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Sample records for blood pool scan

  1. Equilibrium blood pool scanning in the evaluation of hemophilic arthropathy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.; Green, D.; Rana, N.A.; Milgram, J.W.; Mintzer, R.

    1978-01-01

    Arthropathy was evaluated in six patients with severe hemophilia (factor VIII<1%) using the technique of blood pool scanning. Employing an in vivo method for erythrocyte labelling with technetium-99m, a dynamic perfusion sequence was obtained using a scintillation camera over the joint(s) to be examined. Subsequently, equilibrium blood pool images of the joints were obtained to determine regional blood volume. In young patients with repeated episodes of acute hemarthrosis, increased vascularity and increased blood pool in the affected joints were demonstrated. In older patients with fixed, contracted joints and degenerative arthropathy, vascularity and regional blood volume were not abnormal. Blood pool scanning is a safe, non-invasive technique that augments the clinical and radiographic examination of the joints. The method is helpful in distinguishing acute joint bleeding from chronic synovitis and arthritis, and may prove useful in selecting patients for synovectomy. (author)

  2. Evaluation of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99 m red blood cell hepatic blood pool scan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Chonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-02-15

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, with a prevalence estimated as high as 7%. Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) hepatic blood pool scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is extremely useful for the confirmation or exclusion of hepatic hemangiomas. The classic finding of absent or decreased perfusion and increased blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool mismatch') is the key diagnostic element in the diagnosis of hemangiomas. The combination of early arterial flow and delayed blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool match') is shown uncommonly. In giant hemangioma, filling with radioactivity appears first in the periphery, with progressive central fill-in on sequential RBC blood pool scan. However, the reverse filling pattern, which begins first in the center with progressive peripheral filling, is also rarely seen. Studies with false-positive blood pooling have been reported infrequently in nonhemangiomas, including hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and metastatic carcinomas (adenocarcinma of the colon, small cell carcinoma of the lung, neruroendocrine carcinoma). False-negative results have been also reported rarely except for small hemagniomas that are below the limits of spatial resolution of gamma camera.

  3. Evaluation of hepatic hemangioma by Tc-99 m red blood cell hepatic blood pool scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee

    2005-01-01

    Hemangioma is the most common benign tumor of the liver, with a prevalence estimated as high as 7%. Tc-99m red blood cell (RBC) hepatic blood pool scan with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) imaging is extremely useful for the confirmation or exclusion of hepatic hemangiomas. The classic finding of absent or decreased perfusion and increased blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool mismatch') is the key diagnostic element in the diagnosis of hemangiomas. The combination of early arterial flow and delayed blood pooling ('perfusion/blood pool match') is shown uncommonly. In giant hemangioma, filling with radioactivity appears first in the periphery, with progressive central fill-in on sequential RBC blood pool scan. However, the reverse filling pattern, which begins first in the center with progressive peripheral filling, is also rarely seen. Studies with false-positive blood pooling have been reported infrequently in nonhemangiomas, including hemangiosarcoma, hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatic adenoma, and metastatic carcinomas (adenocarcinma of the colon, small cell carcinoma of the lung, neruroendocrine carcinoma). False-negative results have been also reported rarely except for small hemagniomas that are below the limits of spatial resolution of gamma camera

  4. Detection of soft tissue pathology on the blood pool phase of bone scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raimondo, A.J.; Turner, H.A.; Kitchener, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: It is important to optimize information obtained from isotope bone scanning in musculoskeletal imaging. Although important at all times, it is especially imperative in the current climate of health services rationalization, capping of imaging expenditure and the promotion of newer modalities that are increasingly versatile and sensitive for imaging the musculoskeletal system. Careful attention must be paid to the blood flow and blood pool images, to visualize soft tissue as well as bony pathology. A series of cases and images will be presented that demonstrated blood pool pathology that was not appreciated on delayed imaging, or where reliance only on the delayed images would have led to an incorrect diagnosis. These include the detection of tendonitis, tenosynovitis, bursitis, muscle tears and soft tissue neoplasms, including neuromas. In cases where the bone scan cannot provide a definitive diagnosis, it will at least direct the referring clinician to the most appropriate confirmatory diagnostic imaging modality, thus reinforcing the value that isotope imaging provides in musculoskeletal medicine

  5. Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Evaluation by gated cardiac blood pool scanning. [/sup 99m/Tc tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohost, G.M.; Vignola, P.A.; McKusick, K.E.; Block, P.C.; Myers, G.S.; Walker, H.J.; Copen, D.L.; Dinsmore, T.E.

    1977-01-01

    The gated radionuclide cardiac blood pool scan (GCS) can be used to visualize the entire profile of the interventricular septum and left ventricular contraction. Twenty-two patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, nine with valvular aortic stenosis and six normals, underwent echocardiography and GCS. All patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy had asymmetric septal hypertrophy and 14 of 22 had resting systolic anterior motion of the anterior leaflet of the mitral valve on echocardiogram. In eight patients with aortic stenosis with adequate echocardiograms, two had asymmetric septal hypertrophy and none had systolic anterior motion. The GCS demonstrated disproportionate upper septal thickening in 11; septal flattening in 16; cavity obliteration in 17; and a filling defect in the region of the left ventricular outflow tract in 16 of the 22 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In the nine patients with valvular aortic stenosis, two demonstrated septal flattening, two cavity obliteration, two an outflow tract defect, and none disproportionate upper septal thickening. Both patients with cavity obliteration demonstrated asymmetric septal hypertrophy on echocardiogram. One normal control patient had septal flattening. Thus the gated cardiac blood pool scan provides an atraumatic technique for the evaluation of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy which complements the echocardiogram.

  6. Evaluation of Various Cardiac Indices and ROC Analysis in Coronary Artery Disease Employing Resting ECG Gated Blood Pool Scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Chang Woon; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Sang Eun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Park, Young Bae; Seo, Jung Don; Lee, Young Woo; Koh, Chang Soon

    1992-01-01

    Gated blood pool scan is frequently used for evaluating the change in cardiac function in various cardiac diseases. But resting gated blood pool scan using only LVEF as a cardiac index has been consistently shown to have a low sensitivity, which is about 50%, in detecting coronary artery disease. So it is recommended to compare exercise gated blood pool scan to resting gated blood pool scan. Exercise tests, however, are not always possible, especially in patients with musculoskeletal diseases, recent myocardial infarction and in elderly persons. We studied the usefulness of resting gated blood pool scan using multiple indices in evaluating the patients with coronary artery disease. Studied cases were 185 patients with coronary artery disease (angina pectoris 31, myocardial infarction 154) and 25 normals with low likelihood of coronary artery disease. We used 99m Tc-labeled RBC, 740 MBq labeled by in vivo method. The data were evaluated by Micro DELTA computer program. The results were as following: 1) The ejection rates (PER, AER) and filling rates (PFR, AFR) were different in normals and patients with angina pectoris or myocardial infarction. 2) Mean phase angle, ejection rates and filling rates could separate normals from coronary artery disease patients with normal LVEF. 3) Regional ejection fraction was decreased at the site of the infarct in patients with myocardial infarction. 4) Peak filling rate was the most detectable index in evaluation of cardiac function in patients with coronary artery disease. 5) The threshold at 1.5 standard deviation of normal range was considered as the most reliable cut-off value from ROC analysis. These data suggest that the resting gated blood pool scan has an important role in the evaluation of cardiac functional changes using various cardiac indices in patients with coronary artery disease.

  7. Radionuclide ventriculography (equilibrium gated blood pool scanning) - its present clinical position and recent developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adam, W.E.; Clausen, M.; Hellwig, D.; Henze, E.; Bitter, F.

    1988-01-01

    Myocardial scanning (MS) and radionuclide ventriculography (RNV) aim in two completely different directions: RNV tries to image heart motion, that is, mechanical (pump) function, and therefore belongs to the group of first-order functional imaging (FI, imaging mechanical function), whereas MS is based on myocardial metabolism, and therefore can be attributed to third-order functional imaging (metabolism). This statement is relevant for the assessment of the clinical position of RNV: Third-order (metabolism) functional imaging is the domain of nuclear medicine (NM), whereas first-order FI has to face the competition of alternative noninvasive procedures such as ultrasound (US), digital subtraction angiography (DSA), computer tomography (CT), and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The domain of RNV includes stages two (acute infarction) and three (postinfarction period) of coronary arterial disease (CAD). The advantageous combination of quantitative data on global, left ventricular (LV) function and imaging of regional motion ensures the superiority of RNV over US. However, RNV is inferior to MS in physical examinations in the preinfarction stage of CAD, whereas US is clearly inferior to both NM procedures. Recent progress could be attained by gated SPECT (GASPECT). A proposal is presented for simplification of this time-consuming procedure. Technetium-labeled isonitriles offer the chance for the combination of 'perfusion-motion' imaging of the myocardium. However, even standard RNV offers new possibilities. The multitude of parameters produced by quantitation has not yet been exploited completely. This can be done by discriminant analysis. The computer finds out an optimal subset from the whole set of parameters for the solution of a significant clinical problem. The software 'learns' to find the 'label' of a special pathognomonic entity. This computer work is supported by a relational data bank (Oracle) and an optical disk. (orig./MG)

  8. The predictive value of additional late blood pool imaging to the three-phase bone scan in the diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy in hemiplegic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okudan, Berna; Celik, Canan; Serttas, Seyfi; Ozgirgin, Neşe

    2005-12-01

    Reflex sympathetic dystrophy (RSD) is a relative common sequel after hemiplegia. The diagnosis of RSD in hemiplegic patients presents difficult clinical problems, as the symptoms and signs of RSD are not specific and RSD may be due to reasons other than hemiplegia. Bone scintigraphy has been routinely used for the diagnosis of RSD; however, the optimal acquisition protocols, diagnostic patterns and the utility of quantitation are controversial. This prospective study was conducted to demonstrate the higher predictive value of an additional late blood pool image to the three-phase bone scan compared to the regular three-phase bone scans in RSD patients associated with hemiplegia. Thirty-four RSD patients were enrolled into the study. Bone scans according to the new protocol were obtained for all patients. Those patients with either negative or positive bone scans with no evidence of RSD were followed for 6 months. The patients had positive bone scan findings and were symptomatic at the time of the study. Of these, seven patients (58.3%) subsequently became symptomatic and five patients (41.7%) remained asymptomatic at 6 months. None of the patients with negative bone scans had symptoms of RSD on presentation except one case. We conclude that the addition of a late blood pool image increases the predictive value and has an impact on initiating early treatment in asymptomatic patients.

  9. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  10. Radionuclide-determined change in pulmonary blood volume with exercise. Improved sensitivity of multigated blood-pool scanning in detecting coronary-artery disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okada, R.D.; Pohost, G.M.; Kirshenbaum, H.D.; Kushner, F.G.; Boucher, C.A.; Block, P.C.; Strauss, H.W.

    1979-01-01

    To assess the clinical usefulness of radionuclide-determined changes in pulmonary blood volume in patients with or without substantial coronary-artery disease, we determined the ratio of pulmonary blood volume at rest as compared with that during exercise. We used multigated blood-pool images obtained at rest and during supine exercise to determine the blood-volume ratio in patients subsequently undergoing coronary arteriography for evaluation of chest pain. Exercise tests were performed by use of a submaximal-workload protocol, although all tests were limited according to each patient's symptoms. The mean exercise/rest pulmonary-blood-volume ratios were lower for persons without coronary-artery disease (0.94 +- 0.06 [S.D.], 10 patients) and for those with disease confined to the right coronary artery (0.99 +- 0.12, five patients), as compared with all others with coronary-artery disease (1.14 +- 0.15, 37 patients) (P < 0.01). A pulmonary-blood-volume ratio equal to or greater than 1.06 had a sensitivity of 79%. Patients with coronary-artery disease not confined to the right coronary artery usually show an increase in pulmonary blood volume during supine exercise. No such change occurs in persons without coronary-artery disease

  11. ROC Analysis of Visual Assessments Made in Gated Blood Pool Scans of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Kyung Han; Choi, Yoon Ho; Lee, Bum Woo; Moon, Dae Hyuk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Koh, Chang Soon; Koong, Sung Soo

    1989-01-01

    Visual assessment of regional wall motion abnormality (RWMA) by gated blood pol scan (GBPS) serves as an useful parameter in thc diagnosis, functional evaluation, and follow up in various clinical settings, but are still subject to some inherent limitations. On important problem may be the interobserver as well as intraobsever variation that may well be present due to the subjective nature of the interpretations. This study was carried out to determine the reliability and reproducibility of visual assessments made in GBPSs, and to observe the degree to which the results would be influenced by observer variation. Fifty two patients with coronary heart disease had resting GBPS and contrast ventriculography within 4 days apart. Contrast ventriculography showed normal wall motion in 6 patients and the remaining 46 had RWMA in one or more segments. The anterior and left anterolateral views of all 52 GBPSs were analyzed by three independent observers, who selected from 5 scales, their level of confidence that there was RWMA in that segment. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for each analysis was plotted and the area under the curve (θ) was used as a parameter representing each observer's performance in his interpretations. The findings of contract ventriculographies were used as the standard for RWMA. The apical and inferoapical segments showed the best correlation with contrast ventriculography (θ=0.90-.094, 0.81-0.94, respectively), and the inferior wall showed the poorest correlation (θ=0.70-0.74). The interpretations of the inferior, septal, apical and posteroinferior, segments showed no difference between the observers, but there was significantly better performance in assessment by observer A compared to that by B or C for the anterolateral segments (θ=0.87, 0.78, 0.76, respectively, p<0.01 for A vs B, p<0,05 for A vs C), as well as when all segments were considered altogether (θ=0,88, 0.83, 0.82, respectively, both p<0 05). This was also true for

  12. Cardiac blood pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itti, R.; Philippe, L.; Lorgeron, J.M.; Charbonnier, B.; Raynaud, P.; Brochier, M.

    1983-01-01

    After blood pool labeling using technetium-99m, a series of cardiac pictures is acquired during the rotation of a gamma-camera about the patient. Computer processing leads to reconstruction of various tomographic slices from the original planar projection. Electrocardiographic gating selects the different phases of the cardiac cycle. Individual slices through the left ventricular region are added in order to provide ''thick'' slices on which global and regional parameters of the left ventricular function can be determined. Due to the proportionality existing between count rates and labeled blood volumes, any geometrical model can be avoided. The delineation of regions of interest for count integration is made easier due to the absence of superimposition of structures; no correction for background is necessary. Tomography thus appears to be more consistent and more accurate than the classical methods using planar projections. In addition, right ventricular morphological and kinetic studies can be performed in the same conditions as for the left ventricle [fr

  13. A study evaluating of the dependence of the clinical usefulness on the use of a half-time acquisition factor in a multiple-gated blood-pool (MUGA) scan using Tc-99 m

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Dong-Hun; Jung, Woo-Young; Kim, Ho-Sung; Dong, Kyung-Rae; Park, Yong-Soon; Chung, Woon-Kwan; Cho, Jae-Hwan; Yeo, Hwa-Yeon

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the clinical usefulness of reducing the scan time based on a comparative analysis of the left ventricular cardiac ejection fraction of a full-time image in a gated cardiac blood-pool scan by using the half-time image obtained by applying an image processing technique and using the results from a blind test conducted by radiologists. Fifty patients who underwent a multiple-gated blood-pool (MUGA) scan at the Nuclear Medicine Department of ASAN Medical Center from June 20 to August 14, 2011 were enrolled in this study. Images of the left anterior oblique (LAO) view were obtained continuously in full time (6,000 kcts) and half time (3,000 kcts) in the same posture. The obtained images were used to calculate the left ventricular cardiac ejection fraction 10 times in the full-time image, the half-time image obtained without applying an image processing technique, and the half-time image obtained by applying an image processing technique. To evaluate the cardiac ejection fraction under the same conditions, we set the regions of interest (ROIs) of the left ventricle and the background radioactivity to be the automated ROIs on the same X and Y axes. According to the results of quantitative analyses of the cardiac ejection fraction, the mean ± standard deviation value for the full-time image, the half-time image obtained without applying an image processing technique, and the half-time images obtained by applying an image processing technique were 69.1 ± 7.6%, 68.2 ± 8.4%, and 68.7 ± 8.0%, respectively. The cardiac ejection fraction did not show any significant difference (p > 0.05). For a qualitative analysis, a blinding test was conducted with two radiologists. According to the test results, when the examination was conducted for cardiac wall motion of the left ventricle, no difference was found between the full-time and half-time images obtained by applying an image processing technique.

  14. Parametric tomography of the cardiac blood pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, M.; Schwartz, K.D.

    1990-01-01

    In nuclear cardiology image processing is performed usually in 3 of 4 dimensions. ECG-gated SPECT (GSPECT) would make it possible to obtain all 4 dimensions of space and time during one examination, but its duration as well as radiation dose is limited resulting in a low signal-to-noise ratio. Sensitive feature extractions from the amount of data are necessary, e.g. Fourier filtering or extracting isovolumetric intervals. The relatively large amount of calculations and storage requirements often handicaps tomographic ventriculography because a high number of sections have to be processed and the temporal resolution is limited. A new list-mode oriented tomographic algorithm demands less storage and fewer calculations: The Fourier coefficient extraction and the filtered back projection, both of which are linear operations, could be interchanged in the case of thoracic SPECT. The feature extraction algorithm process internal list-mode heart cycles for discrimination of invalid cycles, for end-diastolic and end-systolic synthesis as well as for Fourier analysis of the first harmonic in 10 ms steps. Reconstruction operations are applied also to modified distribution matrices of Fourier coefficients. By only processing 4 spatial matrix sequences (end-diastolic and end-systolic images, amplitude and phase values) parametric tomography becomes practicable and could be also performed by a minicomputer with 64 KByte memory in addition to the possibilities of the planar left ventricular gated imaging. If there are 3 or more processors available a complete feature extraction on-the-fly will be possible. The numerical algorithms were tested with respect to stable reconstructions by phantoms. First results of a patient examination are used to explore effective display techniques, and preliminary modes are demonstrated. It is the purpose of this study to obtain additional information about the gated planar cardiac blood pool imaging in the field of SPECT. (author)

  15. Magnetic resonance angiography with blood-pool contrast agents: future applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fink, C.; Goyen, M.; Lotz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Blood pool agents remain in the intravascular space for a longer time period. Therefore the optimal imaging window for vascular structures is widened to about 30 minutes. Gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany) is the first blood-pool contrast agent approved in Europe for contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) of vessels in the abdomen, pelvis and lower extremity in adults. Other possible applications of blood-pool agents are now being considered, such as assessment of venous thromboembolism, coronary artery disease or sinus venous thrombosis. Perfusion MR imaging holds promise for detecting lung perfusion defects with higher spatial resolution and reduced scan time compared with radionuclide scintigraphy. In coronary artery disease, blood-pool agents enable a substantial increase in the quality of coronary artery imaging. Quantitative myocardial perfusion and myocardial viability seem to be possible, although modifications in protocols and sequence design are necessary for optimal results. Other novel applications of blood-pool agents include monitoring of inflammatory changes in systemic lupus erythematosus and evaluation of tumour invasion into lymph nodes and more reliable assessment of cerebral venous and sinus thrombosis. (orig.)

  16. 18F-FDG-labeled red blood cell PET for blood-pool imaging: preclinical evaluation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsusaka, Yohji; Nakahara, Tadaki; Takahashi, Kazuhiro; Iwabuchi, Yu; Nishime, Chiyoko; Kajimura, Mayumi; Jinzaki, Masahiro

    2017-12-01

    Red blood cells (RBCs) labeled with single-photon emitters have been clinically used for blood-pool imaging. Although some PET tracers have been introduced for blood-pool imaging, they have not yet been widely used. The present study investigated the feasibility of labeling RBCs with 18 F-2-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose ( 18 F-FDG) for blood-pool imaging with PET. RBCs isolated from venous blood of rats were washed with glucose-free phosphate-buffered saline and labeled with 18 F-FDG. To optimize labeling efficiency, the effects of glucose deprivation time and incubation (labeling) time with 18 F-FDG were investigated. Post-labeling stability was assessed by calculating the release fraction of radioactivity and identifying the chemical forms of 18 F in the released and intracellular components of 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs incubated in plasma. Just after intravenous injection of the optimized autologous 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs, dynamic PET scans were performed to evaluate in vivo imaging in normal rats and intraabdominal bleeding models (temporary and persistent bleeding). The optimal durations of glucose deprivation and incubation (labeling) with 18 F-FDG were 60 and 30 min, respectively. As low as 10% of 18 F was released as the form of 18 F-FDG from 18 F-FDG-labeled RBCs after a 60-min incubation. Dynamic PET images of normal rats showed strong persistence in the cardiovascular system for at least 120 min. In the intraabdominal bleeding models, 18 F-FDG-labeled RBC PET visualized the extravascular blood clearly and revealed the dynamic changes of the extravascular radioactivity in the temporary and persistent bleeding. RBCs can be effectively labeled with 18 F-FDG and used for blood-pool imaging with PET in rats.

  17. Dried blood spots of pooled samples for RHD gene screening in blood donors of mixed ancestry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva-Malta, M C F; Araujo, N C Fidélis; Vieira, O V Neves; Schmidt, L Cayres; Gonçalves, P de Cassia; Martins, M Lobato

    2015-10-01

    In this study, we present a strategy for RHD gene screening based on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using dried blood spots of pooled samples. Molecular analysis of blood donors may be used to detect RHD variants among the presumed D-negative individuals. RHD genotyping using pooled samples is a strategy to test a large number of samples at a more reasonable cost. RHD gene detection based on real-time PCR using dried blood spots of pooled samples was standardised and used to evaluate 1550 Brazilian blood donors phenotyped as RhD-negative. Positive results were re-evaluated by retesting single samples using real-time PCR and conventional multiplex PCR to amplify five RHD-specific exons. PCR-sequence-specific primers was used to amplify RHDψ allele. We devised a strategy for RHD gene screening using dried blood spots of five pooled samples. Among 1550 serologically D-negative blood donors, 58 (3.74%) had the RHD gene. The non-functional RHDψ allele was detected in 47 samples (3.02%). The present method is a promising strategy to detect the RHD gene among presumed RhD-negative blood donors, particularly for populations with African ancestry. © 2015 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  18. Nonstationary temporal Wiener filtering of gated blood pool studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, M.A.; Miller, T.R.; Doherty, P.W.; Bianco, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    Temporal filtering of dynamic images can significantly improve the image quality of gated blood pool (GBP) studies and serves as a necessary preprocessing step in the formation of cardiac functional images based on derivatives of pixel time activity curves. Generally, either linear combination of the frames, or a simple frequency domain low pass filter have been employed. The work described in this paper introduces the Wiener temporal filter which adjusts to match the temporal characteristic of the image at each pixel. For temporal data degraded by signal-dependent Poisson noise, the frequency domain form of the filter is presented. Use of nonstationary temporal Wiener filtering was found to improve the quality of cines formed from GBP studies and yielded better separation of cardiac from non-cardiac regions in functional images the peak ejection and filling rates

  19. Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure, as inferred from lung areas in gated blood-pool scintigrams: concise communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urbina, A.; Okada, R.D.; Palacios, I.; Osbakken, M.; Strauss, H.W.

    1981-01-01

    To determine whether the apex-to-base distribution of pulmonary blood volume, as obtained from gated cardiac blood-pool scans, could be used as a noninvasive method to estimate mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP), gated blood-pool scans were analyzed in 77 patients who also had PCWP measurements at cardiac catheterization. Ten of these patients had gated cardiac blood-pool scans and PCWP measurements both at rest and during exercise. The apex-to-base distribution of pulmonary blood volume was determined from the end-systolic frame of the left anterior oblique view by placing equal-sized regions of interest over the apex and base of the right lung. The ratio of apex counts over base counts (A/B ratio) was considered abnormal if greater than unity. The mean A/B ratio was 1.15 +/- 0.27 (1 s.d.) for the 32 studies associated with an abnormal mean PCWP (greater than 12 mm Hg). The mean A/B ratio was 0.85 +/- 0.23 for the 55 studies associated with a normal mean PCWP (p less than 0.01 comparing normal group with abnormal). The sensitivity of the A/B ratio for a mean PCWP greater than 12 mm Hg was 81%R (26/32). The specificity of the A/B ratio for a mean PCWP greater than or equal to 12 mm Hg was 89% (49/55). Thus, noninvasive determination of the pulmonary apex-to-base ratio from gated cardiac blood-pool scans appears to differentiate subjects with normal and abnormal mean pulmonary capillary wedge pressures

  20. Gated blood pool studies with a single probe - clinical validity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loesel, E.; Hoffmann, G.

    1981-01-01

    The global volume alterations of the heart can be estimated non-invasively by means of the radiocardiographic function analysis developed by Hoffmann and Kleine. Since the failing heart with its functional disturbances demonstrates a pathological volume behaviour under physical exercise, it is possible to use these characteristics to differentiate between the intact heart and the failing heart by registration of the global volume alterations. The gated blood pool technique combined with the registration of the intraventricular pressure pulse by means of a Swan-Ganz flow-directed catheter enables demonstration of ventricular stroke work as a pressure-volume loop (work diagram). Its shape indicates whether the ventricle has to perform mainly pressure work or volume work. Myocardial failure is altering the basic conditions of the heart. The work diagram of the failing heart is significantly different from that of the intact human heart. It is shifted in its pressure-volume coordinates according to an increase of EDV and ESV and the rise of the filling pressure. Case demonstrations reveal the global volume behaviour of the heart under varying conditions: resting and physical exercise, drug influence on the intact and failing heart. (orig.) [de

  1. Evaluation of portable blood glucose meters using canine and feline pooled blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, A; Oda, H; Onozawa, E; Shono, S; Takahashi, T; Yamashita, S; Fujimoto, H; Sako, T

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the accuracy and reproducibility of a human portable blood glucose meter (PBGM) for canine and feline whole blood. Reference plasma glucose values (RPGV) were concurrently measured using glucose oxidation methods. Fifteen healthy dogs and 6 healthy cats were used for blood sampling. Blood glucose concentrations and hematocrits were adjusted using pooled blood samples for our targeted values. A positive correlation between the PBGM and RPGV was found for both dogs (y = 0.877, x = -24.38, r = 0.9982, n = 73) and cats (y = 1.048, x = -27.06, r = 0.9984, n = 69). Acceptable results were obtained in error grid analysis between PBGM and RPGV in both dogs and cats; 100% of these results were within zones A and B. Following ISO recommendations, a PBGM is considered accurate if 95% of the measurements are within ± 15 mg/dl of the RPGV when the glucose concentration is cats (39%, 27 of 69 cats). Blood samples with high hematocrits induced lower whole blood glucose values measured by the PBGM than RPGV under hypoglycemic, normoglycemic, and hyperglycemic conditions in both dogs and cats. Therefore, this device is not clinically useful in dogs and cats. New PBGMs which automatically compensate for the hematocrit should be developed in veterinary practice.

  2. Nanoparticle encapsulation in red blood cells enables blood-pool magnetic particle imaging hours after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahmer, J; Gleich, B; Borgert, J; Antonelli, A; Sfara, C; Magnani, M; Tiemann, B; Weizenecker, J

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic particle imaging (MPI) is a new medical imaging approach that is based on the nonlinear magnetization response of super-paramagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIOs) injected into the blood stream. To date, real-time MPI of the bolus passage of an approved MRI SPIO contrast agent injected into the tail vein of living mice has been demonstrated. However, nanoparticles are rapidly removed from the blood stream by the mononuclear phagocyte system. Therefore, imaging applications for long-term monitoring require the repeated administration of bolus injections, which complicates quantitative comparisons due to the temporal variations in concentration. Encapsulation of SPIOs into red blood cells (RBCs) has been suggested to increase the blood circulation time of nanoparticles. This work presents first evidence that SPIO-loaded RBCs can be imaged in the blood pool of mice several hours after injection using MPI. This finding is supported by magnetic particle spectroscopy performed to quantify the iron concentration in blood samples extracted from the mice 3 and 24 h after injection of SPIO-loaded RBCs. Based on these results, new MPI applications can be envisioned, such as permanent 3D real-time visualization of the vessel tree during interventional procedures, bleeding monitoring after stroke, or long-term monitoring and treatment control of cardiovascular diseases. (paper)

  3. Use of laser-scan technology to analyse topography and flow in a weir pool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. E. Dresel

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of laser-scan techniques provides opportunity for detailed terrain analysis in hydrologic studies. Ground based scans were used to model the ground surface elevation in the area of a stream gauge weir over an area of 240 m2 at a resolution of 0.05 m. The terrain model was used to assess the possibility of flow bypassing the weir and to calculate stream flow during filling of the weir pool, prior to flow through the weir notch. The mapped surface shows a subtle low-lying area at the south end of the structure where flow could bypass the weir. The flow calculations quantify low-flows that do not reach the weir notch during small rain events and flow at the beginning of larger events in the ephemeral stream.

  4. [Reference values for the blood coagulation tests in Mexico: usefulness of the pooled plasma from blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Contreras, Adriana; Moreno-Hernández, Manuel; Castillo-Torres, Noemi Patricia; Souto-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Ricardo-Moreno, María Tania; Sánchez-Fernández, Maria Guadalupe de Jesús; García-González, América; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The blood coagulation system maintains the blood in a liquid state and bleeding and thrombosis are the manifestations of its malfunction. Blood coagulation laboratory evaluates the physiology of this system. To establish both, the reference values for several tests performed at the blood coagulation laboratory as well as the utility of the pooled plasma to perform these assays. MATERIAL AND: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, randomized study, we collected plasma from Mexican Mestizos. Each pooled plasma was prepared with the plasma from at least 20 blood donors. We performed screening and special tests and the Levey-Jennings graphs were built and interpreted after each pass. Results of the tests were analyzed and their distribution was established using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To establish the reference values we used 95% confidence intervals. We collected 72 pooled plasmas. The distribution for PT, APTT, and TT tests was abnormal. Although the PT test showed a bimodal distribution it was normal for factor VII. The reference values for the hemostatic, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors were different from those suggested by the manufacturers. We established the reference values for the blood coagulation tests in the adult Mexican population. We have shown that the pooled plasma must be used for the screening tests. We suggest that each clinical laboratory should establish its own reference values (at least for the screening tests). To reach this objective, we encourage the use of the pooled plasma.

  5. Slower lower limb blood pooling in young women with orthostatic intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindenberger, Marcus; Länne, Toste

    2015-01-01

    What is the central question of this study? Orthostatic stress is mostly caused by venous blood pooling in the lower limbs. Venous distension elicits sympathetic responses, and increased distension speed enhances the cardiovascular response. We examine whether lower limb blood pooling rate during lower body negative pressure is linked to orthostatic intolerance. What is the main finding and its importance? A similar amount of blood was pooled in the lower limb, but at a slower rate in women who developed signs of orthostatic intolerance. The difference in blood pooling rate increased with orthostatic stress and was most prominent at a presyncope-inducing level of lower body negative pressure. The findings have implications for the pathophysiology as well as treatment of orthostatic intolerance. Vasovagal syncope is common in young women, but its aetiology remains elusive. Orthostatic stress-induced lower limb blood pooling is linked with central hypovolaemia and baroreceptor unloading. Venous distension in the arm elicits a sympathetic response, which is enhanced with more rapid distension. Our aim was to study both the amount and the speed of lower limb pooling during orthostatic stress and its effects on compensatory mechanisms to maintain cardiovascular homeostasis in women with orthostatic intolerance. Twenty-seven healthy women, aged 20-27 years, were subjected to a lower body negative pressure (LBNP) of 11-44 mmHg. Five women developed symptoms of vasovagal syncope (orthostatic intolerant) and were compared with the remaining women, who tolerated LBNP well (orthostatic tolerant). Lower limb blood pooling, blood flow and compensatory mobilization of venous capacitance blood were measured. Lower body negative pressure induced equal lower limb blood pooling in both groups, but at a slower rate in orthostatic intolerant women (e.g. time to 50% of total blood pooling, orthostatic intolerant 44 ± 7 s and orthostatic tolerant 26 ± 2 s; P intolerant women (P = 0

  6. Blood pooling in extrathoracic veins after glossopharyngeal insufflation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijacika, Tanja; Frestad, Daria; Kyhl, Kasper

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: Trained breath-hold divers hyperinflate their lungs by glossopharyngeal insufflation (GPI) to prolong submersion time and withstand lung collapse at depths. Pulmonary hyperinflation leads to profound hemodynamic changes. Methods: Thirteen divers performed preparatory breath-holds followed...... fluid extravasation. Conclusions: GPI leads to heart and pulmonary vessel compression, resulting in redistribution of blood to extrathoracic capacitance veins proximal to venous valves. This is partially reversed by the onset of involuntary breathing movements....

  7. Prosthetic graft infection: limitations of indium white blood cell scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brunner, M.C.; Mitchell, R.S.; Baldwin, J.C.; James, D.R.; Olcott, C. IV; Mehigan, J.T.; McDougall, I.R.; Miller, D.C.

    1986-01-01

    The lack of a rapid, noninvasive, and accurate method to confirm or rule out prosthetic graft infection continues to constitute a compelling and vexing clinical problem. A host of adjunctive diagnostic techniques has been used in the past, but early promising results subsequently have usually not yielded acceptable sensitivity (reflecting false negatives) and specificity (reflecting false positive) data. White blood cell (WBC) indium 111 scanning has recently been added to this list. The utility and accuracy of 111 In WBC scans were assessed by retrospective review of WBC scan results in 70 patients undergoing evaluation for possible prosthetic graft infection over a 7-year period. Operative and autopsy data (mean follow-up, 18 months for survivors with negative scans) were used to confirm the 22 positive, 45 negative, and three equivocal WBC scans. The false positive rate (+/- 70% confidence limits) was 36% +/- 6% (n = 8) among the 22 patients with positive scans (44% +/- 6% [11 of 25] if the three equivocal scans are included as false positive), yielding a specificity of 85% +/- 5% and an overall accuracy rate of 88% +/- 4% (80% +/- 5% and 84% +/- 5%, respectively, if the three equivocal cases are considered as false positive). All three patients with equivocal scans ultimately were judged not to have prosthetic graft infection. As implied by the high accuracy rate, the sensitivity of the test was absolute (100% [14 of 14]); there were no false negative results

  8. Clinical usefullness of ECG-triggered single photon emission comuter tomography of blood-pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eilles, Chr.; Boerner, W.; Strauss, P.; Gerhards, W.; Reiners, Ch.

    1982-01-01

    ECT allows direct measurement of the volume of an organ and imaging without disturbing background-superposition. This makes ECT to an useful instrument for ECG-gated blood-pool imaging. Acquisition is made after the injection of 25 mCi Tc-99m HSA with a rotating Anger-Camera-System. ECG-gated imaging is done for each projection; herewith 50-70 cycles per projection are added according to the phase of the heart-cycle. Transversal-Sections of the heart are reconstructed with filtered-back-projection. For each slice a representative cycle, consisting of 10-16 frames, is computed. As shown by our group before a good quality of the reconstructed images can be obtained. Comparison is made with the results of the ECG-gated blood-pool-ECT, the results of the conventional blood-pool-studies and with the results of Laevo-Cardiography. (Author)

  9. Radioisotopic flow scanning for portal blood flow and portal hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hesdorffer, C.S.; Bezwoda, W.R.; Danilewitz, M.D.; Esser, J.D.; Tobias, M.

    1987-01-01

    The use of a simple, noninvasive, isotope scanning technique for the determination of relative portal blood flow and detection of portal hypertension is described. Using this technique the presence of portal hypertension was demonstrated in seven of nine patients known to have elevated portal venous pressure. By contrast, esophageal varices were demonstrated in only five of these patients, illustrating the potential value of the method. Furthermore, this technique has been adapted to the study of portal blood flow in patients with myeloproliferative disorders with splenomegaly but without disturbances in hepatic architecture. Results demonstrate that the high relative splenic flow resulting from the presence of splenomegaly may in turn be associated with elevated relative portal blood flow and portal hypertension. The theoretic reasons for the development of flow-related portal hypertension and its relationship to splenic blood flow are discussed

  10. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, M J; Mantle, J A; Rogers, W J; Russell, R O; Rackley, C E; Logic, J R

    1979-06-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse Tc-99m pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60--90 min following the injection of 12--15 mCi of Tc-99m pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to "rule out" infarction 24--72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms.

  11. Use of blood-pool imaging in evaluation of diffuse activity patterns in technetium-99m pyrophosphate myocardial scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cowley, M.J.; Mantle, J.A.; Rogers, W.J.; Russell, R.O. Jr.; Rackley, C.E.; Logic, J.R.

    1979-01-01

    It has been suggested that diffuse 99m Tc pyrophosphate precordial activity may be due to persistent blood-pool activity in routine delayed views during myocardial imaging. To answer this question, we reviewed myocardial scintigrams recorded 60 to 90 min following the injection of 12 to 15 mCi of 99m Tc pyrophosphate for the presence of diffuse precordial activity, and compared these with early images of the blood pool in 265 patients. Diffuse activity in the delayed images was identified in 48 patients: in 20 with acute myocardial infarction and in 28 with no evidence of it. Comparison of these routine delayed images with early views of the blood pool revealed two types of patterns. In patients with acute infarction, 95% had delayed images that were distinguishable from blood pool either because the activity was smaller than the early blood pool, or by the presence of localized activity superimposed on diffuse activity identical to blood pool. In those without infarction, 93% had activity distribution in routine delayed views matching that in the early blood-pool images. The usefulness of the diffuse TcPPi precordial activity in myocardial infarction is improved when early blood-pool imaging is used to exclude persistence of blood-pool activity as its cause. Moreover, it does not require additional amounts of radioactivity nor complex computer processing, a feature that may be of value in the community hospital using the technique to rule out infarction 24 to 72 hr after onset of suggestive symptoms

  12. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT 50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT 50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  13. Abdominal blood pool scintigraphy in the management of acute or intermittent gastrointestinal bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalff, V.; Kelly, M.J.; Dudley, F.; Metz, G.

    1983-01-01

    Gastrointestinal blood pool scintigraphy, using a modified in-vivo blood cell labelling technique with technetium-99, is a new, easily performed, non-invasive procedure. It is valuable in screening patients with acute or intermittent gastrointestinal blood loss in whom duodenoscopic and sigmoidoscopic findings are unhelpful. This paper reviews the value of this scintigraphic technique over the first eight months of its use in a major teaching hospital, and compares the results with other published data. If used and interpreted appropriately, scintigraphy is sensitive in detecting and localizing the bleeding site, and is very helpful in indicating the optimal timing of emergency contrast angiography

  14. Relaxivity of blood pool contrast agent depends on the host tissue as suggested by semianalytical simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Birgitte Fuglsang; Østergaard, Leif; Kiselev, Valerij G

    Concentration of MRI contrast agents (CA) is commonly determined indirectly using their relaxation effect. In quantitative perfusion studies, the change in the relaxation following a bolus passage is converted into concentrations assuming identical relaxivities for tissue and blood. Simulations...... presented in this study demonstrate that the relaxivity of blood pool CA depends significantly on both the host tissue and the pulse sequence, in agreement with previous experiments. In particular, the relaxation effect of Gd-based CA in brain tissues is several-fold larger than in bulk blood. The results...

  15. Effect of pool length on blood lactate, heart rate, and velocity in swimming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskinen, O P; Keskinen, K L; Mero, A A

    2007-05-01

    Exercise testing in water has been used to follow the progression of conditioning during regular training in swimmers. The present study examined the effects of pool length in eleven male swimmers on a set of 5 x 200-m freestyle swims with increasing speed from submaximal to maximal. Mean velocity of swimming, blood lactate and heart rate were examined in both 25-m and 50-m pools. Turning benefit as a marker for turning skill was measured separately by a underwater video system (speed difference between pre- and post-turning) during short all-out swims. Maximum force during swimming was measured in tethered swimming and explosive strength of leg extensor muscles was evaluated by a counter movement jump. The significantly higher (p=0.033 - 0.000) blood lactate values for the 50-m pool as compared to the 25-m pool were found at each point of swimming velocity versus blood lactate curve. The highest post-test lactate level was 7.36 +/- 1.47 mmol x l (-1) in the short course and 8.24 +/- 1.55 mmol x l (-1) (p=0.033) in the long course. The maximum swimming velocity was significantly greater (4.5 %) in the 25-m pool swimming (1.38 +/- 0.11 m x s (-1) vs. 1.32 +/- 0.12 m x s (-1); p=0.000). The heart rate values were significantly (p=0.020 - 0.000) lower in the short course than in the long course at all points of submaximal velocity with a mean difference of 7.3 +/- 0.7 bpm. Heart rate was equal (172 +/- 14 vs. 172 +/- 14 bpm) after the maximum swims in both short and long course. The turning benefit in the short maximum swim was 0.12 +/- 0.05 m x s (-1) (8.1 +/- 3.2 %), correlating positively with the difference in maximal swimming velocity between the short and long-pool swims (r = 0.59; p = 0.029), with the maximum force during tethered swimming (r=0.75; p=0.004) and with the vertical jumping height in the counter movement jump (r=0.55; p=0.039). We conclude that the pool length has a strong effect on blood lactate concentration and heart rate with greater swimming

  16. Utility of the pooling approach as applied to whole genome association scans with high-density Affymetrix microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gray Joanna

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background We report an attempt to extend the previously successful approach of combining SNP (single nucleotide polymorphism microarrays and DNA pooling (SNP-MaP employing high-density microarrays. Whereas earlier studies employed a range of Affymetrix SNP microarrays comprising from 10 K to 500 K SNPs, this most recent investigation used the 6.0 chip which displays 906,600 SNP probes and 946,000 probes for the interrogation of CNVs (copy number variations. The genotyping assay using the Affymetrix SNP 6.0 array is highly demanding on sample quality due to the small feature size, low redundancy, and lack of mismatch probes. Findings In the first study published so far using this microarray on pooled DNA, we found that pooled cheek swab DNA could not accurately predict real allele frequencies of the samples that comprised the pools. In contrast, the allele frequency estimates using blood DNA pools were reasonable, although inferior compared to those obtained with previously employed Affymetrix microarrays. However, it might be possible to improve performance by developing improved analysis methods. Conclusions Despite the decreasing costs of genome-wide individual genotyping, the pooling approach may have applications in very large-scale case-control association studies. In such cases, our study suggests that high-quality DNA preparations and lower density platforms should be preferred.

  17. Effect of Laser Power and Scan Speed on Melt Pool Characteristics of Commercially Pure Titanium (CP-Ti)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kusuma, Chandrakanth; Ahmed, Sazzad H.; Mian, Ahsan; Srinivasan, Raghavan

    2017-07-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing technique that creates complex parts by selectively melting metal powder layer-by-layer using a laser. In SLM, the process parameters decide the quality of the fabricated component. In this study, single beads of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) were melted on a substrate of the same material using an in-house built SLM machine. Multiple combinations of laser power and scan speed were used for single bead fabrication, while the laser beam diameter and powder layer thickness were kept constant. This experimental study investigated the influence of laser power, scan speed, and laser energy density on the melt pool formation, surface morphology, geometry (width and height), and hardness of solidified beads. In addition, the observed unfavorable effect such as inconsistency in melt pool width formation is discussed. The results show that the quality, geometry, and hardness of solidified melt pool are significantly affected by laser power, scanning speed, and laser energy density.

  18. Ventricular function during the acute rejection of heterotopic transplanted heart: Gated blood pool studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Valette, H.; Bourguignon, M.H.; Desruennes, M.; Merlet, P.; Le Guludec, D.; Syrota, A.

    1991-01-01

    Twenty patients who had undergone a heterotopic heart transplant were studied prospectively to determine the relationship between rejection and ventricular dysfunction assessed from gated blood pool studies. A fully automated method for detecting ventricular edges was implemented; its success rate for the grafted left and right ventricles was 94% and 77%, respectively. The parameters, peak ejection and filling rates, were calculated pixel per pixel using a two-harmonic Fourier algorithm and then averaged over the ventricular region of interest. Peak filling and ejection rates were closely related with the severity of the rejection, while the left ventricular ejection fraction was not. Peak filling rates of both ventricles were the indices closely related to the presence of moderate rejection. Despite the low number of patients, these data suggested that gated blood pool derived indices of ventricular function are associated with ventricular dysfunction resulting from myocarditis rejection. Radionuclide ventriculography provides parametric data which are accurate and reliable for the diagnosis of rejection. (orig.)

  19. Cardiac tumours: non invasive detection and assessment by gated cardiac blood pool radionuclide imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pitcher, D.; Wainwright, R.; Brennand-Roper, D.; Deverall, P.; Sowton, E.; Maisey, M.

    1980-01-01

    Four patients with cardiac tumours were investigated by gated cardiac blood pool radionuclide imaging and echocardiography. Contrast angiocardiography was performed in three of the cases. Two left atrial tumours were detected by all three techniques. In one of these cases echocardiography alone showed additional mitral valve stenosis, but isotope imaging indicated tumour size more accurately. A large septal mass was detected by all three methods. In this patient echocardiography showed evidence of left ventricular outflow obstruction, confirmed at cardiac catheterisation, but gated isotope imaging provided a more detailed assessment of the abnormal cardiac anatomy. In the fourth case gated isotope imaging detected a large right ventricular tumour which had not been identified by echocardiography. Gated cardiac blood pool isotope imaging is a complementary technique to echocardiography for the non-invasive detection and assessment of cardiac tumours. (author)

  20. Combined blood pool and extracellular contrast agents for pediatric and young adult cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Joyce T. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Robinson, Joshua D. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Division of Pediatric Cardiology, 225 E. Chicago Ave., Box 21, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Deng, Jie [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States); Rigsby, Cynthia K. [Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Pediatrics, Chicago, IL (United States); Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine, Chicago, IL (United States); Ann and Robert Lurie Children' s Hospital of Chicago, Department of Medical Imaging, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2016-12-15

    A comprehensive cardiac magnetic resonance (cardiac MR) study including both late gadolinium enhancement (LGE) and MR angiography may be indicated for patients with a history of acquired or congenital heart disease. To study the novel use of an extracellular agent for assessment of LGE combined with a blood pool contrast agent for detailed MR angiography evaluation to yield a comprehensive cardiac MR study in these patients. We reviewed clinical cardiac MR studies utilizing extracellular and blood pool contrast agents and noted demographics, clinical data and adverse events. We rated LGE image quality and MR angiography image quality for each vascular segment and calculated inter-rater variability. We also quantified contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR). Thirty-three patients (mean age 13.9 ± 3 years) received an extracellular contrast agent (10 gadobenate dimeglumine, 23 gadopentetate dimeglumine) and blood pool contrast agent (33 gadofosveset trisodium). No adverse events were reported. MRI indications included Kawasaki disease (8), cardiomyopathy and coronary anatomy (15), repaired congenital heart disease (8), and other (2). Mean LGE quality was 2.6 ± 0.6 with 97% diagnostic imaging. LGE quality did not vary by type of contrast agent given (P = 0.07). Mean MR angiography quality score was 4.7 ± 0.6, with high inter-rater agreement (k = 0.6-0.8, P < 0.002). MR angiography quality did not vary by type of contrast agent used (P = 0.6). Cardiac MR studies utilizing both extracellular and blood pool contrast agents are feasible and safe and provide excellent-quality LGE and MR angiography images. The use of two contrast agents allows for a comprehensive assessment of both myocardial viability and vascular anatomy during the same exam. (orig.)

  1. Alterations of the blood pool in the femoral head before and after renal transplantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamaguchi, Hiroyuki; Fujioka, Mikihiro; Inoue, Shigehiro; Shibatani, Masahiko; Kubo, Toshikazu; Kubota, Takao; Ushijima, Yo; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2003-01-01

    The pathogenesis of idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head (ION) is thought to be an ischemic event. The purpose of this study is to investigate alterations of the blood pool in the femoral head before and after renal transplantation. After renal transplantation, all patients received the same immunosuppressive therapy: corticosteroids, cyclosporin-A, and azathioprine. We performed 3-phase bone scintigraphy on 16 renal allograft recipients within 1 week before renal transplantation, and between week 4 and 9 after renal transplantation. Regions of interest (ROI) were assigned bilaterally in the femoral head, diaphysis, and soft tissue. The head-to-diaphysis ratios (HD ratios) were then calculated. Idiopathic osteonecrosis of the femoral head occurred in 2 femoral heads of 1 patient. The HD ratio before renal transplantation (mean HD±SD, 1.52±0.30) and the HD ratio after renal transplantation (1.28±0.30) were significantly different (P=0.000024). The HD ratios before and after renal transplantation were significantly different, indicating that the administration of steroids diminished the blood pool in the femoral head. A low HD ratio before renal transplantation revealed a poor blood pool in the femoral head, which may be a risk factor for ION. (author)

  2. Application of pooled genotyping to scan candidate regions for association with HDL cholesterol levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hinds David A

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Association studies are used to identify genetic determinants of complex human traits of medical interest. With the large number of validated single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs currently available, two limiting factors in association studies are genotyping capability and costs. Pooled DNA genotyping has been proposed as an efficient means of screening SNPs for allele frequency differences in case-control studies and for prioritising them for subsequent individual genotyping analysis. Here, we apply quantitative pooled genotyping followed by individual genotyping and replication to identify associations with human serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels. The DNA from individuals with low and high HDL cholesterol levels was pooled separately, each pool was amplified by polymerase chain reaction in triplicate and each amplified product was separately hybridised to a high-density oligonucleotide array. Allele frequency differences between case and control groups with low and high HDL cholesterol levels were estimated for 7,283 SNPs distributed across 71 candidate gene regions spanning a total of 17.1 megabases. A novel method was developed to take advantage of independently derived haplotype map information to improve the pooled estimates of allele frequency differences. A subset of SNPs with the largest estimated allele frequency differences between low and high HDL cholesterol groups was chosen for individual genotyping in the study population, as well as in a separate replication population. Four SNPs in a single haplotype block within the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP gene interval were significantly associated with HDL cholesterol levels in both populations. Our study is among the first to demonstrate the application of pooled genotyping followed by confirmation with individual genotyping to identify genetic determinants of a complex trait.

  3. Gene expression changes in blood RNA after swimming in a chlorinated pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salas, Lucas A; Font-Ribera, Laia; Bustamante, Mariona; Sumoy, Lauro; Grimalt, Joan O; Bonnin, Sarah; Aguilar, Maria; Mattlin, Heidi; Hummel, Manuela; Ferrer, Anna; Kogevinas, Manolis; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Exposure to disinfection by-products (DBP) such as trihalomethanes (THM) in swimming pools has been linked to adverse health effects in humans, but their biological mechanisms are unclear. We evaluated short-term changes in blood gene expression of adult recreational swimmers after swimming in a chlorinated pool. Volunteers swam 40min in an indoor chlorinated pool. Blood samples were drawn and four THM (chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform) were measured in exhaled breath before and after swimming. Intensity of physical activity was measured as metabolic equivalents (METs). Gene expression in whole blood mRNA was evaluated using IlluminaHumanHT-12v3 Expression-BeadChip. Linear mixed models were used to evaluate the relationship between gene expression changes and THM exposure. Thirty-seven before-after pairs were analyzed. The median increase from baseline to after swimming were: 0.7 to 2.3 for MET, and 1.4 to 7.1μg/m 3 for exhaled total THM (sum of the four THM). Exhaled THM increased on average 0.94μg/m 3 per 1 MET. While 1643 probes were differentially expressed post-exposure. Of them, 189 were also associated with exhaled levels of individual/total THM or MET after False Discovery Rate. The observed associations with the exhaled THM were low to moderate (Log-fold change range: -0.17 to 0.15). In conclusion, we identified short-term gene expression changes associated with swimming in a pool that were minor in magnitude and their biological meaning was unspecific. The high collinearity between exhaled THM levels and intensity of physical activity precluded mutually adjusted models with both covariates. These exploratory results should be validated in future studies. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Cerebral blood flow SPECT scanning in cortico-basal degeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slawek, J.; Walczak, A.; Krupa-Olchawa, J.; Lass, P.; Dubaniewicz, M.

    1999-01-01

    Idiopathic Parkinson's disease accounts for ca. 75% of all cases of Parkinsonism. Corticobasal degeneration is a relatively rare example of the so-called ''Parkinson-plus'' syndrome. The authors present the case of a 56-year-old woman with rigidity and atypical tremor of upper extremity followed by gait apraxia, dysarthria, bilateral pyramidal signs and myoclonus. There was no improvement after treatment with L-dopa. The disease has progressed, but the patient is still alive. On the basis of clinical data a diagnosis of corticobasal degeneration has been established. Cerebral blood flow SPECT scanning revealed diffuse hypoperfusion of left frontal lobe, antero-inferior part of the left temporal lobe and left basal ganglia. The case illustrates the usefulness of brain SPECT in atypical forma of Parkinson's disease. (author)

  5. Clinical comparison of cardiac blood pool visualization with technetium-99m red blood cells labeled in vivo and with technetium-99m human serum albumin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrall, J.H.; Freitas, J.E.; Swanson, D.; Rogers, W.L.; Clare, J.M.; Brown, M.L.; Pitt, B.

    1978-01-01

    Technetium-99m red blood cells (Tc-RBC) labeled by an in vivo technique were compared with two preparations of Tc-99m human serum albumin (HSA) for cardiac blood-pool imaging. Relative distribution of the tracers was analyzed on end-diastolic frames of gated blood-pool studies and on whole-body (head to mid-thigh) anterior pinhole images. The Tc-RBC demonstrated greater relative percentage localization in the cardiac blood pool, higher target-to-background ratios in the left ventricle, and less liver concentration. For cardiac blood-pool imaging, Tc-RBC labeled by the in vivo approach appears to be superior to the two Tc-HSA preparations studied

  6. Dynamic circular buffering: a technique for equilibrium gated blood pool imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaquero, J J; Rahms, H; Green, M V; Del Pozo, F

    1996-03-01

    We have devised a software technique called "dynamic circular buffering" (DCB) with which we create a gated blood pool image sequence of the heart in real time using the best features of LIST and FRAME mode methods of acquisition/processing. The routine is based on the concept of independent "agents" acting on the timing and position data continuously written into the DCB. This approach allows efficient asynchronous operation on PC-type machines and enhanced capability on systems capable of true multiprocessing and multithreading.

