (P < .001), and group differences among the BMI/activity groups showed that the 3 obese groups and the overweight/least active group had significantly higher systolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group across all analyses. The overweight/least active and normal weight/least active groups had significantly higher diastolic blood pressure than the normal weight/active group as well. This study showed a significant independent and combined association of BMI and physical activity with blood pressure in youth. Interventions need to focus on the reduction of fatness/BMI as a way to reduce the cardiovascular risk in youth.

  5. Bioprotective properties of Dragon's blood resin: In vitro evaluation of antioxidant activity and antimicrobial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta Rajinder K

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food preservation is basically done to preserve the natural characteristics and appearance of the food and to increase the shelf life of food. Food preservatives in use are natural, chemical and artificial. Keeping in mind the adverse effects of synthetic food preservatives, there is a need to identify natural food preservatives. The aims of this study were to evaluate in vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of Dragon's blood resin obtained from Dracaena cinnabari Balf f., with a view to develop safer food preservatives. Methods In this study, three solvents of varying polarity were used to extract and separate the medium and high polarity compounds from the non-polar compounds of the Dragon's blood resin. The extracts were evaluated for their antimicrobial activity against the food borne pathogens. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were assessed using DPPH and ABTS radical scavenging, FRAP, metal chelating and reducing power assays. Total phenolics, flavonoids and flavonols of extracts were also estimated using the standard methods. Results Phytochemical analysis of extracts revealed high phenolic content in CH2Cl2 extract of resin. Free radical scavenging of CH2Cl2 extract was found to be highest which is in good correlation with its total phenolic content. All test microorganisms were also inhibited by CH2Cl2 extract. Conclusions Our result provide evidence that CH2Cl2 extract is a potential source of natural antioxidant compounds and exhibited good inhibitory activity against various food borne pathogens. Thus, CH2Cl2 extract of Dragon's blood resin could be considered as possible source of food preservative.

  6. The ACTA PORT-score for predicting perioperative risk of blood transfusion for adult cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, A A; Collier, T; Yeates, J; Miles, L F; Fletcher, S N; Evans, C; Richards, T

    2017-09-01

    A simple and accurate scoring system to predict risk of transfusion for patients undergoing cardiac surgery is lacking. We identified independent risk factors associated with transfusion by performing univariate analysis, followed by logistic regression. We then simplified the score to an integer-based system and tested it using the area under the receiver operator characteristic (AUC) statistic with a Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit test. Finally, the scoring system was applied to the external validation dataset and the same statistical methods applied to test the accuracy of the ACTA-PORT score. Several factors were independently associated with risk of transfusion, including age, sex, body surface area, logistic EuroSCORE, preoperative haemoglobin and creatinine, and type of surgery. In our primary dataset, the score accurately predicted risk of perioperative transfusion in cardiac surgery patients with an AUC of 0.76. The external validation confirmed accuracy of the scoring method with an AUC of 0.84 and good agreement across all scores, with a minor tendency to under-estimate transfusion risk in very high-risk patients. The ACTA-PORT score is a reliable, validated tool for predicting risk of transfusion for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. This and other scores can be used in research studies for risk adjustment when assessing outcomes, and might also be incorporated into a Patient Blood Management programme. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Journal of Anaesthesia. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com

  7. Assessing cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure to predict incident hypertension in a general population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorbeer, Roberto; Ittermann, Till; Völzke, Henry; Gläser, Sven; Ewert, Ralf; Felix, Stephan B; Dörr, Marcus

    2015-07-01

    Cutoff values for increased exercise blood pressure (BP) are not established in hypertension guidelines. The aim of the study was to assess optimal cutoff values for increased exercise BP to predict incident hypertension. Data of 661 normotensive participants (386 women) aged 25-77 years from the Study of Health in Pomerania (SHIP-1) with a 5-year follow-up were used. Exercise BP was measured at a submaximal level of 100 W and at maximum level of a symptom-limited cycle ergometry test. Cutoff values for increased exercise BP were defined at the maximum sum of sensitivity and specificity for the prediction of incident hypertension. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) and net reclassification index (NRI) were calculated to investigate whether increased exercise BP adds predictive value for incident hypertension beyond established cardiovascular risk factors. In men, values of 160  mmHg (100  W level; AUC = 0.7837; NRI = 0.534, P AUC = 0.7677; NRI = 0.340, P = 0.003) were detected as optimal cutoff values for the definition of increased exercise SBP. A value of 190  mmHg (AUC = 0.8347; NRI = 0.519, P < 0.001) showed relevance for the definition of increased exercise SBP in women at the maximum level. According to our analyses, 190 and 210  mmHg are clinically relevant cutoff values for increased exercise SBP at the maximum exercise level of cycle ergometry test for women and men, respectively. In addition, for men, our analyses provided a cutoff value of 160  mmHg for increased exercise SBP at the 100  W level.

  8. Blood Dendritic Cells: Canary in the Coal Mine to Predict Chronic Inflammatory Disease?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brodie eMiles

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The majority of risk factors for chronic inflammatory diseases are unknown. This makes personalized medicine for assessment, prognosis, and choice of therapy very difficult. It is becoming increasingly clear, however, that low-grade subclinical infections may be an underlying cause of many chronic inflammatory diseases and thus may contribute to secondary outcomes (e.g. cancer. Many diseases are now categorized as inflammatory-mediated diseases that stem from a dysregulation in host immunity. There is a growing need to study the links between low-grade infections, the immune responses they elicit, and how this impacts overall health. One such link explored in detail here is the extreme sensitivity of myeloid dendritic cells (mDC in peripheral blood to chronic low-grade infections and the role that these mDCs play in arbitrating the resulting immune responses. We find that emerging evidence supports a role for pathogen-induced mDCs in chronic inflammation leading to increased risk of secondary clinical disease. The mDCs that are elevated in the blood as a result of low-grade bacteremia often do not trigger a productive immune response, but can disseminate the pathogen throughout the host. This aberrant trafficking of mDCs can accelerate systemic inflammatory disease progression. Conversely, restoration of DC homeostasis may aid in pathogen elimination and minimize dissemination. Thus it would seem prudent when assessing chronic inflammatory disease risk to consider blood mDC numbers, and the microbial content (microbiome and activation state of these mDCs. These may provide important clues (the canary in the coal mine of high inflammatory disease risk. This will facilitate development of novel immunotherapies to eliminate such smoldering infections in atherosclerosis, cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and pre-eclampsia.

  9. Erythrocyte endogenous proteinase activity during blood bank storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Angelis, V; de Matteis, M C; Orazi, B M; Santarossa, L; Della Toffola, L; Raineri, A; Vettore, L

    1990-01-01

    We studied proteolytic alterations of membrane proteins in ghosts derived from human red blood cells, preserved up to 35 days in the liquid state either as whole blood or with additive solution. The study was carried out by performing sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of stromal proteins from erythrocytes, either previously treated with proteinase inhibitors or previously incubated in conditions promoting proteolysis. To differentiate the effect of erythrocyte from granulocyte proteinases, the investigation was also carried out in leukocyte-free red cell preparations. The results show: (1) the effects of endogenous proteinases on membrane proteins derived from red cells stored under blood bank conditions; (2) a decrease of proteolytic effects in ghosts derived from red cells which have been submitted to a longer storage; (3) a relevant influence of the red cell resuspending medium before lysis on the time-dependent onset and exhaustion of proteolysis in ghosts. The presence of increased proteolysis in ghosts could be regarded as a marker of molecular lesions induced in red cells by storage under blood bank conditions.

  10. Blood monocyte oxidative burst activity in acute P. falciparum malaria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, H; Theander, T G

    1989-01-01

    The release of superoxide anion from blood monocytes was studied in eight patients with acute primary attack P. falciparum malaria. Before treatment a significant enhancement of the oxidative burst prevailed, which contrasts with previous findings of a depressed monocyte chemotactic responsiveness...

  11. Nonlinear Predictive Sliding Mode Control for Active Suspension System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dazhuang Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An active suspension system is important in meeting the requirements of the ride comfort and handling stability for vehicles. In this work, a nonlinear model of active suspension system and a corresponding nonlinear robust predictive sliding mode control are established for the control problem of active suspension. Firstly, a seven-degree-of-freedom active suspension model is established considering the nonlinear effects of springs and dampers; and secondly, the dynamic model is expanded in the time domain, and the corresponding predictive sliding mode control is established. The uncertainties in the controller are approximated by the fuzzy logic system, and the adaptive controller reduces the approximation error to increase the robustness of the control system. Finally, the simulation results show that the ride comfort and handling stability performance of the active suspension system is better than that of the passive suspension system and the Skyhook active suspension. Thus, the system can obviously improve the shock absorption performance of vehicles.

  12. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients: CoCoNet study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-06-01

    There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings.

  13. Significant interarm blood pressure difference predicts cardiovascular risk in hypertensive patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Su-A; Kim, Jang Young; Park, Jeong Bae

    2016-01-01

    Abstract There has been a rising interest in interarm blood pressure difference (IAD), due to its relationship with peripheral arterial disease and its possible relationship with cardiovascular disease. This study aimed to characterize hypertensive patients with a significant IAD in relation to cardiovascular risk. A total of 3699 patients (mean age, 61 ± 11 years) were prospectively enrolled in the study. Blood pressure (BP) was measured simultaneously in both arms 3 times using an automated cuff-oscillometric device. IAD was defined as the absolute difference in averaged BPs between the left and right arm, and an IAD ≥ 10 mm Hg was considered to be significant. The Framingham risk score was used to calculate the 10-year cardiovascular risk. The mean systolic IAD (sIAD) was 4.3 ± 4.1 mm Hg, and 285 (7.7%) patients showed significant sIAD. Patients with significant sIAD showed larger body mass index (P < 0.001), greater systolic BP (P = 0.050), more coronary artery disease (relative risk = 1.356, P = 0.034), and more cerebrovascular disease (relative risk = 1.521, P = 0.072). The mean 10-year cardiovascular risk was 9.3 ± 7.7%. By multiple regression, sIAD was significantly but weakly correlated with the 10-year cardiovascular risk (β = 0.135, P = 0.008). Patients with significant sIAD showed a higher prevalence of coronary artery disease, as well as an increase in 10-year cardiovascular risk. Therefore, accurate measurements of sIAD may serve as a simple and cost-effective tool for predicting cardiovascular risk in clinical settings. PMID:27310982

  14. Predictive Model for Blood Product Use in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharif, H.; Ansari, H.Z.; Ashfaq, A.; Rawasia, W.F.; Bano, G.; Hashmi, S.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To build a clinical predictive model to determine the need for transfusing blood and its products in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) procedures in South East Asian population. Study Design: Analytical study. Place and Duration of Study: Section of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from January 2006 to October 2014. Methodology: Information on pre-, intra- and postoperative variables were collected for all adult patients who underwent on-pump CABG. The patients grouped into those who received blood and its components, and those who did not. A univariate as well as multivariate logistic model was built to determine the predictors of transfusion. Result: A total of 3,550 patients underwent CABG and males were dominant in both groups (75 vs. 93 percent). The transfusion rate was 56.4 percent (n=2001). Age (adjusted OR 1.03, p < 0.001), obesity (1.50, p=0.001), tobacco use (1.29, p=0.001), and male gender (4.51, p < 0.001) found to be a stronger predictor. Among preoperative comorbidities, diabetes (1.20, p=0.016), myocardial infarction (1.22, p=0.009), preoperative creatinine (1.12, p=0.033), and left main vessel disease of > 50 percent (1.49, p < 0.001) were independently associated with the outcome. Compared to elective cases, transfusion rates were high in urgent and emergent cases (OR: 1.93 and 3.36 respectively, p < 0.001 for both). Conclusion: Age, male gender, obesity, tobacco use, diabetes, myocardial infarction, high creatinine, urgent and emergent cases were independent predictors of transfusion in CABG procedure. This model can be utilized for preoperative risk stratification of patients and their management to improve the outcomes. (author)

  15. Biomaterials trigger endothelial cell activation when co-incubated with human whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herklotz, Manuela; Hanke, Jasmin; Hänsel, Stefanie; Drichel, Juliane; Marx, Monique; Maitz, Manfred F; Werner, Carsten

    2016-10-01

    Endothelial cell activation resulting from biomaterial contact or biomaterial-induced blood activation may in turn also affect hemostasis and inflammatory processes in the blood. Current in vitro hemocompatibility assays typically ignore these modulating effects of the endothelium. This study describes a co-incubation system of human whole blood, biomaterial and endothelial cells (ECs) that was developed to overcome this limitation. First, human endothelial cells were characterized in terms of their expression of coagulation- and inflammation-relevant markers in response to various activators. Subsequently, their capacity to regulate hemostasis as well as complement and granulocyte activation was monitored in a hemocompatibility assay. After blood contact, quiescent ECs exhibited anticoagulant and anti-inflammatory properties. When they were co-incubated with surfaces exhibiting pro-coagulant or pro-inflammatory characteristics, the ECs down-regulated coagulation but not complement or leukocyte activation. Analysis of intracellular levels of the endothelial activation markers E-selectin and tissue factor showed that co-incubation with model surfaces and blood significantly increased the activation state of ECs. Finally, the coagulation- and inflammation-modulating properties of the ECs were tested after blood/biomaterial exposure. Pre-activation of ECs by biomaterials in the blood induced a pro-coagulant and pro-inflammatory state of the ECs, wherein the pro-coagulant response was higher for biomaterial/blood pre-activated ECs than for TNF-α-pre-activated cells. This work provides evidence that biomaterials, even without directly contacting the endothelium, affect the endothelial activation state with and have consequences for plasmatic and cellular reactions in the blood. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Features and prospects of juridical predicting of entrepreneurial activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalya V. Rubtsova

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective to identify characteristics and prospects of predicting the business activity. Methods historical sociological logical systematicstructural formallegal comparativelegal legal modeling method. Results in article suggests the legal definition of prediction of business activity as a scientific and practical study aimed at the determination of the future state and prospects of development of business activity consisting of the evaluation of legal regulation and analysis of the prospectsof further socioeconomic development which aims to select the optimal solution for the further development of entrepreneurship through legal regulators. The work proves the necessity of achieving a balanced legal regulation of social relations by changing the legislation in the field of business agreements investment and innovation. Scientific novelty the article for the first time formulates the concept characteristics and features of legal prediction of business activity substantiates the impact of predicting on the development of legal regulation of social relations. Practical significance the main provisions and conclusions of the article can be used in research and teaching while considering the issues of predicting both the socioeconomic processes in general and business activity in particular.

  17. Alpha-Amylase Activity in Blood Increases after Pharmacological, But Not Psychological, Activation of the Adrenergic System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Urs M Nater

    Full Text Available Alpha-amylase in both blood and saliva has been used as a diagnostic parameter. While studies examining alpha-amylase activity in saliva have shown that it is sensitive to physiological and psychological challenge of the adrenergic system, no challenge studies have attempted to elucidate the role of the adrenergic system in alpha-amylase activity in blood. We set out to examine the impact of psychological and pharmacological challenge on alpha-amylase in blood in two separate studies.In study 1, healthy subjects were examined in a placebo-controlled, double-blind paradigm using yohimbine, an alpha2-adrenergic antagonist. In study 2, subjects were examined in a standardized rest-controlled psychosocial stress protocol. Alpha-amylase activity in blood was repeatedly measured in both studies.Results of study 1 showed that alpha-amylase in blood is subject to stronger increases after injection of yohimbine compared to placebo. In study 2, results showed that there was no significant effect of psychological stress compared to rest.Alpha-amylase in blood increases after pharmacological activation of the adrenergic pathways suggesting that sympathetic receptors are responsible for these changes. Psychological stress, however, does not seem to have an impact on alpha-amylase in blood. Our findings provide insight into the mechanisms underlying activity changes in alpha-amylase in blood in healthy individuals.

  18. An in vitro transport model for rapid screening and predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhi-Hong; Sun, Xiao; Mei, Chao; Sun, Xiao-Bo; Liu, Xiao-Dong; Chang, Qi

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop a simple in vitro blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeation model for elementarily and rapidly predicting the permeability of candidate compounds at BBB and further evaluating whether P-glycoprotein (P-gp) affects them across BBB. The model was mainly composed of cultured rat brain microvascular endothelial cells (rBMECs), glass contraption, and micropore membrane. First, we evaluated the model by morphological observation. Second, the restriction effects of paracellular transport were verified by measuring marker probes transport, and monitoring transendothelial electrical resistance (TEER) and leakage. Finally, protein expression and activity of P-gp were confirmed by carrying out Western blot analysis and polarized transport of rhodamine-123 (Rho123) in rBMECs. The rBMECs retained both endothelial cells and BBB features. The rBMECs model reproducibly attained approximately 130 Ω cm² on the steady-state TEER value, and displayed a barrier function to marker probes transport by decreasing the permeability. Protein band of 170 kDa manifested the existence of P-gp in the rBMECs, and the findings of cyclosporin A-sensitive decrease of Rho123 efflux confirmed the presence of P-gp activity. A simple, rapid, and convenient in vitro BBB permeation model was successfully established and applied to evaluate the BBB transport profiles of three natural flavonoids: quercetin, naringenin, and rutin.

  19. PRRT genomic signature in blood for prediction of 177Lu-octreotate efficacy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodei, Lisa; Kidd, Mark S; Singh, Aviral; van der Zwan, Wouter A; Severi, Stefano; Drozdov, Ignat A; Cwikla, Jaroslaw; Baum, Richard P; Kwekkeboom, Dik J; Paganelli, Giovanni; Krenning, Eric P; Modlin, Irvin M

    2018-07-01

    Peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT) utilizes somatostatin receptor (SSR) overexpression on neuroendocrine tumors (NET) to deliver targeted radiotherapy. Intensity of uptake at imaging is considered related to efficacy but has low sensitivity. A pretreatment strategy to determine individual PRRT response remains a key unmet need. NET transcript expression in blood integrated with tumor grade provides a PRRT predictive quotient (PPQ) which stratifies PRRT "responders" from "non-responders". This study clinically validates the utility of the PPQ in NETs. The development and validation of the PPQ was undertaken in three independent 177 Lu-PRRT treated cohorts. Specificity was tested in two separate somatostatin analog-treated cohorts. Prognostic value of the marker was defined in a cohort of untreated patients. The developmental cohort included lung and gastroenteropancreatic [GEP] NETs (n = 72) from IRST Meldola, Italy. The majority were GEP (71%) and low grade (86% G1-G2). Prospective validation cohorts were from Zentralklinik Bad Berka, Germany (n = 44), and Erasmus Medical Center, Rotterdam, Netherlands (n = 42). Each cohort included predominantly well differentiated, low grade (86-95%) lung and GEP-NETs. The non-PRRT comparator cohorts included SSA cohort I, n = 28 (100% low grade, 100% GEP-NET); SSA cohort II, n = 51 (98% low grade; 76% GEP-NET); and an untreated cohort, n = 44 (64% low grade; 91% GEP-NET). Baseline evaluations included clinical information (disease status, grade, SSR) and biomarker (CgA). NET blood gene transcripts (n = 8: growth factor signaling and metabolism) were measured pre-therapy and integrated with tumor Ki67 using a logistic regression model. This provided a binary output: "predicted responder" (PPQ+); "predicted non-responder" (PPQ-). Treatment response was evaluated using RECIST criteria [Responder (stable, partial and complete response) vs Non-Responder)]. Sample measurement and analyses were

  20. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G

    2013-11-21

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips.

  1. Thermal activation of catalytic microjets in blood samples using microfluidic chips†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soler, Lluís; Martínez-Cisneros, Cynthia; Swiersy, Anka; Sánchez, Samuel; Schmidt, Oliver G.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate that catalytic microjet engines can out-swim high complex media composed of red blood cells and serum. Despite the challenge presented by the high viscosity of the solution at room temperature, the catalytic microjets can be activated at physiological temperature and, consequently, self-propel in diluted solutions of blood samples. We prove that these microjets self-propel in 10× diluted blood samples using microfluidic chips. PMID:24089195

  2. Predictive Value of Cumulative Blood Pressure for All-Cause Mortality and Cardiovascular Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan Xiu; Song, Lu; Xing, Ai Jun; Gao, Ming; Zhao, Hai Yan; Li, Chun Hui; Zhao, Hua Ling; Chen, Shuo Hua; Lu, Cheng Zhi; Wu, Shou Ling

    2017-02-01

    The predictive value of cumulative blood pressure (BP) on all-cause mortality and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events (CCE) has hardly been studied. In this prospective cohort study including 52,385 participants from the Kailuan Group who attended three medical examinations and without CCE, the impact of cumulative systolic BP (cumSBP) and cumulative diastolic BP (cumDBP) on all-cause mortality and CCEs was investigated. For the study population, the mean (standard deviation) age was 48.82 (11.77) years of which 40,141 (76.6%) were male. The follow-up for all-cause mortality and CCEs was 3.96 (0.48) and 2.98 (0.41) years, respectively. Multivariate Cox proportional hazards regression analysis showed that for every 10 mm Hg·year increase in cumSBP and 5 mm Hg·year increase in cumDBP, the hazard ratio for all-cause mortality were 1.013 (1.006, 1.021) and 1.012 (1.006, 1.018); for CCEs, 1.018 (1.010, 1.027) and 1.017 (1.010, 1.024); for stroke, 1.021 (1.011, 1.031) and 1.018 (1.010, 1.026); and for MI, 1.013 (0.996, 1.030) and 1.015 (1.000, 1.029). Using natural spline function analysis, cumSBP and cumDBP showed a J-curve relationship with CCEs; and a U-curve relationship with stroke (ischemic stroke and hemorrhagic stroke). Therefore, increases in cumSBP and cumDBP were predictive for all-cause mortality, CCEs, and stroke.

  3. Human medial frontal cortex activity predicts learning from errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Robert; Barre, Natalie; Murphy, Kevin; Silk, Tim J; Mattingley, Jason B

    2008-08-01

    Learning from errors is a critical feature of human cognition. It underlies our ability to adapt to changing environmental demands and to tune behavior for optimal performance. The posterior medial frontal cortex (pMFC) has been implicated in the evaluation of errors to control behavior, although it has not previously been shown that activity in this region predicts learning from errors. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we examined activity in the pMFC during an associative learning task in which participants had to recall the spatial locations of 2-digit targets and were provided with immediate feedback regarding accuracy. Activity within the pMFC was significantly greater for errors that were subsequently corrected than for errors that were repeated. Moreover, pMFC activity during recall errors predicted future responses (correct vs. incorrect), despite a sizeable interval (on average 70 s) between an error and the next presentation of the same recall probe. Activity within the hippocampus also predicted future performance and correlated with error-feedback-related pMFC activity. A relationship between performance expectations and pMFC activity, in the absence of differing reinforcement value for errors, is consistent with the idea that error-related pMFC activity reflects the extent to which an outcome is "worse than expected."

  4. Development and optimization of SPECT gated blood pool cluster analysis for the prediction of CRT outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lalonde, Michel, E-mail: mlalonde15@rogers.com; Wassenaar, Richard [Department of Physics, Carleton University, Ottawa, Ontario K1S 5B6 (Canada); Wells, R. Glenn; Birnie, David; Ruddy, Terrence D. [Division of Cardiology, University of Ottawa Heart Institute, Ottawa, Ontario K1Y 4W7 (Canada)

    2014-07-15

    Purpose: Phase analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radionuclide angiography (RNA) has been investigated for its potential to predict the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, phase analysis may be limited in its potential at predicting CRT outcome as valuable information may be lost by assuming that time-activity curves (TAC) follow a simple sinusoidal shape. A new method, cluster analysis, is proposed which directly evaluates the TACs and may lead to a better understanding of dyssynchrony patterns and CRT outcome. Cluster analysis algorithms were developed and optimized to maximize their ability to predict CRT response. Methods: About 49 patients (N = 27 ischemic etiology) received a SPECT RNA scan as well as positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion and viability scans prior to undergoing CRT. A semiautomated algorithm sampled the left ventricle wall to produce 568 TACs from SPECT RNA data. The TACs were then subjected to two different cluster analysis techniques, K-means, and normal average, where several input metrics were also varied to determine the optimal settings for the prediction of CRT outcome. Each TAC was assigned to a cluster group based on the comparison criteria and global and segmental cluster size and scores were used as measures of dyssynchrony and used to predict response to CRT. A repeated random twofold cross-validation technique was used to train and validate the cluster algorithm. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and compare results to those obtained for SPECT RNA phase analysis and PET scar size analysis methods. Results: Using the normal average cluster analysis approach, the septal wall produced statistically significant results for predicting CRT results in the ischemic population (ROC AUC = 0.73;p < 0.05 vs. equal chance ROC AUC = 0.50) with an optimal operating point of 71% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Cluster

  5. Development and optimization of SPECT gated blood pool cluster analysis for the prediction of CRT outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lalonde, Michel; Wassenaar, Richard; Wells, R. Glenn; Birnie, David; Ruddy, Terrence D.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Phase analysis of single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) radionuclide angiography (RNA) has been investigated for its potential to predict the outcome of cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT). However, phase analysis may be limited in its potential at predicting CRT outcome as valuable information may be lost by assuming that time-activity curves (TAC) follow a simple sinusoidal shape. A new method, cluster analysis, is proposed which directly evaluates the TACs and may lead to a better understanding of dyssynchrony patterns and CRT outcome. Cluster analysis algorithms were developed and optimized to maximize their ability to predict CRT response. Methods: About 49 patients (N = 27 ischemic etiology) received a SPECT RNA scan as well as positron emission tomography (PET) perfusion and viability scans prior to undergoing CRT. A semiautomated algorithm sampled the left ventricle wall to produce 568 TACs from SPECT RNA data. The TACs were then subjected to two different cluster analysis techniques, K-means, and normal average, where several input metrics were also varied to determine the optimal settings for the prediction of CRT outcome. Each TAC was assigned to a cluster group based on the comparison criteria and global and segmental cluster size and scores were used as measures of dyssynchrony and used to predict response to CRT. A repeated random twofold cross-validation technique was used to train and validate the cluster algorithm. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis was used to calculate the area under the curve (AUC) and compare results to those obtained for SPECT RNA phase analysis and PET scar size analysis methods. Results: Using the normal average cluster analysis approach, the septal wall produced statistically significant results for predicting CRT results in the ischemic population (ROC AUC = 0.73;p < 0.05 vs. equal chance ROC AUC = 0.50) with an optimal operating point of 71% sensitivity and 60% specificity. Cluster

  6. Relevancy of Serum Calcium in Predicting Blood Product Transfusion in Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-08-10

    collection of information, including suggestions for reducing this burden to Department of Defense, Washington Headquarters Services , Directorate for...to arrive from the blood bank . In the military setting, where fresh whole blood may be available as a “walking blood bank ,” appropriate donors need

  7. The Impact of 200 Meter Breast Stroke Swimming Activity on Blood Glucose Level of The Student

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syahrastani, S.; Badri, H.; Argantos, A.; Yuniarti, E.

    2018-04-01

    Blood sugar in the human body is very important, as it is a source of energy for humans. Fasting blood sugar needs to be recognized, because it is an indicator of a person’s health. The research that has been done aims to determine the effect of physical activity on fasting blood sugar. This research is a quasi-experimental research. The research was conducted on 15 students of FIK UNP Padang, who have passed the swimming course. Blood was taken before and after doing physical exercise activity of 200 meter breaststroke swimming. Data collection was conducted with tests and measurements. The data analysis technique used inference statistics with t test formula, with α = 0.05. From the results it is obtained that there is a very significant impact on blood sugar levels after 200 meters breaststroke swimming activity with p <0.05

  8. Blood selenium concentrations and enzyme activities related to glutathione metabolism in wild emperor geese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franson, J. Christian; Hoffman, David J.; Schmutz, Joel A.

    2002-01-01

    In 1998, we collected blood samples from 63 emperor geese (Chen canagica) on their breeding grounds on the Yukon-Kuskokwim Delta (YKD) in western Alaska, USA. We studied the relationship between selenium concentrations in whole blood and the activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase in plasma. Experimental studies have shown that plasma activities of these enzymes are useful biomarkers of selenium-induced oxidative stress, but little information is available on their relationship to selenium in the blood of wild birds. Adult female emperor geese incubating their eggs in mid-June had a higher mean concentration of selenium in their blood and a greater activity of glutathione peroxidase in their plasma than adult geese or goslings that were sampled during the adult flight feathermolting period in late July and early August. Glutathione peroxidase activity was positively correlated with the concentration of selenium in the blood of emperor geese, and the rate of increase relative to selenium was greater in goslings than in adults. The activity of glutathione reductase was greatest in the plasma of goslings and was greater in molting adults than incubating females but was not significantly correlated with selenium in the blood of adults or goslings. Incubating female emperor geese had high selenium concentrations in their blood, accompanied by increased glutathione peroxidase activity consistent with early oxidative stress. These findings indicate that further study of the effects of selenium exposure, particularly on reproductive success, is warranted in this species.

  9. Predictive Value of Nucleated Red Blood Cell Counts in Cord and Peripheral Blood of Asphyxiated Term Neonates in the First Week of Life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B Bahman Bijari

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Increased numbers of nucleated red blood cells (NRBC circulating in the blood of neonates can be associated with relative hypoxia and adverse outcomes. Thus, the aim of this study was to assess the NRBC count during the first week of life in neonates diagnosed with asphyxia as compared to healthy neonates and to determine the short-term morbidity and mortality for the affected babies. Methods: The cross-sectional study compared 15 healthy neonates with 15 neonates diagnosed with asphyxia confirmed by pH of cord blood or Apgar scores. The nucleated red blood cell (NRBC counts were calculated right after birth, and on days 3 and 7, and the hematological parameters of umbilical cord blood were also evaluated. The infants were followed for mortality and associated morbidity. Statistical analysis was conducted using the Mann-Whitney U test, analysis of variance, chi-square tests, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. A p-value < 0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: The initial NRBC counts were significantly higher in the asphyxiated group than in the control group and the difference remained significant through the end of first week. All of the umbilical cord blood parameters were significantly lower in the study group and were negatively correlated with the NRBC count. At birth, higher NRBC count correlated with higher mortality. conclution: Results show that NRBC count is a useful predictive factor for neonatal asphyxia through the end of the first week of life, although a larger study population and a longer follow up period seems to be necessary.

  10. Stock price change rate prediction by utilizing social network activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shangkun; Mitsubuchi, Takashi; Sakurai, Akito

    2014-01-01

    Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS) before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL) and genetic algorithm (GA). MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.

  11. Stock Price Change Rate Prediction by Utilizing Social Network Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shangkun Deng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Predicting stock price change rates for providing valuable information to investors is a challenging task. Individual participants may express their opinions in social network service (SNS before or after their transactions in the market; we hypothesize that stock price change rate is better predicted by a function of social network service activities and technical indicators than by a function of just stock market activities. The hypothesis is tested by accuracy of predictions as well as performance of simulated trading because success or failure of prediction is better measured by profits or losses the investors gain or suffer. In this paper, we propose a hybrid model that combines multiple kernel learning (MKL and genetic algorithm (GA. MKL is adopted to optimize the stock price change rate prediction models that are expressed in a multiple kernel linear function of different types of features extracted from different sources. GA is used to optimize the trading rules used in the simulated trading by fusing the return predictions and values of three well-known overbought and oversold technical indicators. Accumulated return and Sharpe ratio were used to test the goodness of performance of the simulated trading. Experimental results show that our proposed model performed better than other models including ones using state of the art techniques.

  12. Blood superoxiddismutase and catalase: enzymes activity under oxidative stress conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Каріна Леонідівна Шамелашвілі; Інга Володимирівна Леус; Тетяна Іванівна Сергієнко; Марина Вячеславівна Горіла; Наталія Іванівна Штеменко

    2015-01-01

    The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase depends not only on the used compounds of rhenium, and also on their dimensional structure and form of applying. It is established that the cis- and trans-isomers of complex compounds of rhenium did countervailing effect on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Cis-isomers of Rhenium dycarboxylats agreed increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. While under the action of trans-isomers, where increased activity of superox...

  13. Central aortic systolic blood pressure can predict prolonged QTc duration better than brachial artery systolic blood pressure in rural community residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuqing; Tang, Songtao; Chen, Ji-Yan; Huang, Cheng; Li, Jie; Cai, An-Ping; Feng, Yingqing

    2018-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that prolonged electrocardiogram QTc duration was independent risk factor for both increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality, but there was no dating about the relationship between central aortic systolic blood pressure (CASP) and QTc duration. The aim of this study was to analyze the relationship between CASP and QTc duration, and assess whether CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP. A total of 500 patients were enrolled in this study, central and brachial aortic blood pressure and electrocardiogram QTc duration were measured. Pearson correlation was assessed for determining the associations of QTc duration with clinical conditions. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to determine the independent predictor of prolonged QTc duration. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate the utility of blood pressure for prolonged QTc duration. We found QTc durations were significantly positive with CASP (r = 0.308, p AUC: 0.771 vs. 0.646, p < 0.001) BSBP. Our results suggested that the non-invasive CASP is independently correlated with QTc duration, and CASP can predict prolonged QTc duration more than BSBP.

  14. Predicting Solar Activity Using Machine-Learning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobra, M.

    2017-12-01

    Of all the activity observed on the Sun, two of the most energetic events are flares and coronal mass ejections. However, we do not, as of yet, fully understand the physical mechanism that triggers solar eruptions. A machine-learning algorithm, which is favorable in cases where the amount of data is large, is one way to [1] empirically determine the signatures of this mechanism in solar image data and [2] use them to predict solar activity. In this talk, we discuss the application of various machine learning algorithms - specifically, a Support Vector Machine, a sparse linear regression (Lasso), and Convolutional Neural Network - to image data from the photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona taken by instruments aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory in order to predict solar activity on a variety of time scales. Such an approach may be useful since, at the present time, there are no physical models of flares available for real-time prediction. We discuss our results (Bobra and Couvidat, 2015; Bobra and Ilonidis, 2016; Jonas et al., 2017) as well as other attempts to predict flares using machine-learning (e.g. Ahmed et al., 2013; Nishizuka et al. 2017) and compare these results with the more traditional techniques used by the NOAA Space Weather Prediction Center (Crown, 2012). We also discuss some of the challenges in using machine-learning algorithms for space science applications.

  15. Blood superoxiddismutase and catalase: enzymes activity under oxidative stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Каріна Леонідівна Шамелашвілі

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase depends not only on the used compounds of rhenium, and also on their dimensional structure and form of applying. It is established that the cis- and trans-isomers of complex compounds of rhenium did countervailing effect on superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. Cis-isomers of Rhenium dycarboxylats agreed increased activity of superoxide dismutase and catalase. While under the action of trans-isomers, where increased activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase activity decreased

  16. Striatal Activation Predicts Differential Therapeutic Responses to Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Hildebrandt, Thomas B; Stein, Mark A; Ivanov, Iliyan; Halperin, Jeffrey M; Newcorn, Jeffrey H

    2017-07-01

    Methylphenidate has prominent effects in the dopamine-rich striatum that are absent for the selective norepinephrine transporter inhibitor atomoxetine. This study tested whether baseline striatal activation would predict differential response to the two medications in youth with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 36 youth with ADHD performed a Go/No-Go test during functional magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and were treated with methylphenidate and atomoxetine using a randomized cross-over design. Whole-brain task-related activation was regressed on clinical response. Task-related activation in right caudate nucleus was predicted by an interaction of clinical responses to methylphenidate and atomoxetine (F 1,30  = 17.00; p atomoxetine. The rate of robust response was higher for methylphenidate than for atomoxetine in youth with high (94.4% vs. 38.8%; p = .003; number needed to treat = 2, 95% CI = 1.31-3.73) but not low (33.3% vs. 50.0%; p = .375) caudate activation. Furthermore, response to atomoxetine predicted motor cortex activation (F 1,30  = 14.99; p atomoxetine in youth with ADHD, purportedly reflecting the dopaminergic effects of methylphenidate but not atomoxetine in the striatum, whereas motor cortex activation may predict response to atomoxetine. These data do not yet translate directly to the clinical setting, but the approach is potentially important for informing future research and illustrates that it may be possible to predict differential treatment response using a biomarker-driven approach. Stimulant Versus Nonstimulant Medication for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder in Children; https://clinicaltrials.gov/; NCT00183391. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Hemolysis is associated with low reticulocyte production index and predicts blood transfusion in severe malarial anemia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolf Fendel

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Falciparum Malaria, an infectious disease caused by the apicomplexan parasite Plasmodium falciparum, is among the leading causes of death and morbidity attributable to infectious diseases worldwide. In Gabon, Central Africa, one out of four inpatients have severe malarial anemia (SMA, a life-threatening complication if left untreated. Emerging drug resistant parasites might aggravate the situation. This case control study investigates biomarkers of enhanced hemolysis in hospitalized children with either SMA or mild malaria (MM. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Ninety-one children were included, thereof 39 SMA patients. Strict inclusion criteria were chosen to exclude other causes of anemia. At diagnosis, erythrophagocytosis (a direct marker for extravascular hemolysis, EVH was enhanced in SMA compared to MM patients (5.0 arbitrary units (AU (interquartile range (IR: 2.2-9.6 vs. 2.1 AU (IR: 1.3-3.9, p<0.01. Furthermore, indirect markers for EVH, (i.e. serum neopterin levels, spleen size enlargement and monocyte pigment were significantly increased in SMA patients. Markers for erythrocyte ageing, such as CD35 (complement receptor 1, CD55 (decay acceleration factor and phosphatidylserine exposure (annexin-V-binding were investigated by flow cytometry. In SMA patients, levels of CD35 and CD55 on the red blood cell surface were decreased and erythrocyte removal markers were increased when compared to MM or reconvalescent patients. Additionally, intravascular hemolysis (IVH was quantified using several indirect markers (LDH, alpha-HBDH, haptoglobin and hemopexin, which all showed elevated IVH in SMA. The presence of both IVH and EVH predicted the need for blood transfusion during antimalarial treatment (odds ratio 61.5, 95% confidence interval (CI: 8.9-427. Interestingly, this subpopulation is characterized by a significantly lowered reticulocyte production index (RPI, p<0.05. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show the multifactorial pathophysiology of SMA

  18. Impact of Physical Activity Interventions on Blood Pressure in Brazilian Populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivian Freitas Rezende Bento

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: High blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular disease, which is the leading cause of mortality in the Brazilian population. Lifestyle changes, including physical activity, are important for lowering blood pressure levels and decreasing the costs associated with outcomes. Objective: Assess the impact of physical activity interventions on blood pressure in Brazilian individuals. Methods: Meta-analysis and systematic review of studies published until May 2014, retrieved from several health sciences databases. Seven studies with 493 participants were included. The analysis included parallel studies of physical activity interventions in adult populations in Brazil with a description of blood pressure (mmHg before and after the intervention in the control and intervention groups. Results: Of 390 retrieved studies, eight matched the proposed inclusion criteria for the systematic review and seven randomized clinical trials were included in the meta-analysis. Physical activity interventions included aerobic and resistance exercises. There was a reduction of -10.09 (95% CI: -18.76 to -1.43 mmHg in the systolic and -7.47 (95% CI: -11.30 to -3.63 mmHg in the diastolic blood pressure. Conclusions: Available evidence on the effects of physical activity on blood pressure in the Brazilian population shows a homogeneous and significant effect at both systolic and diastolic blood pressures. However, the strength of the included studies was low and the methodological quality was also low and/or regular. Larger studies with more rigorous methodology are necessary to build robust evidence.

  19. Predicting activities after stroke : what is clinically relevant?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwakkel, G.; Kollen, B. J.

    Knowledge about factors that determine the final outcome after stroke is important for early stroke management, rehabilitation goals, and discharge planning. This narrative review provides an overview of current knowledge about the prediction of activities after stroke. We reviewed the pattern of

  20. Merlin : microsimulation system for predicting leisure activity-travel patterns

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Middelkoop, van M.; Borgers, A.W.J.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2004-01-01

    Development of a model of annual activity-travel patterns of leisure and vacation travel is reported. The simulation system, called Merlin, is a hybrid model system consisting of discrete choice models and rule-based models. It predicts the annual number of day trips and vacations, and the profile

  1. Moringa oleifera Lam.: Protease activity against blood coagulation cascade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satish, A; Sairam, Sudha; Ahmed, Faiyaz; Urooj, Asna

    2012-01-01

    The present study evaluated the protease activity of aqueous extracts of Moringa oleifera (Moringaceae) leaf (MOL) and root (MOR). Protease activity was assayed using casein, human plasma clot and human fibrinogen as substrates. Caseinolytic activity of MOL was significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) than that of MOR. Similar observations were found in case of human plasma clot hydrolyzing activity, wherein MOL caused significantly higher (P ≤ 0.05) plasma clot hydrolysis than MOR. Zymographic techniques were used to detect proteolytic enzymes following electrophoretic separation in gels. Further, both the extracts exhibited significant procoagulant activity as reflected by a significant decrease (P ≤ 0.05) in recalcification time, accompanied by fibrinogenolytic and fibrinolytic activities; clotting time was decreased from 180 ± 10 sec to 119 ± 8 sec and 143 ± 10 sec by MOL and MOR, respectively, at a concentration of 2.5 mg/mL. Fibrinogenolytic (human fibrinogen) and fibrinolytic activity (human plasma clot) was determined by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE), plate method and colorimetric method. Zymographic profile indicated that both the extracts exerted their procoagulant activity by selectively hydrolyzing Aα and Bβ subunits of fibrinogen to form fibrin clot, thereby exhibiting fibrinogenolytic activity. However, prolonged incubation resulted in degradation of the formed fibrin clot, suggesting fibrinolytic like activity. These findings support the traditional usage of M. oleifera extracts for wound healing.

  2. Application of Avco data analysis and prediction techniques (ADAPT) to prediction of sunspot activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, H. E.; Amato, R. A.

    1972-01-01

    The results are presented of the application of Avco Data Analysis and Prediction Techniques (ADAPT) to derivation of new algorithms for the prediction of future sunspot activity. The ADAPT derived algorithms show a factor of 2 to 3 reduction in the expected 2-sigma errors in the estimates of the 81-day running average of the Zurich sunspot numbers. The report presents: (1) the best estimates for sunspot cycles 20 and 21, (2) a comparison of the ADAPT performance with conventional techniques, and (3) specific approaches to further reduction in the errors of estimated sunspot activity and to recovery of earlier sunspot historical data. The ADAPT programs are used both to derive regression algorithm for prediction of the entire 11-year sunspot cycle from the preceding two cycles and to derive extrapolation algorithms for extrapolating a given sunspot cycle based on any available portion of the cycle.

  3. Lowering blood glucose during hip surgery does not influence coagulation activation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marjolein K. Sechterberger

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: Although the human GLP-1 analogue liraglutide moderately reduced post-operative blood glucose levels in non-diabetic and prediabetic obese patients undergoing elective hip surgery, no changes were observed with respect to coagulation activation.

  4. [Effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis on carotid atherosclerosis and ischemic cerebrovascular events].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yan; Li, Tao

    2014-03-01

    To explore the effect of Chinese drugs for activating blood circulation and removing blood stasis (CDABCRBS) on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events. By using open and control method, effect of 4 groups of platelet antagonists, platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin, platelet antagonists +atorvastatin +CDABCRBS on carotid atherosclerotic plaque and long-term ischemic cerebrovascular events of 90 cerebral infarction patients were analyzed. Through survival analysis, there was no statistical difference in the effect of the 4 interventions on the variation of carotid stenosis rates or ischemic cerebrovascular events (P > 0.05). The occurrence of ischemic cerebrovascular events could be postponed by about 4 months in those treated with platelet antagonists + CDABCRBS and platelet antagonists + atorvastatin +CDABCRBS. By multivariate Logistic analysis, age, hypertension, and clopidogrel were associated with stenosis of extracranial carotid arteries (P cerebrovascular accidents (P cerebrovascular events. CDABCRBS could effectively prolong the occurrence time of ischemic cerebrovascular events.

  5. Engagement in Pleasant Leisure Activities and Blood Pressure: A 5-Year Longitudinal Study in Alzheimer Caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mausbach, Brent T; Romero-Moreno, Rosa; Bos, Taylor; von Känel, Roland; Ziegler, Michael G; Allison, Matthew A; Mills, Paul J; Dimsdale, Joel E; Ancoli-Israel, Sonia; Losada, Andrés; Márquez-González, María; Patterson, Thomas L; Grant, Igor

    2017-09-01

    Elevated blood pressure is a significant public health concern, particularly given its association with cardiovascular disease risk, including stroke. Caring for a loved one with Alzheimer disease has been associated with physical health morbidity, including higher blood pressure. Engagement in adaptive coping strategies may help prevent blood pressure elevation in this population. This 5-year longitudinal study examined whether greater participation in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced blood pressure in caregivers. Participants were 126 in-home spousal Alzheimer's caregivers (M [SD] age = 74.2 [7.9] years) that completed five yearly assessments. Linear mixed-effects models analysis was used to examine the longitudinal relationship between pleasant leisure activities and caregivers' blood pressure, after adjusting for demographic and health characteristics. Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with reduced mean arterial blood pressure (B = -0.08, SE = 0.04, p = .040). Follow-up analyses indicated that engagement in activities was significantly associated with reduced diastolic (B = -0.07, SE = 0.03, p = .030) but not systolic blood pressure (B = -0.10, SE = 0.06, p = .114). In addition, mean arterial blood pressure was significantly reduced when caregiving duties ended because of placement of care recipients in nursing homes (B = -3.10, SE = 1.11, p = .005) or death of the care recipient (B = -2.64, SE = 1.14, p = .021). Greater engagement in pleasant leisure activities was associated with lowered caregivers' blood pressure over time. Participation in pleasant leisure activities may have cardiovascular health benefits for Alzheimer's caregivers.

  6. Aggregation activity of blood formed elements in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    OpenAIRE

    Boris Il'ich Kuznik; Yuriy Antonovich Vitkovskiy; Marina Yur'evna Zakharova; Natal'ya Nikolaevna Klyuchereva; Ol'ga Sergeevna Rodnina; Aleksey Vladimirovich Solpov

    2012-01-01

    Aims. To assess differences in blood formed elements aggregation activity in patients with type 1 (T1) and type 2 (T2) diabetes mellitus (DM). Materials and methods. We studied blood samples from 88 patients with T1 and T2 DM. Platelet aggregation activity was assessed by means of «Biola» aggregometer; we also determined platelet-lymphocyte and leucocyte-erythrocyte adhesion intensity. Results. We show that spontaneous platelet aggregation is markedly increased in patients with T1...

  7. Phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in whole blood from atomic bomb survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, S.; Yoshimoto, Y.; Toyota, E.; Neriishi, S.; Yamakido, M.; Matsuo, M.; Hosoda, Y.; Finch, S.C.

    1990-01-01

    This study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of peripheral blood leukocytes from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression for age, sex, radiation exposure, city of exposure, and neutrophil counts. No significant radiation effect was observed for either blood phagocytic or bactericidal activities. The only significant variable for these functions was the neutrophil count

  8. Gliadin peptides activate blood monocytes from patients with celiac disease

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cinová, Jana; Palová-Jelínková, Lenka; Smythies, L.; Černá, M.; Pecharová, Barbara; Dvořák, M.; Fruhauf, P.; Tlaskalová, Helena; Smith, P.; Tučková, Ludmila

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 2 (2007), s. 201-209 ISSN 0271-9142 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA310/05/2245; GA ČR GD310/03/H147; GA AV ČR IAA5020210; GA AV ČR IAA5020205; GA AV ČR 1QS500200572; GA AV ČR KJB5020407; GA MZe 1B53002 Grant - others:US(US) DK-064400; US(US) DK-47322; US(US) DK-54495; US(US) HD-41361; US(US) DK-064400 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Source of funding: N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje ; N - neverejné zdroje Keywords : celiac disease * innate immunity * blood monocytes Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.886, year: 2007

  9. Cysteine peroxidase activity in rat blood plasma | Razygraev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat plasma found to be able to accelerate greatly the H2O2-dependent oxidation of cysteine. The activity was a characteristic of a protein fraction precipitated at 30—44% ammonium sulfate saturation, and the specific activity in protein fraction was significantly higher than in plasma. Cysteine:H2O2 oxidoreductase ...

  10. Prediction of adolescents doing physical activity after completing secondary education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Murcia, Juan Antonio; Huéscar, Elisa; Cervelló, Eduardo

    2012-03-01

    The purpose of this study, based on the self-determination theory (Ryan & Deci, 2000) was to test the prediction power of student's responsibility, psychological mediators, intrinsic motivation and the importance attached to physical education in the intention to continue to practice some form of physical activity and/or sport, and the possible relationships that exist between these variables. We used a sample of 482 adolescent students in physical education classes, with a mean age of 14.3 years, which were measured for responsibility, psychological mediators, sports motivation, the importance of physical education and intention to be physically active. We completed an analysis of structural equations modelling. The results showed that the responsibility positively predicted psychological mediators, and this predicted intrinsic motivation, which positively predicted the importance students attach to physical education, and this, finally, positively predicted the intention of the student to continue doing sport. Results are discussed in relation to the promotion of student's responsibility towards a greater commitment to the practice of physical exercise.

  11. A high fat meal activates blood coagulation factor vii in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Bladbjerg, E. M.; Kornerup Hansen, A.

    2002-01-01

    In humans, high fat meals cause postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII), but human studies have not provided definite evidence for a prothrombotic effect of dietary FVII activation. An animal model would be an attractive way to pursue this question and therefore we tested...... the LEW/Mol rat. We gavaged 3 mL of a fat emulsion (n = 42) or 3 mL isotonic glucose (n = 42). Blood was sampled by heart puncture 2, 4 and 6 h (n = 14/group at each time) after the fat/glucose load. Furthermore, blood was sampled from 16 untreated rats to determine the baseline levels. Triglyceride...

  12. Resting alpha activity predicts learning ability in alpha neurofeedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenya eNan

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Individuals differ in their ability to learn how to regulate the alpha activity by neurofeedback. This study aimed to investigate whether the resting alpha activity is related to the learning ability of alpha enhancement in neurofeedback and could be used as a predictor. A total of 25 subjects performed 20 sessions of individualized alpha neurofeedback in order to learn how to enhance activity in the alpha frequency band. The learning ability was assessed by three indices respectively: the training parameter changes between two periods, within a short period and across the whole training time. It was found that the resting alpha amplitude measured before training had significant positive correlations with all learning indices and could be used as a predictor for the learning ability prediction. This finding would help the researchers in not only predicting the training efficacy in individuals but also gaining further insight into the mechanisms of alpha neurofeedback.

  13. Pharmacodynamically optimized erythropoietin treatment combined with phlebotomy reduction predicted to eliminate blood transfusions in selected preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosebraugh, Matthew R; Widness, John A; Nalbant, Demet; Cress, Gretchen; Veng-Pedersen, Peter

    2014-02-01

    Preterm very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants weighing eliminated by reducing laboratory blood loss in combination with pharmacodynamically optimized erythropoietin (Epo) treatment. Twenty-six VLBW ventilated infants receiving RBCTx were studied during the first month of life. RBCTx simulations were based on previously published RBCTx criteria and data-driven Epo pharmacodynamic optimization of literature-derived RBC life span and blood volume data corrected for phlebotomy loss. Simulated pharmacodynamic optimization of Epo administration and reduction in phlebotomy by ≥ 55% predicted a complete elimination of RBCTx in 1.0-1.5 kg infants. In infants 1.0 kg.

  14. Prediction of flare activity of stellar aggregates. I. Theoretical part

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mnatsakanyan, M.A.; Mirzoyan, A.L.

    1989-01-01

    The problem is posed of predicting the number n k (t) of flare stars that have exhibited precisely k flares by the time t on the basis of data on these quantities known during the total time T of observations of the aggregate. The problem posed by Ambartsumyan of determining the distribution function f(ν) of the true frequency of stellar flares from known chronology of these data is equivalent to the limiting form of their formulation - prediction in the future over an infinitely long time. An exact analytic solution of the problem obtained without any assumption about the function f(ν) is given. It permits prediction of the steady flare activity of the aggregate into both the future and the (known) past. It follows from this solution that prediction into the future is in principle impossible to times that exceed the doubled time 2T of the available observations (this means that the problem of determining of the function f(ν) cannot be solved). Moreover, because of the unavoidable fluctuations in the observational data n k (T), such prediction is limited to even shorter times, and these are shorter the larger the value of k. Prediction into the past and into the future on the basis of the data n k (T) at the present time and its possible errors due to small fluctuations in these data are illustrated for the examples of the Pleiades and the Orion aggregate

  15. Predicting forest insect flight activity: A Bayesian network approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Pawson

    Full Text Available Daily flight activity patterns of forest insects are influenced by temporal and meteorological conditions. Temperature and time of day are frequently cited as key drivers of activity; however, complex interactions between multiple contributing factors have also been proposed. Here, we report individual Bayesian network models to assess the probability of flight activity of three exotic insects, Hylurgus ligniperda, Hylastes ater, and Arhopalus ferus in a managed plantation forest context. Models were built from 7,144 individual hours of insect sampling, temperature, wind speed, relative humidity, photon flux density, and temporal data. Discretized meteorological and temporal variables were used to build naïve Bayes tree augmented networks. Calibration results suggested that the H. ater and A. ferus Bayesian network models had the best fit for low Type I and overall errors, and H. ligniperda had the best fit for low Type II errors. Maximum hourly temperature and time since sunrise had the largest influence on H. ligniperda flight activity predictions, whereas time of day and year had the greatest influence on H. ater and A. ferus activity. Type II model errors for the prediction of no flight activity is improved by increasing the model's predictive threshold. Improvements in model performance can be made by further sampling, increasing the sensitivity of the flight intercept traps, and replicating sampling in other regions. Predicting insect flight informs an assessment of the potential phytosanitary risks of wood exports. Quantifying this risk allows mitigation treatments to be targeted to prevent the spread of invasive species via international trade pathways.

  16. Anthropometry and physical activity level in the prediction of metabolic syndrome in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andaki, Alynne Christian Ribeiro; Tinôco, Adelson Luiz Araújo; Mendes, Edmar Lacerda; Andaki Júnior, Roberto; Hills, Andrew P; Amorim, Paulo Roberto S

    2014-10-01

    To evaluate the effectiveness of anthropometric measures and physical activity level in the prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in children. Cross-sectional study with children from public and private schools. Children underwent an anthropometric assessment, blood pressure measurement and biochemical evaluation of serum for determination of TAG, HDL-cholesterol and glucose. Physical activity level was calculated and number of steps per day obtained using a pedometer for seven consecutive days. Viçosa, south-eastern Brazil. Boys and girls (n 187), mean age 9·90 (SD 0·7) years. Conicity index, sum of four skinfolds, physical activity level and number of steps per day were accurate in predicting MetS in boys. Anthropometric indicators were accurate in predicting MetS for girls, specifically BMI, waist circumference measured at the narrowest point and at the level of the umbilicus, four skinfold thickness measures evaluated separately, the sum of subscapular and triceps skinfold thickness, the sum of four skinfolds and body fat percentage. The sum of four skinfolds was the most accurate method in predicting MetS in both genders.

  17. Active diagnosis of hybrid systems - A model predictive approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeipour, Seyed Mojtaba; Ravn, Anders P.; Izadi-Zamanabadi, Roozbeh

    2009-01-01

    A method for active diagnosis of hybrid systems is proposed. The main idea is to predict the future output of both normal and faulty model of the system; then at each time step an optimization problem is solved with the objective of maximizing the difference between the predicted normal and fault...... can be used as a test signal for sanity check at the commissioning or for detection of faults hidden by regulatory actions of the controller. The method is tested on the two tank benchmark example. ©2009 IEEE....

  18. Impaired healing of cervical oesophagogastrostomies can be predicted by estimation of gastric serosal blood perfusion by laser Doppler flowmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierie, J P; De Graaf, P W; Poen, H; Van der Tweel, I; Obertop, H

    1994-11-01

    To assess the value of relative blood perfusion of the gastric tube in prediction of impaired healing of cervical oesophagogastrostomies. Prospective study. University hospital, The Netherlands. Thirty patients undergoing transhiatal oesophagectomy and partial gastrectomy for cancer of the oesophagus or oesophagogastric junction, with gastric tube reconstruction and cervical oesophagogastrostomy. Operative measurement of gastric blood perfusion at four sites by laser Doppler flowmetry and perfusion of the same sites after construction of the gastric tube expressed as a percentage of preconstruction values. The relative perfusion at the most proximal site of the gastric tube was significantly lower than at the more distal sites (p = 0.001). Nine of 18 patients (50%) in whom the perfusion of the proximal gastric tube was less than 70% of preconstruction values developed an anastomotic stricture, compared with only 1 of 12 patients (8%) with a relative perfusion of 70% or more (p = 0.024). A reduction in perfusion of the gastric tube did not predict leakage. Impaired anastomotic healing is unlikely if relative perfusion is 70% or more of preconstruction values. Perfusion of less than 70% partly predicts the occurrence of anastomotic stricture, but leakage cannot be predicted. Factors other than blood perfusion may have a role in the process of anastomotic healing.

  19. Liver insulinase and insulin-like activity of the blood plasma in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhikhareva, A I; Dokshina, G A [Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    Comparative quantitative analysis of the functional effect of radiation on the activity of liver insulinase of irradiated rats has shown that the insulinase activity of the blood plasma decreases (21-45%) one to three days after the exposure at betatron. Insulinase activity of the liver extracts is also inhibited (16-22%) as compared to intact liver extracts. Twelve days after the exposure and later, insulin-like activity of the plasma and the enzyme activity increase up to 37 per cent.

  20. Integration of noninvasive prenatal prediction of fetal blood group into clinical prenatal care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Frederik Banch

    2014-01-01

    Incompatibility of red blood cell blood group antigens between a pregnant woman and her fetus can cause maternal immunization and, consequently, hemolytic disease of the fetus and newborn. Noninvasive prenatal testing of cell-free fetal DNA can be used to assess the risk of hemolytic disease...

  1. Activity-based costs of blood transfusions in surgical patients at four hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shander, Aryeh; Hofmann, Axel; Ozawa, Sherri; Theusinger, Oliver M; Gombotz, Hans; Spahn, Donat R

    2010-04-01

    Blood utilization has long been suspected to consume more health care resources than previously reported. Incomplete accounting for blood costs has the potential to misdirect programmatic decision making by health care systems. Determining the cost of supplying patients with blood transfusions requires an in-depth examination of the complex array of activities surrounding the decision to transfuse. To accurately determine the cost of blood in a surgical population from a health system perspective, an activity-based costing (ABC) model was constructed. Tasks and resource consumption (materials, labor, third-party services, capital) related to blood administration were identified prospectively at two US and two European hospitals. Process frequency (i.e., usage) data were captured retrospectively from each hospital and used to populate the ABC model. All major process steps, staff, and consumables to provide red blood cell (RBC) transfusions to surgical patients, including usage frequencies, and direct and indirect overhead costs contributed to per-RBC-unit costs between $522 and $1183 (mean, $761 +/- $294). These exceed previously reported estimates and were 3.2- to 4.8-fold higher than blood product acquisition costs. Annual expenditures on blood and transfusion-related activities, limited to surgical patients, ranged from $1.62 to $6.03 million per hospital and were largely related to the transfusion rate. Applicable to various hospital practices, the ABC model confirms that blood costs have been underestimated and that they are geographically variable and identifies opportunities for cost containment. Studies to determine whether more stringent control of blood utilization improves health care utilization and quality, and further reduces costs, are warranted.

  2. Volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy predicts later hematoma formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panopoulou Effrosyni

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To evaluate whether the volume of blood suctioned during vacuum-assisted breast biopsy (VABB is associated with hematoma formation and progression, patient's age and histology of the lesion. Findings 177 women underwent VABB according to standardized protocol. The volume of blood suctioned and hematoma formation were noted at the end of the procedure, as did the subsequent development and progression of hematoma. First- and second-order logistic regression was performed, where appropriate. Cases with hematoma presented with greater volume of blood suctioned (63.8 ± 44.7 cc vs. 17.2 ± 32.9 cc; p Conclusion The likelihood of hematoma is increasing along with increasing amount of blood suctioned, reaching a plateau approximately at 80 cc of blood lost.

  3. Structure of ganglioside with CAD blood group antigen activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gillard, B.K.; Blanchard, D.; Cartron, J.P.; van Kuik, G.A.; Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Marcus, D.M.

    1986-01-01

    The novel erythrocyte ganglioside which carries the blood group Cad determinant has been isolated, and its structure has been determined. The ganglioside contained Glu:Gal:GalNAc:GlcNAc in a molar ratio of 1.00:1.94:0.93:0.95. The ganglioside binds Helix pomatia lectin and its chromatographic mobility is similar to G/sub D3/. After treatment with β-hexosaminidase (human placenta HexA) the product migrated with sialosylparagloboside (SPG), no longer binds Helix lectin, and binds a human anti-SPG antibody. Treatment of this material with neuraminidase (V. cholera) yielded a product with the mobility of paragloboside that bound monoclonal antibody 1B2. NMR analysis revealed that the terminal GalNAc is linked β1-4 to Gal, and confirms the structure proposed previously: GalNAcβ1-4(NeuAcα2-3)Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-3Galβ1-4Glc-Cer. This structure is consistent with the previous demonstration that a compound with the same chromatographic mobility as the Cad ganglioside could be synthesized by enzymatic transfer of GalNAc to sialosylparagloboside

  4. Characterizing biological variability in livestock blood cholinesterase activity for biomonitoring organophosphate nerve agent exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halbrook, R.S.; Shugart, L.R.; Watson, A.P.; Munro, N.B.; Linnabary, R.D. (Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States))

    1992-09-01

    A biomonitoring protocol, using blood cholinesterase (ChE) activity in livestock as a monitor of potential organophosphate nerve agent exposure during the planned destruction of US unitary chemical warfare agent stockpiles, is described. The experimental design included analysis of blood ChE activity in individual healthy sheep, horses, and dairy and beef cattle during a 10- to 12-month period. Castrated and sexually intact males, pregnant and lactating females, and adult and immature animals were examined through at least one reproductive cycle. The same animals were used throughout the period of observation and were not exposed to ChE-inhibiting organophosphate or carbamate compounds. A framework for an effective biomonitoring protocol within a monitoring area includes establishing individual baseline blood ChE activity for a sentinel group of 6 animals on the bases of blood samples collected over a 6-month period, monthly collection of blood samples for ChE-activity determination during monitoring, and selection of adult animals as sentinels. Exposure to ChE-inhibiting compounds would be suspected when all blood ChE activity of all animals within the sentinel group are decreased greater than 20% from their own baseline value. Sentinel species selection is primarily a logistical and operational concern; however, sheep appear to be the species of choice because within-individual baseline ChE activity and among age and gender group ChE activity in sheep had the least variability, compared with data from other species. This protocol provides an effective and efficient means for detecting abnormal depressions in blood ChE activity in livestock and can serve as a valuable indicator of the extent of actual plume movement and/or deposition in the event of organophosphate nerve agent release.

  5. Blood Pressure, Sexual Activity, and Dysfunction in Women With Hypertension: Baseline Findings From the Systolic Blood Pressure Intervention Trial (SPRINT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foy, Capri G; Newman, Jill C; Berlowitz, Dan R; Russell, Laurie P; Kimmel, Paul L; Wadley, Virginia G; Thomas, Holly N; Lerner, Alan J; Riley, William T

    2016-09-01

    Sexual function, an important component of quality of life, is gaining increased research and clinical attention in older women with hypertension. To assess the association between systolic blood pressure (SBP) and other variables, and sexual activity and sexual dysfunction in hypertensive women. Baseline analysis of 635 women participants of a larger randomized clinical trial of 9361 men and women. Self-reported sexual activity (yes/no), and sexual function using the Female Sexual Function Inventory (FSFI). 452 participants (71.2%) reported having no sexual activity during the previous 4 weeks. The mean (SD) FSFI score for sexually active participants was 25.3 (6.0), and 52.6% of the sample reported a FSFI score ≤26.55 designating sexual dysfunction. In logistic regression models, SBP was not significantly associated with sexual activity (AOR = 1.002; P > .05). Older age (AOR = 0.95, P sexually active, as was living alone versus living with others (AOR = 0.56, P sexually active (AOR = 1.39; P sexually active participants, SBP was not associated with sexual dysfunction (AOR = 1.01; P > .05). Higher depressive symptoms from the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) was associated with higher odds of sexual dysfunction (AOR = 1.24, P sexually active in participants with chronic kidney disease (AOR = 0.33, P sexually active in a sample of middle-aged and older women with hypertension. Increased depressive symptoms and increased physical comorbidities were significantly associated with increased odds of sexual dysfunction. SBP was not significantly associated with sexual activity or sexual dysfunction. Copyright © 2016 International Society for Sexual Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Xenoestrogenic activity in blood of European and Inuit populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie; Hjelmborg, Philip Sebastian; Reinert, Line S

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Human exposure to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is ubiquitous and found in all individuals. Studies have documented endocrine disrupting effects and impact on reproduction. The aim of the present study was to compare the level of xenoestrogenic activity in serum of groups......) inhabitants. Xenoestrogenicity of serum extracts alone (XER) and XER competitive (XERcomp) effect on 17beta-estradiol induced estrogen receptor (ER) transactivity were assessed in the hormone free, lipophilic serum fraction containing the POPs using the MVLN human breast cancer cell line. RESULTS...... of samples with ER antagonistic and agonistic activity, respectively. We suggest that the variation in xenoestrogenic serum activity reflects differences in POP exposure mixture, genetic factors and/or life style factors....

  7. Uncertainty in Predicting CCN Activity of Aged and Primary Aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fang; Wang, Yuying; Peng, Jianfei; Ren, Jingye; Collins, Don; Zhang, Renyi; Sun, Yele; Yang, Xin; Li, Zhanqing

    2017-11-01

    Understanding particle CCN activity in diverse atmospheres is crucial when evaluating aerosol indirect effects. Here aerosols measured at three sites in China were categorized as different types for attributing uncertainties in CCN prediction in terms of a comprehensive data set including size-resolved CCN activity, size-resolved hygroscopic growth factor, and chemical composition. We show that CCN activity for aged aerosols is unexpectedly underestimated 22% at a supersaturation (S) of 0.2% when using κ-Kohler theory with an assumption of an internal mixture with measured bulk composition that has typically resulted in an overestimate of the CCN activity in previous studies. We conclude that the underestimation stems from neglect of the effect of aging/coating on particle hygroscopicity, which is not considered properly in most current models. This effect enhanced the hygroscopicity parameter (κ) by between 11% (polluted conditions) and 30% (clean days), as indicated in diurnal cycles of κ based on measurements by different instruments. In the urban Beijing atmosphere heavily influenced by fresh emissions, the CCN activity was overestimated by 45% at S = 0.2%, likely because of inaccurate assumptions of particle mixing state and because of variability of chemical composition over the particle size range. For both fresh and aged aerosols, CCN prediction exhibits very limited sensitivity to κSOA, implying a critical role of other factors like mixing of aerosol components within and between particles in regulating CCN activity. Our findings could help improving CCN parameterization in climate models.

  8. Methemoglobin reductase activity in intact fish red blood cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank B; Nielsen, Karsten

    2018-01-01

    RBCs in physiological saline at normal Pco2 and pH. After initial loading of oxygenated RBCs with nitrite (partly oxidizing Hb to metHb), the nitrite is removed by three washes of the RBCs in nitrite-free physiological saline to enable the detection of RBC metHb reductase activity in the absence......Hb reductase activity in fish offsets their higher Hb autoxidation and higher likelihood of encountering elevated nitrite. Deoxygenation significantly raised the rates of RBC metHb reduction, and more so in rainbow trout than in carp. The temperature sensitivity of metHb reduction in rainbow trout RBCs...

  9. Can family history and cord blood IgE predict sensitization and allergic diseases up to adulthood?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borrits Pagh Nissen, Susanne; Fomsgaard Kjær, Henrik; Høst, Arne

    2015-01-01

    with high NPV and specificity, but low PPV and sensitivity. CONCLUSION: Although family history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated with primarily atopic disease until 26 yr, none of these were strong predictors for subsequent sensitization and allergic symptoms from childhood until early......BACKGROUND: Long-term studies of the predictive value of family history and cord blood IgE level until adulthood are few, and their conclusions have been contradictory. METHODS: Screening of total IgE in 1617 cord blood samples was performed in a Danish birth cohort. All infants with cord blood Ig...... used. RESULTS: A total of 455 infants were included, 188 with CB-IgE ≥0.5 kU/l and 267 with CB-IgE history and elevated CB-IgE were significantly associated to allergic disease until 26 yr. Concerning any allergic...

  10. BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING NEONATAL EXTRACORPOREAL LIFE-SUPPORT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    PLOTZ, FB; VANOEVEREN, W; BARTLETT, RH; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    Cardiopulmonary bypass for heart operations is associated with a whole body inflammatory reaction. The main factors involved in this reaction are the contact system and the complement system. The activation of the contact system is considered mainly responsible for impaired hemostasis because it

  11. PREVENTION OF BLOOD ACTIVATION DURING AND COMPLICATIONS AFTER CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOEVEREN, W; WILDEVUUR, CRH

    1991-01-01

    The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) circuit for open heart surgery initiates a whole body inflammatory reaction (WBIR) resulting in impaired hemostasis and organ dysfunction. Impaired hemostasis appeared to be related to the activation of the contact system (factor XII), which can be inhibited by

  12. Finite element predictions of active buckling control of stiffened panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Danniella M.; Griffin, O. H., Jr.

    1993-04-01

    Materials systems and structures that can respond 'intelligently' to their environment are currently being proposed and investigated. A series of finite element analyses was performed to investigate the potential for active buckling control of two different stiffened panels by embedded shape memory alloy (SMA) rods. Changes in the predicted buckling load increased with the magnitude of the actuation level for a given structural concept. Increasing the number of actuators for a given concept yielded greater predicted increases in buckling load. Considerable control authority was generated with a small number of actuators, with greater authority demonstrated for those structural concepts where the activated SMA rods could develop greater forces and moments on the structure. Relatively simple and inexpensive analyses were performed with standard finite elements to determine such information, indicating the viability of these types of models for design purposes.

  13. PREDICTIVE VALUE OF CD34+ CELLS IN BLOOD OF PATIENT/DONOR BEFORE HEMATOPOIETIC STEM CELLS COLLECTION BY LEUKAPHERESIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragoslav Domanovič

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. In the study we tried to define a predictive value of the circulating CD34+ cells in patients/ donors blood for estimation of the hematopoietic stem cells (HSC collection efficacy determine the optimal time to initiate the collection by leukapheresis procedure.Methods. We retrospectively analyzed 75 collections of HSC using the Amicus cell separator in 39 patients and 15 donors. Circulating CD34+cell counts in patients/donors were compared to the achieved CD34+ cell yields to determine its predictive value for the collection of a targeted yield of > 2 × 106 CD34+ cells/kg body weight of patient.Results. The results of cell counts confirmed that mobilization regimens were successful and HSC collections efficient. High correlation coefficient (r = 0.82 between the number of circulating CD34+ cells before collection and CD34+ cell yield/kg of patient’s body weight was statistically significant (p < 0.05. With ROC analysis we determined the cut-off value 42 × 106/l CD34+ cell counts in the blood of patients/donors before collection that had a positive predictive value 87% and a negative predictive value 91.6%.Conclusions. Analysis showed that the number of circulating CD34+ cells before the procedure express a very high predictive value and can be used for determining the optimal time to initiate collection of HSC by leukapheresis.

  14. The distal blood pressure predicts healing of amputations on the feet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holstein, P

    1984-01-01

    The healing of digital and transmetatarsal forefoot amputations was compared with the systolic digital and ankle blood pressure, both measured with a strain-gauge, and with the skin perfusion pressure on the forefoot measured with the isotope washout technique. In 85 out of 134 legs (63 per cent......) the amputation healed. The frequency of healing correlated statistically significantly with all three measures of distal blood pressures, the closest correlation being with the systolic digital blood pressure (SDBP). As measured in 110 cases the healing rates were: SDBP less than 20 mm Hg: four out of 23; SDBP...

  15. Preparatory neural activity predicts performance on a conflict task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Emily R; Wager, Tor D; Egner, Tobias; Hirsch, Joy; Mangels, Jennifer A

    2007-10-24

    Advance preparation has been shown to improve the efficiency of conflict resolution. Yet, with little empirical work directly linking preparatory neural activity to the performance benefits of advance cueing, it is not clear whether this relationship results from preparatory activation of task-specific networks, or from activity associated with general alerting processes. Here, fMRI data were acquired during a spatial Stroop task in which advance cues either informed subjects of the upcoming relevant feature of conflict stimuli (spatial or semantic) or were neutral. Informative cues decreased reaction time (RT) relative to neutral cues, and cues indicating that spatial information would be task-relevant elicited greater activity than neutral cues in multiple areas, including right anterior prefrontal and bilateral parietal cortex. Additionally, preparatory activation in bilateral parietal cortex and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex predicted faster RT when subjects responded to spatial location. No regions were found to be specific to semantic cues at conventional thresholds, and lowering the threshold further revealed little overlap between activity associated with spatial and semantic cueing effects, thereby demonstrating a single dissociation between activations related to preparing a spatial versus semantic task-set. This relationship between preparatory activation of spatial processing networks and efficient conflict resolution suggests that advance information can benefit performance by leading to domain-specific biasing of task-relevant information.

  16. Analysis of elements in human blood of patients with chronic kidney disease using neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metairon, S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Kovacs, L.; Genezini, F.A.; Santos, N.F.; Vilela, E.C.

    2009-01-01

    Neutron activation analysis has been used to determine Br, Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na concentrations in whole blood of patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) as well as in whole blood of normal individuals (control group). The dependence of the elements concentration in function of sex, age, time and type of treatment were investigated. The similarities and differences between healthy individuals and CKD are discussed. (author)

  17. Quantitative evaluation of blood elements by neutron activation analysis in mice immunized with Bothrops snake venoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Metairon, S.; Suzuki, M.F.; Furtado, M.F.; Sant'Anna, O.A.; Tambourgi, D.V.

    2009-01-01

    Mice genetically selected for high antibody responsiveness (HIII) were immunized against different Bothrops species snake venoms from distinct region of Brazil. The Neutron Activation Analysis technique was used to evaluate the whole blood concentrations of elements of clinical relevance [Ca, Cl, K, Mg and Na] in order to establish a potential correlation between antibody response and blood constituents after Bothrops venom administration for clinical screening of envenomed patients. (author)

  18. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brune, D.

    1966-02-01

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques

  19. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity decreases during storage of leukoreduced red blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, Anna L.; van Bruggen, Robin; de Korte, Dirk; van Noorden, Cornelis J. F.; Vlaar, Alexander P. J.

    2016-01-01

    During storage, the activity of the red blood cell (RBC) antioxidant system decreases. Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) is essential for protection against oxidative stress by producing NADPH. G6PD function of RBC transfusion products is reported to remain stable during storage, but activity

  20. BLOOD EOSINOPHIL NUMBERS AND ACTIVITY DURING 24 HOURS - EFFECTS OF TREATMENT WITH BUDESONIDE AND BAMBUTEROL

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WEMPE, JB; TAMMELING, EP; KOETER, GH; HAKANSSON, L; VENGE, P; POSTMA, DS

    1992-01-01

    The effects of the inhaled corticosteroid budesonide and the oral long-acting beta-agonist bambuterol on circadian variation of blood eosinophil numbers, serum levels of eosinophil cationic protein (ECP), serum eosinophil chemotactic activity (ECA), and serum neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA)

  1. A ¤high-fat meal does not activate blood coagulation factor vii in minipigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, A. K.; Larsen, L. F.; Bladbjerg, E.-M.

    2001-01-01

    It is a matter of debate whether postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII) is associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. To clarify this question, an animal model in which consequences of dietary FVII activation can be studied in a more detailed way would be an important...

  2. Cytidine triphosphate synthase activity and mRNA expression in normal human blood cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verschuur, A. C.; van Gennip, A. H.; Muller, E. J.; Voûte, P. A.; Vreken, P.; van Kuilenburg, A. B.

    1999-01-01

    Cytidine triphosphate (CTP) synthase is one of the key enzymes in pyrimidine nucleotide anabolic pathways. The activity of this enzyme is elevated in various malignancies including acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL). In this study we investigated the activity of CTP synthase in various human blood

  3. Low Temperature Irradiation Applied to Neutron Activation Analysis of Mercury In Human Whole Blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brune, D

    1966-02-15

    The distribution of mercury in human whole blood has been studied by means of neutron activation analysis. During the irradiation procedure the samples were kept at low temperature by freezing them in a cooling device in order to prevent interferences caused by volatilization and contamination. The mercury activity was separated by means of distillation and ion exchange techniques.

  4. Cerebral blood flow during paroxysmal EEG activation induced by sleep in patients with complex partial seizures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gozukirmizi, E.; Meyer, J.S.; Okabe, T.; Amano, T.; Mortel, K.; Karacan, I.

    1982-01-01

    Cerebral blood flow (CBF) measurements were combined with sleep polysomnography in nine patients with complex partial seizures. Two methods were used: the 133Xe method for measuring regional (rCBF) and the stable xenon CT method for local (LCBF). Compared to nonepileptic subjects, who show diffuse CBF decreases during stages I-II, non-REM sleep onset, patients with complex partial seizures show statistically significant increases in CBF which are maximal in regions where the EEG focus is localized and are predominantly seen in one temporal region but are also propagated to other cerebral areas. Both CBF methods gave comparable results, but greater statistical significance was achieved by stable xenon CT methodology. CBF increases are more diffuse than predicted by EEG paroxysmal activity recorded from scalp electrodes. An advantage of the 133Xe inhalation method was achievement of reliable data despite movement of the head. This was attributed to the use of a helmet which maintained the probes approximated to the scalp. Disadvantages were poor resolution (7 cm3) and two-dimensional information. The advantage of stable xenon CT method is excellent resolution (80 mm3) in three dimensions, but a disadvantage is that movement of the head in patients with seizure disorders may limit satisfactory measurements

  5. D-dimer, factor VIII and von Willebrand factor predict a non-dipping pattern of blood pressure in hypertensive patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agorasti, Athanasia; Trivellas, Theodoros; Mourvati, Efthimia; Papadopoulos, Vasilios; Tsatalas, Konstantinos; Vargemezis, Vasilios; Passadakis, Ploumis

    2013-06-01

    The aim of this study is to assess whether the haemostatic markers D-dimer, factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF) are predictive of non-dipping status in treated hypertensive patients; so, as easy available laboratory data can predict non-dipping pattern and help with the selection of the patients whom circadian blood pressure should be re-examined. Forty treated hypertensive patients with essential hypertension were included in the study. Twenty-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring was performed in all patients. Daytime and nocturnal average systolic, diastolic and mean blood pressures were calculated. Patients were characterised as "non-dippers" on the basis of a less than 10 % decline in nocturnal blood pressure (BP); either systolic or diastolic or mean (MAP). D-dimer as marker of fibrinolytic function, FVIII activity and VWF antigen as marker of endothelial dysfunction were measured on plasma. The predictive efficiency was analysed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Youden index was used for the estimation of the cut-off points and the associated values for sensitivity and 1-specificity. Plasma levels of D-dimer, FVIII and VWF were significantly higher in non-dippers as compared with dippers, irrespective of the classification used (BP index); all P AUC(ROC) = 0.697, 0.715 and 0.774), FVIII (AUC(ROC) = 0.714, 0.692 and 0.755) and VWF (AUC(ROC) = 0.706, 0.740 and 0.708) in distinguishing non-dipping pattern (systolic, diastolic or mean) in the study population; all P 168 ng/ml (sensitivity/1-specificity for systolic BP non-dippers of 0.789/0.381, for diastolic BP non-dippers 0.923/0.444 and for MAP non-dippers 0.875/0.375). In conclusion, D-dimer has a good predictive value for non-dipping pattern and the decision for the 24-h ambulatory blood pressure re-monitoring among dippers could rely on its values.