  7. Influence of circulating antigen on blood pool activity of a radioiodinated monoclonal antibody

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zalutsky, M.R.; Knapp, R.C.; Bast, R.C. Jr.

    1988-01-01

    Athymic mice with and without circulating CA 125 antigen were injected with 0.1-100 μg of 131 I-labeled OC 125 F(ab') 2 antibody fragment. Both the blood clearance of 131 I activity and the change in serum CA 125 were monitored over 24 h. Influence of CA 125 on blood pool activity could be avoided only at the 100 μg dose. In patient studies, circulating CA 125 levels decreased for the first 2 h after injection of OC 125 F(ab') 2 but generally returned to preinjection levels shortly thereafter. In vitro binding studies using the sera from patients injected with 131 I-labeled OC 125 F(ab') 2 suggest that circulating CA 125 could interfere with the tumor uptake of the labeled antibody. (author)

  8. Automatic measurements of local ventricular parameters using gated blood-pool emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano-Goulart, D.; Caderas de Kerleau, C.; Rossi, M.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new method designed to improve the accuracy of the assessment of systolic and diastolic parameters from noisy regional time-activity curves, both for the right and the left ventricle. First, we explain how it is possible to derive local time-activity curves from segmented gated-blood pool tomographic acquisitions. The new method is based on the computation of a suitable deformation of a reference time-activity-curve. This paper describes how this reference curve is transformed to approximate the acquired data with a smooth, noise-free time-activity curve from which relevant clinical parameters can be derived. One may remind and illustrate the main results dealing with the validation studies of this new method achieved on simulated data and by comparison with multi-harmonic reconstructions. Last, some clinical examples are proposed to illustrate the potentials of this method. The deformable model used in this paper provides accurate assessment of systolic (time of end systole, amplitude, peak ejection rate) or diastolic parameters (peak filling rate) both for planar and tomographic gated blood pool studies. Further clinical studies are now necessary to compare the results of this model with those achieved with usual multi-harmonic fits, and to evaluate its interest in the assessment of rhythmic heart diseases or in the prognosis of heart failure. (author)

  9. Evaluation of factor analysis and other functional images in exercise gated blood-pool study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsunari, Ichiro; Bunko, Hisashi; Nakajima, Kenichi; Taki, Junichi; Shiire, Yasushi; Hisada, Kinichi

    1990-01-01

    Factor analysis, a new method of functional imaging, has been applied to cardiovascular nuclear medicine. Because of the difficulty of its interpretation, it has not been popular as a method for detecting abnormal wall motion. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of factor analysis in exercise gated blood-pool study in patients with ischemic heart disease. In our factor analysis, left ventricular region of interest (LVROI) was extracted to exclude the surrounding radioactivities. The new method was compared with the conventional factor analysis using whole region (whole ROI method), and the other functional images, i.e. stroke volume, ejection fraction and phase images. At first we tried 3-factor analysis of the LVROI method, which resulted in many uninterpretable factors. Whereas in 2-factor analysis no uninterpretable factors were extracted. In comparison with cine-mode display, the LVROI method with 2-factor analysis showed the best sensitivity (85%) and specificity (100%). In exercise gated blood-pool study, it became easier to detect abnormal wall motion by comparing the factor image at exercise with resting image. In conclusion, the 2-factor analysis using the LVROI method greatly improved the limitation of conventional factor analysis, and will be useful in detecting wall motion abnormality in patients with ischemic heart disase. (author)

  10. Combined respiratory and cardiac triggering improves blood pool contrast-enhanced pediatric cardiovascular MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasanawala, Shreyas S.; Newman, Beverley; Chan, Frandics P.; Alley, Marcus T.

    2011-01-01

    Contrast-enhanced cardiac MRA suffers from cardiac motion artifacts and often requires a breath-hold. This work develops and evaluates a blood pool contrast-enhanced combined respiratory- and ECG-triggered MRA method. An SPGR sequence was modified to enable combined cardiac and respiratory triggering on a 1.5-T scanner. Twenty-three consecutive children referred for pediatric heart disease receiving gadofosveset were recruited in HIPAA-compliant fashion with IRB approval and informed consent. Children underwent standard non-triggered contrast-enhanced MRA with or without suspended respiration. Additionally, a free-breathing-triggered MRA was acquired. Triggered and non-triggered studies were presented in blinded random order independently to two radiologists twice. Anatomical structure delineation was graded for each triggered and non-triggered acquisition and the visual quality on triggered MRA was compared directly to that on non-triggered MRA. Triggered images received higher scores from each radiologist for all anatomical structures on each of the two reading sessions (Wilcoxon rank sum test, P < 0.05). In direct comparison, triggered images were preferred over non-triggered images for delineating cardiac structures, with most comparisons reaching statistical significance (binomial test, P < 0.05). Combined cardiac and respiratory triggering, enabled by a blood pool contrast agent, improves delineation of most anatomical structures in pediatric cardiovascular MRA. (orig.)

  11. Detecting early cardiac dysfunction with radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Kegui; Chen Daguang; Lin Haoxue

    1992-01-01

    Cardiac function was measured by radionuclide cardiac blood-pool imaging in 15 normal persons, 19 cases of hypertension, 32 cases of coronary heart disease, 35 cases of coronary heart disease combined with hypertension and 44 cases of myocardial infarction. Significant differences have been found in indices of cardiac function between normal subjects and patients with coronary heart disease and coronary heart disease combined with hypertension, even though the patients were without any clinical sin of cardiac failure. Lowered regional EF and decreased ventricular was motion were found in 38.8% of patients, while 65.7%of patients revealed marked abnormality in MFR. The results indicate that latent cardiac dysfunction is common in patients with coronary heart disease. The earliest change is diastolic function abnormalities

  12. Patterns of ventricular dysfunction in patients receiving cardiotoxic chemotherapy as assessed with gated blood pool imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spies, S.M.; Parikh, S.R.; Spies, W.G.; Zimmer, A.M.; Silverstein, E.A.

    1989-01-01

    Clinical concern over significant cardiotoxicity of commonly employed chemotherapeutic regimens is a common indication for gated blood pool imaging. The authors have undertaken a review of 102 patients referred for such evaluation during a 14-month period. Ventricular ejection fractions, cine displays, and phase analysis were performed on each patient study. Approximately one-third of the cases showed significant abnormalities in wall motion or global ejection fraction. Many abnormal cases had isolated left ventricular findings, while fewer had isolated right ventricular findings. Left ventricular wall motion abnormalities were often focal. The patterns of ventricular dysfunction in patients receiving cardiotoxic chemotherapy are diverse, and awareness of the various possibilities is important for accurate clinical assessment of these patients

  13. Right-sided phase abnormalities on gated blood pool ventriculography: Demonstration of six different patterns

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bahar, R.H.; Abdel-Dayem, H.M.; Ziada, G.; Al-Suhali, A.; Constantinides, C.; Nair, K.M.

    1986-01-01

    Phase pattern abnormalities on multiple gated blood pool ventriculography are better reported for the left ventricle (LV) than for the right side of the heart. In a study of 92 patients who also underwent contrast ventriculography, the authors identified six different patterns of right-sided phase abnormalities and their causes: right bundle-branch block, causing delayed phase in the entire right ventricle (RV); ischemic right coronary artery disease, causing delayed phase in the inferior RV wall; pericardial effusion, causing an L-shaped area of delayed phase to the right of the septum and below the LV; pulmonary hypertension, causing delayed phase in the pulmonary infundibulum; tricuspid regurgitation, causing a crescentic area of delayed phase around and below the right RV and extending below the LV as well, and atrial septal defect causing an abnormally large auricular phase

  14. The values of myocardial tomography imaging and gated cardiac blood pool imaging in detecting left ventricular aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Mei; Pan Zhongyun; Li Jinhui

    1992-01-01

    The sensitivity and specificity of myocardial tomography imaging and gated cardiac blood-pool imaging in detecting LVA were studied in 36 normal subjects and 68 patients with myocardial infarction. The sensitivities of exercise and rest myocardial imaging in detecting LVA were 85% and 77.3% respectively. The specificity of both is 95.5%. The sensitivity of cinema display, phase analysis and left ventricular phase shift in evaluating LVA were 86.7%, 86.7%, 100% respectively. Their specificity were all 100%. It is concluded that blood pool imaging is of choice for the diagnosis of LVA, and that myocardial imaging could also demonstrate LVA during diagnosing myocardial infarction

  15. Identification of cytoskeletal elements enclosing the ATP pools that fuel human red blood cell membrane cation pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Haiyan; Puchulu-Campanella, Estela; Galan, Jacob A; Tao, W Andy; Low, Philip S; Hoffman, Joseph F

    2012-07-31

    The type of metabolic compartmentalization that occurs in red blood cells differs from the types that exist in most eukaryotic cells, such as intracellular organelles. In red blood cells (ghosts), ATP is sequestered within the cytoskeletal-membrane complex. These pools of ATP are known to directly fuel both the Na(+)/K(+) and Ca(2+) pumps. ATP can be entrapped within these pools either by incubation with bulk ATP or by operation of the phosphoglycerate kinase and pyruvate kinase reactions to enzymatically generate ATP. When the pool is filled with nascent ATP, metabolic labeling of the Na(+)/K(+) or Ca(2+) pump phosphoproteins (E(Na)-P and E(Ca)-P, respectively) from bulk [γ-(32)P]-ATP is prevented until the pool is emptied by various means. Importantly, the pool also can be filled with the fluorescent ATP analog trinitrophenol ATP, as well as with a photoactivatable ATP analog, 8-azido-ATP (N(3)-ATP). Using the fluorescent ATP, we show that ATP accumulates and then disappears from the membrane as the ATP pools are filled and subsequently emptied, respectively. By loading N(3)-ATP into the membrane pool, we demonstrate that membrane proteins that contribute to the pool's architecture can be photolabeled. With the aid of an antibody to N(3)-ATP, we identify these labeled proteins by immunoblotting and characterize their derived peptides by mass spectrometry. These analyses show that the specific peptides that corral the entrapped ATP derive from sequences within β-spectrin, ankyrin, band 3, and GAPDH.

  16. Red blood cell scan in cavernous hemangioma of the larynx

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finkelstein, D.M.; Noyek, A.M.; Kirsh, J.C. (Univ. of Toronto, Ontario (Canada))

    1989-09-01

    Cavernous hemangioma of the larynx is an uncommon, difficult-to-diagnose vascular tumor for which there is no significant imaging literature to date. The possibility of improved diagnosis through RBC scanning might obviate injudicious biopsy and potential hemorrhage within the airway. Utilizing the radionuclide RBC scan, which labels the patient's own RBCs initially with cold pyrophosphate, and subsequently with technetium 99m as pertechnetate, we have identified successfully four patients with cavernous hemangioma of the larynx. All presented with a supraglottic mass involving at least the aryepiglottic fold and arytenoid region unilaterally. This report describes our satisfactory diagnostic imaging experience with the radionuclide RBC scan and suggests both its imaging specificity and its role in the management of this lesion.

  17. Frequency characteristics of temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Futamura, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Toshiya; Shimokata, Tatsuyuki; Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Sakurai, Junichi; Senda, Minoru

    1984-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency characteristics of several temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy and to apply the temporal filters to the image processing. The three following filters were analyzed; (1) X'sub(n) = 1/4.Xsub(n-1) + 1/2.Xsub(n) + 1/4.Xsub(n+1) (2) X'sub(n) = 1/10.Xsub(n-2) + 1/5.Xsub(n-1) + 2/5.Xsub(n) + 1/5.Xsub(n+1) + 1/10.Xsub(n+2) (3) f(x) = a 0 + Σsub(m=1)sup(j)asub(m)sin(mx+αsub(m)) where X'n is the averaged pixel count of the n-th frame and Xn is a pixel count of n-th frame. The last equation is Fourier transformation. Sinusoidal waves were generated in the digital computer in order to assess the frequency characteristics of the filters. The sinusoidal waves were sampled by 3,200 Hz and one frame was created by one hundred sampling points. One cycle was composed of thirty two frames as usually used in the gated blood pool study. At the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves, the amplitude ratio of input to output signal was almost flat up to 3 Hz. But the ratio oscillated above 3 Hz. This oscillation was created by the discrete sampling and was regarded as the newly produced noise. By using the first filter, the amplitude ratio of input to output was almost flat up to 2 Hz. But above 3 Hz, the amplitude ratio was less than 1 and the cut-off frequency was 7 Hz. By using the second filter the amplitude ratio was already less than 1 at 1 Hz and the cut-off frequency was 5 Hz. By the third filter, the amplitude ratio was almost flat up to 5 Hz and then gradually decreased above 5 Hz. All filters damped the noises created by the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves. The third filter had the excellent frequency characteristics. The reasons were (1) the distortion of the output wave was small because of the flat amplitude ratio, and (2) the noises were eliminated by filtering with an abrupt high frequency cut-off. (J.P.N.)

  18. Frequency characteristics of temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Futamura, Yoshihiro; Furuta, Toshiya; Shimokata, Tatsuyuki; Sakakura, Kazuyoshi; Sakurai, Junichi; Senda, Minoru (Meitetsu Hospital, Nagoya (Japan))

    1984-07-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess the frequency characteristics of several temporal filters used in ECG gated blood pool scintigraphy and to apply the temporal filters to the image processing. The three following filters were analyzed; (1) X'sub(n) = 1/4.Xsub(n-1) + 1/2.Xsub(n) + 1/4.Xsub(n+1) (2) X'sub(n) = 1/10.Xsub(n-2) + 1/5.Xsub(n-1) + 2/5.Xsub(n) + 1/5.Xsub(n+1) + 1/10.Xsub(n+2) (3) f(x) = a/sub 0/ + ..sigma..sub(m=1)sup(j)asub(m)sin(mx+..cap alpha..sub(m)) where X'n is the averaged pixel count of the n-th frame and Xn is a pixel count of n-th frame. The last equation is Fourier transformation. Sinusoidal waves were generated in the digital computer in order to assess the frequency characteristics of the filters. The sinusoidal waves were sampled by 3,200 Hz and one frame was created by one hundred sampling points. One cycle was composed of thirty-two frames as usually used in the gated blood pool study. At the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves, the amplitude ratio of input to output signal was almost flat up to 3 Hz. But the ratio oscillated above 3 Hz. This oscillation was created by the discrete sampling and was regarded as the newly produced noise. By using the first filter, the amplitude ratio of input to output was almost flat up to 2 Hz. But above 3 Hz, the amplitude ratio was less than 1 and the cut-off frequency was 7 Hz. By using the second filter the amplitude ratio was already less than 1 at 1 Hz and the cut-off frequency was 5 Hz. By the third filter, the amplitude ratio was almost flat up to 5 Hz and then gradually decreased above 5 Hz. All filters damped the noises created by the discrete sampling of the sinusoidal waves. The third filter had the excellent frequency characteristics. The reasons were (1) the distortion of the output wave was small because of the flat amplitude ratio, and (2) the noises were eliminated by filtering with an abrupt high frequency cut-off.

  19. Effect of blood glucose levels on image quality in 18F fluorodeoxyglucose scanning - a case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szeto, E.; Keane, J.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: In December last year, a 71-year-old gentleman presented to the Nuclear Medicine Department at St Vincent's Hospital, Sydney for an FDG coincidence detection positron emission scan. The patient had cancer of the lung with a large lesion in the left upper lobe and a small lesion in the right middle lobe. On initial investigation, this patient had a blood sugar level of 17mmol/L which was eventually reduced to 6.7mmol/L just prior to scanning. The patient was then asked to return to be rescanned without his blood sugar levels being adjusted. Just prior to his second scan, his blood sugar level was 15.4mmollL. The aim of the initial scan being repeated was to see just how important a role blood sugar levels play in the quality of a Co Pet scan. The first scan showed excellent image quality while the repeated scan showed markedly inferior image quality due to unwanted soft tissue FDG uptake. In conclusion, blood sugar levels play a significant role in output image quality in FDG coincidence detection positron emission scanning. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  20. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography with blood-pool agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kramer, H.; Morana, G.

    2007-01-01

    Although often asymptomatic, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity in a large proportion of patients. Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology in many instances, involving the whole arterial tree. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) permits rapid, non-invasive and accurate evaluation of the entire vascular system and can be used for both diagnostic purposes and monitoring of vascular involvement in diseases such as diabetes, Marfan's syndrome and Takayasu arteritis. MRA has been used successfully in the identification of high-grade stenosis in PAD, abnormalities of the ileocaval veins and carotid plaque imaging. Carotid disease is significantly correlated with severe coronary artery disease and renal artery atherosclerosis. Symptomatic lesions in one vascular bed are often related to additional asymptomatic atherosclerotic lesions in other vascular regions. MRA may be advantageous over computed tomographic angiography because it can be performed with contrast media virtually devoid of serious toxicity and without utilization of ionizing radiation. Display of the entire arterial vasculature can be achieved in < 90 s, with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Recent technological advances, such as parallel imaging and the implementation of dedicated matrix coils, have further increased image quality, and in combination with the blood-pool contrast agents, such as gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany), extended imaging time, higher spatial resolution and larger anatomical coverage can be achieved. (orig.)

  1. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography with blood-pool agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kramer, H. [Inst. for Clinical Radiology, Univ. Hospital Munich, Munich (Germany); Morana, G. [Radiological Dept., Hospital Ca' Foncello, Treviso (Italy)

    2007-03-15

    Although often asymptomatic, peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is associated with significant morbidity in a large proportion of patients. Atherosclerosis is the underlying pathology in many instances, involving the whole arterial tree. Whole-body magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) permits rapid, non-invasive and accurate evaluation of the entire vascular system and can be used for both diagnostic purposes and monitoring of vascular involvement in diseases such as diabetes, Marfan's syndrome and Takayasu arteritis. MRA has been used successfully in the identification of high-grade stenosis in PAD, abnormalities of the ileocaval veins and carotid plaque imaging. Carotid disease is significantly correlated with severe coronary artery disease and renal artery atherosclerosis. Symptomatic lesions in one vascular bed are often related to additional asymptomatic atherosclerotic lesions in other vascular regions. MRA may be advantageous over computed tomographic angiography because it can be performed with contrast media virtually devoid of serious toxicity and without utilization of ionizing radiation. Display of the entire arterial vasculature can be achieved in < 90 s, with excellent sensitivity and specificity. Recent technological advances, such as parallel imaging and the implementation of dedicated matrix coils, have further increased image quality, and in combination with the blood-pool contrast agents, such as gadofosveset trisodium (Vasovist, Bayer Schering Pharma AG, Berlin, Germany), extended imaging time, higher spatial resolution and larger anatomical coverage can be achieved. (orig.)

  2. Dynamic arrythmia filtration for gated blood pool imaging: Validation against list - Mode technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juni, J.E.; Wallis, J.; Rocchini, A.; Wu-Connolly, L.

    1985-01-01

    Normal resting heart rate variation distort the diastolic portions of time-activity curves (TACs) generated from gated blood pool (GBP) images. This alters calculated measures of diastolic function e.g. peak filling rate (PFR). The authors compared diastolic filling parameters obtained by two methods of arrythmia removal, list-mode (LM) acquisition and a new approach, dynamic arrythima filtration (DAF). LM acquisition techniques reject beats of unusual cycle length, thus reducing the TAC distortions caused by heart rate variation but is time consuming and requires large amounts of disk storage. In DAF systems data is evaluated for cycle length in real-time and accepted or rejected immediately according to preset, operator determined cycle-length criteria, thus eliminating the need for post-processing of data and for large mass data storage. The authors prospectively determined EF, time to end-systole (TES), PFR, ad TPFR on 25 GBP patients. Camera and ECG data were sent simultaneously to 2 computers. One acquired data via LM and the other by DAF. Fluctuations in heart rate during GBP acquisition may cause errors in calculation of filling parameters. Both LM and DAF remove cycles of unusual length. DAF is less time consuming and technically demanding than LM and provides results which correlate closely with those obtained by LM

  3. Evaluation of Coronary Artery Disease with Gated Blood Pool Scan Using Dipyridamole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gwang Weon; Choi, Chung Il; Chung, Byung Cheon; Lee, Jae Tae; Lee, Kyu Bo; Chae, Shung Chull; Jun, Jae Eun; Park, Wee Hyun; Park, Hee Myung

    1991-01-01

    Thirty-one patients with coronary artery disease and twenty-six normal subjects underwent 99m Tc-GBPS before and after coronary vasodilatation was induced by dipyridamole 0.54 mg/kg given IV over 4 min. LVKF, EF and regional wall motion by phase analysis were measured during rest and dipyridamole infusion. The results were as follows: 1) Mean LVEF of normal subjects was significantly higher than that of MI group (p=0.001), but similar to that of angina group during rest. Among Ml group, mean LVEF of anterior MI group was significantly lower than that of inferior MI group during rest (p=0,024). 2) The normal subjects had a significant increase in mean LVEF during dipyridamole infusion (+ 12 ± 3.8), while the CAD group had no increase (+ 2=5.0) (p<0.001). If an increase of LVEF during stress is less than 5%, it suggests an abnormality. The sensitivity and specificity of LUEF changes after dipyridamole infusion were 81%, 96%, respectively. 3) With phase analysis, LV mean phase angle of normal subjects and CAD patients was 143 + 20, 5, 132 ± 20.6 respectively, during rest (p=0.049). But an increase of LV mean phase angle during dipyridamole infusion in these two groups was not significantly different. Dipyridamole infusion did not affect standard deviation and FWHM of phase angle. 4) Regional wall motion was abnormal in 5 patients (16%) during dipyridamole infusion. 5) Side effects with dipyridamole infusion include; headache, angina pain, chest discomfort, nausea, weakness sense. In conclusion, dipyridamole GBPS might be useful in detection and follow up of CAD.

  4. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by /sup 111/In oxine white blood cell scans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-08-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, /sup 111/In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. /sup 111/In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates.

  5. Diagnosis of arterial prosthetic graft infection by 111In oxine white blood cell scans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeown, P.P.; Miller, D.C.; Jamieson, S.W.; Mitchell, R.S.; Reitz, B.A.; Olcott, C.; Mehigan, J.T.; Silberstein, R.J.; McDougall, I.R.

    1982-01-01

    Early and accurate diagnosis of infected prosthetic arterial grafts is difficult, despite the application of diverse diagnostic modalities. Delay in making the diagnosis is largely responsible for the high amputation and mortality rates associated with this complication. In nine patients with suspected graft infections, 111 In white blood cell scanning was useful and accurate. Graft infection was proved in five cases and ruled out in three. One false-positive scan was due to a sigmoid diverticular abscess overlying the graft. 111 In white blood cell scans may improve the accuracy of diagnosing infected prosthetic grafts, which may result in better limb and patient salvage rates

  6. ECG-gated blood pool tomography in the determination of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, S.R.; Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Emanuel, R.W.; Swanton, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    ECG-gated blood pool tomography promises to provide a ''gold standard'' for noninvasive measurement of left ventricular volume, ejection fraction, and wall motion. This study compares these measurements with those from planar radionuclide imaging and contrast ventriculography. End diastolic and end systolic blood pool images were acquired tomographically using an IGE400A rotating gamma camera and Star computer, and slices were reconstructed orthogonal to the long axis of the heart. Left ventricular volume was determined by summing the areas of the slices, and wall motion was determined by comparison of end diastolic and end systolic contours. In phantom experiments this provided an accurate measurement of volume (r=0.98). In 32 subjects who were either normal or who had coronary artery disease left ventricular volume (r=0.83) and ejection fraction (r=0.89) correlated well with those using a counts based planar technique. In 16 of 18 subjects who underwent right anterior oblique X-ray contrast ventriculography, tomographic wall motion agreed for anterior, apical, and inferior walls, but abnormal septal motion which was not apparent by contrast ventriculography, was seen in 12 subjects tomographically. All 12 had disease of the left anterior descending coronary artery and might have been expected to have abnormal septal motion. ECG-gated blood pool tomography can thus determine left ventricular volume and ejection fraction accurately, and provides a global description of wall motion in a way that is not possible from any single planar image

  7. Evaluation of latent cardiac disease in diabetic patients with Tl-201 exercise myocardial scintigram and blood pool scintigram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyashita, Takeo; Kasai, Ryutaro; Ikebe, Nobuhiko; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Yamasawa, Ikuhiro; Ibukiyama, Chiharu; Notoya, Yoko

    1990-01-01

    To find latent heart disease in diabetic patients, 142 diabetic patients were divided into 4 groups: (1) no hypertension and normal ECG (DM group); (2) hypertension recognized clinically (HT group); (3) myocardial damage on ECG (MD group); (4) group associated with the previous 2 (HT+MD group). In all groups Tl-201 exercise myocardial scintigrams and blood pool scintigrams were taken for comparative analysis. Positive rates of SPECT were 27.7% (23/83) in the DM group, 30.0% (9/30) in the HT group, 50.0% (6/12) in the MD group, and 70.6% (12/17) in the HT+MD group. The rate in the HT+MD group was significantly higher than in that of the DM and HT groups (p<0.001, p<0.01). Blood pool scintigrams revealed that in the HT+MD group, as compared with the normal control group, both 1/3 FF and PFR were significantly depressed, in addition to significant TPF prolongation in the former (p<0.001, p<0.05, p<0.05). These findings suggest that in diabetic patients hypertension and myocardial damage would lead to a high incidence of abnormality in SPECT and left ventricular rapid filling dysfunction. This indicate a high incidence of latent cardiac disease which can be recognized in diabetic patients by stress myocardial and blood pool scintigrams. (author)

  8. Assessment of cardiac blood pool imaging in patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Yutaka; Ono, Yasuo; Kohata, Tohru; Tsubata, Shinichi; Kamiya, Tetsuroh.

    1993-01-01

    We performed cardiac blood pool imagings with Tc-99m at rest and during supine ergometer exercise to evaluate left ventricular performance in 14 patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. All catheterized patients were divided into two subgroups: 8 patients with peak systolic left ventricular to descending aortic pressure gradients of less than 50 mmHg (LPG group) and 6 patients with peak systolic gradients of more than 50 mmHg (HPG group). Control group included 10 patients without stenotic coronary lesions after Kawasaki disease. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained as systolic index; both filling fraction during the first third of diastole (1/3FF) and mean filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3FR mean) were obtained as diastolic indices. None of the patients had abnormal findings on 201 Tl imaging. LVEF at rest in HPG group was significantly higher than those in control group, but LVEF in HPG group did not increase after exercise. It increased significantly in control group and LPG group. 1/3 FF in HPG group was significantly lower not only at rest but also during exercise. 1/3 FR mean at rest was not different significantly among the 3 groups. However, 1/3FR mean during exercise in LPG group was significantly lower; and 1/3 FR mean during exercise was significantly lower in HPG group than LPG group. The ratio of left ventricular muscular mass to left ventricular end-diastolic volume (M/V) calculated from left ventricular cineangiograms was different significantly among the 3 groups. The M/V ratio showed a correlation with LVEF and 1/3 FF both at rest and during exercise. These results would indicate that systolic function was impaired on exercise in severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis and diastolic function was impaired on exercise in mild and severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. This may correlate with left ventricular hypertrophy and interaction of systolic function. (author)

  9. Assessment of cardiac blood pool imaging in patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, Yutaka (Tajimi City Hospital, Gifu (Japan)); Ono, Yasuo; Kohata, Tohru; Tsubata, Shinichi; Kamiya, Tetsuroh

    1993-09-01

    We performed cardiac blood pool imagings with Tc-99m at rest and during supine ergometer exercise to evaluate left ventricular performance in 14 patients with left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. All catheterized patients were divided into two subgroups: 8 patients with peak systolic left ventricular to descending aortic pressure gradients of less than 50 mmHg (LPG group) and 6 patients with peak systolic gradients of more than 50 mmHg (HPG group). Control group included 10 patients without stenotic coronary lesions after Kawasaki disease. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) was obtained as systolic index; both filling fraction during the first third of diastole (1/3FF) and mean filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3FR mean) were obtained as diastolic indices. None of the patients had abnormal findings on [sup 201]Tl imaging. LVEF at rest in HPG group was significantly higher than those in control group, but LVEF in HPG group did not increase after exercise. It increased significantly in control group and LPG group. 1/3 FF in HPG group was significantly lower not only at rest but also during exercise. 1/3 FR mean at rest was not different significantly among the 3 groups. However, 1/3FR mean during exercise in LPG group was significantly lower; and 1/3 FR mean during exercise was significantly lower in HPG group than LPG group. The ratio of left ventricular muscular mass to left ventricular end-diastolic volume (M/V) calculated from left ventricular cineangiograms was different significantly among the 3 groups. The M/V ratio showed a correlation with LVEF and 1/3 FF both at rest and during exercise. These results would indicate that systolic function was impaired on exercise in severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis and diastolic function was impaired on exercise in mild and severe left ventricular outflow tract stenosis. This may correlate with left ventricular hypertrophy and interaction of systolic function. (author).

  10. Blood Pool Segmentation Results in Superior Virtual Cardiac Models than Myocardial Segmentation for 3D Printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farooqi, Kanwal M; Lengua, Carlos Gonzalez; Weinberg, Alan D; Nielsen, James C; Sanz, Javier

    2016-08-01

    The method of cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) three-dimensional (3D) image acquisition and post-processing which should be used to create optimal virtual models for 3D printing has not been studied systematically. Patients (n = 19) who had undergone CMR including both 3D balanced steady-state free precession (bSSFP) imaging and contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) were retrospectively identified. Post-processing for the creation of virtual 3D models involved using both myocardial (MS) and blood pool (BP) segmentation, resulting in four groups: Group 1-bSSFP/MS, Group 2-bSSFP/BP, Group 3-MRA/MS and Group 4-MRA/BP. The models created were assessed by two raters for overall quality (1-poor; 2-good; 3-excellent) and ability to identify predefined vessels (1-5: superior vena cava, inferior vena cava, main pulmonary artery, ascending aorta and at least one pulmonary vein). A total of 76 virtual models were created from 19 patient CMR datasets. The mean overall quality scores for Raters 1/2 were 1.63 ± 0.50/1.26 ± 0.45 for Group 1, 2.12 ± 0.50/2.26 ± 0.73 for Group 2, 1.74 ± 0.56/1.53 ± 0.61 for Group 3 and 2.26 ± 0.65/2.68 ± 0.48 for Group 4. The numbers of identified vessels for Raters 1/2 were 4.11 ± 1.32/4.05 ± 1.31 for Group 1, 4.90 ± 0.46/4.95 ± 0.23 for Group 2, 4.32 ± 1.00/4.47 ± 0.84 for Group 3 and 4.74 ± 0.56/4.63 ± 0.49 for Group 4. Models created using BP segmentation (Groups 2 and 4) received significantly higher ratings than those created using MS for both overall quality and number of vessels visualized (p 3D printers with good quality and accurate representation of the virtual 3D models. We recommend using BP segmentation with either MRA or bSSFP source datasets to create virtual 3D models for 3D printing. Desktop 3D printers can offer good quality printed models with accurate representation of anatomic detail.

  11. [Single-donor (apheresis) platelets and pooled whole-blood-derived platelets--significance and assessment of both blood products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hitzler, Walter E

    2014-01-01

    The transfusion efficacy of ATK, which contain fully functional platelets, is beyond all doubt. The equivalence of ATK and PTK has been subject of many studies. Some of those studies show the superiority of ATK's, while others do not, but there have been no studies that demonstrated a superiority of PTK's. The superiority of platelets stored in plasma and in third generation additive solution was demonstrated in clinical studies; therefore, it cannot be said that all the platelet concentrates on the German market are equivalent in efficacy. Of decisive importance, above all, is the risk of transfusion-transmitted infections with known pathogens, or those not yet discovered. This risk is different for ATK compared to PTK. Taking this difference in risk and the difference in donor exposure of transfused patients into account, it can definitely be said that ATK and PTK are not equivalent. In 2012, the Robert-Koch-Institute (RKI) published a mathematical risk model for different platelet concentrates and assessed the risk of transmitting known pathogens such as HIV, HCV, and HBV. The risk was higher for PTK compared to ATK. The relative risks for PTK derived from 4BCs were 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.1-2.4) for HIV, 2.7 (95%--CI: 2.5-3.0) for HCV, and 2.2 (95%--CI: 2.8-3.7) for HBV. At the present time, these are the relative risks of transfusion-transmitted infections with the traditional pathogens for PTK compared to ATK. In addition to the RKI assessed risks, there is the theoretical risk of a new, unknown agent, transmitted through blood exposure. The magnitude of this risk is hardly predictable for PTK. The experience gathered so far, especially in the last three decades, with the emergence of HIV, prions, and West Nil virus, shows that the biological nature of a next transfusion-transmissible infectious agent cannot be predictable. This agent, if we think at a conventional sexually transmissible agent with nucleic acid and long latent period, would spread first in areas with

  12. Half a decade of mini-pool nucleic acid testing: Cost-effective way for improving blood safety in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivaram Chandrashekar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: It is well established that Nucleic acid testing (NAT reduces window phase of transfusion transmissible infections (TTI and helps improve blood safety. NAT testing can be done individually or in pools. The objectives of this study were to determine the utility, feasibility and cost effectiveness of an in-house minipool-NAT(MP-NAT. Materials and Methods: Blood donors were screened by history, tested by ELISA and sero-negative samples were subjected to an in-house NAT by using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Testing was done in mini-pools of size eight (8. Positive pools were repeated with individual samples. Results: During the study period of Oct 2005-Sept 2010 (5 years all blood donors (n=53729 were screened by ELISA. Of which 469 (0.87% were positive for HIV-1, HBV or HCV. Sero-negative samples (n=53260 were screened by in-house MP-NAT. HIV-NAT yield was 1/53260 (n=1 and HBV NAT yield (n=2 was 1/26630. Conclusion: NAT yield was lower than other India studies possibly due to the lower sero-reactivity amongst our donors. Nevertheless it intercepted 9 lives including the components prepared. The in-house assay met our objective of improving blood safety at nominal cost and showed that it is feasible to set up small molecular biology units in medium-large sized blood banks and deliver blood within 24-48 hours. The utility of NAT (NAT yield will vary based on the donor population, the type of serological test used, the nature of kit employed and the sensitivity of NAT test used. The limitations of our in-house MP-NAT consisted of stringent sample preparation requirements, with labor and time involved. The benefits of our MP-NAT were that it acted as a second level of check for ELISA tests, was relatively inexpensive compared to ID-NAT and did not need sophisticated equipment.

  13. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøndum, E.; Hasenkam, John Michael; Secher, Niels H.

    2009-01-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended...... unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular...... veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head...

  14. False positive indium-111 white blood cell scan in a closed clavicle fracture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedman, R.J.; Gordon, L.

    1988-01-01

    Aggressive treatment of the multiply injured patient often requires early fixation of many fractures, some of which may be open. Often, patients develop postoperative fevers requiring a thorough workup to rule out infection. Recently, indium-111 white blood cell (WBC) imaging has become a valuable adjunct in the diagnosis of acute infection. The patient described had a simple, closed clavicle fracture with markedly increased activity on an indium-111 WBC scan obtained for fever workup. This subsequently proved to be a normal, healing, noninfected fracture by other diagnostic techniques. Noninfected, simple closed fractures should be added to the list of causes for a false-positive indium-111 WBC scan

  15. Radionuclide scanning in a study of the pulmonary blood flow with the open arterial canal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizaev, M.N.; Gulyamov, D.S.; Khodzhibekov, M.Kh.; Anvarov, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Characteristic features of the distribution of the arterial pulmonary blood flow have been studied in 32 patients with the open arterial flow by lung scanning with albumin macroaggregate and 131 I. Research was conducted using the gamma-Ochamber ''Fo Gamma LFV'' and the scanner ''Magnaskaner 500I''. Disordered distribution of the pulmonary blood flow expressed in its unilateral decrease was detected in 17 patients (52.9%). A higher frequency of pulmonary hypertension was noted in these patients versus those with a relatively normal distribution of the pulmonary blood flow. A severe course of the disease was observed in high pulmonary hypertension combined with sharp suppression of the blood flow in one of the lungs or with signs of the shift from the right to the left side

  16. Jugular venous pooling during lowering of the head affects blood pressure of the anesthetized giraffe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brøndum, E; Hasenkam, J M; Secher, N H; Bertelsen, M F; Grøndahl, C; Petersen, K K; Buhl, R; Aalkjaer, C; Baandrup, U; Nygaard, H; Smerup, M; Stegmann, F; Sloth, E; Ostergaard, K H; Nissen, P; Runge, M; Pitsillides, K; Wang, T

    2009-10-01

    How blood flow and pressure to the giraffe's brain are regulated when drinking remains debated. We measured simultaneous blood flow, pressure, and cross-sectional area in the carotid artery and jugular vein of five anesthetized and spontaneously breathing giraffes. The giraffes were suspended in the upright position so that we could lower the head. In the upright position, mean arterial pressure (MAP) was 193 +/- 11 mmHg (mean +/- SE), carotid flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and carotid cross-sectional area was 0.85 +/- 0.04 cm(2). Central venous pressure (CVP) was 4 +/- 2 mmHg, jugular flow was 0.7 +/- 0.2 l/min, and jugular cross-sectional area was 0.14 +/- 0.04 cm(2) (n = 4). Carotid arterial and jugular venous pressures at head level were 118 +/- 9 and -7 +/- 4 mmHg, respectively. When the head was lowered, MAP decreased to 131 +/- 13 mmHg, while carotid cross-sectional area and flow remained unchanged. Cardiac output was reduced by 30%, CVP decreased to -1 +/- 2 mmHg (P blood in the veins. When the head was raised, the jugular veins collapsed and blood was returned to the central circulation, and CVP and cardiac output were restored. The results demonstrate that in the upright-positioned, anesthetized giraffe cerebral blood flow is governed by arterial pressure without support of a siphon mechanism and that when the head is lowered, blood accumulates in the vein, affecting MAP.

  17. A new 99mTc-red blood cell labeling procedure for cardiac blood pool imaging: Clinical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelbaek, H.; Buelow, K.; Aldershvile, J.; Moegelyang, J.; Nielsen, S.L.; Copenhagen Univ.

    1989-01-01

    The first clinical results of a new 99m Tc-red blood cell labeling procedure avoiding cell centrifugation are presented. One ml heparinized blood samples were incubated with small amounts of a stannous kit. By titration studies, ideal quantities of sodium hypochlorite for oxidation of extracellular tin and of EDTA as stabilizer of the label were found. The Cl - concentration and pH of the labeled blood were acceptable, and EDTA increased labeling yield and stability determined in vitro by a few percent. The new procedure gave a slightly higher labeling yield than a current technique using centrifugation of cells. Labeling efficiency expressed as cell bound/total activity was 96.6%±1.3% in healthy subjects and 95.5%±2.2% in cardiac patients and remained high for 2 h after reinjection. The biological halflife of labeled cells following the new procedure was 11-12 h rendering it suitable for serial determinations of radionuclide cardiography. (orig.)

  18. Spleen scanning with 99Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells after splenectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spencer, G.R.; Bird, C.; Prothero, D.L.; Brown, T.R.; Mackenzie, F.A.F.; Phillips, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    In order to correlate the haematological changes which occur after splenectomy, with the presence or absence of residual splenic tissue, spleen scans using 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled red blood cells were performed in 36 patients who had had a splenectomy. Positive spleen scans were found in 44 per cent (8 out of 18) of patients who had undergone splenectomy for trauma and in 17 per cent (3 out of 18) of patients who had undergone elective splenectomy. No relationship was found between the presence of Howell-Jolly bodies, platelet counts, the levels of IgG, IgM and IgA and the scan result. It is concluded that these findings are due to the presence of splenunculi, whose incidence is more common than the 12 per cent usually quoted. (author)

  19. Use of pooled blood plasmas in the assessment of fouling resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bologna Alles, A.; Brynda, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 5 (2014), s. 2318-2321 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : blood plasma * fouling * biomaterials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  20. Genome-wide scans using archived neonatal dried blood spot samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiuf Carsten

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identification of disease susceptible genes requires access to DNA from numerous well-characterised subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot samples from national newborn screening programs may provide DNA from entire populations and medical registries the corresponding clinical information. The amount of DNA available in these samples is however rarely sufficient for reliable genome-wide scans, and whole-genome amplification may thus be necessary. This study assess the quality of DNA obtained from different amplification protocols by evaluating fidelity and robustness of the genotyping of 610,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms, using the Illumina Infinium HD Human610-Quad BeadChip. Whole-genome amplified DNA from 24 neonatal dried blood spot samples stored between 15 to 25 years was tested, and high-quality genomic DNA from 8 of the same individuals was used as reference. Results Using 3.2 mm disks from dried blood spot samples the optimal DNA-extraction and amplification protocol resulted in call-rates between 99.15% – 99.73% (mean 99.56%, N = 16, and conflicts with reference DNA in only three per 10,000 genotype calls. Conclusion Whole-genome amplified DNA from archived neonatal dried blood spot samples can be used for reliable genome-wide scans and is a cost-efficient alternative to collecting new samples.

  1. MRT of experimental liver abscesses - comparison of a new blood pool contrast agent with gadolinium-DTPA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dick, A.; Adam, G.; Spuentrup, E.; Prescher, A.; Muehler, A.; Guenther, R.W.

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: In an experimental pyogenic liver abscess model, the signal intensities were compared intraindividually and interindividually after the application of a new blood pool contrast agent, 24-gadolinium-DTPA (diethylenetriamine-pentaacetic acid) cascade polymer, and after the application of gadopentetate dimeglumine. Methods: In 20 rabbits with experimentally induced liver abscesses, the relative signal intensities of the liver, abscess centre, abscess wall and portal vein were assessed before and between 30 seconds and 60 minutes after injection of a 25 μmol/kg dose of gadolinium polymer and of 100 μmol/kg of gadolinium-DTPA, respectively. Measurements were performed at 1.5 Tesla, using a head coil and a Flash-2-D sequence. Results: The interindividual comparison (unpaired T-test, p [de

  2. A Giant Hepatic Hemangioma Complicated by Kasabach-Merritt Syndrome: Findings of Tc-99m RBC Scintigraphy and SPECT Including a Total Body Blood Pool Imaging Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yim, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-02-15

    Kasabach-Merritt syndrome (KMS) consists of thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, and localized consumption coagulopathy that develops within vascular hemangioma. This syndrome may also be associated with occult hemangiomas located at various sites. Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT have proven to be reliable for confirming or excluding hemangioma. Total body blood pool imaging study during the scintigraphy also provides a means of screening for occult lesions. The authors report the case of a 29-year-old man who presented with a giant hepatic hemangioma complicated by KMS, and underwent Tc-99m RBC scintigraphy and SPECT including a total body blood pool imaging study.

  3. MR angiography of collateral arteries in a hind limb ischemia model: comparison between blood pool agent Gadomer and small contrast agent Gd-DTPA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolien Jaspers

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the blood pool agent Gadomer with a small contrast agent for the visualization of ultra-small, collateral arteries (diameter0.10. Inter-observer variation was 24% and 18% for Gadomer and Gd-DTPA, respectively. In conclusion, blood pool agent Gadomer improved vessel conspicuity compared to Gd-DTPA. Steady-state MRA can be considered as an excellent non-invasive alternative to intra-arterial XRA for the visualization of ultra-small collateral arteries.

  4. Assessing the performance of multiplexed tandem PCR for the diagnosis of pathogenic genotypes of Theileria orientalis using pooled blood samples from cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebrekidan, Hagos; Gasser, Robin B; Stevenson, Mark A; McGrath, Sean; Jabbar, Abdul

    2017-02-01

    Oriental theileriosis caused by multiple genotypes of Theileria orientalis is an important tick-borne disease of bovines. Here, we assessed the performance of an established multiplexed tandem PCR (MT-PCR) for the diagnosis of the two recognized, pathogenic genotypes (chitose and ikeda) of T. orientalis in cattle using pooled blood samples. We used a total of 265 cattle blood samples, which were divided into two groups according to previous MT-PCR results for individual samples. Samples in group 1 (n = 155) were from a herd with a relatively high prevalence of T. orientalis infection; and those in group 2 (n = 110) were from four herds with a low prevalence. For group 1, 31 and 15 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. For group 2, 22 and 11 batches of five- and ten-pooled samples (selected at random), respectively, were formed. DNAs from individual pooled samples in each batch and group were then tested by MT-PCR. For group 1, the apparent prevalences estimated using the 31 batches of five-pooled samples (97%) and 15 batches of ten-pooled samples (100%) were significantly higher compared with individual samples (75%). For group 2, higher apparent prevalences (9% and 36%) were also recorded for the 22 and 11 batches of pooled samples, respectively, compared with individual samples (7%). Overall, the average infection intensity recorded for the genotypes of chitose and ikeda were considerably lower in pooled compared with individual samples. The diagnostic specificities of MT-PCR were estimated at 95% and 94%, respectively, when batches of five- and ten-pooled samples were tested, and 94% for individual samples. The diagnostic sensitivity of this assay was estimated at 98% same for all individual, five- and ten-pooled samples. This study shows that screening batches of five- and ten-pooled blood samples from cattle herds are similar to those obtained for individual samples, and, importantly, that the reduced cost

  5. Evaluation of left ventricular function during exercise in patients with ischemic heart disease using multigated blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohmori, Yoshiaki; Kanoh, Yasushi; Shiotani, Hideyuki; Fujitani, Kazuhiro; Fukuzaki, Hisashi; Kajiya, Teishi; Nakashima, Yoshiharu; Maeda, Kazumi.

    1985-01-01

    Multigated blood pool scintigraphy (exercise RI ventriculography) and exercise stress thallium-201 myocardial scintigraphy were performed in 44 ischemic heart disease (IHD) patients (16 with angina pectoris and 28 with old myocardial infarction) and 11 healthy persons. Furthermore, blood circulation was examined in 38 of the subjects. Work load was significantly greater, and the number of diseased vessels and the incidence of indicators for transient ischemia during exercise were significantly lower in the group with a remarkably increased left ventricular ejection fraction (EF) during exercise than in the group with a remarkably decreased EF. In the group with unchanged EF, reginal left ventricular wall movement could be assessed using phase analysis. In IHD patients with a remarkably decreased EF at rest, EF was scarcely changed during exercise, and indicators for transient ischemia were not observed frequently. There was a highly significnat correlation between EF during exercise and pulmonary artery wedge pressure or cardiac index during exercise, suggesting that EF is a noninvasive indicator for coronary circulation during exercise. Exercise RI ventriculography was considered useful for evaluating the physiology of IHD. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. Three-phase bone scan and indium white blood cell scintigraphy following porous coated hip arthroplasty: A prospective study of the prosthetic tip

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oswald, S.G.; Van Nostrand, D.; Savory, C.G.; Callaghan, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Although few reports address the use of three-phase bone scanning (TPBS) and 111 In-labeled white blood cell (In-WBC) scintigraphy in hip arthroplasty utilizing a porous coated prosthesis, the literature suggests that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient may differ from that seen in the cemented prosthesis. In an attempt to determine the scintigraphic natural history, 25 uncomplicated porous coated hip arthroplasties in 21 patients were prospectively studied with serial TPBS and In-WBC at approximately 7 days, and at 3, 6, 12, 18, and 24 mo postoperatively. This report deals with findings related to the prosthetic tip. Only one of 136 flow studies were abnormal and only two of 136 blood-pool images demonstrated focally increased activity. All 25 prostheses (120 of 143 scans) demonstrated increased uptake on the bone phase images. The area about the tip was divided into three segments; increased uptake at 24 mo was noted in the medial, distal, and lateral segments in 16%, 72%, and 56% of prostheses, respectively. Twenty of 25 prostheses (82 of 142 scans) showed uptake on In-WBC scintigraphy, being noted in 48% of prostheses at 24 mo. We conclude that scintigraphic patterns in the uncomplicated patient with a porous coated prosthesis appear to differ from patterns described in cemented prostheses

  7. PCR-based pooling of dried blood spots for detection of malaria parasites: optimization and application to a cohort of Ugandan children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiang, Michelle S; Lin, Michael; Dokomajilar, Christian; Kemere, Jordan; Pilcher, Christopher D; Dorsey, Grant; Greenhouse, Bryan

    2010-10-01

    Sensitive, high-throughput methods to detect malaria parasites in low-transmission settings are needed. PCR-based pooling strategies may offer a solution. We first used laboratory-prepared samples to compare 2 DNA extraction and 4 PCR detection methods across a range of pool sizes and parasite densities. Pooled Chelex extraction of DNA, followed by nested PCR of cytochrome b, was the optimal strategy, allowing reliable detection of a single low-parasitemic sample (100 parasites/μl) in pool sizes up to 50. This PCR-based pooling strategy was then compared with microscopy using 891 dried blood spots from a cohort of 77 Ugandan children followed for 2 years in an urban setting of low endemicity. Among 419 febrile episodes, 35 cases of malaria were detected using the PCR-based pooling strategy and 40 cases using microscopy. All five cases of malaria not detected by PCR were from samples stored for >2 years with parasitemia of parasites using dried blood spots offers a sensitive and efficient approach for malaria surveillance in low-transmission settings, enabling improved detection of asymptomatic submicroscopic infections and dramatic savings in labor and costs.

  8. Influence of scan strategy and molten pool configuration on microstructures and tensile properties of selective laser melting additive manufactured aluminum based parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Donghua; Gu, Dongdong; Zhang, Han; Xiong, Jiapeng; Ma, Chenglong; Hong, Chen; Poprawe, Reinhart

    2018-02-01

    Selective laser melting additive manufacturing of the AlSi12 material parts through the re-melting of the previously solidified layer using the continuous two layers 90° rotate scan strategy was conducted. The influence of the re-melting behavior and scan strategy on the formation of the ;track-track; and ;layer-layer; molten pool boundaries (MPBs), dimensional accuracy, microstructure feature, tensile properties, microscopic sliding behavior and the fracture mechanism as loaded a tensile force has been studied. It showed that the defects, such as the part distortion, delamination and cracks, were significantly eliminated with the deformation rate less than 1%. The microstructure of a homogeneous distribution of the Si phase, no apparent grain orientation on both sides of the MPBs, was produced in the as-fabricated part, promoting the efficient transition of the load stress. Cracks preferentially initiate at the ;track-track; MPBs when the tensile stress increases to a certain value, resulting in the formation of the cleavage steps along the tensile loading direction. The cracks propagate along the ;layer-layer; MPBs, generating the fine dimples. The mechanical behavior of the SLM-processed AlSi12 parts can be significantly enhanced with the ultimate tensile strength, yield strength and elongation of 476.3 MPa, 315.5 MPa and 6.7%, respectively.

  9. Usefulness of diastolic phase index by gated cardiac blood pool imaging in patients with left ventricular hypertrophy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi; Murano, Kenichi; Usami, Masahisa; Honda, Minoru

    1983-09-01

    To assess the left ventricular (LV) diastolic filling rate in patients with LV hypertrophy, we analyzed LV time activity curves obtained from gated cardiac blood pool imaging. Gated cardiac blood pool imaging with Tc-99m were obtained at rest in 20 normal subjects, 20 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) and 10 patients with hypertensive hypertrophy (HT). As systolic indices we obtained LV ejection fraction (EF) and mean first third ejection rate (1/3 ER/sub mean/). And as diastolic indices, mean filling rate during the first third of diastole (1/3 FR/sub mean/) and maximal filling rate during the whole diastole (FRmax) were calculated. LVEF and 1/3 ER/sub mean/ in patients with HT were not different significantly from normal, but those in patients with HCM were significantly greater than normal, besides 1/3 ER/sub mean/ in patients with HCM was greater than that in HT. Among diastolic phase indices, FRmax was not different significantly between 3 groups, but 1/3 FR/sub mean/ in HCM (1.47 +- 0.30 sec/sup 1/) and HT (1.34 +- 0.38 sec/sup 1/) was significantly lower than normal (2.10 +- 0.27 sec/sup 1/). Abnormal 1/3 FR/sub mean/ (<1.56 sec/sup 1/) was found in 65% of HCM and 80% of HT. Besides, in patients with HCM, 10 patients who had exertional dyspnea and anginal chest pain (NYHA Class II or III) showed significantly lower 1/3 FR/sub mean/ values than 10 patients without symptoms (1.25 +- 0.15 sec/sup 1/ vs 1.70 +- 0.25 sec/sup 1/. 1/3 FR/sub mean/ did not correlated well with LV wall thickness (summation of septal and posterior wall thickness) which was measured by ecohocardiography. But the ratio of 1/3 FR/sub mean/ to 1/3 ER/sub mean/ correlated well (r=-0.77 wall thickness in patients with LV hypertrophy. (J.P.N.).

  10. Ventricular emptying performance in patients with tetralogy of Fallot; Assessment with Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kan; Maeda, Hisato; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Tsunao; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Matsuda, Akira (Mie Univ., Tsu (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1989-12-01

    Comparison of emptying patterns between left and right ventricles (LV, RV) was performed with Fourier analysis of gated blood-pool data in patients with tetralogy of Fallot (TF). Using global time-activity curves, the phase and amplitude at the first-harmonic component of Fourier series were calculated and emptying patterns of both ventricles were evaluated by phase difference {l brace}D(phase)=RV phase minus LV phase{r brace} and RV/LV amplitude ratio {l brace}R(amp){r brace}. In 20 patients with normal cardiac function, D(phase) was minimal (mean 2.0{plus minus}6.6 degrees) and R(amp) was less than 1.0 (mean 0.60{plus minus}0.19). In 11 patients with TF, D(phase) was significantly larger than normal, with a mean value of 24.3{plus minus}10.0 degrees (p<0.01) and became greater in a reversed proportion to the ratio of the pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow (p<0.01). In all but one cases with TF, R(amp) was greater than 1.0 with a mean value of 1.4{plus minus}0.4, significantly larger than normal (p<0.001). Furthermore, using time-activity curves approximated by terms up to the 3rd-harmonic component, the temporal difference in emptying patterns between both ventricles was investigated. In TF cases, the time from end-diastole to minimum count (T2) was significantly larger in RV than in LV (p<0.001). The elongated T2 interval of RV seemed to play an important role in producing RV phase lag. Thus, this non-invasive method is valuable for pathophysiologic investigation of patients with TF and can be of help in estimating the severity of their disease. (author).

  11. Integrating atlas and graph cut methods for right ventricle blood-pool segmentation from cardiac cine MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Shusil; Linte, Cristian A.

    2017-03-01

    Segmentation of right ventricle from cardiac MRI images can be used to build pre-operative anatomical heart models to precisely identify regions of interest during minimally invasive therapy. Furthermore, many functional parameters of right heart such as right ventricular volume, ejection fraction, myocardial mass and thickness can also be assessed from the segmented images. To obtain an accurate and computationally efficient segmentation of right ventricle from cardiac cine MRI, we propose a segmentation algorithm formulated as an energy minimization problem in a graph. Shape prior obtained by propagating label from an average atlas using affine registration is incorporated into the graph framework to overcome problems in ill-defined image regions. The optimal segmentation corresponding to the labeling with minimum energy configuration of the graph is obtained via graph-cuts and is iteratively refined to produce the final right ventricle blood pool segmentation. We quantitatively compare the segmentation results obtained from our algorithm to the provided gold-standard expert manual segmentation for 16 cine-MRI datasets available through the MICCAI 2012 Cardiac MR Right Ventricle Segmentation Challenge according to several similarity metrics, including Dice coefficient, Jaccard coefficient, Hausdorff distance, and Mean absolute distance error.

  12. The effect of varying the acquisition angle on processing and ejection fractions in gated blood pool studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, K.; Schults, C.G.; Trinh, T.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Suboptimal ventricular definition has been blamed for difficulties in processing and variations in Ejection Fraction (EF). Clinical patients had Gated Blood Pool Studies (GBPS) performed by one of two operators, ensuring good left ventricular separation and definition. With patient consent, another study was acquired with the camera angle altered in the caudal or septal plane. Using GE Entegra GBPS Software, which allows some operator involvement in modifying the automated systolic and diastolic regions, the studies were analysed by eight 'blinded' technologists. Analyses of optimal and suboptimal acquisitions were compared. The mean, standard deviation (SD) and coefficient of variation (CV%) were determined for each patient's set of EFs. There was no significant difference in the means of the optimal and suboptimal groups (61.2% and 61.7%). One third of the suboptimal studies acquired gave a mean EF that differed by more than 5% from the Optimal' mean. The average CV of all analyses was 4.5%. The optima] group CV 4.7% (septal 4.6%/caudal 4.8%) and the suboptimal group CV 4.3% (septal 4.5%/caudal 4.2%). The analysis demonstrates that precision of processing GBPS is not affected when the study is acquired at a suboptimal angle. Although most EF results are reliable when acquired at a suboptimal angle, approximately one third will produce an EF that varies from the optimal result by more than 5%. Copyright (2002) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  13. Genome-wide SNP scan of pooled DNA reveals nonsense mutation in FGF20 in the scaleless line of featherless chickens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wells Kirsty L

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaleless (sc/sc chickens carry a single recessive mutation that causes a lack of almost all body feathers, as well as foot scales and spurs, due to a failure of skin patterning during embryogenesis. This spontaneous mutant line, first described in the 1950s, has been used extensively to explore the tissue interactions involved in ectodermal appendage formation in embryonic skin. Moreover, the trait is potentially useful in tropical agriculture due to the ability of featherless chickens to tolerate heat, which is at present a major constraint to efficient poultry meat production in hot climates. In the interests of enhancing our understanding of feather placode development, and to provide the poultry industry with a strategy to breed heat-tolerant meat-type chickens (broilers, we mapped and identified the sc mutation. Results Through a cost-effective and labour-efficient SNP array mapping approach using DNA from sc/sc and sc/+ blood sample pools, we map the sc trait to chromosome 4 and show that a nonsense mutation in FGF20 is completely associated with the sc/sc phenotype. This mutation, common to all sc/sc individuals and absent from wild type, is predicted to lead to loss of a highly conserved region of the FGF20 protein important for FGF signalling. In situ hybridisation and quantitative RT-PCR studies reveal that FGF20 is epidermally expressed during the early stages of feather placode patterning. In addition, we describe a dCAPS genotyping assay based on the mutation, developed to facilitate discrimination between wild type and sc alleles. Conclusions This work represents the first loss of function genetic evidence supporting a role for FGF ligand signalling in feather development, and suggests FGF20 as a novel central player in the development of vertebrate skin appendages, including hair follicles and exocrine glands. In addition, this is to our knowledge the first report describing the use of the chicken SNP array to

  14. Robustness of genome-wide scanning using archived dried blood spot samples as a DNA source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollegaard, Mads V; Grove, Jakob; Grauholm, Jonas; Kreiner-Møller, Eskil; Bønnelykke, Klaus; Nørgaard, Mette; Benfield, Thomas L; Nørgaard-Pedersen, Bent; Mortensen, Preben B; Mors, Ole; Sørensen, Henrik T; Harboe, Zitta B; Børglum, Anders D; Demontis, Ditte; Ørntoft, Torben F; Bisgaard, Hans; Hougaard, David M

    2011-07-04

    The search to identify disease-susceptible genes requires access to biological material from numerous well-characterized subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot (DBS) samples, also known as Guthrie cards, from national newborn screening programs may provide a DNA source for entire populations. Combined with clinical information from medical registries, DBS samples could provide a rich source for productive research. However, the amounts of DNA which can be extracted from these precious samples are minute and may be prohibitive for numerous genotypings. Previously, we demonstrated that DBS DNA can be whole-genome amplified and used for reliable genetic analysis on different platforms, including genome-wide scanning arrays. However, it remains unclear whether this approach is workable on a large sample scale. We examined the robustness of using DBS samples for whole-genome amplification following genome-wide scanning, using arrays from Illumina and Affymetrix. This study is based on 4,641 DBS samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank, extracted for three separate genome-wide association studies. The amount of amplified DNA was significantly (P Biobank represent a reliable resource of DNA for whole-genome amplification and subsequent genome-wide association studies. With call-rates equivalent to high quality DNA samples, our results point to new opportunities for using the neonatal biobanks available worldwide in the hunt for genetic components of disease.

  15. Robustness of genome-wide scanning using archived dried blood spot samples as a DNA source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Børglum Anders D

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The search to identify disease-susceptible genes requires access to biological material from numerous well-characterized subjects. Archived residual dried blood spot (DBS samples, also known as Guthrie cards, from national newborn screening programs may provide a DNA source for entire populations. Combined with clinical information from medical registries, DBS samples could provide a rich source for productive research. However, the amounts of DNA which can be extracted from these precious samples are minute and may be prohibitive for numerous genotypings. Previously, we demonstrated that DBS DNA can be whole-genome amplified and used for reliable genetic analysis on different platforms, including genome-wide scanning arrays. However, it remains unclear whether this approach is workable on a large sample scale. We examined the robustness of using DBS samples for whole-genome amplification following genome-wide scanning, using arrays from Illumina and Affymetrix. Results This study is based on 4,641 DBS samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank, extracted for three separate genome-wide association studies. The amount of amplified DNA was significantly (P Conclusion Our study indicates that archived DBS samples from the Danish Newborn Screening Biobank represent a reliable resource of DNA for whole-genome amplification and subsequent genome-wide association studies. With call-rates equivalent to high quality DNA samples, our results point to new opportunities for using the neonatal biobanks available worldwide in the hunt for genetic components of disease.

  16. Gated blood-pool SPECT assessment of Wolff-Parkinson-White syndromes before and after radiofrequency ablation of accessory pathways

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bontemps, L.; Ben Brahim, H.; Kraiem, T.; Chevalier, P.; Kirkorian, G.; Touboul, P.; Itti, R.

    1997-01-01

    Radiofrequency (RF) ablation of accessory pathways in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is supposed to be less aggressive than fulguration while providing excellent results. The aims of our study were therefore the evaluation of the functional results of this therapy in terms of left or right ejection fractions and its effects on the contraction synchronism between both ventricular chambers, derived from bi-ventricular Fourier phase histograms. A consecutive series of 44 patients has been investigated within 48 hours before and after RF therapy: 14 patients had right sided WPW and 30 patients left sided WPW. Only patients for whom RF treatment was considered as a success have been included in the study. Gated blood pool tomography has been performed in order to localize the site of pre-excitation and to build-up the phase histograms for both ventricles, and planar gated imaging has been used for right and left ejection fraction determination. Functional results demonstrate the absence of deleterious effect of RF on ventricular contraction and rather a slight increase of ejection fractions, with a more statistically significant difference for left WPW (LVEF = 62.2 % before RF vs 64.4 % after RF; p = 0.02) than for right WPW (RVEF = 36.3 % before RF vs 39.7 after RF; p = 0.16). Phase analysis, on the contrary, show only significant differences for right WPW, with a noticeable decrease of the pre-excitation (left-to-right phase difference 14.4 deg before RF vs 7.5 deg after RF; p = 0.03) and a significant reduction of the right ventricular phase dispersion (right phase standard deviation 26.5 deg before RF vs 19.0 deg after RF; p = 0.03). For left WPW no measurable differences can be demonstrated in the basal state and it is suggested to use stimulation techniques in order to enhance the competition between the normal and accessory conduction pathways. (authors)

  17. Comparison of blood pool and extracellular gadolinium chelate for functional MR evaluation of vascular thoracic outlet syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Ruth P., E-mail: ruthplim74@gmail.com [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Austin Health, Department of Radiology, Heidelberg, Victoria 3084 (Australia); The University of Melbourne, School of Medicine, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia); Bruno, Mary, E-mail: mary.bruno@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Rosenkrantz, Andrew B., E-mail: Andrew.rosenkrantz@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Kim, Danny C., E-mail: danny.kim@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Mulholland, Thomas, E-mail: Thomas.mulholland@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Kwon, Jane, E-mail: jane.kwon@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Bernard and Irene Schwartz Center for Biomedical Imaging, Department of Radiology, 660 1st Avenue, New York, NY 10016 (United States); Palfrey, Amy P., E-mail: amy.pastva10@stjohns.edu [St John' s University, Department of Psychology, 8000 Utopia Parkway, Jamaica-Queens, NY 11439 (United States); Ogedegbe, Olugbenga, E-mail: Olugbenga.Ogedegbe@nyumc.org [New York University School of Medicine, Clinical and Translational Science Institute, 227 E30th St, 8th Floor, New York, NY 10016 (United States)

    2014-07-15

    Objective: To compare performance of single-injection blood pool agent (gadofosveset trisodium, BPA) against dual-injection extracellular contrast (gadopentetate dimeglumine, ECA) for MRA/MRV in assessment of suspected vascular TOS. Materials and methods: Thirty-one patients referred for vascular TOS evaluation were assessed with BPA (n = 18) or ECA (n = 13) MRA/MRV in arm abduction and adduction. Images were retrospectively assessed for: image quality (1 = non-diagnostic, 5 = excellent), vessel contrast (1 = same signal as muscle, 4 = much brighter than muscle) and vascular pathology by two independent readers, with a separate experienced reader providing reference assessment of vascular pathology. Results: Median image quality was diagnostic or better (score ≥3) for ECA and BPA at all time points, with BPA image quality superior at abduction late (BPA 4.5, ECA 4, p = 0.042) and ECA image quality superior at adduction-early (BPA 4.5; ECA 4.0, p = 0.018). High qualitative vessel contrast (mean score ≥3) was observed at all time points with both BPA and ECA, with superior BPA vessel contrast at abduction-late (BPA 3.97 ± 0.12; ECA 3.73 ± 0.26, p = 0.007) and ECA at adduction-early (BPA 3.42 ± 0.52; ECA 3.96 ± 0.14, p < 0.001). Readers readily identified arterial and venous pathology with BPA, similar to ECA examinations. Conclusion: Single-injection BPA MRA/MRV for TOS evaluation demonstrated diagnostic image quality and high vessel contrast, similar to dual-injection ECA imaging, enabling identification of fixed and functional arterial and venous pathology.

  18. Assessment of myocardial perfusion abnormality and hibernating myocardium by gated blood pool and exercise-stress thallium tomographies after successful coronary angioplasty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashimoto, Akiyoshi; Nakata, Tomoaki; Tsuchihashi, Kazufumi

    1993-01-01

    Cardiac function and myocardial perfusion were assessed by exercise-stress thallium SPECT and resting gated blood pool SPECT techniques before and after 47 successful coronary angioplasties. Thallium perfusion was analyzed visually and quantitatively in stress and resting studies. Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) and peak filling rate (PFR) were calculated and regional wall motion was scored by amplitude and phase images in radionuclide planar and tomographic imagings. The thallium redistribution in delayed or resting SPECTs was more sensitive (87%) for detecting myocardial ischemia compared to symptoms (36%) and ECG changes (60%). An exercise capacity, LVEF, PFR, and the scores of perfusion and regional wall motion were improved significantly after coronary angioplasty. Stress thallium and gated blood pool SPECTs showed the improvements of myocardial perfusion in 159 (79%) of 201 segments and regional wall motion in 47 (51%) of 92 segments, respectively. These results suggest that the combined use of stress thallium SPECT, gated blood pool planar and SPECT techniques can contribute not only to the assessment of the efficacy of coronary angioplasty but also to detecting the mismatching of myocardial perfusion and contraction ('myocardial hibernation') in infarct-related myocardial lesions. (author)

  19. [Pooled Umbilical Cord Blood Plasma for Culturing UCMSC and Ex Vivo Expanding Umbilical Cord Blood CD34⁺ Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie-Ying; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jin-Song; Wu, Shao-Qing; Tang, Xue-Wei; Li, Yan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of umbilical cord blood plasma (UCP) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from umbilical cord, and to observe the supporting effects of these cells (served as a feeder layer) on ex vivo expanding of human umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) units were suitable if the Guangzhou cord blood bank donor selection criteria strictly were fulfilled. UCP were ready to use after the collection from the plasma depletion/reduction during the processing and pooling of suitable UCB units (at least 30 units were screened for pathogens and microorganisms, and qualified). Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) were harvested from the umbilical cord tissue of health full-term newborns after delivery by enzyme digestion and divided into 3 groups: group 1 and 2 were cultured in the presence of DMEM/F12 containing either FBS or UCP; and group 3 was cultured in serum-free medium (StemPro® MSC SFM CTS™). Morphology, proliferation and surface marker expression were examined by flow cytometry, and the differentiation toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages was used for investigating the effect of media on UCMSC after 3-5 passages. Next, the cells cultured in the three different media were cryopreserved and thawed, then prepared as feeder layers with the name of UCMSC(FBS), UCMSC(UCP), and UCMSC(SFM), respectively. The CD34⁺ cells were separated from UCB by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and divided into 4 groups cultured in StemPro(-34) SFM medium added with hematopoietic cytokine combination (StemSpan® CC100). The control group included only CD34⁺ cells as group A (blank control) and experimental groups included UCMSC(FBS) + CD34⁺ cells as group B, UCMSC(UCP) + CD34⁺ cells as group C, UCMSC(SFM) + CD34⁺ cells as group D, and cells in all groups were cultured ex vivo for 7 days. The nucleated cell (NC) number was counted by cell counter, CD34

  20. Cardiac cine MRI: Comparison of 1.5 T, non-enhanced 3.0 T and blood pool enhanced 3.0 T imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerretsen, S.C.; Versluis, B.; Bekkers, S.C.A.M.; Leiner, T.

    2008-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiac cine imaging using balanced steady state free precession sequences (bSSFP) suffers from artefacts at 3.0 T. We compared bSSFP cardiac cine imaging at 1.5 T with gradient echo imaging at 3.0 T with and without a blood pool contrast agent. Materials and methods: Eleven patients referred for cardiac cine imaging underwent imaging at 1.5 T and 3.0 T. At 3.0 T images were acquired before and after administration of 0.03 mmol/kg gadofosveset. Blood pool signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), temporal variations in SNR, ejection fraction and myocardial mass were compared. Subjective image quality was scored on a four-point scale. Results: Blood pool SNR increased with more than 75% at 3.0 T compared to 1.5 T (p < 0.001); after contrast administration at 3.0 T SNR increased with 139% (p < 0.001). However, variations in blood pool SNR at 3.0 T were nearly three times as high versus those at 1.5 T in the absence of contrast medium (p < 0.001); after contrast administration this was reduced to approximately a factor 1.4 (p = 0.21). Saturation artefacts led to significant overestimation of ejection fraction in the absence of contrast administration (1.5 T: 44.7 ± 3.1 vs. 3.0 T: 50.7 ± 4.2 [p = 0.04] vs. 3.0 T post contrast: 43.4 ± 2.9 [p = 0.55]). Subjective image quality was highest for 1.5 T (2.8 ± 0.3), and lowest for non-enhanced 3.0 T (1.7 ± 0.6; p = 0.006). Conclusions: GRE cardiac cine imaging at 3.0 T after injection of the blood pool agent gadofosveset leads to improved objective and subjective cardiac cine image quality at 3.0 T and to the same conclusions regarding cardiac ejection fraction compared to bSSFP imaging at 1.5 T

  1. In vitro and in vivo comparison of a tailored magnetic particle imaging blood pool tracer with Resovist

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Mummert, Tobias; Jung, Caroline; Salamon, Johannes; Khandhar, Amit P.; Ferguson, R. Matthew; Kemp, Scott J.; Ittrich, Harald; Krishnan, Kannan M.; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias

    2017-05-01

    Optimizing tracers for individual imaging techniques is an active field of research. The purpose of this study was to perform in vitro and in vivo magnetic particle imaging (MPI) measurements using a new monodisperse and size-optimized tracer, LS-008, and to compare it with the performance of Resovist, the standard MPI tracer. Magnetic particle spectroscopy (MPS) and in vitro MPI measurements were performed in concerns of concentration and amount of tracer in a phantom. In vivo studies were carried out in healthy FVB mice. The first group (n  =  3) received 60 µl LS-008 (87 mM) and the second (n  =  3) diluted Resovist of the same concentration and volume. Tracer injections were performed with a syringe pump during a dynamic MPI scan. For anatomic referencing MRI was applied beforehand of the MPI measurements. Summing up MPS examinations and in vitro MPI experiments, LS-008 showed better sensitivity and spatial resolution than Resovist. In vivo both tracers can visualize the propagation of the bolus through the inferior vena cava. MPI with LS-008 did show less temporal fluctuation artifacts and the pulsation of blood due to respiratory and cardiac cycle was detectable. With LS-008 the aorta was distinguishable from the caval vein while with Resovist this failed. A liver vessel and a vessel structure leading cranially could only be observed with LS-008 and not with Resovist. Beside these structural advantages both tracers showed very different blood half-life. For LS-008 we found 88 min. Resovist did show a fast liver accumulation and a half-life of 13 min. Only with LS-008 the perfusion fraction in liver and kidney was measureable. MPI for angiography can be significantly improved by applying more effective tracers. LS-008 shows a clear improvement concerning the delineation while resolving a larger number of vessels in comparison to Resovist. Therefore, in aspects of quality and quantity LS-008 is clearly favorable for angiographic and

  2. Finite-element modeling of time-dependent sodium exchange across the hollow fiber of a hemodialyzer by coupling with a blood pool model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravagli, Enrico; Grandi, Elena; Rovatti, Paolo; Severi, Stefano

    2016-11-11

    Hollow fiber models describe the exchange of solutes between blood and dialysate across the membrane of a single fiber of the hemodialysis filter (hemodialyzer). This work aims to develop a new approach to simulate the solute exchange in a hollow fiber in a dynamic and realistic way. Sodium was chosen as our solute of interest due to its importance in hemodialysis as an osmotic regulator. A 2-dimensional (2D) hollow fiber model based on the finite element method (FEM) is coupled to a simple blood pool model to dynamically update the concentration of the solute entering the dialyzer. The resulting coupled model maintains the geometrical detail of the 2D fiber representation and gains a dynamic, blood-side inlet solute concentration. In vitro dialysis sessions were carried out for model validation, by implementing a combination of blood volume loss and/or sodium concentration steps. Plasmatic sodium concentration was recorded by blood gas sampling. Dialysate inlet and outlet conductivities were continuously recorded. Simulated plasmatic sodium concentration was compared with data from the blood gas samples. A mean error of 1.76 ± 1.03 mM was found for the complete dataset, along with a 3.87 mM maximum error. The simulated outlet dialysate sodium concentration was compared with the recorded outlet dialysate conductivity: a very high correlation was found on the whole dataset (R2 = 0.992). Coupling our FEM hollow fiber model to a simple blood pool model proved to be an effective approach for dynamical analysis of the properties of the hemodialyzer.

  3. Proposta do uso de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade em hematologia Proposal for the use of a pool of whole blood as internal quality control in hematology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carina Daniele Schons

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: A confiabilidade dos resultados do laboratório é garantida pela realização do controle de qualidade, que tem como funções básicas análise, pesquisa e prevenção da ocorrência de erros laboratoriais por meio de programas que abrangem tanto o controle interno quanto o externo. OBJETIVO: Propor a padronização de utilização de pool de sangue total como controle interno de qualidade no setor de hematologia. MÉTODO: Foram selecionadas amostras de sangue total, colhidas com ácido etilenodiaminotetracético (EDTA, de mesmos grupo sanguíneo e fator Rh, livres de interferentes, como hemólise, lipemia e icterícia. De um total de 30 ml de sangue total, obtiveram-se três alíquotas de 10 ml cada, às quais foram adicionados, respectivamente, 0 ml (sem adição, 1 ml e 5 ml de glicerol (conservante. As amostras foram avaliadas em contador automático ADVIA® 60. Após determinação dos valores de média e DP, todas as amostras foram avaliadas por um período de 45 dias úteis para confecção do gráfico de Levey-Jennings e verificação da estabilidade da amostra. RESULTADO E CONCLUSÃO: Podemos verificar que o pool de sangue total, preparado de acordo com a metodologia proposta, não apresenta estabilidade necessária para sua utilização, como controle interno alternativo no setor de hematologia.INTRODUCTION: The reliability of laboratory results is ensured by the implementation of quality control, which has basic functions, such as analysis, research and prevention of laboratory errors through programs that encompass both internal and external control. OBJECTIVE: To propose a standard method to use pooled whole blood as internal quality control in the Hematology division. METHOD: The selected whole blood samples were collected with EDTA, belonged to the same blood group and Rh factor and did not present interfering factors, such as hemolysis, lipemia and icterus. From a total of 30 ml of whole blood it was obtained 3

  4. Diagnostic value of blood thiamine metabolites in Alzheimer's disease examined by11C-PiB PET scanning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhichun; Pan, Xiaoli; Fei, Guoqiang; Pan, Shumei; Bao, Weiqi; Ren, Shuhua; Guan, Yihui; Zhong, Chunjiu

    2017-06-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic value of blood thiamine metabolites for Alzheimer's disease (AD) by using positron emission tomography with 11 C-Pittsburgh compound B ( 11 C-PiB PET) scanning. Thirty-eight clinically diagnosed AD patients were voluntarily recruited. Blood thiamine metabolites were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. All the patients received 11 C-PiB PET scanning for the measurement of cerebral amyloid deposition. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP) had 66.7% sensitivity and 80.0% specificity for AD diagnosis, while the γ-value representing the best combination of thiamine metabolites and age had 24.2% sensitivity and 100.0% specificity according to the cut-off value of our previous study. Blood TDP but not γ-value exhibited results significant for AD diagnosis.

  5. Left ventricular function assessed by multi-gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography with [sup 99m]Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murano, Ken-ichi; Narita, Michihiro; Kurihara, Tadashi (Sumitomo Hospital, Osaka (Japan))

    1992-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of gated blood pool single photon emission computed tomography with [sup 99m]Tc (gated SPECT) for assessing left ventricular (LV) function, we performed gated SPECT in 2 normal subjects and 18 patients including 13 with ischemic heart disease, 3 with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy and 2 with dilated cardiomyopathy. LV end-diastolic volume (LVEDV), LV ejection fraction (LVEF) and regional wall motion obtained by gated SPECT were compared with the results of contrast left ventriculography (contrast LVG), echocardiography and planar multigated blood pool imaging (planar blood pool). After the patients' red blood cells were labelled with 30 mCi (1,110 MBq) [sup 99m]Tc in vivo, gated SPECT was performed in each of 32 projections through a 360 degree arc for each of the cardiac cycle divided into 16. From these images, the left ventricular vertical long-axis image, the horizontal long-axis and short-axis images were reconstructed. To calculate LVEDV, we used serial short-axis images which were composed of LV. To define LV and left atrial borders, we used amplitude images and cinematic displays of the vertical long-axis image. The level of the optimal cut for delineating the LV border was determined from the volume-cut-level-graph at each background activity, which was constructed by a phantom study. LV wall motion by gated SPECT was compared with the results of contrast LVG according to segmental analysis. LVEDV obtained by gated SPECT showed an excellent linear correlation with LVEDV calculated by echocardiography (r=0.98) and by contrast LVG (r=0.89). LVEF as determined by gated SPECT correlated well with the results obtained by the planar blood pool (r=0.94) and by contrast LVG (r=0.94). The visual interpretation of regional wall motion according to gated SPECT agreed with that determined by contrast LVG. We concluded that gated SPECT is a reliable method for assessing LV function. (author).

  6. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamon, Johannes; Hofmann, Martin; Jung, Caroline; Kaul, Michael Gerhard; Werner, Franziska; Them, Kolja; Reimer, Rudolph; Nielsen, Peter; Vom Scheidt, Annika; Adam, Gerhard; Knopp, Tobias; Ittrich, Harald

    2016-01-01

    In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI) / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer. A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4) was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography. Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide. 4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  7. Magnetic Particle / Magnetic Resonance Imaging: In-Vitro MPI-Guided Real Time Catheter Tracking and 4D Angioplasty Using a Road Map and Blood Pool Tracer Approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available In-vitro evaluation of the feasibility of 4D real time tracking of endovascular devices and stenosis treatment with a magnetic particle imaging (MPI / magnetic resonance imaging (MRI road map approach and an MPI-guided approach using a blood pool tracer.A guide wire and angioplasty-catheter were labeled with a thin layer of magnetic lacquer. For real time MPI a custom made software framework was developed. A stenotic vessel phantom filled with saline or superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (MM4 was equipped with bimodal fiducial markers for co-registration in preclinical 7T MRI and MPI. In-vitro angioplasty was performed inflating the balloon with saline or MM4. MPI data were acquired using a field of view of 37.3×37.3×18.6 mm3 and a frame rate of 46 volumes/sec. Analysis of the magnetic lacquer-marks on the devices were performed with electron microscopy, atomic absorption spectrometry and micro-computed tomography.Magnetic marks allowed for MPI/MRI guidance of interventional devices. Bimodal fiducial markers enable MPI/MRI image fusion for MRI based roadmapping. MRI roadmapping and the blood pool tracer approach facilitate MPI real time monitoring of in-vitro angioplasty. Successful angioplasty was verified with MPI and MRI. Magnetic marks consist of micrometer sized ferromagnetic plates mainly composed of iron and iron oxide.4D real time MP imaging, tracking and guiding of endovascular instruments and in-vitro angioplasty is feasible. In addition to an approach that requires a blood pool tracer, MRI based roadmapping might emerge as a promising tool for radiation free 4D MPI-guided interventions.

  8. Prediction of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac functional outcome after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. Examination using dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kasama, Shu; Toyama, Takuji; Iwasaki, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Tadashi [Gunma Univ., Maebashi (Japan). School of Medicine; Hoshizaki, Hiroshi; Oshima, Shigeru; Taniguchi, Koichi; Nagai, Ryozo

    2000-07-01

    This study evaluated whether dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy can predict improvement of cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function. Sixteen patients (10 men and 6 women, mean age 59{+-}13 years) with dilated cardiomyopathy underwent dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy to measure left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) using tracer at 0, 5, 10 and 15 {mu}g/kg/min before treatment. Patients were divided into good responders (LVEF increase {>=}15%) 8 patients (GR Group) and poor responders (LVEF increase <15%) 8 patients (PR Group) after treatment with {beta}-blocker or amiodarone with a background treatment of digitalis, diuretics and angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor. I-123 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) imaging to evaluate cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and echocardiography were performed before and at one year after treatment. MIBG imaging was obtained 4 hours after tracer injection, and the heart/mediastinum count ratio (H/M ratio) calculated from the anterior planar image and the total defect score (TDS) from the single photon emission computed tomography image. LVEF and left ventricular endo-diastolic dimension (LVDd) were measured by echocardiography and New York Heart Association (NYHA) functional class was evaluated. The GR Group showed TDS decreased from 28{+-}6 to 17{+-}12 (p<0.05), H/M ratio increased from 1.79{+-}0.26 to 2.07{+-}0.32 (p<0.05), LVEF increased from 29{+-}8% to 48{+-}10% (p<0.01), and LVDd decreased from 65{+-}4 mm to 58{+-}5 mm (p<0.05). In contrast, the PR group showed no significant changes in TDS. H/M ratio, LVEF and LVDd. NYHA functional class improved in both groups. The improvement was better in the GR Group than in the PR group. Dobutamine gated blood pool scintigraphy is useful to predict the improvement of the cardiac sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac function, and symptoms after treatment in patients with dilated cardiomyopathy. (author)

  9. Intra-patient variability of FDG standardized uptake values in mediastinal blood pool, liver, and myocardium during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Yi, Hyun Kyung; Lim, Chae Hong; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Moon, Seung Hwan [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated. The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUV{sub mean} of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p = 0.019). SUV{sub mean} of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUV{sub mean} of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r = -0.547, p < 0.001; r = -0.502, p < 0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake. The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver.

  10. Intra-patient variability of FDG standardized uptake values in mediastinal blood pool, liver, and myocardium during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with diffuse large B- cell lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Soo Jeong; Yi, Hyun Kyung; Lim, Chae Hong; Cho, Young Seok; Choi, Joon Young; Choe, Yeam Seong; Lee, Kyung Han; Moon, Seung Hwan

    2016-01-01

    18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT is useful for staging and evaluating treatment response in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL). A five-point scale model using the mediastinal blood pool (MBP) and liver as references is a recommended method for interpreting treatment response. We evaluated the variability in standardized uptake values (SUVs) of the MBP, liver, and myocardium during chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL. We analyzed 60 patients with DLBCL who received rituximab, cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine, and prednisolone (R-CHOP) treatment and underwent baseline, interim, and final FDG PET/CT scans. The FDG uptakes of lymphoma lesions, MBP, liver, and myocardium were assessed, and changes in the MBP and liver SUV and possible associated factors were evaluated. The SUV of the liver did not change significantly during the chemotherapy. However, the SUV mean of MBP showed a significant change though the difference was small (p = 0.019). SUV mean of MBP and liver at baseline and interim scans was significantly lower in patients with advanced Ann Arbor stage on diagnosis. The SUV mean of the MBP and liver was negatively correlated with the volumetric index of lymphoma lesions in baseline scans (r = -0.547, p < 0.001; r = -0.502, p < 0.001). Positive myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed in interim and final scans than in the baseline scan, but there was no significant association between the MBP and liver uptake and myocardial uptake. The SUV of the liver was not significantly changed during R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with DLBCL, whereas the MBP SUV of the interim scan decreased slightly. However, the SUV of the reference organs may be affected by tumor burden, and this should be considered when assessing follow-up scans. Although myocardial FDG uptake was more frequently observed after R-CHOP chemotherapy, it did not affect the SUV of the MBP and liver

  11. Automatic measurements of local ventricular parameters using gated blood-pool emission tomography; Extraction automatique des parametres fonctionnels ventriculaires locaux en tomoventriculographie isotopique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mariano-Goulart, D.; Caderas de Kerleau, C.; Rossi, M. [Centre Hospitalier Universitaire Lapeyronie, 34 - Montpellier (France)

    2005-03-01

    This paper describes a new method designed to improve the accuracy of the assessment of systolic and diastolic parameters from noisy regional time-activity curves, both for the right and the left ventricle. First, we explain how it is possible to derive local time-activity curves from segmented gated-blood pool tomographic acquisitions. The new method is based on the computation of a suitable deformation of a reference time-activity-curve. This paper describes how this reference curve is transformed to approximate the acquired data with a smooth, noise-free time-activity curve from which relevant clinical parameters can be derived. One may remind and illustrate the main results dealing with the validation studies of this new method achieved on simulated data and by comparison with multi-harmonic reconstructions. Last, some clinical examples are proposed to illustrate the potentials of this method. The deformable model used in this paper provides accurate assessment of systolic (time of end systole, amplitude, peak ejection rate) or diastolic parameters (peak filling rate) both for planar and tomographic gated blood pool studies. Further clinical studies are now necessary to compare the results of this model with those achieved with usual multi-harmonic fits, and to evaluate its interest in the assessment of rhythmic heart diseases or in the prognosis of heart failure. (author)

  12. Influence of a hyperlipidic diet on the composition of the non-membrane lipid pool of red blood cells of male and female rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Remesar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and objectives. Red blood cells (RBC are continuously exposed to oxidative agents, affecting their membrane lipid function. However, the amount of lipid in RBCs is higher than the lipids of the cell membrane, and includes triacylglycerols, which are no membrane components. We assumed that the extra lipids originated from lipoproteins attached to the cell surface, and we intended to analyse whether the size and composition of this lipid pool were affected by sex or diet.Experimental design. Adult male and female Wistar rats were fed control or cafeteria diets. Packed blood cells and plasma lipids were extracted and analysed for fatty acids by methylation and GC-MS, taking care of not extracting membrane lipids.Results. The absence of ω3-PUFA in RBC extracts (but not in plasma suggest that the lipids extracted were essentially those in the postulated lipid surface pool and not those in cell membrane. In cells’ extracts, there was a marked depletion of PUFA (and, in general, of insaturation. Fatty acid patterns were similar for all groups studied, with limited effects of sex and no effects of diet in RBC (but not in plasma fatty acids. Presence of trans fatty acids was small but higher in RBC lipids, and could not be justified by dietary sources.Conclusions. The presence of a small layer of lipid on the RBC surface may limit oxidative damage to the cell outer structures, and help explain its role in the transport of lipophilic compounds. However, there may be other, so far uncovered, additional functions for this lipid pool.

  13. Persistent positive metaiodobenzylguanidine scans after autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation may indicate maturation of stage 4 neuroblastoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yasuhiro; Kodama, Yuichi; Nishikawa, Takuro; Rindiarti, Almitra; Tanabe, Takayuki; Nakagawa, Shunsuke; Yoshioka, Takako; Takumi, Koji; Kaji, Tatsuru; Kawano, Yoshifumi

    2017-04-01

    Metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scans are sensitive testing tools for neuroblastoma. Persistent positive MIBG scans in patients with stage 3 neuroblastoma have previously been found to indicate maturation rather than regression. We assessed the significance of this finding in stage 4 neuroblastoma in the present study. Fifteen consecutive pediatric patients with stage 4 neuroblastoma treated between 2004 and 2014 at the Kagoshima University Hospital were retrospectively examined. Treatment involved a combination of multiagent chemotherapy, resection, autologous peripheral blood stem cell transplantation (PBSCT), radiotherapy, and maintenance therapy with retinoic acid. The MIBG uptake in each patient during treatment was assessed using a Curie score. The 5-year event-free and overall survival rates in 15 patients were 38.9% and 58.7%, respectively. Four patients with persistent positive MIBG scans who underwent autologous PBSCT but experienced decreased 123 I-MIBG uptake during the clinical course survived without progression, and their event-free survival (EFS) was significantly superior to that of patients who showed negative MIBG scans after PBSCT (5-year EFS rate: 18.2%, p = 0.0176). Therefore, persistent positive MIBG scans with gradually decreased uptake after PBSCT do not always indicate neuroblastoma progression, and may instead indicate tumor maturation in some selected cases, if not all cases, of stage 4 neuroblastoma.

  14. Early modifications of hepatic perfusion measured by functional CT in a rat model of hepatocellular carcinoma using a blood pool contrast agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fournier, Laure S.; Cuenod, Charles Andre; Bazelaire, Cedric de; Siauve, Nathalie; Frija, Guy; Clement, Olivier; Rosty, Christophe; Tran, Phuong Lan

    2004-01-01

    Macromolecular contrast-enhanced functional CT was performed to characterize early perfusion changes in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Fourteen rats with chemically induced primary liver tumors ranging pathologically from hyperplasia to HCC and 15 control rats were investigated. Two dynamic CT scans using an experimental macromolecular contrast agent were performed on a single slice 11 and 18 weeks after tumor induction followed by pathological examination. A deconvolution mathematical model was applied, yielding the hepatic perfusion index (HPI), mean transit time (MTT), liver distribution volume (LDV) and arterial, portal and total blood flows (FA, FP, FT). Analysis was performed on one slice per rat, containing overall two hyperplasia, six dysplasia and 15 HCC. On the first scans, HCC at an early pathological stage had a low FP (-30%, P=0.002) but a normal arterial-portal balance. On the scan contemporary to pathology, HCC perfusion parameters showed an inversion of the arterial-portal balance (HPI +212%, P<0.0001), with a high FA (+56%, P=0.002) and a low FP (-69%, P<0.0001). Sensitivity and specificity of detection of HCC by perfusion CT were high (87 and 80%) on late scans; but also on the earlier scans (86 and 65%), even though only one (7%) was visible to the eye. Perfusion-CT allowed early detection of HCC. This technique could contribute in the detection and characterization of liver lesions in clinical studies. (orig.)

  15. Prognostic Significance of Hyponatremia in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carcel, Cheryl; Sato, Shoichiro; Zheng, Danni; Heeley, Emma; Arima, Hisatomi; Yang, Jie; Wu, Guojun; Chen, Guofang; Zhang, Shihong; Delcourt, Candice; Lavados, Pablo; Robinson, Thompson; Lindley, Richard I; Wang, Xia; Chalmers, John; Anderson, Craig S

    2016-07-01

    To determine the association of hyponatremia at presentation with clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. Retrospective pooled analysis of prospectively collected data from 3,243 participants of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trials 1 and 2 (international, multicenter, open, blinded endpoint, randomized controlled trials designed to assess the effects of early intensive blood pressure lowering in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage). Clinical hospital sites in 21 countries. Patients with predominantly mild-moderate severity of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage within 6 hours of onset and elevated systolic blood pressure (150-220 mm Hg) were included in the study. Patients were assigned to receive intensive (target systolic blood pressure, < 140 mm Hg within 1 hr) or guideline-recommended (target systolic blood pressure, < 180 mm Hg) blood pressure-lowering therapy. Presentation hyponatremia was defined as serum sodium less than 135 mEq/L. The primary outcome was death at 90 days. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the association of hyponatremia with important clinical events. Of 3,002 patients with available data, 349 (12%) had hyponatremia. Hyponatremia was associated with death (18% vs 11%; multivariable-adjusted odds ratio, 1.81; 95% CI, 1.28-2.57; p < 0.001) and larger baseline intracerebral hemorrhage volume (multivariable adjusted, p = 0.046) but not with baseline perihematomal edema volume nor with growth of intracerebral hemorrhage or perihematomal edema during the initial 24 hours. Hyponatremia at presentation is associated with increased mortality in patients with predominantly deep and modest volume intracerebral hemorrhage through mechanisms that seem independent of growth in intracerebral hemorrhage or perihematomal edema.

  16. 3D pulmonary perfusion MRI and MR angiography of pulmonary embolism in pigs after a single injection of a blood pool MR contrast agent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fink, Christian; Ley, Sebastian; Puderbach, Michael; Plathow, Christian; Kauczor, Hans-Ulrich [Department of Radiology, Innovative Cancer Diagnostic and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany); Bock, Michael [Department of Medical Physics in Radiology, Innovative Cancer Diagnostic and Therapy, German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the feasibility of contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MR angiography (MRA) of pulmonary embolism (PE) in pigs using a single injection of the blood pool contrast Gadomer. PE was induced in five domestic pigs by injection of autologous blood thrombi. Contrast-enhanced first-pass 3D perfusion MRI (TE/TR/FA: 1.0 ms/2.2 ms/40 ; voxel size: 1.3 x 2.5 x 4.0 mm{sup 3}; TA: 1.8 s per data set) and high-resolution 3D MRA (TE/TR/FA: 1.4 ms/3.4 ms/40 ; voxel size: 0.8 x 1.0 x 1.6 mm{sup 3}) was performed during and after a single injection of 0.1 mmol/kg body weight of Gadomer. Image data were compared to pre-embolism Gd-DTPA-enhanced MRI and post-embolism thin-section multislice CT (n=2). SNR measurements were performed in the pulmonary arteries and lung. One animal died after induction of PE. In all other animals, perfusion MRI and MRA could be acquired after a single injection of Gadomer. At perfusion MRI, PE could be detected by typical wedge-shaped perfusion defects. While the visualization of central PE at MRA correlated well with the CT, peripheral PE were only visualized by CT. Gadomer achieved a higher peak SNR of the lungs compared to Gd-DTPA (21{+-}8 vs. 13{+-}3). Contrast-enhanced 3D perfusion MRI and MRA of PE can be combined using a single injection of the blood pool contrast agent Gadomer. (orig.)

  17. [Structure of cytosolic membrane and chemical composition of red blood cells during the early period of wound damage according to scanning probe microscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belousova, O D; Gaĭdash, A A; Tolmachev, I A; Ivchenko, E V; Golubok, A O; Levichev, V V; Mukhin, I S; Zhukov, M V; Belousov, I S; Tkachuk, I V

    2013-01-01

    With the help of scanning electronic and atomic force microscopy structure of red blood cell membranes of the system blood-groove and microcirculatory channels is studied. It is established, that in early stages of skin wounds in a peripheral blood circulation appear compressed red blood cells, losing water. As a result the basic mechanism of destruction of red blood cell membranes are interlayered shifts and stratification. In red blood cells of microvasculature, on the contrary, red blood cells in state of vacuolar degeneration are indentified. It creates preconditions for hydration and bullous deformations of membranes. Porous structures of membranes of both types erythrocytes are exposed to expansion.

  18. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendrik, Adrienne M; Van Ginneken, Bram; Viergever, Max A; Vonken, Evert-jan; De Jong, Hugo W; Riordan, Alan; Van Seeters, Tom; Smit, Ewoud J; Prokop, Mathias

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of x-ray radiation that can be used per sequential scan is limited, which results in a high level of noise. To detect areas of abnormal perfusion, perfusion parameters are derived from the CTP data, such as the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Algorithms to determine perfusion parameters, especially singular value decomposition, are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, noise reduction is an important preprocessing step for CTP analysis. In this paper, we propose a time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) bilateral filter to reduce noise in 4D CTP scans, while preserving the time-intensity profiles (fourth dimension) that are essential for determining the perfusion parameters. The proposed TIPS bilateral filter is compared to standard Gaussian filtering, and 4D and 3D (applied separately to each sequential scan) bilateral filtering on both phantom and patient data. Results on the phantom data show that the TIPS bilateral filter is best able to approach the ground truth (noise-free phantom), compared to the other filtering methods (lowest root mean square error). An observer study is performed using CBF maps derived from fifteen CTP scans of acute stroke patients filtered with standard Gaussian, 3D, 4D and TIPS bilateral filtering. These CBF maps were blindly presented to two observers that indicated which map they preferred for (1) gray/white matter differentiation, (2) detectability of infarcted area and (3) overall image quality. Based on these results, the TIPS bilateral filter ranked best and its CBF maps were scored to have the best overall image quality in 100% of the cases by both observers. Furthermore, quantitative CBF and cerebral blood volume values in both the phantom and the

  19. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendrik, Adrienne M; Van Ginneken, Bram; Viergever, Max A [Image Sciences Institute, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands); Vonken, Evert-jan; De Jong, Hugo W; Riordan, Alan; Van Seeters, Tom; Smit, Ewoud J; Prokop, Mathias, E-mail: a.m.mendrik@gmail.com [Radiology Department, University Medical Center Utrecht, Heidelberglaan 100, 3584 CX Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2011-07-07

    Cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of x-ray radiation that can be used per sequential scan is limited, which results in a high level of noise. To detect areas of abnormal perfusion, perfusion parameters are derived from the CTP data, such as the cerebral blood flow (CBF). Algorithms to determine perfusion parameters, especially singular value decomposition, are very sensitive to noise. Therefore, noise reduction is an important preprocessing step for CTP analysis. In this paper, we propose a time-intensity profile similarity (TIPS) bilateral filter to reduce noise in 4D CTP scans, while preserving the time-intensity profiles (fourth dimension) that are essential for determining the perfusion parameters. The proposed TIPS bilateral filter is compared to standard Gaussian filtering, and 4D and 3D (applied separately to each sequential scan) bilateral filtering on both phantom and patient data. Results on the phantom data show that the TIPS bilateral filter is best able to approach the ground truth (noise-free phantom), compared to the other filtering methods (lowest root mean square error). An observer study is performed using CBF maps derived from fifteen CTP scans of acute stroke patients filtered with standard Gaussian, 3D, 4D and TIPS bilateral filtering. These CBF maps were blindly presented to two observers that indicated which map they preferred for (1) gray/white matter differentiation, (2) detectability of infarcted area and (3) overall image quality. Based on these results, the TIPS bilateral filter ranked best and its CBF maps were scored to have the best overall image quality in 100% of the cases by both observers. Furthermore, quantitative CBF and cerebral blood volume values in both the phantom and the

  20. Effect of R-CHOP chemotherapy on liver and mediastinal blood pool (18)F-FDG standardized uptake values in patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Bugra; Dostbil, Zeki; Ismailoglu, Murat; Tasdemir, Bekir; Sahin, Ozlem

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to investigate the impact of chemotherapy on (18)F-FDG uptake in the liver and mediastinal blood pool (MBP) among patients with non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Twenty-three patients with NHL underwent baseline, interim, and postchemotherapy (18)F-FDG PET/CT. SUVmax and SUVmean values of the liver and MBP at imaging time were compared statistically. We did not find any significant differences between the liver and mediastinum SUVmean and SUVmax values (P>.05). Our study demonstrates that the (18)F-FDG uptake in the liver and MBP are not significantly affected by R-CHOP chemotherapy in patients with NHL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Defective mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced AP endonuclease 1 activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells of Alzheimer's disease patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Hejl, Anne-Mette; Dinh, Tran Thuan Son

    2015-01-01

    AIMS: Accurate biomarkers for early diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are badly needed. Recent reports suggest that dysfunctional mitochondria and DNA damage are associated with AD development. In this report, we measured various cellular parameters, related to mitochondrial bioenergetics...... and DNA damage, in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of AD and control participants, for biomarker discovery. METHODS: PBMCs were isolated from 53 patients with AD of mild to moderate degree and 30 age-matched healthy controls. Tests were performed on the PBMCs from as many of these participants...... on adjustments for gender and/or age. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals impaired mitochondrial respiration, altered dNTP pools and reduced DNA repair activity in PBMCs of AD patients, thus suggesting that these biochemical activities may be useful as biomarkers for AD....

  2. Validation of Perfusion Quantification with 3D Gradient Echo Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging Using a Blood Pool Contrast Agent in Skeletal Swine Muscle.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Hindel

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to validate perfusion quantification in a low-perfused tissue by dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI with shared k-space sampling using a blood pool contrast agent. Perfusion measurements were performed in a total of seven female pigs. An ultrasonic Doppler probe was attached to the right femoral artery to determine total flow in the hind leg musculature. The femoral artery was catheterized for continuous local administration of adenosine to increase blood flow up to four times the baseline level. Three different stable perfusion levels were induced. The MR protocol included a 3D gradient-echo sequence with a temporal resolution of approximately 1.5 seconds. Before each dynamic sequence, static MR images were acquired with flip angles of 5°, 10°, 20°, and 30°. Both static and dynamic images were used to generate relaxation rate and baseline magnetization maps with a flip angle method. 0.1 mL/kg body weight of blood pool contrast medium was injected via a central venous catheter at a flow rate of 5 mL/s. The right hind leg was segmented in 3D into medial, cranial, lateral, and pelvic thigh muscles, lower leg, bones, skin, and fat. The arterial input function (AIF was measured in the aorta. Perfusion of the different anatomic regions was calculated using a one- and a two-compartment model with delay- and dispersion-corrected AIFs. The F-test for model comparison was used to decide whether to use the results of the one- or two-compartment model fit. Total flow was calculated by integrating volume-weighted perfusion values over the whole measured region. The resulting values of delay, dispersion, blood volume, mean transit time, and flow were all in physiologically and physically reasonable ranges. In 107 of 160 ROIs, the blood signal was separated, using a two-compartment model, into a capillary and an arteriolar signal contribution, decided by the F-test. Overall flow in hind leg muscles

  3. The Agreement Between Blood Pool - Delayed Bone Scintigraphy and Tc-99m Human Immunoglobulin G (HIG Scintigraphy in the Determination of the Presence and Severity of Inflammatory Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulizar Kacar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, it was aimed to investigate the agreement between early phase of bone scintigraphy – human immunoglobulin scintigraphy (EPBS-HIG and late phase bone scintigraphy – HIG (LPBS-HIG in the determination of the presence and also the severity of inflammatory arthritis. Material and Methods: Twenty-eight patients (23 female, 5 male; between 19 to 80 years of age with inflammatory arthritis were included in the study. Tc-99m HIG and blood pool/late phase bone scintigraphies were performed in all patients. In scintigraphic examinations, the joints were scored with the degree of accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical by the semiquantitative analysis (0=Background activity, 1=Faint uptake, 2=Moderate uptake, 3=Marked uptake which is called as visually active joint score as severity index of the disease. To estimate the agreement between EPBS – HIG and LPBS - HIG in the determination of the presence and severity of inflammatory arthritis, 2x2 kappa coefficients were calculated. Results: Our results showed good agreement between EPBS - HIG for the presence of inflammation (kappa: 0.72 but not for the severity of the disease (kappa: 0.29, poor agreement between LPBS - HIG for both the presence (kappa: 0.51 and severity (kappa: 0.01 of inflammatory arthritis. Conclusion: The blood pool scintigraphy could be used in the investigation of the presence of inflammatory arthritis because the good agreement with HIG and the lower cost but not for the severity of the disease. (MIRT 2011;20:45-51

  4. Allometric models of tree biomass for airborne laser scanning and ground inventory of carbon pool in the forests of Eurasia: Comparative analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Usoltsev

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available For the main tree species in North America, Europe and Japan, a number of thousands of allometric equations for single-tree biomass estimation using mostly tree height and stem diameter at breast height are designed that are intended for terrestrial forest mensuration. However, an innovative airborne laser method of the forest canopy sensing allows processing of on-line a number of morphological indices of trees, to combine them with the biomass allometric models and to evaluate the forest carbon pools. The database of 28 wood and shrub species containing 2.4 thousand definitions is compiled for the first time in the forests of Eurasia, and on its basis, the allometric transcontinental models of fractional structure of biomass of two types and dual use are developed. The first of them include as regressors the tree height and crown diameter and are intended for airborne laser location, while the latter have a traditional appointment for terrestrial forest biomass taxation using tree height and stem diameter. Those and others explain, in most cases, more than 90 % of tree biomass variability. Processing speed of laser location, incommensurable with the terrestrial mensuration, gives the possibility of assessing the change of carbon pool of forests on some territories during periodic overflights. The proposed information can be useful when implementing activities on climate stabilization, as well as in the validation of the simulation results when evaluating the carbon depositing capacity of forests.

  5. Critical appraisal and pooled analysis of telmisartan alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide for achieving blood pressure goals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Morimoto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Satoshi Morimoto, Nobuyuki Takahashi, Tatsuyori Morita, Kazunori Someya, Nagaoki Toyoda, Toshiji IwasakaSecond Department of Internal Medicine, Kansai Medical University 2-3-1, Shinmachi, Hirakata, Osaka 573-1191, JapanAbstract: Rigid control of blood pressure (BP is essential to prevent cardiovascular disease. However, only about 40% of hypertensive patients undergoing pharmacological intervention with a single agent achieve their BP goals in contemporary clinical practice. Combined therapy using currently available agents is effective in maximizing treatment outcome, although it raises medical costs and decreases the drug compliance rate. To overcome such negative consequences, a combination tablet containing an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB with a small dose of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ is now available on the international market, including Japan. This article briefly describes the unique properties of telmisartan, a highly selective ARB for the angiotensin II type 1 receptor, including its long-acting characteristics and recent prospective multicenter randomized clinical trials, followed by a description of a newly-introduced combination tablet in Japan, which contains telmisartan and HCTZ. This article also reviews its safety and efficacy based on currently available evidence. Finally, evidence comparing telmisartan/HCTZ with other combination therapies is presented.Keywords: angiotensin II receptor blocker, ARB, blood pressure, hypertension, diuretics, PPAR-γ

  6. Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This is a polygon layer representing existing vernal pool complexes in California's Central Valley, as identified and mapped by Dr. Robert F. Holland. The purpose of...

  7. Comparison of 99Tcm-HMPAO-labelled white blood cells and 67Ga citrate scans to detect myocarditis in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.H.; Hsieh, K.S.; Wang, Y.L.; Chen, C.W.; Liao, S.Q.; Wang, S.J.; Yeh, S.H.