  6. Red cell antigen prevalence predicted by molecular testing in ethnic groups of South Texas blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranda, Lorena I; Smith, Linda A; Jones, Scott; Beddard, Rachel

    2015-01-01

    Alloimmunization to red blood cell antigens is seen in patients receiving chronic blood transfusion. Knowing the prevalence of blood group antigens of the different ethnicities of South Texas donors can provide better management of rare blood inventory for patients in this geographical area. A total of 4369 blood donors were tested and analyzed for various antigens in the following blood group systems: ABO, Rh, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, MNS, Lutheran, Dombrock, Landsteiner-Wiener, Diego, Colton, and Scianna. Donors tested to be group 0 or A were serologically tested for the Rh (C, E, c, e) antigens. Those that tested as presumably R1R1, R2R2, or Ror were then genotyped. Donors constituted three major ethnicities: black (18.3%), Hispanic (36.3%), and Caucasian (41.1%); ethnicities comprised of Asian, American Indian, multiracial, and other accounted for the remaining donors (4.3%). The most likely common Rh phenotype for each ethnicity is as follows: black -Ror (44.4%), Hispanic -R1R1 (59.0%), and Caucasian -R1R1 (38.9%). The prevalence of Kell, Duffy, and Kidd blood group system antigens in black and Caucasian donors is comparable with published reports for the entire U.S. The black South Texas donor population had an 8.8 percent increase in prevalence of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype as compared with these published reports; the Hispanic South Texas donor population had a prevalence of 36.1 percent of the Fy(a+b-) phenotype. Regarding the Diego blood group system, the Hispanic donor population in South Texas had a prevalence of 93.5 percent for the Di(a-b+) phenotype as compared with published reports for the entire U.S. (>99.9%). The Hispanic population had a prevalence of 7.9 percent of donors testing as M-N+S-s+ as compared with 20.2 percent and 15.6 percent for black and Caucasian donors, respectively. This study helped us determine the prevalence of each of the blood group antigens in the South Texas donor population to establish and maintain adequate rare inventory of

  7. Planning for subacute care: predicting demand using acute activity data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Janette P; McNamee, Jennifer P; Kobel, Conrad; Seraji, Md Habibur R; Lawrence, Suanne J

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to develop a robust model that uses the concept of 'rehabilitation-sensitive' Diagnosis Related Groups (DRGs) in predicting demand for rehabilitation and geriatric evaluation and management (GEM) care following acute in-patient episodes provided in Australian hospitals. Methods The model was developed using statistical analyses of national datasets, informed by a panel of expert clinicians and jurisdictional advice. Logistic regression analysis was undertaken using acute in-patient data, published national hospital statistics and data from the Australasian Rehabilitation Outcomes Centre. Results The predictive model comprises tables of probabilities that patients will require rehabilitation or GEM care after an acute episode, with columns defined by age group and rows defined by grouped Australian Refined (AR)-DRGs. Conclusions The existing concept of rehabilitation-sensitive DRGs was revised and extended. When applied to national data, the model provided a conservative estimate of 83% of the activity actually provided. An example demonstrates the application of the model for service planning. What is known about the topic? Health service planning is core business for jurisdictions and local areas. With populations ageing and an acknowledgement of the underservicing of subacute care, it is timely to find improved methods of estimating demand for this type of care. Traditionally, age-sex standardised utilisation rates for individual DRGs have been applied to Australian Bureau of Statistics (ABS) population projections to predict the future need for subacute services. Improved predictions became possible when some AR-DRGs were designated 'rehabilitation-sensitive'. This improved methodology has been used in several Australian jurisdictions. What does this paper add? This paper presents a new tool, or model, to predict demand for rehabilitation and GEM services based on in-patient acute activity. In this model, the

  8. A Global Survey of ATPase Activity in Plasmodium falciparum Asexual Blood Stages and Gametocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega, Corrie; Frando, Andrew; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo; Anderson, Lindsey N.; Fleck, Neil; Flannery, Erika L.; Fishbaugher, Matthew; Murphree, Taylor A.; Hansen, Joshua R.; Smith, Richard D.; Kappe, Stefan H. I.; Wright, Aaron T.; Grundner, Christoph

    2017-10-27

    Effective malaria control and elimination in hyperendemic areas of the world will require treatment of disease-causing Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) blood stage infection but also blocking parasite transmission from humans to mosquito to prevent disease spread. Numerous antimalarial drugs have become ineffective due to parasite drug resistance and many currently used therapies do not kill gametocytes, highly specialized sexual parasite stages with distinct physiology that are necessary for transmission from the human host to the mosquito vector. Further confounding next generation drug development against Pf is the lack of known biochemical activity for most parasite gene products as well as the unknown metabolic needs of non-replicating gametocyte. Here, we take a systematic activity-based proteomics approach to survey the large and druggable ATPase family that is associated with replicating blood stage asexual parasites and transmissible gametocytes. We experimentally confirm existing annotation and predict ATPase function for 38 uncharacterized proteins. ATPase activity broadly changes during the transition from asexual schizonts to gametocytes, indicating altered metabolism and regulatory roles of ATPases specific for each lifecycle stage. By mapping the activity of ATPases associated with gametocytogenesis, we assign biochemical activity to a large number of uncharacterized proteins and identify new candidate transmission blocking targets.

  9. Spontaneous brain activity predicts learning ability of foreign sounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán, Ana; González, Julio; Palomar-García, María-Ángeles; Rodríguez-Pujadas, Aina; Sebastián-Gallés, Núria; Deco, Gustavo; Ávila, César

    2013-05-29

    Can learning capacity of the human brain be predicted from initial spontaneous functional connectivity (FC) between brain areas involved in a task? We combined task-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and resting-state fMRI (rs-fMRI) before and after training with a Hindi dental-retroflex nonnative contrast. Previous fMRI results were replicated, demonstrating that this learning recruited the left insula/frontal operculum and the left superior parietal lobe, among other areas of the brain. Crucially, resting-state FC (rs-FC) between these two areas at pretraining predicted individual differences in learning outcomes after distributed (Experiment 1) and intensive training (Experiment 2). Furthermore, this rs-FC was reduced at posttraining, a change that may also account for learning. Finally, resting-state network analyses showed that the mechanism underlying this reduction of rs-FC was mainly a transfer in intrinsic activity of the left frontal operculum/anterior insula from the left frontoparietal network to the salience network. Thus, rs-FC may contribute to predict learning ability and to understand how learning modifies the functioning of the brain. The discovery of this correspondence between initial spontaneous brain activity in task-related areas and posttraining performance opens new avenues to find predictors of learning capacities in the brain using task-related fMRI and rs-fMRI combined.

  10. Metabolic markers associated with insulin resistance predict type 2 diabetes in Koreans with normal blood pressure or prehypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Ki-Chul; Park, Hyun-Young; Kim, Min-Ju; Reaven, Gerald

    2016-03-22

    Questions remain as to the association between essential hypertension and increased incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). The premise of this analysis is that insulin resistance/compensatory hyperinsulinemia is a major predictor of T2DM, and the greater the prevalence of insulin resistance within any population, normotensive or hypertensive, the more likely T2DM will develop. The hypothesis to be tested is that surrogate estimates of insulin resistance will predict incident T2DM to a significant degree in persons with normal blood pressure or prehypertension. Analysis of data from a population-based survey of 10, 038 inhabitants of rural and urban areas of Korea, ≥40 years-old, initiated in 2001, with measures of demographic and metabolic characteristics at baseline and 8-years later. Participants were classified as having normal blood pressure or prehypertension, and three simple manifestations of insulin resistance related to the pathophysiology of T2DM used to predict incident T2DM: (1) glycemia (plasma glucose concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PG); (2) hyperinsulinemia (plasma insulin concentration 2-hour after 75 g oral glucose challenge = 2-hour PI); and (3) dyslipidemia (ratio of fasting plasma triglyceride/high/density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration = TG/HDL-C ratio). Fully adjusted hazard ratios (HR, 95 % CI) for incident T2DM were highest (P insulin resistance was the 2-hour PI concentration. Subjects with normal blood pressure in the highest quartile of 2-hour PI concentrations were significantly associated with incident T2DM, with HRs of 1.5 (1.02-2.20, P = 0.25) and 2.02 (1.35-3.02, P insulin resistance (glycemia, insulinemia, and dyslipidemia) predict the development of T2DM in patients with either normal blood pressure or prehypertension.

  11. The prognostic blood biomarker proadrenomedullin for outcome prediction in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD): a qualitative clinical review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuetz, Philipp; Marlowe, Robert J; Mueller, Beat

    2015-03-01

    Plasma proadrenomedullin (ProADM) is a blood biomarker that may aid in multidimensional risk assessment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Co-secreted 1:1 with adrenomedullin (ADM), ProADM is a less biologically active, more chemically stable surrogate for this pluripotent regulatory peptide, which due to biological and ex vivo physical characteristics is difficult to reliably directly quantify. Upregulated by hypoxia, inflammatory cytokines, bacterial products, and shear stress and expressed widely in pulmonary cells and ubiquitously throughout the body, ADM exerts or mediates vasodilatory, natriuretic, diuretic, antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and metabolic effects. Observational data from four separate studies totaling 1366 patients suggest that as a single factor, ProADM is a significant independent, and accurate, long-term all-cause mortality predictor in COPD. This body of work also suggests that combined with different groups of demographic/clinical variables, ProADM provides significant incremental long-term mortality prediction power relative to the groups of variables alone. Additionally, the literature contains indications that ProADM may be a global cardiopulmonary stress marker, potentially supplying prognostic information when cardiopulmonary exercise testing results such as 6-min walk distance are unavailable due to time or other resource constraints or to a patient's advanced disease. Prospective, randomized, controlled interventional studies are needed to demonstrate whether ProADM use in risk-based guidance of site-of-care, monitoring, and treatment decisions improves clinical, quality-of-life, or pharmacoeconomic outcomes in patients with COPD.

  12. Neural activity predicts attitude change in cognitive dissonance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Veen, Vincent; Krug, Marie K; Schooler, Jonathan W; Carter, Cameron S

    2009-11-01

    When our actions conflict with our prior attitudes, we often change our attitudes to be more consistent with our actions. This phenomenon, known as cognitive dissonance, is considered to be one of the most influential theories in psychology. However, the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. Using a Solomon four-group design, we scanned participants with functional MRI while they argued that the uncomfortable scanner environment was nevertheless a pleasant experience. We found that cognitive dissonance engaged the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula; furthermore, we found that the activation of these regions tightly predicted participants' subsequent attitude change. These effects were not observed in a control group. Our findings elucidate the neural representation of cognitive dissonance, and support the role of the anterior cingulate cortex in detecting cognitive conflict and the neural prediction of attitude change.

  13. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-01-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  14. Interest of blood markers in predicting radiation-induced toxicity; Interet des marqueurs sanguins dans la prediction de la toxicite radio-induite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lacombe, J. [Departement de cancerologie radiotherapie, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Universite de Montpellier I, 5, boulevard Henri-IV, CS 19044, 34967 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Laboratoire d' oncoproteomique clinique, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Solassol, J. [Laboratoire de biologie cellulaire et hormonale, hopital Arnaud-de-Villeneuve, CHU de Montpellier, 371, avenue du Doyen-Gaston-Giraud, 34295 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Laboratoire d' oncoproteomique clinique, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Coelho, M. [Inserm U896, institut de recherche en cancerologie de Montpellier, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Ozsahin, M. [Service de radio-oncologie, centre hospitalier universitaire Vaudois, 1011 Lausanne (Switzerland); Azria, D. [Departement de cancerologie radiotherapie, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France); Universite de Montpellier I, 5, boulevard Henri-IV, CS 19044, 34967 Montpellier cedex 2 (France); Inserm U896, institut de recherche en cancerologie de Montpellier, CRLC Val-d' Aurelle-Paul-Lamarque, rue Croix-Verte, 34298 Montpellier cedex 5 (France)

    2011-08-15

    The oncologic outcome and the total dose are highly correlated with the treatment by ionizing radiation. The dose increase (total or per fraction) may provoke late-side effects that are potentially irreversible. The radiation-induced CD8 lymphocyte apoptotic value and the molecular modifications within the lymphocyte are capable of predicting the level of risk of developing late-side effects after curative intent radiotherapy. In this review, we present the different blood assays in this setting and discuss the current possibilities of researches, namely those involving the proteomic process. (authors)

  15. Do Urinary Cystine Parameters Predict Clinical Stone Activity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedlander, Justin I; Antonelli, Jodi A; Canvasser, Noah E; Morgan, Monica S C; Mollengarden, Daniel; Best, Sara; Pearle, Margaret S

    2018-02-01

    An accurate urinary predictor of stone recurrence would be clinically advantageous for patients with cystinuria. A proprietary assay (Litholink, Chicago, Illinois) measures cystine capacity as a potentially more reliable estimate of stone forming propensity. The recommended capacity level to prevent stone formation, which is greater than 150 mg/l, has not been directly correlated with clinical stone activity. We investigated the relationship between urinary cystine parameters and clinical stone activity. We prospectively followed 48 patients with cystinuria using 24-hour urine collections and serial imaging, and recorded stone activity. We compared cystine urinary parameters at times of stone activity with those obtained during periods of stone quiescence. We then performed correlation and ROC analysis to evaluate the performance of cystine parameters to predict stone activity. During a median followup of 70.6 months (range 2.2 to 274.6) 85 stone events occurred which could be linked to a recent urine collection. Cystine capacity was significantly greater for quiescent urine than for stone event urine (mean ± SD 48 ± 107 vs -38 ± 163 mg/l, p stone activity (r = -0.29, p r = -0.88, p r = -0.87, p stone quiescence. Decreasing the cutoff to 90 mg/l or greater improved sensitivity to 25.2% while maintaining specificity at 90.9%. Our results suggest that the target for capacity should be lower than previously advised. Copyright © 2018 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of exercise on erythrocyte count and blood activity concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konstam, M.A.; Tu'meh, S.; Wynne, J.; Beck, J.R.; Kozlowski, J.; Holman, B.L.

    1982-01-01

    We studied the effect of exercise on blood radiotracer concentration after /sup 99m/Tc in vivo red blood cell labeling. After red blood cell labeling, 13 subjects underwent maximal supine bicycle exercise. Radioactivity, analyzed with a well counter, was measured in heparinized venous blood samples drawn at rest and during peak exercise. Changes in activity were compared with changes in erythrocyte count. Activity and erythrocyte counts increased during exercise in all 13 subjects. Percent increase in activity correlated with percent increase in erythrocyte count (r . -0.78), but did not correlate with either duration of exercise or maximal heart rate. Twenty minutes after termination of exercise, activity and erythrocyte count had decreased from peak exercise values but remained higher than preexercise values. In nine nonexercised control subjects, samples drawn 20 minutes apart showed no change in activity or in erythrocyte count. We conclude that exercise increases blood activity, primarily because of an increase in erythrocyte count. During radionuclide ventriculography, blood activity must be measured before and after any intervention, particularly exercise, before a change in left ventricular activity can be attributed to a change in left ventricular volume

  17. Very Low Cerebral Blood Volume Predicts Parenchymal Hematoma in Acute Ischemic Stroke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermitte, Laure; Cho, Tae-Hee; Ozenne, Brice

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective was to exp......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Parenchymal hematoma (PH) may worsen the outcome of patients with stroke. The aim of our study was to confirm the relationship between the volume of very low cerebral blood volume (CBV) and PH using a European multicenter database (I-KNOW). A secondary objective...

  18. Predictive value of PWI for blood supply and T1-spin echo MRI for consistency of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zengyi; He, Wenqiang; Zhao, Yao; Zhang, Qilin; Li, Shiqi; Wang, Yongfei [Fudan University, Department of Neurosurgery, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Shanghai Pituitary Tumor Center, Shanghai (China); Yuan, Jie; Wu, Yue; Yao, Zhenwei [Fudan University, Department of Radiology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China); Chen, Hong [Fudan University, Department of Neuropathology, Huashan Hospital, Shanghai Medical College, Shanghai (China)

    2016-01-15

    It is a common view that consistency and blood supply of pituitary adenoma (PA) can influence the surgical effect. The aim of this study was to determine whether MRI signal intensity (SI) was correlated to the consistency or blood supply of pituitary macroadenoma. Forty eight pituitary macroadenoma patients were underwent preoperative MRI, including precontrast and contrast-enhanced (CE) T1-spin echo (T1-SE) imaging, CE-sampling perfection with application-optimized contrasts by using different flip angle evolutions (SPACE) imaging, and perfusion-weighted imaging (PWI). The tumor consistency and blood supply were determined by neurosurgeons. The expression of collagen IV and MIB-1 was detected with immunohistology. The correlation of the relative SI (rSI) values (tumor to normal frontal white matter SI) and PWI data to the tumor consistency, blood supply, and the expression level of collagen IV and MIB-1 was statistically studied by Kruskal-Wallis rank test (K-W test). A significant correlation was observed between the tumor consistency and the rSI on precontrast T1-SE imaging (P = 0.004) but not on CE T1-SE and CE SPACE imaging. The expression of collagen IV was also significantly associated with rSI on T1-SE imaging (P = 0.010). The blood supply was correlated with the relative CBV (rCBV) (P = 0.030). In addition, the expression of MIB-1 was correlated with rSI of CE T1-SE imaging (P = 0.007). Our results suggest that T1-SE imaging may be a simple and useful method for predicting consistency of PA. CBV value can provide helpful information for assessing the blood supply of pituitary macroadenoma. (orig.)

  19. Markers in blood and saliva for prediction of orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption: a retrospective case controlled-study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilara Yashin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hormonal and enzymatic factors may render certain individuals more susceptible to orthodontically induced inflammatory root resorption (OIIRR. The objectives of this study are (1 to identify biochemical key markers in blood and saliva that may be correlated to the trend of extensive OIIRR and (2 to utilise these markers to predict a susceptible patient-receiving orthodontic treatment. Methods Nine patients (mean age 23 + 2.9 years who had moderate to severe OIIRR that assessed via orthopantomograms and met the inclusion criteria were classified as the root resorption group (RRG. Blood chemistry was evaluated using the collection of fasting blood and unstimulated saliva samples. Multiplex enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA arrays were used to screen blood and saliva samples for human cytokines, chemokines and several key enzymes that may play a role in root resorption following orthodontic force application. Biochemical findings from 16 matching subjects were used as the control (CG for comparative measurements. Results Patients with moderate to severe OIIRR showed a significant increase in salivary cytokines including interleukin (IL 7, IL-10, IL-12p70 and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ level as well as a significant decrease in IL-4 level. Osteocalcin and procollagen type I N-terminal peptide (P1NP appeared to be the only blood factors that showed a significant difference, more in the CG than the RRG. Conclusions Saliva might be a more valuable way of measuring changes in cytokine expression than blood secondary to orthodontic treatment. Although the increased expression of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines may be determinants in the development of moderate to severe OIIRR, cytokine expression may be affected by several potential inflammations in another part of the body. Future research could investigate the cause/effect relationship of different cytokines, in a larger group of patients and at different

  20. Does dairy food intake predict arterial stiffness and blood pressure in men?: Evidence from the Caerphilly Prospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, Katherine M; Lovegrove, Julie A; Cockcroft, John R; Elwood, Peter C; Pickering, Janet E; Givens, D Ian

    2013-01-01

    Arterial stiffness is an independent predictor of cardiovascular disease events and mortality, and like blood pressure, may be influenced by dairy food intake. Few studies have investigated the effects of consumption of these foods on prospective measures of arterial stiffness. The present analysis aimed to investigate the prospective relationship between milk, cheese, cream, and butter consumption and aortic pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, as well as cross-sectional relationships between these foods and systolic and diastolic blood pressure and metabolic markers using data from the Caerphilly Prospective Study. Included in this cohort were 2512 men, aged 45 to 59 years, who were followed up at 5-year intervals for a mean of 22.8 years (number follow-up 787). Augmentation index was 1.8% lower in subjects in the highest quartiles of dairy product intake compared with the lowest (P trend=0.021), whereas in the highest group of milk consumption systolic blood pressure was 10.4 mm Hg lower (P trend=0.033) than in nonmilk consumers after a 22.8-year follow-up. Cross-sectional analyses indicated that across increasing quartiles of butter intake, insulin (P trend=0.011), triacylglycerol (P trend=0.023), total cholesterol (P trend=0.002), and diastolic blood pressure (P trend=0.027) were higher. Across increasing groups of milk intake and quartiles of dairy product intake, glucose (P trend=0.032) and triglyceride concentrations (P trend=0.031) were lower, respectively. The present results confirm that consumption of milk predicts prospective blood pressure, whereas dairy product consumption, excluding butter, is not detrimental to arterial stiffness and metabolic markers. Further research is needed to better understand the mechanisms that underpin these relationships.

  1. Predictive value of cord blood bilirubins for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, Kara L.; Roy, Devika; Molchan, Lauren; Bradley, Lyndsey; Grogan, Tristan; Elashoff, David; Walker, Valencia P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine the predictive ability of cord blood bilirubin (CBB) for hyperbilirubinemia in a population at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn. Study Design This is a single center retrospective case-control study. Cases received phototherapy; controls did not. Cases were matched 1:3 to controls by gender and treating physician. Inclusion criteria included: ≥ 35 weeks gestation, CBB, and one or more total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations. The primary outcome was CBB. Secondary outcomes were a TSB > 75th percentile, length of stay, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The prognostic ability of CBB for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for phototherapy and TSB > 75th percentile. Result When compared to controls (n=142), cases (n=54) were more likely to have a positive Coombs’ test (82% vs. 41%, p 75th percentile (85% vs. 21%, p75th percentile was 0.87±0.03 (phemolytic disease of the newborn. PMID:26518407

  2. Predictive value of cord blood bilirubin for hyperbilirubinemia in neonates at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calkins, K; Roy, D; Molchan, L; Bradley, L; Grogan, T; Elashoff, D; Walker, V

    2015-01-01

    To determine the predictive ability of cord blood bilirubin (CBB) for hyperbilirubinemia in a population at risk for maternal-fetal blood group incompatibility and hemolytic disease of the newborn. This is a single center retrospective case-control study. Cases received phototherapy; controls did not. Cases were matched 1:3 to controls by gender and treating physician. Inclusion criteria included: ≥35 weeks gestation, CBB, and one or more total serum bilirubin (TSB) concentrations. The primary outcome was CBB. Secondary outcomes were a TSB >75th percentile, length of stay, and neonatal intensive care unit admission. The prognostic ability of CBB for phototherapy and TSB >75th percentile was assessed using area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. Logistic regression analyses were performed to determine predictors for phototherapy and TSB >75th percentile. When compared to controls (n = 142), cases (n = 54) were more likely to have a positive Coombs' test (82% vs. 41% , p 75th percentile (85% vs. 21% , p 75th percentile was 0.87 ± 0.03 (p hemolytic disease of the newborn.

  3. Elevated blood eosinophils in early infancy are predictive of atopic dermatitis in children with risk for atopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossberg, Siri; Gerhold, Kerstin; Geske, Thomas; Zimmermann, Kurt; Menke, Georg; Zaino, Mohammad; Wahn, Ulrich; Hamelmann, Eckard; Lau, Susanne

    2016-11-01

    Accessible markers to predict the development of atopic diseases are highly desirable but yet matter of debate. We investigated the role of blood eosinophils at 4 weeks and 7 months of life and their association with developing atopic dermatitis (AD) in a birth cohort of children with atopic heredity. Infant blood samples for eosinophil counts were taken from 559 infants at 4 weeks and from 467 infants at 7 month of life with at least one atopic parent. Elevation of blood eosinophils was defined as ≥ 5% of total leukocytes and the asscociation for the occurrence of AD was assessed by entering 2 × 2 tables and the odds ratios were estimated followed by hypothesis testing against the alternate working hypothesis: odds ratio 1. Survival analysis was carried out estimating the Kaplan-Meier product limit estimator from the life-time table of AD score and time to AD manifestation stratified by the eosinophil binary score. Elevated blood eosinophils observed at 4 weeks were significantly associated with the occurrence of AD in the whole cohort at the age of 7 months (p = 0.007), 1 year (p = 0.004), 2 years (p = 0.007) and 3 years (p = 0.006) of life. AD occurred app. 12 weeks earlier in infants with elevated blood eosinophils at 4 weeks of life. Blood eosinophil counts ≥5% at 7 months of life failed to show significance for AD; for eosinophils at 4.5% a significant association at 7 months (p = 0.005), and 1 year of life (p = 0.039), 2 years (p = 0.033) and 3 years (p = 0.034) was observed. Elevated blood eosinophils at age 4 weeks have a predictive value for the onset of atopic dermatitis in infancy and early childhood in children with high risk for atopy. Early eosinophil counts may therefore be helpful for counseling parents to provide infant skincare but furthermore identify individuals for interventional trials aiming at allergy prevention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Predicting flow at work: investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Karina; Cleal, Bryan

    2010-04-01

    Flow (a state of consciousness where people become totally immersed in an activity and enjoy it intensely) has been identified as a desirable state with positive effects for employee well-being and innovation at work. Flow has been studied using both questionnaires and Experience Sampling Method (ESM). In this study, we used a newly developed 9-item flow scale in an ESM study combined with a questionnaire to examine the predictors of flow at two levels: the activities (brainstorming, planning, problem solving and evaluation) associated with transient flow states and the more stable job characteristics (role clarity, influence and cognitive demands). Participants were 58 line managers from two companies in Denmark; a private accountancy firm and a public elder care organization. We found that line managers in elder care experienced flow more often than accountancy line managers, and activities such as planning, problem solving, and evaluation predicted transient flow states. The more stable job characteristics included in this study were not, however, found to predict flow at work. Copyright 2010 APA, all rights reserved.

  5. Determination of mercury in human serum and packed blood cells by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Versieck, J.; Vanballenberghe, L.; Wittoek, A.; Vermeir, G.; Vandecasteele, C.

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for the determination of mercury in human blood serum and packed blood cells employing neutron activation analysis. Great attention was devoted to the collection and manipulation of the samples. The accuracy and precision of the method were tested by analyzing biological reference materials and by comparing the concentrations measured in a number of serum samples to those obtained by another, independent technique (cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry) in the same samples. The article reports the levels measured in blood serum and packed blood cells samples from 15 adult volunteers, as well as the figures determined in a open-quotes second-generationclose quotes biological reference material (freeze-dried human serum), prepared and conditioned at the University of Ghent

  6. Whole-blood phagocytic and bactericidal activities of atomic bomb survivors, Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sasagawa, Sumiko; Yoshimoto, Yasuhiko; Toyota, Emiko; Neriishi, Shotaro; Yamakido, Michio; Matsuo, Miyo; Hosoda, Yutaka; Finch, S.C.

    1989-04-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the phagocytic and bactericidal activities of leukocytes in aliquots of whole blood from Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bomb survivors for Staphylococcus aureus. The data were analyzed by multiple linear regression. Any significant effects of exposure to A-bomb radiation could not be detected for both phagocytic and bactericidal activities of whole blood from A-bomb survivors. In addition, there were no significant effects of age categories, sex or city, except in neutrophil counts. (J.P.N.)

  7. Blood elements concentration in cyclists investigated by instrumental neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zamboni, C.B.; Kovacs, L.; Metairon, S.; Azevedo, M.R.A.; Furholz, C.F.; Uchida, M.C.

    2016-01-01

    In this study Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, K, Mg, Na, S and Zn levels in blood samples of cyclists were investigated using neutron activation analysis technique. The results were compared to individuals of the same age and gender, but not involved with physical activities (control group), which showed considerable differences. A decrease mainly in Br (91 %) and Ca (78 %) and an increase in Fe (26 %), S (82 %) and Zn (22 %) levels were evidenced. These results emphasize the importance of blood monitoring for the maintenance of endurance athletes performance, particularly for Br, Ca and S. (author)

  8. Bihormonal model predictive control of blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Batora, Vladimir; Tarnik, Marian; Murgas, Jan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we present a bihormonal control system that controls blood glucose in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D). We use insulin together with glucagon to mitigate the negative effects of hyper- and hypoglycemia. The system consists of a Kalman filter, a micro-bolus insulin and glucagon...

  9. Using Blood Indexes to Predict Overweight Statuses: An Extreme Learning Machine-Based Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiling Chen

    Full Text Available The number of the overweight people continues to rise across the world. Studies have shown that being overweight can increase health risks, such as high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Therefore, identifying the overweight status in people is critical to prevent and decrease health risks. This study explores a new technique that uses blood and biochemical measurements to recognize the overweight condition. A new machine learning technique, an extreme learning machine, was developed to accurately detect the overweight status from a pool of 225 overweight and 251 healthy subjects. The group included 179 males and 297 females. The detection method was rigorously evaluated against the real-life dataset for accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and AUC (area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve criterion. Additionally, the feature selection was investigated to identify correlating factors for the overweight status. The results demonstrate that there are significant differences in blood and biochemical indexes between healthy and overweight people (p-value < 0.01. According to the feature selection, the most important correlated indexes are creatinine, hemoglobin, hematokrit, uric Acid, red blood cells, high density lipoprotein, alanine transaminase, triglyceride, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase. These are consistent with the results of Spearman test analysis. The proposed method holds promise as a new, accurate method for identifying the overweight status in subjects.

  10. A Novel, Nondestructive, Dried Blood Spot-Based Hematocrit Prediction Method Using Noncontact Diffuse Reflectance Spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capiau, S.; Wilk, L.S.; Aalders, M.C.G.; Stove, C.P.

    2016-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is recognized as a valuable alternative sampling strategy both in research and in clinical routine. Although many advantages are associated with DBS sampling, its more widespread use is hampered by several issues, of which the hematocrit effect on DBS-based

  11. Impact of blood processing variations on Natural Killer cell frequency, activation, chemokine receptor expression and function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranbhai, Vivek; Bartman, Pat; Ndlovu, Dudu; Ramkalawon, Pamela; Ndung’u, Thumbi; Wilson, Douglas; Altfeld, Marcus; Carr, William H

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the role of natural killer (NK) cells in human disease pathogenesis is crucial and necessitates study of patient samples directly ex vivo. Manipulation of whole blood by density gradient centrifugation or delays in sample processing due to shipping, however, may lead to artifactual changes in immune response measures. Here, we assessed the impact of density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of both whole blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) at multiple timepoints (2–24 hrs) on flow cytometric measures of NK cell frequency, activation status, chemokine receptor expression, and effector functions. We found that density gradient centrifugation activated NK cells and modified chemokine receptor expression. Delays in processing beyond 8 hours activated NK cells in PBMC but not in whole blood. Likewise, processing delays decreased chemokine receptor (CCR4 and CCR7) expression in both PBMC and whole blood. Finally, delays in processing PBMC were associated with a decreased ability of NK cells to degranulate (as measured by CD107a expression) or secrete cytokines (IFN-γ and TNF-α). In summary, our findings suggest that density gradient centrifugation and delayed processing of PBMC can alter measures of clinically relevant NK cell characteristics including effector functions; and therefore should be taken into account in designing clinical research studies. PMID:21255578

  12. The effects of activation procedures on regional cerebral blood flow in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rozenfeld, D.; Wolfson, L.I.

    1981-01-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (r-CBF) can be measured using 133XE and collimated detectors. The radionuclide can be administered either by inhalation or intracarotid injection. Comparison of blood flow determinations at rest and during performance of an activity identifies those brain regions that become active during the performance of the activity. Relatively specific patterns of r-CBF are observed during hand movements, sensory stimulation, eye movements, speech, listening, and reading. Regional CBF changes during reasoning and memorization are less specific and less well characterized. It is clear that brain lesions affect r-CBF responses to various activities, but this effect has not been well correlated with functional deficits or recovery of function. Regional CBF measurement gives information about brain activity and the functional response to experimental manipulation. This approach may well add to our understanding of normal, as well as pathologic, brain functioning

  13. Blood phagocyte activity after race training sessions in Thoroughbred and Arabian horses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cywinska, Anna; Szarska, Ewa; Degorski, Andrzej; Guzera, Maciej; Gorecka, Renata; Strzelec, Katarzyna; Kowalik, Sylwester; Schollenberger, Antoni; Winnicka, Anna

    2013-10-01

    Intensive exercise and exertion during competition promote many changes that may result in the impairment of immunity and increased susceptibility to infections. The aim of this study was to evaluate the activity of "the first line of defense": neutrophils and monocytes in racing Thoroughbred and Arabian horses after routine training sessions. Twenty-three (12 Thoroughbred and 11 Arabian) horses were examined. Routine haematological (number of red blood cells - RBC, haemoglobin concentration - HGB, haematocrit - HCT, total number of white blood cells - WBC), biochemical (creatine phosphokinase activity - CPK and total protein concentration - TP) parameters, cortisol concentration as well as phagocytic and oxidative burst activity of neutrophils and monocytes were determined. The values of basic parameters and the activity of phagocytes differed between breeds and distinct patterns of exercise-induced changes were observed. The training sessions did not produce the decrease in phagocyte activity that might lead to the suppression of immunity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Preliminary evaluation of a predictive blood assay to identify patients at high risk of chemotherapy-induced nausea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutner, Thomas; Kunkel, Emily; Wang, Yue; George, Kyle; Zeger, Erik L; Ali, Zonera A; Prendergast, George C; Gilman, Paul B; Wallon, U Margaretha

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to test a new blood-based assay for its ability to predict delayed chemotherapy-induced nausea. Blood drawn from consented patients prior to receiving their first platinum-based therapy was tested for glutathione recycling capacity and normalized to total red cell numbers. This number was used to predict nausea and then compared to patient reported outcomes using the Rotterdam Symptom Check List and medical records. We show that the pathways involved in the glutathione recycling are stable for at least 48 h and that the test was able to correctly classify the risk of nausea for 89.1 % of the patients. The overall incidence of nausea was 21.9 % while women had an incidence of 29.6 %. This might be the first objective test to predict delayed nausea for cancer patients receiving highly emetogenic chemotherapy. We believe that this assay could better guide clinicians in their efforts to provide optimal patient-oriented care.

  15. Predicting fatty acid profiles in blood based on food intake and the FADS1 rs174546 SNP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallmann, Jacqueline; Kolossa, Silvia; Gedrich, Kurt; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Forster, Hannah; O'Donovan, Clare B; Woolhead, Clara; Macready, Anna L; Fallaize, Rosalind; Marsaux, Cyril F M; Lambrinou, Christina-Paulina; Mavrogianni, Christina; Moschonis, George; Navas-Carretero, Santiago; San-Cristobal, Rodrigo; Godlewska, Magdalena; Surwiłło, Agnieszka; Mathers, John C; Gibney, Eileen R; Brennan, Lorraine; Walsh, Marianne C; Lovegrove, Julie A; Saris, Wim H M; Manios, Yannis; Martinez, Jose Alfredo; Traczyk, Iwona; Gibney, Michael J; Daniel, Hannelore

    2015-12-01

    A high intake of n-3 PUFA provides health benefits via changes in the n-6/n-3 ratio in blood. In addition to such dietary PUFAs, variants in the fatty acid desaturase 1 (FADS1) gene are also associated with altered PUFA profiles. We used mathematical modeling to predict levels of PUFA in whole blood, based on multiple hypothesis testing and bootstrapped LASSO selected food items, anthropometric and lifestyle factors, and the rs174546 genotypes in FADS1 from 1607 participants (Food4Me Study). The models were developed using data from the first reported time point (training set) and their predictive power was evaluated using data from the last reported time point (test set). Among other food items, fish, pizza, chicken, and cereals were identified as being associated with the PUFA profiles. Using these food items and the rs174546 genotypes as predictors, models explained 26-43% of the variability in PUFA concentrations in the training set and 22-33% in the test set. Selecting food items using multiple hypothesis testing is a valuable contribution to determine predictors, as our models' predictive power is higher compared to analogue studies. As unique feature, we additionally confirmed our models' power based on a test set. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Nonlinear dynamical modeling and prediction of the terrestrial magnetospheric activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vassiliadis, D.

    1992-01-01

    The irregular activity of the magnetosphere results from its complex internal dynamics as well as the external influence of the solar wind. The dominating self-organization of the magnetospheric plasma gives rise to repetitive, large-scale coherent behavior manifested in phenomena such as the magnetic substorm. Based on the nonlinearity of the global dynamics this dissertation examines the magnetosphere as a nonlinear dynamical system using time series analysis techniques. Initially the magnetospheric activity is modeled in terms of an autonomous system. A dimension study shows that its observed time series is self-similar, but the correlation dimension is high. The implication of a large number of degrees of freedom is confirmed by other state space techniques such as Poincare sections and search for unstable periodic orbits. At the same time a stability study of the time series in terms of Lyapunov exponents suggests that the series is not chaotic. The absence of deterministic chaos is supported by the low predictive capability of the autonomous model. Rather than chaos, it is an external input which is largely responsible for the irregularity of the magnetospheric activity. In fact, the external driving is so strong that the above state space techniques give results for magnetospheric and solar wind time series that are at least qualitatively similar. Therefore the solar wind input has to be included in a low-dimensional nonautonomous model. Indeed it is shown that such a model can reproduce the observed magnetospheric behavior up to 80-90 percent. The characteristic coefficients of the model show little variation depending on the external disturbance. The impulse response is consistent with earlier results of linear prediction filters. The model can be easily extended to contain nonlinear features of the magnetospheric activity and in particular the loading-unloading behavior of substorms

  17. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the bowel wall can predict disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanini, Laura, E-mail: laura.romanini@libero.it [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Passamonti, Matteo, E-mail: matteopassamonti@gmail.com [Department of Radiology-AO Provincia di Lodi, Via Fissiraga, 15, 26900 Lodi (Italy); Navarria, Mario, E-mail: navarria.mario@tiscali.it [Department of Radiology-ASL Vallecamonica-Sebino, Via Manzoni 142, 25040 Esine, BS (Italy); Lanzarotto, Francesco, E-mail: francesco.lanzarotto@spedalicivili.brescia.it [Department of Gastroenterology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Villanacci, Vincenzo, E-mail: villanac@alice.it [Department of Pathology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Grazioli, Luigi, E-mail: radiologia1@spedalicivili.brescia.it [Department of Radiology, Spedali Civili di Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy); Calliada, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.calliada@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Pavia, Viale Camillo Golgi 19, 27100 Pavia (Italy); Maroldi, Roberto, E-mail: rmaroldi@gmail.com [Department of Radiology, University of Brescia, P.le Spedali Civili, 1, 25123 Brescia (Italy)

    2014-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of quantitative analysis of bowel wall enhancement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparing the results with vascular density in a biopsy sample from the same area of the intestinal tract, and to determine the usefulness of this analysis for the prediction of disease activity. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institute's ethics committee and all patients gave written informed consent. We enrolled 33 consecutive adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and biopsy for IBD. All patients underwent CEUS and the results were quantitatively analyzed. Vessel count per high-power field on biopsy specimens was compared with colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS findings, and with analysis of peak intensity, time to peak, regional blood volume, mean transit time, and regional blood flow. Results in patients with high and low vascular density were compared using Fisher's test, t-test, Pearson's correlation test, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Cutoff values were determined using ROC analysis, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: High vascular density (>265 vessels per field) on histological examination was significantly correlated with active disease on colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS (p < .0001). Quantitative analysis showed a higher enhancement peak, a shorter time to peak enhancement, a higher regional blood flow and regional blood volume in patients with high vascular density than in those with low vascular density. Cutoff values to distinguish between active and inactive disease were identified for peak enhancement (>40.5%), and regional blood flow (>54.8 ml/min). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of CEUS data correlates with disease activity as determined by vascular density. Quantitative parameters of CEUS can be used to predict active disease with high sensitivity and

  18. Quantitative analysis of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography of the bowel wall can predict disease activity in inflammatory bowel disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanini, Laura; Passamonti, Matteo; Navarria, Mario; Lanzarotto, Francesco; Villanacci, Vincenzo; Grazioli, Luigi; Calliada, Fabrizio; Maroldi, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the accuracy of quantitative analysis of bowel wall enhancement in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) with contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) by comparing the results with vascular density in a biopsy sample from the same area of the intestinal tract, and to determine the usefulness of this analysis for the prediction of disease activity. Materials and methods: This prospective study was approved by our institute's ethics committee and all patients gave written informed consent. We enrolled 33 consecutive adult patients undergoing colonoscopy and biopsy for IBD. All patients underwent CEUS and the results were quantitatively analyzed. Vessel count per high-power field on biopsy specimens was compared with colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS findings, and with analysis of peak intensity, time to peak, regional blood volume, mean transit time, and regional blood flow. Results in patients with high and low vascular density were compared using Fisher's test, t-test, Pearson's correlation test, and receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) analysis. Cutoff values were determined using ROC analysis, and sensitivity and specificity were calculated. Results: High vascular density (>265 vessels per field) on histological examination was significantly correlated with active disease on colonoscopy, baseline ultrasonography, and CEUS (p < .0001). Quantitative analysis showed a higher enhancement peak, a shorter time to peak enhancement, a higher regional blood flow and regional blood volume in patients with high vascular density than in those with low vascular density. Cutoff values to distinguish between active and inactive disease were identified for peak enhancement (>40.5%), and regional blood flow (>54.8 ml/min). Conclusion: Quantitative analysis of CEUS data correlates with disease activity as determined by vascular density. Quantitative parameters of CEUS can be used to predict active disease with high sensitivity and

  19. Role of blood tumor markers in predicting metastasis and local recurrence after curative resection of colon cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Yifan; Zhai, Zhiwei; Li, Zhongmin; Wang, Lin; Gu, Jin

    2015-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the prognostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), CA199, CA724 and CA242 in peripheral blood and local draining venous blood in colon cancer patients after curative resection. Methods: 92 colon cancer patients who received curative resection were retrospectively analyzed. The CEA, CA199, CA724 and CA242 were detected in peripheral blood and local draining venous blood. Results: Metastasis or local recurrence was found in 29 (29/92, 31.5%) patients during follow-up period. 92 patients were divided into two groups: metastasis/local recurrence group (n = 29) and non-metastasis/local recurrence group (n = 63). Peripheral venous CEA, CA199, CA724 and CA242 (p-CEA, p-CA199, p-CA724 and p-CA242) were comparable between two groups (P > 0.05). The median draining venous CEA (d-CEA) in metastases/local recurrence group (23.7 ± 6.9 ng/ml) was significantly higher than that in non-metastases/local recurrence group (18.1 ± 6.3 ng/ml; P 0.05). The optimal cut-off value of d-CEA was 2.76 ng/ml, with the sensitivity and specificity of 90% and 40% in the prediction of metastasis or local recurrence, respectively. d-CEA correlated with tumor differentiation, T stage, TNM stage, metastasis and local recurrence. Subgroup analysis showed that, of 41 patients with stage II colon cancer, the optimal cut-off value of d-CEA was 8.78 ng/mL, and the sensitivity and specificity were 87.5% and 69.7% in the prediction of metastasis or local recurrence, respectively. Conclusion: d-CEA may be a prognostic factor for stage II colon cancer patients. PMID:25785084

  20. The location of splenic NKT cells favours their rapid activation by blood-borne antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2012-05-16

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses.