    1991-01-01

    Myocardial imaging with 99 Tc m -HMPAO-labelled white blood cells (WBC) and 67 Ga citrate was used to detect myocarditis in the acute phase of Kawasaki disease among 22 infants and children; 18 cases of myocarditis were detected by 99 Tc m -HMPAO-labelled WBC heart scans, but only one case was detected by 67 Ga citrate heart scans. In conclusion, 99 Tc m -HMPAO-labelled WBC scanning provides a more sensitive method than 67 Ga citrate scanning in the detection of myocarditis in Kawasaki disease. (author)

  8. An unusual white blood cell scan in a child with inflammatory bowel disease: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porn, U; Howman-Giles, R; O'Loughlin, E; Uren, R; Chaitow, J

    2000-10-01

    Technetium-99m-labeled leukocyte (WBC) imaging is a valuable screening method for inflammatory bowel disease, especially in children, because of its high rate of sensitivity, low cost, and ease of preparation. A 14-year-old girl is described who had juvenile arthritis and iritis complicated by inflammatory bowel disease. She was examined for recurrent abdominal pain. A Tc-99m stannous colloid WBC scan was performed, and tracer accumulation was seen in the small bowel in the region of the distal ileum on the initial 1-hour image. Delayed imaging at 3 hours also revealed tracer accumulation in the cecum and ascending colon, which was not seen on the early image. A biopsy of the colon during endoscopy showed no evidence of active inflammation in the colon. The small bowel was not seen. Computed tomography revealed changes suggestive of inflammatory bowel disease in the distal ileum. The appearance on the WBC study was most likely a result of inflammatory bowel disease involving the distal ileum, with transit of luminal activity into the large bowel.

  9. Semi-automatic segmentation of gated blood pool emission tomographic images by watersheds: application to the determination of right and left ejection fractions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariano-Goulart, D.; Collet, H.; Kotzki, P.-O.; Zanca, M.; Rossi, M.

    1998-01-01

    Tomographic multi-gated blood pool scintigraphy (TMUGA) is a widely available method which permits simultaneous assessment of right and left ventricular ejection fractions. However, the widespread clinical use of this technique is impeded by the lack of segmentation methods dedicated to an automatic analysis of ventricular activities. In this study we evaluated how a watershed algorithm succeeds in providing semi-automatic segmentation of ventricular activities in order to measure right and left ejection fractions by TMUGA. The left ejection fractions of 30 patients were evaluated both with TMUGA and with planar multi-gated blood pool scintigraphy (PMUGA). Likewise, the right ejection fractions of 25 patients were evaluated with first-pass scintigraphy (FP) and with TMUGA. The watershed algorithm was applied to the reconstructed slices in order to group together the voxels whose activity came from one specific cardiac cavity. First, the results of the watershed algorithm were compared with manual drawing around left and right ventricles. Left ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA with the watershed procedure were not significantly different (p=0.30) from manual outlines whereas a small but significant difference was found for right ejection fractions (p=0.004). Then right and left ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA (with the semi-automatic segmentation procedure) were compared with the results obtained by FP or PMUGA. Left ventricular ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA showed an excellent correlation with those evaluated by PMUGA (r=0.93; SEE=5.93%; slope=0.99; intercept = 4.17%). The measurements of these ejection fractions were significantly higher with TMUGA than with PMUGA (P<0.01). The interoperator variability for the measurement of left ejection fractions by TMUGA was 4.6%. Right ventricular ejection fractions evaluated by TMUGA showed a good correlation with those evaluated by FP (r = 0.81; SEE = 6.68%; slope = 1.00; intercept = 0.85%) and were not

  10. Assessment of left ventricular ejection fraction by gated blood pool scintigraphy on early and late phase from the onset of acute myocardial infarction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakashima, Yoshiharu; Fukuzaki, Hisashi; Minamiji, Katsumi; Kida, Toru; Okada, Toshio; Yamada, Shigenobu; Goto, Takeshi; Maeda, Kazumi; Yoshida, Yutaka.

    1984-01-01

    To evaluate the change of left ventricular function after the onset of acute myocardial infarction, gated blood pool scintigraphy was performed in 19 patients on early and late phase (6 days and 1 month on the average). There was a difference in left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) between patients with anterior and inferior myocardial infarction. Patients with anterior infarction indicated low value of LVEF (31+-7%) on acute phase and its value was increased on chronic phase (37+-8%), whereas patients with inferior infarction had higher value of LVEF not only on acute phase but also on chronic phase (54+-9%→57+-10%), than those with anterior infarction. Left ventricular volume was larger in anterior group than in inferior group and tended to become smaller on chronic phase. In 4 of 10 cases with anterior infarction, a significant improvement of LVEF was found from 28+-6% to 43+-5%, but in 6 cases LVEF was unchanged during the same period. In 3 cases out of improved group, it was demonstrated angiographically that the collateral vessels were developed. It was, thus, suggested that collateral vessels may play an important role in the recovery of myocardial ischemia and wall motion abnormality in the marginal zone of infarcted area. From these results, we concluded that left ventricular function changed serially in most patients from the early phase to the late phase after the onset of acute myocardial infarction. (author)

  11. Pool scrubbing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Jimenez, J.; Herranz, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Espigares, M.M.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Kortz, Ch.; Koch, M.K.; Brockmeier, U.; Unger, H.; Dutton, L.M.C.; Smedley, Ch.; Trow, W.; Jones, A.V.; Bonanni, E.; Calvo, M.; Alonso, A.

    1996-12-01

    The Source Term Project in the Third Frame Work Programme of the European Union Was conducted under and important joined effort on pool scrubbing research. CIEMAT was the Task Manager of the project and several other organizations participated in it: JRC-Ispra, NNC Limited, RUB-NES and UPM. The project was divided into several tasks. A peer review of the models in the pool scrubbing codes SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 was made, considering the different aspects in the hydrodynamic phenomenology, particle retention and fission product vapor abortions. Several dominant risk accident sequences were analyzed with MAAP, SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and the predictions were compared. A churn-turbulent model was developed for the hydrodynamic behaviour of the pool. Finally, an experimental programme in the PECA facility of CIEMAT was conducted in order to study the decontamination factor under jet injection regime, and the experimental observations were compared with the SPARC and BUSCA codes. (Author)

  12. Dynamic bone scans in osteo-articular pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laurin, J.; Acquaviva, P.; Kaphan, G.

    1986-01-01

    Three-phase radionuclide bone scanning was performed in patients with algodystrophy or osteonecrosis. This method is used to improve the specificity of ordinary bone scan. It explores vascularization and blood pool, then bone uptake in two symmetrical articulations. Non-focal hyperaemia and late diffuse uptake are in favour of algodystrophy, whereas a distinct focal hypervascularization and late uptake predominant in the femoral condyle area seem to be in favour of pre-radiological osteonecrosis [fr

  13. Dynamic bone scans in osteo-articular pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laurin, J.; Acquaviva, P.; Kaphan, G.

    1986-06-21

    Three-phase radionuclide bone scanning was performed in patients with algodystrophy or osteonecrosis. This method is used to improve the specificity of ordinary bone scan. It explores vascularization and blood pool, then bone uptake in two symmetrical articulations. Non-focal hyperaemia and late diffuse uptake are in favour of algodystrophy, whereas a distinct focal hypervascularization and late uptake predominant in the femoral condyle area seem to be in favour of pre-radiological osteonecrosis.

  14. High-resolution blood-pool-contrast-enhanced MR angiography in glioblastoma: tumor-associated neovascularization as a biomarker for patient survival. A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puig, Josep; Blasco, Gerard; Remollo, Sebastian; Hernandez, David; Pedraza, Salvador [Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta, Research Unit of Diagnostic Imaging Institute (IDI), Department of Radiology [Girona Biomedical Research Institute] IDIBGI, Girona (Spain); Daunis-i-Estadella, Josep; Mateu, Gloria [University of Girona, Department of Computer Science, Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Girona (Spain); Alberich-Bayarri, Angel [La Fe Polytechnics and University Hospital, Biomedical Imaging Research Group (GIBI230), La Fe Health Research Institute, Valencia (Spain); Essig, Marco [University of Manitoba, Department of Radiology, Winnipeg (Canada); Jain, Rajan [NYU School of Medicine, Division of Neuroradiology, Department of Radiology, New York, NY (United States); Puigdemont, Montserrat [Hospital Universitari Dr Josep Trueta, Catalan Institute of Oncology (ICO), Hospital Cancer Registry, Girona (Spain); Sanchez-Gonzalez, Javier [Philips Healthcare Iberica, Madrid (Spain); Wintermark, Max [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Neuroradiology Division, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-01-15

    The objective of the study was to determine whether tumor-associated neovascularization on high-resolution gadofosveset-enhanced magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) is a useful biomarker for predicting survival in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastomas. Before treatment, 35 patients (25 men; mean age, 64 ± 14 years) with glioblastoma underwent MRI including first-pass dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC) perfusion and post-contrast T1WI sequences with gadobutrol (0.1 mmol/kg) and, 48 h later, high-resolution MRA with gadofosveset (0.03 mmol/kg). Volumes of interest for contrast-enhancing lesion (CEL), non-CEL, and contralateral normal-appearing white matter were obtained, and DSC perfusion and DWI parameters were evaluated. Prognostic factors were assessed by Kaplan-Meier survival and Cox proportional hazards model. Eighteen (51.42 %) glioblastomas were hypervascular on high-resolution MRA. Hypervascular glioblastomas were associated with higher CEL volume and lower Karnofsky score. Median survival rates for patients with hypovascular and hypervascular glioblastomas treated with surgery, radiotherapy, and chemotherapy were 15 and 9.75 months, respectively (P < 0.001). Tumor-associated neovascularization was the best predictor of survival at 5.25 months (AUC = 0.794, 81.2 % sensitivity, 77.8 % specificity, 76.5 % positive predictive value, 82.4 % negative predictive value) and yielded the highest hazard ratio (P < 0.001). Tumor-associated neovascularization detected on high-resolution blood-pool-contrast-enhanced MRA of newly diagnosed glioblastoma seems to be a useful biomarker that correlates with worse survival. (orig.)

  15. Assessment of left ventricular filling in various heart disease, especially in ischemic heart disease, by ECG-gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakagawa, Hiroaki

    1986-01-01

    Using ECG-gated cardiac blood pool scintigraphy (BPS), left ventricular (LV) diastolic function was evaluated in various heart disease, especially in ischemic heart disease (IHD). LV function indices (2 systolic and 9 diastolic) were obtained from LV time activity curve derived from BPS. Among various diastolic indices, peak filling rate (PFR) and 2 other indices were significantly influenced by heart rate (HR), so corrected values for HR were used for this study. Various degrees of disturbance in diastolic filling were found in many cases without systolic impairment. According to the mechanism responsible for diastolic impairment, LV time activity curve showed a characteristic pattern. In IHD, filling disturbance in early diastole was observed before the impairment of systolic contraction developed, so it was thought to be an early predictor of cardiac failure. In the scar region of myocardial infarction (MI), decrease in regional ejection fraction and asynchrony in wall motion were shown, and these resulted in marked deterioration of early diastolic filling. On the other hand in angina pectoris (AP), such systolic disorders were not shown in the ischemic region perfused by stenotic coronary artery, although the disturbance of regional filling was found. The exercise capacity in AP was more related to the impairment in diastolic function at resting state than in systolic function, and furthermore the reserve of diastolic function as well as of systolic function was shown to be an important determinant of exercise capacity in AP. As HR increased, increase of PFR and decrease in time to peak filling was found, which was thought to be a sort of compensation for the shortening diastolic time due to increase in HR during exercise. Such compensation was decreased in AP with reduced exercise capacity. (J.P.N.)

  16. Rapid computation of single PET scan rest-stress myocardial blood flow parametric images by table look up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guehl, Nicolas J; Normandin, Marc D; Wooten, Dustin W; Rozen, Guy; Ruskin, Jeremy N; Shoup, Timothy M; Woo, Jonghye; Ptaszek, Leon M; Fakhri, Georges El; Alpert, Nathaniel M

    2017-09-01

    We have recently reported a method for measuring rest-stress myocardial blood flow (MBF) using a single, relatively short, PET scan session. The method requires two IV tracer injections, one to initiate rest imaging and one at peak stress. We previously validated absolute flow quantitation in ml/min/cc for standard bull's eye, segmental analysis. In this work, we extend the method for fast computation of rest-stress MBF parametric images. We provide an analytic solution to the single-scan rest-stress flow model which is then solved using a two-dimensional table lookup method (LM). Simulations were performed to compare the accuracy and precision of the lookup method with the original nonlinear method (NLM). Then the method was applied to 16 single scan rest/stress measurements made in 12 pigs: seven studied after infarction of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) territory, and nine imaged in the native state. Parametric maps of rest and stress MBF as well as maps of left (f LV ) and right (f RV ) ventricular spill-over fractions were generated. Regions of interest (ROIs) for 17 myocardial segments were defined in bull's eye fashion on the parametric maps. The mean of each ROI was then compared to the rest (K 1r ) and stress (K 1s ) MBF estimates obtained from fitting the 17 regional TACs with the NLM. In simulation, the LM performed as well as the NLM in terms of precision and accuracy. The simulation did not show that bias was introduced by the use of a predefined two-dimensional lookup table. In experimental data, parametric maps demonstrated good statistical quality and the LM was computationally much more efficient than the original NLM. Very good agreement was obtained between the mean MBF calculated on the parametric maps for each of the 17 ROIs and the regional MBF values estimated by the NLM (K 1map LM  = 1.019 × K 1 ROI NLM  + 0.019, R 2  = 0.986; mean difference = 0.034 ± 0.036 mL/min/cc). We developed a table lookup method for fast

  17. Phase-resolved optical coherence tomography and optical Doppler tomography for imaging blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, YH; Chen, ZP; Saxer, CE; Xiang, SH; de Boer, JF; Nelson, JS

    2000-01-01

    We have developed a novel phase-resolved optical coherence tomography (OCT) and optical Doppler tomography (ODT) system that uses phase information derived from a Hilbert transformation to image blood flow in human skin with fast scanning speed and high velocity sensitivity. Using the phase change

  18. Use of indium 111-labeled white blood cell scan in the diagnosis of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chinsky, K.; Goodenberger, D.M.

    1991-01-01

    Opportunistic infections are common in patients after renal transplantation. This report describes a case of cytomegalovirus pneumonia in a renal transplant recipient with a normal chest roentgenogram and normal arterial oxygenation. An abnormal 111In-white blood cell scan led to the discovery of a pulmonary source of his recurrent fevers

  19. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Mendrik (Adrienne); E.J.P.A. Vonken; B.T.J. van Ginneken (Berbke); J.R. Riordan (John ); H.W.A.M. de Jong (Hugo); T. van Seeters (Tom); E.J. Smit (Ewoud); M.A. Viergever (Max); M. Prokop (Mathias)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractCerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of

  20. TIPS bilateral noise reduction in 4D CT perfusion scans produces high-quality cerebral blood flow maps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mendrik, A.M.; Vonken, E.J.; Ginneken, B. van; Jong, H.W. de; Riordan, A.; Seeters, T. van; Smit, E.J.; Viergever, M.A.; Prokop, M.

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomography perfusion (CTP) scans are acquired to detect areas of abnormal perfusion in patients with cerebrovascular diseases. These 4D CTP scans consist of multiple sequential 3D CT scans over time. Therefore, to reduce radiation exposure to the patient, the amount of x-ray

  1. Rapid dual-injection single-scan 13N-ammonia PET for quantification of rest and stress myocardial blood flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, T C; DiBella, E V R; McGann, C J; Christian, P E; Hoffman, J M; Kadrmas, D J

    2006-01-01

    Quantification of myocardial blood flows at rest and stress using 13 N-ammonia PET is an established method; however, current techniques require a waiting period of about 1 h between scans. The objective of this study was to test a rapid dual-injection single-scan approach, where 13 N-ammonia injections are administered 10 min apart during rest and adenosine stress. Dynamic PET data were acquired in six human subjects using imaging protocols that provided separate single-injection scans as gold standards. Rest and stress data were combined to emulate rapid dual-injection data so that the underlying activity from each injection was known exactly. Regional blood flow estimates were computed from the dual-injection data using two methods: background subtraction and combined modelling. The rapid dual-injection approach provided blood flow estimates very similar to the conventional single-injection standards. Rest blood flow estimates were affected very little by the dual-injection approach, and stress estimates correlated strongly with separate single-injection values (r = 0.998, mean absolute difference = 0.06 ml min -1 g -1 ). An actual rapid dual-injection scan was successfully acquired in one subject and further demonstrates feasibility of the method. This study with a limited dataset demonstrates that blood flow quantification can be obtained in only 20 min by the rapid dual-injection approach with accuracy similar to that of conventional separate rest and stress scans. The rapid dual-injection approach merits further development and additional evaluation for potential clinical use

  2. Brain PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... results on a PET scan. Blood sugar or insulin levels may affect the test results in people with diabetes . PET scans may be done along with a CT scan. This combination scan is called a PET/CT. Alternative Names Brain positron emission tomography; PET scan - brain References Chernecky ...

  3. Evaluation of right ventricular function using gated equilibrium blood pool radionuclide ventriculography in patients with congenital volume and pressure overload late after surgical repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Nobuaki; Sakakibara, Tetsuo; Watanabe, Shinichiro; Nomura, Fumikazu; Akamatsu, Hiroki; Matsumura, Yasushi; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Sasaki, Jiro; Kodama, Kazuhisa

    1991-01-01

    The effects of congenital right ventricular pressure and volume overload were studied in 3 patients with pulmonary stenosis, 7 with atrial septal defect and 6 with atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis late after successful surgical correction. Gated equilibrium blood pool radionuclide ventriculography was used to measure right ventricular function at rest and during exercise and to compare it with eight normal subjects. Right ventricular ejection fractions at rest and during exercise were measured to be 61±9% and 66±13%, respectively, in the group with pulmonary stenosis, 49±7% and 54±8% in the group with atrial septal defect, and 65±13% and 69±13% in the group with atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis. The values in the groups with pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis were significantly higher than the control subjects (45±5% and 51±5%, p<0.01). The peak filling rate at rest and during exercise was also significantly higher in the groups with pulmonary stenosis and atrial septal defect plus pulmonary stenosis than in controls (at rest, 2.72±0.72, 2.53±0.94 vs. 1.64±0.24 p<0.05; during exercise, 4.38±1.23, 4.13±1.18 vs. 2.25±0.62, p<0.01). When patients with right ventricular systolic pressure equal to or greater than left ventricular systolic pressure and those with right ventricular systolic pressure less than left ventricular systolic pressure were compared, the right ventricular ejection fraction and peak filling rate were greater with the higher pressure at rest (71±10% and 3.12±0.81% vs. 55±3% and 2.30±0.27, p<0.05) and during exercise (75±11% and 4.86±1.01 vs. 59±3% and 2.61±0.35, p<0.05). Postoperative right ventricular hyperfunction may be due to preoperative pressure, but not volume, overload. (author)

  4. Understanding the decline of mean systolic blood pressure in Japan: an analysis of pooled data from the National Nutrition Survey, 1986-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, Nayu; Gakidou, Emmanuela; Hasegawa, Toshihiko; Murray, Christopher J L

    2008-12-01

    To assess the relationships between the observed drop in mean systolic blood pressure (SBP) in Japan in 1986-2002 and the use of antihypertensive treatment and lifestyle factors. A nationally representative sample of 90,554 men and 101,903 women aged 20 years and over was obtained from pooled data of annual cross-sectional surveys in Japan during 1986-2002. Using two-stage least squares with an instrumental variable, we examined the association between SBP and antihypertensive medication and lifestyle factors, including body mass index (BMI), physical activity, alcohol consumption, cigarette smoking and dietary salt intake. In the surveys, regular exercise was defined as exercise for more than 30 minutes at a time more than twice a week for over 1 year. Current smoking was defined as either daily or occasional cigarette use. Current drinking was defined as an intake of more than one standard cup of Japanese sake, one large bottle of regular beer, or one double measure of whisky at a time more than three times a week. Changes in mean predicted SBP in each sex and age group between 1986 and 2002 were decomposed into the respective contributions of these explanatory variables. Age-specific means of predicted SBP declined during this period by 1.8 (95% confidence interval, CI: 1.2-2.5) to 3.0 (95% CI: 2.4-3.6) mmHg in men and 3.7 (95% CI: 3.4-4.1) to 5.1 (95% CI: 4.5-5.7) mmHg in women. These reductions were partly explained by the increased use of medications across all sex and age groups and decreased mean BMI in women in their 30s and 40s. The contributions of treatment effects increased with age. Elevated mean BMI in men and elderly women offset part of the decline of their mean SBP. Declining mean SBP in Japan between 1986 and 2002 was partly attributable to the increased use of antihypertensive medications, especially in the older population, and lowered mean BMI in young women. However, a substantial part of the decline was left unexplained and needs to be

  5. Radiosynoviorthesis in hemophilic arthropathy: pathologic blood pool imaging on pre-therapeutic bone scintigraphy is not a predictor of treatment success

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabet, Amir [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Strauss, Andreas Christian; Schmolders, Jan; Bornemann, Rahel; Pennekamp, Peter Hans [University of Bonn, Department of Orthopaedics and Trauma Surgery, Bonn (Germany); Sabet, Amin; Biersack, Hans Juergen [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Oldenburg, Johannes [University of Bonn, Department of Experimental Hematology and Transfusion Medicine, Bonn (Germany); Ezziddin, Samer [University Duisburg-Essen, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Essen (Germany); Saarland University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Homburg (Germany)

    2017-03-15

    Increased articular {sup 99m}Tc MDP uptake on blood pool imaging (BPI) of patients with rheumatologic conditions is indicative of active inflammatory changes, and has been suggested as a strong predictor of response to radiosynoviorthesis (RSO). In this study, we aimed to assess the value of pretreatment BPI positivity (i.e. scintigraphic-apparent hyperemia) for successful RSO in hemophilic arthropathy. Thirty-four male patients with painful hemophilic arthropathy underwent RSO after failure of conservative treatment. Treated joints comprised the knee in eight, elbow in five, and ankle in 21 patients. Pretreatment triple-phase bone scintigraphy showed hyperemic joints (pathologic BPI) in 17 patients, whereas 17 patients had no increased tracer uptake on BPI. Response to RSO was evaluated 6 months post-treatment by measuring changes in intensity of arthralgia according to the visual analog scale (VAS), bleeding frequency, and range of motion. The association between hyperemia (pathologic BPI) and treatment outcome was examined using nonparametric tests for independent samples. Clinically evident pain relief occurred in 26 patients (76.5 %), and the mean VAS decreased from 7.7 ± 1.1 to 4.6 ± 2.7 (p < 0.001). Joint bleeding frequency (hemarthrosis) decreased from 4.5 ± 0.6 to 2.1 ± 0.4 during the first 6 months after RSO (p < 0.001). For both parameters (pain relief and bleeding frequency), patients experienced a similar benefit from RSO regardless of pretreatment BPI: arthralgia (p = 0.312) and frequency of hemarthrosis (p = 0.396). No significant improvement was observed for range of motion, but it was significantly more restricted in hyperemic joints both before (p = 0.036) and after treatment (p = 0.022). Hemophilic arthropathy can be effectively treated with RSO regardless of pre-therapeutic BPI. Patients in whom articular hyperemia is not detectable by scintigraphy may have similar (outstanding) outcomes, and thus should not be excluded from treatment. (orig.)

  6. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015: a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Bin; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bixby, Honor; Danaei, Goodarz; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Bennett, James E.; Taddei, Cristina; Bilano, Ver; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Lugero, Charles; Peykari, Niloofar; Zhang, Wan Zhu; Lu, Yuan; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Bovet, Pascal; Elliott, Paul; Gu, Dongfeng; Ikeda, Nayu; Jackson, Rod T.; Joffres, Michel; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lam, Tai Hing; Laxmaiah, Avula; Liu, Jing; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mondo, Charles K.; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.; Sundstrom, Johan; Smeeth, Liam; Soric, Maroje; Woodward, Mark; Ezzati, Majid; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Rahim, Hanan Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afsana, Kaosar; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Woyatan, Rihab; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Angquist, Lars; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ansong, Daniel; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araujo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Aryal, Krishna; Arveiler, Dominique; Assah, Felix K.; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.; Avdicova, Maria; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahijri, Suhad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, Jose R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Barros, Mauro V.; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Benet, Mikhail; Benson, Lowell S.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjokelund, Cecilia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Boeing, Heiner; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bongard, Vanina; Braeckman, Lutgart; Brajkovich, Imperia; Branca, Francesco; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Bruno, Graziella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B. (as); Bugge, Anna; Burns, Con; Bursztyn, Michael; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Cameron, Christine; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chan, Angelique W.; Chan, Queenie; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Huashuai; Chen, Shuohua; Chen, Zhengming; Cheng, Ching-Yu; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Chetrit, Angela; Chiolero, Arnaud; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Claessens, Frank; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Coppinger, Tara C.; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Craig, Cora L.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Cruz, Juan J.; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dauchet, Luc; de Backer, Guy; de Gaetano, Giovanni; de Henauw, Stefaan; de Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Helene; Deschamps, Valerie; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Diaz, Alejandro; Dickerson, Ty T.; Do, Ha T. P.; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Doering, Angela; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Dulskiene, Virginija; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Eggertsen, Robert; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Ellert, Ute; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Finn, Joseph D.; Fischer, Krista; Foeger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Fujita, Yuki; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gareta, Dickman; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Gavrila, Diana; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Ghimire, Anup; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.; Goncalves, Helen; Gonzalez Gross, Marcela; Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grafnetter, Dusan; Grajda, Aneta; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Gruden, Grabriella; Grujic, Vera; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gunter, Marc; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gureje, Oye; Gurzkowska, Beata; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hadaegh, Farzad; Halkjaer, Jytte; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Hata, Jun; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Hernandez Cadena, Leticia; Herqutanto, N. N.; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Dinc, Gonul Horasan; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo L.; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Yonghua; Maria Huerta, Jose; Husseini, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, M. Mohsen; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Ivkovic, Vanja; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jafar, Tazeen; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Johansson, Mattias; Jonas, Jost B.; Jorgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Juolevi, Anne; Jurak, Gregor; Juresa, Vesna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kafatos, Anthony; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Boker, Lital Keinan; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Kemper, Han C. G.; Kersting, Mathilde; Key, Timothy; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khang, Young-Ho; Khaw, Kay-Tee; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Jeongseon; Klumbiene, Jurate; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Koziel, Slawomir; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steinar; Kromhout, Daan; Kruger, Herculina S.; Kubinova, Ruzena; Kuciene, Renata; Kuh, Diana; Kujala, Urho M.; Kula, Krzysztof; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Kumar, R. Krishna; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Lachat, Carl; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Laugsand, Lars E.; Le, Nguyen Bao Khanh; Le, Tuyen D.; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lekhraj, Rampal; Leon-Munoz, Luz M.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Eugenio Lozano, Jose; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Jun; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Majer, Marjeta; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rahul; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Malyutina, Sofia; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim I.; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Marrugat, Jaume; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McNulty, Breige A.; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin Md; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Medzioniene, Jurate; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metspalu, Andres; Mi, Jie; Mikkel, Kairit; Miller, Jody C.; Francisco Miquel, Juan; Jaime Miranda, J.; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Moller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.; Moreira, Leila B.; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Muiesan, Maria L.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil; Mursu, Jaakko; Musil, Vera; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Nakamura, Harunobu; Namsna, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Narake, Sameer; Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Neal, William A.; Nenko, Ilona; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nishtar, Sania; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Norat, Teresa; Noto, Davide; Al Nsour, Mohannad; O'Reilly, Dermot; Oh, Kyungwon; Olinto, Maria Teresa A.; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ordunez, Pedro; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Otero, Johanna A.; Overvad, Kim; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Padez, Cristina; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palli, Domenico; Palmieri, Luigi; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Papandreou, Dimitrios; Parnell, Winsome R.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Pecin, Ivan; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peeters, Petra H.; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Pelletier, Catherine; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Marina Perez, Rosa; Peters, Annette; Petkeviciene, Janina; Pham, Son Thai; Pigeot, Iris; Pikhart, Hynek; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Pitakaka, Freda; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Polakowska, Maria; Polasek, Ozren; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Pourshams, Akram; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prashant, Mathur; Price, Jacqueline F.; Puiu, Maria; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radic, Ivana; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Raitakari, Olli; Raj, Manu; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramos, Elisabete; Rampal, Sanjay; Rangel Reina, Daniel A.; Rasmussen, Finn; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Riboli, Elio; Rigo, Fernando; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Rosengren, Annika; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rui, Ornelas; Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca; Russo Horimoto, Andrea R. V.; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Sakarya, Sibel; Salanave, Benoit; Salazar Martinez, Eduardo; Salmeron, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose; Sans, Susana; Santos, Diana; Santos, Ina S.; dos Santos, Renata Nunes; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Margolis, Giselle Sarganas; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas C.; Scazufca, Marcia; Schargrodsky, Herman; Schneider, Ione J.; Schultsz, Constance; Schutte, Aletta E.; Sen, Abhijit; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjotrom, Michael; Skovbjerg, Sine; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smith, Margaret C.; Snijder, Marieke B.; So, Hung-Kwan; Sobngwi, Eugene; Soderberg, Stefan; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Song, Yi; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Jerome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Staessen, Jan A.; Starc, Gregor; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stieber, Jutta; Stoeckl, Doris; Stocks, Tanja; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Sun, Chien-An; Sung, Yn-Tz; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Tai, E. Shyong; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tang, Line; Tang, Xun; Tanser, Frank; Tao, Yong; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Taylor, Anne; Theobald, Holger; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Topbas, Murat; Topor-Madry, Roman; Jose Tormo, Maria; Torrent, Maties; Traissac, Pierre; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trinh, Oanh T. H.; Trivedi, Atul; Tshepo, Lechaba; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Turley, Maria L.; Tynelius, Per; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice; Ulmer, Hanno; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Valvi, Damaskini; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; van Herck, Koen; van Rossem, Lenie; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, W. M. Monique; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Victora, Cesar G.; Viet, Lucie; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Vineis, Paolo; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vollenweider, Peter; Vrdoljak, Ana; Vrijheid, Martine; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wareham, Nicholas; Wederkopp, Niels; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Peter; Williams, Emmanuel A.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong, Tien Yin; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Woo, Jean; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shou Ling; Xu, Haiquan; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ye, Xingwang; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Ahmad F.; Zambon, Sabina; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zeng, Yi; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Yingffeng; Zhu, Dan; Zimmermann, Esther; Zuniga Cisneros, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood

  7. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015 : a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19·1 million participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, B.; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bixby, Honor; Danaei, Goodarz; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Singh, Gitanjali; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Bennett, James E.; Taddei, Cristina; Bilano, Ver; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Lugero, Charles; Peykari, Niloofar; Zhang, Wan Zhu; Lu, Yuan; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Bovet, Pascal; Elliott, Paul; Gu, Dongfeng; Ikeda, Nayu; Jackson, Rod T.; Joffres, Michel; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lam, Tai Hing; Laxmaiah, Avula; Liu, Jing; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mondo, Charles K.; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.; Sundström, Johan; Smeeth, Liam; Sorić, Maroje; Woodward, Mark; Ezzati, Majid; Abarca-Gómez, Leandra; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Rahim, Hanan Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen M.; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afsana, Kaosar; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A.; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Woyatan, Rihab; Ali, Mohamed M.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Ängquist, Lars; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ansong, Daniel; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araújo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Aryal, Krishna; Arveiler, Dominique; Assah, Felix K.; Assunção, Maria Cecília F.; Avdicová, Mária; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahijri, Suhad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, José R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barceló, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Barros, Aluisio J.D.; Barros, Mauro V.; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Romdhane, Habiba Ben; Benet, Mikhail; Benson, Lowell S.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Björkelund, Cecilia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Boeing, Heiner; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bongard, Vanina; Braeckman, Lutgart; Brajkovich, Imperia; Branca, Francesco; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Bruno, Graziella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H B As; Bugge, Anna; Burns, Con; Bursztyn, Michael; de León, Antonio Cabrera; Cacciottolo, Joseph; Cameron, Christine; Can, Günay; Cândido, Ana Paula C.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casas, Juan-Pablo; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chan, Angelique W.; Chan, Queenie; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Huashuai; Chen, Shuohua; Chen, Zhengming; Cheng, Yu Ching; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Chetrit, Angela; Chiolero, Arnaud; Chiou, Shu Ti; Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Claessens, Frank; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Coppinger, Tara C.; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris; Craig, Cora L.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Cruz, Juan J.; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Danaei, Goodarz; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dauchet, Luc; De Backer, Guy; De Bacquer, Dirk; de Gaetano, Giovanni; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Hélène; Deschamps, Valérie; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Diaz, Alejandro; Dickerson, Ty T.; Do, Ha T.P.; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Döring, Angela; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Dulskiene, Virginija; Džakula, Aleksandar; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Eggertsen, Robert; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Ellert, Ute; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Escobedo-de la Peña, Jorge; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Finn, Joseph D.; Fischer, Krista; Föger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; do Carmo Franco, Maria; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Fujita, Yuki; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gareta, Dickman; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Gavrila, Diana; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Ghimire, Anup; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.; Gonçalves, Helen; Gross, Marcela Gonzalez; González Rivas, Juan P.; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grafnetter, Dušan; Grajda, Aneta; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grøntved, Anders; Gruden, Grabriella; Grujic, Vera; Gu, Dongfeng; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gunter, Marc J.; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gureje, Oye; Gurzkowska, Beata; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hadaegh, Farzad; Halkjær, Jytte; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Hata, Jun; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Cadena, Leticia Hernandez; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Dinc, Gonul Horasan; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Yonghua; Huerta, José María; Husseini, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, M. Mohsen; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Ivkovic, Vanja; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jackson, Rod T.; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jafar, Tazeen; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Joffres, Michel; Johansson, Mattias; Jonas, Jost B; Jørgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Juolevi, Anne; Jurak, Gregor; Jureša, Vesna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kafatos, Anthony; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Boker, Lital Keinan; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Kemper, Han C.G.; Kengne, Andre Pascal; Kersting, Mathilde; Key, Timothy J.; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khang, Young Ho; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Jeongseon; Klumbiene, Jurate; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Koziel, Slawomir; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steinar; Kromhout, Daan; Kruger, Herculina S.; Kubinova, Ruzena; Kuciene, Renata; Kuh, Diana; Kujala, Urho M.; Kula, Krzysztof; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Krishna Kumar, R.; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Lam, Tai Hing; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Laugsand, Lars E.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Le Nguyen Bao, Khanh; Le, Tuyen D.; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimäki, Terho; Lekhraj, Rampal; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Lima-Costa, M. Fernanda; Lin, Hsien Ho; Lin, Xu; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Lozano, José Eugenio; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Jun; Machado-Coelho, George L.L.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Majer, Marjeta; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rahul; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Malyutina, Sofia; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim I.; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Marrugat, Jaume; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; McDonald Posso, Anselmo J.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen T.; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McNulty, Breige A.; MdKhir, Amir Sharifuddin; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Medzioniene, Jurate; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metspalu, Andres; Mi, Jie; Mikkel, Kairit; Miller, Jody C.; Miquel, Juan-Francisco; Mišigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Mohd Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli; Møller, Niels C.; Molnár, Dénes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.; Moreira, Leila B.; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mota, Jorge; Mostafa, Aya; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Muiesan, Maria L.; Müller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil; Mursu, Jaakko; Musil, Vera; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Nakamura, Harunobu; Námešná, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Narake, Sameer; Navarrete-Muñoz, Eva Maria; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Neal, William A.; Nenko, Ilona; Nervi, Flavio; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Nguyen, Quang Ngoc; Nieto-Martínez, Ramfis E.; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nishtar, Sania; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Norat, Teresa; Noto, Davide; Al Nsour, Mohannad; O'Reilly, Dermot; Oh, Kyungwon; Olinto, Maria Teresa A.; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ordunez, Pedro; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Otero, Johanna A.; Overvad, Kim; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Padez, Cristina; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palli, Domenico; Palmieri, Luigi; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Papandreou, Dimitrios; Parnell, Winsome R.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Pecin, Ivan; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peeters, Petra H.; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Pelletier, Catherine; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Pérez, Rosa Marina; Peters, Annette; Petkeviciene, Janina; Pham, Son Thai; Pigeot, Iris; Pikhart, Hynek; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Pitakaka, Freda; Plans-Rubió, Pedro; Polakowska, Maria; Polašek, Ozren; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L.P.; Pourshams, Akram; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prashant, Mathur; Price, Jacqueline F.; Puiu, Maria; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radic, Ivana; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Raitakari, Olli T.; Raj, Manu; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramachandran, Ambady; Ramos, Elisabete; Rampal, Sanjay; Rangel Reina, Daniel A.; Rasmussen, Finn; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Riboli, Elio; Rigo, Fernando; Rinke de Wit, Tobias F.; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; del Cristo Rodriguez-Perez, María; Rodríguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Rosengren, Annika; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rui, Ornelas; Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca Sandra; Russo Horimoto, Andrea R.V.; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Sakarya, Sibel; Salanave, Benoit; Martinez, Eduardo Salazar; Salmerón, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sánchez-Abanto, Jose; Sans, Susana; Santos, Diana; Santos, Ina S.; dos Santos, Renata Nunes; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Margolis, Giselle Sarganas; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai Uwe; Savva, Savvas C.; Scazufca, Marcia; Schargrodsky, Herman; Schneider, Ione J.; Schultsz, Constance; Schutte, Aletta E.; Schutte, Aletta E.; Sen, Abhijit; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A; Sjöström, Michael; Skovbjerg, Sine; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smith, Margaret C.; Snijder, Marieke B.; So, Hung Kwan; Sobngwi, Eugène; Söderberg, Stefan; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Song, Yi; Sørensen, Thorkild I A; Soric, Maroje; Jérome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Staessen, Jan A.; Starc, Gregor; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stieber, Jutta; Stöckl, Doris; Stocks, Tanja; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Sun, Chien An; Sung, Yn Tz; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Tai, E. Shyong; Tammesoo, Mari Liis; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tang, Line; Tang, Xun; Tao, Yong; Tanser, Frank; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Taylor, Anne; Theobald, Holger; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina Heinsbek; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Tolstrup, Janne S.; Topbas, Murat; Topór-Madry, Roman; Tormo, María José; Torrent, Maties; Traissac, Pierre; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trinh, Oanh T.H.; Trivedi, Atul; Tshepo, Lechaba; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Tuomilehto, Jaakko; Turley, Maria L.; Tynelius, Per; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice; Ulmer, Hanno; Uusitalo, Hannu M.T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Valvi, Damaskini; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Van Herck, Koen; van Rossem, Lenie; Van Valkengoed, Irene G M; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, W. M.Monique; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Victora, Cesar G.; Viet, Lucie; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Vineis, Paolo; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vollenweider, Peter; Voutilainen, Sari; Vrdoljak, Ana; Vrijheid, Martine; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Wan Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon; Wang, Ming Dong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Wederkopp, Niels; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wijga, Alet H; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Johann; Willeit, Peter; Williams, Emmanuel A.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shou Ling; Xu, Haiquan; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ye, Xingwang; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Ahmad F.; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli M.; Zambon, Sabina; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Yingffeng; Zimmermann, Esther; Cisneros, Julio Zuñiga; Zhu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood

  8. Worldwide trends in blood pressure from 1975 to 2015 : a pooled analysis of 1479 population-based measurement studies with 19.1 million participants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, Bin; Bentham, James; Di Cesare, Mariachiara; Bixby, Honor; Danaei, Goodarz; Cowan, Melanie J.; Paciorek, Christopher J.; Singh, Gitanjali M; Hajifathalian, Kaveh; Bennett, James E.; Taddei, Cristina; Bilano, Ver; Carrillo-Larco, Rodrigo M.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Khatibzadeh, Shahab; Lugero, Charles; Peykari, Niloofar; Zhang, Wan Zhu; Lu, Yuan; Stevens, Gretchen A.; Riley, Leanne M.; Bovet, Pascal; Elliott, Paul; Gu, Dongfeng; Ikeda, Nayu; Jackson, Rod T.; Joffres, Michel; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lam, Tai Hing; Laxmaiah, Avula; Liu, Jing; Miranda, J. Jaime; Mondo, Charles K.; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.; Sundstrom, Johan; Smeeth, Liam; Soric, Maroje; Woodward, Mark; Ezzati, Majid; Abarca-Gomez, Leandra; Abdeen, Ziad A.; Rahim, Hanan Abdul; Abu-Rmeileh, Niveen Me; Acosta-Cazares, Benjamin; Adams, Robert; Aekplakorn, Wichai; Afsana, Kaosar; Aguilar-Salinas, Carlos A; Agyemang, Charles; Ahmadvand, Alireza; Ahrens, Wolfgang; Al-Raddadi, Rajaa; Al Woyatan, Rihab; Karamat Ali, Mohamed Hanief; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Aly, Eman; Amouyel, Philippe; Amuzu, Antoinette; Andersen, Lars Bo; Anderssen, Sigmund A.; Angquist, Lars; Anjana, Ranjit Mohan; Ansong, Daniel; Aounallah-Skhiri, Hajer; Araujo, Joana; Ariansen, Inger; Aris, Tahir; Arlappa, Nimmathota; Aryal, Krishna; Arveiler, Dominique; Assah, Felix K.; Assuncao, Maria Cecilia F.; Avdicova, Maria; Azevedo, Ana; Azizi, Fereidoun; Babu, Bontha V.; Bahijri, Suhad; Balakrishna, Nagalla; Bandosz, Piotr; Banegas, Jose R.; Barbagallo, Carlo M.; Barcelo, Alberto; Barkat, Amina; Barros, Aluisio J. D.; Barros, Mauro V.; Bata, Iqbal; Batieha, Anwar M.; Baur, Louise A.; Beaglehole, Robert; Ben Romdhane, Habiba; Benet, Mikhail; Benson, Lowell S.; Bernabe-Ortiz, Antonio; Bernotiene, Gailute; Bettiol, Heloisa; Bhagyalaxmi, Aroor; Bharadwaj, Sumit; Bhargava, Santosh K.; Bi, Yufang; Bikbov, Mukharram; Bjerregaard, Peter; Bjertness, Espen; Bjokelund, Cecilia; Blokstra, Anneke; Bo, Simona; Bobak, Martin; Boeing, Heiner; Boggia, Jose G.; Boissonnet, Carlos P.; Bongard, Vanina; Bovet, Pascal; Braeckman, Lutgart; Brajkovich, Imperia; Branca, Francesco; Breckenkamp, Juergen; Brenner, Hermann; Brewster, Lizzy M.; Bruno, Graziella; Bueno-de-Mesquita, H. B(as).; Bugge, Anna; Burns, Con; Bursztyn, Michael; de Leon, Antonio Cabrera; Cameron, Christine; Can, Gunay; Candido, Ana Paula C.; Capuano, Vincenzo; Cardoso, Viviane C.; Carlsson, Axel C.; Carvalho, Maria J.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casanueva, Felipe F.; Casas, Juan Pablo; Caserta, Carmelo A.; Chamukuttan, Snehalatha; Chan, Angelique W.; Chan, Queenie; Chaturvedi, Himanshu K.; Chaturvedi, Nishi; Chen, Chien-Jen; Chen, Fangfang; Chen, Huashuai; Chen, Shuohua; Chen, Zhengming; Cheng, Yu-Ching; Dekkaki, Imane Cherkaoui; Chetrit, Angela; Chiolero, Arnaud; Chiou, Shu-Ti; Chirita-Emandi, Adela; Cho, Belong; Cho, Yumi; Chudek, Jerzy; Cifkova, Renata; Claessens, Frank; Clays, Els; Concin, Hans; Cooper, Cyrus; Cooper, Rachel; Coppinger, Tara C.; Costanzo, Simona; Cottel, Dominique; Cowell, Chris T.; Craig, Cora L.; Crujeiras, Ana B.; Cruz Moreno, Juan; D'Arrigo, Graziella; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Dallongeville, Jean; Damasceno, Albertino; Danaei, Goodarz; Dankner, Rachel; Dantoft, Thomas M.; Dauchet, Luc; De Backer, Guy; de Gaetano, Giovanni; De Henauw, Stefaan; De Smedt, Delphine; Deepa, Mohan; Dehghan, Abbas; Delisle, Helene; Deschamps, Valerie; Dhana, Klodian; Di Castelnuovo, Augusto F.; Dias-da-Costa, Juvenal Soares; Diaz, Alejandro; Dickerson, Ty T.; Djalalinia, Shirin; Do, Ha T. P.; Dobson, Annette J.; Donfrancesco, Chiara; Donoso, Silvana P.; Doering, Angela; Doua, Kouamelan; Drygas, Wojciech; Dulskiene, Virginija; Dzakula, Aleksandar; Dzerve, Vilnis; Dziankowska-Zaborszczyk, Elzbieta; Eggertsen, Robert; Ekelund, Ulf; El Ati, Jalila; Ellert, Ute; Elliott, Paul; Elosua, Roberto; Erasmus, Rajiv T.; Erem, Cihangir; Eriksen, Louise; Escobedo-de la Pena, Jorge; Evans, Alun; Faeh, David; Fall, Caroline H.; Farzadfar, Farshad; Felix-Redondo, Francisco J.; Ferguson, Trevor S.; Fernandez-Berges, Daniel; Ferrante, Daniel; Ferrari, Marika; Ferreccio, Catterina; Ferrieres, Jean; Finn, Joseph D.; Fischer, Krista; Foeger, Bernhard; Foo, Leng Huat; Forslund, Ann-Sofie; Forsner, Maria; Fortmann, Stephen P.; Fouad, Heba M.; Francis, Damian K.; Franco, Maria do Carmo; Franco, Oscar H.; Frontera, Guillermo; Fuchs, Flavio D.; Fuchs, Sandra C.; Fujita, Yuki; Furusawa, Takuro; Gaciong, Zbigniew; Gareta, Dickman; Garnett, Sarah P.; Gaspoz, Jean-Michel; Gasull, Magda; Gates, Louise; Gavrila, Diana; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Ghasemian, Anoosheh; Ghimire, Anup; Giampaoli, Simona; Gianfagna, Francesco; Giovannelli, Jonathan; Goldsmith, Rebecca A.; Goncalves, Helen; Gonzalez Gross, Marcela; Gonzalez Rivas, Juan P.; Gottrand, Frederic; Graff-Iversen, Sidsel; Grafnetter, Dusan; Grajda, Aneta; Gregor, Ronald D.; Grodzicki, Tomasz; Grontved, Anders; Gruden, Grabriella; Grujic, Vera; Gu, Dongfeng; Guan, Ong Peng; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Guerrero, Ramiro; Guessous, Idris; Guimaraes, Andre L.; Gulliford, Martin C.; Gunnlaugsdottir, Johanna; Gunter, Marc; Gupta, Prakash C.; Gureje, Oye; Gurzkowska, Beata; Gutierrez, Laura; Gutzwiller, Felix; Hadaegh, Farzad; Halkjaer, Jytte; Hambleton, Ian R.; Hardy, Rebecca; Harikumar, Rachakulla; Hata, Jun; Hayes, Alison J.; He, Jiang; Hendriks, Marleen Elisabeth; Henriques, Ana; Hernandez Cadena, Leticia; Herqutanto,; Herrala, Sauli; Heshmat, Ramin; Hihtaniemi, Ilpo Tapani; Ho, Sai Yin; Ho, Suzanne C.; Hobbs, Michael; Hofman, Albert; Dinc, Gonul Horasan; Hormiga, Claudia M.; Horta, Bernardo Lessa; Houti, Leila; Howitt, Christina; Htay, Thein Thein; Htet, Aung Soe; Hu, Yonghua; Maria Huerta, Jose; Husseini, Abdullatif S.; Huybrechts, Inge; Hwalla, Nahla; Iacoviello, Licia; Iannone, Anna G.; Ibrahim, M. Mohsen; Ikram, M. Arfan; Irazola, Vilma E.; Islam, Muhammad; Ivkovic, Vanja; Iwasaki, Masanori; Jackson, Rod T.; Jacobs, Jeremy M.; Jafar, Tazeen H.; Jamrozik, Konrad; Janszky, Imre; Jasienska, Grazyna; Jelakovic, Bojan; Jiang, Chao Qiang; Johansson, Mattias; Jonas, Jost B; Jorgensen, Torben; Joshi, Pradeep; Juolevi, Anne; Jurak, Gregor; Juresa, Vesna; Kaaks, Rudolf; Kafatos, Anthony; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Kamaruddin, Nor Azmi; Kasaeian, Amir; Katz, Joanne; Kauhanen, Jussi; Kaur, Prabhdeep; Kavousi, Maryam; Kazakbaeva, Gyulli; Keil, Ulrich; Boker, Lital Keinan; Keinanen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Kelishadi, Roya; Kemper, Han C. G.; Kengne, Andre-Pascal; Kersting, Mathilde; Key, Timothy; Khader, Yousef Saleh; Khalili, Davood; Khang, Young-Ho; Khaw, Kay Tee; Kiechl, Stefan; Killewo, Japhet; Kim, Jeongseon; Klumbiene, Jurate; Kolle, Elin; Kolsteren, Patrick; Korrovits, Paul; Koskinen, Seppo; Kouda, Katsuyasu; Koziel, Slawomir; Kristensen, Peter Lund; Krokstad, Steinar; Kromhout, Daan; Kruger, Herculina S.; Kubinova, Ruzena; Kuciene, Renata; Kuh, Diana; Kujala, Urho M.; Kula, Krzysztof; Kulaga, Zbigniew; Kumar, R. Krishna; Kurjata, Pawel; Kusuma, Yadlapalli S.; Kuulasmaa, Kari; Kyobutungi, Catherine; Laatikainen, Tiina; Lachat, Carl; Landrove, Orlando; Lanska, Vera; Lappas, Georg; Larijani, Bagher; Laugsand, Lars E.; Laxmaiah, Avula; Khanh Le Nguyen Bao,; Le, Tuyen D.; Leclercq, Catherine; Lee, Jeannette Jen-Mai; Lee, Jeonghee; Lehtimaki, Terho; Lekhraj, Rampal; Leon-Munoz, Luz M.; Levitt, Naomi S.; Li, Yanping; Lilly, Christa L.; Lim, Wei-Yen; Fernanda Lima-Costa, M.; Lin, Hsien-Ho; Lin, Xu; Linneberg, Allan; Lissner, Lauren; Litwin, Mieczyslaw; Liu, Jing; Lorbeer, Roberto; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Eugenio Lozano, Jose; Luksiene, Dalia; Lundqvist, Annamari; Lunet, Nuno; Lytsy, Per; Ma, Guansheng; Ma, Jun; Machado-Coelho, George L. L.; Machi, Suka; Maggi, Stefania; Magliano, Dianna J.; Majer, Marjeta; Makdisse, Marcia; Malekzadeh, Reza; Malhotra, Rahul; Rao, Kodavanti Mallikharjuna; Malyutina, Sofia; Manios, Yannis; Mann, Jim I.; Manzato, Enzo; Margozzini, Paula; Marques-Vidal, Pedro; Marrugat, Jaume; Martorell, Reynaldo; Mathiesen, Ellisiv B.; Matijasevich, Alicia; Matsha, Tandi E.; Mbanya, Jean Claude N.; Posso, Anselmo J. Mc Donald; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McFarlane, Shelly R.; McGarvey, Stephen Theodore; McLachlan, Stela; McLean, Rachael M.; McNulty, Breige A.; Khir, Amir Sharifuddin Md; Mediene-Benchekor, Sounnia; Medzioniene, Jurate; Meirhaeghe, Aline; Meisinger, Christa; Menezes, Ana Maria B.; Menon, Geetha R.; Meshram, Indrapal I.; Metspalu, Andres; Mi, Jie; Mikkel, Kairit; Miller, Jody C.; Francisco Miquel, Juan; Jaime Miranda, J.; Misigoj-Durakovic, Marjeta; Mohamed, Mostafa K.; Mohammad, Kazem; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Mohan, Viswanathan; Yusoff, Muhammad Fadhli Mohd; Moller, Niels C.; Molnar, Denes; Momenan, Amirabbas; Mondo, Charles K.; Monyeki, Kotsedi Daniel K.; Moreira, Leila B.; Morejon, Alain; Moreno, Luis A.; Morgan, Karen; Moschonis, George; Mossakowska, Malgorzata; Mostafa, Aya; Mota, Jorge; Motlagh, Mohammad Esmaeel; Motta, Jorge; Muiesan, Maria L.; Mueller-Nurasyid, Martina; Murphy, Neil; Mursu, Jaakko; Musil, Vera; Nagel, Gabriele; Naidu, Balkish M.; Nakamura, Harunobu; Namsna, Jana; Nang, Ei Ei K.; Nangia, Vinay B.; Narake, Sameer; Maria Navarrete-Munoz, Eva; Ndiaye, Ndeye Coumba; Neal, William A.; Nenko, Ilona; Nervi, Flavio; Neuhauser, Hannelore K.; Nguyen, Nguyen D.; Quang Ngoc Nguyen,; Nieto-Martinez, Ramfis E.; Niiranen, Teemu J.; Ning, Guang; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Nishtar, Sania; Noale, Marianna; Noboa, Oscar A.; Noorbala, Ahmad Ali; Norat, Teresa; Noto, Davide; Al Nsour, Mohannad; O'Reilly, Dermot; Oh, Kyungwon; Olinto, Maria Teresa A.; Oliveira, Isabel O.; Omar, Mohd Azahadi; Onat, Altan; Ordunez, Pedro; Osmond, Clive; Ostojic, Sergej M.; Otero, Johanna A.; Overvad, Kim; Owusu-Dabo, Ellis; Paccaud, Fred Michel; Padez, Cristina; Pahomova, Elena; Pajak, Andrzej; Palli, Domenico; Palmieri, Luigi; Panda-Jonas, Songhomitra; Panza, Francesco; Papandreou, Dimitrios; Parnell, Winsome R.; Parsaeian, Mahboubeh; Pecin, Ivan; Pednekar, Mangesh S.; Peer, Nasheeta; Peeters, Petra H.; Peixoto, Sergio Viana; Pelletier, Catherine; Peltonen, Markku; Pereira, Alexandre C.; Marina Perez, Rosa; Peters, Annette; Petkeviciene, Janina; Peykari, Niloofar; Son Thai Pham,; Pigeot, Iris; Pikhart, Hynek; Pilav, Aida; Pilotto, Lorenza; Pitakaka, Freda; Plans-Rubio, Pedro; Polakowska, Maria; Polasek, Ozren; Porta, Miquel; Portegies, Marileen L. P.; Pourshams, Akram; Pradeepa, Rajendra; Prashant, Mathur; Price, Jacqueline F.; Puiu, Maria; Punab, Margus; Qasrawi, Radwan F.; Qorbani, Mostafa; Radic, Ivana; Radisauskas, Ricardas; Rahman, Mahfuzar; Raitakari, Olli; Raj, Manu; Rao, Sudha Ramachandra; Ramos, Elisabete; Rampal, Sanjay; Rangel Reina, Daniel A.; Rasmussen, Finn; Redon, Josep; Reganit, Paul Ferdinand M.; Ribeiro, Robespierre; Riboli, Elio; Rigo, Fernando; de Wit, Tobias F. Rinke; Ritti-Dias, Raphael M.; Robinson, Sian M.; Robitaille, Cynthia; Rodriguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Rodriguez-Villamizar, Laura A.; Rojas-Martinez, Rosalba; Rosengren, Annika; Rubinstein, Adolfo; Rui, Ornelas; Sandra Ruiz-Betancourt, Blanca; Russo Horimoto, Andrea R. V.; Rutkowski, Marcin; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Sachdev, Harshpal S.; Saidi, Olfa; Sakarya, Sibel; Salanave, Benoit; Salazar Martinez, Eduardo; Salmeron, Diego; Salomaa, Veikko; Salonen, Jukka T.; Salvetti, Massimo; Sanchez-Abanto, Jose; Sans, Susana; Santos, Diana; Santos, Ina S.; dos Santos, Renata Nunes; Santos, Rute; Saramies, Jouko L.; Sardinha, Luis B.; Margolis, Giselle Sarganas; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Saum, Kai-Uwe; Savva, Savvas C.; Scazufca, Marcia; Schargrodsky, Herman; Schneider, Ione J. C.; Schultsz, Constance; Schutte, Aletta E.; Sen, Abhijit; Senbanjo, Idowu O.; Sepanlou, Sadaf G.; Sharma, Sanjib K.; Shaw, Jonathan E.; Shibuya, Kenji; Shin, Dong Wook; Shin, Youchan; Siantar, Rosalynn; Sibai, Abla M.; Santos Silva, Diego Augusto; Simon, Mary; Simons, Judith; Simons, Leon A.; Sjotrom, Michael; Skovbjerg, Sine; Slowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta; Slusarczyk, Przemyslaw; Smeeth, Liam; Smith, Margaret C. M.; Snijder, Marieke B.; So, Hung-Kwan; Sobngwi, Eugene; Soderberg, Stefan; Solfrizzi, Vincenzo; Sonestedt, Emily; Song, Yi; Sorensen, Thorkild I. A.; Soric, Maroje; Jerome, Charles Sossa; Soumare, Aicha; Staessen, Jan A.; Starc, Gregor; Stathopoulou, Maria G.; Stavreski, Bill; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Stehle, Peter; Stein, Aryeh D.; Stergiou, George S.; Stessman, Jochanan; Stieber, Jutta; Stoeckl, Doris; Stocks, Tanja; Stokwiszewski, Jakub; Stronks, Karien; Strufaldi, Maria Wany; Sun, Chien-An; Sundstrom, Johan; Sung, Yn-Tz; Suriyawongpaisal, Paibul; Sy, Rody G.; Tai, E-Shyong; Tammesoo, Mari-Liis; Tamosiunas, Abdonas; Tang, Line; Tang, Xun; Tanser, Frank; Tao, Yong; Tarawneh, Mohammed Rasoul; Tarqui-Mamani, Carolina B.; Taylor, Anne W.; Theobald, Holger; Thijs, Lutgarde; Thuesen, Betina H.; Tjonneland, Anne; Tolonen, Hanna K.; Topbas, Murat; Topor-Madry, Roman; Jose Tormo, Maria; Torrent, Maties; Traissac, Pierre; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Trinh, Oanh T. H.; Trivedi, Atul; Tshepo, Lechaba; Tulloch-Reid, Marshall K.; Tuomainen, Tomi-Pekka; Turley, Maria L.; Tynelius, Per; Tzourio, Christophe; Ueda, Peter; Ugel, Eunice; Ulmer, Hanno; Uusitalo, Hannu M. T.; Valdivia, Gonzalo; Valvi, Damaskini; van der Schouw, Yvonne T.; Van Herck, Koen; van Rossem, Lenie; van Valkengoed, Irene G. M.; Vanderschueren, Dirk; Vanuzzo, Diego; Vatten, Lars; Vega, Tomas; Velasquez-Melendez, Gustavo; Veronesi, Giovanni; Verschuren, W. Monique; Verstraeten, Roosmarijn; Victora, Cesar G.; Viet, Lucie; Viikari-Juntura, Eira; Vineis, Paolo; Vioque, Jesus; Virtanen, Jyrki K.; Visvikis-Siest, Sophie; Viswanathan, Bharathi; Vollenweider, Peter; Vrdoljak, Ana; Vrijheid, Martine; Wade, Alisha N.; Wagner, Aline; Walton, Janette; Mohamud, Wan Nazaimoon Wan; Wang, Ming-Dong; Wang, Qian; Wang, Ya Xing; Wannamethee, S. Goya; Wareham, Nicholas; Wederkopp, Niels; Weerasekera, Deepa; Whincup, Peter H.; Widhalm, Kurt; Widyahening, Indah S.; Wiecek, Andrzej; Wijga, Alet H.; Wilks, Rainford J.; Willeit, Peter; Williams, Emmanuel A.; Wilsgaard, Tom; Wojtyniak, Bogdan J.; Wong, Tien-Yin; Wong-McClure, Roy A.; Woo, Jean; Woodward, Mark; Wu, Aleksander Giwercman; Wu, Frederick C.; Wu, Shou Ling; Xu, Haiquan; Yan, Weili; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ye, Xingwang; Yiallouros, Panayiotis K.; Yoshihara, Akihiro; Younger-Coleman, Novie O.; Yusoff, Ahmad F.; Zambon, Sabina; Zdrojewski, Tomasz; Zeng, Yi; Zhao, Dong; Zhao, Wenhua; Zheng, Yingffeng; Zhu, Dan; Zimmermann, Esther; Zuniga Cisneros, Julio

    2017-01-01

    Background Raised blood pressure is an important risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and chronic kidney disease. We estimated worldwide trends in mean systolic and mean diastolic blood pressure, and the prevalence of, and number of people with, raised blood pressure, defined as systolic blood

  9. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  10. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  11. A method to identify early ventricular dysfunction using resting gated blood pool scans (GBPS) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarzberg, R.J.; Seldin, D.W.; Johnson, L.L.; Alderson, P.O.

    1984-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity of regional 1st and 2nd time derivative (1DV, 2DV) images to assess ventricular function (VF) in CAD, the resting GBPS of 8 normal patients (pts) and 20 pts with CAD who had coronary angiography and contrast ventriculography (CV) were analyzed. The 1DV and 2DV of the systolic time-activity curve were determined for each left ventricular pixel in the GBPS. These values were displayed as functional images that were reviewed by three readers to determine the presence of regional abnormalities. No regional abnormalities were seen in the conventional GBPS or 1DV or 2DV images of the 8 normal pts. Regional GBPS and DV image abnormalities were seen in all 10 pts with CAD and abnormal wall motion by CV. The DV image abnormalities were in the distribution of 18/22 coronary arteries (CA) with ≥50% stenoses; 2 of these regions showed normal wall motion by CV and conventional GBPS. DV images were abnormal in 2/8 CAs without significant stenoses. In addition, regional DV image abnormalities were present in 9 of 10 pts with CAD who had normal wall motion and global ejection fraction by both CV and resting GBPS. These 10 pts showed regional abnormalities in the distribution of 13/15 CAs with significant stenoses and 2/15 CAs without such stenoses. The results suggest that time derivative functional images derived from resting GBPS provide a more sensitive means for detecting regional left ventricular dysfunction than several other current methods, especially in pts with mild CAD

  12. Scanning x-ray microscopy of living and freeze-dried blood cells in two vanadium-rich ascidian species, Phallusia mammillata and Ascidia sydneiensis samea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueki, Tatsuya; Takemoto, Kuniko; Fayard, Barbara; Salomé, Murielle; Yamamoto, Akitsugu; Kihara, Hiroshi; Susini, Jean; Scippa, Silvia; Uyama, Taro; Michibata, Hitoshi

    2002-01-01

    Some ascidians (sea squirts) accumulate the transitional metal vanadium in their blood cells at concentrations of up to 350 mM, about 10(7) times its concentration found in seawater. There are approximately 10 different types of blood cell in ascidians. The identity of the true vanadium-containing blood cell (vanadocyte) is controversial and little is known about the subcellular distribution of vanadium. A scanning x-ray microscope installed at the ID21 beamline of the European Synchroton Radiation Facility to visualize vanadium in ascidian blood cells. Without fixation, freezing or staining realized the visualization of vanadium localized in living signet ring cells and vacuolated amoebocytes of two vanadium-rich ascidian species, Phallusia mammillata and Ascidia sydneiensis samea. A combination of transmission and fluorescence images of signet ring cells suggested that in both species the vacuoles contain vanadium.

  13. Prognostic Significance of Hyponatremia in Acute Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Pooled Analysis of the Intensive Blood Pressure Reduction in Acute Cerebral Hemorrhage Trial Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carcel, C.; Sato, S.; Zheng, D.; Heeley, E.; Arima, H.; Yang, J.; Wu, G.; Chen, G.; Zhang, S.; Delcourt, C; Lavados, P.; Robinson, T.; Lindley, R.I.; Wang, X.; Chalmers, J.; Anderson, C.S.; Klijn, C.J.M.; et al.,

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the association of hyponatremia at presentation with clinical and imaging outcomes in patients with acute intracerebral hemorrhage. DESIGN: Retrospective pooled analysis of prospectively collected data from 3,243 participants of the pilot and main phases of the Intensive

  14. Hawaii ESI: POOLS (Anchialine Pool Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for anchialine pools in Hawaii. Anchialine pools are small, relatively shallow coastal ponds that occur...

  15. Improving the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings using the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime-labelled white-blood-cell abdomen scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Dahchin; Shiau Yuchien; Wang Jhijoung; Ho Shungtai; Kao Chiahung

    2002-01-01

    Heading AbstractBackground. Diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with equivocal signs and symptoms may be difficult. The usual approach is hospital observation and frequent re-examination. However, many surgeons are reluctant to delay surgery because of the risk of perforation and a negative laparotomy.Objective. To assess and compare the value of the technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ( 99m Tc-HMPAO)-labelled white-blood-cell (WBC) abdomen scan in the diagnosis of acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical presentation.Patients and methods. Fifty children with acute right lower quadrant abdominal pain and possible acute appendicitis, but atypical findings were included. After IV injection of 99m Tc-HMPAO-labelled WBCs, serial anterior abdomen scans were obtained using a gamma camera.Results. Thirty-three children underwent surgery, while 17 children were managed conservatively and were followed up for at least 1 month. Four children had false-positive results and one child had a false-negative scan result. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of the scan to diagnose acute appendicitis in children with atypical findings was 96.7, 80.0, 90.0, 87.8 and 94.1%, respectively.Conclusions. The 99m Tc-HMPAO WBC abdomen scan is a potential tool for diagnosing acute appendicitis in children with atypical clinical findings. The high sensitivity and negative predictive value allows early discharge from the emergency department to avoid costly observation in hospital and potentially unnecessary surgery in those patients with negative scans. (orig.)

  16. The comparing results of carcinoma between three-phase and delayed whole body bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Si Hongwei; Li Xianfeng

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: Three phase bone scan is an imaging technology in nuclear medicine, which composed of blood flow phase, blood pool phase and delayed phase and the last one is often performed in routine works in department of nuclear medicine. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the merit of three-phase bone scan.Methods: In this study, we chose 54 patients who were having an regional pain which caused by benign or malignant carcinoma that diagnosed by CT, X-ray, ECT, MRI or other examinations. The imaging were acquired simultaneously from both anterior and posterior views, after a bolus injection of 1110 MBq technetium-99m-labelled methylene diphosphonate (MDP), blood phase contains 20 frame sand 3 seconds per frame, blood pool phase contains 5 frames and 1 minute per frame, delayed phase was performed 2.5 hour later. According to the results of three-phase bone scan, the patients were divided into 2 groups: normal and abnormal groups. The abnormal group includes early phase positive,delay positive and all three phase positive sets. The comparing among the 3 sets were analyzed by chi-square test and other statistic means.Results: There were 54 patients who had suffered lung cancer, breast cancer and other cancer,involved in this study, 34 males and 20 females, ranged age 17 to 88 years, were normal in 15 cases,positive in 22 cases, the results in delayed phase were positive in 9 cases, blood flow and blood pool phase showed blood flow changes in 4 cases and soft tissue tumors were seen in 4 cases. Three phase bone scan was more sensitive than delayed whole body bone scan in detecting the abnormal sites (p 0.05) The sensitivity of detecting tumors in blood flow and blood pool phase,delayed phase were respectively lower than in three phase bone scan (p<0.001).Conclusion: It is more sensitivity of detecting tumor lesions in three phase bone scan than in delayed phase whole body bone scan and the changes of blood flow and soft tissue can be seen in three phase bone scan

  17. New Technique for Automatic Segmentation of Blood Vessels in CT Scan Images of Liver Based on Optimized Fuzzy C-Means Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi, Katayoon; Karimi, Abbas; Fouladi Nia, Babak

    2016-01-01

    Automatic segmentation of medical CT scan images is one of the most challenging fields in digital image processing. The goal of this paper is to discuss the automatic segmentation of CT scan images to detect and separate vessels in the liver. The segmentation of liver vessels is very important in the liver surgery planning and identifying the structure of vessels and their relationship to tumors. Fuzzy C -means (FCM) method has already been proposed for segmentation of liver vessels. Due to classical optimization process, this method suffers lack of sensitivity to the initial values of class centers and segmentation of local minima. In this article, a method based on FCM in conjunction with genetic algorithms (GA) is applied for segmentation of liver's blood vessels. This method was simulated and validated using 20 CT scan images of the liver. The results showed that the accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and CPU time of new method in comparison with FCM algorithm reaching up to 91%, 83.62, 94.11%, and 27.17 were achieved, respectively. Moreover, selection of optimal and robust parameters in the initial step led to rapid convergence of the proposed method. The outcome of this research assists medical teams in estimating disease progress and selecting proper treatments.

  18. Comparative Scanning Electron Microscopic Study of the Marginal Adaptation of Four Root-End Filling Materials in Presence and Absence of Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Behnam Bolhari

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate marginal adaptation of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA, calcium enriched mixture (CEM cement, Biodentine and BioAggregate in presence of normal saline and human blood.Materials and Methods: In this in-vitro experimental study, 80 extracted single-rooted human teeth were instrumented and filled with gutta-percha. After resect- ing the root-end, apical cavity preparation was done and the teeth were randomly divided into 4 groups (N=20(a total of 8 subgroups. Root-end filling materials were placed in 3mm root-end cavities prepared ultrasonically. Half the specimens in each group were exposed to normal saline and the other half to fresh whole human blood. After 4 days, epoxy resin replicas of the apical portion of samples were fabricated and scanning electron microscopy (SEM analysis was performed to find gaps in the adaptation of the root-end filling materials at their interface with dentin. The Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used for statistical analysis of data with P<0.05 as the limit of significance.Results: There were no significant differences in marginal adaptation of the 8 tested groups (P>0.05.Conclusion: Based on the results, blood contamination does not affect the mar- ginal adaptation of MTA, CEM cement, Biodentine or BioAggregate .

  19. Swimming pool granuloma

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001357.htm Swimming pool granuloma To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A swimming pool granuloma is a long-term (chronic) skin ...

  20. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  1. Quantitative accuracy of denoising techniques applied to dynamic 82Rb myocardial blood flow PET/CT scans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Bouchelouche, Kirsten

    be performed successfully for all scans. Quantitative performance was suboptimal when 5 or less factors were used for the Hotelling method, both in 2D and 3D. For 6 or more factors and for HYPR-LR, excellent quantitative accuracy was obtained when compared to non-denoised data (r2 = 0.996, slope = 1.013 for 2D...... Hotelling with 6 factors; r2 = 0.994, slope = 0.998 for 3D Hotelling with 6 factors; r2 = 0.995, slope = 0.996 for HYPR-LR). Conclusions: Both HYPR-LR and Hotelling denoising methods can be applied to 82Rb data with excellent quantitative accuracy. This enables an improvement in image quality or potentially....... This increases radiation dose to the patient, reduces Sr/Rb generator lifetimes and increases risk of scanner saturation. The aim of this study was to evaluate quantitative performance of several image denoising techniques which could ultimately be used to reduce administered activity. Methods: Fifty patients...

  2. Semiquantifying regional cerebral blood flow by dynamic CT scanning; Correlation with sup 123 I-amphetamine (IMP) SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, Totaro; Kasahara, Eishi; Takahashi, Eriko; Kojima, Seiichi (Municipal of Higashimatsuyama Hospital, Saitama (Japan)); Ogawa, Haruhiko; Suzuki, Keiko; Miyamae, Tatsuya; Yamazaki, Setsuo

    1990-10-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the semi-quantitative significance of the absolute value obtained by calculating the regional cerebral blood flow index (rCBFI) from dynamic CT in comparison with SPECT. rCBFI was calculated from mean transit time (MTT) and blood capacity index (BCI) obtained by rapidly infusing 50 ml of Omnipurk into the elbow vein by the use of Hitachi's W-600. (rCBFI=BCI/MTT unit/sec (U/S)) measurment of the rCBF by SPECT was made according to the semi-quantitative method by Matsuda et al. by the use of SHIMADZU's improved type HEADTOME SET-050 with rapid infusion of {sup 123}I-IMP in 3.5 m Ci from the elbow vein. Patients in whom no abnormality was observed in the cardiopulmonary function were enrolled as subjects. The rCBFI in each intracranial site was calculated from dynamic CT in 10 normal adults (aged 35-60, averaging 46.7) as subjects and compared with the rCBF obtained from SPECT in the same cases and same site. Comparative investigation was made similarly between rCBFI and rCBF regarding 10 patients with tracranial diseases (age 29-65, averaging 51.2). The mean rCBFIs in the normal adults obtained from dynamic CT were 1.15+-0.18 U/S in the frontal lobar cortex, 1.28+-0.19 U/S in the temporal lobar cortex, 1.43+-0.1 U/S in the occipital lobar cortex, 1.27+-0.2 U/S in the basal ganglia region and 0.43+-0.1 U/S in the white matter. On the other hand, the mean rCBFs by SPECT were 47.36+-3.93 ml/100 g/min, 55.19+-2.22 ml/100 g/min, 61.92+-5.42 ml/100 g/min, 54.38+-3.51 ml/100 g/min and 38.68+-6.18 ml/100 g/min, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between rCBFIs and rCBFs of 10 normal adults and 10 patients with intracranial disease, totalling 20 cases (r=0.79, P<0.005). The rCBFI by dynamic CT has a correlation with the rCBF by SPECT, suggesting the possibility of its evaluation as an absolute value, though semi-quantitatively. (author).

  3. Fourier analysis of multi-gated cardiac blood-pool data in patients with congenital heart diseases, (2). Assessment of diseases with complex cardiac anomalies, especially tetralogy of Fallot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeda, Kan; Maeda, Hisato; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Nakamura, Kazuyoshi; Matsumura, Kaname; Nakagawa, Tsuyoshi; Sakurai, Minoru; Aoki, Kenzo

    1985-04-01

    The clinical usefulness of Fourier analysis of multi-gated cardiac blood-pool data was evaluated in 18 subjects with normal cardiac functions and 14 patients with complex cardiac anomalies (ten with tetralogy of Fallot, two with tricuspid atresia (TA), one with double-outlet right ventricle (DORV), and one with Ebstein's anomaly (EA)). Using global ventricular time-activity curves, the phase and amplitude at fundamental frequency were calculated, and emptying patterns of the left and right ventricles (LV, RV) were evaluated by phase difference (D(phase)=RV phase minus LV phase) and amplitude ratio of RV to LV (R(amp)). In patients with TOF, mean values of D (phase) and R(amp) were 25.3 +- 10.5 degrees and 13.5 +- 0.49 respectively and significantly larger than those of normal subjects. D (phase) became larger in inverse proportion to the ratio of pulmonary-to-systemic blood flow and there was an inverse linear correlation between these two variables. On visual interpretation of functional images, the dynamic property of hypoplastic ventricles could be easily estimated in patients with TA or DORV. In a case with EA, the atrialized RV was shown clearly as a hypokinetic, atrial phase area. This method is valuable for pathophysiologic investigation of diseases with complex cardiac anomalies. (author).

  4. RBC nuclear scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... scan uses small amounts of radioactive material to mark (tag) red blood cells (RBCs). Your body is ... Goldman's Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap 135. Tavakkoli A, Ashley SW. Acute ...

  5. Measurement of cerebral blood flow the blood sampling method using 99mTc-ECD. Simultaneous scintigram scanning of arterial blood samples and the brain with a gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachiya, Takenori; Inugami, Atsushi; Iida, Hidehiro; Mizuta, Yoshihiko; Kawakami, Takeshi; Inoue, Minoru

    1999-01-01

    To measure regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) by blood sampling using 99m Tc-ECD we devised a method of measuring the radioactive concentration in arterial blood sample with a gamma camera. In this method the head and a blood sample are placed within the same visual field to record the SPECT data of both specimens simultaneously. The results of an evaluation of the counting rate performance, applying the 30 hours decaying method using 99m Tc solution showed that this method is not comparable to the well-type scintillation counter and in clinical cases the active concentration in arterial blood sample remained well within the dynamic range. In addition, examination of the influence of scattered radiation from the brain by the dilution method showed that it was negligible at a distance of more than 7.5 cm between the brain and the arterial blood sample. In the present study we placed a head-shaped phantom next to the sample. The results of the examinations suggested that this method is suitable for clinical application, and because it does not require a well-type scintillation counter, it is expected to find wide application. (author)

  6. Collaborative Car Pooling System

    OpenAIRE

    João Ferreira; Paulo Trigo; Porfírio Filipe

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the architecture for a collaborative Car Pooling System based on a credits mechanism to motivate the cooperation among users. Users can spend the accumulated credits on parking facilities. For this, we propose a business model to support the collaboration between a car pooling system and parking facilities. The Portuguese Lisbon-s Metropolitan area is used as application scenario.

  7. Blood pressure and fasting lipid changes after 24 weeks’ treatment with vildagliptin: a pooled analysis in >2,000 previously drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evans M

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Marc Evans,1 Anja Schweizer,2 James E Foley3 1Diabetes Resource Centre, Llandough Hospital, Cardiff, UK; 2Medical Affairs Cardio Metabolic, Novartis Pharma AG, Basel, Switzerland; 3Medical Affairs Cardio-Metabolic, Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corporation, East Hanover, NJ, USA Introduction: We have previously shown modest weight loss with vildagliptin treatment. Since body weight balance is associated with changes in blood pressure (BP and fasting lipids, we have assessed these parameters following vildagliptin treatment. Methods: Data were pooled from all double-blind, randomized, controlled, vildagliptin monotherapy trials on previously drug-naïve patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus who received vildagliptin 50 mg once daily (qd or twice daily (bid; n=2,108 and wherein BP and fasting lipid data were obtained. Results: Data from patients receiving vildagliptin 50 mg qd or bid showed reductions from baseline to week 24 in systolic BP (from 132.5±0.32 to 129.8±0.34 mmHg; P<0.0001, diastolic BP (from 81.2±0.18 to 79.6±0.19 mmHg; P<0.0001, fasting triglycerides (from 2.00±0.02 to 1.80±0.02 mmol/L; P<0.0001, very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 0.90±0.01 to 0.83±0.01 mmol/L; P<0.0001, and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (from 3.17±0.02 to 3.04±0.02 mmol/L; P<0.0001, whereas high density lipoprotein cholesterol increased (from 1.19±0.01 to 1.22±0.01 mmol/L; P<0.001. Weight decreased by 0.48±0.08 kg (P<0.001. Conclusion: This large pooled analysis demonstrated that vildagliptin shows a significant reduction in BP and a favorable fasting lipid profile that are associated with modest weight loss. Keywords: TG, HDL, LDL, body weight DPP-4 inhibitor, GLP-1 

  8. Nuclear Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuclear scans use radioactive substances to see structures and functions inside your body. They use a special ... images. Most scans take 20 to 45 minutes. Nuclear scans can help doctors diagnose many conditions, including ...

  9. PDA: Pooled DNA analyzer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Chin-Yu

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Association mapping using abundant single nucleotide polymorphisms is a powerful tool for identifying disease susceptibility genes for complex traits and exploring possible genetic diversity. Genotyping large numbers of SNPs individually is performed routinely but is cost prohibitive for large-scale genetic studies. DNA pooling is a reliable and cost-saving alternative genotyping method. However, no software has been developed for complete pooled-DNA analyses, including data standardization, allele frequency estimation, and single/multipoint DNA pooling association tests. This motivated the development of the software, 'PDA' (Pooled DNA Analyzer, to analyze pooled DNA data. Results We develop the software, PDA, for the analysis of pooled-DNA data. PDA is originally implemented with the MATLAB® language, but it can also be executed on a Windows system without installing the MATLAB®. PDA provides estimates of the coefficient of preferential amplification and allele frequency. PDA considers an extended single-point association test, which can compare allele frequencies between two DNA pools constructed under different experimental conditions. Moreover, PDA also provides novel chromosome-wide multipoint association tests based on p-value combinations and a sliding-window concept. This new multipoint testing procedure overcomes a computational bottleneck of conventional haplotype-oriented multipoint methods in DNA pooling analyses and can handle data sets having a large pool size and/or large numbers of polymorphic markers. All of the PDA functions are illustrated in the four bona fide examples. Conclusion PDA is simple to operate and does not require that users have a strong statistical background. The software is available at http://www.ibms.sinica.edu.tw/%7Ecsjfann/first%20flow/pda.htm.

  10. Technetium-99m labeled red blood cells in the evaluation of hemangiosarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph, U.A.; Jhingran, S.G.

    1987-11-01

    Imaging with Tc-99m labeled red blood cells (RBC) is increasingly being used in the detection of acute gastro-intestinal bleeding, especially in patients with intermittent bleeding. A patient is presented in whom the labeled RBC scan was helpful in the incidental discovery of a previously unsuspected probable angiosarcoma of the right femur and adjacent soft tissues of the right hip due to the blood pool or blush effect of the labeled cells. The labeled RBC scan also identified extravasation due to active gastrointestinal bleeding from a previously unknown angiosarcoma of the ascending colon. Thus, the Tc-99m labeled RBC scan was useful in simultaneously detecting extravasation and blood pool effect at two remote tumor sites in the same patient.

  11. Vitamin D Pooling Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Vitamin D Pooling Project of Rarer Cancers brought together investigators from 10 cohorts to conduct a large prospective epidemiologic study of the association between vitamin D status and seven rarer cancers.

  12. Swimming Pool Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Spread the Word Shop AAP Find a Pediatrician Safety & Prevention Immunizations All Around At Home At Play ... Español Text Size Email Print Share Swimming Pool Safety Page Content ​What is the best way to ...

  13. Three-phase bone scanning in reflex sympathetic dystrophy of the extremities: a semi-quantitative analysis. Analyse semi-quantitative des donnees de la scintigraphie osseuse en trois temps dans l'algodystrophie des extremites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granier, P.; Manicourt, D.H.; Pauwels, S.; Nagant de Deuxchaisnes, C.; Beckers, C. (Louvain Univ., Brussels (Belgium). Cliniques Universitaires St. Luc)

    1994-03-01

    Three-phase bone scanning of the extremities (foot or hand) was performed in 40 normal subjects and in 56 patients with an unequivocal clinical diagnosis of reflex sympathetic dystrophy. The scintigraphic parameters studied were the ratios of tracer (SUPD SUPG Tc) activity in the affected side over the healthy side established for blood flow, blood pool, early vasculo-tissular fixation, and late bone fixation. In the controls, blood flow, blood pool, and early fixation showed considerable interindividual variation and only the variation of late fixation remained within narrow limits. Statistical analysis revealed that late fixation was most closely correlated with early fixation, which in turn was most close correlated with blood pool. The clinical and pathophysiological significance of these data is discussed. (authors). 33 refs., 2 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Pool water cleaning facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Kazuhiro; Kinoshita, Shoichiro [Hitachi Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Asano, Takashi

    1998-05-29

    Only one system comprising a suppression poor water cleaning system (SPCU) and a filtration desalting tower (F/D) is connected for a plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting the one system of the SPCU pump, the F/D and the plurality of nuclear power plants are disposed, and the system is used in common with the plurality of nuclear power plants. Pipelines/valves for connecting a pipeline for passing SP water to the commonly used SPCU pump and a skimmer surge tank are disposed, and fuel pool water is cooled and cleaned by the commonly used SPCU pump and the commonly used F/D. The number of SPCU pumps and the F/D facilities can be reduced, and a fuel pool water cooling operation mode and a fuel pool water cleaning operation mode which were conducted by an FPC pump so far are conducted by the SPCU pump. (N.H.)

  15. Liquid sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casselman, C.

    1979-01-01

    Experimental sodium pool combustion results have led to a definition of the combustion kinetics, and have revealed the hazards of sodium-concrete contact reactions and the possible ignition of organic matter (paint) by hydration of sodium peroxide aerosols. Analysis of these test results shows that the controlling mechanism is sodium evaporation diffusion. (author)

  16. Orthogonal views improves localisation in bone scans of wrist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full text: Of all nuclear medicine studies, bone scans are the most fundamental. However, straightforward these may seem, there are always mechanisms that can be implemented which assist in a more precise diagnosis, particularly in areas with an intricate bone structure. An 18-year-old right-handed student presented to her doctor with a one month history of pain over the right distal radio-ulna joint area. Clinically, she had prominence of the right ulna, which suggested that there may have been a previous injury to the wrist. Also, pronation/supination were painful where there was swelling of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon, as well as some discomfort with clicking in ulna deviation/rotation. The X-rays demonstrated some premature radial epiphysial closure. A bone scan was requested to attempt to localise the main inflammatory focus. The dynamic study was performed in the planar projection with an immediate blood pool for 300k being taken. These demonstrated a vascular blush medially. A medial blood pool image was acquired and it localised the abnormal vascularity as being dorsal. A separate focal area of less intense blood pooling was also noted in the line of the distal ulna. Delayed images showed increased uptake localised to the ulna styloid. Anatomically, the superficial vascular blush correlated with tenosynovitis. Hence, the orthogonal initial and delayed images were definitive in the diagnoses of tenosynovitis of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. This clearly complements the information provided by the palmar view. However, it is important to remember that an increased radiation dose to the technologist is incurred as a result of the extra orthogonal view, hence attention to technique is imperative

  17. Orthogonal views improves localisation in bone scans of wrist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roth, A.L.

    1997-09-01

    Full text: Of all nuclear medicine studies, bone scans are the most fundamental. However, straightforward these may seem, there are always mechanisms that can be implemented which assist in a more precise diagnosis, particularly in areas with an intricate bone structure. An 18-year-old right-handed student presented to her doctor with a one month history of pain over the right distal radio-ulna joint area. Clinically, she had prominence of the right ulna, which suggested that there may have been a previous injury to the wrist. Also, pronation/supination were painful where there was swelling of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon, as well as some discomfort with clicking in ulna deviation/rotation. The X-rays demonstrated some premature radial epiphysial closure. A bone scan was requested to attempt to localise the main inflammatory focus. The dynamic study was performed in the planar projection with an immediate blood pool for 300k being taken. These demonstrated a vascular blush medially. A medial blood pool image was acquired and it localised the abnormal vascularity as being dorsal. A separate focal area of less intense blood pooling was also noted in the line of the distal ulna. Delayed images showed increased uptake localised to the ulna styloid. Anatomically, the superficial vascular blush correlated with tenosynovitis. Hence, the orthogonal initial and delayed images were definitive in the diagnoses of tenosynovitis of the extensor carpi ulnaris tendon. This clearly complements the information provided by the palmar view. However, it is important to remember that an increased radiation dose to the technologist is incurred as a result of the extra orthogonal view, hence attention to technique is imperative.

  18. Quantification of cardiopulmonary blood volume turnover using dynamic PET

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harms, Hans; Tolbod, Lars Poulsen; Kero, Tanja

    index, the central circulatory turnover (CCT) which represents the fractional exchange of blood per stroke within the cardiopulmonary blood pool and can be measured from any dynamic PET scan. Methods: Data from 111 clinical patients were analysed retrospectively. Patients underwent a 6-min 15O......Background: Dynamic 15O-water PET is used to quantify myocardial blood flow. For clinical use however, additional information regarding left ventricular performance is often required but is not obtained from standard tracer kinetic modelling. The aim of this study was to explore the use of a novel......-water scan during rest and adenosine-induced stress. Patients were categorized into 4 groups based on stress myocardial blood flow (MBF, in mL/g/min): all segments >2.3 (group 1, n=53), one vessel

  19. Pool gateway seal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Starr, J.A.; Steinert, L.A.

    1983-01-01

    A device for sealing a gateway between interconnectable pools in a nuclear facility comprising a frame supporting a liquid impermeable sheet positioned in a u-shaped gateway between the pools. An inflatable tube carried in a channel in the periphery of the frame and adjoining the gateway provides a seal therebetween when inflated. A restraining arrangement on the bottom edge of the frame is releasably engagable with an adjacent portion of the gateway to restrict the movement of the frame in the u-shaped gateway upon inflation of the tube, thereby enhancing the seal. The impermeable sheet is formed of an elastomer and thus is conformable to a liquid permeable supportive wall upon application of liquid pressure to the side of the sheet opposite the wall

  20. Fuel assembly storage pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiranuma, Hiroshi.

    1976-01-01

    Object: To remove limitation of the number of storage of fuel assemblies to increase the number of storage thereof so as to relatively reduce the water depth required for shielding radioactive rays. Structure: Fuel assembly storage rack containers for receiving a plurality of spent fuel assembly racks are stacked in multi-layer fashion within a storage pool filled with water for shielding radioactive rays and removing heat. (Furukawa, Y.)

  1. CERN Electronics Pool presentations

    CERN Multimedia

    2011-01-01

    The CERN Electronics Pool has organised a series of presentations in collaboration with oscilloscope manufacturers. The last one will take place according to the schedule below.   Time will be available at the end of the presentation to discuss your personal needs. The Agilent presentation had to be postponed and will be organised later. -     Lecroy: Thursday, 24 November 2011, in 530-R-030, 14:00 to 16:30.

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the ... as well. Thyroid Scan You will be positioned on an examination ...

  3. Abscess scan - radioactive

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... blood cells are tagged with a radioactive substance ( radioisotope ) called indium. The cells are then injected back ... you have or had any of the following medical conditions, procedures, or treatments, as they can interfere with ... Often, other imaging tests such as an ultrasound or CT scan ...

  4. Cooperative scans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Zukowski (Marcin); P.A. Boncz (Peter); M.L. Kersten (Martin)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractData mining, information retrieval and other application areas exhibit a query load with multiple concurrent queries touching a large fraction of a relation. This leads to individual query plans based on a table scan or large index scan. The implementation of this access path in most

  5. Swimming Pools and Molluscum Contagiosum

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Travelers’ Health: Smallpox & Other Orthopoxvirus-Associated Infections Poxvirus Swimming Pools Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir The ... often ask if molluscum virus can spread in swimming pools. There is also concern that it can ...

  6. Large molten pool heat transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    This workshop on large molten pool heat transfer is composed of 5 sessions which titles are: feasibility of in-vessel core debris cooling; experiments on molten pool heat transfer; calculational efforts on molten pool convection; heat transfer to the surrounding water, experimental techniques; future experiments and ex-vessel studies (RASPLAV, TOLBIAC, BALI, SULTAN, CORVIS, VULCANO, CORINE programs)

  7. COLPEX - Cold Pool Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, H.; Price, J.; Horlacher, V.; Sheridan, P. F.; Vosper, S. B.; Brown, A. R.; Mobbs, S. D.; Ross, A. N.

    2009-04-01

    Planning has started towards designing a new field campaign aimed at studying the behaviour of the boundary layer over complex terrain. Of specific interest is the formation of cold-pools in valleys during stable night-time conditions. The field campaign will run continuously until the end of the winter in 2009/10. The experiment will make use of a wide variety of ground-based sensors including turbulence towers, automatic weather stations, Doppler lidar, radiation sensors and soil temperature probes. We also hope to deploy an instrumented car and a tethered balloon facility for limited periods. Data from the field campaign will be used for a number of purposes. Firstly, to increase our understanding of how the valley cold pools form and why, for instance, some valleys offer a more favourable environment for their formation than others. Secondly, to investigate the formation and dissipation of fog in complex terrain. Thirdly, the data set will also be used to help validate and develop the Met Office Unified Model at high resolution. An area for the experiment has been identified in the Shropshire/Powis area of the UK where a network of valleys and low hills exist with a typical valley width of ~1.5km and hill top to valley floor heights of 75-200m. 0m.

  8. Bone Scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... posts Join Mayo Clinic Connect Bone scan About Advertisement Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. ... a Job Site Map About This Site Twitter Facebook Google YouTube Pinterest Mayo Clinic is a not- ...

  9. MRI Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) uses a large magnet and radio waves to look at organs and structures inside your body. Health care professionals use MRI scans to diagnose a variety of conditions, from ...

  10. Evaluation of blood signal in cardiac MR imaging using ''black-blood'' technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakanishi, Tadashi; Yamada, Takayuki; Tamura, Akihisa; Miyasaka, Kenji; Kohata, Minako; Ono, Chiaki; Kajima, Toshio; Ito, Katsuhide

    1999-01-01

    Degradation of image quality encountered in cardiac imaging has been attributed to flowing blood signal in the ventricular cavity. To solve this problem, a sequence in which a pair of selective and non-selective inversion pulse in used for a preparation pulse, has been proposed. However, even with this sequence we frequently observed the signal in the blood pool caused by blood itself rather than blood flow. In this article, we investigated the characteristics of those signals. Five healthy normal volunteers and 13 patients with ischemic heart disease were scanned with a 1.5-tesla MR imager. Breath-hold ECG gated fast spin echo with the pair of inversion pulses was performed to obtain cardiac images with T 2 contrast. Typical blood signal appeared as inhomogeneous high intense band adjacent to inner surface of left ventricular apex. At ventricular base, no such signal was encountered even at akinetic myocardium in patients with old myocardial infarction. This signal was observed in all volunteers and 39% of patients. Decrease of TR resulting from tachycardia tended to reduce the blood signal in the left ventricular cavity. Thicker slice section and selective inversion pulse tended to increase the blood signal. Recognition of the signal is essential to differentiate true myocardial infarcts from blood signal, although bright blood imaging like gradient echo or thinner section can partly be helpful. (author)

  11. Human parvovirus PARV4 in plasma pools of Chinese origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Y-Y; Guo, Y; Zhao, X; Wang, Z; Lv, M-M; Yan, Q-P; Zhang, J-G

    2012-10-01

    Human parvovirus 4 (PARV4) is present in blood and blood products. As the presence and levels of PARV4 in Chinese source plasma pools have never been determined, we implemented real-time quantitative PCR to investigate the presence of PARV4 in source plasma pools in China. Results showed that 26·15% (51/195) of lots tested positive for PARV4. The amounts of DNA ranged from 2·83 × 10(3) copies/ml to 2·35×10(7) copies/ml plasma. The high level of PARV4 in plasma pools may pose a potential risk to recipients. Further studies on the pathogenesis of PARV4 are urgently required. © 2012 The Author(s). Vox Sanguinis © 2012 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  12. Scanning table

    CERN Multimedia

    1960-01-01

    Before the invention of wire chambers, particles tracks were analysed on scanning tables like this one. Today, the process is electronic and much faster. Bubble chamber film - currently available - (links can be found below) was used for this analysis of the particle tracks.

  13. Scanning holograms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natali, S.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter reports on the scanning of 1000 holograms taken in HOBC at CERN. Each hologram is triggered by an interaction in the chamber, the primary particles being pions at 340 GeV/c. The aim of the experiment is the study of charm production. The holograms, recorded on 50 mm film with the ''in line'' technique, can be analyzed by shining a parallel expanded laser beam through the film, obtaining immediately above it the real image of the chamber which can then be scanned and measured with a technique half way between emulsions and bubble chambers. The results indicate that holograms can be analyzed as quickly and reliably as in other visual techniques and that to them is open the same order of magnitude of large scale experiments

  14. Model of large pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fay, J.A.

    2006-01-01

    A two zone entrainment model of pool fires is proposed to depict the fluid flow and flame properties of the fire. Consisting of combustion and plume zones, it provides a consistent scheme for developing non-dimensional scaling parameters for correlating and extrapolating pool fire visible flame length, flame tilt, surface emissive power, and fuel evaporation rate. The model is extended to include grey gas thermal radiation from soot particles in the flame zone, accounting for emission and absorption in both optically thin and thick regions. A model of convective heat transfer from the combustion zone to the liquid fuel pool, and from a water substrate to cryogenic fuel pools spreading on water, provides evaporation rates for both adiabatic and non-adiabatic fires. The model is tested against field measurements of large scale pool fires, principally of LNG, and is generally in agreement with experimental values of all variables

  15. Localization of placenta in scanning by /sup 113m/In radiopharmaceuticals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, O.K.; Oh, K.K.; Park, C.Y.; Choi, B.S.; Ha, C.H.; Chung, S.O.; Kwak, H.M.

    1975-01-01

    Placenta previa is a common grave complication of late pregnancy, usually manifestated clinically by painless antenatal vaginal bleeding. Digital and rectal examinations are dangerous, due to the possibility that profuse hemorrhage from the vagina may result. Various radiological examinations have been performed in placenta previa for diagnosis and localization. However radioisotopic methods are superior due to safety, simplicity and a lower radiation dose, both fetal and maternal, compared to plain radiography. Among radiopharmaceuticals, In/sup 113m/ (transferrin for blood pool scan) is useful, giving more satisfactory results without any complications or untoward reactions.

  16. Spent fuel storage pool and reactor well pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuchisawa, Hiroshi.

    1996-01-01

    An overflow device is disposed to a water draining channel communicating a spent fuel storage pool, a well pool and a cask cleaning pit, and a cleaning treatment system is connected to the cask cleaning pit. In addition, a tank chamber having an overflow device communicating with the well pool is disposed to the inside of the spent fuel storage pool, and a cleaning system is connected to the tank chamber. Namely, water overflow from the spent fuel storage pool and the well pool flows down to the cask cleaning pit directly, the water level can be kept to a predetermined value without disposing a skimmer serge tank, and the overflow water is transported to and cleaned in the cleaning treatment system. In addition, the overflow water flow to the tank chamber directly is transferred to and cleaned in the cleaning treatment system. The cost for the reactor building can be reduced, and interference with the building and adjustment for the steps upon installation of the skimmer serge tank are no more necessary to shorten the terms for the building construction. (N.H.)

  17. ENERGY STAR Certified Pool Pumps

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Pool Pumps that are effective as of February 15,...

  18. Sustainability of common pool resources

    OpenAIRE

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepales...

  19. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ... the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is a ...

  1. Pool impacts of Leidenfrost drop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Maquet, Laurent; Dorbolo, Stephane; Dehandschoewercker, Eline; Pan, Zhao; Truscott, Tadd

    2015-11-01

    This work concerns the impact of a droplet made of a volatile liquid (typically HFE) on a pool of an other liquid (typically silicone oil) which temperature is above the boiling point of the drop. Depending on the properties of the two liquids and the impacting conditions, four different regimes are observed. For low impacting speeds, the droplet bounces on the surface of the bath and finally levitates above it in a Leidenfrost state. Such a regime occurs as soon as the pool temperature exceeds the boiling point of the drop. This observation means that there is no threshold in temperature for a Leidenfrost effect on a liquid surface contrary to the case of a solid substrate. For intermediate impacting velocities, the pinch-off of the surface of the pool entraps the drop in the liquid bulk. The entrapped drop is separated from the pool by a layer of its own vapour in a similar way of antibulles. For increasing impacting speeds, the vapour layer between the drop and the pool does not hold during the pinch-off event. The contact of the drop with the hot liquid provokes a sudden and intense evaporation. At very large impacting speeds, the drop rapidely contacts the pool, spreads and finally induces a hemi-spherical cavity. In the end, these four different regimes are summarized in a Froud-Weber diagram which boundaries are discussed.

  2. Extraosseous radiotracer uptake on bone scan in beta-thalassemia: report of one case

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guezguez, M.; Nouira, M.; Sfar, R.; Chatti, K.; Ben Fradj, M.; Ben Ali, K.; Ajmi, S.; Essabbah, H.; Zrour, S.

    2009-01-01

    Red blood cell transfusion, main therapeutic modality of beta-thalassemia, leads to iron overload which may perturb several metabolic ways. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the uptake abnormalities observed on bone scan of thalassaemic patients and to discuss mechanisms of extraosseous accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in this pathology. We report a 16-year-old child suffering from beta-thalassemia major undergoing transfusion therapy. A bone scan was indicated to look for osseous infection. This study revealed a little skeletal uptake and abnormal liver, splenic and renal accumulation. A repeat bone scan, performed three weeks later showed a better skeletal uptake which enabled the discovery of focal abnormalities and made the diagnostic easier. The effect of iron overload on radiopharmaceuticals uptake in bone scan is known since 1975. Dissociation of 99m Tc from the carrier ligand due to the presence of iron excess seems the most plausible hypothesis. Free 99m Tc can be bound to other tissular substrates which can explain extraosseous uptake. The normally available pool for bone is reduced and then the skeletal uptake decreased. This report limits considerably the sensitivity of the bone scan. A well-led iron chelation and eventually the use of diuretic drug may guarantee a better quality of bone scan images. (authors)

  3. Seismic analysis of large pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-01-01

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated

  4. Seismic analysis of large pools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, R.G.; Tokarz, F.J.

    1976-11-17

    Large pools for storing spent, nuclear fuel elements are being proposed to augment present storage capacity. To preserve the ability to isolate portions of these pools, a modularization requirement appears desirable. The purpose of this project was to investigate the effects of modularization on earthquake resistance and to assess the adequacy of current design methods for seismic loads. After determining probable representative pool geometries, three rectangular pool configurations, all 240 x 16 ft and 40 ft deep, were examined. One was unmodularized; two were modularized into 80 x 40 ft cells in one case and 80 x 80 ft cells in the other. Both embedded and above-ground installations for a hard site and embedded installations for an intermediate hard site were studied. It was found that modularization was unfavorable in terms of reducing the total structural load attributable to dynamic effects, principally because one or more cells could be left unfilled. The walls of unfilled cells would be subjected to significantly higher loads than the walls of a filled, unmodularized pool. Generally, embedded installations were preferable to above-ground installations, and the hard site was superior to the intermediate hard site. It was determined that Housner's theory was adequate for calculating hydrodynamic effects on spent fuel storage pools. Current design methods for seismic loads were found to be satisfactory when results from these methods were compared with those from LUSH analyses. As a design method for dynamic soil pressure, we found the Mononobe-Okabe theory, coupled with correction factors as suggested by Seed, to be acceptable. The factors we recommend for spent fuel storage pools are tabulated.

  5. Single-Track Melt-Pool Measurements and Microstructures in Inconel 625

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Supriyo; Ma, Li; Levine, Lyle E.; Ricker, Richard E.; Stoudt, Mark R.; Heigel, Jarred C.; Guyer, Jonathan E.

    2018-02-01

    We use single-track laser melting experiments and simulations on Inconel 625 to estimate the dimensions and microstructure of the resulting melt pool. Our work is based on a design-of-experiments approach which uses multiple laser power and scan speed combinations. Single-track experiments generated melt pools of certain dimensions that showed reasonable agreement with our finite-element calculations. Phase-field simulations were used to predict the size and segregation of the cellular microstructure that formed along the melt-pool boundaries for the solidification conditions that changed as a function of melt-pool dimensions.

  6. Ectopic Pelvic Kidney Mimicking Sacral Metastasis on Post-Therapy Iodine-131 Scan of a Thyroid Cancer Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selin Soyluoğlu Demir

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A 25-year-old woman had total thyroidectomy and iodine-131 ablation therapy for papillary thyroid carcinoma. Whole body imaging on the 7th day of therapeutic activity demonstrated radioiodine uptake in the remnant tissue and intense heterogeneous uptake at the sacral region prominently in the posterior image. Initial interpretation was suspicious for sacral metastasis. Technetium-99m-methylene diphosphonate bone scan demonstrated normal bone uptake and the absence of left kidney. On blood-pool phase of bone scan, the absence of left renal activity and an extra area of uptake in the sacral region suggestive of pelvic kidney were noticed. Magnetic resonance imaging scan confirmed the ectopic pelvic kidney overlying the sacrum.

  7. Nanoparticle Deposition During Cu-Water Nanofluid Pool Boiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doretti, L.; Longo, G. A.; Mancin, S.; Righetti, G.; Weibel, J. A.

    2017-11-01

    The present research activity aims to rigorously investigate nanofluid pool boiling in order to definitively assess this as a technique for controlled nanoparticle coating of surfaces, which can enhance the nucleate boiling performance. This paper presents preliminary nanoparticle deposition results obtained during Cu-water (0.13 wt%) nanofluid pool boiling on a smooth copper surface. The tests were run in an experimental setup designed expressly to study water and nanofluid pool boiling. The square test sample block (27.2 mm × 27.2 mm) is equipped with a rake of four calibrated T-type thermocouples each located in a 13.6-mm deep holes drilled every 5 mm from 1 mm below the top surface. The imposed heat flux and wall superheat can be estimated from measurement of the temperature gradient along the four thermocouples. The samples are characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse the morphological characteristics of the obtained thin, Cu nanoparticle coating.

  8. An automated fuel element scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robinson, L.; Hobbs, R.W.; Dyer, F.F.; Pugh, L.P.; Teasley, N.A. Jr.; Snelgrove, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes an automated fuel element scanning system, based upon gamma-ray spectroscopy, that has been developed at the Oak Ridge Research Reactor. The scanning system is located in the reactor pool and allows fuel elements to be scanned nondestructively at various intervals during their core life. Gamma-ray measurements are made using a GeLi detector positioned above the pool water. Measurements of 137 Cs count rates from relatively 'cold' elements indicate that the counting data obtained using this apparatus is reproducible within 5%. Power distribution in the reactor's core is derived from 140 La counting data. The method of determining power is discussed briefly and some example results are presented. (author) 11 refs.; 7 figs.; 4 tabs

  9. Clonal T cell receptor gamma-chain gene rearrangement by PCR-based GeneScan analysis in the skin and blood of patients with parapsoriasis and early-stage mycosis fungoides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klemke, Claus-Detlev; Dippel, Edgar; Dembinski, Antje; Pönitz, Nina; Assaf, Chalid; Hummel, Michael; Stein, Harald; Goerdt, Sergij

    2002-07-01

    Cutaneous T cell lymphoma (CTCL) and reactive T cell skin diseases represent opposite ends of a spectrum of diseases ranging from overtly malignant to persistently benign. Within this spectrum, the parapsoriasis group is not clearly defined regarding malignant potential. In contrast to consistent findings in advanced-stage CTCL, clonality analysis of parapsoriasis has produced conflicting results in previous studies. As T cell receptor gamma-chain polymerase chain reaction GeneScan analysis (TCR-gamma-PCR-GSA) stands out by its sensitivity, its accuracy in size determination of PCR products, its capacity to identify false positives by repeated analysis and its easy applicability, this approach was used to analyse the clonality status of 41 patients with borderline T cell lymphoproliferative skin diseases, including parapsoriasis (n=27) and early-stage mycosis fungoides (MF) (n=14). A monoclonal T cell infiltrate was demonstrated by repeated TCR-gamma-PCR-GSA in lesional skin specimens in 19.2% of parapsoriasis patients and in 66.6% of early-stage MF cases (p=0.013). In peripheral blood, a monoclonal T cell population was found in a similar percentage of parapsoriasis and of early-stage MF patients (26.7% versus 12.5%; p=0.611). A detailed analysis of parapsoriasis subentities, namely small and large plaque parapsoriasis, and parapsoriasis lichenoides, revealed monoclonality in 2(6)/2(5), 3(14)/2(8) and 0(6)/0/(3) of the skin and peripheral blood specimens, respectively. The high detection rate of false positive cases by repeated analysis (20-37.5%) provides a corrected perspective for the high rates of dominant T cell clones found by others in the peripheral blood of such patients. From the results obtained, three major conclusions can be drawn: firstly, CTCL is clearly associated with detection of monoclonality, even in its early stages; secondly, monoclonality is not a prerequisite for potential CTCL precursor entities; and thirdly, recirculating malignant T

  10. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  11. Head CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... CT; Cranial CT; CT scan - skull; CT scan - head; CT scan - orbits; CT scan - sinuses; Computed tomography - ... Head CT is done in the hospital or radiology center. You lie on a narrow table that ...