  1. Inhibition of IL-1 activity induced with allogeneic transfusion of UV-irradiated blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvat, B.; Poljak-Blazi, M.; Hadija, M.

    1991-01-01

    Treatment with UV-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion is known to induce specific unresponsiveness in recipient animals and prolong allograft survival. Mixed lymphocyte response in transfused mice was decreased towards spleen cells of the blood donor strain, but was not altered to third-party cells. Sera from treated mice showed significantly lower interleukin-1 (IL-1) activity, which was increased with higher dilutions of sera, indicating the presence of IL-1 inhibitor. Furthermore, sera decreased rIL-1-induced cell proliferation in dose-dependent manner, while the response to rIL-2 neither depended on the concentration of sera, nor differed between non-treated controls and treated mice. These results indicate that UV-irradiated allogeneic blood transfusion could induce an inhibitor, specifically directed to IL-1 activity, which may be involved in the generation of immunological unresponsiveness in treated animals. (author)

  2. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, M J; Mantle, J A; Rogers, W J; Russell, R O; Rackley, C E; Logic, J R

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse Tc-99m pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60--90 min following the injection of 12--15 mCi of Tc-99m pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to "rule out" infarction 24--72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms.

  3. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, M.J.; Mantle, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Logic, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse 99m Tc pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60 to 90 min following the injection of 12 to 15 mCi of 99m Tc pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to rule out infarction 24 to 72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms

  4. Blood Glucose Prediction Using Artificial Neural Networks Trained with the AIDA Diabetes Simulator: A Proof-of-Concept Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin Robertson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a major, and increasing, global problem. However, it has been shown that, through good management of blood glucose levels (BGLs, the associated and costly complications can be reduced significantly. In this pilot study, Elman recurrent artificial neural networks (ANNs were used to make BGL predictions based on a history of BGLs, meal intake, and insulin injections. Twenty-eight datasets (from a single case scenario were compiled from the freeware mathematical diabetes simulator, AIDA. It was found that the most accurate predictions were made during the nocturnal period of the 24 hour daily cycle. The accuracy of the nocturnal predictions was measured as the root mean square error over five test days (RMSE5 day not used during ANN training. For BGL predictions of up to 1 hour a RMSE5 day of (±SD 0.15±0.04 mmol/L was observed. For BGL predictions up to 10 hours, a RMSE5  day of (±SD 0.14±0.16 mmol/L was observed. Future research will investigate a wider range of AIDA case scenarios, real-patient data, and data relating to other factors influencing BGLs. ANN paradigms based on real-time recurrent learning will also be explored to accommodate dynamic physiology in diabetes.

  5. Predictive utility of blood pressure, waist circumference and body mass index for metabolic syndrome in patients with schizophrenia in Singapore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurjono, Milawaty; Lee, Jimmy

    2013-05-01

    This study aims to examine and compare the predictive utility of blood pressure (BP), waist circumference (WC) and body mass index (BMI), and to determine optimal cut-off values in prediction of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in patients with chronic schizophrenia. About 100 patients with chronic schizophrenia were recruited. BMI and BP were measured and laboratory tests to evaluate patients' high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose levels were performed. Presence of MetS was examined according to AHA/NHLBI guidelines. Predictive utility of BP, WC and BMI was examined using receiver operating curve and discriminant indices were determined accordingly. Forty-six (46%) patients were identified to have MetS. BMI of ≥23 kg m(-2) was most accurate (AUC = 0.83, P < 0.001), with sensitivity of 93.5%, specificity of 48.1%, positive predictive value of 60.6% and negative predictive value of 92.9% in identifying MetS. This finding has immediate and significant clinical implications in the local population with schizophrenia. © 2012 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  6. Recent and Past Musical Activity Predicts Cognitive Aging Variability: Direct Comparison with Leisure Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brenda eHanna-Pladdy

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age . These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to nonmusical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study examined the type of leisure activity (musical versus other as well as the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (> 10 years and nonmusicians (ages 59-80 were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and life-style activities (AAP. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to explain performance variance in musicians. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal immediate recall, judgment of line orientation (JLO, and Letter Number Sequencing (LNS, but not the AAP. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted JLO in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (< 9 years predicted enhanced LNS in musicians, while analyses for AAP, verbal recall and fluency were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not leisure activity, predicted variability across verbal and visuospatial domains in aging. Early musical acquisition predicted auditory

  7. Development and validation of a predictive model for excessive postpartum blood loss: A retrospective, cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Álvarez, Ana; Molina-Alarcón, Milagros; Arias-Arias, Ángel; Hernández-Martínez, Antonio

    2018-03-01

    postpartum haemorrhage is one of the leading causes of maternal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Despite the use of uterotonics agents as preventive measure, it remains a challenge to identify those women who are at increased risk of postpartum bleeding. to develop and to validate a predictive model to assess the risk of excessive bleeding in women with vaginal birth. retrospective cohorts study. "Mancha-Centro Hospital" (Spain). the elaboration of the predictive model was based on a derivation cohort consisting of 2336 women between 2009 and 2011. For validation purposes, a prospective cohort of 953 women between 2013 and 2014 were employed. Women with antenatal fetal demise, multiple pregnancies and gestations under 35 weeks were excluded METHODS: we used a multivariate analysis with binary logistic regression, Ridge Regression and areas under the Receiver Operating Characteristic curves to determine the predictive ability of the proposed model. there was 197 (8.43%) women with excessive bleeding in the derivation cohort and 63 (6.61%) women in the validation cohort. Predictive factors in the final model were: maternal age, primiparity, duration of the first and second stages of labour, neonatal birth weight and antepartum haemoglobin levels. Accordingly, the predictive ability of this model in the derivation cohort was 0.90 (95% CI: 0.85-0.93), while it remained 0.83 (95% CI: 0.74-0.92) in the validation cohort. this predictive model is proved to have an excellent predictive ability in the derivation cohort, and its validation in a latter population equally shows a good ability for prediction. This model can be employed to identify women with a higher risk of postpartum haemorrhage. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood Pressure Control in Aging Predicts Cerebral Atrophy Related to Small-Vessel White Matter Lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyle C. Kern

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Cerebral small-vessel damage manifests as white matter hyperintensities and cerebral atrophy on brain MRI and is associated with aging, cognitive decline and dementia. We sought to examine the interrelationship of these imaging biomarkers and the influence of hypertension in older individuals. We used a multivariate spatial covariance neuroimaging technique to localize the effects of white matter lesion load on regional gray matter volume and assessed the role of blood pressure control, age and education on this relationship. Using a case-control design matching for age, gender, and educational attainment we selected 64 participants with normal blood pressure, controlled hypertension or uncontrolled hypertension from the Northern Manhattan Study cohort. We applied gray matter voxel-based morphometry with the scaled subprofile model to (1 identify regional covariance patterns of gray matter volume differences associated with white matter lesion load, (2 compare this relationship across blood pressure groups, and (3 relate it to cognitive performance. In this group of participants aged 60–86 years, we identified a pattern of reduced gray matter volume associated with white matter lesion load in bilateral temporal-parietal regions with relative preservation of volume in the basal forebrain, thalami and cingulate cortex. This pattern was expressed most in the uncontrolled hypertension group and least in the normotensives, but was also more evident in older and more educated individuals. Expression of this pattern was associated with worse performance in executive function and memory. In summary, white matter lesions from small-vessel disease are associated with a regional pattern of gray matter atrophy that is mitigated by blood pressure control, exacerbated by aging, and associated with cognitive performance.

  9. Prediction of antibacterial activity from physicochemical properties of antimicrobial peptides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel N Melo

    Full Text Available Consensus is gathering that antimicrobial peptides that exert their antibacterial action at the membrane level must reach a local concentration threshold to become active. Studies of peptide interaction with model membranes do identify such disruptive thresholds but demonstrations of the possible correlation of these with the in vivo onset of activity have only recently been proposed. In addition, such thresholds observed in model membranes occur at local peptide concentrations close to full membrane coverage. In this work we fully develop an interaction model of antimicrobial peptides with biological membranes; by exploring the consequences of the underlying partition formalism we arrive at a relationship that provides antibacterial activity prediction from two biophysical parameters: the affinity of the peptide to the membrane and the critical bound peptide to lipid ratio. A straightforward and robust method to implement this relationship, with potential application to high-throughput screening approaches, is presented and tested. In addition, disruptive thresholds in model membranes and the onset of antibacterial peptide activity are shown to occur over the same range of locally bound peptide concentrations (10 to 100 mM, which conciliates the two types of observations.

  10. The sequential structure of brain activation predicts skill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Moon, Jungaa

    2016-01-29

    In an fMRI study, participants were trained to play a complex video game. They were scanned early and then again after substantial practice. While better players showed greater activation in one region (right dorsal striatum) their relative skill was better diagnosed by considering the sequential structure of whole brain activation. Using a cognitive model that played this game, we extracted a characterization of the mental states that are involved in playing a game and the statistical structure of the transitions among these states. There was a strong correspondence between this measure of sequential structure and the skill of different players. Using multi-voxel pattern analysis, it was possible to recognize, with relatively high accuracy, the cognitive states participants were in during particular scans. We used the sequential structure of these activation-recognized states to predict the skill of individual players. These findings indicate that important features about information-processing strategies can be identified from a model-based analysis of the sequential structure of brain activation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Human Blood Feeding Activity of Female Hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus(Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshii, Manabu; Mine, Mariko; Kurokawa, Kenji; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Ogawa, Yasunori; Eshita, Yuuki; Uchida, Keikichi

    2007-01-01

    Human blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus during long photoperiod at 25℃. Blood feeding rates of hybrids were lower than in Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus and Culex pipiens pallens, and higher than in Culex pipiens pipiens, because no females fed on human blood in Culex pipiens pipiens.

  12. Effect of photoperiod on blood feeding activity of female hybrids between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Kurokawa, Kenji; Yoshii, Manabu; Oda, Tsutomu; Kato, Katsutomo; Uchida, Keikichi; Eshita, Yuki; Tahara, Hiroyuki; Mine, Mariko; Ogawa, Yasunori

    2004-01-01

    Blood feeding activity was examined in females of hybrids (F1) between Culex pipiens pipiens and Culex pipiens quinquefasciatus in long and short photoperiods at 2l℃ to examine the effect of photoperiod on blood feeding rate. Blood feeding rates (F1) were lower in short photoperiods than in long photoperiods. From this, it seems that the hybrids show diapause.

  13. NOS3 Variants, Physical Activity, and Blood Pressure in the European Youth Heart Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Andersen, Lars Bo; Franks, Paul W

    2011-01-01

    BackgroundIn this study, we examined the influence of genetic variation in NOS3 on resting blood pressure (BP) in children and adolescents from the European Youth Heart Study (EYHS). Because the NOS3 gene expression is altered by physical activity (PA), we also tested for interaction between...

  14. A Kinesthetic Activity Using LEGO Bricks and Buckets for Illustrating the Regulation of Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urschler, Margaret; Meidl, Katherine; Browning, Samantha; Khan, Basima; Milanick, Mark

    2015-01-01

    This article describes how, when first faced with understanding blood sugar regulation, students often resort to simple memorization.Many students would like to get more involved with the conceptual framework but do not know how to start. The authors have developed an activity based on the Modell approach, a "view from the inside." This…

  15. 21 CFR 864.7140 - Activated whole blood clotting time tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Activated whole blood clotting time tests. 864.7140 Section 864.7140 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Hematology Kits and Packages § 864...

  16. Proteolytic activity of IgGs from blood serum of wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Ya. Kit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the proteolytic activity of IgGs purified from blood serum of Wistar rats at experimental rheumatoid arthritis (ERA induced by an injection of bovine collagen of type II. Twenty rats were immunized with a preparation of bovine collagen II (Sigma-Aldrich, USA in the presence of complete Freund’s adjuvant. ERA development was determined by inflammation in limbs of treated animals. IgG preparations were isolated from blood serum of immunized and non-immunized animals by precipitation of antibodies with 33% ammonium sulfate followed by chromatography on the Protein G-Sepharose column. Human histone H1, bovine collagen II, calf thymus histones, myelin basic protein (MBP, bovine serum albumin (BSA, and bovine casein were used as substrates of the proteolytic activity of IgGs. It was found that IgG preparations from blood serum of rats with ERA were capable of cleaving histone H1 and MBP, however, they were catalytically inactive towards collagen II, casein, BSA, and core histones. IgGs from blood serum of non-immunized rats were proteolytically inactive towards all used protein substrates. Thus, we demonstrated that immunization of rats with bovine collagen II induced IgG-antibodies possessing the proteolytic activity towards histone H1 and MBP. This activity might be associated with the development of inflammatory processes in the immunized rats.

  17. Early lactate clearance for predicting active bleeding in critically ill patients with acute upper gastrointestinal bleeding: a retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tomoki; Hagiwara, Akiyoshi; Uemura, Tatsuki; Yahagi, Naoki; Kimura, Akio

    2016-08-01

    Not all patients with upper gastrointestinal bleeding (UGIB) require emergency endoscopy. Lactate clearance has been suggested as a parameter for predicting patient outcomes in various critical care settings. This study investigates whether lactate clearance can predict active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB. This single-center, retrospective, observational study included critically ill patients with UGIB who met all of the following criteria: admission to the emergency department (ED) from April 2011 to August 2014; had blood samples for lactate evaluation at least twice during the ED stay; and had emergency endoscopy within 6 h of ED presentation. The main outcome was active bleeding detected with emergency endoscopy. Classification and regression tree (CART) analyses were performed using variables associated with active bleeding to derive a prediction rule for active bleeding in critically ill UGIB patients. A total of 154 patients with UGIB were analyzed, and 31.2 % (48/154) had active bleeding. In the univariate analysis, lactate clearance was significantly lower in patients with active bleeding than in those without active bleeding (13 vs. 29 %, P bleeding is derived, and includes three variables: lactate clearance; platelet count; and systolic blood pressure at ED presentation. The rule has 97.9 % (95 % CI 90.2-99.6 %) sensitivity with 32.1 % (28.6-32.9 %) specificity. Lactate clearance may be associated with active bleeding in critically ill patients with UGIB, and may be clinically useful as a component of a prediction rule for active bleeding.

  18. Higher Physical Activity Is Associated With Lower Aortic Stiffness but Not With Central Blood Pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laursen, Anne Sofie Dam; Hansen, Anne-Louise Smidt; Wiinberg, Niels

    2015-01-01

    .47; -0.03). Associations with central systolic blood pressure and central pulse pressure were not statistically significant. We observed no difference in central hemodynamics when substituting 1 hour sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity. In this relatively...... was assessed by applanation tonometry, as aortic pulse wave velocity, and central blood pressure was estimated from radial waveforms. Associations between physical activity energy expenditure and central hemodynamics were examined by linear regression. Furthermore, the consequence of substituting 1 hour...... sedentary behavior with 1 hour light or moderate-to-vigorous physical activity on central hemodynamics was examined. Median physical activity energy expenditure was 28.0 kJ/kg/d (IQR: 19.8; 38.7). A 10 kJ/kg/d higher energy expenditure was associated with 0.75% lower aortic pulse wave velocity (CI: -1...

  19. Recent and past musical activity predicts cognitive aging variability: direct comparison with general lifestyle activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna-Pladdy, Brenda; Gajewski, Byron

    2012-01-01

    Studies evaluating the impact of modifiable lifestyle factors on cognition offer potential insights into sources of cognitive aging variability. Recently, we reported an association between extent of musical instrumental practice throughout the life span (greater than 10 years) on preserved cognitive functioning in advanced age. These findings raise the question of whether there are training-induced brain changes in musicians that can transfer to non-musical cognitive abilities to allow for compensation of age-related cognitive declines. However, because of the relationship between engagement in general lifestyle activities and preserved cognition, it remains unclear whether these findings are specifically driven by musical training or the types of individuals likely to engage in greater activities in general. The current study controlled for general activity level in evaluating cognition between musicians and nomusicians. Also, the timing of engagement (age of acquisition, past versus recent) was assessed in predictive models of successful cognitive aging. Seventy age and education matched older musicians (>10 years) and non-musicians (ages 59-80) were evaluated on neuropsychological tests and general lifestyle activities. Musicians scored higher on tests of phonemic fluency, verbal working memory, verbal immediate recall, visuospatial judgment, and motor dexterity, but did not differ in other general leisure activities. Partition analyses were conducted on significant cognitive measures to determine aspects of musical training predictive of enhanced cognition. The first partition analysis revealed education best predicted visuospatial functions in musicians, followed by recent musical engagement which offset low education. In the second partition analysis, early age of musical acquisition (memory in musicians, while analyses for other measures were not predictive. Recent and past musical activity, but not general lifestyle activities, predicted variability

  20. Persistent organochlorine pollutants with endocrine activity and blood steroid hormone levels in middle-aged men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elise Emeville

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Studies relating long-term exposure to persistent organochlorine pollutants (POPs with endocrine activities (endocrine disrupting chemicals on circulating levels of steroid hormones have been limited to a small number of hormones and reported conflicting results. OBJECTIVE: We examined the relationship between serum concentrations of dehydroepiandrosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, androstenedione, androstenediol, testosterone, free and bioavailable testosterone, dihydrotestosterone, estrone, estrone sulphate, estradiol, sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone as a function of level of exposure to three POPs known to interfere with hormone-regulated processes in different way: dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethene (DDE, polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB congener 153, and chlordecone. METHODS: We collected fasting, morning serum samples from 277 healthy, non obese, middle-aged men from the French West Indies. Steroid hormones were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, except for dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate, which was determined by immunological assay, as were the concentrations of sex-hormone binding globulin, follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Associations were assessed by multiple linear regression analysis, controlling for confounding factors, in a backward elimination procedure, in multiple bootstrap samples. RESULTS: DDE exposure was negatively associated to dihydrotestosterone level and positively associated to luteinizing hormone level. PCB 153 was positively associated to androstenedione and estrone levels. No association was found for chlordecone. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggested that the endocrine response pattern, estimated by determining blood levels of steroid hormones, varies depending on the POPs studied, possibly reflecting differences in the modes of action generally attributed to these compounds. It remains to be investigated whether

  1. Anopheles Midgut Epithelium Evades Human Complement Activity by Capturing Factor H from the Blood Meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khattab, Ayman; Barroso, Marta; Miettinen, Tiera; Meri, Seppo

    2015-01-01

    Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood. PMID:25679788

  2. Anopheles midgut epithelium evades human complement activity by capturing factor H from the blood meal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayman Khattab

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Hematophagous vectors strictly require ingesting blood from their hosts to complete their life cycles. Exposure of the alimentary canal of these vectors to the host immune effectors necessitates efficient counteractive measures by hematophagous vectors. The Anopheles mosquito transmitting the malaria parasite is an example of hematophagous vectors that within seconds can ingest human blood double its weight. The innate immune defense mechanisms, like the complement system, in the human blood should thereby immediately react against foreign cells in the mosquito midgut. A prerequisite for complement activation is that the target cells lack complement regulators on their surfaces. In this work, we analyzed whether human complement is active in the mosquito midgut, and how the mosquito midgut cells protect themselves against complement attack. We found that complement remained active for a considerable time and was able to kill microbes within the mosquito midgut. However, the Anopheles mosquito midgut cells were not injured. These cells were found to protect themselves by capturing factor H, the main soluble inhibitor of the alternative complement pathway. Factor H inhibited complement on the midgut cells by promoting inactivation of C3b to iC3b and preventing the activity of the alternative pathway amplification C3 convertase enzyme. An interference of the FH regulatory activity by monoclonal antibodies, carried to the midgut via blood, resulted in increased mosquito mortality and reduced fecundity. By using a ligand blotting assay, a putative mosquito midgut FH receptor could be detected. Thereby, we have identified a novel mechanism whereby mosquitoes can tolerate human blood.

  3. Influence of adrenaline on the activity of succinate dehydrogenase in peripheral blood lymphocytes of irradiated rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koroleva, L.V.; Vasin, M.V.

    1988-01-01

    In experiments with albino mongrel female rats, the influence of adrenaline on succinate dehydrogenase (SDG) activity in the peripheral blood lymphocytes of irradiated and intact animals has been investigated. Two minutes after the intraperitoneal administration of adrenaline (1 mg/kg) to intact rats SDG activity sharply rises and 3-4 min it drastically falls. In 6 to 8 min the second peak in the enzyme activity is registered. Twenty minutes after irradiation of rats in the crano-caudal direction with a dose of 75 Gy delivered to head, the reaction to adrenaline, manifested by the rise in SDG activity, is absent

  4. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006-2016).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luethy, D; Stefanovski, D; Salber, R; Sweeney, R W

    2017-11-01

    Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids after whole blood transfusion. Fifty-eight small ruminants and 22 alpacas that received whole blood transfusions for anemia. Retrospective case series; medical record review for small ruminants and camelids that received whole blood transfusions during hospitalization. Mean volume of distribution of blood as a fraction of body weight in sheep (0.075 L/kg, 7.5% BW) and goats (0.076 L/kg, 7.6% BW) differed significantly (P blood volume (volume of distribution of blood) is adequate for calculation of transfusion volumes; however, use of the species-specific circulating blood volume can improve calculation of transfusion volume to predict and achieve desired packed cell volume. The incidence of transfusion reactions in small ruminants and camelids is low. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  5. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang G. J.; Wang, G.-J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-20

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and [{sup 11}C]raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  6. Decreased dopamine activity predicts relapse in methamphetamine abusers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, G.J.; Smith, L.; Volkow, N.D.; Telang, F.; Logan, J.; Tomasi, D.; Wong, C.T.; Hoffman, W.; Jayne, M.; Alia-Klein, N.; Thanos, P.; Fowler, J.S.

    2011-01-01

    Studies in methamphetamine (METH) abusers showed that the decreases in brain dopamine (DA) function might recover with protracted detoxification. However, the extent to which striatal DA function in METH predicts recovery has not been evaluated. Here we assessed whether striatal DA activity in METH abusers is associated with clinical outcomes. Brain DA D2 receptor (D2R) availability was measured with positron emission tomography and ( 11 C)raclopride in 16 METH abusers, both after placebo and after challenge with 60 mg oral methylphenidate (MPH) (to measure DA release) to assess whether it predicted clinical outcomes. For this purpose, METH abusers were tested within 6 months of last METH use and then followed up for 9 months of abstinence. In parallel, 15 healthy controls were tested. METH abusers had lower D2R availability in caudate than in controls. Both METH abusers and controls showed decreased striatal D2R availability after MPH and these decreases were smaller in METH than in controls in left putamen. The six METH abusers who relapsed during the follow-up period had lower D2R availability in dorsal striatum than in controls, and had no D2R changes after MPH challenge. The 10 METH abusers who completed detoxification did not differ from controls neither in striatal D2R availability nor in MPH-induced striatal DA changes. These results provide preliminary evidence that low striatal DA function in METH abusers is associated with a greater likelihood of relapse during treatment. Detection of the extent of DA dysfunction may be helpful in predicting therapeutic outcomes.

  7. Determination of Alpha Activity from Radium-226 and its Decay Products in Human Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenawy, M.A.; Morsy, A.A.; Abdel Hameid, M.M.

    1999-01-01

    During the last few years new and elaborate technique for the quantitative determination of alpha emitting particles in biological samples have been developed using the highly sensitive solid state nuclear track detector CR-39 which allows activities as low as 10 -15 Ci.g -1 to be detected. Blood samples (10 ml) were taken from volunteers. Three pieces of CR-39 were inserted in each blood container and stored at 20 degree for 15 weeks. The pre-etching condition were 6N NaOH+40% C 2 H 5 OH at 60 degree for 3 hours to reduce the background alpha tracks from the environmental radon

  8. Peroxidase activity of the rat blood at prolonged intake of 137Cs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. P. Grynevych

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Investigated peroxidase activity of blood white nonlinear rats-males by daily oral administration of 15 kBq 137Cs by chemiluminescence. Discovered oscillatory nature of the changes chemiluminescent indicators peroxi-dase oxidation of blood, the maximum deviation of the control are registered during the 4th and 60th days, and the minimum at the 1st, 7th and 135th days. Recovering kinetic parameters CL does not occur within 135 days of ob-servation (the 90th day of the completion of the introduction of radioactive cesium.

  9. Development and Evaluation of a Mobile Personalized Blood Glucose Prediction System for Patients With Gestational Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustozerov, Evgenii; Popova, Polina; Tkachuk, Aleksandra; Bolotko, Yana; Yuldashev, Zafar; Grineva, Elena

    2018-01-09

    Personalized blood glucose (BG) prediction for diabetes patients is an important goal that is pursued by many researchers worldwide. Despite many proposals, only a few projects are dedicated to the development of complete recommender system infrastructures that incorporate BG prediction algorithms for diabetes patients. The development and implementation of such a system aided by mobile technology is of particular interest to patients with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), especially considering the significant importance of quickly achieving adequate BG control for these patients in a short period (ie, during pregnancy) and a typically higher acceptance rate for mobile health (mHealth) solutions for short- to midterm usage. This study was conducted with the objective of developing infrastructure comprising data processing algorithms, BG prediction models, and an appropriate mobile app for patients' electronic record management to guide BG prediction-based personalized recommendations for patients with GDM. A mobile app for electronic diary management was developed along with data exchange and continuous BG signal processing software. Both components were coupled to obtain the necessary data for use in the personalized BG prediction system. Necessary data on meals, BG measurements, and other events were collected via the implemented mobile app and continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) system processing software. These data were used to tune and evaluate the BG prediction model, which included an algorithm for dynamic coefficients tuning. In the clinical study, 62 participants (GDM: n=49; control: n=13) took part in a 1-week monitoring trial during which they used the mobile app to track their meals and self-measurements of BG and CGM system for continuous BG monitoring. The data on 909 food intakes and corresponding postprandial BG curves as well as the set of patients' characteristics (eg, glycated hemoglobin, body mass index [BMI], age, and lifestyle parameters

  10. Aggregation activity of blood formed elements in patients with type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris Il'ich Kuznik

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Aims. To assess differences in blood formed elements aggregation activity in patients with type 1 (T1 and type 2 (T2 diabetes mellitus(DM. Materials and methods. We studied blood samples from 88 patients with T1 and T2 DM. Platelet aggregation activity was assessed bymeans of ?Biola? aggregometer; we also determined platelet-lymphocyte and leucocyte-erythrocyte adhesion intensity. Results. We show that spontaneous platelet aggregation is markedly increased in patients with T1DM but remains normal or slightlyelevated in case of T2DM. In blood from patients with T2DM platelet aggregation in response to ADP, epinephrine, ristomycineand contact with collagen was generally increased, whereas in T1DM we often observed its secondary reduction. Data on plateletlymphocyteadhesion in T1DM is controversial, but in T2DM this process seems to be significantly suppressed. Quantity of leucocyteerythrocyteaggregates was sharply increased in both T1DM and T2DM. Conclusion. We've determined significant difference in blood formed elements aggregation activity between patients with T1 and T2 DM.

  11. Chaotic time series prediction for prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls in umbilical cord blood using the least squares SEATR model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xijin; Tang, Qian; Xia, Haiyue; Zhang, Yuling; Li, Weiqiu; Huo, Xia

    2016-04-01

    Chaotic time series prediction based on nonlinear systems showed a superior performance in prediction field. We studied prenatal exposure to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) by chaotic time series prediction using the least squares self-exciting threshold autoregressive (SEATR) model in umbilical cord blood in an electronic waste (e-waste) contaminated area. The specific prediction steps basing on the proposal methods for prenatal PCB exposure were put forward, and the proposed scheme’s validity was further verified by numerical simulation experiments. Experiment results show: 1) seven kinds of PCB congeners negatively correlate with five different indices for birth status: newborn weight, height, gestational age, Apgar score and anogenital distance; 2) prenatal PCB exposed group at greater risks compared to the reference group; 3) PCBs increasingly accumulated with time in newborns; and 4) the possibility of newborns suffering from related diseases in the future was greater. The desirable numerical simulation experiments results demonstrated the feasibility of applying mathematical model in the environmental toxicology field.

  12. Prediction of Central Nervous System Side Effects Through Drug Permeability to Blood-Brain Barrier and Recommendation Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jun; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Zhenran

    2018-04-01

    Drug side effects are one of the public health concerns. Using powerful machine-learning methods to predict potential side effects before the drugs reach the clinical stages is of great importance to reduce time consumption and protect the security of patients. Recently, researchers have proved that the central nervous system (CNS) side effects of a drug are closely related to its permeability to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Inspired by this, we proposed an extended neighborhood-based recommendation method to predict CNS side effects using drug permeability to the BBB and other known features of drug. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to predict CNS side effects considering drug permeability to the BBB. Computational experiments demonstrated that drug permeability to the BBB is an important factor in CNS side effects prediction. Moreover, we built an ensemble recommendation model and obtained higher AUC score (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and AUPR score (area under the precision-recall curve) on the data set of CNS side effects by integrating various features of drug.

  13. Renal endothelial function and blood flow predict the individual susceptibility to adriamycin-induced renal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Buikema, Hendrik; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; van Wattum, Marjolein; de Zeeuw, Dick; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    Background. Susceptibility to renal injury varies among individuals. Previously, we found that individual endothelial function of healthy renal arteries in vitro predicted severity of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy. Here we hypothesized that individual differences in endothelial function in

  14. Renal endothelial function and blood flow predict the individual susceptibility to adriamycin-induced renal damage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ochodnicky, Peter; Henning, Robert H.; Buikema, Hendrik; Kluppel, Alex C. A.; van Wattum, Marjolein; de Zeeuw, Dick; van Dokkum, Richard P. E.

    2009-01-01

    Susceptibility to renal injury varies among individuals. Previously, we found that individual endothelial function of healthy renal arteries in vitro predicted severity of renal damage after 5/6 nephrectomy. Here we hypothesized that individual differences in endothelial function in vitro and renal

  15. Prediction of hemoglobin levels in whole blood donors: how to model donation history

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baart, A.M.; Vergouwe, Y.; Atsma, F.; Moons, K.G.; Kort, W.L. de

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Recently, prediction models for hemoglobin (Hb) deferral risk have been developed. These models consider the previous Hb level plus change in Hb. Here, we investigated if the performance of models could be improved by considering more information on Hb level history. STUDY DESIGN AND

  16. Prediction of blood lead levels in children before and after remediation of soil samples in the upper Meza Valley, Slovenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jez, Erika; Lestan, Domen

    2015-10-15

    The Meza Valley, Slovenia, has been contaminated by Pb smelting, resulting in an epidemic of lead poisoning in childhood. The potential of remediation with EDTA soil washing to mitigate the risk from Pb poisoning was investigated by applying the Integrated Exposure Uptake Bio-kinetic (IEUBK) model. Soils from 79 locations were collected and the total and bio-accessible Pb concentrations were determined before and after extraction with 60 mmol kg(-1) EDTA. Extraction reduced the soil Pb concentration in towns of Mezica, Zerjav and Crna by 53, 67 and 62%, respectively, and the concentration of in vitro bio-accessible Pb in the simulated human gastric phase by 2.6-, 3.2- and 2.9-times, respectively. The predictions of the IEUBK model based on Pb contamination data were verified with data on blood Pb levels in children. The IEUBK model predicted that, after soil remediation, the number of locations at which the expected blood Pb level in children was higher than the stipulated 10 μg d L(-1) would decrease by 90, 38 and 91% in the towns of Mezica, Zerjav and Crna, respectively. The results confirmed the feasibility of soil washing with EDTA as an efficient remediation measure in Mezica and Crna and advice for soil capping/removal for the most polluted town of Zerjav. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Predictive Control of the Blood Glucose Level in Type I Diabetic Patient Using Delay Differential Equation Wang Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esna-Ashari, Mojgan; Zekri, Maryam; Askari, Masood; Khalili, Noushin

    2017-01-01

    Because of increasing risk of diabetes, the measurement along with control of blood sugar has been of great importance in recent decades. In type I diabetes, because of the lack of insulin secretion, the cells cannot absorb glucose leading to low level of glucose. To control blood glucose (BG), the insulin must be injected to the body. This paper proposes a method for BG level regulation in type I diabetes. The control strategy is based on nonlinear model predictive control. The aim of the proposed controller optimized with genetics algorithms is to measure BG level each time and predict it for the next time interval. This merit causes a less amount of control effort, which is the rate of insulin delivered to the patient body. Consequently, this method can decrease the risk of hypoglycemia, a lethal phenomenon in regulating BG level in diabetes caused by a low BG level. Two delay differential equation models, namely Wang model and Enhanced Wang model, are applied as controller model and plant, respectively. The simulation results exhibit an acceptable performance of the proposed controller in meal disturbance rejection and robustness against parameter changes. As a result, if the nutrition of the person decreases instantly, the hypoglycemia will not happen. Furthermore, comparing this method with other works, it was shown that the new method outperforms previous studies.

  18. HEMATOPOIETIC PROGENITOR CELLS AS A PREDICTIVE OF CD34+ ENUMERATION PRIOR TO PERIPHERAL BLOOD STEM CELLS HARVESTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. Zulkafli

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: To date, the CD34+ cell enumeration has relied predominantly on flow cytometry technique. However, flow cytometry is time consuming and operator dependent. The application of the hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs channel in Sysmex XE-2100, a fully automated hematology analyzer offers an alternative approach, which is with minimal sample manipulation and less operator dependent. This study evaluates the utility of HPC counts as a predictive of CD34+ enumeration prior to peripheral blood stem cells harvesting. Materials and methods: HPC, CD34+, white blood cell (WBC, reticulocytes (retic, immature platelet fraction (IPF and immature reticulocyte fraction (IRF were determined in 61 samples from 19 patients with hematological malignancies (15 lymphoma and 4 multiple myeloma patients at Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (Hospital USM who had received granulocyte-colony stimulating factor (G-CSF and planned for autologous transplantation. Results: CD34+ count showed strong and significant correlation with HPC. The receiver operating characteristics (ROC curve analysis revealed that HPC count > 21.5 x 106 / L can predicts a pre harvest CD34+ count of >20 x 106 / L with sensitivity of 77%, specificity of 64% and area under the curve (AUC of 0.802. Conclusion: We concluded that HPC count can be a useful potential parameter in optimizing timing for CD34+ enumeration prior to leukapheresis.

  19. Relative blood loss and operative time can predict length of stay following orthognathic surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, K; Thastum, M; Nørholt, S E; Blomlöf, J

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the length of stay (LOS) following orthognathic surgery and thereby to establish a benchmark. The secondary aim was to identify predictors of postoperative LOS following orthognathic surgery. Patients were treated consecutively during the period 2010 to 2012. Inclusion criteria were (1) patient age ≥18 years, and (2) surgery involving a three-piece Le Fort I osteotomy, or a bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO), or bimaxillary surgery. A total of 335 patients were included. The following data were recorded: height, weight, body mass index (BMI), age, sex, operative time, intraoperative blood loss, and type of surgery. LOS was defined as the duration of time from date of surgery to date of discharge. The average LOS was 1.3 days following Le Fort I osteotomy, 1.3 days following BSSO, and 1.8 days following bimaxillary surgery. In the multivariate regression model (R(2)=0.11), predictors of a prolonged LOS were operative time (P<0.001) and relative blood loss (P=0.002). No significant effect of age, BMI, sex, or treatment on LOS was observed. The short duration of LOS found in this study supports the possibility of increasing outpatient pathways for selected patients. Copyright © 2016 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. [Predictive value of interleukin 6 from the umbilical cord blood in early neonatal infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosićkić, Almira; Skokić, Fahrija

    2009-01-01

    We have analyzed diagnostic value of interleukin 6 (IL-6) from the umbilical cord blood in recognition of early neonatal infection (ENI) of newborns whose mothers have obstetrical risks. The study included 120 newborns with birth weight ENI), group B (clinical signs and hematological parameters of ENI) and group C (newborns without ENI). Median of IL-6 value in group A was 48.5 pg/ml with sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value in recognition of ENI 78%, 81% and 80%. In group B median of IL-6 was 49 pg/ml with sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic value 65%, 80% and 77%. In group C median of IL-6 was 9.7 pg/ml. We noticed significant connection between value of IL-6 and mother's urinary tract infection; group A (p=0.023), group B (p = 0.007). Also there was a remarkable relationship between mother's colpitis and level of IL-6 in newborn with ENI in group A (p=0.011) and group B (p = 0.012). High levels of IL-6 in umbilical cord blood can help us in recognition of newborns that are endangered by infection and they are clearly connected with some of mother's obstetrical risks.