  12. Pelvic CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    CAT scan - pelvis; Computed axial tomography scan - pelvis; Computed tomography scan - pelvis; CT scan - pelvis ... Abnormal results may be due to: Abscess (collection of pus) Bladder stones Broken bone Cancer Diverticulitis

  13. EP BICYCLE POOL - VIGNETTES 2002

    CERN Multimedia

    EP-SMI Help Desk

    2002-01-01

    The vignettes (insurance certificates) for 2002 become obligatory from 1 June. If you have a bicycle from the EP Pool, please bring it to the EP-SMI Help Desk (Building 124) on any working day up to 31 May between 8h.30 - 12h.00 or 13h.30 - 17h.30. EP-SMI Help Desk

  14. Efficient pooling designs for library screening

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno, William J.; Knill, Emanuel; Balding, David J.; Bruce, D. C.; Doggett, N. A.; Sawhill, W. W.; Stallings, R. L.; Whittaker, Craig C.; Torney, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We describe efficient methods for screening clone libraries, based on pooling schemes which we call ``random $k$-sets designs''. In these designs, the pools in which any clone occurs are equally likely to be any possible selection of $k$ from the $v$ pools. The values of $k$ and $v$ can be chosen to optimize desirable properties. Random $k$-sets designs have substantial advantages over alternative pooling schemes: they are efficient, flexible, easy to specify, require fewer pools, and have er...

  15. Tumoral calcinoses in bone scanning: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, P.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Tumoral calcinosis (TC) is a rare disorder characterised by hyperphosphateamia, normocalceamia and calcified para-articular masses as seen on X-ray. At present, an inborn error of phosphorous metabolism is accepted as the primary cause. Symptoms include pain, swelling, infection and single- or multi-focal lesions. Radionuclide imaging was recently described as the most reliable and simplest method for detection, localisation and assessment of the calcific masses. Bone scintigraphy may demonstrate unsuspected masses even when clinical examination is negative. It is also useful in assessing the effects of surgery and therapy. A 55-year-old male with an 18-year history of TC presented to our department on two occasions. He was first referred to assess the extent of his calcinosis. He had known involvement of the hands, shoulders and pelvis, with little restriction of movement. He had a 6-8 year history of polio which was currently stable. Seven years later he again presented to our department, this time for the evaluation of a suspected fractured hip. On both occasions 800 MBq of 99 mTc-MDP was injected IV and whole body and planar images were obtained at three hours. In the second study, additional dynamic and blood pool images were obtained over the anterior aspect of both hips. Both scans were grossly abnormal and typical of the appearance of widespread TC or calcinosis universalis. Multiple areas of extra osseous uptake involving subcutaneous tissue and muscle of the hands, para-articular regions of both elbows, shoulders and hips were seen and confirmed by X-ray. Localised abnormalities were noted involving left lower neck, left forearm and left foot. Marked progression of the disease was seen in the region of the left shoulder on the second scan. No abnormalities were noted within the skeleton itself. Neither the dynamic nor blood pool phase of the study demonstrated significant hyperaemia in the region of the left proximal femur. Although the second

  16. [Infections transmitted in swimming pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Suzani, C; Hazeghi, P

    1976-01-01

    Public swimmingpools can be the source of infections due to micro-organism such as mycobacterium balnei, adeno and enteroviruses, the virus of plantar warts and molluscum contagiosum, the TRIC-Agent of swimmingpool-conjonctivitis and pathogenic fungi. The transmission of trichomonas vaginalis is considered unlikely-Water of pools, supposed to present satisfactory qualities by standard controls, was found to contain pathogenic staphylococci and pseudomonas aeruginosa. Effective preventive measures include the continuous recording of the redox-potential of the water, limiting the number of visitors to pool design specifications, better desinfection of sanitary installations, regular maintenance of technical equipment including frequent backwashing of filters and exclusion of visitors with communicable disease.

  17. Sustainability of common pool resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timilsina, Raja Rajendra; Kotani, Koji; Kamijo, Yoshio

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability has become a key issue in managing natural resources together with growing concerns for capitalism, environmental and resource problems. We hypothesize that the ongoing modernization of competitive societies, which we refer to as "capitalism," affects human nature for utilizing common pool resources, thus compromising sustainability. To test this hypothesis, we design and implement a set of dynamic common pool resource games and experiments in the following two types of Nepalese areas: (i) rural (non-capitalistic) and (ii) urban (capitalistic) areas. We find that a proportion of prosocial individuals in urban areas is lower than that in rural areas, and urban residents deplete resources more quickly than rural residents. The composition of proself and prosocial individuals in a group and the degree of capitalism are crucial in that an increase in prosocial members in a group and the rural dummy positively affect resource sustainability by 65% and 63%, respectively. Overall, this paper shows that when societies move toward more capitalistic environments, the sustainability of common pool resources tends to decrease with the changes in individual preferences, social norms, customs and views to others through human interactions. This result implies that individuals may be losing their coordination abilities for social dilemmas of resource sustainability in capitalistic societies.

  18. Pool power control in remelting systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Rodney L [Albuquerque, NM; Melgaard, David K [Albuquerque, NM; Beaman, Joseph J [Austin, TX

    2011-12-13

    An apparatus for and method of controlling a remelting furnace comprising adjusting current supplied to an electrode based upon a predetermined pool power reference value and adjusting the electrode drive speed based upon the predetermined pool power reference value.

  19. The warm pool in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Vinayachandran, P.N.; Shetye, S.R.

    The structure of the warm pool (region with temperature greater than 28 degrees C) in the equatorial Indian Ocean is examined and compared with its counterpart in the Pacific Ocean using the climatology of Levitus. Though the Pacific warm pool...

  20. CDC Study Finds Fecal Contamination in Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Communication (404) 639-3286 CDC study finds fecal contamination in pools A study of public pools done ... The E. coli is a marker for fecal contamination. Finding a high percentage of E. coli-positive ...

  1. Heart PET scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... nuclear medicine scan; Heart positron emission tomography; Myocardial PET scan ... A PET scan requires a small amount of radioactive material (tracer). This tracer is given through a vein (IV), ...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid scan is ... taking our brief survey: Survey Do you have a personal story about radiology? Share your patient story ...

  3. Value of inflammation scintigraphy and bone scan in differential diagnosis of painful affections of small joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warchol, O.; Dworak, E.; Koenig, B.; Koehn, H.; Dunky, A.; Mostbeck, A.

    1998-01-01

    It was the aim of this study to evaluate different markers of inflammation such as 99m-Tc-labelled human immunoglobulin G and 99m-Tc-nanocolloid with respect to their ability to detect inflammatory or degenerative affections of small joints of hand and fingers. While conventional bone scanning reveals good agreement with clinical findings it is not well suited for screening of inflammatory processes due to its poor specificity. In small joints conventional three-phase bone scan with information of perfusion, blood pool and accumulation is not suitable due to the small ROI, low count rate with high statistics. Therefore we used inflammatory markers to overcome this problem. Immunoglobulin G was true positive in case of inflammatory lesions in 69%, and false positive in case of degenerative lesions in 24%, while nanocolloid was true positive in 72% and false positive in 14%, respectively. Significant differences were found between markers of inflammation and the bone scanning agent while both inflammatory markers, immunoglobulin G and nanocolloid demonstrated significant correlation. While bone scanning tracers detect all kinds of joint affections, immunoglobulin G and nanocolloid accumulate preferentially in inflammatory joints and therefore might be useful to differentiate between inflammatory and degenerative lesions. (author)

  4. Structural integrity assessment of HANARO pool cover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Jeong Soo

    2001-11-01

    This report is for the seismic analysis and the structural integrity evaluation of HANARO Pool Cover in accordances with the requirement of the Technical Specification for Seismic Analysis of HANARO Pool Cover. For performing the seismic analysis and evaluating the structural integrity for HANARO Pool Cover, the finite element analysis model using ANSYS 5.7 was developed and the dynamic characteristics were analyzed. The seismic response spectrum analyses of HANARO Pool Cover under the design floor response spectrum loads of OBE and SSE were performed. The analysis results show that the stress values in HANARO Pool Cover for the seismic loads are within the ASME Code limits. It is also confirmed that the fatigue usage factor is less than 1.0. Therefore any damage on structural integrity is not expected when an HANARO Pool Cover is installed in the upper part of the reactor pool

  5. RubiShort: Reducing scan time in 82Rb heart scans to minimize movements artifacts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jeppe; Vraa, Kaspar J.; Harms, Hans

    Aim: Relative and absolute myocardial blood flow (MBF) can derived from a single 82Rb PET/CT scan using list mode data to extract both static and dynamic PET series. However, patient movement and changes in breathing pattern, especially during pharmacological stress, reduce the quality of the scans...

  6. Livermore pool-type reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mann, L.G.

    1977-01-01

    The Livermore Pool-Type Reactor (LPTR) has served a dual purpose since 1958--as an instrument for fundamental research and as a tool for measurement and calibration. Our early efforts centered on neutron-diffraction, fission, and capture gamma-ray studies. During the 1960's it was used for extensive calibration work associated with radiochemical and physical measurements on nuclear-explosive tests. Since 1970 the principal applications have been for trace-element measurements and radiation-damage studies. Today's research program is dominated by radiochemical studies of the shorter-lived fission products and by research on the mechanisms of radiation damage. Trace-element measurement for the National Uranium Resource Evaluation (NURE) program is the major measurement application today

  7. Radioisotope Power System Pool Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rusick, Jeffrey J.; Bolotin, Gary S.

    2015-01-01

    Advanced Radioisotope Power Systems (RPS) for NASA deep space science missions have historically used static thermoelectric-based designs because they are highly reliable, and their radioisotope heat sources can be passively cooled throughout the mission life cycle. Recently, a significant effort to develop a dynamic RPS, the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), was conducted by NASA and the Department of Energy, because Stirling based designs offer energy conversion efficiencies four times higher than heritage thermoelectric designs; and the efficiency would proportionately reduce the amount of radioisotope fuel needed for the same power output. However, the long term reliability of a Stirling based design is a concern compared to thermoelectric designs, because for certain Stirling system architectures the radioisotope heat sources must be actively cooled via the dynamic operation of Stirling converters throughout the mission life cycle. To address this reliability concern, a new dynamic Stirling cycle RPS architecture is proposed called the RPS Pool Concept.

  8. A Biosignature Suite from Cave Pool Precipitates, Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melim, L. A.; Liescheidt, R.; Northup, D. E.; Spilde, M. N.; Boston, P. J.; Queen, J. M.

    2009-11-01

    Calcite cave pool precipitates often display a variety of potential biosignatures from the macroscopic to the submicroscopic. A fossil cave pool in Cottonwood Cave, New Mexico, exhibits older stalactites and stalagmites that are completely coated in brown, laminated calcitic crust that extends down as pool fingers and u-loops. The pool fingers and u-loops are mainly micrite to clotted micrite, some recrystallized to microspar, with some isopachous spar layers. Micrite, particularly clotted micrite, is usually interpreted by carbonate workers as microbial in origin. Scanning electron microscopy examination of etched pool fingers, u-loops, and the brown crust revealed abundant calcified microbial filaments and biofilm. Energy dispersive X-ray analysis showed that these features have excess carbon, above that found in pure calcite. Independent carbon analysis indicated that these same samples contain up to 0.2% organic carbon. Since pool fingers hang down but form underwater, we hypothesize they are biogenic with hanging microbial filaments or biofilm acting as nuclei for calcite precipitation. Because of the abundance of micrite and fossil filaments, we further hypothesize that these pendant features formed during a period of plentiful nutrients and active hydrological activity when the pool was literally dripping with microbial slime. Although each of these lines of evidence could be interpreted in other ways, their combined weight strongly suggests the cave pool precipitates in Cottonwood Cave are biogenic. These investigations can be used to help inform extraterrestrial life-detection studies.

  9. From antidunes to step-pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recking, Alain; Leduc, Pauline

    2014-05-01

    Step-pools are bed morphologies that are typical in high-gradient streams , recognizable by a staircase-like longitudinal profile resulting from accumulation of cobbles and boulders that are transverse to the channel and alternating with pools containing finer sediments. Within the last two decades step-pools have been the subject of increased efforts to characterize their nature; however their origin is still in debate. Researchers have very soon suspected step-pools to be the residual form of antidunes produced during flooding, but this hypothesis was continuously contested. Other theories has been proposed, considering, that step-pool profile develops a maximum flow resistance, or that pools geometry is controlled by the energy of a falling jet, or that steps form by boulders accumulation in a channel-spanning manner. All these theories gave very satisfying results when compared with experimental data, but does it mean that the antidune theory should we abandoned? We performed new flume experiments on steep slopes to investigate the antidune origin for step-pools. Our experiments showed that step-pools can have several origins, depending on the flow conditions and sediment mixture used. In some circumstances antidunes were well observed but did not produce stable step-pools morphology. In many occasions, step-pools obtained in the flume were isolated step-pools, with no real apparent periodicity. Only a few flow and sediment conditions allowed us to reproduce trains of antidunes which stabilized at the flow recession to produce stable periodical step-pools. These conditions are presented and discussed.

  10. Charting molecular composition of phosphatidylcholines by fatty acid scanning and ion trap MS3 fragmentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekroos, Kim; Ejsing, Christer S.; Bahr, Ute

    2003-01-01

    preliminary separation of lipid classes or of individual molecular species, enzymatic digestion, or chemical derivatization. The approach was validated by the comparative analysis of the molecular composition of PCs from human red blood cells. In the total lipid extract of Madin-Darby canine kidney II cells......The molecular composition of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) in total lipid extracts was characterized by a combination of multiple precursor ion scanning on a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and MS3 fragmentation on an ion trap mass spectrometer. Precursor ion spectra for 50 acyl...... spectrometer quantified the relative amount of their positional isomers, thus providing the most detailed and comprehensive characterization of the molecular composition of the pool of PCs at the low-picomole level. The method is vastly simplified, compared with conventional approaches, and does not require...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan ... for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. Jewelry ...

  12. Radiopharmaceutical scanning agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    This invention is directed to dispersions useful in preparing radiopharmaceutical scanning agents, to technetium labelled dispersions, to methods for preparing such dispersions and to their use as scanning agents

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the limitations of the Thyroid Scan and Uptake? What is a Thyroid Scan and Uptake? A thyroid ... body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ...

  14. Nuclear Scans - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Expand Section Bone Scan - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations PET (Positron Emission Tomography) Scan - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified ( ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special ... is a branch of medical imaging that uses small amounts of radioactive material to diagnose and determine ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake ... you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special instructions ...

  17. Scanning gamma camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engdahl, L.W.; Batter, J.F. Jr.; Stout, K.J.

    1977-01-01

    A scanning system for a gamma camera providing for the overlapping of adjacent scan paths is described. A collimator mask having tapered edges provides for a graduated reduction in intensity of radiation received by a detector thereof, the reduction in intensity being graduated in a direction normal to the scanning path to provide a blending of images of adjacent scan paths. 31 claims, 15 figures

  18. Oxidation kinetics of corium pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulatsky, A.A.; Smirnov, S.A.; Granovsky, V.S.; Khabensky, V.B.; Krushinov, E.V.; Vitol, S.A.; Kotova, S.Yu.; Fischer, M.; Hellmann, S.; Tromm, W.; Miassoedov, A.; Bottomley, D.; Piluso, P.; Barrachin, M.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The analysis of experimental data on molten corium oxidation was been carried out. • The analysis has revealed the main factors influencing the oxidation kinetics. • The analysis was used for developing a qualitative analytical model. • The numerical modeling has confirmed the results of experimental data analysis. -- Abstract: Experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of oxidation kinetics of an open surface corium pool have been reported. The experiments have been carried out within OECD MASCA program and ISTC METCOR, METCOR-P and EVAN projects. It has been shown that the melt oxidation is controlled by an oxidant supply to the melt free surface from the atmosphere, not by the reducer supply from the melt. The project experiments have not detected any input of the zirconium oxidation kinetics into the process chemistry. The completed analysis puts forward a simple analytical model, which gives an explanation of the main features of melt oxidation process. The numerical modeling results are in good agreement with experimental data and theoretical considerations

  19. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drive Home Types of Blood Donations Blood Types Blood Types Not all blood is alike. There are eight ... African descent. Learn More About Blood and Diversity Blood Types and Transfusion There are very specific ways in ...

  20. 21 CFR 1250.89 - Swimming pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... equipped so as to provide complete circulation, replacement, and filtration of the water in the pool every six hours or less. Suitable means of chlorination and, if necessary, other treatment of the water shall be provided to maintain the residual chlorine in the pool water at not less than 0.4 part per...

  1. Ripples in a superconducting tidal pool

    CERN Document Server

    Hudson, E

    2003-01-01

    The behaviour of electrons in a metal is often compared to that of water in a pool. An empty pool is like a material that has all of its electrons removed. As electrons are 'poured' into the metal, they first occupy the lowest energies available - the bottom of the pool - and eventually fill up to the Fermi energy, the top of the pool. At this point we no longer discuss electrons but quasiparticles. These are electrons that have modified properties due to their interactions within the material. Waves in a pool can be excited, and their properties will depend on the depth of the water. Similarly in a metal, quasiparticles behave like waves that have a material-dependent dispersion relation between their energy and their wavevector, which specifies their direction and wavelength. This simple analogy also hints at an indirect method of measuring the dispersion relation of a metal, and hence the myriad of properties that depend on it. (U.K.)

  2. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, K. [Battelle Ingenieurtechnik GmbH, Eschborn (Germany)

    1996-12-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs.

  3. Pool scrubbing models for iodine components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, K.

    1996-01-01

    Pool scrubbing is an important mechanism to retain radioactive fission products from being carried into the containment atmosphere or into the secondary piping system. A number of models and computer codes has been developed to predict the retention of aerosols and fission product vapours that are released from the core and injected into water pools of BWR and PWR type reactors during severe accidents. Important codes in this field are BUSCA, SPARC and SUPRA. The present paper summarizes the models for scrubbing of gaseous Iodine components in these codes, discusses the experimental validation, and gives an assessment of the state of knowledge reached and the open questions which persist. The retention of gaseous Iodine components is modelled by the various codes in a very heterogeneous manner. Differences show up in the chemical species considered, the treatment of mass transfer boundary layers on the gaseous and liquid sides, the gas-liquid interface geometry, calculation of equilibrium concentrations and numerical procedures. Especially important is the determination of the pool water pH value. This value is affected by basic aerosols deposited in the water, e.g. Cesium and Rubidium compounds. A consistent model requires a mass balance of these compounds in the pool, thus effectively coupling the pool scrubbing phenomena of aerosols and gaseous Iodine species. Since the water pool conditions are also affected by drainage flow of condensate water from different regions in the containment, and desorption of dissolved gases on the pool surface is determined by the gas concentrations above the pool, some basic limitations of specialized pool scrubbing codes are given. The paper draws conclusions about the necessity of coupling between containment thermal-hydraulics and pool scrubbing models, and proposes ways of further simulation model development in order to improve source term predictions. (author) 2 tabs., refs

  4. Operation and maintenance techniques of pool and pool water purification system in IMEF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soong, Woong Sup

    1999-03-01

    IMEF pool is used pass way between pool and hot cell in order to inlet and outlet of fuel pin in cask. All operation is performed conforming with naked eyes. Therefore floating matter is filtered so as to easy under water handling. Also radioactivity in pool water is controlled according to the nuclear law, radioactivity ration maintained less than 15mR/hr on pool side. Perfect operation and maintenance can be achieved well trained operator. Result obtained from the perfection can give more influence over restrain, spreading contamination of radioactivity materials. This report describes operation and maintenance technique of pool water purification system in IMEF. (Author). 7 refs., 13 figs

  5. [Chlorine concentrations in the air of indoor swimming pools and their effects on swimming pool workers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Luna, Álvaro; Burillo, Pablo; Felipe, José Luis; Gallardo, Leonor; Tamaral, Francisco Manuel

    2013-01-01

    To describe chlorine levels in the air of indoor swimming pools in Castilla-La Mancha (Spain) and relate them to other chemical parameters in the installation and to the health problems perceived by swimming pool workers. We analyzed 21 pools with chlorine as chemical treatment in Castilla-La Mancha. The iodometry method was applied to measure chlorine concentrations in the air. The concentrations of free and combined chlorine in water, pH and temperature were also evaluated. Health problems were surveyed in 230 swimming pool workers in these facilities. The mean chlorine level in the air of swimming pools was 4.3 ± 2.3mg/m(3). The pH values were within the legal limits. The temperature parameters did not comply with regulations in 17 of the 21 pools analyzed. In the pools where chlorine values in the air were above the legal regulations, a significantly higher percentage of swimming pool workers perceived eye irritation, dryness and irritation of skin, and ear problems. Chlorine values in the air of indoor swimming pools were higher than those reported in similar studies. Most of the facilities (85%) exceeded the concentration of 1.5mg/m(3) established as the limit for the risk of irritating effects. The concentration of chlorine in indoor swimming pool air has a direct effect on the self-perceived health problems of swimming pool workers. Copyright © 2012 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Spent fuel pool cleanup and stabilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, R.L.

    1987-06-01

    Each of the plutonium production reactors at Hanford had a large water-filled spent fuel pool to provide interim storage of irradiated fuel while awaiting shipment to the separation facilities. After cessation of reactor operations the fuel was removed from the pools and the water levels were drawn down to a 5- to 10-foot depth. The pools were maintained with the water to provide shielding and radiological control. What appeared to be a straightforward project to process the water, remove the sediments from the basin, and stabilize the contamination on the floors and walls became a very complex and time consuming operation. The sediment characteristics varied from pool to pool, the ion exchange system required modification, areas of hard-pack sediments were discovered on the floors, special arrangements to handle and package high dose rate items for shipment were required, and contract problems ensued with the subcontractor. The original schedule to complete the project from preliminary engineering to final stabilization of the pools was 15 months. The actual time required was about 25 months. The original cost estimate to perform the work was $2,651,000. The actual cost of the project was $5,120,000, which included $150,000 for payment of claims to the subcontractor. This paper summarizes the experiences associated with the cleanup and radiological stabilization of the 100-B, -C, -D, and -DR spent fuel pools, and discusses a number of lessons learned items

  7. A Pool of Distant Galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-11-01

    Anyone who has wondered what it might be like to dive into a pool of millions of distant galaxies of different shapes and colours, will enjoy the latest image released by ESO. Obtained in part with the Very Large Telescope, the image is the deepest ground-based U-band image of the Universe ever obtained. It contains more than 27 million pixels and is the result of 55 hours of observations with the VIMOS instrument. A Sea of Galaxies ESO PR Photo 39/08 A Pool of Distant Galaxies This uniquely beautiful patchwork image, with its myriad of brightly coloured galaxies, shows the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), arguably the most observed and best studied region in the entire sky. The CDF-S is one of the two regions selected as part of the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS), an effort of the worldwide astronomical community that unites the deepest observations from ground- and space-based facilities at all wavelengths from X-ray to radio. Its primary purpose is to provide astronomers with the most sensitive census of the distant Universe to assist in their study of the formation and evolution of galaxies. The new image released by ESO combines data obtained with the VIMOS instrument in the U- and R-bands, as well as data obtained in the B-band with the Wide-Field Imager (WFI) attached to the 2.2 m MPG/ESO telescope at La Silla, in the framework of the GABODS survey. The newly released U-band image - the result of 40 hours of staring at the same region of the sky and just made ready by the GOODS team - is the deepest image ever taken from the ground in this wavelength domain. At these depths, the sky is almost completely covered by galaxies, each one, like our own galaxy, the Milky Way, home of hundreds of billions of stars. Galaxies were detected that are a billion times fainter than the unaided eye can see and over a range of colours not directly observable by the eye. This deep image has been essential to the discovery of a large number of new galaxies

  8. Blood Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your blood, as discussed in the following paragraphs. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells carry oxygen from ... leaks out, and its levels in your blood rise. For example, blood levels of troponin rise when ...

  9. CT scanning in meningitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wardle, Stephan; Carty, Helen (Royal Liverpool Children' s Hospital, Liverpool (United Kingdom). Department of Radiology)

    12 pediatric cases of acute meningitis were reviewed retrospectively. Findings on CT scan were compared with the clinical course and resulting neurological sequelae. Complications detected by CT scanning include subdural effusion, empyema, hydrocephalus, cerebral atrophy, oedema and infarction. The CT scan results adequately correlated with neurological signs in most cases. Infarction was a reliable indicator of neurological sequelae. Cerebral atrophy alone, however, did not correlate well with the clinical sequelae. (author). 19 refs.; 5 figs.; 6 tabs.

  10. The Role of Nuclear Insurance Pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2006-01-01

    Since fifty years insurers respond to the need of both governments and the electricity industry to provide financial protection to cover the perils presented by the use of nuclear energy for peaceful purposes. This paper aims at explaining what difficulties had to be solved in order to enable insurers to provide such protection, that as a solution to these difficulties Nuclear Insurance Pools were formed, how such pools operate and what security they provide. Thereby not only a number of universal principles underlying nuclear pool insurance will be explained, but also some differences in the characteristics of such insurance per group of countries. (author)

  11. Laser surveillance systems for fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeck, H.

    1985-06-01

    A Laser Surveillance System (LASSY) as a new safeguards device has been developed under the IAEA research contract No. 3458/RB at the Atominstitut Wien using earlier results by S. Fiarman. This system is designed to act as a sheet of light covering spent fuel assemblies in spent fuel storage pools. When movement of assemblies takes place, LASSY detects and locates the position of the movement in the pool and when interrogated, presents a list of pool positions and times of movement to the safeguards inspector. A complete prototype system was developed and built. Full scale tests showed the principal working capabilities of a LASSY underwater

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your examination, blood tests may be performed to measure the level of thyroid hormones in your blood. ... device resembling a microphone that can detect and measure the amount of the radiotracer in a small ...

  13. 10 CFR 36.63 - Pool water purity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pool water purity. 36.63 Section 36.63 Energy NUCLEAR... § 36.63 Pool water purity. (a) Pool water purification system must be run sufficiently to maintain the conductivity of the pool water below 20 microsiemens per centimeter under normal circumstances. If pool water...

  14. Southeastern superpave center pooled-fund activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-01

    Much has been learned about materials characteristics, testing procedures, new equipment, mix design, and pavement performance through the many studies conducted as a part of the Southeastern Superpave Center (SSC) pooled-fund program. Lessons learne...

  15. Strategies for chemically healthy public swimming pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kamilla Marie Speht

    Swimming pools are used around the world for recreational, rehabilitation and physical activity and therefore it is imperative that the water and air quality are safe for the health of the bathers. Chlorination is by far the most widely applied method to control pool water quality and to prevent...... spreading of pathogens between swimmers because of its residual disinfection effect. In addition to potential contamination of pathogenic microorganisms, swimming pool water is polluted by organic matter deposited from the bathers such as saliva, urine, sweat, hair and personal care products. Since chlorine...... is a strong oxidant it oxidizes the organic matter in the pool water and forms disinfection byproducts (DBPs). More than 100 different DBPs have been identified. Some of these have been found to be genotoxic and may pose an increased cancer risk for the bathers. The aim of this thesis was to give an overview...

  16. AE/VCE Unconfirmed Vernal Pools

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — This dataset is derived from a project by the Vermont Center for Ecostudies(VCE) and Arrowwood Environmental(AE) to map vernal pools throughout the state of Vermont....

  17. Nuclear Insurance Pools: Worldwide Practice and Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    1998-01-01

    The development of nuclear installations to produce electricity led to the establishment of Nuclear Insurance Pools and the introduction of international Conventions on Third Party Liability. Nuclear Pools offer both Third Party Liability insurance, reflecting the Conventions' principles, and other insurance products. They are market-wide, providing a facility for participation by insurers who could not otherwise write the insurance for the particularly sensitive nuclear risk. All acceptances are for the net retention of each Member without recourse to individual reinsurance protection. Common account reinsurance is arranged with other Nuclear Pools all over the world. Thus, a transparency is created, which ensures the highest degree of reinsurance security and imposes a known finite limit to each participating insurer's commitment. Therefore, Pool-members are prepared to make a greater commitment to nuclear risks than would be case where they felt uncertain as regards their total exposure following a significant loss. (author)

  18. 7 CFR 1131.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant located within the... order in this part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7...

  19. 7 CFR 1126.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant's shipping percentage. (d) A plant... part, or the plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order; and (7) That portion of...

  20. 7 CFR 1001.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the percentages in paragraphs (c)(1) and (2) of... plant has automatic pooling status under the other Federal order. [64 FR 47954, Sept. 1, 1999, as...

  1. 7 CFR 1007.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  2. 7 CFR 1006.7 - Pool plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...-upon use other than Class I shall be excluded from the supply plant's shipments in computing the plant... under the order in this part, or such plant has automatic pooling status under such other order. (h) Any...

  3. Ingestion of swimming pool water by recreational

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Swimming pool water ingestion data. This dataset is associated with the following publication: Dufour, A., L. Wymer, M. Magnuson, T. Behymer, and R. Cantu. Ingestion...

  4. Microbial quality of a marine tidal pool

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Genthe, Bettina

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study the source of microbial pollution to a tidal pool was investigated. Both adjacent seawater which could contribute to possible faecal pollution and potential direct bather pollution were studied. The microbial quality of the marine...

  5. The Nuclear Insurance Pools: Operations and Covers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetley, M.

    2008-01-01

    Nuclear insurance pools have provided insurance for the nuclear industry for over fifty years and it is fair to say that the development of civil nuclear power would not have been possible without the support of the commercial insurance market. The unknown risks presented by the nascent nuclear power industry in the 1950s required a leap of faith by insurers who developed specialist pooled insurance capacity to ensure adequate capacity to back up the operators' compensation obligations. Since then, nuclear insurance pools have evolved to become comprehensive suppliers of most types of insurance for nuclear plant globally. This paper will outline the structure, development, products and current operations of nuclear insurance pools.(author)

  6. Robotic cleaning of a spent fuel pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roman, H.T.; Marian, F.A.; Silverman, E.B.; Barkley, V.P.

    1987-01-01

    Spent fuel pools at nuclear power plants are not cleaned routinely, other than by purifying the water that they contain. Yet, debris can collect on the bottom of a pool and should be removed prior to fuel transfer. At Public Service Electric and Gas Company's Hope Creek Nuclear Power Plant, a submersible mobile robot - ARD Corporation's SCAVENGER - was used to clean the bottom of the spent fuel pool prior to initial fuel loading. The robotic device was operated remotely (as opposed to autonomously) with a simple forward/reverse control, and it cleaned 70-80% of the pool bottom. This paper reports that a simple cost-benefit analysis shows that the robotic device would be less expensive, on a per mission basis, than other cleaning alternatives, especially if it were used for other similar cleaning operations throughout the plant

  7. Virulent Naegleria fowleri in indoor swimming pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadlec, V; Skvárová, J; Cerva, L; Nebáznivá, D

    1980-01-01

    Naegleria fowleri was isolated from water during a hygienic inspection of a swimming pool in December 1977. This swimming pool was identified as a source of the infectious agent in the years 1962-1965, when a large outbreak of primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) occurred. First two strains of N. fowleri, pathogenic for white mice after intracerebral and intranasal inoculation, were isolated from water of outlet troughs, additional strains were then isolated from various places; particularly from a cavity in the damaged wall of the pool. The incubation temperature did not inhibit a simultaneous growth of amoebae of the genera Acanthamoeba, Flabellula, Hartmannella and Vahlkampfia in the primocultures. Epidemiological investigations did not reveal any new case of PAME in relation with the occurrence of pathogenic N. fowleri in the swimming pool.

  8. How to map your industry's profit pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadiesh, O; Gilbert, J L

    1998-01-01

    Many managers chart strategy without a full understanding of the sources and distribution of profits in their industry. Sometimes they focus their sights on revenues instead of profits, mistakenly assuming that revenue growth will eventually translate into profit growth. In other cases, they simply lack the data or the analytical tools required to isolate and measure variations in profitability. In this Manager's Tool Kit, the authors present a way to think clearly about where the money's being made in any industry. They describe a framework for analyzing how profits are distributed among the activities that form an industry's value chain. Such an analysis can provide a company's managers with a rich understanding of their industry's profit structure--what the authors call its profit pool--enabling them to identify which activities are generating disproportionately large or small shares of profits. Even more important, a profit-pool map opens a window onto the underlying structure of the industry, helping managers see the various forces that are determining the distribution of profits. As such, a profit-pool map provides a solid basis for strategic thinking. Mapping a profit pool involves four steps: defining the boundaries of the pool, estimating the pool's overall size, estimating the size of each value-chain activity in the pool, and checking and reconciling the calculations. The authors briefly describe each step and then apply the process by providing a detailed example of a hypothetical retail bank. They conclude by looking at ways of organizing the data in chart form as a first step toward plotting a profit-pool strategy.

  9. Pooling strategies for St Petersburg gamblers

    OpenAIRE

    Csörgö, Sandor; Simons, Gordon

    2006-01-01

    Peter offers to play exactly one St Petersburg game with each of [math] players, Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] , whose conceivable pooling strategies are described by all possible probability distributions [math] . Comparing infinite expectations, we characterize among all [math] those admissible strategies for which the pooled winnings, each distributed as [math] , yield a finite added value for each and every one of Paul [math] , [math] , Paul [math] in comparison with their individual...

  10. Welding pool measurement using thermal array sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chia-Hung; Hsieh, Yi-Chen; Chen, Hsin-Yi

    2015-08-01

    Selective laser melting (SLM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that uses a high-power laser beam to melt metal powder in chamber of inert gas. The process starts by slicing the 3D CAD data as a digital information source into layers to create a 2D image of each layer. Melting pool was formed by using laser irradiation on metal powders which then solidified to consolidated structure. In a selective laser melting process, the variation of melt pool affects the yield of a printed three-dimensional product. For three dimensional parts, the border conditions of the conductive heat transport have a very large influence on the melt pool dimensions. Therefore, melting pool is an important behavior that affects the final quality of the 3D object. To meet the temperature and geometry of the melting pool for monitoring in additive manufacturing technology. In this paper, we proposed the temperature sensing system which is composed of infrared photodiode, high speed camera, band-pass filter, dichroic beam splitter and focus lens. Since the infrared photodiode and high speed camera look at the process through the 2D galvanometer scanner and f-theta lens, the temperature sensing system can be used to observe the melting pool at any time, regardless of the movement of the laser spot. In order to obtain a wide temperature detecting range, 500 °C to 2500 °C, the radiation from the melting pool to be measured is filtered into a plurality of radiation portions, and since the intensity ratio distribution of the radiation portions is calculated by using black-body radiation. The experimental result shows that the system is suitable for melting pool to measure temperature.

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake Thyroid scan and uptake uses ...

  12. Model PET Scan Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strunk, Amber; Gazdovich, Jennifer; Redouté, Oriane; Reverte, Juan Manuel; Shelley, Samantha; Todorova, Vesela

    2018-05-01

    This paper provides a brief introduction to antimatter and how it, along with other modern physics topics, is utilized in positron emission tomography (PET) scans. It further describes a hands-on activity for students to help them gain an understanding of how PET scans assist in detecting cancer. Modern physics topics provide an exciting way to introduce students to current applications of physics.

  13. Scanning laser Doppler vibrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Marie; Thomsen, Jon Juel

    With a Scanning Laser Doppler Vibrometer (SLDV) a vibrating surface is automatically scanned over predefined grid points, and data processed for displaying vibration properties like mode shapes, natural frequencies, damping ratios, and operational deflection shapes. Our SLDV – a PSV-500H from...

  14. An international pooled analysis for obtaining a benchmark dose for environmental lead exposure in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Bellinger, David; Lanphear, Bruce

    2013-01-01

    Lead is a recognized neurotoxicant, but estimating effects at the lowest measurable levels is difficult. An international pooled analysis of data from seven cohort studies reported an inverse and supra-linear relationship between blood lead concentrations and IQ scores in children. The lack...

  15. Aging management of nuclear fuel pool structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hookham, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    The long-term operations of a nuclear power plant (NPP) are currently impacted by the utility's capabilities with respect to spent fuel storage. Available options for the safe, long-term storage of spent fuel are quite limited; as such, maximized usage of existing on-site storage capacity (NPP) is quite important. The service life of existing fuel pool structures may be determined by a number of operations or age-related events. Management of these events is often critical to the structure's integrity and durability. From an operations vantage point, aging management relates to such characteristics as storage capacity, performance of pool water treatment systems, and physical liner damage. Primary issues related to structural integrity include materials degradation and environmental enclosure factors. The development of an effective aging management program should address both operational and structural issues. The goal of this paper is to provide recommendations for pool structure aging management, with benefits to both short and long-term, or extended life, operations. Because of their critical nature, the report will focus on spent fuel pools. Many of the concepts generated in this report may also be applied to other NPP pool structures (i.e., new fuel pools, reactor internals pits and transfer canals) because of similar physical/environmental effects

  16. Numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Kuldeep; Li, Chiping; Kailasanath, K.; Ndubizu, Chuka; Ananth, Ramagopal; Tatem, P. A.

    1999-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on numerical modelling of methanol liquid pool fires. A mathematical model is first developed to describe the evaporation and burning of a two-dimensional or axisymmetric pool containing pure liquid methanol. Then, the complete set of unsteady, compressible Navier-Stokes equations for reactive flows are solved in the gas phase to describe the convection of the fuel gases away from the pool surface, diffusion of the gases into the surrounding air and the oxidation of the fuel into product species. Heat transfer into the liquid pool and the metal container through conduction, convection and radiation are modelled by solving a modified form of the energy equation. Clausius-Clapeyron relationships are invoked to model the evaporation rate of a two-dimensional pool of pure liquid methanol. The governing equations along with appropriate boundary and interface conditions are solved using the flux-corrected transport algorithm. Numerical results exhibit a flame structure that compares well with experimental observations. Temperature profiles and burning rates were found to compare favourably with experimental data from single- and three-compartment laboratory burners. The model predicts a puffing frequency of approximately 12 Hz for a 1 cm diameter methanol pool in the absence of any air co-flow. It is also observed that increasing the air co-flow velocity helps in stabilizing the diffusion flame, by pushing the vortical structures away from the flame region.

  17. Transverse section scanning mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doherty, E.J.

    1978-01-01

    Apparatus is described for scanning a transverse, radionuclide scan-field using an array of focussed collimators. The collimators are movable tangentially on rails, driven by a single motor via a coupled screw. The collimators are also movable in a radial direction on rails driven by a step motor via coupled screws and bevel gears. Adjacent bevel gears rotate in opposite directions so adjacent collimators move in radially opposite directions. In use, the focal point of each collimator scans at least half of the scan-field, e.g. a human head located in the central aperture, and the electrical outputs of detectors associated with each collimator are used to determine the distribution of radioactive emission intensity at a number of points in the scan-field. (author)

  18. Beam scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enge, H.A.

    1977-01-01

    A system for deflecting a beam of particles having different momenta, preferably through a 90 0 angle, so as to cause the beam to impinge upon a moving target and to scan across the target is described. The system includes a means responsive to a beam from a suitable source for causing the beam to periodically scan in a scanning plane and further means for deflecting the periodically scanned beam through the desired angle in a deflection plane so that the deflected beam impinges on the target. Means are included in the system for reducing the momentum dispersion at the target in both the deflection and the scanning planes and for spatially focussing the beam so as to produce a desired beam diameter at the target

  19. LIDAR COMBINED SCANNING UNIT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Elizarov

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subject of Research. The results of lidar combined scanning unit development for locating leaks of hydrocarbons are presented The unit enables to perform high-speed scanning of the investigated space in wide and narrow angle fields. Method. Scanning in a wide angular field is produced by one-line scanning path by means of the movable aluminum mirror with a frequency of 20Hz and amplitude of 20 degrees of swing. Narrowband scanning is performed along a spiral path by the deflector. The deflection of the beam is done by rotation of the optical wedges forming part of the deflector at an angle of ±50. The control function of the scanning node is performed by a specialized software product written in C# programming language. Main Results. This scanning unit allows scanning the investigated area at a distance of 50-100 m with spatial resolution at the level of 3 cm. The positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space is 15'. The developed scanning unit gives the possibility to browse the entire investigated area for the time not more than 1 ms at a rotation frequency of each wedge from 50 to 200 Hz. The problem of unambiguous definition of the beam geographical coordinates in space is solved at the software level according to the rotation angles of the mirrors and optical wedges. Lidar system coordinates are determined by means of GPS. Practical Relevance. Development results open the possibility for increasing the spatial resolution of scanning systems of a wide range of lidars and can provide high positioning accuracy of the laser beam in space.

  20. Cushing's syndrome with an apparently normal CT scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlahos, L.; Strigaris, K.; Aliferopoulos, D.; Pontifex, G.

    1981-01-01

    A case of Cushing's syndrome is described in which the CT scan was considered as normal. The diagnosis was established with selective venography and blood sampling and was verified surgically. (orig.)

  1. Swimming pool use and birth defect risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Mitchell, Laura E

    2013-09-01

    Swimming during pregnancy is recommended. However, the use of swimming pools is also associated with infection by water-borne pathogens and exposure to water disinfection byproducts, which are 2 mechanisms that are suspected to increase risk for birth defects. Thus, we evaluated the relationship between maternal swimming pool use during early pregnancy and risk for select birth defects in offspring. Data were evaluated for nonsyndromic cases with 1 of 16 types of birth defects (n = 191-1829) and controls (n = 6826) from the National Birth Defects Prevention Study delivered during 2000-2006. Logistic regression analyses were conducted separately for each birth defect type. Separate analyses were conducted to assess any pool use (yes vs no) and frequent use (5 or more occasions in 1 month) during the month before pregnancy through the third month of pregnancy. There was no significant positive association between any or frequent pool use and any of the types of birth defects, even after adjustment for several potential confounders (maternal race/ethnicity, age at delivery, education, body mass index, folic acid use, nulliparity, smoking, annual household income, surveillance center, and season of conception). Frequent pool use was significantly negatively associated with spina bifida (adjusted odds ratio, 0.68; 95% confidence interval, 0.47-0.99). Among offspring of women 20 years old or older, pool use was associated with gastroschisis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.3; 95% confidence interval, 1.0-1.8), although not significantly so. We observed little evidence suggesting teratogenic effects of swimming pool use. Because swimming is a common and suggested form of exercise during pregnancy, these results are reassuring. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Thermohydraulic behavior of liquid metal pool submitted to electronic bombardment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brun, Patrice

    1998-01-01

    This thesis deals with the thermohydraulics of liquid metal molten by an electron beam. We study the relationship between the liquid metal pool and the vapor rate. The aim is to find good conditions increasing the metal vapor rate. In first place, energy losses are identified. Mains are convection (buoyancy and thermo-capillary) strengthen by the deformation of the molten pool. The first action is to reduce the liquid interface deformation with a transient spot realized by scanning the electron beam. I find that in this case, the optimum vapor rate is obtained when the crossing time of the beam is smaller than characteristic time of formation of the cavity, but greater than the heating time of the surface. Secondly, I impose forces to change the morphology of the flow. Two actions are tried: magnetic field application and rotating motion of the crucible. External magnetic field application may reduce convective flow, by the creation of a magnetic brake. But in my experiment, magnetic field deteriorates electron beam before to be effective. Results obtained by the rotating motion of the crucible approve this choice to reduce energy losses and increase vapor rate. This growth of vapor rate is due to an expansion of the emitted vapor source and an increase of the central temperature of the molten pool. Nevertheless with the increase of the rotation velocity and after the optimum vapor rate, I note that the flow is not axisymmetric. My observation give to think about instabilities that are developed by baroclinic waves. The comparison of my works with the Eady's linear theory gives good results. (author) [fr

  3. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  4. Paucity of bone scan abnormalities in a child with multifocal osteomyelitis and disseminated sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trpezanovski, J.; Porn, U.; Uren, R.; Howman-Giles, R.; Mansberg, R.

    2000-01-01

    Full text: We present an unusual case of multifocal osteomyelitis with minimal bone scan abnormalities and markedly discordant findings on Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) and gallium scans. A seven-year-old female presented with left leg, right elbow pain and fever. A bone scan was performed. Mild increased vascularity was demonstrated on the dynamic and blood pool phases of the study in the area of the right elbow. In the delayed images there was a photopenic lesion in the left distal femoral metadiaphysis and also irregular uptake in the metaphyseal regions of the long bones. Low grade soft tissue tracer uptake was seen in the left thigh and right forearm. The patient deteriorated clinically and underwent further investigations with MRI and gallium scans. The MRI showed extensive abnormalities with mulitlocular fluid collection seen throughout most of the muscle groups of both thighs suggesting myositis with an associated cellulitis and osteomyelitis of the left femur. The gallium study was markedly abnormal with increased uptake in the distal 2/3rds of the left femur, proximal 1/2 of the right femur, right proximal forearm (mid forearm extending to mid upper arm), left proximal humerus and right hemithorax especially the lower zones. Staphylococcal aureus was cultured. The patient required intensive care management and slowly responded to antibiotic therapy and surgery to drain abscesses in the thighs. A bone marrow biopsy was normal and immunological tests were performed but a result has yet to be determined. The lack of increased bone uptake in the demonstrated areas of osteomyelitis maybe explained on the basis of an overwhelming infective process inhibiting the patient's healing response. Copyright (2000) The Australian and New Zealand Society of Nuclear Medicine Inc

  5. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are presented of a tomographic scanning apparatus, its rotational assembly, and the control and circuit elements, with particular reference to the amplifier and multiplexing circuits enabling detector signal calibration. (U.K.)

  6. Tomographic Scanning Imaging Seeker

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hovland, Harald

    2005-01-01

    .... Simulation results are provided to show the reconstruction quality. The concept, using a single pixel and a simple rotating axis scan mechanism, allows for a simple, low-cost, software-driven imaging sensor...

  7. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... which are encased in metal and plastic and most often shaped like a box, attached to a ... will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan and thyroid uptake procedures are painless. ...

  8. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    Details are given of a tomographic scanning apparatus, with particular reference to a multiplexer slip ring means for receiving output from the detectors and enabling interfeed to the image reconstruction station. (U.K.)

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Nuclear ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the test. You should also drink plenty of water to help flush the radioactive material out of ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The ... type of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential to ... tells you otherwise, you may resume your normal activities after your nuclear medicine scan. If any special ...

  13. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... gamma camera heads are oriented at a 90 degree angle and placed over the patient's body. SPECT ... are scheduled for an additional procedure that same day that requires an intravenous line. Actual scanning time ...

  14. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... computer aids in creating the images from the data obtained by the gamma camera. A probe is ...

  15. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eat for several hours before your exam because eating can affect the accuracy of the uptake measurement. ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information ...

  16. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... often unattainable using other imaging procedures. For many diseases, nuclear medicine scans yield the most useful information needed to make a diagnosis or to determine appropriate treatment, if any. Nuclear medicine is less expensive and ...

  17. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This patent specification relates to a tomographic scanning apparatus using a fan beam and digital output signal, and particularly to the design of the gas-pressurized ionization detection system. (U.K.)

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an intravenous ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for each ...

  19. The Scanning Optical Microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheppard, C. J. R.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the principle of the scanning optical microscope and explains its advantages over the conventional microscope in the improvement of resolution and contrast, as well as the possibility of producing a picture from optical harmonies generated within the specimen.

  20. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... evaluate changes in the gland following medication use, surgery, radiotherapy or chemotherapy top of page How should ... such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated contrast material within the ...

  1. Scanning Auger Electron Microscope

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — A JEOL model 7830F field emission source, scanning Auger microscope.Specifications / Capabilities:Ultra-high vacuum (UHV), electron gun range from 0.1 kV to 25 kV,...

  2. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... liquid or capsule form, it is typically swallowed up to 24 hours before the scan. The radiotracer given by intravenous injection is usually given up to 30 minutes prior to the test. When ...

  3. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... exam of any medications you are taking, including vitamins and herbal supplements. You should also inform them ... of scan you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera ...

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Because nuclear medicine procedures are able to pinpoint molecular activity within the body, they offer the potential ... or imaging device that produces pictures and provides molecular information. The thyroid scan and thyroid uptake provide ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and thyroid uptake provide information about the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is ... computer, create pictures offering details on both the structure and function of organs and tissues in your ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. If you had an ... abnormal was found, and should not be a cause of concern for you. Actual scanning time for ...

  7. Pediatric CT Scans

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Radiation Epidemiology Branch and collaborators have initiated a retrospective cohort study to evaluate the relationship between radiation exposure from CT scans conducted during childhood and adolescence and the subsequent development of cancer.

  8. Lung gallium scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... produced by the gallium. Images display on a computer screen. During the scan, it is important that ... M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics and subscribes to the principles of the Health ...

  9. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine ... you are undergoing. top of page What does the equipment look like? The special camera and imaging ...

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that ...

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... scan and uptake uses small amounts of radioactive materials called radiotracers, a special camera and a computer ... last two months that used iodine-based contrast material. Your doctor will instruct you on how to ...

  12. Cervical spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider if you take the diabetes medicine metformin (Glucophage). You may need to take extra steps ... to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans expose you to more radiation than ...

  13. Leg CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider if you take the diabetes medicine metformin (Glucophage). You may need to take extra steps ... to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans expose you to more radiation than ...

  14. Shoulder CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider if you take the diabetes medicine metformin (Glucophage) because you may need to take extra ... to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans do expose you to more radiation ...

  15. Knee CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider if you take the diabetes medicine metformin (Glucophage). You may need to take extra steps ... to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans give off more radiation than regular ...

  16. Arm CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your provider if you take the diabetes drug metformin (Glucophage). You may need to take special steps ... to contrast dye Birth defect if done during pregnancy CT scans expose you to more radiation than ...

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  18. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Uptake? A thyroid scan is a type of nuclear medicine imaging. The radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU) is ... of thyroid function, but does not involve imaging. Nuclear medicine is a branch of medical imaging that uses ...

  19. Condensation in a two-phase pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffey, R.B.; Hughes, E.D.

    1991-01-01

    We consider the case of vapor condensation in a liquid pool, when the heat transfer is controlled by heat losses through the walls. The analysis is based on drift flux theory for phase separation in the pool, and determines the two-phase mixture height for the pool. To our knowledge this is the first analytical treatment of this classic problem that gives an explicit result, previous work having established the result for the evaporative case. From conservation of mass and energy in a one-dimensional steady flow, together with a void relation between the liquid and vapor fluxes, we determine the increase in the mixture level from the base level of the pool. It can be seen that the thermal and hydrodynamic influences are separable. Thus, the thermal influence of the wall heat transfer appears through its effect on the condensing length L*, so that at high condensation rates the pool is all liquid, and at low rates overflows (the level swell or foaming effect). Similarly, the phase separation effect hydrodynamically determines the height via the relative velocity of the mixture to the entering flux. We examine some practical applications of this result to level swell in condensing flows, and also examine some limits in ideal cases

  20. Mutation scanning of peach floral genes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde H Dayton

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mutation scanning technology has been used to develop crop species with improved traits. Modifications that improve screening throughput and sensitivity would facilitate the targeted mutation breeding of crops. Technical innovations for high-resolution melting (HRM analysis are enabling the clinic-based screening for human disease gene polymorphism. We examined the application of two HRM modifications, COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR, to the mutation scanning of genes in peach, Prunus persica. The targeted genes were the putative floral regulators PpAGAMOUS and PpTERMINAL FLOWER I. Results HRM analysis of PpAG and PpTFL1 coding regions in 36 peach cultivars found one polymorphic site in each gene. PpTFL1 and PpAG SNPs were used to examine approaches to increase HRM throughput. Cultivars with SNPs could be reliably detected in pools of twelve genotypes. COLD-PCR was found to increase the sensitivity of HRM analysis of pooled samples, but worked best with small amplicons. Examination of QMC-PCR demonstrated that primary PCR products for further analysis could be produced from variable levels of genomic DNA. Conclusions Natural SNPs in exons of target peach genes were discovered by HRM analysis of cultivars from a southeastern US breeding program. For detecting natural or induced SNPs in larger populations, HRM efficiency can be improved by increasing sample pooling and template production through approaches such as COLD-PCR and QMC-PCR. Technical advances developed to improve clinical diagnostics can play a role in the targeted mutation breeding of crops.

  1. Real time laser scanning of aggregate materials in highway construction : a transportation pooled fund study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    The quality and service life of the roadways that make up the highway transportation infrastructure are dependent upon : the selection and use of high quality aggregate materials. Five state transportation agencies participated in this Transportation...

  2. Zooplankton at deep Red Sea brine pools

    KAUST Repository

    Kaartvedt, Stein

    2016-03-02

    The deep-sea anoxic brines of the Red Sea comprise unique, complex and extreme habitats. These environments are too harsh for metazoans, while the brine–seawater interface harbors dense microbial populations. We investigated the adjacent pelagic fauna at two brine pools using net tows, video records from a remotely operated vehicle and submerged echosounders. Waters just above the brine pool of Atlantis II Deep (2000 m depth) appeared depleted of macrofauna. In contrast, the fauna appeared to be enriched at the Kebrit Deep brine–seawater interface (1466 m).

  3. One component, volume heated, boiling pool thermohydraulics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bede, M.; Perret, C.; Pretrel, H.; Seiler, J.M.

    1993-01-01

    Prior work on boiling pools provided heat exchange correlations valid for bubbly flow with laminar or turbulent boundary layers. New experiments performed with water (SEBULON) and UO 2 (SCARABEE BF2) in a churn-turbulent flow configuration show unexpected heat flux distributions for which the maximum heat flux may be situated well below the pool surface. The origin of this behaviour is attributed to condensation effects, very unstable boundary layer flow and surface oscillation. A calculation model is discussed which permits to approach the experimental heat flux distribution with reasonable accuracy. (authors). 7 figs., 2 appendix., 14 refs

  4. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, Pratap; Roelofs, Ferry

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor

  5. Numerical modeling of sodium fire – Part II: Pool combustion and combined spray and pool combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sathiah, Pratap, E-mail: pratap.sathiah78@gmail.com [Shell Global Solutions Ltd., Brabazon House, Concord Business Park, Threapwood Road, Manchester M220RR (United Kingdom); Roelofs, Ferry, E-mail: roelofs@nrg.eu [Nuclear Research and Consultancy Group (NRG), Westerduinweg 3, 1755ZG Petten (Netherlands)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • A CFD based method is proposed for the simulation of sodium pool combustion. • A sodium evaporation based model is proposed to model sodium pool evaporation. • The proposed method is validated against sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. • The results obtained using the proposed method are in good agreement with the experiments. - Abstract: The risk of sodium-air reaction has received considerable attention after the sodium-fire accident in Monju reactor. The fires resulting from the sodium-air reaction can be detrimental to the safety of a sodium fast reactor. Therefore, predicting the consequences of a sodium fire is important from a safety point of view. A computational method based on CFD is proposed here to simulate sodium pool fire and understand its characteristics. The method solves the Favre-averaged Navier-Stokes equation and uses a non-premixed mixture fraction based combustion model. The mass transfer of sodium vapor from the pool surface to the flame is obtained using a sodium evaporation model. The proposed method is then validated against well-known sodium pool experiments of Newman and Payne. The flame temperature and location predicted by the model are in good agreement with experiments. Furthermore, the trends of the mean burning rate with initial pool temperature and oxygen concentration are captured well. Additionally, parametric studies have been performed to understand the effects of pool diameter and initial air temperature on the mean burning rate. Furthermore, the sodium spray and sodium pool combustion models are combined to simulate simultaneous spray and pool combustion. Simulations were performed to demonstrate that the combined code could be applied to simulate this. Once sufficiently validated, the present code can be used for safety evaluation of a sodium fast reactor.

  6. 47 CFR 90.35 - Industrial/Business Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Industrial/Business Radio Pool § 90.35 Industrial/Business Pool. (a) Eligibility... Industrial/Business Pool to provide commercial mobile radio service as defined in part 20 of this chapter or... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Industrial/Business Pool. 90.35 Section 90.35...

  7. Rank-based pooling for deep convolutional neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zenglin; Ye, Yangdong; Wu, Yunpeng

    2016-11-01

    Pooling is a key mechanism in deep convolutional neural networks (CNNs) which helps to achieve translation invariance. Numerous studies, both empirically and theoretically, show that pooling consistently boosts the performance of the CNNs. The conventional pooling methods are operated on activation values. In this work, we alternatively propose rank-based pooling. It is derived from the observations that ranking list is invariant under changes of activation values in a pooling region, and thus rank-based pooling operation may achieve more robust performance. In addition, the reasonable usage of rank can avoid the scale problems encountered by value-based methods. The novel pooling mechanism can be regarded as an instance of weighted pooling where a weighted sum of activations is used to generate the pooling output. This pooling mechanism can also be realized as rank-based average pooling (RAP), rank-based weighted pooling (RWP) and rank-based stochastic pooling (RSP) according to different weighting strategies. As another major contribution, we present a novel criterion to analyze the discriminant ability of various pooling methods, which is heavily under-researched in machine learning and computer vision community. Experimental results on several image benchmarks show that rank-based pooling outperforms the existing pooling methods in classification performance. We further demonstrate better performance on CIFAR datasets by integrating RSP into Network-in-Network. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariel, A.; van der Linden, Willem J.; Veldkamp, Bernard P.

    2006-01-01

    Item-pool management requires a balancing act between the input of new items into the pool and the output of tests assembled from it. A strategy for optimizing item-pool management is presented that is based on the idea of a periodic update of an optimal blueprint for the item pool to tune item

  9. Eddy current testing of PWR fuel pencils in the pool of the Osiris reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faure, M.; Marchand, L.

    1983-12-01

    A nondestructive testing bench is described. It is devoted to examination of high residual power fuel pencils without stress on the cladding nor interference with cooling. Guiding by fluid bearings decrease the background noise. Scanning speed is limited only by safety criteria and data acquisition configuration. Simultaneous control of various parameters is possible. Associated to an irradiation loop, loaded and unloaded in a reactor swinning pool, this bench can follow fuel pencil degradation after each irradiation cycle [fr

  10. Radiation scanning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    In the radiation scanning system the radiation emitted from an image field is scanned by a field of radiosensitive detector elements, and the signals transmitted are used to control the video input of a scanning-pattern image display unit. By the variations of the transmitting properties of the detector elements and the electronic equipment spurious patterns are produced on the projected picture. In order to prevent this there is provided for a compensating circuit and a comparator by means of which the variations of the transmitting properties are compensated. It works synchronous by together with a multipler device and carries out a measurement of the statistic moment of the voltage of each channel. The compensating device may be designed as an open or closed control loop. (orig.) [de

  11. Frequency scanning microstrip antennas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Magnus; Jørgensen, Rolf

    1979-01-01

    The principles of using radiating microstrip resonators as elements in a frequency scanning antenna array are described. The resonators are cascade-coupled. This gives a scan of the main lobe due to the phase-shift in the resonator in addition to that created by the transmission line phase......-shift. Experimental results inX-band, in good agreement with the theory, show that it is possible to scan the main lobe an angle ofpm30degby a variation of the frequencypm300MHz, and where the 3 dB beamwidth is less than10deg. The directivity was 14.7 dB, while the gain was 8.1 dB. The efficiency might be improved...

  12. Spectrum pooling in MnWave Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boccardi, Federico; Shokri-Ghadikolaei, Hossein; Fodor, Gabor

    2016-01-01

    Motivated by the specific characteristics of mmWave technologies, we discuss the possibility of an authorization regime that allows spectrum sharing between multiple operators, also referred to as spectrum pooling. In particular, considering user rate as the performance measure, we assess the ben...

  13. DNA pooling strategies for categorical (ordinal) traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Despite reduced genotyping costs in recent years, obtaining genotypes for all individuals in a population may still not be feasible when sample size is large. DNA pooling provides a useful alternative to determining genotype effects. Clustering algorithms allow for grouping of individuals (observati...

  14. Pooling Objects for Recognizing Scenes without Examples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kordumova, S.; Mensink, T.; Snoek, C.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we aim to recognize scenes in images without using any scene images as training data. Different from attribute based approaches, we do not carefully select the training classes to match the unseen scene classes. Instead, we propose a pooling over ten thousand of off-the-shelf object

  15. Pooling ASR data for closely related languages

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Heerden, C

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available We describe several experiments that were conducted to assess the viability of data pooling as a means to improve speech-recognition performance for under-resourced languages. Two groups of closely related languages from the Southern Bantu language...

  16. "Teisele poole" Agambeniga ja Agambenita / Ragne Nukk

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Nukk, Ragne, 1984-

    2012-01-01

    Tallinna Fotokuu rahvusvahelise fotonäituse "Teisele poole" ideeliste lähtekohtade tõlgendamisest. Autor kõrvutab Adam Budaki kuraatornäituse aluseks olnud Giorgio Agambeni esseed „Viimne kohtupäev“ näitusel eksponeeritud piltidega

  17. Enhanced heat transfer in confined pool boiling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rops, C.M.; Lindken, R.; Velthuis, J.F.M.; Westerweel, J.

    2009-01-01

    We report the results of an experimental investigation of the heat transfer during nucleate boiling on a spatially confined boiling surface. The heat flux as a function of the boiling surface temperature was measured in pool boiling pots with diameters ranging from 15 mm down to 4.5 mm. It was found

  18. Measurements of fluid flow in weld pools

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhao, C.

    2011-01-01

    Understanding the fluid flow in weld pools contributes significantly toward controlling the heat distribution in the base material and the mass distribution of molten base and additive materials. Currently, most investigations focus primarily on numerical models, due to the experimental difficulties

  19. Pricing Electricity in Pools With Wind Producers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales González, Juan Miguel; Conejo, A. J.; Kai Liu

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers an electricity pool that includes a significant number of wind producers and is cleared through a network-constrained auction, one day in advance and on an hourly basis. The hourly auction is formulated as a two-stage stochastic programming problem, where the first stage...

  20. Storage device for fuel elements in pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kerjean, J.

    1985-01-01

    The fuel elements are stored in compartments set at the bottom of the pools and separated by water spaces; the walls of the cells are coated on the external side with a cadmium liner acting as a neutronic protection associated with the water space [fr

  1. 28 CFR 540.64 - Press pools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... magazines and newspapers; and (4) All media in the local community where the institution is located. If no... PERSONS IN THE COMMUNITY Contact With News Media § 540.64 Press pools. (a) The Warden may establish a... shall notify all news media representatives who have requested interviews or visits that have not been...

  2. Method for determining molten metal pool level in twin-belt continuous casting machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Timothy D.; Daniel, Sabah S.; Dykes, Charles D.

    1989-03-21

    A method for determining level of molten metal in the input of a continuous metal casting machine having at least one endless, flexible, revolving casting belt with a surface which engages the molten metal to be cast and a reverse, cooled surface along which is directed high velocity liquid coolant includes the steps of predetermining the desired range of positions of the molten metal pool and positioning at least seven heat-sensing transducers in bearing contact with the moving reverse belt surface and spaced in upstream-downstream relationship relative to belt travel spanning the desired pool levels. A predetermined temperature threshold is set, somewhat above coolant temperature and the output signals of the transducer sensors are scanned regarding their output signals indicative of temperatures of the moving reverse belt surface. Position of the molten pool is determined using temperature interpolation between any successive pair of upstream-downstream spaced sensors, which follows confirmation that two succeeding downstream sensors are at temperature levels exceeding threshold temperature. The method accordingly provides high resolution for determining pool position, and verifies the determined position by utilizing full-strength signals from two succeeding downstream sensors. In addition, dual sensors are used at each position spanning the desired range of molten metal pool levels to provide redundancy, wherein only the higher temperature of each pair of sensors at a station is utilized.

  3. Benthic assemblages of rock pools in northern Portugal: seasonal and between-pool variability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iacopo Bertocci

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the seasonal (winter vs summer and within season and spatial (between-pool variability of benthic assemblages of rock pools at mid-intertidal level along the shore of Viana do Castelo (North Portugal. Physical traits of rock pools, including size, depth and position along the shore, were also compared between pools. While pools did not differ for any of the examined physical traits, results indicated a clear seasonal difference in the structure of assemblages, including a total of 49 macroalgal and 13 animal taxa. This finding was driven by six taxa that are more abundant in winter (the reef-forming polychaete Sabellaria alveolata, the articulated coralline algae Corallina spp., the brown alga Bifurcaria bifurcata, the encrusting coralline alga Lithophyllum incrustans, the red alga Chondracanthus acicularis and the grazing snails Gibbula spp. and four algal taxa that are more abundant in summer (the invasive brown Sargassum muticum, the green Ulva spp., the kelp Laminaria ochroleuca and the filamentous red Ceramium spp.. These data provide a new contribution to the knowledge of rock pool systems and have potential implications for monitoring programmes aimed at assessing ecological modifications related to natural and anthropogenic disturbances and for identifying processes responsible for the variability of rock pool assemblages.

  4. Tomographic scanning apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abele, M.

    1983-01-01

    A computerized tomographic scanning apparatus suitable for diagnosis and for improving target identification in stereotactic neurosurgery is described. It consists of a base, a source of penetrating energy, a detector which produces scanning signals and detector positioning means. A frame with top and bottom arms secures the detector and source to the top and bottom arms respectively. A drive mechanism rotates the frame about an axis along which the frame may also be moved. Finally, the detector may be moved relative to the bottom arm in a direction contrary to the rotation of the frame. (U.K.)

  5. Calibration of scanning Lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gómez Arranz, Paula; Courtney, Michael

    This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast. Additio......This report describes the tests carried out on a scanning lidar at the DTU Test Station for large wind turbines, Høvsøre. The tests were divided in two parts. In the first part, the purpose was to obtain wind speed calibrations at two heights against two cup anemometers mounted on a mast...

  6. Scanning the phenomenological MSSM

    CERN Document Server

    Wuerzinger, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    A framework to perform scans in the 19-dimensional phenomenological MSSM is developed and used to re-evaluate the ATLAS experiments' sensitivity to R-parity-conserving supersymmetry with LHC Run 2 data ($\\sqrt{s}=13$ TeV), using results from 14 separate ATLAS searches. We perform a $\\tilde{t}_1$ dedicated scan, only considering models with $m_{\\tilde{t}_1}<1$ TeV, while allowing both a neutralino ($\\tilde{\\chi}_1^0$) and a sneutrino ($\\tilde{\

  7. Adaptive Optical Scanning Holography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, P. W. M.; Poon, Ting-Chung; Liu, J.-P.

    2016-01-01

    Optical Scanning Holography (OSH) is a powerful technique that employs a single-pixel sensor and a row-by-row scanning mechanism to capture the hologram of a wide-view, three-dimensional object. However, the time required to acquire a hologram with OSH is rather lengthy. In this paper, we propose an enhanced framework, which is referred to as Adaptive OSH (AOSH), to shorten the holographic recording process. We have demonstrated that the AOSH method is capable of decreasing the acquisition time by up to an order of magnitude, while preserving the content of the hologram favorably. PMID:26916866

  8. Blood typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blood typing is a method to tell what type of blood you have. Blood typing is done so you can safely donate your blood or receive a blood transfusion. It is also done to see if you have a substance called Rh factor on the surface of your red ...

  9. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Blood Types What's in this article? Four Blood Groups... Plus Rh Factor... ...Make Eight Blood Types Why Blood Type Matters Print en español Tipos de sangre About 5 million Americans need blood transfusions every ...

  10. Airway dysfunction and inflammation in pool- and non-pool-based elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Neil; Lindley, Martin R; Hargadon, Beverley; Monteiro, Will R; Pavord, Ian D

    2012-08-01

    This study sought to determine and compare the levels of airway dysfunction and inflammation in a large cohort of symptomatic international athletes from pool- and non-pool-based sporting backgrounds. In total, 118 athletes were recruited. All subjects had symptoms of exercise asthma and were steroid naïve. They completed baseline spirometry, a symptom score, exhaled nitric oxide, a eucapnic voluntary hyperventilation (EVH) test, and a postchallenge induced sputum and urine test. Pool-based athletes had better lung function (FEV1 = 110% vs 102% predicted, mean difference = 8.200 ± 2.339, P = 0.0006 and FVC = 5.64 vs 4.75 L, mean difference = 0.8855 ± 0.1951, P < 0.0001) and more marked airways hyper-reactivity (AHR) (percent drop in FEV1 after EVH = 18.14 vs 11.47, mean difference = 6.67, 95% confidence interval = 2.89-10.53, P = 0.0009). More pool-based athletes had a positive EVH test (72% pool vs 39% nonpool), but there was no difference between groups with respect to eosinophilic inflammation (sputum eosinophil percentage: pool = 2.07, nonpool = 2.28, P = 0.77; exhaled nitric oxide: pool = 32.54, nonpool = 35.77, P = 0.60). Athletes with a positive EVH test had less neutrophilic inflammation (P = 0.01) and more epithelial cells (P = 0.03) in their sputum. Pool-based endurance athletes have greater evidence of AHR than non-pool-based athletes but no evidence of greater eosinophilic airway inflammation. Athletes who test positive on EVH are more likely to be eosinophilic and have higher levels of epithelial cells in their sputum.

  11. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... iodine , including kelp, seaweed, cough syrups, multivitamins or heart medications. have any allergies to iodine, medications and anesthetics. are breastfeeding. In the days prior to your examination, blood ...

  12. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to prepare and may advise you not to eat for several hours prior to your exam. Leave ... your blood. You may be told not to eat for several hours before your exam because eating ...

  13. Suncatcher and cool pool. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammond, J.

    1981-03-01

    The Suncatcher is a simple, conical solar concentrating device that captures light entering clerestory windows and directs it onto thermal storage elements at the back of a south facing living space. The cone shape and inclination are designed to capture low angle winter sunlight and to reflect away higher angle summer sunlight. It is found that winter radiation through a Suncatcher window is 40 to 50% higher than through an ordinary window, and that the average solar fraction is 59%. Water-filled steal culvert pipes used for thermal storage are found to undergo less stratification, and thus to be more effective, when located where sunlight strikes the bottom rather than the top. Five Suncatcher buildings are described. Designs are considered for 32/sup 0/, 40/sup 0/ and 48/sup 0/ north latitude, and as the latitude increases, the inclination angle of the cone should be lowered. The Cool Pool is an evaporating, shaded roof pond which thermosiphons cool water into water-filled columns within a building. Preliminary experiments indicate that the best shade design has unimpeded north sky view, good ventilation, complete summer shading, a low architectural profile, and low cost attic vent lowers work. Another series of experiments established the satisfactory performance of the Cool Pool on a test building using four water-filled cylinders, two cylinders, and two cylinders connected to the Cool Pool through a heat exchanger. Although an unshaded pool cools better at night than a shaded one, daytime heat gain far offsets this advantage. A vinyl waterbag heat exchanger was developed for use with the Cool Pool. (LEW)

  14. Generalizing Pooling Functions in CNNs: Mixed, Gated, and Tree.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chen-Yu; Gallagher, Patrick; Tu, Zhuowen

    2018-04-01

    In this paper, we seek to improve deep neural networks by generalizing the pooling operations that play a central role in the current architectures. We pursue a careful exploration of approaches to allow pooling to learn and to adapt to complex and variable patterns. The two primary directions lie in: (1) learning a pooling function via (two strategies of) combining of max and average pooling, and (2) learning a pooling function in the form of a tree-structured fusion of pooling filters that are themselves learned. In our experiments every generalized pooling operation we explore improves performance when used in place of average or max pooling. We experimentally demonstrate that the proposed pooling operations provide a boost in invariance properties relative to conventional pooling and set the state of the art on several widely adopted benchmark datasets. These benefits come with only a light increase in computational overhead during training (ranging from additional 5 to 15 percent in time complexity) and a very modest increase in the number of model parameters (e.g., additional 1, 9, and 27 parameters for mixed, gated, and 2-level tree pooling operators, respectively). To gain more insights about our proposed pooling methods, we also visualize the learned pooling masks and the embeddings of the internal feature responses for different pooling operations. Our proposed pooling operations are easy to implement and can be applied within various deep neural network architectures.

  15. Parvovirus B19 viraemia in Dutch blood donors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zaaijer, H. L.; Koppelman, M. H. G. M.; Farrington, C. P.

    2004-01-01

    Blood, donated by asymptomatic donors, may contain and transmit parvovirus B19. To investigate the dynamics of parvovirus viraemia in asymptomatic blood donors, we studied the amounts of parvovirus DNA in pools of donor plasma, the prevalence of parvovirus antibodies among blood donors in relation

  16. Scanning transmission electron microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruit, P.

    2006-01-01

    The invention relates to a scanning transmission electron microscope comprising an electron source, an electron accelerator and deflection means for directing electrons emitted by the electron source at an object to be examined, and in addition a detector for detecting electrons coming from the

  17. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Toggle navigation Test/Treatment Patient Type Screening/Wellness Disease/Condition Safety En Español More Info Images/Videos About Us News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  18. Dialogue scanning measuring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borodyuk, V.P.; Shkundenkov, V.N.

    1985-01-01

    The main developments of scanning measuring systems intended for mass precision processsing of films in nuclear physics problems and in related fields are reviewed. A special attention is paid to the problem of creation of dialogue systems which permit to simlify the development of control computer software

  19. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you: have had any tests, such as an x-ray or CT scan, surgeries or treatments using iodinated ... page How does the procedure work? With ordinary x-ray examinations, an image is made by passing x- ...

  20. SPM: Scanning positron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Dickmann

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Munich scanning positron microscope, operated by the Universität der Bundeswehr München and the Technische Universität München, located at NEPOMUC, permits positron lifetime measurements with a lateral resolution in the µm range and within an energy range of 1 – 20 keV.

  1. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used ... the patient's body. In contrast, nuclear medicine procedures use a ... off a small amount of energy in the form of gamma rays. Special cameras ...

  2. Scanning tunneling microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binnig, G.; Rohrer, H.

    1983-01-01

    Based on vacuum tunneling, a novel type of microscope, the scanning tunneling microscope (STM) was developed. It has an unprecedented resolution in real space on an atomic scale. The authors review the important technical features, illustrate the power of the STM for surface topographies and discuss its potential in other areas of science and technology. (Auth.)

  3. Terahertz scanning probe microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klapwijk, T.M.

    2014-01-01

    The invention provides aterahertz scanning probe microscope setup comprising (i) a terahertz radiation source configured to generate terahertz radiation; (ii) a terahertz lens configured to receive at least part of the terahertz radiation from the terahertz radiation source; (iii) a cantilever unit

  4. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the equipment look like? How does the procedure work? How is the procedure performed? What will I experience during and after the procedure? Who interprets the results and how do I get them? What are the benefits vs. risks? What are the limitations of the Thyroid Scan ...

  5. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the structure and function of the thyroid. The thyroid is a gland in the neck that controls metabolism , a chemical process that regulates the rate at which the body converts food to energy. top of page What are some common uses of the procedure? The thyroid scan is used to determine the size, shape ...

  6. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of page Additional Information and Resources RTAnswers.org Radiation Therapy for Head and Neck Cancer top of page ... and Neck Cancer Treatment Radioactive Iodine (I-131) Therapy Head and Neck Cancer X-ray, Interventional Radiology and Nuclear ... to Thyroid Scan and Uptake ...

  7. Scanning bubble chamber pictures

    CERN Multimedia

    1974-01-01

    These were taken at the 2 m hydrogen bubble chamber. The photo shows an early Shiva system where the pre-measurements needed to qualify the event were done manually (cf photo 7408136X). The scanning tables were located in bld. 12. Gilberte Saulmier sits on foreground, Inge Arents at centre.

  8. Bone scan in rheumatology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales G, R.; Cano P, R.; Mendoza P, R.

    1993-01-01

    In this chapter a revision is made concerning different uses of bone scan in rheumatic diseases. These include reflex sympathetic dystrophy, osteomyelitis, spondyloarthropaties, metabolic bone diseases, avascular bone necrosis and bone injuries due to sports. There is as well some comments concerning pediatric pathology and orthopedics. (authors). 19 refs., 9 figs

  9. Scan This Book!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albanese, Andrew Richard

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author presents an interview with Brewster Kahle, leader of the Open Content Alliance (OCA). OCA book scan program is an alternative to Google's library project that aims to make books accessible online. In this interview, Kahle discusses his views on the challenges of getting books on the Web, on Google's library…

  10. Thyroid Scan and Uptake

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... or less. top of page What will I experience during and after the procedure? Most thyroid scan ... areas. Outside links: For the convenience of our users, RadiologyInfo .org provides links to relevant websites. RadiologyInfo. ...

  11. Thoracic spine CT scan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Ma, MD, Professor, Chief, Sports Medicine and Shoulder Service, UCSF Department of Orthopaedic Surgery, San Francisco, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. CT Scans Read more Spinal Cord Injuries Read more Spine ...

  12. Bone graft viability evaluated by three phase bone scan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljiljana Jaukovic Rajko Spaic; Marijan Novakovic; Srbislav Stosic

    2004-01-01

    Bone defects resulting war injury can be replaced by microvascular bone grafts from fibula. Aim: The aim of this study was to assess the value of three phase (3P) bone scintigraphy in the early detection of the bone graft complications. Method: 3P bone scans were performed in four patients (two after mandible reconstruction with micro vascular fibular bone grafts, one after fibular transplantation for ulnar and one with humeral reconstruction). First dynamic phase scan was performed immediately after iv injection of 740 MBq Tc- 99m DPD, acquiring 15 two seconds duration frames. Second, early static scan was performed during next 300 seconds, and third, delayed scan three hours later. All scans were obtained under the bone graft region. The scans were evaluated using ROI under graft region and the corresponding contra lateral area. Blood flow in graft region was determined using first phase scan, and tracer uptake in the same region was determined using second and third phase scans. Results: in all patients blood flow in graft region was particularly normal. Tracer uptake in one of two patients with mandible reconstruction was diffusely increased in graft, strongly suggesting infection; In the other patient delayed scan showed no tracer uptake in graft center .Both patients with ulnar and humeral reconstruction showed only slightly decreased tracer uptake in bone grafts. 3 phase bone scintigraphy may play a role in the evaluation of bone graft viability by predicting the infection and necrosis. (authors)

  13. Types of Blood Donations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ill patients. Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations The Foundation for America's Blood Centers Donate Blood Blood Donation 101 Blood Donation FAQs Types of Blood Donations About Blood What is Blood? ...

  14. Estimating HIV prevalence from surveys with low individual consent rates: annealing individual and pooled samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hund, Lauren; Pagano, Marcello

    2013-02-27

    : Many HIV prevalence surveys are plagued by the problem that a sizeable number of surveyed individuals do not consent to contribute blood samples for testing. One can ignore this problem, as is often done, but the resultant bias can be of sufficient magnitude to invalidate the results of the survey, especially if the number of non-responders is high and the reason for refusing to participate is related to the individual's HIV status. One reason for refusing to participate may be for reasons of privacy. For those individuals, we suggest offering the option of being tested in a pool. This form of testing is less certain than individual testing, but, if it convinces more people to submit to testing, it should reduce the potential for bias and give a cleaner answer to the question of prevalence. This paper explores the logistics of implementing a combined individual and pooled testing approach and evaluates the analytical advantages to such a combined testing strategy. We quantify improvements in a prevalence estimator based on this combined testing strategy, relative to an individual testing only approach and a pooled testing only approach. Minimizing non-response is key for reducing bias, and, if pooled testing assuages privacy concerns, offering a pooled testing strategy has the potential to substantially improve HIV prevalence estimates.

  15. Pool Boiling CHF in Inclined Narrow Annuli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Myeong Gie

    2010-01-01

    Pool boiling heat transfer has been studied extensively since it is frequently encountered in various heat transfer equipment. Recently, it has been widely investigated in nuclear power plants for application to the advanced light water reactors designs. Through the review on the published results it can be concluded that knowledge on the combined effects of the surface orientation and a confined space on pool boiling heat transfer is of great practical importance and also of great academic interest. Fujita et al. investigated pool boiling heat transfer, from boiling inception to the critical heat flux (CHF, q' CHF ), in a confined narrow space between heated and unheated parallel rectangular plates. They identified that both the confined space and the surface orientation changed heat transfer much. Kim and Suh changed the surface orientation angles of a downward heating rectangular channel having a narrow gap from the downward-facing position (180 .deg.) to the vertical position (90 .deg.). They observed that the CHF generally decreased as the inclination angle (θ ) increased. Yao and Chang studied pool boiling heat transfer in a confined heat transfer for vertical narrow annuli with closed bottoms. They observed that when the gap size ( s ) of the annulus was decreased the effect of space confinement to boiling heat transfer increased. The CHF was occurred at much lower value for the confined space comparing to the unconfined pool boiling. Pool boiling heat transfer in narrow horizontal annular crevices was studied by Hung and Yao. They concluded that the CHF decreased with decreasing gap size of the annuli and described the importance of the thin film evaporation to explain the lower CHF of narrow crevices. The effect of the inclination angle on the CHF on countercurrent boiling in an inclined uniformly heated tube with closed bottoms was also studied by Liu et al. They concluded that the CHF reduced with the inclination angle decrease. A study was carried out

  16. Sodium pool fire model for CONACS code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yung, S.C.

    1982-01-01

    The modeling of sodium pool fires constitutes an important ingredient in conducting LMFBR accident analysis. Such modeling capability has recently come under scrutiny at Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) within the context of developing CONACS, the Containment Analysis Code System. One of the efforts in the CONACS program is to model various combustion processes anticipated to occur during postulated accident paths. This effort includes the selection or modification of an existing model and development of a new model if it clearly contributes to the program purpose. As part of this effort, a new sodium pool fire model has been developed that is directed at removing some of the deficiencies in the existing models, such as SOFIRE-II and FEUNA

  17. Suppression pool in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayakumo, Sunao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To improve the efficiency of vapour condensation for the sake of steam-load depression at the time of blowdown, and to prevent the quake of supression pool water at the time of earthquake. Constitution: Double branching plates having a function of a branching vapor stream in two directions when blowing down the vapor and operating the vent safety valve are provided on the central line of the vent tube disposed radially from the center of a reactor housing in a dry well. Further, a vent safety valve exhaust device is provided between the branching plates. When the vapor discharged from the space in the dry well is discharged through the vent tube and the vent safety valve exhaust device into a suppression pool, the stream line is roughly split by the branching plates, and the flows from the adjacent branching plates and the exhaust device collide with one another, thereby improving the condensing action. (Sekiya, K.)

  18. Economic efficiency of pool coordinated electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Agtash, S.; Renjeng Su

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents economic efficiency evaluation of pool coordinated electricity markets. The evaluation accounts for the overall cost of power generation, network losses and costs, and various operational constraints. We assume a non-collusive oligopolistic competition. An iterative supply function model is used to characterize the competitive behavior of suppliers. A social welfare function is defined for PoolCo market that operates over multiple hours time span. This leads to a mixed-integer non-linear programming problem. An Augmented Lagrangian approach is used to solve iteratively for global optimal operation schedules (i.e. power generation, load, and price for each bus node) while considering constraints of different sorts. An IEEE 24-bus, eight-supplier, 17-customer test system is used for illustration. The results show deflection of electricity prices from the marginal costs of power generation. The results of 2-year (730 round) market simulations show a range of deadweight efficiency loss between 0.5. (author)

  19. Review and assessment of pool scrubbing models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herranz, L.E.; Escudero, M.J.; Peyres, V.; Polo, J.; Lopez, J.

    1996-07-01

    Decontamination of fission products bearing bubbles as they pass through aqueous pools becomes a crucial phenomenon for source term evaluation of hypothetical risk dominant sequences of Light Water Reactors. In the present report a peer review and assessment of models encapsulated in SPARC and BUSCA codes is presented. Several aspects of pool scrubbing have been addressed: particle removal, fission product vapour retention and bubble hydrodynamics. Particular emphasis has been given to the close link between retention and hydrodynamics, from both modelling and experimental point of view. In addition, RHR and SGTR sequences were simulated with SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 codes, and their results were compared with those obtained with MAAP 3.0B. As a result of this work, model capabilities and shortcomings have been assessed and some areas susceptible of further research have been identified. (Author) 73 refs.

  20. Exome Pool-Seq in neurodevelopmental disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, Bernt; Ekici, Arif B; Thiel, Christian T; Hoyer, Juliane; Wiesener, Antje; Kraus, Cornelia; Reis, André; Zweier, Christiane

    2017-12-01

    High throughput sequencing has greatly advanced disease gene identification, especially in heterogeneous entities. Despite falling costs this is still an expensive and laborious technique, particularly when studying large cohorts. To address this problem we applied Exome Pool-Seq as an economic and fast screening technology in neurodevelopmental disorders (NDDs). Sequencing of 96 individuals can be performed in eight pools of 12 samples on less than one Illumina sequencer lane. In a pilot study with 96 cases we identified 27 variants, likely or possibly affecting function. Twenty five of these were identified in 923 established NDD genes (based on SysID database, status November 2016) (ACTB, AHDC1, ANKRD11, ATP6V1B2, ATRX, CASK, CHD8, GNAS, IFIH1, KCNQ2, KMT2A, KRAS, MAOA, MED12, MED13L, RIT1, SETD5, SIN3A, TCF4, TRAPPC11, TUBA1A, WAC, ZBTB18, ZMYND11), two in 543 (SysID) candidate genes (ZNF292, BPTF), and additionally a de novo loss-of-function variant in LRRC7, not previously implicated in NDDs. Most of them were confirmed to be de novo, but we also identified X-linked or autosomal-dominantly or autosomal-recessively inherited variants. With a detection rate of 28%, Exome Pool-Seq achieves comparable results to individual exome analyses but reduces costs by >85%. Compared with other large scale approaches using Molecular Inversion Probes (MIP) or gene panels, it allows flexible re-analysis of data. Exome Pool-Seq is thus well suited for large-scale, cost-efficient and flexible screening in characterized but heterogeneous entities like NDDs.

  1. Feature Quantization and Pooling for Videos

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-05-01

    same codebook center in a query volleyball video. On the right we show the (incorrect) match using Nearest Neighbor - a biking video. (b) In the...proposed representation, Motion Words, features pooled over supervoxels match similar regions and enable interpretability. Figure 3.3: A volleyball query...regions with very different motion and appearance (the players, the volleyball net, the ceiling and walls) and it is not clear why the biking video is

  2. Evaluation of single-nucleotide polymorphisms as internal controls in prenatal diagnosis of fetal blood groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doescher, Andrea; Petershofen, Eduard K; Wagner, Franz F; Schunter, Markus; Müller, Thomas H

    2013-02-01

    Determination of fetal blood groups in maternal plasma samples critically depends on adequate amplification of fetal DNA. We evaluated the routine inclusion of 52 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) as internal reference in our polymerase chain reaction (PCR) settings to obtain a positive internal control for fetal DNA. DNA from 223 plasma samples of pregnant women was screened for RHD Exons 3, 4, 5, and 7 in a multiplex PCR including 52 SNPs divided into four primer pools. Amplicons were analyzed by single-base extension and the GeneScan method in a genetic analyzer. Results of D screening were compared to standard RHD genotyping of amniotic fluid or real-time PCR of fetal DNA from maternal plasma. The vast majority of all samples (97.8%) demonstrated differences in maternal and fetal SNP patterns when tested with four primer pools. These differences were not observed in less than 2.2% of the samples most probably due to an extraction failure for adequate amounts of fetal DNA. Comparison of the fetal genotypes with independent results did not reveal a single false-negative case among samples (n = 42) with positive internal control and negative fetal RHD typing. Coamplification of 52 SNPs with RHD-specific sequences for fetal blood group determination introduces a valid positive control for the amplification of fetal DNA to avoid false-negative results. This new approach does not require a paternal blood sample. It may also be applicable to other assays for fetal genotyping in maternal blood samples. © 2012 American Association of Blood Banks.

  3. Mammographic scanning equalization radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, J.M.; Soutar, I.C.; Plewe, D.B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports on conventional x-ray mammography that suffers from poor visualization of low-contrast lesions and microcalcifications in regions where variations in breast thickness and parenchymal pattern result in suboptimal film exposure and contrast. MSER overcomes this limitation by equalizing the film exposure into the range of maximum film contrast, independent of variations in breast architecture. A prototype MSER system has been developed for imaging breast phantoms in which a Min-R cassette is exposed by scanning a small (4-cm 2 ) beam of pulsed (40-Hz) x-rays (30 KVp) over the breast phantom in a raster fashion while measuring the transmission with a scanning detector. Feedback of the transmission information modulates the width of each x-ray pulse to equalize the film exposure over the entire image

  4. The laser scanning camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jagger, M.

    The prototype development of a novel lenseless camera is reported which utilises a laser beam scanned in a raster by means of orthogonal vibrating mirrors to illuminate the field of view. Laser light reflected from the scene is picked up by a conveniently sited photosensitive device and used to modulate the brightness of a T.V. display scanned in synchronism with the moving laser beam, hence producing a T.V. image of the scene. The camera which needs no external lighting system can act in either a wide angle mode or by varying the size and position of the raster can be made to zoom in to view in detail any object within a 40 0 overall viewing angle. The resolution and performance of the camera are described and a comparison of these aspects is made with conventional T.V. cameras. (author)

  5. Scanning probe microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainsbridge, B.

    1994-01-01

    In late 1959, Richard Feynman observed that manoeuvring atoms was something that could be done in principle but has not been done, 'because we are too big'. In 1982, the scanning tunnelling microscope (STM) was invented and is now a central tool for the construction of nanoscale devices in what was known as molecular engineering, and now, nanotechnology. The principles of the microscope are outlined and references are made to other scanning devices which have evolved from the original invention. The method of employment of the STM as a machine tool is described and references are made to current speculations on applications of the instrument in nanotechnology. A short bibliography on this topic is included. 27 refs., 7 figs

  6. IMEF gamma scanning system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Sang Yeol; Park, Dae Kyu; Ahn, Sang Bok; Ju, Yong Sun; Jeon, Yong Bum

    1997-06-01

    The gamma scanning system which is installed in IMEF is the equipment obtaining the gamma ray spectrum from irradiated fuels. This equipment could afford the useful data relating spent fuels like as burn-up measurements. We describe the specifications of the equipment and its accessories, and also described its operation procedure so that an operator can use this report as the operation procedure. (author). 1 tab., 11 figs., 11 refs.

  7. Multichannel scanning spectrophotometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagutin, A.F.

    1979-01-01

    A spectrophotometer designed in the Crimea astrophysical observatory is described. The spectrophotometer is intended for the installation at the telescope to measure energy distribution in the star spectra in the 3100-8550 A range. The device is made according to the scheme with a fixed diffraction lattice. The choice of the optical kinematic scheme is explained. The main design elements are shown. Some singularities of the scanning drive kinematics are considered. The device performance is given

  8. Scanning drop sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian; Xiang, Chengxiang; Gregoire, John M.; Shinde, Aniketa A.; Guevarra, Dan W.; Jones, Ryan J.; Marcin, Martin R.; Mitrovic, Slobodan

    2017-05-09

    Electrochemical or electrochemical and photochemical experiments are performed on a collection of samples by suspending a drop of electrolyte solution between an electrochemical experiment probe and one of the samples that serves as a test sample. During the electrochemical experiment, the electrolyte solution is added to the drop and an output solution is removed from the drop. The probe and collection of samples can be moved relative to one another so the probe can be scanned across the samples.

  9. Scanning ultrafast electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ding-Shyue; Mohammed, Omar F; Zewail, Ahmed H

    2010-08-24

    Progress has been made in the development of four-dimensional ultrafast electron microscopy, which enables space-time imaging of structural dynamics in the condensed phase. In ultrafast electron microscopy, the electrons are accelerated, typically to 200 keV, and the microscope operates in the transmission mode. Here, we report the development of scanning ultrafast electron microscopy using a field-emission-source configuration. Scanning of pulses is made in the single-electron mode, for which the pulse contains at most one or a few electrons, thus achieving imaging without the space-charge effect between electrons, and still in ten(s) of seconds. For imaging, the secondary electrons from surface structures are detected, as demonstrated here for material surfaces and biological specimens. By recording backscattered electrons, diffraction patterns from single crystals were also obtained. Scanning pulsed-electron microscopy with the acquired spatiotemporal resolutions, and its efficient heat-dissipation feature, is now poised to provide in situ 4D imaging and with environmental capability.

  10. Scanning unit for collectrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Plaige, Yves.

    1976-01-01

    This invention concerns a measurement scanning assembly for collectron type detectors. It is used in measuring the neutron flux in nuclear reactors. As the number of these detectors in a reactor can be very great, they are not usually all connected permanently to the measuring facility but rather in turn by means of a scanning device which carries out, as it were, multiplexing between all the collectrons and the input of a single measuring system. The object of the invention is a scanning assembly which is of relative simplicity through an original organisation. Specifically, according to this organisation, the collectrons outputs are grouped together in bunches, each of these bunches being processed by a multiplexing sub-assembly belonging to a first stage, the different outputs of these multiplexing subassemblies of this first stage being grouped together yet again in bunches processed by multiplexors forming a new stage and so forth. Further, this structure is specially adapted for use with collectrons by utilising a current amplifier at each multiplexing level so that from one end to the other of the multiplexing system, the commutations are carried out on currents and not on voltages [fr

  11. Forensic Scanning Electron Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeley, R. H.

    1983-03-01

    The scanning electron microscope equipped with an x-ray spectrometer is a versatile instrument which has many uses in the investigation of crime and preparation of scientific evidence for the courts. Major applications include microscopy and analysis of very small fragments of paint, glass and other materials which may link an individual with a scene of crime, identification of firearms residues and examination of questioned documents. Although simultaneous observation and chemical analysis of the sample is the most important feature of the instrument, other modes of operation such as cathodoluminescence spectrometry, backscattered electron imaging and direct x-ray excitation are also exploited. Marks on two bullets or cartridge cases can be compared directly by sequential scanning with a single beam or electronic linkage of two instruments. Particles of primer residue deposited on the skin and clothing when a gun is fired can be collected on adhesive tape and identified by their morphology and elemental composition. It is also possible to differentiate between the primer residues of different types of ammunition. Bullets may be identified from the small fragments left behind as they pass through the body tissues. In the examination of questioned documents the scanning electron microscope is used to establish the order in which two intersecting ink lines were written and to detect traces of chemical markers added to the security inks on official documents.

  12. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McMaster Marianne E

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS. In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Presentation of the hypothesis Through vulnerability of the developing central nervous system to circulating toxins, and because of delayed epigenetic effects, the trunk deformity of AIS does not become evident until adolescence. In mature healthy swimmers using such pools, the circulating neurotoxins detected are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Cyanogen chloride and dichloroacetonitrile have also been detected. Testing the hypothesis In infants, the putative portals of entry to the blood could be dermal, oral, or respiratory; and entry of such circulating small molecules to the brain are via the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and circumventricular organs. Barrier mechanisms of the developing brain differ from those of adult brain and have been linked to brain development. During the first 6 months of life cerebrospinal fluid contains higher concentrations of specific proteins relative to plasma, attributed to mechanisms continued from fetal brain development rather than immaturity. Implications of the hypothesis The hypothesis can be tested. If confirmed, there is potential to prevent some children from developing AIS.

  13. Heated indoor swimming pools, infants, and the pathogenesis of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: a neurogenic hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMaster, Marianne E

    2011-10-05

    In a case-control study a statistically significant association was recorded between the introduction of infants to heated indoor swimming pools and the development of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS). In this paper, a neurogenic hypothesis is formulated to explain how toxins produced by chlorine in such pools may act deleteriously on the infant's immature central nervous system, comprising brain and spinal cord, to produce the deformity of AIS. Through vulnerability of the developing central nervous system to circulating toxins, and because of delayed epigenetic effects, the trunk deformity of AIS does not become evident until adolescence. In mature healthy swimmers using such pools, the circulating neurotoxins detected are chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform. Cyanogen chloride and dichloroacetonitrile have also been detected. In infants, the putative portals of entry to the blood could be dermal, oral, or respiratory; and entry of such circulating small molecules to the brain are via the blood-brain barrier, blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier, and circumventricular organs. Barrier mechanisms of the developing brain differ from those of adult brain and have been linked to brain development. During the first 6 months of life cerebrospinal fluid contains higher concentrations of specific proteins relative to plasma, attributed to mechanisms continued from fetal brain development rather than immaturity. The hypothesis can be tested. If confirmed, there is potential to prevent some children from developing AIS.

  14. Thermal analyses of solar swimming pool heating in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, I.

    2011-01-01

    Hotels and swimming clubs in Pakistan pay huge gas bills for heating Swimming pools in winter. Winter days in most parts of Pakistan remain sunny and unglazed low cost solar collectors may be used to extend the swimming season. Installing the pool in a wind-protected area, which receives unobstructed solar radiation, may further reduce the size of the solar collectors required to heat the swimming pools. The pools should be covered with plastic sheet to eliminate evaporative heat losses and to prevent dust and tree leaves falling in the pool. The results of the thermal analysis show that in some parts of the country, a solar exposed pool can maintain comfortable temperature simply by using a plastic sheet on the pool surface. On the other hand, there are cities where solar collector array equal to twice the surface area of the pool is required to keep desired temperature in winter. (author)

  15. Hydrology of vernal pools at three sites, southern Sacramento Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-04-01

    The subsurface hydrology of vernal pools at three vernal pool complexes was investigated during three wet seasons in 2002- : 2004. The complexes were at Gridley Ranch, Valensin Ranch, and the Mather Field in northern California. The selected : comple...

  16. [Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole'] / Hasso Krull

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Krull, Hasso, 1964-

    1997-01-01

    Tiit Hennoste loengusarjast 'Hüpped modernismi poole : Eesti 20. sajandi kirjandusest Euroopa modernismi taustal' (1993, nr. 10 - 1997, nr. 10/11).Vastukaja: Hüpped modernismi poole: kajad ja vastukajad // Vikerkaar (1998) nr. 6, lk. 99-111

  17. Performance Study and Dynamic Optimization Design for Thread Pool Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Dongping [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    2004-12-19

    Thread pools have been widely used by many multithreaded applications. However, the determination of the pool size according to the application behavior still remains problematic. To automate this process, in this thesis we have developed a set of performance metrics for quantitatively analyzing thread pool performance. For our experiments, we built a thread pool system which provides a general framework for thread pool research. Based on this simulation environment, we studied the performance impact brought by the thread pool on different multithreaded applications. Additionally, the correlations between internal characterizations of thread pools and their throughput were also examined. We then proposed and evaluated a heuristic algorithm to dynamically determine the optimal thread pool size. The simulation results show that this approach is effective in improving overall application performance.

  18. Scanning radiographic apparatus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, R.D.

    1980-04-01

    Visual display of dental, medical or other radiographic images is realized with an x-ray tube in which an electron beam is scanned through an x-y raster pattern on a broad anode plate, the scanning being synchronized with the x-y sweep signals of a cathode ray tube display and the intensity signal for the display being derived from a small x-ray detector which receives x-rays that have passed through the subject to be imaged. Positioning and support of the detector are provided for by disposing the detector in a probe which may be attached to the x-ray tube at any of a plurality of different locations and by providing a plurality of such probes of different configuration in order to change focal length, to accommodate to different detector placements relative to the subject, to enhance patient comfort and to enable production of both periapical images and wider angle pantomographic images. High image definition with reduced radiation dosage is provided for by a lead glass collimator situated between the x-ray tube and subject and having a large number of spaced-apart minute radiation transmissive passages convergent on the position of the detector. Releasable mounting means enable changes of collimator in conjunction with changes of the probe to change focal length. A control circuit modifies the x-y sweep signals applied to the x-ray tube and modulates electron beam energy and current in order to correct for image distortions and other undesirable effects which can otherwise be present in a scanning x-ray system.

  19. Evaluation of 111In leukocyte whole body scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with 111 In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes

  20. Evaluation of /sup 111/In leukocyte whole body scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, I.R.; Baumert, J.E.; Lantieri, R.L.

    1979-11-01

    Indium-111 oxine, polymorphonuclear cells isolated and labeled with /sup 111/In were used for studying abscesses and inflammatory conditions. There were 64 total scans done in 59 patients, 32 male and 27 female, aged 3 to 81 years (average, 51). The original clinical diagnosis was abscess in 33 patients. The whole blood cell scan was abnormal in 12 (36%) of these, and a good clinical correlation was obtained in 11 of the 12. In the 21 with a normal scan, 18 had no evidence of abscess, yielding one false-positive and three false-negative interpretations in the abscess group. Thirteen patients had fever of unknown origin, nine had negative scans and no subsequent evidence of abscess, and four had positive scans with good correlation in three. Acute bone and joint infections were positive on scan (4/4), whereas chronic osteomyelitis was negative (0/2). Three patients with acute myocardial infarction and three of four with subacute bacterial endocarditis had normal scans. All three studies in renal transplant rejection showed positive uptake in the pelvic kidneys. Indium-111 white blood cell scans have proved useful to diagnose or exclude a diagnosis of abscess or inflammatory condition infiltrated with polymorphonuclear leukocytes.

  1. Surface micromachined scanning mirrors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattsson, Kent Erik

    1992-01-01

    Both aluminum cantilever and torsional scanning mirrors have been fabricated and their static and dynamic properties are studied experimentally and theoretically. The experiments showed resonance frequencies in the range of 163 k-Hz - 632 kHz for cantilever beams with Q values between 5 and 11....... Torsional mirrors showed resonance frequencies in the range of 410 kHz - 667 kHz with Q values of 10 - 17. All measurements performed at atmospheric pressure. Both types of mechanical structures were deflected electrostatically at large angles (± 5°) more than 1011 times without breaking and without any...

  2. Scanning Color Laser Microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awamura, D.; Ode, T.; Yonezawa, M.

    1988-01-01

    A confocal color laser microscope which utilizes a three color laser light source (Red: He-Ne, Green: Ar, Blue: Ar) has been developed and is finding useful applications in the semiconductor field. The color laser microscope, when compared to a conventional microscope, offers superior color separation, higher resolution, and sharper contrast. Recently some new functions including a Focus Scan Memory, a Surface Profile Measurement System, a Critical Dimension Measurement system (CD) and an Optical Beam Induced Current Function (OBIC) have been developed for the color laser microscope. This paper will discuss these new features.

  3. Radiographic scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bevan, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    This invention relates to radiodiagnostic agents and more particularly to a composition and method for preparing a highly effective technetium-99m-based bone scanning agent. One deficiency of x-ray examination is the inability of that technique to detect skeletal metastases in their incipient stages. It has been discovered that the methanehydroxydiphosphonate bone mineral-seeking agent is unique in that it provides the dual benefits of sharp radiographic imaging and excellent lesion detection when used with technetium-99m. This agent can also be used with technetium-99m for detecting soft tissue calcification in the manner of the inorganic phosphate radiodiagnostic agents

  4. Automatic Ultrasound Scanning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moshavegh, Ramin

    on the scanners, and to improve the computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) in ultrasound by introducing new quantitative measures. Thus, four major issues concerning automation of the medical ultrasound are addressed in this PhD project. They touch upon gain adjustments in ultrasound, automatic synthetic aperture image...... on the user adjustments on the scanner interface to optimize the scan settings. This explains the huge interest in the subject of this PhD project entitled “AUTOMATIC ULTRASOUND SCANNING”. The key goals of the project have been to develop automated techniques to minimize the unnecessary settings...

  5. Opportunities and challenges when pooling milk samples using ELISA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Græsbøll, Kaare; Andresen, Lars Ole; Hisham Beshara Halasa, Tariq

    2017-01-01

    -positive samples by pooling. To illustrate this, the sensitivity of antibody ELISA on pooled samples of bovine milk for Salmonella Dublin, Mycobacterium avium spp. paratuberculosis, and bovine virus diarrhea was tested. For these milk assays, the analytical sensitivity decreased rapidly with increasing pool sizes...

  6. Isolation of Fungi in Swimming pools in Enugu, Nigeria | Mbata ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: It has been established that swimming pools contribute to the spread of fungal infections in susceptible hosts. Objectives: To isolate and identify fungi associated with swimming pools. Methods: A total of 147 samples from water and related areas of each swimming pool were tested for the presence of fungi.

  7. The Ineffectiveness of Manual Treatment of Swimming Pools | Nnaji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The University of Nigeria, Nsukka swimming pool was monitored for a period spanning about three months. The pool was constructed in 1961 and has been in operation since then except that many facilities including the treatment system are no longer functional forcing management to resort to treatment of the pool water ...

  8. A skeleton for distributed work pools in Eden

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dieterle, Mischa; Berthold, Jost; Loogen, Rita

    2010-01-01

    We present a flexible skeleton for implementing distributed work pools in our parallel functional language Eden. The skeleton manages a pool of tasks (work pool) in a distributed manner using a demand-driven work stealing approach for load balancing. All coordination is done locally within...

  9. Mitigating the impact of swimming pools on domestic water demand

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    demand. The study shows the need to reduce the impact of swimming pools. This could include: pool covers to reduce evaporation, the recycling of backwash water, the use of rainwater to top up swimming pools, water use surcharges and, finally, appropriate regulation and enforcement to prevent the use of municipal water ...

  10. 17 CFR 4.22 - Reporting to pool participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... National Futures Association pursuant to this paragraph (c); or (B) The date of the formation of the pool...); or (2) The date of the formation of the pool; and (B) The close of the pool's fiscal year or the date... capital contribution are “special allocations.” Special allocations of partnership equity or other...

  11. Pool boiling visualization on open microchannel surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaniowski Robert

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents visualization investigations into pool boiling heat transfer for open minichannel surfaces. The experiments were carried out wih saturated water at atmospheric pressure. Parallel microchannels fabricated by machining were about 0.3 mm wide and 0.2 to 0.4 mm deep. High-speed videos were used as an aid to understanding the heat transfer mechanism. The visualization study aimed at identifying nucleation sites of the departing bubbles and determining their diameters and frequency at various superheats.

  12. The use of pooled viral load testing to identify antiretroviral treatment failure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Davey M.; May, Susanne J.; Pérez-Santiago, Josué; Strain, Matthew C.; Ignacio, Caroline C.; Haubrich, Richard H.; Richman, Douglas D.; Benson, Constance A.; Little, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Background To develop less costly methods to virologically monitor patients receiving antiretroviral therapy, we evaluated methods that use pooled blood samples and quantitative information available from viral load assays to monitor a cohort of patients on first-line antiretroviral therapy for virologic failure. Methods We evaluated 150 blood samples collected after 6 months of therapy from participants enrolled in a San Diego primary infection program between January 1998 and January 2007. Samples were screened for virologic failure with individual viral load testing, 10 × 10 matrix pools and minipools of five samples. For the pooled platforms (matrix and minipools), we used a search and retest algorithm based on the quantitative viral load data to resolve samples that remained ambiguous for virologic failure. Viral load thresholds were more than 500 and more than 1500 copies/ml for the matrix and more than 250 and more than 500 copies/ml for the minipool. Efficiency, accuracy and result turnaround times were evaluated. Results Twenty-three percent of cohort samples were detectable at more than 50 HIV RNA copies/ml. At an algorithm threshold of more than 500 HIV RNA copies/ml, both minipool and matrix methods used less than half the number of viral load assays to screen the cohort, compared with testing samples individually. Both pooling platforms had negative predictive values of 100% for viral loads of more than 500 HIV RNA copies/ml and at least 94% for viral loads of more than 250 HIV RNA copies/ml. Conclusion In this cohort, both pooling methods improved the efficiency of virologic monitoring over individual testing with a minimal decrease in accuracy. These methods may allow for the induction and sustainability of the virologic monitoring of patients receiving antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings. PMID:19730348

  13. Ultrafast scanning tunneling microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botkin, D.A. [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics]|[Lawrence Berkeley Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    I have developed an ultrafast scanning tunneling microscope (USTM) based on uniting stroboscopic methods of ultrafast optics and scanned probe microscopy to obtain nanometer spatial resolution and sub-picosecond temporal resolution. USTM increases the achievable time resolution of a STM by more than 6 orders of magnitude; this should enable exploration of mesoscopic and nanometer size systems on time scales corresponding to the period or decay of fundamental excitations. USTM consists of a photoconductive switch with subpicosecond response time in series with the tip of a STM. An optical pulse from a modelocked laser activates the switch to create a gate for the tunneling current, while a second laser pulse on the sample initiates a dynamic process which affects the tunneling current. By sending a large sequence of identical pulse pairs and measuring the average tunnel current as a function of the relative time delay between the pulses in each pair, one can map the time evolution of the surface process. USTM was used to measure the broadband response of the STM`s atomic size tunnel barrier in frequencies from tens to hundreds of GHz. The USTM signal amplitude decays linearly with the tunnel junction conductance, so the spatial resolution of the time-resolved signal is comparable to that of a conventional STM. Geometrical capacitance of the junction does not appear to play an important role in the measurement, but a capacitive effect intimately related to tunneling contributes to the measured signals and may limit the ultimate resolution of the USTM.