  1. MPL expression on AML blasts predicts peripheral blood neutropenia and thrombocytopenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauch, Philipp J; Ellegast, Jana M; Widmer, Corinne C; Fritsch, Kristin; Goede, Jeroen S; Valk, Peter J M; Löwenberg, Bob; Takizawa, Hitoshi; Manz, Markus G

    2016-11-03

    Although the molecular pathways that cause acute myeloid leukemia (AML) are increasingly well understood, the pathogenesis of peripheral blood cytopenia, a major cause of AML mortality, remains obscure. A prevailing assumption states that AML spatially displaces nonleukemic hematopoiesis from the bone marrow. However, examining an initial cohort of 223 AML patients, we found no correlation between bone marrow blast content and cytopenia, questioning the displacement theory. Measuring serum concentration of thrombopoietin (TPO), a key regulator of hematopoietic stem cells and megakaryocytes, revealed loss of physiologic negative correlation with platelet count in AML cases with blasts expressing MPL, the thrombopoietin (scavenging) receptor. Mechanistic studies demonstrated that MPL hi blasts could indeed clear TPO, likely therefore leading to insufficient cytokine levels for nonleukemic hematopoiesis. Microarray analysis in an independent multicenter study cohort of 437 AML cases validated MPL expression as a central predictor of thrombocytopenia and neutropenia in AML. Moreover, t(8;21) AML cases demonstrated the highest average MPL expression and lowest average platelet and absolute neutrophil counts among subgroups. Our work thus explains the pathophysiology of peripheral blood cytopenia in a relevant number of AML cases. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  2. Predicting failure to follow-up screened high blood pressure in Japan: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuriyama, Akira; Takahashi, Yoshimitsu; Tsujimura, Yuka; Miyazaki, Kikuko; Satoh, Toshihiko; Ikeda, Shunya; Nakayama, Takeo

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to determine the prevalence and predictors of working-age individuals who did not follow-up for possible hypertension that was detected in the population-based screening. We conducted a retrospective cohort study, using the database of health insurance claims and health checkups from several health insurance societies for employees in Japan. Screened participants aged ≥20 years, with possible hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140 mmHg and/or diastolic blood pressure ≥90 mmHg) and without known antihypertensive treatment, were included. The outcome was lack of clinical follow-up for possible hypertension within 6 months of the latest screening. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors. Among 17,173 participants (15,793 males and 1380 females) who were identified as possible hypertensives, 89.7 and 82.3% of them, respectively, did not consult physicians for screened possible hypertension. Predictors of no clinical follow-up for males included younger age, lower body mass index (BMI), lower hemoglobin A1c and milder hypertension. Predictors for females included younger age, lower BMI and being insured. Approximately 80% of participants failed to consult physicians even with positive screening results. Younger individuals with lower BMI are at high risk of no clinical follow-up. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Extracellular Histones Increase Tissue Factor Activity and Enhance Thrombin Generation by Human Blood Monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gould, Travis J; Lysov, Zakhar; Swystun, Laura L; Dwivedi, Dhruva J; Zarychanski, Ryan; Fox-Robichaud, Alison E; Liaw, Patricia C

    2016-12-01

    Sepsis is characterized by systemic activation of inflammatory and coagulation pathways in response to infection. Recently, it was demonstrated that histones released into the circulation by dying/activated cells may contribute to sepsis pathology. Although the ability of extracellular histones to modulate the procoagulant activities of several cell types has been investigated, the influence of histones on the hemostatic functions of circulating monocytes is unknown. To address this, we investigated the ability of histones to modulate the procoagulant potential of THP-1 cells and peripheral blood monocytes, and examined the effects of plasmas obtained from septic patients to induce a procoagulant phenotype on monocytic cells. Tissue factor (TF) activity assays were performed on histone-treated THP-1 cells and blood monocytes. Exposure of monocytic cells to histones resulted in increases in TF activity, TF antigen, and phosphatidylserine exposure. Histones modulate the procoagulant activity via engagement of Toll-like receptors 2 and 4, and this effect was abrogated with inhibitory antibodies. Increased TF activity of histone-treated cells corresponded to enhanced thrombin generation in plasma determined by calibrated automated thrombography. Finally, TF activity was increased on monocytes exposed to plasma from septic patients, an effect that was attenuated in plasma from patients receiving unfractionated heparin (UFH). Our studies suggest that increased levels of extracellular histones found in sepsis contribute to dysregulated coagulation by increasing TF activity of monocytes. These procoagulant effects can be partially ameliorated in sepsis patients receiving UFH, thereby identifying extracellular histones as a potential therapeutic target for sepsis treatment.

  4. Effects of Anti-VEGF on Predicted Antibody Biodistribution: Roles of Vascular Volume, Interstitial Volume, and Blood Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boswell, C. Andrew; Ferl, Gregory Z.; Mundo, Eduardo E.; Bumbaca, Daniela; Schweiger, Michelle G.; Theil, Frank-Peter; Fielder, Paul J.; Khawli, Leslie A.

    2011-01-01

    Background The identification of clinically meaningful and predictive models of disposition kinetics for cancer therapeutics is an ongoing pursuit in drug development. In particular, the growing interest in preclinical evaluation of anti-angiogenic agents alone or in combination with other drugs requires a complete understanding of the associated physiological consequences. Methodology/Principal Findings Technescan™ PYP™, a clinically utilized radiopharmaceutical, was used to measure tissue vascular volumes in beige nude mice that were naïve or administered a single intravenous bolus dose of a murine anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody (10 mg/kg) 24 h prior to assay. Anti-VEGF had no significant effect (p>0.05) on the fractional vascular volumes of any tissues studied; these findings were further supported by single photon emission computed tomographic imaging. In addition, apart from a borderline significant increase (p = 0.048) in mean hepatic blood flow, no significant anti-VEGF-induced differences were observed (p>0.05) in two additional physiological parameters, interstitial fluid volume and the organ blood flow rate, measured using indium-111-pentetate and rubidium-86 chloride, respectively. Areas under the concentration-time curves generated by a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model changed substantially (>25%) in several tissues when model parameters describing compartmental volumes and blood flow rates were switched from literature to our experimentally derived values. However, negligible changes in predicted tissue exposure were observed when comparing simulations based on parameters measured in naïve versus anti-VEGF-administered mice. Conclusions/Significance These observations may foster an enhanced understanding of anti-VEGF effects in murine tissues and, in particular, may be useful in modeling antibody uptake alone or in combination with anti-VEGF. PMID:21436893

  5. Synthesis of Phosphatidylserine and Its Stereoisomers: Their Role in Activation of Blood Coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallik, Suman; Prasad, Ramesh; Bhattacharya, Anindita; Sen, Prosenjit

    2018-05-10

    Natural phosphatidylserine (PS), which contains two chiral centers, enhances blood coagulation. However, the process by which PS enhanced blood coagulation is not completely understood. An efficient and flexible synthetic route has been developed to synthesize all of the possible stereoisomers of PS. In this study, we examined the role of PS chiral centers in modulating the activity of the tissue factor (TF)-factor VIIa coagulation initiation complex. Full length TF was relipidated with phosphatidylcholine, and the synthesized PS isomers were individually used to estimate the procoagulant activity of the TF-FVIIa complex via a FXa generation assay. The results revealed that the initiation complex activity was stereoselective and had increased sensitivity to the configuration of the PS glycerol backbone due to optimal protein-lipid interactions.

  6. Effects of dietary fat quality and quantity on postprandial activation of blood coagulation factor VII

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, L. F.; Bladbjerg, E.-M.; Jespersen, J.

    1997-01-01

    , monounsaturated, or polyunsaturated fats differed regarding postprandial activation of FVII. Eighteen healthy young men participated in the study. On 6 separate days each participant consumed two meals (times, 0 and 1 3/4 hours) enriched with 70 g (15 and 55 g) of either rapeseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil......, palm oil, or butter (42% of energy from fat) or isoenergetic low-fat meals (6% of energy from fat). Fasting and series of nonfasting blood samples (the last at time 8 1/2 hours) were collected. Plasma triglycerides, FVIIc, FVIIa, and free fatty acids were analyzed. There were marked effects of the fat......Acute elevation of the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVIIc) is observed after consumption of high-fat meals. This elevation is caused by an increase in the concentration of activated FVII (FVIIa). In a randomized crossover study, we investigated whether saturated...

  7. Predicting the unpredictable: Critical analysis and practical implications of predictive anticipatory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia eMossbridge

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available A recent meta-analysis of experiments from seven independent laboratories (n=26 published since 1978 indicates that the human body can apparently detect randomly delivered stimuli occurring 1-10 seconds in the future (Mossbridge, Tressoldi, & Utts, 2012. The key observation in these studies is that human physiology appears to be able to distinguish between unpredictable dichotomous future stimuli, such as emotional vs. neutral images or sound vs. silence. This phenomenon has been called presentiment (as in feeling the future. In this paper we call it predictive anticipatory activity or PAA. The phenomenon is predictive because it can distinguish between upcoming stimuli; it is anticipatory because the physiological changes occur before a future event; and it is an activity because it involves changes in the cardiopulmonary, skin, and/or nervous systems. PAA is an unconscious phenomenon that seems to be a time-reversed reflection of the usual physiological response to a stimulus. It appears to resemble precognition (consciously knowing something is going to happen before it does, but PAA specifically refers to unconscious physiological reactions as opposed to conscious premonitions. Though it is possible that PAA underlies the conscious experience of precognition, experiments testing this idea have not produced clear results. The first part of this paper reviews the evidence for PAA and examines the two most difficult challenges for obtaining valid evidence for it: expectation bias and multiple analyses. The second part speculates on possible mechanisms and the theoretical implications of PAA for understanding physiology and consciousness. The third part examines potential practical applications.

  8. Strength training reduces arterial blood pressure but not sympathetic neural activity in young normotensive subjects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; Ray, Chester A.; Downs, Emily M.; Cooke, William H.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of resistance training on arterial blood pressure and muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) at rest have not been established. Although endurance training is commonly recommended to lower arterial blood pressure, it is not known whether similar adaptations occur with resistance training. Therefore, we tested the hypothesis that whole body resistance training reduces arterial blood pressure at rest, with concomitant reductions in MSNA. Twelve young [21 +/- 0.3 (SE) yr] subjects underwent a program of whole body resistance training 3 days/wk for 8 wk. Resting arterial blood pressure (n = 12; automated sphygmomanometer) and MSNA (n = 8; peroneal nerve microneurography) were measured during a 5-min period of supine rest before and after exercise training. Thirteen additional young (21 +/- 0.8 yr) subjects served as controls. Resistance training significantly increased one-repetition maximum values in all trained muscle groups (P < 0.001), and it significantly decreased systolic (130 +/- 3 to 121 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01), diastolic (69 +/- 3 to 61 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.04), and mean (89 +/- 2 to 81 +/- 2 mmHg; P = 0.01) arterial blood pressures at rest. Resistance training did not affect MSNA or heart rate. Arterial blood pressures and MSNA were unchanged, but heart rate increased after 8 wk of relative inactivity for subjects in the control group (61 +/- 2 to 67 +/- 3 beats/min; P = 0.01). These results indicate that whole body resistance exercise training might decrease the risk for development of cardiovascular disease by lowering arterial blood pressure but that reductions of pressure are not coupled to resistance exercise-induced decreases of sympathetic tone.

  9. Low blood glucose precipitates spike-and-wave activity in genetically predisposed animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Christopher A; Kim, Tae Hwan; Berkovic, Samuel F; Petrou, Steven

    2011-01-01

    Absence epilepsies are common, with a major genetic contribution to etiology. Certain environmental factors can influence absence occurrence but a complete understanding of absence precipitation is lacking. Herein we investigate if lowering blood glucose increases spike-wave activity in mouse models with varying seizure susceptibility. Three mouse models were used: an absence seizure model based on the knockin of a human GABA(A) γ2(R43Q) mutation (DBA(R43Q)), the spike-wave discharge (SWD)-prone DBA/2J strain, and the seizure resistant C57Bl/6 strain. Electrocorticography (ECoG) studies were recorded to determine SWDs during hypoglycemia induced by insulin or overnight fasting. An insulin-mediated reduction in blood glucose levels to 4 mm (c.a. 40% reduction) was sufficient to double SWD occurrence in the DBA(R43Q) model and in the SWD-prone DBA/2J mouse strain. Larger reductions in blood glucose further increased SWDs in both these models. However, even with large reductions in blood glucose, no discharges were observed in the seizure-resistant C57Bl/6 mouse strain. Injection of glucose reversed the impact of insulin on SWDs in the DBA(R43Q) model, supporting a reduction in blood glucose as the modulating influence. Overnight fasting reduced blood glucose levels to 4.5 mm (c.a. 35% reduction) and, like insulin, caused a doubling in occurrence of SWDs. Low blood glucose can precipitate SWDs in genetically predisposed animal models and should be considered as a potential environmental risk factor in patients with absence epilepsy. Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2010 International League Against Epilepsy.

  10. Routine blood tests to predict liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Yung-Yu; Tung, Shui-Yi; Lee, Kamfai; Wu, Cheng-Shyong; Wei, Kuo-Liang; Shen, Chien-Heng; Chang, Te-Sheng; Lin, Yi-Hsiung

    2012-02-28

    To verify the usefulness of FibroQ for predicting fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C, compared with other noninvasive tests. This retrospective cohort study included 237 consecutive patients with chronic hepatitis C who had undergone percutaneous liver biopsy before treatment. FibroQ, aspartate aminotransferase (AST)/alanine aminotransferase ratio (AAR), AST to platelet ratio index, cirrhosis discriminant score, age-platelet index (API), Pohl score, FIB-4 index, and Lok's model were calculated and compared. FibroQ, FIB-4, AAR, API and Lok's model results increased significantly as fibrosis advanced (analysis of variance test: P fibrosis score in chronic hepatitis C compared with other noninvasive tests. FibroQ is a simple and useful test for predicting significant fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis C.

  11. Prediction of viscoelastic behavior of blood flow in plaque deposited capillaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solangi, M.A.; Shah, B.

    2012-01-01

    The paper investigates the viscoelastic behaviour of blood over low value of elasticity, to analyse the influence of inertia in the presence of elasticity. For viscoelastic fluids shear-thinning and strain-softening PTT (phan- Thien/tanner) constitutive model is employed to identify the influence of elasticity. The computational method adopted is based on a finite element semi-implicit time stepping Taylor-Galerkin/pressure-correction scheme. Simulations are conducted via atherosclerotic vessels along with various percentages of deposition at distinct values of Reynolds numbers. The numerical simulations are performed for recirculation flow structure and development of recirculation length to investigate the impact of atherosclerosis on partially blocked plaque deposited vessels. (author)

  12. Blood pressure variability predicts cardiovascular events independently of traditional cardiovascular risk factors and target organ damage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vishram, Julie K K; Dahlöf, Björn; Devereux, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    ). METHODS: In 8505 patients randomized to losartan vs. atenolol-based treatment in the LIFE study, we tested whether BP variability assessed as SD and range for BP6-24months measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of treatment was associated with target organ damage (TOD) defined by LVH on ECG and urine albumin......BACKGROUND: Assessment of antihypertensive treatment is normally based on the mean value of a number of blood pressure (BP) measurements. However, it is uncertain whether high in-treatment visit-to-visit BP variability may be harmful in hypertensive patients with left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH.......05), but MI was not. CONCLUSION: In LIFE patients, higher in-treatment BP6-24months variability was independently of mean BP6-24months associated with later CEP and stroke, but not with MI or TOD after 24 months....

  13. Intrinsic resting-state activity predicts working memory brain activation and behavioral performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Qihong; Ross, Thomas J; Gu, Hong; Geng, Xiujuan; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Hong, L Elliot; Gao, Jia-Hong; Stein, Elliot A; Zang, Yu-Feng; Yang, Yihong

    2013-12-01

    Although resting-state brain activity has been demonstrated to correspond with task-evoked brain activation, the relationship between intrinsic and evoked brain activity has not been fully characterized. For example, it is unclear whether intrinsic activity can also predict task-evoked deactivation and whether the rest-task relationship is dependent on task load. In this study, we addressed these issues on 40 healthy control subjects using resting-state and task-driven [N-back working memory (WM) task] functional magnetic resonance imaging data collected in the same session. Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) as an index of intrinsic resting-state activity, we found that ALFF in the middle frontal gyrus and inferior/superior parietal lobules was positively correlated with WM task-evoked activation, while ALFF in the medial prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, superior frontal gyrus, superior temporal gyrus, and fusiform gyrus was negatively correlated with WM task-evoked deactivation. Further, the relationship between the intrinsic resting-state activity and task-evoked activation in lateral/superior frontal gyri, inferior/superior parietal lobules, superior temporal gyrus, and midline regions was stronger at higher WM task loads. In addition, both resting-state activity and the task-evoked activation in the superior parietal lobule/precuneus were significantly correlated with the WM task behavioral performance, explaining similar portions of intersubject performance variance. Together, these findings suggest that intrinsic resting-state activity facilitates or is permissive of specific brain circuit engagement to perform a cognitive task, and that resting activity can predict subsequent task-evoked brain responses and behavioral performance. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Survivin gene levels in the peripheral blood of patients with gastric cancer independently predict survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scalerta Romano

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection of circulating tumor cells (CTC is considered a promising tool for improving risk stratification in patients with solid tumors. We investigated on whether the expression of CTC related genes adds any prognostic power to the TNM staging system in patients with gastric carcinoma. Methods Seventy patients with TNM stage I to IV gastric carcinoma were retrospectively enrolled. Peripheral blood samples were tested by means of quantitative real time PCR (qrtPCR for the expression of four CTC related genes: carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, cytokeratin-19 (CK19, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF and Survivin (BIRC5. Results Gene expression of Survivin, CK19, CEA and VEGF was higher than in normal controls in 98.6%, 97.1%, 42.9% and 38.6% of cases, respectively, suggesting a potential diagnostic value of both Survivin and CK19. At multivariable survival analysis, TNM staging and Survivin mRNA levels were retained as independent prognostic factors, demonstrating that Survivin expression in the peripheral blood adds prognostic information to the TNM system. In contrast with previously published data, the transcript abundance of CEA, CK19 and VEGF was not associated with patients' clinical outcome. Conclusions Gene expression levels of Survivin add significant prognostic value to the current TNM staging system. The validation of these findings in larger prospective and multicentric series might lead to the implementation of this biomarker in the routine clinical setting in order to optimize risk stratification and ultimately personalize the therapeutic management of these patients.

  15. Baseline peripheral blood leukocytosis: Biological marker predicts outcome in oropharyngeal cancer, regardless of HPV-status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gouw, Zeno A R; Paul de Boer, Jan; Navran, Arash; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Sonke, Jan-Jakob; Al-Mamgani, Abrahim

    2018-03-01

    To study the prognostic value of abnormalities in baseline complete blood count in patients with oropharyngeal cancer (OPC) treated with (chemo) radiation. The prognostic value of baseline complete blood count on outcome in 234 patients with OPC treated between 2010 and 2015 was examined in multivariate analysis together with other conventional prognostic variables including HPV-status, tumor stage, tumor and nodal size. The 3-year overall survival (OS), disease-free survival (DFS), locoregional control (LRC), and distant control (DC) of the whole group were 74%, 64%, 79%, and 88%, respectively. Leukocytosis and HPV-status were the only significant prognosticators for OS and DFS at the multivariate analysis. Patients without leukocytosis had a significantly better DC compared to those with leukocytosis (92% and 70%, respectively, p HPV-negative OPC had significantly worse LRC compared to HPV-positive patients (67% and 90%, respectively, p HPV-positive group with leukocytosis compared to those without leukocytosis were 69% and 95%, respectively (p HPV-negative patients were 41% vs. 61%, respectively (p = 0.010). This is the first study to date reporting the independent impact of leukocytosis and HPV-status on outcome of patients with OPC. The poor outcome of patients with leukocytosis is mainly caused by the worse DC. The significant impact of leukocytosis on outcome was even more pronounced in HPV-positive patients. These biomarkers could help identifying patients with poor prognosis at baseline requiring intensification of local and/or systemic treatment while treatment de-intensification might be offered to the low-risk group. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Peripheral blood monocyte subsets predict antiviral response in chronic hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Muñoz, Y; Martín-Vílchez, S; López-Rodríguez, R; Hernández-Bartolomé, A; Trapero-Marugán, M; Borque, M J; Moreno-Otero, R; Sanz-Cameno, P

    2011-10-01

    Hepatitis C virus infection evolves into chronic progressive liver disease in a significant percentage of patients. Monocytes constitute a diverse group of myeloid cells that mediate innate and adaptive immune response. In addition to proinflammatory CD16+ monocytes, a Tie-2+ subgroup - Tie-2 expressing monocytes (TEMs) - that has robust proangiogenic potential has been recently defined. To study the heterogeneity of peripheral blood monocytes in chronic hepatitis C (CHC) patients and to examine their proposed pathophysiological roles on disease progression and response to antiviral therapy. We studied CD16+ and Tie-2+ peripheral monocyte subpopulations in 21 healthy subjects and 39 CHC patients in various stages of disease and responses to antiviral treatment using flow cytometry. Expression profiles of proangiogenic and tissue remodelling factors in monocyte supernatants were measured using ELISA and protein arrays. Intrahepatic expression of CD14, CD31 and Tie-2 was analysed using immunofluorescence. Increases of certain peripheral monocyte subsets were observed in the blood of CHC patients, wherein those cells with proinflammatory (CD16+) or proangiogenic (TEMs) potential expanded (P TEMs were significantly increased in nonresponders, particularly those with lower CD16 expression. In addition, many angiogenic factors were differentially expressed by peripheral monocytes from control or CHC patients, such as angiopoietin-1 and angiogenin (P TEMs were distinguished within portal infiltrates of CHC patients. These findings suggest for the first time the relevance of peripheral monocytes phenotypes for the achievement of response to treatment. Hence, the study of monocyte subset regulation might effect improved CHC prognoses and adjuvant therapies. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  17. Blood pressure response to CPAP treatment in subjects with obstructive sleep apnoea: the predictive value of 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Grattoni, Anabel L; Torres, Gerard; Martínez-Alonso, Montserrat; Barbé, Ferran; Turino, Cecilia; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Alicia; Cortijo, Anunciacion; Duran-Cantolla, Joaquin; Egea, Carlos; Cao, Gonzalo; Sánchez-de-la-Torre, Manuel

    2017-10-01

    The reduction in blood pressure (BP) with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) is modest and highly variable. In this study, we identified the variables that predict BP response to CPAP.24-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), C-reactive protein (CRP), leptin, adiponectin and 24-h urinary catecholamine were measured before and after 6 months of CPAP in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients.Overall, 88 middle-aged, obese male patients with severe OSA (median apnoea-hypopnoea index 42 events·h -1 ) were included; 28.4% had hypertension. 62 patients finished the study, and 60 were analysed. The daytime diastolic BP (-2 mmHg) and norepinephrine (-109.5 nmol·day -1 ) were reduced after CPAP, but no changes in the 24-h BP, night-time BP, dopamine, epinephrine, CRP, leptin or adiponectin were detected. The nocturnal normotension was associated with an increased night-time-BP (+4 mmHg) after CPAP, whereas nocturnal hypertension was associated with a reduction of 24-h BP (-3 mmHg). A multivariate linear regression model showed differential night-time BP changes after CPAP. Specifically, low night-time heart rate (CPAP and support the usefulness of 24-h ABPM for OSA patients before treatment initiation. These results need to be confirmed in further studies. Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  18. Transthyretin-binding activity of contaminants in blood from polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bytingsvik, Jenny; Simon, Eszter; Leonards, Pim E G; Lamoree, Marja; Lie, Elisabeth; Aars, Jon; Derocher, Andrew E; Wiig, Oystein; Jenssen, Bjørn M; Hamers, Timo

    2013-05-07

    We determined the transthyretin (TTR)-binding activity of blood-accumulating contaminants in blood plasma samples of approximately 4-months-old polar bear (Ursus maritimus) cubs from Svalbard sampled in 1998 and 2008. The TTR-binding activity was measured as thyroxine (T4)-like equivalents (T4-EQMeas). Our findings show that the TTR-binding activity related to contaminant levels was significantly lower (45%) in 2008 than in 1998 (mean ± standard error of mean: 1998, 2265 ± 231 nM; 2008, 1258 ± 170 nM). Although we cannot exclude a potential influence of between-year differences in capture location and cub body mass, our findings most likely reflect reductions of TTR-binding contaminants or their precursors in the arctic environment (e.g., polychlorinated biphenyls [PCBs]). The measured TTR-binding activity correlated positively with the cubs' plasma levels of hydroxylated PCBs (OH-PCBs). No such association was found between TTR-binding activity and the plasma levels of perfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs). The OH-PCBs explained 60 ± 7% and 54 ± 4% of the TTR-binding activity in 1998 and 2008, respectively, and PFASs explained ≤1.2% both years. Still, almost half the TTR-binding activity could not be explained by the contaminants we examined. The considerable levels of TTR-binding contaminants warrant further effect directed analysis (EDA) to identify the contaminants responsible for the unexplained part of the observed TTR-binding activity.

  19. Cortical activity patterns predict robust speech discrimination ability in noise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetake, Jai A.; Wolf, Jordan T.; Cheung, Ryan J.; Engineer, Crystal T.; Ram, Satyananda K.; Kilgard, Michael P.

    2012-01-01

    The neural mechanisms that support speech discrimination in noisy conditions are poorly understood. In quiet conditions, spike timing information appears to be used in the discrimination of speech sounds. In this study, we evaluated the hypothesis that spike timing is also used to distinguish between speech sounds in noisy conditions that significantly degrade neural responses to speech sounds. We tested speech sound discrimination in rats and recorded primary auditory cortex (A1) responses to speech sounds in background noise of different intensities and spectral compositions. Our behavioral results indicate that rats, like humans, are able to accurately discriminate consonant sounds even in the presence of background noise that is as loud as the speech signal. Our neural recordings confirm that speech sounds evoke degraded but detectable responses in noise. Finally, we developed a novel neural classifier that mimics behavioral discrimination. The classifier discriminates between speech sounds by comparing the A1 spatiotemporal activity patterns evoked on single trials with the average spatiotemporal patterns evoked by known sounds. Unlike classifiers in most previous studies, this classifier is not provided with the stimulus onset time. Neural activity analyzed with the use of relative spike timing was well correlated with behavioral speech discrimination in quiet and in noise. Spike timing information integrated over longer intervals was required to accurately predict rat behavioral speech discrimination in noisy conditions. The similarity of neural and behavioral discrimination of speech in noise suggests that humans and rats may employ similar brain mechanisms to solve this problem. PMID:22098331

  20. Bi-directional SIFT predicts a subset of activating mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Lee

    Full Text Available Advancements in sequencing technologies have empowered recent efforts to identify polymorphisms and mutations on a global scale. The large number of variations and mutations found in these projects requires high-throughput tools to identify those that are most likely to have an impact on function. Numerous computational tools exist for predicting which mutations are likely to be functional, but none that specifically attempt to identify mutations that result in hyperactivation or gain-of-function. Here we present a modified version of the SIFT (Sorting Intolerant from Tolerant algorithm that utilizes protein sequence alignments with homologous sequences to identify functional mutations based on evolutionary fitness. We show that this bi-directional SIFT (B-SIFT is capable of identifying experimentally verified activating mutants from multiple datasets. B-SIFT analysis of large-scale cancer genotyping data identified potential activating mutations, some of which we have provided detailed structural evidence to support. B-SIFT could prove to be a valuable tool for efforts in protein engineering as well as in identification of functional mutations in cancer.

  1. Blood flow to long bones indicates activity metabolism in mammals, reptiles and dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Roger S; Smith, Sarah L; White, Craig R; Henderson, Donald M; Schwarz-Wings, Daniela

    2012-02-07

    The cross-sectional area of a nutrient foramen of a long bone is related to blood flow requirements of the internal bone cells that are essential for dynamic bone remodelling. Foramen area increases with body size in parallel among living mammals and non-varanid reptiles, but is significantly larger in mammals. An index of blood flow rate through the foramina is about 10 times higher in mammals than in reptiles, and even higher if differences in blood pressure are considered. The scaling of foramen size correlates well with maximum whole-body metabolic rate during exercise in mammals and reptiles, but less well with resting metabolic rate. This relates to the role of blood flow associated with bone remodelling during and following activity. Mammals and varanid lizards have much higher aerobic metabolic rates and exercise-induced bone remodelling than non-varanid reptiles. Foramen areas of 10 species of dinosaur from five taxonomic groups are generally larger than from mammals, indicating a routinely highly active and aerobic lifestyle. The simple measurement holds possibilities offers the possibility of assessing other groups of extinct and living vertebrates in relation to body size, behaviour and habitat.

  2. Effects of Resistance Training on Matrix Metalloproteinase Activity in Skeletal Muscles and Blood Circulation During Aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo V. de Sousa Neto

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Aging is a complex, multifactorial process characterized by the accumulation of deleterious effects, including biochemical adaptations of the extracellular matrix (ECM. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 12 weeks of resistance training (RT on metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2 activity in skeletal muscles and, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity in the blood circulation of young and old rats. Twenty-eight Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 7 per group: young sedentary (YS; young trained (YT, old sedentary (OS, and old trained (OT. The stair climbing RT consisted of one training session every 2 other day, with 8–12 dynamic movements per climb. The animals were euthanized 48 h after the end of the experimental period. MMP-2 and MMP-9 activity was measured by zymography. There was higher active MMP-2 activity in the lateral gastrocnemius and flexor digitorum profundus muscles in the OT group when compared to the OS, YS, and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. Moreover, there was higher active MMP-2 activity in the medial gastrocnemius muscle in the OT group when compared to the YS and YT groups (p ≤ 0.001. The YS group presented lower active MMP-2 activity in the soleus muscle than the YT, OS, OT groups (p ≤ 0.001. With respect to active MMP-2/9 activity in the bloodstream, the OT group displayed significantly reduced activity (p ≤ 0.001 when compared to YS and YT groups. In conclusion, RT up-regulates MMP-2 activity in aging muscles, while down-regulating MMP-2 and MMP-9 in the blood circulation, suggesting that it may be a useful tool for the maintenance of ECM remodeling.

  3. Platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation in heparinized whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selheim, F; Holmsen, H; Vassbotn, F S

    1999-08-15

    We previously have demonstrated that human platelets have functionally active platelet-derived growth factor alpha-receptors. Studies with gel-filtered platelets showed that an autocrine inhibition pathway is transduced through this tyrosine kinase receptor during platelet activation. The physiological significance of this inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor on gel-filtered platelets activation is, however, not known. In the present study, we investigated whether platelet-derived growth factor inhibits platelet activation under more physiological conditions in heparinized whole blood, which represents a more physiological condition than gel-filtered platelets. Using flow cytometric assays, we demonstrate here that platelet-derived growth factor inhibits thrombin-, thrombin receptor agonist peptide SFLLRN-, and collagen-induced platelet aggregation and shedding of platelet-derived microparticles from the platelet plasma membrane during platelet aggregation in stirred heparinized whole blood. The inhibitory effect of platelet-derived growth factor was dose dependent. However, under nonaggregating conditions (no stirring), we could not demonstrate any significant effect of platelet-derived growth factor on thrombin- and thrombin receptor agonist peptide-induced platelet surface expression of P-selectin. Our results demonstrate that platelet-derived growth factor appears to be a true antithrombotic agent only under aggregating conditions in heparinized whole blood.

  4. Development of a Blood Pressure Measurement Instrument with Active Cuff Pressure Control Schemes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Hsien Kuo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an oscillometric blood pressure (BP measurement approach based on the active control schemes of cuff pressure. Compared with conventional electronic BP instruments, the novelty of the proposed BP measurement approach is to utilize a variable volume chamber which actively and stably alters the cuff pressure during inflating or deflating cycles. The variable volume chamber is operated with a closed-loop pressure control scheme, and it is activated by controlling the piston position of a single-acting cylinder driven by a screw motor. Therefore, the variable volume chamber could significantly eliminate the air turbulence disturbance during the air injection stage when compared to an air pump mechanism. Furthermore, the proposed active BP measurement approach is capable of measuring BP characteristics, including systolic blood pressure (SBP and diastolic blood pressure (DBP, during the inflating cycle. Two modes of air injection measurement (AIM and accurate dual-way measurement (ADM were proposed. According to the healthy subject experiment results, AIM reduced 34.21% and ADM reduced 15.78% of the measurement time when compared to a commercial BP monitor. Furthermore, the ADM performed much consistently (i.e., less standard deviation in the measurements when compared to a commercial BP monitor.

  5. Enhanced activation of eosinophils in peripheral blood and implications for eosinophilic esophagitis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botan, Valéria; Dos Santos Borges, Tatiana Karla; Rocha Alves, Érica Alessandra; Claudino Pereira Couto, Shirley; Bender Kohnert Seidler, Heinrich; Muniz-Junqueira, Maria Imaculada

    2017-07-01

    Eosinophils are markers of the eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) disease, and this work aimed to assess whether activation of eosinophils could be a noninvasive test to contribute for EoE diagnosis. The activation state of peripheral blood eosinophils in EoE patients and control subjects was assessed based on the morphological aspects of the eosinophil after adherence to slide. Cyclooxygenase-2 and 5-lipoxygenase expressions were evaluated by means of immunofluorescence microscopy to verify if and which eicosanoid pathway is triggered in eosinophils in blood in EoE. The eosinophils of patients with EoE were significantly more activated than those of control individuals. The lowest percentage of normal eosinophils for control subjects was 40%, while the highest percentage of eosinophils of normal aspect for patients with EoE was 32%. Considering 36% as a cutoff for normal eosinophils, this value differentiated all individuals with EoE from individuals without the disease with a sensitivity of 100%, considering the diagnosis of EoE as currently defined. Eosinophils of EoE patients showed higher expression of cyclooxygenase-2 than those of control subjects. The quantification of morphological changes in eosinophils is a feasible, easy, and reliable manner to identify EoE patients. Therefore, patients with symptoms of esophageal dysfunction showing higher than 36% activated eosinophils in peripheral blood could be a useful way to help definition and diagnostic criterion for EoE. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  6. Prediction of allergy from family history and cord blood IgE levels. A follow-up at the age of 5 years. Cord blood IgE. IV

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L G; Halken, S; Høst, A

    1993-01-01

    was not influenced by cord blood IgE levels or atopic predisposition. Cord blood IgE levels had a low sensitivity as a predictor of atopic disease. A statistically significant correlation between serum levels of IgE at birth and at 5 years was however found (p ... with elevated cord blood IgE levels developed allergic disease before 5 years of age (p 63 kU/l (geometric mean + 1 SD) at the age of 5 years can be regarded as being an elevated level. A cord...... blood IgE level > or = 0.3 kU/l in combination with atopic predisposition was predictive of allergic disease, especially allergic bronchial asthma. With regard to allergic disease, the positive predictive value was 26%, the sensitivity 33% and the rate ratio for development of allergic disease 4...

  7. Seismic activity prediction using computational intelligence techniques in northern Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asim, Khawaja M.; Awais, Muhammad; Martínez-Álvarez, F.; Iqbal, Talat

    2017-10-01

    Earthquake prediction study is carried out for the region of northern Pakistan. The prediction methodology includes interdisciplinary interaction of seismology and computational intelligence. Eight seismic parameters are computed based upon the past earthquakes. Predictive ability of these eight seismic parameters is evaluated in terms of information gain, which leads to the selection of six parameters to be used in prediction. Multiple computationally intelligent models have been developed for earthquake prediction using selected seismic parameters. These models include feed-forward neural network, recurrent neural network, random forest, multi layer perceptron, radial basis neural network, and support vector machine. The performance of every prediction model is evaluated and McNemar's statistical test is applied to observe the statistical significance of computational methodologies. Feed-forward neural network shows statistically significant predictions along with accuracy of 75% and positive predictive value of 78% in context of northern Pakistan.

  8. Prediction of Active Site and Distal Residues in E. coli DNA Polymerase III alpha Polymerase Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasuram, Ramya; Coulther, Timothy A; Hollander, Judith M; Keston-Smith, Elise; Ondrechen, Mary Jo; Beuning, Penny J

    2018-02-20

    The process of DNA replication is carried out with high efficiency and accuracy by DNA polymerases. The replicative polymerase in E. coli is DNA Pol III, which is a complex of 10 different subunits that coordinates simultaneous replication on the leading and lagging strands. The 1160-residue Pol III alpha subunit is responsible for the polymerase activity and copies DNA accurately, making one error per 10 5 nucleotide incorporations. The goal of this research is to determine the residues that contribute to the activity of the polymerase subunit. Homology modeling and the computational methods of THEMATICS and POOL were used to predict functionally important amino acid residues through their computed chemical properties. Site-directed mutagenesis and biochemical assays were used to validate these predictions. Primer extension, steady-state single-nucleotide incorporation kinetics, and thermal denaturation assays were performed to understand the contribution of these residues to the function of the polymerase. This work shows that the top 15 residues predicted by POOL, a set that includes the three previously known catalytic aspartate residues, seven remote residues, plus five previously unexplored first-layer residues, are important for function. Six previously unidentified residues, R362, D405, K553, Y686, E688, and H760, are each essential to Pol III activity; three additional residues, Y340, R390, and K758, play important roles in activity.

  9. Natural killer activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in patients with brain tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otsuka, Shin-ichi; Suda, Kinya; Yamashita, Junkoh; Takeuchi, Juji; Handa, Hajime

    1982-01-01

    Natural killer activity (NK activity) of peripheral blood ymphocytes in patients with brain tumors was examined by the method of 51 Cr release assay in order to study the effects of operation and radiotherapy on the immunological activity of the hosts. NK activity of peripheral blood lymphocytes in normal persons was about 50 to 70% and about 30 to 50% (% specific 51 Cr release) at a ratio of target to effector cells of 1 : 25 and 1 : 12.5 respectively. There were no significant differences in NK activity in regard to the histological types of brain tumors. As for the effects of operation on NK activity, NK activity decreased by the end of the 1st week after operation and then increased gradually and returned to the pre-operative level 2 to 3 weeks after operation. The causes of decrease of NK activity after operation are not clear but there are some factors to be considered, such as bleeding during operation, non-specific inflammation, use of steroid after operation and the decrease of the stimulation of tumor antigen. As regards the effects of radiotherapy on NK activity, NK activity increased within 3 weeks after the beginning of radiotherapy. The increase of NK activity may indicate that the immunological resistance to tumor was enhanced in hosts by local irradiation of the tumor. Some characteristics of the effector cells were examined. E rosette non-forming cells had a stronger cytoxicity against target cells than E rosette forming cells. Nylon wool non-adherent cells had slightly higher cytotoxicity than adherent cells but the cytotoxicity was recognized in both fractions. It is felt important to clarify further the clinical significance of changes of NK activity in relation to various treatments and prognosis in patients with brain tumors. (author)

  10. Basal blood parameters of horses subjected to aerobic activity fed with lipidic concentrated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia de Oliveira

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The feeding diets were evaluated containing low and high levels of soybean oil for horses athletes subjected to two protocols of aerobic training on the response of basal blood biochemical parameters. Four horses were used in latin square design with treatments in a 2 x 2 factorial arrangement. Treatments consisted levels of 5 and 15% oil concentrates and two aerobic training, 40' and 60' minutes. Plasmatic parameters were monitored, triglyceride (TG, total cholesterol (TC, glucose (GLU and lactate (LAC, during basal metabolism. The TG, TC, GLU and LAC from horses at rest were not affected (P> 0.05 neither of diet and physical activity, 0.21, 3.79, 4.18, 0.93 mmol L-1, respectively. It can be concluded that offer concentrate with high content of soybean oil to athletic horses in aerobic activities can be performed without altering the blood biochemical profile of basal metabolism.

  11. Activity and longevity of antibody in paper-based blood typing diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Clare A.; McLiesh, Heather; Then, Whui L.; Garnier, Gil

    2018-05-01

    Paper-based diagnostics provide a low-cost, reliable and easy to use mode of blood typing. The shelf-life of such products, however, can be limited due to the reduced activity of reagent antibodies sorbed on the paper cellulose fibres. This study explores the effects of ageing on antibody activity for periods up to twelve months on paper and in solution under different ageing and drying conditions - air-dried, lyophilised and kept as a liquid. Paper kept wet with undiluted antibody is shown to have the longest shelf-life and the clearest negatives. Antibody diluted with bovine serum albumin (BSA) protects against the lyophilisation process, however, beyond nine months ageing, false positives are seen. Paper with air-dried antibodies is not suitable for use after one month ageing. These results inform preparation and storage conditions for the development of long shelf-life blood grouping paper-based diagnostics.

  12. Activity and Longevity of Antibody in Paper-Based Blood Typing Diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clare A. Henderson

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Paper-based diagnostics provide a low-cost, reliable and easy to use mode of blood typing. The shelf-life of such products, however, can be limited due to the reduced activity of reagent antibodies sorbed on the paper cellulose fibers. This study explores the effects of aging on antibody activity for periods up to 12 months on paper and in solution under different aging and drying conditions—air-dried, lyophilized, and kept as a liquid. Paper kept wet with undiluted antibody is shown to have the longest shelf-life and the clearest negatives. Antibody diluted with bovine serum albumin (BSA protects against the lyophilization process, however, beyond 9 months aging, false positives are seen. Paper with air-dried antibodies is not suitable for use after 1 month aging. These results inform preparation and storage conditions for the development of long shelf-life blood grouping paper-based diagnostics.

  13. Intraoperative blood loss independently predicts survival and recurrence after resection of colorectal cancer liver metastasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Jiang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although numerous prognostic factors have been reported for colorectal cancer liver metastasis (CRLM, few studies have reported intraoperative blood loss (IBL effects on clinical outcome after CRLM resection. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the clinical and histopathological characteristics of 139 patients who underwent liver resection for CRLM. The IBL cutoff volume was calculated using receiver operating characteristic curves. Overall survival (OS and recurrence free survival (RFS were assessed using the Kaplan-Meier and Cox regression methods. RESULTS: All patients underwent curative resection. The median follow up period was 25.0 months (range, 2.1-88.8. Body mass index (BMI and CRLM number and tumor size were associated with increased IBL. BMI (P=0.01; 95% CI = 1.3-8.5 and IBL (P500mL were 71%, 33%, and 0%, respectively (P<0.01. RFS of patients within three IBL volumes at the end of the first year were 67%, 38%, and 18%, respectively (P<0.01. CONCLUSIONS: IBL during CRLM resection is an independent predictor of long term survival and tumor recurrence, and its prognostic value was confirmed by a dose-response relationship.

  14. Predicting size limit of wild blood python (python brongersmai stull, 1938) harvesting in north sumatera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangantar Pardamean Sianturi, Markus; Jumilawaty, Erni; Delvian; Hartanto, Adrian

    2018-03-01

    Blood python (Python brongersmai Stull, 1938) is one of heavily exploited wildlife in Indonesia. The high demands on its skin trade have made its harvesting regulated under quota-based setting by the government to prevent over-harvesting. To gain understanding on the sustainability of P. brongersmai in the wild, biological characters of wild-caught specimens were studied. Samples were collected from two slaughterhouses from Rantau Prapat and Langkat. Parameters measured were morphological (Snout-vent length (SVL), body mass, abdomen width) and anatomical characters (Fat classes). Total samples of P. brongersmai in this research were 541 with 269 male and 272 female snakes. Female snakes had the highest proportion of individuals with the best quality of abdominal fat reserves (Class 3). Linear models are built and tested for its significance in relation between fat classes as anatomical characters and morphological characters. All tested morphological characters were significant in female snakes. By using linear equation models, we generate size limit to prioritize harvesting in the future. We suggest the use of SVL and stomach width ranging between 139,7 – 141,5 cm and 24,72 – 25,71 cm respectively to achieve sustainability of P. brongersmai in the wild.

  15. Methylation of 6-mercaptopurine and 6-thioguanine by thiopurine S-methyltransferase. A comparison of activity in red blood cell samples of 199 blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröplin, T; Iven, H

    2000-07-01

    To compare 6-mercaptopurine (6-MP) and 6-thioguanine (6-TG) as substrates for the methylation reaction catalysed by the enzyme thiopurine S-methyltransferase (TPMT). TPMT activity in haemolysed red blood cells of healthy blood donors was determined twice, using the same experimental setting and equal molar concentrations of 6-TG and 6-MP as substrates. After extraction, the reaction products 6-methyl-TG and 6-methyl-MP were quantified using specific high-performance liquid chromatography procedures. The medians of the TPMT activities from 199 blood donors were 54.4 nmol 6-MTG g(-1)Hb h(-1) when measured with 6-TG as the substrate and 35.8 nmol 6-MMP g(-1) Hb h(-1) when measured with 6-MP. The correlation coefficient for the 199 pairs of values was 0.8695. On average, TPMT activity was 34% lower with 6-MP as substrate than with 6-TG as substrate.

  16. Brachial cuff measurements of blood pressure during passive leg raising for fluid responsiveness prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhal, K; Ehrmann, S; Benzekri-Lefèvre, D; Runge, I; Legras, A; Dequin, P-F; Mercier, E; Wolff, M; Régnier, B; Boulain, T

    2012-05-01

    The passive leg raising maneuver (PLR) for fluid responsiveness testing relies on cardiac output (CO) measurements or invasive measurements of arterial pressure (AP) whereas the initial hemodynamic management during shock is often based solely on brachial cuff measurements. We assessed PLR-induced changes in noninvasive oscillometric readings to predict fluid responsiveness. Multicentre interventional study. In ICU sedated patients with circulatory failure, AP (invasive and noninvasive readings) and CO measurements were performed before, during PLR (trunk supine, not modified) and after 500-mL volume expansion. Areas under the ROC curves (AUC) were determined for fluid responsiveness (>10% volume expansion-induced increase in CO) prediction. In 112 patients (19% with arrhythmia), changes in noninvasive systolic AP during PLR (noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP) only predicted fluid responsiveness (cutoff 17%, n=21, positive likelihood ratio [LR] of 26 [18-38]), not unresponsiveness. If PLR-induced change in central venous pressure (CVP) was at least of 2 mm Hg (n=60), suggesting that PLR succeeded in altering cardiac preload, noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP performance was good: AUC of 0.94 [0.85-0.98], positive and negative LRs of 5.7 [4.6-6.8] and 0.07 [0.009-0.5], respectively, for a cutoff of 9%. Of note, invasive AP-derived indices did not outperform noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP. Regardless of CVP (i.e., during "blind PLR"), noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP more than 17% reliably identified fluid responders. During "CVP-guided PLR", in case of sufficient change in CVP, noninvasiveΔ(PLR)SAP performed better (cutoff of 9%). These findings, in sedated patients who had already undergone volume expansion and/or catecholamines, have to be verified during the early phase of circulatory failure (before an arterial line and/or a CO measuring device is placed). Copyright © 2012 Société française d’anesthésie et de réanimation (Sfar). Published by Elsevier SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Engineering blood meal-activated systemic immunity in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokoza, V; Ahmed, A; Cho, W L; Jasinskiene, N; James, A A; Raikhel, A

    2000-08-01

    Progress in molecular genetics makes possible the development of alternative disease control strategies that target the competence of mosquitoes to transmit pathogens. We tested the regulatory region of the vitellogenin (Vg) gene of Aedes aegypti for its ability to express potential antipathogen factors in transgenic mosquitoes. Hermes-mediated transformation was used to integrate a 2.1-kb Vg-promoter fragment driving the expression of the Defensin A (DefA) coding region, one of the major insect immune factors. PCR amplification of genomic DNA and Southern blot analyses, carried out through the ninth generation, showed that the Vg-DefA transgene insertion was stable. The Vg-DefA transgene was strongly activated in the fat body by a blood meal. The mRNA levels reached a maximum at 24-h postblood meal, corresponding to the peak expression time of the endogenous Vg gene. High levels of transgenic defensin were accumulated in the hemolymph of bloodfed female mosquitoes, persisting for 20-22 days after a single blood feeding. Purified transgenic defensin showed antibacterial activity comparable to that of defensin isolated from bacterially challenged control mosquitoes. Thus, we have been able to engineer the genetically stable transgenic mosquito with an element of systemic immunity, which is activated through the blood meal-triggered cascade rather than by infection. This work represents a significant step toward the development of molecular genetic approaches to the control of vector competence in pathogen transmission.

  18. Higher frequency network activity flow predicts lower frequency node activity in intrinsic low-frequency BOLD fluctuations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajaj, Sahil; Adhikari, Bhim Mani; Dhamala, Mukesh

    2013-01-01

    The brain remains electrically and metabolically active during resting conditions. The low-frequency oscillations (LFO) of the blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) coherent across distributed brain regions are known to exhibit features of this activity. However, these intrinsic oscillations may undergo dynamic changes in time scales of seconds to minutes during resting conditions. Here, using wavelet-transform based time-frequency analysis techniques, we investigated the dynamic nature of default-mode networks from intrinsic BOLD signals recorded from participants maintaining visual fixation during resting conditions. We focused on the default-mode network consisting of the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), left middle temporal cortex (LMTC) and left angular gyrus (LAG). The analysis of the spectral power and causal flow patterns revealed that the intrinsic LFO undergo significant dynamic changes over time. Dividing the frequency interval 0 to 0.25 Hz of LFO into four intervals slow-5 (0.01-0.027 Hz), slow-4 (0.027-0.073 Hz), slow-3 (0.073-0.198 Hz) and slow-2 (0.198-0.25 Hz), we further observed significant positive linear relationships of slow-4 in-out flow of network activity with slow-5 node activity, and slow-3 in-out flow of network activity with slow-4 node activity. The network activity associated with respiratory related frequency (slow-2) was found to have no relationship with the node activity in any of the frequency intervals. We found that the net causal flow towards a node in slow-3 band was correlated with the number of fibers, obtained from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) data, from the other nodes connecting to that node. These findings imply that so-called resting state is not 'entirely' at rest, the higher frequency network activity flow can predict the lower frequency node activity, and the network activity flow can reflect underlying structural

  19. Neutrophil to lymphocyte with monocyte to lymphocyte ratio and white blood cell count in prediction of lung cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thang Thanh Phan

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background Lung cancer is the most common cause of cancer deaths in both sexes, while it is very difficult for screenings and early detection. Aims This study aims to clarify the role of systematic inflammation markers, including white blood cell (WBC, neutrophil (NEU, monocyte (MONO, platelet (PLT, neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR, monocyte to lymphocyte ratio (MLR and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR in prediction of lung cancer. Methods A case-control study was conducted on 1,315 primary lung cancer patients and 1,315 healthy adults with matched age and gender at Cho Ray hospital. NLR, MLR and PLR were calculated by using neutrophil, lymphocyte, monocyte and platelet count which were recalled from laboratory database. With 600 cases in the derivation set, the logistic regression with univariate analysis was used to identify the impacted marker, then developing the optimal prediction model for lung cancer by logistic regression with multivariate method. The diagnostic values of optimal model consisting of sensitivity (Sen, specificity (Spe, positive predictive value (PPV, negative predictive value (NPV and the area under the ROC curve (AUC value were extracted and verified on all data, in validation set. Results The median values of WBC, NEU, MONO, PLT, NLR, MLR and PLR in lung cancer were not significantly difference between histological subtypes and clinical stages (p > 0.05, but higher than the values in control group (p < 0.01. Multivariates analysis shows that NLR, MLR and WBC were three parameters that have the significant impact of the optimal prediction model (p < 0.01. The AUC value, sensitivity and specificity of the optimal model for lung cancer detection were 0.881, 73.5 per cent (95 per cent CI:70.3–76.6 and 87.7 per cent (95 per centCI:85.2–89.9, respectively. Whereas, the PPV and NPV values of prediction model were 85.7 per cent (95 per cent CI:82.8–88.2 and 76.8 (95 per centCI:73.9–79.5, respectively. Among three

  20. Development of METAL-ACTIVE SITE and ZINCCLUSTER tool to predict active site pockets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajitha, M; Sundar, K; Arul Mugilan, S; Arumugam, S

    2018-03-01

    The advent of whole genome sequencing leads to increasing number of proteins with known amino acid sequences. Despite many efforts, the number of proteins with resolved three dimensional structures is still low. One of the challenging tasks the structural biologists face is the prediction of the interaction of metal ion with any protein for which the structure is unknown. Based on the information available in Protein Data Bank, a site (METALACTIVE INTERACTION) has been generated which displays information for significant high preferential and low-preferential combination of endogenous ligands for 49 metal ions. User can also gain information about the residues present in the first and second coordination sphere as it plays a major role in maintaining the structure and function of metalloproteins in biological system. In this paper, a novel computational tool (ZINCCLUSTER) is developed, which can predict the zinc metal binding sites of proteins even if only the primary sequence is known. The purpose of this tool is to predict the active site cluster of an uncharacterized protein based on its primary sequence or a 3D structure. The tool can predict amino acids interacting with a metal or vice versa. This tool is based on the occurrence of significant triplets and it is tested to have higher prediction accuracy when compared to that of other available techniques. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Proscillaridin activity in portal and peripheral venous blood after oral administration to man

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.E.; Bergdahl, B.; Dencker, H.; Wettrell, G.; Linkoeping Univ.

    1977-01-01

    The absorption of proscillaridin A was studied in four patients undergoing catheterization of the portal vein for diagnostic purposes. Proscillaridin 1.5 mg was given as a single oral dose and plasma glycoside activity was analyzed by the 86 Rb-uptake inhibition technique. Proscillaridin appeared rapidly in the portal blood, peak activity being found after 15 min in three and after 30 min in one patient. In peripheral blood the peak activity occurred after approximately 35 min. Despite rapid passage across the gut wall, porto-peripheral differences in glycoside activity were small; they were zero after 4h. The mean amount absorbed as active proscillaridin during the first 4h after the dose was calculated to be only 7.1% of the given amount. Late porto-peripheral differences, probably due to enterohepatic recycling, appeared after 6h in three patients. The results suggest that proscillaridin undergoes first pass inactivation in the gut wall. Enterohepatic recirculation may contribute to the amounts of active glycoside that reach the systemic circulation. (orig.) [de

  2. White blood cell counts mediate the effects of physical activity on prostate-specific antigen levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Paul D; Richart, Sarah M

    2014-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether white blood cell (WBC) level mediated the relationship between physical activity and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels. Data from the 2003-2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; 1,726 U.S. adult men (aged 40 years or older) provided complete data on the study variables. Participants wore an ActiGraph 7164 accelerometer for a 7-day period to measure their physical activity behavior, and PSA and WBC levels were obtained from a blood sample. After adjustments, results showed that moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) was inversely associated with WBC count (b = - .03; 95% CI [ - 0.04, - 0.006; p = .01), and WBC count (b = .10; 95% CI [0.009, 0.18; p = .04) was positively associated with PSA. Both the Sobel (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 2.0; p = .03) and the Aroian (coef. = - .004, SE = .002; z = - 1.9; p = .03) tests demonstrated that WBC mediated the relationship between physical activity and PSA. Additionally, among 107 participants with prostate cancer, survivors engaging in more MVPA had lower levels of WBC (b = - .04; 95% CI [ - 0.09, - 0.0009; p = .04). Conclusion Physical activity may influence PSA levels through WBC modulation; however, future research is needed to determine the direction of causality. Additionally, prostate cancer survivors engaging in higher levels of MVPA had lower levels of WBC, underscoring the importance of promoting physical activity among prostate cancer survivors.

  3. Progesterone Blood Level For Pregnancy Diagnosis And Prediction Of Twinning In Egyptian Ewes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NESSIM, M.Z.; KOTTB, M.K.I.; MUSTAFA, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    Twenty adult ewes were exposed to natural mating by fertile ram labelled on the chest, and marked ewes were separated from the crew. Blood samples were withdrawn from the jugular vein at the intervals 1, 10, 20,112,119,126,133,140 and 147 days after mating. Pregnancy test had been made through determination of progesterone (P4) level by radioimmunoassay. Plasma glucose, cholesterol and total lipids were determined during the last five weeks of pregnancy. Ewes were weighed on mating day and monthly until parturition and the lambs were weighed at birth. Significant difference (P<0.01) in P4 concentration was observed between day of mating and each of 10 and 20 days post-mating. Plasma P4 levels were increased with significant differences between pregnant ewes with single lamb and those with twin lambs at days 10 (P<0.05) and 20 (P<0.01) of pregnancy. The higher P4 level was detected in ewes carrying twins. Plasma P4 levels were increased during late pregnancy followed by a significant decrease (P<0.01) during the last two weeks of pregnancy, in both single and twin bearing ewes. Plasma glucose levels were found to be higher in twin pregnant ewes than single pregnant ewes at week 4 (P<0.05) and week 2 (P<0.01) before parturition. Non-significant differences were observed in plasma cholesterol and total lipids levels between pregnant ewes carrying single and twin lambs during late pregnancy. Monthly body weights were higher in twin than single pregnant ewes. Correlation between ewe and lamb body weights was observed in twin ewes only.

  4. Home blood pressure predicts stroke incidence among older adults with impaired physical function: the Ohasama study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiko; Asayama, Kei; Satoh, Michihiro; Hosaka, Miki; Matsuda, Ayako; Inoue, Ryusuke; Tsubota-Utsugi, Megumi; Murakami, Takahisa; Nomura, Kyoko; Kikuya, Masahiro; Metoki, Hirohito; Imai, Yutaka; Ohkubo, Takayoshi

    2017-12-01

    Several observational studies have found modifying effects of functional status on the association between conventional office blood pressure (BP) and adverse outcomes. We aimed to examine whether the association between higher BP and stroke was attenuated or inverted among older adults with impaired function using self-measured home BP measurements. We followed 501 Japanese community-dwelling adults aged at least 60 years (mean age, 68.6 years) with no history of stroke. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios for 1-SD increase in home BP and office BP measurements were calculated by the Cox proportional hazards model. Functional status was assessed by self-reported physical function. During a median follow-up of 11.5 years, first strokes were observed in 47 participants. Higher home SBP, but not office SBP, was significantly associated with increased risk of stroke among both 349 participants with normal physical function and 152 participants with impaired physical function [hazard ratio (95% confidence interval) per 14.4-mmHg increase: 1.74 (1.12-2.69) and 1.77 (1.06-2.94), respectively], with no significant interaction for physical function (P = 0.56). Higher home DBP, but not office DBP, was also significantly associated with increased risk of stroke (P ≤ 0.029) irrespective of physical function (all P > 0.05 for interaction). Neither home BP nor office BP was significantly associated with all-cause mortality irrespective of physical function. Higher home BP was associated with increased risk of stroke even among those with impaired physical function. Measurements of home BP would be useful for stroke prevention, even after physical function decline.

  5. Extremely Randomized Machine Learning Methods for Compound Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech M. Czarnecki

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Speed, a relatively low requirement for computational resources and high effectiveness of the evaluation of the bioactivity of compounds have caused a rapid growth of interest in the application of machine learning methods to virtual screening tasks. However, due to the growth of the amount of data also in cheminformatics and related fields, the aim of research has shifted not only towards the development of algorithms of high predictive power but also towards the simplification of previously existing methods to obtain results more quickly. In the study, we tested two approaches belonging to the group of so-called ‘extremely randomized methods’—Extreme Entropy Machine and Extremely Randomized Trees—for their ability to properly identify compounds that have activity towards particular protein targets. These methods were compared with their ‘non-extreme’ competitors, i.e., Support Vector Machine and Random Forest. The extreme approaches were not only found out to improve the efficiency of the classification of bioactive compounds, but they were also proved to be less computationally complex, requiring fewer steps to perform an optimization procedure.

  6. Electrophysiological correlates of competitor activation predict retrieval-induced forgetting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellerstedt, Robin; Johansson, Mikael

    2014-06-01

    The very act of retrieval modifies the accessibility of memory for knowledge and past events and can also cause forgetting. A prominent theory of such retrieval-induced forgetting (RIF) holds that retrieval recruits inhibition to overcome interference from competing memories, rendering these memories inaccessible. The present study tested a fundamental tenet of the inhibitory-control account: The competition-dependence assumption. Event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded while participants engaged in a competitive retrieval task. Competition levels were manipulated within the retrieval task by varying the cue-item associative strength of competing items. In order to temporally separate ERP correlates of competitor activation and target retrieval, memory was probed with the sequential presentation of 2 cues: A category cue, to reactivate competitors, and a target cue. As predicted by the inhibitory-control account, competitors with strong compared with weak cue-competitor association were more susceptible to forgetting. Furthermore, competition-sensitive ERP modulations, elicited by the category cue, were observed over anterior regions and reflected individual differences in ensuing forgetting. The present study demonstrates ERP correlates of the reactivation of tightly bound associated memories (the competitors) and provides support for the inhibitory-control account of RIF.

  7. Temperature modelling and prediction for activated sludge systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, S; Rosso, D; Lubello, C; Canziani, R; Stenstrom, M K

    2009-01-01

    Temperature is an important factor affecting biomass activity, which is critical to maintain efficient biological wastewater treatment, and also physiochemical properties of mixed liquor as dissolved oxygen saturation and settling velocity. Controlling temperature is not normally possible for treatment systems but incorporating factors impacting temperature in the design process, such as aeration system, surface to volume ratio, and tank geometry can reduce the range of temperature extremes and improve the overall process performance. Determining how much these design or up-grade options affect the tank temperature requires a temperature model that can be used with existing design methodologies. This paper presents a new steady state temperature model developed by incorporating the best aspects of previously published models, introducing new functions for selected heat exchange paths and improving the method for predicting the effects of covering aeration tanks. Numerical improvements with embedded reference data provide simpler formulation, faster execution, easier sensitivity analyses, using an ordinary spreadsheet. The paper presents several cases to validate the model.

  8. Prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds using genetic algorithm and artificial neural network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Konoz, Elahe; Golmohammadi, Hassan

    2008-01-01

    An artificial neural network (ANN) was constructed and trained for the prediction of air-to-blood partition coefficients of volatile organic compounds. The inputs of this neural network are theoretically derived descriptors that were chosen by genetic algorithm (GA) and multiple linear regression (MLR) features selection techniques. These descriptors are: R maximal autocorrelation of lag 1 weighted by atomic Sanderson electronegativities (R1E+), electron density on the most negative atom in molecule (EDNA), maximum partial charge for C atom (MXPCC), surface weighted charge partial surface area (WNSA1), fractional charge partial surface area (FNSA2) and atomic charge weighted partial positive surface area (PPSA3). The standard errors of training, test and validation sets for the ANN model are 0.095, 0.148 and 0.120, respectively. Result obtained showed that nonlinear model can simulate the relationship between structural descriptors and the partition coefficients of the molecules in data set accurately

  9. The value of arterial blood gas parameters for prediction of mortality in survivors of out-of-hospital cardiac arrest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katharina Isabel von Auenmueller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Sudden cardiac death is one of the leading causes of death in Europe, and early prognostication remains challenging. There is a lack of valid parameters for the prediction of survival after cardiac arrest. Aims: This study aims to investigate if arterial blood gas parameters correlate with mortality of patients after out-of-hospital cardiac arrest. Materials and Methods: All patients who were admitted to our hospital after resuscitation following out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2013, were included in this retrospective study. The patient's survival 5 days after resuscitation defined the study end-point. For the statistical analysis, the mean, standard deviation, Student's t-test, Chi-square test, and logistic regression analyses were used (level of significance P< 0.05. Results: Arterial blood gas samples were taken from 170 patients. In particular, pH < 7.0 (odds ratio [OR]: 7.20; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 3.11–16.69; P< 0.001 and lactate ≥ 5.0 mmol/L (OR: 6.79; 95% CI: 2.77–16.66; P< 0.001 showed strong and independent correlations with mortality within the first 5 days after hospital admission. Conclusion: Our study results indicate that several arterial blood gas parameters correlate with mortality of patients after out-of-hospital resuscitation. The most relevant parameters are pH and lactate because they are strongly and independently associated with mortality within the first 5 days after resuscitation. Despite this correlation, none of these parameters by oneself is strong enough to allow an early prognostication. Still, these parameters can contribute as part of a multimodal approach to assessing the patients' prognosis.

  10. Getting used to academic public speaking: global self-esteem predicts habituation in blood pressure response to repeated thesis presentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone

    2012-06-01

    Global self-esteem was tested to predict quicker cardiovascular adaptation during stressful oral thesis presentation and faster habituation from the first to the second and third thesis presentations. Nineteen graduate students initially rated their global self-esteem and afterwards orally presented their theses proposals in 20-min presentations to their thesis supervisor and peers. A second and third presentation of the revised thesis concepts took place at 4-weeks intervals. Ambulatory blood pressure and heart rate were assessed repeatedly during the presentations. Post-talk self ratings of stressfulness indicated presentations to be a strong public speaking stressor. One hundred and thirty-eight measurements of systolic (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate (HR) showed a significant adaptation (decrease) during presentations. There was an overall mean level decrease from the first to the second, and the second to the third presentations in HR, but not in SBP and DBP. However, habituation in SBP and DBP across three presentations was significantly faster (p < .05) in those participants who initially reported higher levels of global self-esteem. Higher global self-esteem did not foster adaptation within the presentations. Self-esteem is discussed as an important individual resource that allows successful coping with recurring evaluative threats.

  11. Donor-specific alloreactive T cells can be quantified from whole blood, and may predict cellular rejection after renal transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Michaela; Leyking, Sarah; Schäfer, Marco; Elsäßer, Julia; Janssen, Martin; Mihm, Janine; van Bentum, Kai; Fliser, Danilo; Sester, Martina; Sester, Urban

    2017-07-01

    Preformed cellular alloreactivity can exist prior to transplantation and may contribute to rejection. Here, we used a rapid flow-cytometric whole-blood assay to characterize the extent of alloreactive T cells among 1491 stimulatory reactions from 61 renal transplant candidates and 75 controls. The role of preformed donor-specific alloreactive T cells in cellular rejection was prospectively analyzed in 21 renal transplant recipients. Alloreactive CD8 + T cells were more frequent than respective CD4 + T cells, and these levels were stable over time. CD8 + T cells were effector-memory T cells largely negative for expression of CD27, CD62L, and CCR7, and were susceptible to steroid and calcineurin inhibitor inhibition. Alloreactivity was more frequent in samples with higher number of HLA mismatches. Moreover, the percentage of individuals with alloreactive T cells was higher in transplant candidates than in controls. Among transplant candidates, 5/61 exhibited alloreactive CD8 + T cells against most stimulators, 23/61 toward a limited number of stimulators, and 33/61 did not show any alloreactivity. Among 21 renal transplant recipients followed prospectively, one had donor-specific preformed T-cell alloreactivity. She was the only patient who developed cellular rejection posttransplantation. In conclusion, donor-specific alloreactive T cells may be rapidly quantified from whole blood, and may predict cellular rejection after transplantation. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Prediction of occult hepatitis B virus infection in liver transplant donors through hepatitis B virus blood markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandoi, Francesco; Caviglia, Gian Paolo; Pittaluga, Fabrizia; Abate, Maria Lorena; Smedile, Antonina; Romagnoli, Renato; Salizzoni, Mauro

    2014-11-01

    Occult hepatitis B virus infection is defined as detectable HBV-DNA in liver of HBsAg-negative individuals, with or without detectable serum HBV-DNA. In deceased liver donors, results of tissue analysis cannot be obtained prior to allocation for liver transplantation. we investigated prevalence and predictability of occult hepatitis B using blood markers of viral exposure/infection in deceased liver donors. In 50 consecutive HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-positive and 20 age-matched HBsAg-negative/anti-HBc-negative donors, a nested-PCR assay was employed in liver biopsies for diagnosis of occult hepatitis B according to Taormina criteria. All donors were characterized for plasma HBV-DNA and serum anti-HBs/anti-HBe. In liver tissue, occult hepatitis B was present in 30/50 anti-HBc-positive (60%) and in 0/20 anti-HBc-negative donors (pdonors with detectable HBV-DNA in plasma (n=5) or anti-HBs>1,000 mIU/mL (n=5) eventually showed occult infection, i.e, 10/30 occult hepatitis B-positive donors which could have been identified prior to transplantation. In the remaining 40 anti-HBc-positive donors, probability of occult infection was 62% for anti-HBe-positive and/or anti-HBs ≥ 58 mIU/mL; 29% for anti-HBe-negative and anti-HBsdonors, combining anti-HBc with other blood markers of hepatitis B exposure/infection allows to predict occult hepatitis B with certainty and speed in one third of cases. These findings might help refine the allocation of livers from anti-HBc-positive donors. Copyright © 2014 Editrice Gastroenterologica Italiana S.r.l. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Comparison of early thallium-201 scintigraphy and gated blood pool imaging for predicting mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becker, L.C.; Silverman, K.J.; Bulkley, B.H.; Kallman, C.H.; Mellits, E.D.; Weisfeldt, M.

    1983-01-01

    The extent of abnormality in early thallium-201 and gated cardiac blood pool scintigrams has been reported to be useful for predicting mortality in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). To compare the two techniques, 91 patients admitted consecutively with evident or strongly suspected AMI underwent both imaging studies within 15 hours of the onset of symptoms. Patients with pulmonary edema or shock were excluded. AMI developed in 84% of patients, and 6-month mortality for the entire group was 16%. A thallium defect score of 7.0 or greater identified a subgroup of 14 patients with 64% 6-month mortality rate. Similarly, a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less identified a high-risk subgroup of 10 patients with a 6-month mortality of 60%. Mortality in the remaining patients was 8% for thallium score less than 7 and 11% for ejection fraction greater than 35%. The mortality rate was highest among patients who had concordant high-risk scintigrams (five of six, 83%), lowest in those with concordant low-risk studies (five of 64, 8%) and intermediate in those with discordant results (four of 11, 36%). Of a number of clinical variables, only the appearance of Q waves, peak creatine kinase greater than 1000 IU/I, and history of infarction were significantly associated with mortality. High-risk thallium or blood pool scintigraphic results were significantly more predictive and a thallium score of 7 or greater was more sensitive for detecting nonsurvivors than ejection fraction 35% or less at a similar level of specificity

  14. A Rapid Blood Test To Determine the Active Status and Duration of Acute Viral Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Tianyu; Finn, Caroline; Parrett, Christopher J; Dhume, Kunal; Hwang, Ji Hae; Sidhom, David; Strutt, Tara M; Li Sip, Yuen Yee; McKinstry, Karl K; Huo, Qun

    2017-11-10

    The ability to rapidly detect and diagnose acute viral infections is crucial for infectious disease control and management. Serology testing for the presence of virus-elicited antibodies in blood is one of the methods used commonly for clinical diagnosis of viral infections. However, standard serology-based tests have a significant limitation: they cannot easily distinguish active from past, historical infections. As a result, it is difficult to determine whether a patient is currently infected with a virus or not, and on an optimal course of action, based off of positive serology testing responses. Here, we report a nanoparticle-enabled blood test that can help overcome this major challenge. The new test is based on the analysis of virus-elicited immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody present in the protein corona of a gold nanoparticle surface upon mixing the gold nanoparticles with blood sera. Studies conducted on mouse models of influenza A virus infection show that the test gives positive responses only in the presence of a recent acute viral infection, approximately between day 14 and day 21 following the infection, and becomes negative thereafter. When used together with the traditional serology testing, the nanoparticle test can determine clearly whether a positive serology response is due to a recent or historical viral infection. This new blood test can provide critical clinical information needed to optimize further treatment and/or to determine if further quarantining should be continued.

  15. Study of prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Bhadoo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Study on prognostic significance of antenatal ultrasonography and renin angiotensin system activation in predicting disease severity in posterior urethral valves. Materials and Methods: Antenatally diagnosed hydronephrosis patients were included. Postnatally, they were divided into two groups, posterior urethral valve (PUV and non-PUV. The studied parameters were: Gestational age at detection, surgical intervention, ultrasound findings, cord blood and follow up plasma renin activity (PRA values, vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR, renal scars, and glomerular filtration rate (GFR. Results: A total of 25 patients were included, 10 PUV and 15 non-PUV. All infants with PUV underwent primary valve incision. GFR was less than 60 ml/min/1.73 m 2 body surface area in 4 patients at last follow-up. Keyhole sign, oligoamnios, absent bladder cycling, and cortical cysts were not consistent findings on antenatal ultrasound in PUV. Cord blood PRA was significantly higher (P < 0.0001 in PUV compared to non-PUV patients. Gestational age at detection of hydronephrosis, cortical cysts, bladder wall thickness, and amniotic fluid index were not significantly correlated with GFR while PRA could differentiate between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV. Conclusions: Ultrasound was neither uniformly useful in diagnosing PUV antenatally, nor differentiating it from cases with non-PUV hydronephrosis. In congenital hydronephrosis, cord blood PRA was significantly higher in cases with PUV compared to non-PUV cases and fell significantly after valve ablation. Cord blood PRA could distinguish between poor and better prognosis cases with PUV.

  16. Alkali treatment of microrough titanium surfaces affects macrophage/monocyte adhesion, platelet activation and architecture of blood clot formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V Milleret

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Titanium implants are most commonly used for bone augmentation and replacement due to their favorable osseointegration properties. Here, hyperhydrophilic sand-blasted and acid-etched (SBA titanium surfaces were produced by alkali treatment and their responses to partially heparinized whole human blood were analyzed. Blood clot formation, platelet activation and activation of the complement system was analyzed revealing that exposure time between blood and the material surface is crucial as increasing exposure time results in higher amount of activated platelets, more blood clots formed and stronger complement activation. In contrast, the number of macrophages/monocytes found on alkali-treated surfaces was significantly reduced as compared to untreated SBA Ti surfaces. Interestingly, when comparing untreated to modified SBA Ti surfaces very different blood clots formed on their surfaces. On untreated Ti surfaces blood clots remain thin (below 15 mm, patchy and non-structured lacking large fibrin fiber networks whereas blood clots on differentiated surfaces assemble in an organized and layered architecture of more than 30 mm thickness. Close to the material surface most nucleated cells adhere, above large amounts of non-nucleated platelets remain entrapped within a dense fibrin fiber network providing a continuous cover of the entire surface. These findings might indicate that, combined with findings of previous in vivo studies demonstrating that alkali-treated SBA Ti surfaces perform better in terms of osseointegration, a continuous and structured layer of blood components on the blood-facing surface supports later tissue integration of an endosseous implant.

  17. Blood troponin levels in acute cardiac events depends on space weather activity components (a correlative study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoupel, Eliiyahu; Radishauskas, Richardas; Bernotiene, Gailute; Tamoshiunas, Abdonas; Virvichiute, Daiva

    2018-02-05

    Many biological processes are influenced by space weather activity components such as solar activity (SA), geomagnetic activity (GMA) and cosmic ray activity (CRA). Examples are total mortality, acute myocardial infarction (AMI), stroke (cerebrovascular accident), sudden cardiac death, some congenital maladies (congenital heart disease and Down syndrome), many events in neonatology, ophtalmology, blood pressure regulation, blood coagulation, inflammation, etc. The aim of this study was to check if the level of blood troponins (Tns) - markers of myocardial damage and recognized components of modern description of AMI - is connected with the mentioned space weather parameters. Patients admitted to a 3000-bed tertiary university hospital in Kaunas, Lithuania, with suspected AMI were the object of the study. Data for the time between 2008 and 2013 - 72 consecutive months - were studied. Of the patients, 1896 (1398 male, 498 female) had elevated troponin I (Tn I) or troponin T (Tn T, sensitive Tn) levels. Normal values were 0.00-0.03 ng/mL for Tn I and 0.00-14.00 ng/mL for Tn T. Monthly means and standard deviation of Tn I and Tn T were compared with monthly markers of SA, GMA and CRA. Pearson correlation coefficients and their probabilities were established (in addition to the consecutive graphs of both comparing physical and biological data). The cosmophysical data came from space service institutions in the United States, Russia and Finland. AMI was diagnosed in 1188 patients (62.66%), and intermediate coronary syndrome in 698 patients (36.81%). There were significant links of the Tn blood levels with four SA indices and CRA (neutron activity in imp/min); there was no significant correlation with GMA indices Ap and Cp (p=0.27 and p=0.235). Tn T levels significantly correlated with the GMA indices and not with the SA and CRA levels (Ap: r=0.77, p=0.0021; Cp: r=0.729, p=0.0047). First, the monthly level of blood Tn I in ACS is significantly correlated with the indices

  18. Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity, effect on blood pressure & gastric tolerability of antidepressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeta Kaur Chugh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & objectives: Antidepressants are being used as analgesics for various pain related disorders like neuropathic and non neuropathic pain. Although their analgesic activity is well recognized but anti-inflammatory potential of antidepressants is still inconclusive. Since the antidepressants are used for longer duration, it becomes important to elucidate effect of anti-depressants on blood pressure and gastric mucosa. This study was undertaken to evaluate the anti-inflammatory potential of various antidepressant drugs as well as their effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability on chronic administration in rats. Methods: Rat paw oedema model was used for studying anti-inflammatory activity, single dose of test drug (venlafaxine 20 and 40 mg/kg, amitryptline 25 mg/kg, fluoxetine 20 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally 45 min prior to administration of 0.1 ml of 1 per cent carrageenan in sub-planter region. Oedema induced in test group was compared with normal saline treated control group. For studying effect on blood pressure and gastric tolerability, test drugs were administered for 14 days. Blood pressure was recorded on days 0, 7 and 14 using tail cuff method. On day 14, 4 h after drug administration, rats were sacrificed and stomach mucosa was examined for ulcerations. Results: Pretreatment of rats with venlafaxine (40 mg/kg resulted in a significant decrease in paw oedema as compared to control (2.4 ± 0.15 to 1.1 ± 0.16 ml, P<0.01. Similarly, in the group pretreated with fluoxetine, significant decrease in paw oedema was observed in comparison to control (P<0.05. Significant change in mean blood pressure was seen in rats pretreated with venlafaxine 40 mg/kg (126.7 ± 4.2 to 155.2 ± 9.7, P<0.05 and fluoxetine (143.5 ± 2.6 to 158.3 ± 1.2, P<0.05 on day 7. No significant difference with regard to gastric tolerability was observed among groups. Interpretation & conclusions: Our findings showed significant anti

  19. Longitudinal and postural changes of blood pressure predict dementia: the Malmö Preventive Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holm, Hannes; Nägga, Katarina; Nilsson, Erik D; Melander, Olle; Minthon, Lennart; Bachus, Erasmus; Fedorowski, Artur; Magnusson, Martin

    2017-04-01

    The role of blood pressure (BP) changes in dementia is debatable. We aimed to analyse how resting and postural BP changes relate to incident dementia over a long-term follow-up. In the prospective population-based Malmö Preventive Project, 18,240 study participants (mean age: 45 ± 7 years, 63% male) were examined between 1974 and 1992 with resting and standing BP measurement, and re-examined between 2002 and 2006 at mean age of 68 ± 6 years with resting BP. A total of 428 participants (2.3%) were diagnosed with dementia through Dec 31, 2009. The association of resting and postural BP changes with risk of dementia was studied using multivariable-adjusted Cox regression models controlling for traditional risk factors. Diastolic BP (DBP) decrease on standing indicated higher risk of dementia [Hazard ratio (HR) per 10 mmHg: 1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.01-1.44, p = 0.036], which was mainly driven by increased risk in normotensive individuals. Higher systolic (SBP) and diastolic BP at re-examination was associated with lower risk of dementia (HR per 10 mmHg: 0.94; 95% CI 0.89-0.99, p = 0.011; and 0.87; 0.78-0.96, p = 0.006, respectively). Extreme decrease in SBP/DBP between baseline and re-examination (4th quartile; -7 ± 12/-15 ± 7 mmHg, respectively) indicated higher risk of dementia (HR 1.46; 95% CI 1.11-1.93, p = 0.008, and 1.54; 95% CI 1.14-2.08, p = 0.005; respectively) compared with reference group characterised by pronounced BP increase over the same period (1st quartile; +44 ± 13/+15 ± 7 mmHg). Diastolic BP decrease on standing in the middle age, decline in BP between middle-and advanced age, and lower BP in advanced age are independent risk factors of developing dementia.

  20. The Relationship of Oxidation Sensitivity of Red Blood Cells and Carbonic Anhydrase Activity in Stored Human Blood: Effect of Certain Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zübeyir Huyut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It has been reported that many modifications occur with the increase of oxidative stress during storage in erythrocytes. In order to delay these negative changes, we evaluated whether the addition of substances likely to protect antioxidant capacity in stored blood would be useful. Therefore, we investigated the effects of resveratrol, tannic acid, and caffeic acid in lipid peroxidation and antioxidant capacity of erythrocytes in stored blood. Donated blood was taken into four CPD containing blood bags. One bag was used as the control, and the others were supplemented with caffeic acid (30 μg/mL, resveratrol (30 μg/mL, and tannic acid (15 μg/mL, respectively. Erythrocyte lipid peroxidation, sensitivity to oxidation, glutathione levels and carbonic anhydrase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities were measured on days 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28. In the control group, erythrocyte malondialdehyde levels and sensitivity to oxidation were increased whereas glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase levels were decreased (p<0.05. Resveratrol and caffeic acid prevented malondialdehyde accumulation and preserved glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase activities in erythrocytes. We demonstrated that resveratrol, caffeic acid, and tannic acid in stored blood could decrease the sensitivity to oxidation of erythrocytes in vitro but did not exhibit such effects on CA activity.

  1. Synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes under acute and continuous gamma-irradiation - fluorescent microspectral study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karnaukhova, N.A.; Sergiyevich, L.A.; Aksenova, G.Y.; Karnaukhov, V.N.

    1999-01-01

    The effects of different doses of acute and continuous gamma-irradiation on the synthetic activity of rat blood lymphocytes stained with acridine orange were studied by fluorescent microspectrometry. Male rats were exposed to acute gamma-irradiation with doses of 7.5, 4 and 3 Gy, or to continuous irradiation with dose rates of 14.4, 2.1, 1.1 and 0.43 cGy/day, respectively. The changes of the synthetic activity of blood lymphocytes occurred in three main stages after acute gamma-irradiation and in four stages under continuous irradiation. The stages reflect the processes of depression and activation of the immune system under irradiation. Essential differences between the acute and continuous effects were observed in the first stage. After acute gamma-irradiation, the synthetic activity decreased sharply, indicating the predominant contribution of the damaging effect of irradiation, whereas under continuous irradiation, as a result of the stimulatory effect of low-dose irradiation, the synthetic activity increased during the first stage. (orig.)

  2. High expression of insulin receptor on tumour-associated blood vessels in invasive bladder cancer predicts poor overall and progression-free survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roudnicky, Filip; Dieterich, Lothar C; Poyet, Cedric; Buser, Lorenz; Wild, Peter; Tang, Dave; Camenzind, Peter; Ho, Chien Hsien; Otto, Vivianne I; Detmar, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Bladder cancer is a frequently recurring disease with a very poor prognosis once progressed to invasive stages, and tumour-associated blood vessels play a crucial role in this process. In order to identify novel biomarkers associated with progression, we isolated blood vascular endothelial cells (BECs) from human invasive bladder cancers and matched normal bladder tissue, and found that tumour-associated BECs greatly up-regulated the expression of insulin receptor (INSR). High expression of INSR on BECs of invasive bladder cancers was significantly associated with shorter progression-free and overall survival. Furthermore, increased expression of the INSR ligand IGF-2 in invasive bladder cancers was associated with reduced overall survival. INSR may therefore represent a novel biomarker to predict cancer progression. Mechanistically, we observed pronounced hypoxia in human bladder cancer tissue, and found a positive correlation between the expression of the hypoxia marker gene GLUT1 and vascular INSR expression, indicating that hypoxia drives INSR expression in tumour-associated blood vessels. In line with this, exposure of cultured BECs and human bladder cancer cell lines to hypoxia led to increased expression of INSR and IGF-2, respectively, and IGF-2 increased BEC migration through the activation of INSR in vitro. Taken together, we identified vascular INSR expression as a potential biomarker for progression in bladder cancer. Furthermore, our data suggest that IGF-2/INSR mediated paracrine crosstalk between bladder cancer cells and endothelial cells is functionally involved in tumour angiogenesis and may thus represent a new therapeutic target. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Validation of Quantitative Structure-Activity Relationship (QSAR Model for Photosensitizer Activity Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharifuddin M. Zain

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Photodynamic therapy is a relatively new treatment method for cancer which utilizes a combination of oxygen, a photosensitizer and light to generate reactive singlet oxygen that eradicates tumors via direct cell-killing, vasculature damage and engagement of the immune system. Most of photosensitizers that are in clinical and pre-clinical assessments, or those that are already approved for clinical use, are mainly based on cyclic tetrapyrroles. In an attempt to discover new effective photosensitizers, we report the use of the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR method to develop a model that could correlate the structural features of cyclic tetrapyrrole-based compounds with their photodynamic therapy (PDT activity. In this study, a set of 36 porphyrin derivatives was used in the model development where 24 of these compounds were in the training set and the remaining 12 compounds were in the test set. The development of the QSAR model involved the use of the multiple linear regression analysis (MLRA method. Based on the method, r2 value, r2 (CV value and r2 prediction value of 0.87, 0.71 and 0.70 were obtained. The QSAR model was also employed to predict the experimental compounds in an external test set. This external test set comprises 20 porphyrin-based compounds with experimental IC50 values ranging from 0.39 µM to 7.04 µM. Thus the model showed good correlative and predictive ability, with a predictive correlation coefficient (r2 prediction for external test set of 0.52. The developed QSAR model was used to discover some compounds as new lead photosensitizers from this external test set.

  4. Volume-activated trimethylamine oxide efflux in red blood cells of spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koomoa, D L; Musch, M W; MacLean, A V; Goldstein, L

    2001-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the pathway of swelling-activated trimethylamine oxide (TMAO) efflux and its regulation in spiny dogfish (Squalus acanthias) red blood cells and compare the characteristics of this efflux pathway with the volume-activated osmolyte (taurine) channel present in erythrocytes of fishes. The characteristics of the TMAO efflux pathway were similar to those of the taurine efflux pathway. The swelling-activated effluxes of both TMAO and taurine were significantly inhibited by known anion transport inhibitors (DIDS and niflumic acid) and by the general channel inhibitor quinine. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea activated both TMAO and taurine effluxes similarly. Volume expansion by hypotonicity, ethylene glycol, and diethyl urea also stimulated the activity of tyrosine kinases p72syk and p56lyn, although the stimulations by the latter two treatments were less than by hypotonicity. The volume activations of both TMAO and taurine effluxes were inhibited by tyrosine kinase inhibitors, suggesting that activation of tyrosine kinases may play a role in activating the osmolyte effluxes. These results indicate that the volume-activated TMAO efflux occurs via the organic osmolyte (taurine) channel and may be regulated by the volume activation of tyrosine kinases.

  5. Blood gas sample spiking with total parenteral nutrition, lipid emulsion, and concentrated dextrose solutions as a model for predicting sample contamination based on glucose result.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jara-Aguirre, Jose C; Smeets, Steven W; Wockenfus, Amy M; Karon, Brad S

    2018-05-01

    Evaluate the effects of blood gas sample contamination with total parenteral nutrition (TPN)/lipid emulsion and dextrose 50% (D50) solutions on blood gas and electrolyte measurement; and determine whether glucose concentration can predict blood gas sample contamination with TPN/lipid emulsion or D50. Residual lithium heparin arterial blood gas samples were spiked with TPN/lipid emulsion (0 to 15%) and D50 solutions (0 to 2.5%). Blood gas (pH, pCO2, pO2), electrolytes (Na+, K+ ionized calcium) and hemoglobin were measured with a Radiometer ABL90. Glucose concentration was measured in separated plasma by Roche Cobas c501. Chart review of neonatal blood gas results with glucose >300 mg/dL (>16.65 mmol/L) over a seven month period was performed to determine whether repeat (within 4 h) blood gas results suggested pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Results were used to determine whether a glucose threshold could predict contamination resulting in blood gas and electrolyte results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. Samples spiked with 5% or more TPN/lipid emulsion solution or 1% D50 showed glucose concentration >500 mg/dL (>27.75 mmol/L) and produced blood gas (pH, pO 2 , pCO 2 ) results with greater than laboratory-defined allowable error. TPN/lipid emulsion, but not D50, produced greater than allowable error in electrolyte (Na + ,K + ,Ca ++ ,Hb) results at these concentrations. Based on chart review of 144 neonatal blood gas results with glucose >250 mg/dL received over seven months, four of ten neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with glucose results >500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had results highly suggestive of pre-analytical error. Only 3 of 36 NICU patients with glucose results 300-500 mg/dL and repeat blood gas results within 4 h had clear pre-analytical errors in blood gas results. Glucose concentration can be used as an indicator of significant blood sample contamination with either TPN

  6. Arginase activity in peripheral blood of patients with intestinal schistosomiasis, Wonji, Central Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Getaneh, A; Tamrat, A; Tadesse, K

    2015-07-01

    Morbidity and mortality caused by schistosomiasis usually results from immunopathology. But the underlying mechanisms are not yet clearly understood. Th2-type immune response is thought to be dominant during chronic schistosomiasis, and upregulation of arginase-I is one component of this milieu. A cohort study was conducted to assess arginase activity in peripheral blood of humans with intestinal schistosomiasis in Wonji-Shoa Sugar Estate, Central Ethiopia. Laboratory-confirmed 30 Schistosoma mansoni-infected patients and 18 apparently healthy controls were recruited. Faecal egg count was carried out by Kato-Katz technique. Plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were isolated from whole blood. Activity of arginase in plasma and PBMC lysates was measured, and results were compared with that of controls. Twenty-one of 30 patients had light infection, whereas moderate and heavy intensity infections were observed in eight and only one patient(s), respectively. A significant increase in both PBMC (patients: 59.96 + 82.99, controls: 25.44 + 24.6 mU/mg protein, P intestinal schistosomiasis. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. In vitro detection and quantification of botulinum neurotoxin type E activity in avian blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Timothy M.; Blehert, David S.; Dunning, F. Mark; Berlowski-Zier, Brenda M.; Zeytin, Fusun N.; Samuel, Michael D.; Tucker, Ward C.

    2011-01-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin serotype E (BoNT/E) outbreaks in the Great Lakes region cause large annual avian mortality events, with an estimated 17,000 bird deaths reported in 2007 alone. During an outbreak investigation, blood collected from bird carcasses is tested for the presence of BoNT/E using the mouse lethality assay. While sensitive, this method is labor-intensive and low throughput and can take up to 7 days to complete. We developed a rapid and sensitive in vitro assay, the BoTest Matrix E assay, that combines immunoprecipitation with high-affinity endopeptidase activity detection by Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) to rapidly quantify BoNT/E activity in avian blood with detection limits comparable to those of the mouse lethality assay. On the basis of the analysis of archived blood samples (n = 87) collected from bird carcasses during avian mortality investigations, BoTest Matrix E detected picomolar quantities of BoNT/E following a 2-h incubation and femtomolar quantities of BoNT/E following extended incubation (24 h) with 100% diagnostic specificity and 91% diagnostic sensitivity.

  8. The location of splenic NKT cells favours their rapid activation by blood-borne antigen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barral, Patricia; Sánchez-Niño, María Dolores; van Rooijen, Nico; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2012-01-01

    Natural killer T (NKT) cells play an important role in mounting protective responses to blood-borne infections. However, though the spleen is the largest blood filter in the body, the distribution and dynamics of NKT cells within this organ are not well characterized. Here we show that the majority of NKT cells patrol around the marginal zone (MZ) and red pulp (RP) of the spleen. In response to lipid antigen, these NKT cells become arrested and rapidly produce cytokines, while the small proportion of NKT cells located in the white pulp (WP) exhibit limited activation. Importantly, disruption of the splenic MZ by chemical or genetic approaches results in a severe reduction in NKT cell activation indicating the need of cooperation between both MZ macrophages and dendritic cells for efficient NKT cell responses. Thus, the location of splenic NKT cells in the MZ and RP facilitates their access to blood-borne antigen and enables the rapid initiation of protective immune responses. PMID:22505026

  9. Blood concentrations of ions and metals in amateur and elite runners using neutron activation analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Luciana Kovacs dos

    2012-01-01

    In this study Br, Ca, Cl, Fe, I, K, Mg, Na, S and Zn concentration were investigated in blood of Brazilian athletes (endurance) using Neutron Activation Analyses technique (NAA). The blood samples were collected from male amateur athletes (AR) and male and female elite athletes (ER), ranging from 18 to 36 year old. The blood samples were collected at the LABEX/UNICAMP and they were irradiated in the nuclear reactor IEA-R1 at IPEN (Sao Paulo, Brazil). The range (at rest) established for AR and ER were compared with the control group (CG), subjects of same gender and age but not involved with physical activities, and showed significant differences for Ca (51 - 439 mgL -1 for CG, 162 - 410 mgL -1 for AR and 64 - 152 mgL -1 for ER) and Br (7.4 - 30.6 mgL -1 for CG, 4.0 - 9.6 mgL -1 for AR and 1.9 - 3.5 mgL -1 for ER), suggesting that a strong dependency of these limits in function of adopted physical training exists. We also performed a systematic investigation for the AR before, during and after the exercise program. These data can be considered for the preparation of a balanced diet, for evaluating the performance of the athletes during the period of competition preparation as well as contributing for proposing new protocols of clinical evaluation not reported in the literature yet. (author)

  10. Blood parameters and enzymatic and oxidative activity in the liver of chickens fed with calcium anacardate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Braga Cruz

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this research was to evaluate the inclusion of calcium anacardate (CAC as a source of anacardic acid in the diet of broiler chickens on blood parameters, and enzymatic and oxidative activity in the liver. A total of 840 male chicks, one day old, were kept in a completely randomised experimental design, with six treatments and seven replications of 20 birds, totalling 140 birds per treatment. The treatments consisted of feed without the addition of growth promoter (GP, feed with GP, and feed with no GP and the addition of CAC at levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1%. The biochemical blood variables to be analysed were uric acid, total cholesterol, HDL, LDL, creatinine, AST, ALT, triglycerides, total erythrocytes, haemoglobin, haematocrit, mean corpuscular volume, corpuscular haemoglobin concentration, total plasma protein, total leukocytes, heterophils, lymphocytes, platelets and heterophil/lymphocyte ratio. The concentrations of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and malondialdehyde were analysed for the enzymatic and oxidative parameters in the liver. There were no significant differences between treatments in the blood parameters or the enzymatic and oxidative activity in the liver of the chickens, demonstrating that the use of calcium anacardate as a source of anacardic acid is non-toxic, and does not affect these parameters.

  11. Blood biomonitoring of metals in subjects living near abandoned mining and active industrial areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madeddu, Roberto; Tolu, Paola; Asara, Yolande; Farace, Cristiano; Forte, Giovanni; Bocca, Beatrice

    2013-07-01

    A human blood biomonitoring campaign to detect the environmental exposure to metals (Cd, Cu, Cr, Mn, Pb and Zn) in 265 subjects was performed in the South-Western part of Sardinia (an Italian island) that is a particular area with a great history of coal and metal mining (Pb/Zn mainly) activities and large industrial structures (as metallurgy). Subjects living near the industrial plant area had geometric means (GM) of blood Cd (0.79 μg/l), Cu (971 μg/l), Mn (12.2 μg/l), and Pb (55.7 μg/l) significantly higher than controls (Cd, 0.47 μg/l; Cu, 900 μg/l; Mn 9.98 μg/l; Pb, 26.5 μg/l) and than people living nearby the past mining sites. Subjects living next to one dismissed mine were statistically higher in blood Cu (GM, 1,022 μg/l) and Pb (GM, 41.4 μg/l) concentrations than controls. No differences were observed in people living in the different mining sites, and this might be related to the decennial disclosure of mines and the adoption of environmental remediation programmes. Some interindividual variables influenced blood biomonitoring data, as smoke and age for Cd, gender for Cu, age, sex and alcohol for Pb, and age for Zn. Moreover, blood metal levels of the whole population were similar to reference values representative of the Sardinian population and acceptably safe according to currently available health guidelines.

  12. Adiposity, physical activity and blood lipid profile in 13-year-old adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko; Stojanovic, Vladan; Maric, Jelena

    2010-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to determine the extent to which physical activity and adiposity are associated with blood cholesterol levels in male adolescents. Anthropometric and physical fitness values were measured in all children. Body mass index (BMI) and physical activity index (PAI) were used to split participants into active overweight (ACO) and non-active normal-weight (NAN) groups. The cutoffs for the ACO group were BMI > or = 22.6 kg/m2 and PAI > or = 3.5, respectively, whereas the corresponding cutoffs for the NAN groups were BMI body fat as compared to their NAN counterparts (p HDL-cholesterol was higher in ACO group (p correlation between HDL-cholesterol and PAI in ACO group (r = 0.38; p index explained the majority of variance in HDL-cholesterol for ACO group (beta = 0.513; p adiposity per se, particularly for HDL-cholesterol.

  13. Which is more useful in predicting hospital mortality--dichotomised blood test results or actual test values? A retrospective study in two hospitals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed A; Rudge, Gavin; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary; Nangalia, Vishal; Prytherch, David; Holder, Roger; Briggs, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Routine blood tests are an integral part of clinical medicine and in interpreting blood test results clinicians have two broad options. (1) Dichotomise the blood tests into normal/abnormal or (2) use the actual values and overlook the reference values. We refer to these as the "binary" and the "non-binary" strategy respectively. We investigate which strategy is better at predicting the risk of death in hospital based on seven routinely undertaken blood tests (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, and white blood cell count) using tree models to implement the two strategies. A retrospective database study of emergency admissions to an acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010, involving 10,050 emergency admissions with routine blood tests undertaken within 24 hours of admission. We compared the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for predicting in-hospital mortality using the binary and non-binary strategy. The mortality rate was 6.98% (701/10050). The mean predicted risk of death in those who died was significantly (p-value non-binary strategy (risk = 0.222 95%CI: 0.194 to 0.251), representing a risk difference of 28.74 deaths in the deceased patients (n = 701). The binary strategy had a significantly (p-value non-binary strategy (0.853 95% CI: 0.840 to 0.867). Similar results were obtained using data from another hospital. Dichotomising routine blood test results is less accurate in predicting in-hospital mortality than using actual test values because it underestimates the risk of death in patients who died. Further research into the use of actual blood test values in clinical decision making is required especially as the infrastructure to implement this potentially promising strategy already exists in most hospitals.

  14. Which Is More Useful in Predicting Hospital Mortality -Dichotomised Blood Test Results or Actual Test Values? A Retrospective Study in Two Hospitals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammed, Mohammed A.; Rudge, Gavin; Wood, Gordon; Smith, Gary; Nangalia, Vishal; Prytherch, David; Holder, Roger; Briggs, Jim

    2012-01-01

    Background Routine blood tests are an integral part of clinical medicine and in interpreting blood test results clinicians have two broad options. (1) Dichotomise the blood tests into normal/abnormal or (2) use the actual values and overlook the reference values. We refer to these as the “binary” and the “non-binary” strategy respectively. We investigate which strategy is better at predicting the risk of death in hospital based on seven routinely undertaken blood tests (albumin, creatinine, haemoglobin, potassium, sodium, urea, and white blood cell count) using tree models to implement the two strategies. Methodology A retrospective database study of emergency admissions to an acute hospital during April 2009 to March 2010, involving 10,050 emergency admissions with routine blood tests undertaken within 24 hours of admission. We compared the area under the Receiver Operating Characteristics (ROC) curve for predicting in-hospital mortality using the binary and non-binary strategy. Results The mortality rate was 6.98% (701/10050). The mean predicted risk of death in those who died was significantly (p-value non-binary strategy (risk = 0.222 95%CI: 0.194 to 0.251), representing a risk difference of 28.74 deaths in the deceased patients (n = 701). The binary strategy had a significantly (p-value non-binary strategy (0.853 95% CI: 0.840 to 0.867). Similar results were obtained using data from another hospital. Conclusions Dichotomising routine blood test results is less accurate in predicting in-hospital mortality than using actual test values because it underestimates the risk of death in patients who died. Further research into the use of actual blood test values in clinical decision making is required especially as the infrastructure to implement this potentially promising strategy already exists in most hospitals. PMID:23077528

  15. [Cardiovascular hyperreactivity to physical stress predicts high blood pressure in working populations: 4 years follow-up].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santana López, Sandra; Perdomo Hernández, María del Carmen; Montero Díaz, Rolando

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) is a disease, and as well as a risk factor for other diseases, such as atherosclerosis. Cardiovascular hyperreactivity (CVHR) is a predictor for this disease. The aim of this study was to demonstrate if CVHR to physical stress predicts HBP in working populations. A four year (2008-2012) cohort study was conducted on two population groups: CVHR (48), and normal cardiovascular reactivity (40) after applying the Sustained Weight test. A survival analysis was used to predict HBP, and the χ(2) test and hazard ratio, with a confidence interval of 95%, were used for the statistical analysis. The CVHR is a predictor of HBP, determined by the Sustained Weight test. The working populations can be stratified according to cardiovascular reactivity in order to introduce preventive health actions on the modifiable cardiovascular risk factors of future hypertensives in the workplace. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects and Predictive Factors of Immunosuppressive Therapy Combined with Umbilical Cord Blood Infusion in Patients with Severe Aplastic Anemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xia; Li, Zhangzhi; Geng, Wei; Song, Bin; Wan, Chucheng

    2018-07-01

    To investigate the efficacy and safety of umbilical cord blood (UCB) infusion (UCBI) plus immunosuppressive therapy (IST) treatment in comparison to IST treatment, as well as predictive factors for clinical responses, in severe aplastic anemia (SAA) patients. Totally, 93 patients with SAA were enrolled in this cohort study. In the IST group, rabbit antithymocyte globulin (r-ATG) combined with cyclosporine A (CsA) was administered, while in the IST+UBCI group, r-ATG, CsA, and UCB were used. After 6 months of treatment, UCBI+IST achieved a higher complete response (CR) rate (p=0.002) and an elevated overall response rate (ORR) (p=0.004), compared to IST. Regarding hematopoietic recovery at month 6, platelet responses in the UCBI+IST group were better than those in the IST group (p=0.002), and UCBI+IST treatment facilitated increasing trends in absolute neutrophil count (ANC) response (p=0.056). Kaplan-Meier curves illuminated UCBI+IST achieved faster ANC response (paplastic anemia (VSAA) and ANC could predict clinical responses as well. However, Cox proportional hazard regression indicated that VSAA (p=0.003), but not UCBI+IST, affected OS. Safety profiles showed that UCBI+IST therapy did not elevate adverse events, compared with IST treatment. UCBI+IST achieved better clinical responses and hematopoietic recovery than IST, and was well tolerated in SAA patients. © Copyright: Yonsei University College of Medicine 2018.

  17. Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Ito, Susumu; Ikegami, Tadashi [Yokohama Minami Kyosai Hospital (Japan)

    1999-11-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patients: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p<0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p<0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (author)

  18. Prediction of effectiveness of shunting in patients with normal pressure hydrocephalus by cerebral blood flow measurement and computed tomography cisternography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Chia-Cheng; Kuwana, Nobumasa; Ito, Susumu; Ikegami, Tadashi

    1999-01-01

    Measurement of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and computed tomography (CT) cisternography were performed in 37 patients with a tentative diagnosis of normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) to predict their surgical outcome. The mean CBF of the whole brain was measured quantitatively by single photon emission computed tomography with technetium-99m-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime before surgery. The results of CT cisternography were classified into four patients: type I, no ventricular stasis at 24 hours; type II, no ventricular stasis with delayed clearance of cerebral blush; type III, persistent ventricular stasis with prominent cerebral blush; type IV, persistent ventricular stasis with diminished cerebral blush and/or asymmetrical filling of the sylvian fissures. The mean CBF was significantly lower than that of age-matched controls (p<0.005). Patients with a favorable outcome had a significantly higher mean CBF than patients with an unfavorable outcome (p<0.005). Patients with the type I pattern did not respond to shunting. Some patients with type II and III patterns responded to shunting but improvement was unsatisfactory. Patients with type IV pattern responded well to shunting, and those with a mean CBF of 35 ml/100 g/min or over achieved a favorable outcome. The combination of CBF measurement and CT cisternography can improve the prediction of surgical outcome in patients with suspected NPH. (author)

  19. Traction force dynamics predict gap formation in activated endothelium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valent, Erik T.; Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P. van; Hinsbergh, Victor W.M. van; Hordijk, Peter L., E-mail: p.hordijk@vumc.nl

    2016-09-10

    In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, predicts the stimulus-induced formation of intercellular gaps. - Highlights: • Endothelial monolayers exert dynamic- and heterogeneous traction forces. • High traction forces correlate with junctional areas and the F-actin cytoskeleton. • Newly formed inter-endothelial gaps are characterized by opposing traction forces. • Force stability is a key feature controlling endothelial permeability.

  20. Traction force dynamics predict gap formation in activated endothelium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valent, Erik T.; Nieuw Amerongen, Geerten P. van; Hinsbergh, Victor W.M. van; Hordijk, Peter L.

    2016-01-01

    In many pathological conditions the endothelium becomes activated and dysfunctional, resulting in hyperpermeability and plasma leakage. No specific therapies are available yet to control endothelial barrier function, which is regulated by inter-endothelial junctions and the generation of acto-myosin-based contractile forces in the context of cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions. However, the spatiotemporal distribution and stimulus-induced reorganization of these integral forces remain largely unknown. Traction force microscopy of human endothelial monolayers was used to visualize contractile forces in resting cells and during thrombin-induced hyperpermeability. Simultaneously, information about endothelial monolayer integrity, adherens junctions and cytoskeletal proteins (F-actin) were captured. This revealed a heterogeneous distribution of traction forces, with nuclear areas showing lower and cell-cell junctions higher traction forces than the whole-monolayer average. Moreover, junctional forces were asymmetrically distributed among neighboring cells. Force vector orientation analysis showed a good correlation with the alignment of F-actin and revealed contractile forces in newly formed filopodia and lamellipodia-like protrusions within the monolayer. Finally, unstable areas, showing high force fluctuations within the monolayer were prone to form inter-endothelial gaps upon stimulation with thrombin. To conclude, contractile traction forces are heterogeneously distributed within endothelial monolayers and force instability, rather than force magnitude, predicts the stimulus-induced formation of intercellular gaps. - Highlights: • Endothelial monolayers exert dynamic- and heterogeneous traction forces. • High traction forces correlate with junctional areas and the F-actin cytoskeleton. • Newly formed inter-endothelial gaps are characterized by opposing traction forces. • Force stability is a key feature controlling endothelial permeability.

  1. Blood coagulation parameters and activity indices in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Arshinov

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To assess coagulation parameters and activity indices in pts with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Material and methods . 86 pts with SLE (83 female and 3 male were examined. 12 of them had antiphospholipid syndrome. Mean age was 35,9±1,5 years (from 18 to 58 years, mean disease duration was 9,8+1,4 years. Control group consisted of 60 healthy volunteers with mean age 37,1+4,1 years. SLE activity assessment was performed with SLAM, SLEDAI and ECLAM indices. Results. SLE pts showed 5-fold (p<0,01 increase of spontaneous platelets aggregation and more than 3-fold increase of factor von Willebrand antigen (FWA concentration. Platelet activation in pts was accompanied by decrease of platelet aggregation with collagen (on 27%, p<0,01. Characteristic sign of coagulation hemostasis activation was significant increase of soluble fibrin-monomer complexes (SFMC concentration on 81 % (p<0,01 so as increase D-dimers level in 53,3% of pts. Fibrinogen concentration was increased on 29%, spontaneous fibrinolysis parameters were decreased on 20%, antithrombin (AT 111 - on 21% in comparison with control. Direct correlation between activity indiccs and SFMC(ECLAM, r=0,5, fibrinogen concentration (SLAM, r=0,34, D- dimers level (ECLAM, r=0,5, spontaneous platelet aggregation (ECLAM, r=0,5 so as inverse correlation with AT III activity (SLEDAI, r-0,73 was revealed. Conclusion. Changes of hemostasis parameters in SLE may serve as predictors of thrombotic disorders development and indication to drug correction of blood coagulation disorders. Direct correlation between blood coagulation system activity and indices of SLE activity.

  2. Trypsin inhibitory activity in blood and cervical mucus of sheep following chronic gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, M.; Arendarcik, J.; Pastorova, B.

    1982-01-01

    The effect was investigated of chronic gamma irradiation for a period of 7 days to a total dose of 6.7 Gy. A decrease was found in TIA (trypsin inhibition activity) of blood plasma to 73.6% of the value prior to irradiation. The low-molecular fraction of TIA increased to 194.6%. Later in the experiment the values decreased. The TIA dynamics of the cervical mucus had the reverse character. The values increased; at the 16th day after irradiation they increased up to 392% of the initial values. A comparison with previous experiments shows that acute local irradiation with an almost three-fold dose of the hypothalamo-pituitary area and of the ovaries does not induce significant changes in the blood plasma TIA. (M.D.)

  3. Blood Fibrinolytic Activity in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus Associated with Hypothyroidism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т.Yu. Yuzvenko

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research was to study the level of plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1 (PAI-1 in the blood serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM in combination with hypothyroidism. We have observed 62 patients with type 2 DM, 32 of them had primary hypothyroidism. Control group consisted of 20 persons without carbohydrate metabolism disorders and thyroid pathology. In patients with type 2 DM, we have detected violations in the fibrinolytic system as an increase of PAI-1, whose level depends on the body mass index, waist circumference, level of glycated haemoglobin, indexes of insulin resistance, blood lipid spectrum, as well as on the presence of microalbuminuria. The presence of hypothyroidism has an additional negative impact on the parameters of carbohydrate, lipid metabolism and PAI-1 level in patients with type 2 DM.

  4. Prediction of residual metabolic activity after treatment in NSCLC patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios Velazquez, Emmanuel; Aerts, Hugo J.W.L.; Oberije, Cary; Ruysscher, Dirk De; Lambin, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Purpose. Metabolic response assessment is often used as a surrogate of local failure and survival. Early identification of patients with residual metabolic activity is essential as this enables selection of patients who could potentially benefit from additional therapy. We report on the development of a pre-treatment prediction model for metabolic response using patient, tumor and treatment factors. Methods. One hundred and one patients with inoperable NSCLC (stage I-IV), treated with 3D conformal radical (chemo)-radiotherapy were retrospectively included in this study. All patients received a pre and post-radiotherapy fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography-computed tomography FDG-PET-CT scan. The electronic medical record system and the medical patient charts were reviewed to obtain demographic, clinical, tumor and treatment data. Primary outcome measure was examined using a metabolic response assessment on a post-radiotherapy FDG-PET-CT scan. Radiotherapy was delivered in fractions of 1.8 Gy, twice a day, with a median prescribed dose of 60 Gy. Results. Overall survival was worse in patients with residual metabolic active areas compared with the patients with a complete metabolic response (p=0.0001). In univariate analysis, three variables were significantly associated with residual disease: larger primary gross tumor volume (GTVprimary, p=0.002), higher pre-treatment maximum standardized uptake value (SUV max , p=0.0005) in the primary tumor and shorter overall treatment time (OTT, p=0.046). A multivariate model including GTVprimary, SUV max , equivalent radiation dose at 2 Gy corrected for time (EQD2, T) and OTT yielded an area under the curve assessed by the leave-one-out cross validation of 0.71 (95% CI, 0.65-0.76). Conclusion. Our results confirmed the validity of metabolic response assessment as a surrogate of survival. We developed a multivariate model that is able to identify patients at risk of residual disease. These patients may benefit from

  5. Histone deacetylase activity is decreased in peripheral blood monocytes in patients with COPD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yanwei

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Histone deacetylase (HDAC is an enzyme that regulates chromatin structure and inflammatory gene expression. In patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD, while accumulating evidence indicates that the activity of HDAC is decreased in lung tissue alveolar macrophages, HDAC activity in peripheral inflammatory cells has not yet been evaluated in detail. Methods HDAC activities in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC were investigated in patients with stable COPD (n = 26, non-smoking controls (n = 13, and smoking controls (n = 10, respectively. HDAC activity was measured using an HDAC Activity/Inhibitor Screening Assay Kit. Serum interleukine-8 (CXCL8 levels were determined by ELISA techniques. Lung function test was carried out according to the ATS/ERS guidelines. Results Compared with healthy non-smokers, HDAC activity in the PBMCs of COPD patients was decreased by 40% (13.06 ± 5.95 vs. 21.39 ± 4.92 (μM/μg, p Moreover, serum CXCL8 levels in patients with COPD were significantly higher than that in controls and were negatively correlated to HDAC activities. Conclusion In patients with COPD, HDAC activity in the PBMCs is lower than that in healthy controls. The reduction of HDAC activity may be associated with smoking exposure through inflammatory pathways.

  6. Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) for insecticides: development of predictive in vivo insecticide activity models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, P K; Singh, T; Singh, H

    2009-07-01

    Quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analyses were performed independently on data sets belonging to two groups of insecticides, namely the organophosphates and carbamates. Several types of descriptors including topological, spatial, thermodynamic, information content, lead likeness and E-state indices were used to derive quantitative relationships between insecticide activities and structural properties of chemicals. A systematic search approach based on missing value, zero value, simple correlation and multi-collinearity tests as well as the use of a genetic algorithm allowed the optimal selection of the descriptors used to generate the models. The QSAR models developed for both organophosphate and carbamate groups revealed good predictability with r(2) values of 0.949 and 0.838 as well as [image omitted] values of 0.890 and 0.765, respectively. In addition, a linear correlation was observed between the predicted and experimental LD(50) values for the test set data with r(2) of 0.871 and 0.788 for both the organophosphate and carbamate groups, indicating that the prediction accuracy of the QSAR models was acceptable. The models were also tested successfully from external validation criteria. QSAR models developed in this study should help further design of novel potent insecticides.

  7. Abnormalities in the cellular phase of blood fibrinolytic activity in systemic lupus erythematosus and in venous thromboembolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, L.A.; MacLean, L.D.; Langleben, D.

    1986-01-01

    Fibrinolytic activities of whole blood and plasma were determined by 125 I-fibrin radiometric assay in 16 normal subjects, and in 11 patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 14 with progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS), 23 with venous thromboembolic disease, and 20 patients awaiting elective surgery. Mean whole blood and plasma activities for patients with PSS, and for those awaiting elective surgery, were similar to normal values, as was the mean plasma activity in patients with SLE. However, mean whole blood activity in SLE was significantly decreased compared with normals (p less than 0.05), with mean plasma activity accounting for 44% of mean whole blood activity (compared with 17% in normal subjects), representing a 67% decrease in mean calculated cellular phase activity in SLE, when compared with normals. Since the numbers of cells (neutrophils, monocytes) possibly involved in cellular activity were not decreased, the findings suggest a functional defect in fibrinolytic activity of one or more blood cell types in SLE. An additional finding was the participation of the cellular phase as well as the well-known plasma phase of blood in the fibrinolytic response to thromboembolism

  8. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Saet-byul; Cha, Junhoe; Kim, Im-kyung; Yoon, Joo Chun; Lee, Hyo Joon; Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-Ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan; Lee, Jae Myun; Lee, Kang Young; Kim, Jongsun

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as 51 Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer

  9. Cord blood banking activities at a university hospital in northeast Mexico: an 8-year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaime-Perez, Jose C; Monreal-Robles, Roberto; Colunga-Pedraza, Julia; Mancías-Guerra, Consuelo; Rodríguez-Romo, Laura; Gómez-Almaguer, David

    2012-12-01

    Umbilical cord blood (UCB) represents an alternative source of stem cells for transplantation for the treatment of hematologic malignancies and genetic disorders. There is scarce information detailing cord blood bank (CBB) collection and transplantation activities from developing countries. We documented our experience at a public university hospital in northeast Mexico. We carried out a retrospective and descriptive analysis of our CBB activity during an 8-year period from May 2002 to September 2010. Collection, processing, and cryopreservation of CB were carried out following standard operating procedures. The minimum volume and total nucleated cell (TNC) content for cryopreservation were 80 mL and 8.0 × 10(8) , respectively. A total of 1256 UCB units were collected; 428 (34%) were banked and 828 (66%) were discarded. The main reason for exclusion was biologic: low volume and/or low number of TNC accounted for 84% of the total discarded units. Cryopreserved cord blood units (CBUs) had a median volume of 113.8 mL (range, 80-213.2 mL) and 13.0 × 10(8) (range, 8 × 10(8) -36.6 × 10(8) ) TNCs. Cell viability was 99.3% (88-100%). The median CD34+ cell content was 4.0 × 10(6) (0.46 × 10(6) -19.38 × 10(6) ). Sixteen units have been released for transplantation, leading to a utilization rate of 3.7%. CBB demands considerable human and financial resources; it is then essential for centers at developing countries to share their experience, results, and databases to increase the probability of finding matching units for their patients. Efforts to create and maintain CBBs allow to offer this therapeutic option at an affordable cost. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  10. A high-throughput assay of NK cell activity in whole blood and its clinical application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Saet-byul [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Junhoe [ATGen Co. Ltd., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Im-kyung [Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Joo Chun [Department of Microbiology, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Hyo Joon [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sang Woo; Cho, Sunjung; Youn, Dong-Ye; Lee, Heyja; Lee, Choong Hwan [ATGen Co. Ltd., Sungnam (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jae Myun [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Kang Young, E-mail: kylee117@yuhs.ac [Department of Surgery, Gangnam Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jongsun, E-mail: jkim63@yuhs.ac [Department of Microbiology and Brain Korea 21 Project for Medical Sciences, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-14

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We demonstrated a simple assay of NK cell activity from whole blood. • The measurement of secreted IFN-γ from NK cell enables high-throughput screening. • The NKA assay was validated by clinical results of colorectal cancer patients. - Abstract: Natural killer (NK) cells are lymphocytes of the innate immune system and have the ability to kill tumor cells and virus-infected cells without prior sensitization. Malignant tumors and viruses have developed, however, strategies to suppress NK cells to escape from their responses. Thus, the evaluation of NK cell activity (NKA) could be invaluable to estimate the status and the outcome of cancers, viral infections, and immune-mediated diseases. Established methods that measure NKA, such as {sup 51}Cr release assay and CD107a degranulation assay, may be used to determine NK cell function, but they are complicated and time-consuming because they require isolation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) or NK cells. In some cases these assays require hazardous material such as radioactive isotopes. To overcome these difficulties, we developed a simple assay that uses whole blood instead of PBMC or isolated NK cells. This novel assay is suitable for high-throughput screening and the monitoring of diseases, because it employs serum of ex vivo stimulated whole blood to detect interferon (IFN)-γ secreted from NK cells as an indicator of NKA. After the stimulation of NK cells, the determination of IFNγ concentration in serum samples by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) provided a swift, uncomplicated, and high-throughput assay of NKA ex vivo. The NKA results microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer patients was showed significantly lower NKA, 263.6 ± 54.5 pg/mL compared with healthy subjects, 867.5 ± 50.2 pg/mL (p value <0.0001). Therefore, the NKA could be utilized as a supportive diagnostic marker for microsatellite stable (MSS) colorectal cancer.

  11. Odors generated from the Maillard reaction affect autonomic nervous activity and decrease blood pressure through the olfactory system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lanxi; Ohata, Motoko; Owashi, Chisato; Nagai, Katsuya; Yokoyama, Issei; Arihara, Keizo

    2018-02-01

    Systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats decreases significantly following exposure to the odor generated from the Maillard reaction of protein digests with xylose. This study identified active odorants that affect blood pressure and demonstrated the mechanism of action. Among the four potent odorants that contribute most to the odor of the Maillard reaction sample, 2,5-dimethyl-4-hydroxy-3(2H)-furanone (DMHF) and 5-methyl-2-pyrazinemethanol (MPM) decreased SBP significantly. The earliest decrease in blood pressure was observed 5 min after exposure to DMHF. Application of zinc sulfate to the nasal cavity eliminated the effect. Furthermore, gastric vagal (parasympathetic) nerve activity was elevated and renal sympathetic nerve activity was lowered after exposure to DMHF. It is indicated that DMHF affects blood pressure through the olfactory system, and the mechanism for the effect of DMHF on blood pressure involves the autonomic nervous system. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. Acetylcholinesterase activity, cohabitation with floricultural workers, and blood pressure in Ecuadorian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Lopez, Jose R; Jacobs, David R; Himes, John H; Alexander, Bruce H

    2013-05-01

    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitors are commonly used pesticides that can effect hemodynamic changes through increased cholinergic stimulation. Children of agricultural workers are likely to have paraoccupational exposures to pesticides, but the potential physiological impact of such exposures is unclear. We investigated whether secondary pesticide exposures were associated with blood pressure and heart rate among children living in agricultural Ecuadorian communities. This cross-sectional study included 271 children 4-9 years of age [51% cohabited with one or more flower plantation workers (mean duration, 5.2 years)]. Erythrocyte AChE activity was measured using the EQM Test-mate system. Linear regression models were used to estimate associations of systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate with AChE activity, living with flower workers, duration of cohabitation with a flower worker, number of flower workers in the child's home, and number of practices that might increase children's exposure to pesticides. Mean (± SD) AChE activity was 3.14 ± 0.49 U/mL. A 1-U/mL decrease in AChE activity was associated with a 2.86-mmHg decrease in SBP (95% CI: -5.20, -0.53) and a 2.89-mmHg decrease in DBP (95% CI: -5.00, -0.78), after adjustment for potential confounders. Children living with flower workers had lower SBP (-1.72 mmHg; 95% CI: -3.53, 0.08) than other children, and practices that might increase exposure also were associated with lower SBP. No significant associations were found between exposures and heart rate. Our findings suggest that subclinical secondary exposures to pesticides may affect vascular reactivity in children. Additional research is needed to confirm these findings.

  13. Rapid Detection of Thrombin and Other Protease Activity Directly in Whole Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Johnson Chung Sing

    Thrombin is a serine protease that plays a key role in the clotting cascade to promote hemostasis following injury to the endothelium. From a clinical diagnostic perspective, in-vivo thrombin activity is linked to various blood clotting disorders, as well as cardiovascular disease (DVT, arteriosclerosis, etc). Thus, the ability to rapidly measure protease activity directly in whole blood will provide important new diagnostics, and clinical researchers with a powerful tool to further elucidate the relationship between circulating protease levels and disease. The ultimate goal is to design novel point of care (POC) diagnostic devices that are capable of monitoring protease activities directly in whole blood and biological sample. A charge-changing substrate specific to the thrombin enzyme was engineered and its functionality was confirmed by a series of experiments. This led to the preliminary design, construction, and testing of two device platforms deemed fully functional for the electrophoretic separation and focusing of charged peptide fragments. The concept of using the existing charge-changing substrate platform for bacterial protease detection was also investigated. Certain strains of E coli are associated with severe symptoms such as abdominal cramps, bloody diarrhea, and vomiting. The OmpT protease is expressed on the outer membrane of E coli and plays a role in the cleavage of antimicrobial peptides, the degradation of recombinant heterologous proteins, and the activation of plasminogen in the host. Thus, a synthetic peptide substrate specific to the OmpT protease was designed and modeled for the purpose of detecting E coli in biological sample.

  14. Prediction of Packed Cell Volume after Whole Blood Transfusion in Small Ruminants and South American Camelids: 80 Cases (2006–2016)

    OpenAIRE

    Luethy, D.; Stefanovski, D.; Salber, R.; Sweeney, R.W.

    2017-01-01

    Background Calculation of desired whole blood transfusion volume relies on an estimate of an animal's circulating blood volume, generally accepted to be 0.08 L/kg or 8% of the animal's body weight in kilograms. Objective To use packed cell volume before and after whole blood transfusion to evaluate the accuracy of a commonly used equation to predict packed cell volume after transfusion in small ruminants and South American camelids; to determine the nature and frequency of adverse transfusion...

  15. TH and DCX mRNAs in peripheral blood and bone marrow predict outcome in metastatic neuroblastoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yáñez, Yania; Hervás, David; Grau, Elena; Oltra, Silvestre; Pérez, Gema; Palanca, Sarai; Bermúdez, Mar; Márquez, Catalina; Cañete, Adela; Castel, Victoria

    2016-03-01

    In metastatic neuroblastoma (NB) patients, accurate risk stratification and disease monitoring would reduce relapse probabilities. This study aims to evaluate the independent prognostic significance of detecting tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and doublecortin (DCX) mRNAs by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) in peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) samples from metastatic NB patients. RT-qPCR was performed on PB and BM samples from metastatic NB patients at diagnosis, post-induction therapy and at the end of treatment for TH and DCX mRNAs detection. High levels of TH and DCX mRNAs when detected in PB and BM at diagnosis independently predicted worse outcome in a cohort of 162 metastatic NB. In the subgroup of high-risk metastatic NB, TH mRNA detected in PB remained as independent predictor of EFS and OS at diagnosis. After the induction therapy, high levels of TH mRNA in PB and DCX mRNA in BM independently predicted poor EFS and OS. Furthermore TH mRNA when detected in BM predicted worse EFS. TH mRNA in PB samples at the end of treatment is an independent predictor of worse outcome. TH and DCX mRNAs levels in PB and BM assessed by RT-qPCR should be considered in new pre-treatment risk stratification strategies to reliable estimate outcome differences in metastatic NB patients. In those high-risk metastatic NB, TH and DCX mRNA quantification could be used for the assessment of response to treatment and for early detection of progressive disease or relapses.

  16. [The activity of blood cholinesterase in rats exposed to dimethypo after drug intervention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Weiguo; Xu, Mailing; Zou, Hejian; Lu, Ailing; Shen, Xinyu; Chen, Yuming

    2002-12-01

    To investigate the activity of ChE in rats poisoned by dimehypo and then treated with pralidoxime methylchloride or unithiol. Rats were divided into control group (dimehypo); intervention groups [dimehypo plus pralidoxime methylchloride or dimehypo plus unithiol (sodium dimercaptopropanesulphonate)]. Rats were dosed with 4 different doses of dimehypo: 1/16, 1/8, 1/4 and 1/2 of LD50 respectively(the LD50 of dimehypo is 342 mg/kg). After being poisoned with dimehypo orally, rats were immediately injected intramuscularly with pralidoxime methylchloride or unithiol. The activity of ChE in blood was detected before and 1/2, 1, 2, 4 and 24 h after poisoning in dimehypo and intervention groups. The ChE activity of four dose subgroups at 1 h after poisoning were (1.04 +/- 0.21), (0.84 +/- 0.12), (0.71 +/- 0.12), (0.66 +/- 0.07) U/ml respectively; the ChE activity of pralidoxime methylchloride intervention groups were (1.01 +/- 0.18), (1.17 +/- 0.11), (1.01 +/- 0.04), (1.03 +/- 0.12) U/ml respectively; and the ChE activity of unithiol intervention groups were (1.15 +/- 0.15), (1.26 +/- 0.27), (1.08 +/- 0.08), (1.04 +/- 0.12) U/ml respectively. The inhibited ChE in blood was recovered by either treatment with pyraldoxime methylchloride or unithiol. These two drugs had similar effects of recovering the activity of ChE(P > 0.05), but at higher doses(1/4 and 1/2 of LD50) the effects of both were not so good. Pralidoxime methylchloride and unithiol could partly recover the activity of ChE inhibited by dimehypo.

  17. Neutron activation analysis of Cl, K and Na content in whole blood of horses used in hyperimmune sera production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baptista, T.S.; Zamboni, C.B.; Medeiros, J.A.G.; Freitas, M.G.; Higashi, H.G.; Marcelino, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    Using neutron activation analysis technique Cl, K and Na concentration were obtained in whole blood of equines used for antivenom production at Butantan Institute (Sao Paulo, Brazil). These data were compared with the human whole blood estimation. No significant difference was observed suggesting that this model animal is adequate sera production. (author)

  18. Choice from non-choice: predicting consumer preferences from blood oxygenation level-dependent signals obtained during passive viewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, Ifat; Lazzaro, Stephanie C; Rutledge, Robb B; Glimcher, Paul W

    2011-01-05

    Decision-making is often viewed as a two-stage process, where subjective values are first assigned to each option and then the option of the highest value is selected. Converging evidence suggests that these subjective values are represented in the striatum and medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). A separate line of evidence suggests that activation in the same areas represents the values of rewards even when choice is not required, as in classical conditioning tasks. However, it is unclear whether the same neural mechanism is engaged in both cases. To address this question we measured brain activation with functional magnetic resonance imaging while human subjects passively viewed individual consumer goods. We then sampled activation from predefined regions of interest and used it to predict subsequent choices between the same items made outside of the scanner. Our results show that activation in the striatum and MPFC in the absence of choice predicts subsequent choices, suggesting that these brain areas represent value in a similar manner whether or not choice is required.

  19. Predicting daily physical activity in a lifestyle intervention program

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Long, Xi; Pauws, S.C.; Pijl, M.; Lacroix, J.; Goris, A.H.C.; Aarts, R.M.; Gottfried, B.; Aghajan, H.

    2011-01-01

    The growing number of people adopting a sedentary lifestyle these days creates a serious need for effective physical activity promotion programs. Often, these programs monitor activity, provide feedback about activity and offer coaching to increase activity. Some programs rely on a human coach who

  20. Predictive Value of Intraoperative Thromboelastometry for the Risk of Perioperative Excessive Blood Loss in Infants and Children Undergoing Congenital Cardiac Surgery: A Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eunhee; Shim, Haeng Seon; Kim, Won Ho; Lee, Sue-Young; Park, Sun-Kyung; Yang, Ji-Hyuk; Jun, Tae-Gook; Kim, Chung Su

    2016-10-01

    Laboratory hemostatic variables and parameters of rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) were evaluated for their ability to predict perioperative excessive blood loss (PEBL) after congenital cardiac surgery. Retrospective and observational. Single, large university hospital. The study comprised 119 children younger than 10 years old undergoing congenital cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Intraoperative excessive blood loss was defined as estimated blood loss≥50% of estimated blood volume (EBV). Postoperative excessive blood loss was defined as measured postoperative chest tube and Jackson-Pratt drainage≥30% of EBV over 12 hours or≥50% of EBV over 24 hours in the intensive care unit. PEBL was defined as either intraoperative or postoperative excessive blood loss. External temogram (EXTEM) and fibrinogen temogram (FIBTEM) were analyzed before and after CPB with ROTEM and laboratory hemostatic variables. Multivariate logistic regression was performed. Incidence of PEBL was 19.3% (n = 23). Independent risk factors for PEBL were CPB time>120 minutes, post-CPB FIBTEM alpha-angle, clot firmness after 10 minutes20%. Laboratory hemostatic variables were not significant in multivariate analysis. The risk prediction model was developed from the results of multivariate analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.94 (95% confidence interval: 0.90-0.99). Post-CPB ROTEM may be useful for predicting both intraoperative and postoperative excessive blood loss in congenital cardiac surgery. This study provided an accurate prediction model for PEBL and supported intraoperative transfusion guidance using post-CPB FIBTEM-A10 and EXTEM-A10. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Longer repetition duration increases muscle activation and blood lactate response in matched resistance training protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Cesar Martins-Costa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study analyzed the effect of different repetition durations on electromyographic and blood lactate responses of the bench press exercise. Fifteen recreationally trained male volunteers completed two training protocols, matched for intensity (% one-repetition maximum; 1RM, number of sets, number of repetitions, and rest intervals. One of the protocols was performed with a repetition duration of 4 s (2 s concentric: 2 s eccentric; 2:2 protocol, whereas the second protocol had a repetition duration of 6 s (2 s concentric: 4 s eccentric; 2:4 protocol. The results showed higher normalized integrated electromyography (pectoralis major and triceps brachii for the 2:4 protocol. Blood lactate concentration was also higher in the 2:4 protocol across all sets. These results show that adding 2 s to the eccentric action in matched training protocols increases muscle activation and blood lactate response, which reinforces the notion that increasing repetition duration is an alternative load progression in resistance training.

  2. Effectiveness of physical activity promotion in blood pressure and blood sugar reduction: A community-based intervention study in rural south India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subitha Lakshminarayanan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Physical activity of moderate intensity for 30 minutes a day, on most days substantially reduces the risk of many chronic diseases. Aim: To assess the effect of regular physical activity on blood pressure and blood sugar levels in a rural Indian community Settings and Design: This community-based study was carried out in Periakattupalayam and Rangareddipalayam in south India, with 485 subjects, aged 20 to 49 years. Materials and Methods: The study was done in five phases: Awareness campaign, baseline assessment of participants, intervention phase (10 weeks, interim, and final assessment. Physical activity of moderate intensity (brisk walking for 30 minutes on four days / week was promoted by forming 30 small walking groups, in a home-based setting, with professional supervision. Village leaders and Self-Help Group members were the resource people for the promotion of physical activity. Statistical Analysis: Analysis was done by using paired ′t′ test; the ′Intention-to-Treat′ approach was utilized for the interpretation of the findings of the study. Results: Of the 485 subjects, 265 (54.6% complied with walking on more than four days / week, while 156 (32.2% walked on one to four days / week, and 64 (13.2% dropped out during the intervention period. This study has shown that a 10-week intervention to promote physical activity was effective in significantly decreasing the population′s BP by 1.56 / 0.74 mm Hg, fasting blood sugar levels by 2.82 mg%, body weight by 0.17 kg, and BMI by 0.06 kg / m 2 . Conclusions: This study has proved the functional feasibility of enabling people to undertake physical activity in a rural Indian community, and the effectiveness of using physical activity, to significantly reduce the population′s mean BP and blood sugar levels.

  3. Regional cerebral blood flow in psychiatry: The resting and activated brains of schizophrenic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gur, R.E.

    1984-01-01

    The investigation of regional brain functioning in schizophrenia has been based on behavioral techniques. Although results are sometimes inconsistent, the behavioral observations suggest left hemispheric dysfunction and left hemispheric overreaction. Recent developments in neuroimaging technology make possible major refinements in assessing regional brain function. Both anatomical and physiological information now be used to study regional brain development in psychiatric disorders. This chapter describes the application of one method - the xenon-133 technique for measuring regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) - in studying the resting and activated brains of schizoprenic patients

  4. Trace element analysis of human blood serum by neutron activation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahara, H.; Nagame, Y.; Yoshizawa, Y.; Oda, H.; Gotoh, S.; Murakami, Y.

    1979-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine if there is any correlation between trace element concentrations in human blood serum and some specific diseases. The serum samples of the patients suffering from cancer, Down syndrome, and Banti syndrome were analyzed by the neutron activation method and compared with the trace element concentrations observed among clinically healthy men. The cancer patients had concentrations in Rb, Mn, Fe, Co, Cu, Zn, Al and Se below normal. The Down syndrome patients were found to have similar deficiencies in Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Zn, Cu and Sb. (author)

  5. A prospective cohort study on the clinical utility of second trimester mean arterial blood pressure in the prediction of late-onset preeclampsia among Nigerian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udenze, I C; Arikawe, A P; Makwe, C C; Olowoselu, O F

    2017-06-01

    Early detection of preeclampsia will help reduce the morbidities and mortalities associated with the disorder. Late-onset preeclampsia was the predominant presentation in this cohort. The search for biomarkers for predicting preeclampsia is still ongoing. Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), which has the advantage of presenting a single cutoff value compared with the use of systolic and diastolic blood pressure measurements, merits evaluation. The study aims to evaluate the clinical utility of second trimester MABP in the prediction of preeclampsia. This was a prospective cohort study of 155 normotensive, nonproteinuric pregnant women without prior history of gestational hypertension. The women were booked patients attending the antenatal clinic at the Lagos University Teaching Hospital and were all in their second trimesters of pregnancy. The outcome measures were systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and MABP. The end point of the study was the development of preeclampsia. The diagnosis of preeclampsia was made by the attending obstetrician. The data were analyzed using the IBM SPSS statistical software. Statistical significance was set at P blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, and MABP values in the group of women who later developed preeclampsia, P = 0.005, 0.001, and area under the receiver-operative characteristics curve (AUC) was 0.732 (95% confidence interval, 0.544-0.919, P = 0.011). The negative predictive value (NPV) was 88.88% and the positive predictive value (PPV) was 45.45%, P AUC of 0.732, MABP performed moderately (considering that excellent performance has an AUC of 1.0) in the prediction of late-onset preeclampsia in Nigerian women. Its high NPV suggests a strong ability to rule out preeclampsia and help to appropriate management.

  6. Serum bilirubin value predicts hospital admission in carbon monoxide-poisoned patients. Active player or simple bystander?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Cervellin

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Although carbon monoxide poisoning is a major medical emergency, the armamentarium of recognized prognostic biomarkers displays unsatisfactory diagnostic performance for predicting cumulative endpoints. METHODS: We performed a retrospective and observational study to identify all patients admitted for carbon monoxide poisoning during a 2-year period. Complete demographical and clinical information, along with the laboratory data regarding arterial carboxyhemoglobin, hemoglobin, blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, was retrieved. RESULTS: The study population consisted of 38 poisoned patients (23 females and 15 males; mean age 39±21 years. Compared with discharged subjects, hospitalized patients displayed significantly higher values for blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, whereas arterial carboxyhemoglobin and hemoglobin did not differ. In a univariate analysis, hospitalization was significantly associated with blood lactate and total serum bilirubin, but not with age, sex, hemoglobin or carboxyhemoglobin. The diagnostic performance obtained after combining the blood lactate and total serum bilirubin results (area under the curve, 0.90; 95% CI, 0.81-0.99; p<0.001 was better than that obtained for either parameter alone. CONCLUSION: Although it remains unclear whether total serum bilirubin acts as an active player or a bystander, we conclude that the systematic assessment of bilirubin may, alongside lactate levels, provide useful information for clinical decision making regarding carbon monoxide poisoning.

  7. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  8. Prediction of clinical toxicity in localized cervical carcinoma by radio-induced apoptosis study in peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordón, Elisa; Henríquez Hernández, Luis Alberto; Lara, Pedro C; Pinar, Beatriz; Fontes, Fausto; Rodríguez Gallego, Carlos; Lloret, Marta

    2009-01-01

    Cervical cancer is treated mainly by surgery and radiotherapy. Toxicity due to radiation is a limiting factor for treatment success. Determination of lymphocyte radiosensitivity by radio-induced apoptosis arises as a possible method for predictive test development. The aim of this study was to analyze radio-induced apoptosis of peripheral blood lymphocytes. Ninety four consecutive patients suffering from cervical carcinoma, diagnosed and treated in our institution, and four healthy controls were included in the study. Toxicity was evaluated using the Lent-Soma scale. Peripheral blood lymphocytes were isolated and irradiated at 0, 1, 2 and 8 Gy during 24, 48 and 72 hours. Apoptosis was measured by flow cytometry using annexin V/propidium iodide to determine early and late apoptosis. Lymphocytes were marked with CD45 APC-conjugated monoclonal antibody. Radiation-induced apoptosis (RIA) increased with radiation dose and time of incubation. Data strongly fitted to a semi logarithmic model as follows: RIA = βln(Gy) + α. This mathematical model was defined by two constants: α, is the origin of the curve in the Y axis and determines the percentage of spontaneous cell death and β, is the slope of the curve and determines the percentage of cell death induced at a determined radiation dose (β = ΔRIA/Δln(Gy)). Higher β values (increased rate of RIA at given radiation doses) were observed in patients with low sexual toxicity (Exp(B) = 0.83, C.I. 95% (0.73-0.95), p = 0.007; Exp(B) = 0.88, C.I. 95% (0.82-0.94), p = 0.001; Exp(B) = 0.93, C.I. 95% (0.88-0.99), p = 0.026 for 24, 48 and 72 hours respectively). This relation was also found with rectal (Exp(B) = 0.89, C.I. 95% (0.81-0.98), p = 0.026; Exp(B) = 0.95, C.I. 95% (0.91-0.98), p = 0.013 for 48 and 72 hours respectively) and urinary (Exp(B) = 0.83, C.I. 95% (0.71-0.97), p = 0.021 for 24 hours) toxicity. Radiation induced apoptosis at different time points and radiation doses fitted to a semi logarithmic model defined

  9. Different Relevance of Peripheral, Central or Nighttime Blood Pressure Measurements in the Prediction of Chronic Kidney Disease Progression in Patients with Mild or No-Proteinuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuczera, Piotr; Kwiecień, Katarzyna; Adamczak, Marcin; Bączkowska, Teresa; Gozdowska, Jolanta; Madziarska, Katarzyna; Augustyniak-Bartosik, Hanna; Klinger, Marian; Durlik, Magdalena; Ritz, Eberhard; Wiecek, Andrzej

    2018-05-10

    Arterial hypertension is one of the leading factors aggravating the course of chronic kidney disease (CKD). It seems that the novel parameters used in the assessment of the blood pressure (BP) load (i.e. central blood pressure, nighttime blood pressure) may be more precise in predicting the cardiovascular risk and the progression of CKD in comparison with the traditional peripheral blood pressure measurements in the office conditions. The aim of the study was to assess the impact of the central, or nighttime blood pressure on the progression of CKD in patients with mild or no-proteinuria (autosomal, dominant polycystic kidney disease or IgA nephropathy). In each of the enrolled 46 patients with CKD stage 3 or 4, serum creatinine concentration was assessed, eGFR (MDRD) was calculated, also central blood pressure and pulse wave velocity (PWV) was assessed and the 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM) was conducted at the beginning of the study and then repeated after one-year observation period. During the observation period mean eGFR decreased from 44.1 (33.2-50.6) mL/min to 36.7 (29.7-46.3) mL/min. No significant differences were observed in the peripheral blood pressure or central blood pressure parameters. After one-year observation period the values of diastolic blood pressure dipping during the night significantly decreased from 16 (13-19) mmHg to 12 (10-15) mmHg; pblood pressure did not change significantly during a one-year observation period despite the significant decline of eGFR and seems not to participate in the CKD progression. 2. Reduced magnitude of the diastolic dipping, which reflects the increase of diastolic blood pressure load during the nighttime, may play an important role in the pathogenesis of deterioration of kidney function in these patients. © 2018 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  10. Biomarkers of World Trade Center Particulate Matter Exposure: Physiology of distal airway and blood biomarkers that predict FEV1 decline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiden, Michael D.; Kwon, Sophia; Caraher, Erin; Berger, Kenneth I.; Reibman, Joan; Rom, William N.; Prezant, David J.; Nolan, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Biomarkers can be important predictors of disease severity and progression. The intense exposure to particulates and other toxins from the destruction of the World Trade Center (WTC) overwhelmed the lung’s normal protective barriers. The Fire Department of New York (FDNY) cohort not only had baseline pre-exposure lung function measures but also had serum samples banked soon after their WTC exposure. This well phenotyped group of highly exposed first responders is an ideal cohort for biomarker discovery and eventual validation. Disease progression was heterogeneous in this group in that some individuals subsequently developed abnormal lung function while others recovered. Airflow obstruction predominated in WTC exposed patients who were symptomatic. Multiple independent disease pathways may cause this abnormal FEV1 after irritant exposure. WTC exposure activates one or more of these pathways causing abnormal FEV1 in an individual. Our hypothesis was that serum biomarkers expressed within 6 months after World Trade Center (WTC) exposure reflect active disease pathways and predict subsequent development or protection from abnormal FEV1predictive biomarkers of WTC-LI. We have identified biomarkers of Inflammation, metabolic derangement, protease/antiprotease balance and vascular injury expressed in serum within 6 months of WTC exposure that were predictive of their FEV1 up to 7 years after their WTC exposure. Predicting future risk of airway injury after particulate exposures can focus monitoring and early treatment on a subset of patients in greatest need of these services. PMID:26024341

  11. Blood Lead Level and Δ-Aminolevulinic Acid Dehydratase Activity in Pre-Menopausal and Postmenopausal Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.R Elezaj

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To describe the relationship of blood lead levels (BLL and blood, δ-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase(ALAD activity and haematocrit value(Hct to menopause , were examined 17 pre-or perimenopausal (PreM and 17 postmenopausal women (PosMfrom Prishtina City, the capital ofRepublic Kosovo. The mean age of the PreM women was 28.8 years (21-46, with a mean blood lead level of 1.2 μg/dL (SD=0.583 μg/dL , the mean blood ALAD activity53.2 U/LE (SD= 2.8 U/LE and haematocrit value42.1 % (SD= 4.3 %. The mean age of the PosM women was 53.6 years (43-67, with a mean blood lead level1.9 μg/dL (SD=0.94 μg/dL, the mean blood ALAD activity 44.4 U/LE(SD=7.2 U/LE and haematocrit value 42.1 % ( SD= 4.3 % and 42.2 % (SD=4.4 %. The BPb level of PosM women was significantly higher (P<0.001 in comparison with the BPb level in PreM women. The blood ALAD activity of PosM was significantly inhibited (P<0.002 in comparison with blood ALAD activity in PreM women. The haematocrit values were relatively unchanged. There was established significantly negative correlation between BPb and blood ALAD activity (r=- 0.605; P<0.01 in the PreM women.These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with adverse health effects on women in menopause transition.

  12. Influence of physical and emotional activity on the metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. I. Bayeva

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In the article data are presented on dynamics of the level of indicators of metabolic profile of blood serum of race horses of the Ukrainian riding breed in the conditions of physical and emotional loading. Clinically healthy race horses were the object of  research. Blood was taken from the jugular vein to obtain serum and for further biochemical research. For the research 12 race horses from a training group were chosen. From time to time the animals took part in competitions; they were not specially used in races and were mostly used for the training of junior riders and sportsmen of different levels. Blood was taken in conditions of relative rest after ordinary training and after emotional stress during the entertainment performances when a large number of people were present and loud music was played. In the blood serum the following biochemical indicators were defined: whole protein, urea, creatinine, uric acid, total bilirubin and its fractions, glucose, cholestererol, triacylglycerol, calcium, ferrum, lactate, pyruvate, activity of the AlAT, SGOT, GGTP, LDH, an alkaline phosphatase – which makes it possible to determine reasonably accurately the adaptation potential of a horse under various types of loading. We established that during training and psychoemotional loading of racing horses of the training group of the Ukrainian riding breed, multidirectional changes in the level of biochemical indicators of blood serum occurred, which is evidence of stress in the metabolic processes in the animals’ organisms. Concentration of a biomarker of an oxidative stress, uric acid, increased after physical loading by 8.6%, and after emotional loading by 55.1%, which demonstrates that emotional stress had the more negative effect, indicating insufficient adaptation by the horses before demonstration performances. After physical loading, reaction of transamination in the horses’ liver cells intensified, and after emotional loading its intensity

  13. Time and activity sequence prediction of business process instances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polato, Mirko; Sperduti, Alessandro; Burattin, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    The ability to know in advance the trend of running process instances, with respect to different features, such as the expected completion time, would allow business managers to timely counteract to undesired situations, in order to prevent losses. Therefore, the ability to accurately predict...... future features of running business process instances would be a very helpful aid when managing processes, especially under service level agreement constraints. However, making such accurate forecasts is not easy: many factors may influence the predicted features. Many approaches have been proposed...

  14. Does self-reported physical activity associate with high blood pressure in adolescents when adiposity is adjusted for?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barros, Mauro V G; Ritti-Dias, Raphael Mendes; Honda Barros, Simone Storino; Mota, Jorge; Andersen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    Studies show that both low physical activity (PA) and adiposity are associated with a higher risk of hypertension. However, the relationship between PA and blood pressure in adolescents is controversial and other studies have reported that no association was observed. Of particular interest is the evaluation of whether the association between PA and high blood pressure is independent of adiposity. A sample of 3764 Brazilian adolescents who attend high schools was selected using random cluster sampling. Data were collected using the Global School-based Student Health Survey, anthropometry, and blood pressure readings. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 14.6% (95% Confidence Interval (CI) 13.5-15.7), higher amongst males (20.0%; 95%CI 18.0-22.1) compared with females (10.9%; 95%CI 9.7-12.3). Sixty-six per cent of the adolescents were reported to be insufficiently active. The prevalence of high blood pressure was 12.8% (95%CI 11.0-14.7) amongst active compared with 15.4% (95%CI 14.0-16.9) amongst insufficiently active adolescents. The association between PA and high blood pressure was observed only amongst females after adjusting for waist circumference (odds ratio (OR) 1.67; 95%CI 1.21-2.31) and body mass index (OR 1.71; 95%CI 1.23-2.37). Notwithstanding levels of adiposity, higher PA levels are associated with a lower prevalence of high blood pressure amongst females, although not amongst males.

  15. Hydrogen-rich water affected blood alkalinity in physically active men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostojic, Sergej M; Stojanovic, Marko D

    2014-01-01

    Possible appliance of effective and safe alkalizing agent in the treatment of metabolic acidosis could be of particular interest to humans experiencing an increase in plasma acidity, such as exercise-induced acidosis. In the present study we tested the hypothesis that the daily oral intake of 2L of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) for 14 days would increase arterial blood alkalinity at baseline and post-exercise as compared with the placebo. This study was a randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled trial involving 52 presumably healthy physically active male volunteers. Twenty-six participants received HRW and 26 a placebo (tap water) for 14 days. Arterial blood pH, partial pressure for carbon dioxide (pCO2), and bicarbonates were measured at baseline and postexercise at the start (day 0) and at the end of the intervention period (day 14). Intake of HRW significantly increased fasting arterial blood pH by 0.04 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.08; p < 0.001), and postexercise pH by 0.07 (95% confidence interval; 0.01 - 0.10; p = 0.03) after 14 days of intervention. Fasting bicarbonates were significantly higher in the HRW trial after the administration regimen as compared with the preadministration (30.5 ± 1.9 mEq/L vs. 28.3 ± 2.3 mEq/L; p < 0.0001). No volunteers withdrew before the end of the study, and no participant reported any vexatious side effects of supplementation. These results support the hypothesis that HRW administration is safe and may have an alkalizing effect in young physically active men.

  16. Blood Stem Cell Activity Is Arrested by Th1-Mediated Injury Preventing Engraftment following Nonmyeloablative Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Florek, Mareike; Kohrt, Holbrook E. K.; Küpper, Natascha J.; Filatenkov, Alexander; Linderman, Jessica A.; Hadeiba, Husein; Negrin, Robert S.

    2016-01-01

    T cells are widely used to promote engraftment of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) during an allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Their role in overcoming barriers to HSC engraftment is thought to be particularly critical when patients receive reduced doses of preparative chemotherapy and/or radiation compared with standard transplantations. In this study, we sought to delineate the effects CD4+ cells on engraftment and blood formation in a model that simulates clinical hematopoietic cell transplantation by transplanting MHC-matched, minor histocompatibility–mismatched grafts composed of purified HSCs, HSCs plus bulk T cells, or HSCs plus T cell subsets into mice conditioned with low-dose irradiation. Grafts containing conventional CD4+ T cells caused marrow inflammation and inhibited HSC engraftment and blood formation. Posttransplantation, the marrows of HSCs plus CD4+ cell recipients contained IL-12–secreting CD11c+ cells and IFN-γ–expressing donor Th1 cells. In this setting, host HSCs arrested at the short-term stem cell stage and remained in the marrow in a quiescent cell cycling state (G0). As a consequence, donor HSCs failed to engraft and hematopoiesis was suppressed. Our data show that Th1 cells included in a hematopoietic allograft can negatively impact HSC activity, blood reconstitution, and engraftment of donor HSCs. This potential negative effect of donor T cells is not considered in clinical transplantation in which bulk T cells are transplanted. Our findings shed new light on the effects of CD4+ T cells on HSC biology and are applicable to other pathogenic states in which immune activation in the bone marrow occurs such as aplastic anemia and certain infectious conditions. PMID:27815446

  17. Fuel feeds function: Energy balance and bovine peripheral blood mononuclear cell activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarm, A; Viergutz, T; Kuhla, B; Hammon, H M; Schweigel-Röntgen, M

    2013-01-01

    A general phenomenon in peripartum mammals is the breakdown of (acquired) immunity. The incidence of parasite load, disease and inflammation often rise during the specific energetically demanding time of pregnancy and lactation. In this period, blood leukocytes display decreased DNA synthesis in response to mitogens in vitro. Leukocyte activation, the phase of the cell cycle preceding the DNA synthetic phase has hardly been investigated, but the few studies suggest that leukocyte activation may also be impaired by the limited energy/nutrient availability. Leukocyte activation is characterized by manifold processes, thus, we used the cellular oxygen consumption rate (OCR) as a measure of ATP turnover to support all these processes. We hypothesized that the activation of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) - in terms of oxygen consumed over basal levels after in vitro stimulation - is altered by energy balance around parturition. We studied peripartum high-yielding dairy cows because they undergo substantial fluctuations in energy intake, energy output and body fat mass. We established a fluorescence-based test strategy allowing for long-term (≥24h) quantification of O(2)-consumption and studied the peripartum period from 5 weeks ante partum to 5 weeks postpartum. In addition, we determined cellular lactate production, DNA/RNA synthesis and cell size and zoo-technical parameters such as animal energy intake and milk yield were assessed, as well as selected plasma parameters, e.g. glucose concentration. The basal OCR of PBMC from pregnant, non-lactating cows (n=6, -5 weeks ante partum) was 1.19±0.15 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) and increased to maximum levels of 2.54±0.49 nmol min(-1) (10(7)cells)(-1) in phytohemagglutinin (PHA)-stimulated PBMC. The basal OCR did not change over the peripartum period. Whereas the activation indices, herein defined as the PHA-induced 24h-increase of OCR above baseline, amounted to 1.1±0.3, 4.2±0.3, 4.1±1.1, 2.1±0.3, and

  18. The role of multidrug resistance protein (MRP-1) as an active efflux transporter on blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingineni, Karthik; Belekar, Vilas; Tangadpalliwar, Sujit R; Garg, Prabha

    2017-05-01

    Drugs acting on central nervous system (CNS) may take longer duration to reach the market as these compounds have a higher attrition rate in clinical trials due to the complexity of the brain, side effects, and poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability compared to non-CNS-acting compounds. The roles of active efflux transporters with BBB are still unclear. The aim of the present work was to develop a predictive model for BBB permeability that includes the MRP-1 transporter, which is considered as an active efflux transporter. A support vector machine model was developed for the classification of MRP-1 substrates and non-substrates, which was validated with an external data set and Y-randomization method. An artificial neural network model has been developed to evaluate the role of MRP-1 on BBB permeation. A total of nine descriptors were selected, which included molecular weight, topological polar surface area, ClogP, number of hydrogen bond donors, number of hydrogen bond acceptors, number of rotatable bonds, P-gp, BCRP, and MRP-1 substrate probabilities for model development. We identified 5 molecules that fulfilled all criteria required for passive permeation of BBB, but they all have a low logBB value, which suggested that the molecules were effluxed by the MRP-1 transporter.

  19. Contribution of spiral artery blood flow changes assessed by transvaginal color Doppler sonography for predicting endometrial pathologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suna Kabil Kucur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ive: To investigate the diagnostic value of blood flow measurements in spiral artery by transvaginal color Doppler sonography (CDS in predicting endometrial pathologies.Methods: Ninety-seven patients presenting with abnormal uterine bleeding and requiring endometrial assessment were included in this prospective observational study. Endometrial thickness, structure and echogenicity were recorded. Pulsatility index (PI and resistive index (RI of the spiral artery were measured by transvaginal CDS. Endometrial sampling was performed for all subjects. Sonographic and hystopathologic findings were compared.Results: The histopathological diagnoses were as follows; 39 cases (40.2% endometrial polyp, 9 cases (9.3% endometrial hyperplasia, 10 cases (10.3 submucous myoma, 7 cases (7.2% endometrium cancer, and 32 cases (33% nonspecific findings. The spiral artery PI in endometrium cancer group was highly significantly lower than other groups (p<0.01. The spiral artery RI was also significantly lower in the patients with malignant histology (p<0.05. Conclusion: Endometrial pathologies are associated significantly with endometrial spiral artery Doppler changes.Key words: Spiral artery, Doppler ultrasonography, endometrium

  20. Predicting enhancer activity and variant impact using gkm-SVM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Michael A

    2017-09-01

    We participated in the Critical Assessment of Genome Interpretation eQTL challenge to further test computational models of regulatory variant impact and their association with human disease. Our prediction model is based on a discriminative gapped-kmer SVM (gkm-SVM) trained on genome-wide chromatin accessibility data in the cell type of interest. The comparisons with massively parallel reporter assays (MPRA) in lymphoblasts show that gkm-SVM is among the most accurate prediction models even though all other models used the MPRA data for model training, and gkm-SVM did not. In addition, we compare gkm-SVM with other MPRA datasets and show that gkm-SVM is a reliable predictor of expression and that deltaSVM is a reliable predictor of variant impact in K562 cells and mouse retina. We further show that DHS (DNase-I hypersensitive sites) and ATAC-seq (assay for transposase-accessible chromatin using sequencing) data are equally predictive substrates for training gkm-SVM, and that DHS regions flanked by H3K27Ac and H3K4me1 marks are more predictive than DHS regions alone. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Factors predicting physical activity among children with special needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Shahram; Yee, Chu Tang; Chung, Paul J

    2013-07-18

    Obesity is especially prevalent among children with special needs. Both lack of physical activity and unhealthful eating are major contributing factors. The objective of our study was to investigate barriers to physical activity among these children. We surveyed parents of the 171 children attending Vista Del Mar School in Los Angeles, a nonprofit school serving a socioeconomically diverse group of children with special needs from kindergarten through 12th grade. Parents were asked about their child's and their own physical activity habits, barriers to their child's exercise, and demographics. The response rate was 67%. Multivariate logistic regression was used to examine predictors of children being physically active at least 3 hours per week. Parents reported that 45% of the children were diagnosed with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, 38% with autism, and 34% with learning disabilities; 47% of children and 56% of parents were physically active less than 3 hours per week. The top barriers to physical activity were reported as child's lack of interest (43%), lack of developmentally appropriate programs (33%), too many behavioral problems (32%), and parents' lack of time (29%). However, child's lack of interest was the only parent-reported barrier independently associated with children's physical activity. Meanwhile, children whose parents were physically active at least 3 hours per week were 4.2 times as likely to be physically active as children whose parents were less physically active (P = .01). In this group of students with special needs, children's physical activity was strongly associated with parental physical activity; parent-reported barriers may have had less direct effect. Further studies should examine the importance of parental physical activity among children with special needs.

  2. Predicting human activities in sequences of actions in RGB-D videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardim, David; Nunes, Luís.; Dias, Miguel

    2017-03-01

    In our daily activities we perform prediction or anticipation when interacting with other humans or with objects. Prediction of human activity made by computers has several potential applications: surveillance systems, human computer interfaces, sports video analysis, human-robot-collaboration, games and health-care. We propose a system capable of recognizing and predicting human actions using supervised classifiers trained with automatically labeled data evaluated in our human activity RGB-D dataset (recorded with a Kinect sensor) and using only the position of the main skeleton joints to extract features. Using conditional random fields (CRFs) to model the sequential nature of actions in a sequence has been used before, but where other approaches try to predict an outcome or anticipate ahead in time (seconds), we try to predict what will be the next action of a subject. Our results show an activity prediction accuracy of 89.9% using an automatically labeled dataset.

  3. Predicting drunk driving: contribution of alcohol use and related problems, traffic behaviour, personality and platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eensoo, Diva; Paaver, Marika; Harro, Maarike; Harro, Jaanus

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to characterize the predictive value of socio-economic data, alcohol consumption measures, smoking, platelet monoamine oxidase (MAO) activity, traffic behaviour habits and impulsivity measures for actual drunk driving. Data were collected from 203 male drunk driving offenders and 211 control subjects using self-reported questionnaires, and blood samples were obtained from the two groups. We identified the combination of variables, which predicted correctly, approximately 80% of the subjects' belonging to the drunk driving and control groups. Significant independent discriminators in the final model were, among the health-behaviour measures, alcohol-related problems, frequency of using alcohol, the amount of alcohol consumed and smoking. Predictive traffic behaviour measures were seat belt use and paying for parking. Among the impulsivity measures, dysfunctional impulsivity was the best predictor; platelet MAO activity and age also had an independent predictive value. Our results support the notion that drunk driving is the result of a combination of various behavioural, biological and personality-related risk factors.

  4. Predictive Active Set Selection Methods for Gaussian Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henao, Ricardo; Winther, Ole

    2012-01-01

    We propose an active set selection framework for Gaussian process classification for cases when the dataset is large enough to render its inference prohibitive. Our scheme consists of a two step alternating procedure of active set update rules and hyperparameter