  14. Experiments on convection in laser-melted pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillibotte, Georges; Kechemair, Didier; Sabatier, Lilian

    1991-10-01

    High-power CO2 cw lasers proved to be very efficient in surface treatment of metallic materials in order to improve wear or fatigue resistance of workpieces. In the case of surface treatments which involve a molten zone, it is necessary to improve existing knowledge on convection which can take place inside the metallic bath during laser-material interaction. As a matter of fact, metallurgical investigations showed that this convection influences the homogenization and the structure of the metal specimen. It has been pointed out by some researchers that these movements are generated by high-temperature gradients which produce surface tension variations within the liquid surface. This kind of flow is generally called Marangoni Convection. A method which allows the measurement of some particle velocities on the pool surface is described. A CCD camera was used to estimate surface temperatures and a high-speed video camera allowed the analysis of the velocity fields. The first experiments showed that the order of magnitude of these velocities is typically about a few tens of centimeters per second in the case od cast-iron surface treatment. The scanning speed was about one centimeter per second with a 10 kW/cm2 shaped beam originating at a 6 mods UTIL laser.

  15. Investigation on Selective Laser Melting AlSi10Mg Cellular Lattice Strut: Molten Pool Morphology, Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuesong Han

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available AlSi10Mg inclined struts with angle of 45° were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM using different scanning speed and hatch spacing to gain insight into the evolution of the molten pool morphology, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy. The results show that the average width and depth of the molten pool, the lower surface roughness and dimensional deviation decrease with the increase of scanning speed and hatch spacing. The upper surface roughness is found to be almost constant under different processing parameters. The width and depth of the molten pool on powder-supported zone are larger than that of the molten pool on the solid-supported zone, while the width changes more significantly than that of depth. However, if the scanning speed is high enough, the width and depth of the molten pool and the lower surface roughness almost keep constant as the density is still high. Therefore, high dimensional accuracy and density as well as good surface quality can be achieved simultaneously by using high scanning speed during SLMed cellular lattice strut.

  16. Investigation on Selective Laser Melting AlSi10Mg Cellular Lattice Strut: Molten Pool Morphology, Surface Roughness and Dimensional Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Xuesong; Zhu, Haihong; Nie, Xiaojia; Wang, Guoqing; Zeng, Xiaoyan

    2018-03-07

    AlSi10Mg inclined struts with angle of 45° were fabricated by selective laser melting (SLM) using different scanning speed and hatch spacing to gain insight into the evolution of the molten pool morphology, surface roughness, and dimensional accuracy. The results show that the average width and depth of the molten pool, the lower surface roughness and dimensional deviation decrease with the increase of scanning speed and hatch spacing. The upper surface roughness is found to be almost constant under different processing parameters. The width and depth of the molten pool on powder-supported zone are larger than that of the molten pool on the solid-supported zone, while the width changes more significantly than that of depth. However, if the scanning speed is high enough, the width and depth of the molten pool and the lower surface roughness almost keep constant as the density is still high. Therefore, high dimensional accuracy and density as well as good surface quality can be achieved simultaneously by using high scanning speed during SLMed cellular lattice strut.

  17. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this page, ... There are many reasons you may need a blood transfusion: After knee or hip replacement surgery, or other ...

  18. Blood Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A, B, AB or O — and your Rh factor. The Rh factor refers to the presence or absence of a ... information is important because your blood type and Rh factor must be compatible with the blood type and ...

  19. What's Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... toes. Let's find out more about each ingredient. Red Blood Cells Red blood cells (also called erythrocytes, ... after you are better, B cells can become memory cells that remember how to make the special ...

  20. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth / For Teens / Donating Blood What's in this article? Who Can Donate Blood? Before Donating Are There Any Risks? Print en español Donar sangre According to the American Red Cross, there's a ...

  1. Vomiting Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... if vomiting blood causes dizziness after standing, rapid, shallow breathing or other signs of shock. Call 911 ... severe blood loss or shock, such as: Rapid, shallow breathing Dizziness or lightheadedness after standing up Blurred ...

  2. Scanning device for a spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignat'ev, V.M.

    1982-01-01

    The invention belongs to scanning devices and is intended for spectrum scanning in spectral devices. The purpose of the invention is broadening of spectral scanning range. The device construction ensures the spectrum scanning range determined from revolution fractions to several revolutions of the monochromator drum head, any number of the drum head revolutions determined by integral number with addition of the drum revolution fractions with high degree of accuracy being possible

  3. Chinese nuclear insurance and Chinese nuclear insurance pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Zhiqi

    2000-01-01

    Chinese Nuclear Insurance Started with Daya Bay Nuclear Power Station, PICC issued the insurance policy. Nuclear insurance cooperation between Chinese and international pool's organizations was set up in 1989. In 1996, the Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was prepared. The Chinese Nuclear Insurance Pool was approved by The Chinese Insurance Regulatory Committee in May of 1999. The principal aim is to centralize maximum the insurance capacity for nuclear insurance from local individual insurers and to strengthen the reinsurance relations with international insurance pools so as to provide the high quality insurance service for Chinese nuclear industry. The Member Company of Chinese Nuclear Pool and its roles are introduced in this article

  4. Generalized Pooling for Robust Object Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Bo; Hu, Hongwei; Shen, Jianbing; Liu, Yangbiao; Shao, Ling

    2016-07-07

    Feature pooling in a majority of sparse coding based tracking algorithms computes final feature vectors only by loworder statistics or extreme responses of sparse codes. The highorder statistics and correlations between responses to different dictionary items are neglected. We present a more generalized feature pooling method for visual tracking by utilizing the probabilistic function to model the statistical distribution of sparse codes. Since immediate matching between two distributions usually requires high computational costs, we introduce the Fisher vector to derive a more compact and discriminative representation for sparse codes of the visual target. We encode target patches by local coordinate coding, utilize Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) to compute Fisher vectors, and finally train semi-supervised linear kernel classifiers for visual tracking. In order to handle the drifting problem during the tracking process, these classifiers are updated online with current tracking results. The experimental results on two challenging tracking benchmarks demonstrate that the proposed approach achieves better performance than the state-of-the-art tracking algorithms.

  5. Hardening Stratum, the Bitcoin Pool Mining Protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recabarren Ruben

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Stratum, the de-facto mining communication protocol used by blockchain based cryptocurrency systems, enables miners to reliably and efficiently fetch jobs from mining pool servers. In this paper we exploit Stratum’s lack of encryption to develop passive and active attacks on Bitcoin’s mining protocol, with important implications on the privacy, security and even safety of mining equipment owners. We introduce StraTap and ISP Log attacks, that infer miner earnings if given access to miner communications, or even their logs. We develop BiteCoin, an active attack that hijacks shares submitted by miners, and their associated payouts. We build BiteCoin on WireGhost, a tool we developed to hijack and surreptitiously maintain Stratum connections. Our attacks reveal that securing Stratum through pervasive encryption is not only undesirable (due to large overheads, but also ineffective: an adversary can predict miner earnings even when given access to only packet timestamps. Instead, we devise Bedrock, a minimalistic Stratum extension that protects the privacy and security of mining participants. We introduce and leverage the mining cookie concept, a secret that each miner shares with the pool and includes in its puzzle computations, and that prevents attackers from reconstructing or hijacking the puzzles.

  6. Visual attention and flexible normalization pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Odelia; Coen-Cagli, Ruben

    2013-01-01

    Attention to a spatial location or feature in a visual scene can modulate the responses of cortical neurons and affect perceptual biases in illusions. We add attention to a cortical model of spatial context based on a well-founded account of natural scene statistics. The cortical model amounts to a generalized form of divisive normalization, in which the surround is in the normalization pool of the center target only if they are considered statistically dependent. Here we propose that attention influences this computation by accentuating the neural unit activations at the attended location, and that the amount of attentional influence of the surround on the center thus depends on whether center and surround are deemed in the same normalization pool. The resulting form of model extends a recent divisive normalization model of attention (Reynolds & Heeger, 2009). We simulate cortical surround orientation experiments with attention and show that the flexible model is suitable for capturing additional data and makes nontrivial testable predictions. PMID:23345413

  7. Verification of selective DNA pooling methodology through identification and estimation of the DGAT1 effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, P J; Spelman, R J

    2004-06-01

    The discovery of markers linked to genes that are responsible for traits of interest to the dairy industry might prove useful because they could aid in selection and breeding decisions. We have developed a selective DNA pooling methodology to allow us to efficiently screen the bovine genome in order to find genes responsible for production traits. Using markers on chromosome 14 as a test case, we identified a gene (DGAT1) previously known to affect three traits (fat yield, protein yield and total milk yield). Furthermore, we predicted similar effects to those previously shown for DGAT1 in a New Zealand Holstein-Friesian herd. Additionally, we showed a low error rate (1.6%) for the pooling procedure. Hence we are confident that we can apply this procedure to an entire genome scan in the search for quantitative trait loci (QTL).

  8. Factors influencing bone scan quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, F.G.; Shirley, A.W.

    1983-01-01

    A reliable subjective method of assessing bone scan quality is described. A large number of variables which theoretically could influence scan quality were submitted to regression and factor analysis. Obesity, age, sex and abnormality of scan were found to be significant but weak variables. (orig.)

  9. Esophageal dischalasia: Serendipity during sup(99m)Tc thyroid scan. Case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iorio, F.; Lorenzon, D.; Giacobini, E.

    1986-04-01

    It is rare for a large amount of pooled radioactive saliva to be observed in the neck during a thyroid scan. Such a finding would imply abnormal salivation and/or esophageal kinesis. The case of esophageal dischalasia reported here suggests that a complete study of the esophagus is advisable when a large area or amount of radioactive saliva is observed in the neck during a thyroid scan.

  10. Plant diversity associated with pools in natural and restored peatlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Fontaine

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This study describes plant assemblages associated with the edges of peatland pools. We conducted inventories in six natural peatlands in the province of Québec (Canada in order to measure the contribution of pools to species diversity in climatic regions where peatlands are used for peat extraction. We also carried out vegetation surveys in a peatland that has been restored after peat extraction/harvesting to determine whether pool vegetation establishes along the edges of created pools when dry surface restoration techniques only are used. Pools enhanced plant species richness in natural peatlands. Around created pools, species associated with natural pools were still absent, and non-bog species were present, six years after restoration. On this basis, we emphasise the importance of preserving natural peatlands with pools. In order to restore fully the plant diversity associated with peatlands at harvested sites, it may be necessary to modify pool excavation techniques so that created pools resemble more closely those in natural peatlands. Active introduction of the plant species or communities associated with natural pools may also be needed; candidate species for North America include Andromeda glaucophylla, Cladopodiella fluitans, Carex limosa, Eriophorum virginicum, Rhynchospora alba and Sphagnum cuspidatum.

  11. Weld pool oscillation during gas tungsten arc welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, You Hong

    The oscillation behavior of Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) weld pools in mild steels Fe 360 and in austenitic stainless steel AISI 304 is considered. Special attention is given to the possibility of using the weld pool oscillation behavior as a sensor of weld pool geometry during welding, which is one of the objectives in adaptive control of the welding process. The topics discussed include the theoretical background of the oscillation phenomenon, the direct observation of weld pool oscillation, the experimental determination of the relation between the weld pool geometry and the oscillation frequency both under stationary arc conditions and under traveling arc conditions and the possibility of sensing the weld pool geometry, especially the weld pool penetration, by monitoring the oscillation frequency.

  12. Scanning image correlation spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Digman, Michelle A; Gratton, Enrico

    2012-05-01

    Molecular interactions are at the origin of life. How molecules get at different locations in the cell and how they locate their partners is a major and partially unresolved question in biology that is paramount to signaling. Spatio-temporal correlations of fluctuating fluorescently tagged molecules reveal how they move, interact, and bind in the different cellular compartments. Methods based on fluctuations represent a remarkable technical advancement in biological imaging. Here we discuss image analysis methods based on spatial and temporal correlation of fluctuations, raster image correlation spectroscopy, number and brightness, and spatial cross-correlations that give us information about how individual molecules move in cells and interact with partners at the single molecule level. These methods can be implemented with a standard laser scanning microscope and produce a cellular level spatio-temporal map of molecular interactions. Copyright © 2012 WILEY Periodicals, Inc.

  13. CT scans in encephalitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imanishi, Masami; Morimoto, Tetsuya; Iida, Noriyuki; Hisanaga, Manabu; Kinugawa, Kazuhiko

    1980-01-01

    Generally, CT scans reveal a decrease in the volume of the ventricular system, sylvian fissures and cortical sulci in the acute stage of encephalitis, and softening of the cerebral lobes with dilatation of the lateral ventricles and subarachnoidian dilated spaces in the chronic stage. We encountered three cases of encephalitis: mumps (case 1), herpes simplex (case 2), and syphilis (case 3). In case 1, brain edema was seen in the acute stage and brain atrophy in the chronic stage. In case 2, necrosis of the temporal pole, which is pathognomonic in herpes simplex encephalitis, was recognized. And in case 3, multiple lesions whose CT appearance was enhanced by contrast materials were found scattered over the whole brain. These lesions were diagnosed as inflammatory granuloma by histological examination. (author)

  14. Scanning device for scintigraphy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casale, R.

    1975-01-01

    A device is described for the scintigraphic scanning according to a horizontal plane, comprising: (a) A support provided with two guides horizontally and longitudinally located, one of which is located in the upper part of the support, while the second guide is located in the lower part of the support; (b) A carriage, movable with respect to the support along the two guides, provided in its upper part, projecting above the support, with rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a support rod for the first detector, horizontally and transversely located, said carriage being further provided in its lower part with a recess with possible rolling means suitable to support and to cause to slide along its axis a second support rod for the second detector, said second rod being located parallel to the first rod and below it; (c) One or two support rods for the detectors, the first of said rods being supported above the support in a sliding way along its axis, by the rolling means located in the upper part of the carriage, and the second rod if present is supported slidingly along its axis by the possible rolling means contained in the suitable recess which is provided in the lower part of the carriage, and (d) A vertical shaft supported by said carriage on which is mounted a toothed wheel for each rod, each toothed wheel engaging a positive drive belt or the like, which is connected to each said rod so that rotation of the shaft determines the simultaneous displacement of the two rods along their axes; and single motor means for driving said shaft during a scanning operation. (U.S.)

  15. A Positive Control for Detection of Functional CD4 T Cells in PBMC: The CPI Pool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiller, Annemarie; Zhang, Ting; Li, Ruliang; Duechting, Andrea; Sundararaman, Srividya; Przybyla, Anna; Kuerten, Stefanie; Lehmann, Paul V

    2017-12-07

    Testing of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) for immune monitoring purposes requires verification of their functionality. This is of particular concern when the PBMC have been shipped or stored for prolonged periods of time. While the CEF (Cytomegalo-, Epstein-Barr and Flu-virus) peptide pool has become the gold standard for testing CD8 cell functionality, a positive control for CD4 cells is so far lacking. The latter ideally consists of proteins so as to control for the functionality of the antigen processing and presentation compartments, as well. Aiming to generate a positive control for CD4 cells, we first selected 12 protein antigens from infectious/environmental organisms that are ubiquitous: Varicella, Influenza, Parainfluenza, Mumps, Cytomegalovirus, Streptococcus , Mycoplasma , Lactobacillus , Neisseria , Candida , Rubella, and Measles. Of these antigens, three were found to elicited interferon (IFN)-γ-producing CD4 cells in the majority of human test subjects: inactivated cytomegalo-, parainfluenza-, and influenza virions (CPI). While individually none of these three antigens triggered a recall response in all donors, the pool of the three (the 'CPI pool'), did. One hundred percent of 245 human donors tested were found to be CPI positive, including Caucasians, Asians, and African-Americans. Therefore, the CPI pool appears to be suitable to serve as universal positive control for verifying the functionality of CD4 and of antigen presenting cells.

  16. Dynamic PET scanning and compartmental model analysis to determine cellular level radiotracer distribution in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, G.T.; Hubner, K.F.; Goodman, M.M.; Stubbs, J.B.

    1992-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been used to measure tissue radiotracer concentration in vivo. Radiochemical distribution can be determined with compartmental model analysis. A two compartment model describes the kinetics of N-13 ammonia ( 13 NH 3 ) in the myocardium. The model consists of a vascular space, Q 1 and a space for 13 NH 3 bound within the tissue, Q 2 . Differential equations for the model can be written: X(t) = AX(t) + BU( t), Y(t)= CX(t)+ DU(t) (1) where X(t) is a column vector [Q 1 (t); Q 2 (t)], U(t) is the arterial input activity measured from the left ventricular blood pool, and Y(t) is the measured tissue activity using PET. Matrices A, B, C, and D are dependent on physiological parameters describing the kinetics of 13 NH 3 in the myocardium. Estimated parameter matrices in Equation 1 have been validated in dog experiments by measuring myocardial perfusion with dynamic PET scanning and intravenous injection of 13 NH 3 . Tracer concentrations for each compartment can be calculated by direct integration of Equation 1. If the cellular level distribution of each compartment is known, the concentration of tracer within the intracellular and extracellular space can be determined. Applications of this type of modeling include parameter estimation for measurement of physiological processes, organ level dosimetry, and determination of cellular radiotracer distribution

  17. Extraosseous radiotracer uptake on bone scan in beta-thalassemia: report of one case; Fixation extraosseuse du radiotraceur lors de la realisation d'une scintigraphie du squelette chez un patient atteint de beta-thalassemie: a propos d'un cas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guezguez, M.; Nouira, M.; Sfar, R.; Chatti, K.; Ben Fradj, M.; Ben Ali, K.; Ajmi, S.; Essabbah, H. [CHU Sahloul, Service de Medecine Nucleaire, Sousse (Tunisia); Zrour, S. [EPS F. Bourguiba, Service de Rhumatologie, Monastir (Tunisia)

    2009-10-15

    Red blood cell transfusion, main therapeutic modality of beta-thalassemia, leads to iron overload which may perturb several metabolic ways. The aim of this paper is to illustrate the uptake abnormalities observed on bone scan of thalassaemic patients and to discuss mechanisms of extraosseous accumulation of the radiopharmaceutical in this pathology. We report a 16-year-old child suffering from beta-thalassemia major undergoing transfusion therapy. A bone scan was indicated to look for osseous infection. This study revealed a little skeletal uptake and abnormal liver, splenic and renal accumulation. A repeat bone scan, performed three weeks later showed a better skeletal uptake which enabled the discovery of focal abnormalities and made the diagnostic easier. The effect of iron overload on radiopharmaceuticals uptake in bone scan is known since 1975. Dissociation of {sup 99m}Tc from the carrier ligand due to the presence of iron excess seems the most plausible hypothesis. Free {sup 99m}Tc can be bound to other tissular substrates which can explain extraosseous uptake. The normally available pool for bone is reduced and then the skeletal uptake decreased. This report limits considerably the sensitivity of the bone scan. A well-led iron chelation and eventually the use of diuretic drug may guarantee a better quality of bone scan images. (authors)

  18. To pool or not to pool? Impact of the use of individual and pooled fecal samples for in vitro fermentation studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aguirre, M.; Ramiro-Garcia, J.; Koenen, M.E.; Venema, K.

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the stability and the activity of the microbiota from a single and a pool of donors in the TNO in vitro model of the colon (TIM-2 system). Our findings demonstrate the suitability of the preparation of a pool of fecal sample to be used for fermentation experiments.

  19. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  20. The new pooled cohort equations risk calculator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Preiss, David; Kristensen, Søren L

    2015-01-01

    total cardiovascular risk score. During development of joint guidelines released in 2013 by the American College of Cardiology (ACC) and American Heart Association (AHA), the decision was taken to develop a new risk score. This resulted in the ACC/AHA Pooled Cohort Equations Risk Calculator. This risk...... strengths are its inclusion of stroke as an end point and race as a characteristic, which allows better risk prediction especially in African-American individuals, plus provision of lifetime ASCVD risk estimates for adults aged 20-59 years. Notable omissions from the risk factors include chronic kidney...... the intended 7.5% 10-year ASCVD risk threshold for treatment in the joint ACC/AHA cholesterol guidelines. In this review we discuss the development of the new risk calculator, its strengths and weaknesses, and potential implications for its routine use....

  1. Determining a pool - type reactor fuel policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1964-01-01

    Refuelling the 10 to 15 MW pool type reactor considered here will occur frequently (some 10 elements every 3 to 4 weeks). It is therefore necessary to determine the most economic fuel policy. This study proposes to define a strategy that will make it possible to decide on the number and characteristics of the shipment containers, as well as on the means of storage, so as to reduce the risks as much as possible should the basic parameters of the study vary. Among these parameters, the respective influence of which is investigated, chemical reprocessing costs play a vital part. Two examples of optimum fuel management are given according to whether the reprocessing charges applied are those of the old or of the 1961 U.S. AEC base charges for reprocessing highly enriched irradiated fuel. (authors) [fr

  2. Soil carbon pools in different pasture systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco M. Cardozo, Jr.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the carbon pools of a tropical soil where the native forest was replaced with different pasture systems. We studied five pasture production systems, including four monoculture systems with forage grasses such as Andropogon, Brachiaria, Panicum, and Cynodon, and an agroforestry system as well as a native vegetation plot. Greater availability of fulvic acid was detected in the agroforestry system as compared with that in the other systems. Higher lability of C was detected in the Andropogon system during the dry and rainy seasons and during the dry season in Cynodon. During the dry season, all pastures systems showed deficits in the net removal of atmospheric CO2. The structure and practices of the agroforestry system enables more carbon to be sequestered in the soil as compared with the monoculture pasture, suggesting that it is an important practice to mitigate climatic change and to improve soil quality.

  3. Corrosion surveillance in spent fuel storage pools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Howell, J.P.

    1996-01-01

    In mid-1991, corrosion of aluminum-clad spent nuclear fuel was observed in the light-water filled basins at the Savannah River site. A corrosion surveillance program was initiated in the P, K, L-Reactor basins and in the Receiving Basin for Offsite Fuels (RBOF). This program verified the aggressive nature of the pitting corrosion and provided recommendations for changes in basin operations to permit extended longer term interim storage. The changes were implemented during 1994--1996 and have resulted in significantly improved basin water quality with conductivity in the 1--3 microS/cm range. Under these improved conditions, no new pitting has been observed over the last three years. This paper describes the corrosion surveillance program at SRS and what has been learned about the corrosion of aluminum-clad in spent fuel storage pools

  4. Technical Facilities Management, Loan Pool, and Calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jacob

    2011-01-01

    My work at JPL for the SURF program began on June 11, 2012 with the Technical Facilities Management group (TFM). As well as TFM, I worked with Loan Pool and Metrology to help them out with various tasks. Unlike a lot of other interns, I did not have a specific project rather many different tasks to be completed over the course of the 10 weeks.The first task to be completed was to sort through old certification reports in 6 different boxes to locate reports that needed to be archived into a digital database. There were no reports within these boxes that needed to be archived but rather were to be shredded. The reports went back to the early 1980's and up to the early 2000's. I was looking for reports dated from 2002 to 2012

  5. Drop Impact on to Moving Liquid Pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Sánchez, Beatriz Natividad; Castrejón-Pita, José Rafael; Castrejón-Pita, Alfonso Arturo; Hutchings, Ian M.

    2014-11-01

    The deposition of droplets on to moving liquid substrates is an omnipresent situation both in nature and industry. A diverse spectrum of phenomena emerges from this simple process. In this work we present a parametric experimental study that discerns the dynamics of the impact in terms of the physical properties of the fluid and the relative velocity between the impacting drop and the moving liquid pool. The behaviour ranges from smooth coalescence (characterized by little mixing) to violent splashing (generation of multiple satellite droplets and interfacial vorticity). In addition, transitional regimes such as bouncing and surfing are also found. We classify the system dynamics and show a parametric diagram for the conditions of each regime. This work was supported by the EPSRC (Grant EP/H018913/1), the Royal Society, Becas Santander Universidades and the International Relationships Office of the University of Extremadura.

  6. One knowledge base or many knowledge pools?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundvall, Bengt-Åke

    It is increasingly realized that knowledge is the most important resource and that learning is the most important process in the economy. Sometimes this is expressed by coining the current era as characterised by a ‘knowledge based economy'. But this concept might be misleading by indicating...... that there is one common knowledge base on which economic activities can be built. In this paper we argue that it is more appropriate to see the economy as connecting to different ‘pools of knowledge'. The argument is built upon a conceptual framework where we make distinctions between private/public, local....../global, individual/collective and tacit/codified knowledge. The purpose is both ‘academic' and practical. Our analysis demonstrates the limits of a narrowly economic perspective on knowledge and we show that these distinctions have important implications both for innovation policy and for management of innovation....

  7. The flexible gene pool of Propionibacterium acnes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brüggemann, Holger; Lomholt, Hans B; Kilian, Mogens

    2012-01-01

    Propionibacterium acnes is a Gram-positive bacterium that is intimately associated with humans. The nature and consequences of this symbiosis are poorly understood; it might comprise both mutualistic and parasitic properties. Recent advances in distinguishing phylotypes of P. acnes have revealed...... that certain type I lineages are predominantly associated with acne vulgaris. Genome analyses revealed a highly conserved core genome and the existence of island-like genomic regions and possible mobile genetic elements as part of the flexible gene pool. The analysis of clustered regularly interspaced short...... palindromic repeats (CRISPR), found exclusively in type II P. acnes, recently revealed the presence of CRISPR spacers that derived from mobile genetic elements. These elements are present in a subset of P. acnes type I lineages. Their significance for type-specific host-interacting properties...

  8. DNA Probe Pooling for Rapid Delineation of Chromosomal Breakpoints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Chun-Mei; Kwan, Johnson; Baumgartner, Adolf; Weier, Jingly F.; Wang, Mei; Escudero, Tomas; Munne' , Santiago; Zitzelsberger, Horst F.; Weier, Heinz-Ulrich

    2009-01-30

    Structural chromosome aberrations are hallmarks of many human genetic diseases. The precise mapping of translocation breakpoints in tumors is important for identification of genes with altered levels of expression, prediction of tumor progression, therapy response, or length of disease-free survival as well as the preparation of probes for detection of tumor cells in peripheral blood. Similarly, in vitro fertilization (IVF) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for carriers of balanced, reciprocal translocations benefit from accurate breakpoint maps in the preparation of patient-specific DNA probes followed by a selection of normal or balanced oocytes or embryos. We expedited the process of breakpoint mapping and preparation of case-specific probes by utilizing physically mapped bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones. Historically, breakpoint mapping is based on the definition of the smallest interval between proximal and distal probes. Thus, many of the DNA probes prepared for multi-clone and multi-color mapping experiments do not generate additional information. Our pooling protocol described here with examples from thyroid cancer research and PGD accelerates the delineation of translocation breakpoints without sacrificing resolution. The turnaround time from clone selection to mapping results using tumor or IVF patient samples can be as short as three to four days.

  9. Statistical implications of pooling RNA samples for microarray experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Landfield Philip W

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray technology has become a very important tool for studying gene expression profiles under various conditions. Biologists often pool RNA samples extracted from different subjects onto a single microarray chip to help defray the cost of microarray experiments as well as to correct for the technical difficulty in getting sufficient RNA from a single subject. However, the statistical, technical and financial implications of pooling have not been explicitly investigated. Results Modeling the resulting gene expression from sample pooling as a mixture of individual responses, we derived expressions for the experimental error and provided both upper and lower bounds for its value in terms of the variability among individuals and the number of RNA samples pooled. Using "virtual" pooling of data from real experiments and computer simulations, we investigated the statistical properties of RNA sample pooling. Our study reveals that pooling biological samples appropriately is statistically valid and efficient for microarray experiments. Furthermore, optimal pooling design(s can be found to meet statistical requirements while minimizing total cost. Conclusions Appropriate RNA pooling can provide equivalent power and improve efficiency and cost-effectiveness for microarray experiments with a modest increase in total number of subjects. Pooling schemes in terms of replicates of subjects and arrays can be compared before experiments are conducted.

  10. Multibeam bidirectional raster scanning in retinal scanning displays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Karlton D.; Urey, Hakan; Bayer, Mircea M.

    2001-08-01

    A Retinal Scanning Display (RSD) utilizes scanning mirrors and optics to produce a flying spot that forms a raster image directly on the retina of the eye. A high-frequency resonant horizontal scanner and a linear ramp vertical scanner function together to produce video typically at a 60Hz frame rate. Although the raster can be formed by Unidirectional Writing (using only the forward half-period of the horizontal scan function) and one flying spot, it is desirable to achieve Bidirectional Writing (utilizing the full period of the Horizontal scan function) with multiple scanned spots for the purpose of increased efficiency of the display with a limited horizontal scanner frequency. This paper will look at the limitations and requirements for the scanning functions to make this possible.

  11. GPR scan assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbas M. Abbas

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Mekaad Radwan monument is situated in the neighborhood of Bab Zuweila in the historical Cairo, Egypt. It was constructed at the middle XVII century (1635 AD. The building has a rectangle shape plan (13 × 6 m with the longitudinal sides approximately WNW-ESE. It comprises three storages namely; the ground floor; the opened floor (RADWAN Bench and the living floor with a total elevation of 15 m above the street level. The building suffers from severe deterioration phenomena with patterns of damage which have occurred over time. These deterioration and damages could be attributed to foundation problems, subsoil water and also to the earthquake that affected the entire Greater Cairo area in October 1992. Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR scan was accomplished against the walls of the opened floor (RADWAN Bench to evaluate the hazard impact on the walls textures and integrity. The results showed an anomalous feature through the southern wall of RADWAN Bench. A mathematical model has been simulated to confirm the obtained anomaly and the model response exhibited a good matching with the outlined anomaly.

  12. Gastrointestinal scanning agent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Francis, M.D.

    1980-01-01

    An easily prepared radiolabeled gastrointestinal scanning agent is described. Technetium-99m has ideal characteristics for imaging the upper and lower GI tract and determining stomach emptying and intestinal transit time when used with an insoluble particulate material. For example, crystalline and amorphous calcium phosphate particles can be effectively labeled in a one-step process using sup(99m)TcO 4 and SnCl 2 . These labeled particles have insignificant mass and when administered orally pass through the GI tract unchanged, without affecting the handling and density of the intestinal contents. Visualization of the esophageal entry into the stomach, the greater and lesser curvatures of the stomach, ejection into the duodenum, and rates of passage through the upper and lower GI tract are obtained. The slurry of sup(99m)TC particulate can be given rectally by enema. Good images of the cecum and the ascending, transverse, and descending colon are obtained. Mucosal folds and the splenic and hepatic flexures are visualized. The resilience of the large intestine is also readily visualized by pneumocolonographic techniques. (author)

  13. Radionuclide brain scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Dayem, H.

    1992-01-01

    At one stage of medical imaging development, radionuclide brain scanning was the only technique available for imaging of the brain. Advent of CT and MRI pushed it to the background. It regained some of the grounds lost to ''allied advances'' with the introduction of brain perfusion radiopharmaceuticals. Positron emission tomography is a promising functional imaging modality that at present will remain as a research tool in special centres in developed countries. However, clinically useful developments will gradually percolate from PET to SPECT. The non-nuclear imaging methods are totally instrument dependent; they are somewhat like escalators, which can go that far and no further. Nuclear imaging has an unlimited scope for advance because of the new developments in radiopharmaceuticals. As the introduction of a radiopharmaceutical is less costly than buying new instruments, the recent advances in nuclear imaging are gradually perfusing through the developing countries also. Therefore, it is essential to follow very closely PET developments because what is research today might become routine tomorrow

  14. LANL Robotic Vessel Scanning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Webber, Nels W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-25

    Los Alamos National Laboratory in J-1 DARHT Operations Group uses 6ft spherical vessels to contain hazardous materials produced in a hydrodynamic experiment. These contaminated vessels must be analyzed by means of a worker entering the vessel to locate, measure, and document every penetration mark on the vessel. If the worker can be replaced by a highly automated robotic system with a high precision scanner, it will eliminate the risks to the worker and provide management with an accurate 3D model of the vessel presenting the existing damage with the flexibility to manipulate the model for better and more in-depth assessment.The project was successful in meeting the primary goal of installing an automated system which scanned a 6ft vessel with an elapsed time of 45 minutes. This robotic system reduces the total time for the original scope of work by 75 minutes and results in excellent data accumulation and transmission to the 3D model imaging program.

  15. Estimates of array and pool-construction variance for planning efficient DNA-pooling genome wide association studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Until recently, genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have been restricted to research groups with the budget necessary to genotype hundreds, if not thousands, of samples. Replacing individual genotyping with genotyping of DNA pools in Phase I of a GWAS has proven successful, and dramatically altered the financial feasibility of this approach. When conducting a pool-based GWAS, how well SNP allele frequency is estimated from a DNA pool will influence a study's power to detect associations. Here we address how to control the variance in allele frequency estimation when DNAs are pooled, and how to plan and conduct the most efficient well-powered pool-based GWAS. Methods By examining the variation in allele frequency estimation on SNP arrays between and within DNA pools we determine how array variance [var(earray)] and pool-construction variance [var(econstruction)] contribute to the total variance of allele frequency estimation. This information is useful in deciding whether replicate arrays or replicate pools are most useful in reducing variance. Our analysis is based on 27 DNA pools ranging in size from 74 to 446 individual samples, genotyped on a collective total of 128 Illumina beadarrays: 24 1M-Single, 32 1M-Duo, and 72 660-Quad. Results For all three Illumina SNP array types our estimates of var(earray) were similar, between 3-4 × 10-4 for normalized data. Var(econstruction) accounted for between 20-40% of pooling variance across 27 pools in normalized data. Conclusions We conclude that relative to var(earray), var(econstruction) is of less importance in reducing the variance in allele frequency estimation from DNA pools; however, our data suggests that on average it may be more important than previously thought. We have prepared a simple online tool, PoolingPlanner (available at http://www.kchew.ca/PoolingPlanner/), which calculates the effective sample size (ESS) of a DNA pool given a range of replicate array values. ESS can be used in a power

  16. [Management of infectious risk associated with therapeutic pools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapuis, C; Gardes, S; Tasseau, F

    2004-06-01

    There is no specific legislation concerning pools and others medical hydrotherapy equipments relating hygiene and security rules. For this reason, the hydrotherapy pools use the public swimming pools legislation. This article is based on literature review (database Medline and Embase--manual research). This article offers a review of pool associated infections along with the description of the measures designed to minimise the possible transmission of infection during hydrotherapy activities such as: Technical measures: pool and premises conception, water treatments, feed tanks, air quality. Hygiene rules for patients and hospital staff and pathologies which are contra-indications to hydrotherapy activities. Microbiological and physico-chemical monitoring. The infectious risk remains low with therapeutic pools. However, the development of specific legislation and surveillance should be enhanced. All these measures are part of the quality assurance program that must be implemented to control the safety of these installations.

  17. Sharing as risk pooling in a social dilemma experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L. Cherry

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In rural economies with missing or incomplete markets, idiosyncratic risk is frequently pooled through informal networks. Idiosyncratic shocks, however, are not limited to private goods but can also restrict an individual from partaking in or benefiting from a collective activity. In these situations, a group must decide whether to provide insurance to the affected member. We describe results of a laboratory experiment designed to test whether a simple sharing institution can sustain risk pooling in a social dilemma with idiosyncratic risk. We tested whether risk could be pooled without a commitment device and, separately, whether effective risk pooling induced greater cooperation in the social dilemma. We found that even in the absence of a commitment device or reputational considerations, subjects voluntarily pooled risk, thereby reducing variance in individual earnings. In spite of effective risk pooling, however, cooperation in the social dilemma was unaffected.

  18. Evaluation of the quality of blood components obtained after automated separation of whole blood by a new multiunit processor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lagerberg, Johan W; Salado-Jimena, Jose A; Löf, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The Reveos system (Terumo BCT) is a fully automated device able to process four whole blood (WB) units simultaneously into a plasma unit, a red blood cell (RBC) unit, and an interim platelet (PLT) unit (IPU). Multiple IPUs can be pooled to form a transfusable PLT product. The aim of our study was...

  19. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis; Amyloidosis - electrophoresis serum; Multiple myeloma - serum electrophoresis; Waldenström - serum electrophoresis

  20. The burning and smoke release rates of sodium pool fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, R.N.; Payne, J.F.B.

    1976-10-01

    The burning rates and smoke release fractions of sodium pool fires have been measured over the pool temperature range 250 0 C to 750 0 C. A theoretical model is derived which satisfactorily predicts the burning rate over the above temperature range. The theory further predicts that the burning rate should be independent of pool diameter, a prediction supported by a comparison of burning rate data from this study and available data from other studies. (author)

  1. Fuel handling pool and safety water reserve for a PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, D.

    1990-01-01

    This pool is characterized by a shutter generally in cylindrical form, fixed around the reactor vessel head and control rod drive mechanisms and removable sealed to the floor of the pool. This disposition allows the water to be held outside the shutter during reactor operation and gives an emergency water reserve in case of primary coolant circuit break. This pool always empty can be used for storing spent fuel [fr

  2. Pool scrubbing and hydrodynamic experiments on jet injection regime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peyres, V.; Espigares, M.M.; Polo, J.; Escudero, M.J.; Herranz, L.E.; Lopez-Jimenez, J.

    1995-01-01

    Plant analyses have shown that pool scrubbing can play an important role in source term during PWR risk dominant sequences. An examination ofboundary conditions governing fission products and aerosols transport through aqueous beds revealed that most of radioactivity is discharged into the pool under jet injection regime. This fact and the lack of experimental data under such conditions pointed the need of setting out an experimental programme which provided reliable experimental data to validate code models. In this report the major results of a pool scrubbing experimental programme carried out in PECA facility are presented. One of the major findings was that a remarkable fraction of particle absorption was not a function of the residence time of bubbles rising through the pool. Such a contribution was assumed to be associated to aerosol removal mechanisms acting at the pool entrance. As a consequence, a hydrodynamic experimental plan was launched to examine the gas behaviour during the initial stages in the pool. Size and shape of gas nuclei the pool were measured and fitted to a long normal distribution. Particularly, size was found to be quite sensitive to inletgas flow and at minor extent to gas composition and pool temperature. SPARC90 and BUSCA-AUG92 were used to simulate the retention tests. Whereas SPARC90 showed a pretty good agreement with experimental data, BUSCA-AUG92 results were far away from measurements in all the cases. SPARC90consistency apparently pointed out the important role of fission products and aerosols retention at the injection zone; nonetheless, a peer examination of pool scrubbing phenomenology at the pool entrance should be carried out to test both hydrodynamic and removal models. Hence, one of the major highlights drawn from this work was the need of further research under representative severe accident conditions (i.e., saturated pools, jet injection regimes, etc.), as well as separate effect tests to validate, improve and

  3. Dark Sides of Patent Pools with Compulsory Independent Licensing

    OpenAIRE

    Akifumi Ishihara; Noriyuki Yanagawa

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines roles of patent pools with compulsory independent licensing. A seminal work by Lerner and Tirole (2004) have shown that requiring independent licensing or compulsory independent licensing is a useful tool to select only desirable patent pools. In this paper, however, we are going to show that their argument is not always true, If there are users who demand only a part of the pooled technologies, the compulsory independent licensing gives a tool for price discrimination for...

  4. Control of Gas Tungsten Arc welding pool shape by trace element addition to the weld pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiple, C.R.; Burgardt, P.

    1984-03-13

    An improved process for Gas Tungsten Arc welding maximizes the depth/width ratio of the weld pool by adding a sufficient amount of a surface active element to insure inward fluid flow, resulting in deep, narrow welds. The process is especially useful to eliminate variable weld penetration and shape in GTA welding of steels and stainless steels, particularly by using a sulfur-doped weld wire in a cold wire feed technique.

  5. A Review of Selected International Aircraft Spares Pooling Programs: Lessons Learned for F-35 Spares Pooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    21 SEPECAT is a French acronym for the French-British joint venture company established to develop and build...Copyright 2016 RAND Corporation R® is a registered trademark. iii Preface The F-35 Joint Strike Fighter (JSF) program includes development...Daniel M. Romano, Joseph V. Vesely, and Robert A. Guffey, United States Air Force Participation in the F-35 Global Spares Pool: Advantages and

  6. Glomerular filtration rate determined in conjunction with routine renal scanning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, J.H.; Blue, P.W.; Ghaed, N.

    1985-01-01

    A method has been developed to estimate glomerular filtration rate using computer evaluation of images obtained during routine renal scanning. The technique requires less than 40 minutes of imaging time, requires only a single blood sample and correlates highly with 24 hour creatinine clearance

  7. Automated management of engineering infrastructure of pools of different purpose

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shirokov Lev Alekseevich

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Pools play an important role in people’s life. They answer people’s demand in rest and improve their health. At the same time pools are rather important for industrial use, for example in construction industry. In order to solve different construction problems it is essential to investigate the influence of microclimatic parameters on construction materials and structures. For this aim pools are in demand as special test sites for construction materials and structures in different environmental conditions including the case of a direct water impact. The efficient use of pools presupposes the necessity of constant hydroclimatic contro: air humidity and temperature, water temperature, chemical composition of water and air. Classification of pools of different purposes is presented in the article. The author considers the main problems of operation of pools as objects with complicated air-and-water environment. The questions of maintaining optimal microclimatic parameters in a pool are considered. The necessity of use of the control system of a microclimate, its efficiency, profitability and social effect of its implementation is described. A mathematical model of the thermal mode of a pool area is constructed. The process of indoor temperature regulation in the pool is considered.

  8. Nuclear Insurance Pools: World-wide Practice and Prospective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reitsma, S. M. S.

    2000-01-01

    The following paper explains why Nuclear Insurance Pools were established, how they operate and what insurance protection they offer to the operations of nuclear installations. It will be shown that the clear interrelationship of the Pool-insurance operations, both on a national and an international level, has resulted in a transparency of each individual Pool-Member's exposure, which enables him to make the highest possible commitment to nuclear risks. Finally, some views will be given as regards the future prospective for the long proven method of pooling this particularly sensitive class of business. (author)

  9. Mercury bioaccumulation in wood frogs developing in seasonal pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loftin, Cynthia S.; Calhoun, Aram J.K.; Nelson, Sarah J.; Elskus, Adria; Simon, Kevin S.

    2012-01-01

    Seasonal woodland pools contribute significant biomass to terrestrial ecosystems through production of pool-breeding amphibians. The movement of amphibian metamorphs potentially transports toxins bioaccumulated during larval development in the natal pool into the surrounding terrestrial environment. We documented total mercury (THg) in seasonal woodland pool water, sediment, litter, and Lithobates sylvaticus LeConte (Wood Frog) in Acadia National Park, ME. THg concentrations in pool water varied over the study season, increasing during April—June and remaining high in 2 of 4 pools upon October refill. Water in pools surrounded by softwoods had lower pH, greater dissolved organic carbon, and greater THg concentrations than pools surrounded by hardwoods, with seasonal patterns in sediment THg but not litter THg. THg increased rapidly from near or below detection in 1–2 week old embryos (<0.2 ng; 0–0.49 ppb wet weight) to 17.1–54.2 ppb in tadpoles within 6 weeks; 7.2–42.0% of THg was methyl Hg in tadpoles near metamorphosis. Metamorphs emigrating from seasonal pools may transfer mercury into terrestrial food webs.

  10. Crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, R.J.; Lee, S.J.; Sim, S.K. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    Experimental and analytical studies of the crust formation and its effect on the molten pool coolability have been performed to examine the crust formation process as a function of boundary temperatures as well as to investigate heat transfer characteristics between molten pool and overlying water in order to evaluate coolability of the molten pool. The experimental test results have shown that the surface temperature of the bottom plate is a dominant parameter in the crust formation process of the molten pool. It is also found that the crust thickness of the case with direct coolant injection into the molten pool is greater than that of the case with a heat exchanger. Increasing mass flow rate of direct coolant injection to the molten pool does not affect the temperature of molten pool after the crust has been formed in the molten pool because the crust behaves as a thermal barrier. The Nusselt number between the molten pool and the coolant of the case with no crust formation is greater than that of the case with crust formation. The results of FLOW-3D analyses have shown that the temperature distribution contributes to the crust formation process due to Rayleigh-Benard natural convection flow.

  11. A Double Evolutionary Pool Memetic Algorithm for Examination Timetabling Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Lei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A double evolutionary pool memetic algorithm is proposed to solve the examination timetabling problem. To improve the performance of the proposed algorithm, two evolutionary pools, that is, the main evolutionary pool and the secondary evolutionary pool, are employed. The genetic operators have been specially designed to fit the examination timetabling problem. A simplified version of the simulated annealing strategy is designed to speed the convergence of the algorithm. A clonal mechanism is introduced to preserve population diversity. Extensive experiments carried out on 12 benchmark examination timetabling instances show that the proposed algorithm is able to produce promising results for the uncapacitated examination timetabling problem.

  12. Suppression Pool Mixing and Condensation Tests in PUMA Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ling Cheng; Kyoung Suk Woo; Mamoru Ishii; Jaehyok Lim; Han, James

    2006-01-01

    Condensation of steam with non-condensable in the form of jet flow or bubbly flow inside the suppression pool is an important phenomenon on determining the containment pressure of a passively safe boiling water reactor. 32 cases of pool mixing and condensation test have been performed in Purdue University Multi-Dimensional Integral Test Assembly (PUMA) facility under the sponsor of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission to investigate thermal stratification and pool mixing inside the suppression pool during the reactor blowdown period. The test boundary conditions, such as the steam flow rate, the noncondensable gas flow rate, the initial water temperature, the pool initial pressure and the vent opening submergence depth, which covers a wide range of prototype (SBWR-600) conditions during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) were obtained from the RELAP5 calculation. The test results show that steam is quickly condensed at the exit of the vent opening. For pure steam injection or low noncondensable injection cases, only the portion above the vent opening in the suppression pool is heated up by buoyant plumes. The water below the vent opening can be heated up slowly through conduction. The test results also show that the degree of thermal stratification in suppression pool is affected by the vent opening submergence depth, the pool initial pressure and the steam injection rate. And it is slightly affected by the initial water temperature. From these tests it is concluded that the pool mixing is strongly affected by the noncondensable gas flow rate. (authors)

  13. Large Scale Scanning Probe Microscope "Making Shear Force Scanning visible."

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosma, E.; Offerhaus, Herman L.; van der Veen, Jan T.; van der Veen, J.T.; Segerink, Franciscus B.; Wessel, I.M.

    2010-01-01

    We describe a demonstration of a scanning probe microscope with shear-force tuning fork feedback. The tuning fork is several centimeters long, and the rigid fiber is replaced by a toothpick. By scaling this demonstration to visible dimensions the accessibility of shear-force scanning and tuning fork

  14. ScanImage: Flexible software for operating laser scanning microscopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pologruto, Thomas A; Sabatini, Bernardo L; Svoboda, Karel

    2003-01-01

    Background Laser scanning microscopy is a powerful tool for analyzing the structure and function of biological specimens. Although numerous commercial laser scanning microscopes exist, some of the more interesting and challenging applications demand custom design. A major impediment to custom design is the difficulty of building custom data acquisition hardware and writing the complex software required to run the laser scanning microscope. Results We describe a simple, software-based approach to operating a laser scanning microscope without the need for custom data acquisition hardware. Data acquisition and control of laser scanning are achieved through standard data acquisition boards. The entire burden of signal integration and image processing is placed on the CPU of the computer. We quantitate the effectiveness of our data acquisition and signal conditioning algorithm under a variety of conditions. We implement our approach in an open source software package (ScanImage) and describe its functionality. Conclusions We present ScanImage, software to run a flexible laser scanning microscope that allows easy custom design. PMID:12801419

  15. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1995-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in STM I, these studies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described in chapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, and scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Together, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspects of STM. They provide essential reading and reference material for all students and researchers involved in this field. In this second edition the text has been updated and new methods are discussed.

  16. Scanning tunneling microscopy II further applications and related scanning techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Güntherodt, Hans-Joachim

    1992-01-01

    Scanning Tunneling Microscopy II, like its predecessor, presents detailed and comprehensive accounts of the basic principles and broad range of applications of STM and related scanning probe techniques. The applications discussed in this volume come predominantly from the fields of electrochemistry and biology. In contrast to those described in Vol. I, these sudies may be performed in air and in liquids. The extensions of the basic technique to map other interactions are described inchapters on scanning force microscopy, magnetic force microscopy, scanning near-field optical microscopy, together with a survey of other related techniques. Also described here is the use of a scanning proximal probe for surface modification. Togehter, the two volumes give a comprehensive account of experimental aspcets of STM. They provide essentialreading and reference material for all students and researchers involvedin this field.

  17. Mitochondria Maintain Distinct Ca2+Pools in Cone Photoreceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giarmarco, Michelle M; Cleghorn, Whitney M; Sloat, Stephanie R; Hurley, James B; Brockerhoff, Susan E

    2017-02-22

    Ca 2+ ions have distinct roles in the outer segment, cell body, and synaptic terminal of photoreceptors. We tested the hypothesis that distinct Ca 2+ domains are maintained by Ca 2+ uptake into mitochondria. Serial block face scanning electron microscopy of zebrafish cones revealed that nearly 100 mitochondria cluster at the apical side of the inner segment, directly below the outer segment. The endoplasmic reticulum surrounds the basal and lateral surfaces of this cluster, but does not reach the apical surface or penetrate into the cluster. Using genetically encoded Ca 2+ sensors, we found that mitochondria take up Ca 2+ when it accumulates either in the cone cell body or outer segment. Blocking mitochondrial Ca 2+ uniporter activity compromises the ability of mitochondria to maintain distinct Ca 2+ domains. Together, our findings indicate that mitochondria can modulate subcellular functional specialization in photoreceptors. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Ca 2+ homeostasis is essential for the survival and function of retinal photoreceptors. Separate pools of Ca 2+ regulate phototransduction in the outer segment, metabolism in the cell body, and neurotransmitter release at the synaptic terminal. We investigated the role of mitochondria in compartmentalization of Ca 2+ We found that mitochondria form a dense cluster that acts as a diffusion barrier between the outer segment and cell body. The cluster is surprisingly only partially surrounded by the endoplasmic reticulum, a key mediator of mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake. Blocking the uptake of Ca 2+ by mitochondria causes redistribution of Ca 2+ throughout the cell. Our results show that mitochondrial Ca 2+ uptake in photoreceptors is complex and plays an essential role in normal function. Copyright © 2017 the authors 0270-6474/17/372061-12$15.00/0.

  18. Gallium-67 scanning and autologous transplantation for lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansberg, R.; Bautovich, G.J.; Forsyth, C.J.; Joshua, D.E.; Gibson, J. [Royal Prince Alfred Hospital, Sydney, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Haematology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Gallium-67 ({sup 67}Ga) scanning in the malignant Iymphomas has been performed for over 20 years. Its major contributions are in staging and in detecting relapse, residual or progressive disease. Autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is now an accepted therapy for refractory and relapsed Iymphoma. Between May 1991 and December 1995, 19 patients underwent autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for Non-Hodgkin`s Iymphoma or Hodgkin`s disease. Five patients had high grade Non-Hodgkin`s Iymphoma with widespread disease and did not undergo {sup 67}Ga scanning. There was one transplant related death. Thirteen patients had {sup 67}Ga scanning pre- and post-transplantation. Six patients remained in clinical remission with no evidence of gallium avid active disease at a median of 11 months (range 3 to 19 months) post-transplant. Five of these patients had intermediate grade Non-Hodgkin`s Iymphoma and one had Hodgkin`s disease. The other seven patients all demonstrated evidence of active disease on {sup 67}Ga scanning and subsequent clinical relapse. In all patients shown to have {sup 67}Ga avid disease pre-transplant, {sup 67}Ga scanning post-transplant is useful in detecting relapse These results suggest that {sup 67}Ga avid disease pre-transplant, {sup 67}Ga scanning post-autologous transplantation as it is for conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy

  19. Gallium-67 scanning and autologous transplantation for lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansberg, R.; Bautovich, G.J.; Forsyth, C.J.; Joshua, D.E.; Gibson, J.

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Gallium-67 ( 67 Ga) scanning in the malignant Iymphomas has been performed for over 20 years. Its major contributions are in staging and in detecting relapse, residual or progressive disease. Autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation is now an accepted therapy for refractory and relapsed Iymphoma. Between May 1991 and December 1995, 19 patients underwent autologous bone marrow or peripheral blood stem cell transplantation for Non-Hodgkin's Iymphoma or Hodgkin's disease. Five patients had high grade Non-Hodgkin's Iymphoma with widespread disease and did not undergo 67 Ga scanning. There was one transplant related death. Thirteen patients had 67 Ga scanning pre- and post-transplantation. Six patients remained in clinical remission with no evidence of gallium avid active disease at a median of 11 months (range 3 to 19 months) post-transplant. Five of these patients had intermediate grade Non-Hodgkin's Iymphoma and one had Hodgkin's disease. The other seven patients all demonstrated evidence of active disease on 67 Ga scanning and subsequent clinical relapse. In all patients shown to have 67 Ga avid disease pre-transplant, 67 Ga scanning post-transplant is useful in detecting relapse These results suggest that 67 Ga avid disease pre-transplant, 67 Ga scanning post-autologous transplantation as it is for conventional chemotherapy and radiotherapy

  20. Usefulness of three-phasic bone scan in young male patients suspected of post-traumatic reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Won Woo; Kim, Tae Uk; Kim, Tae Hoon; Jung, Cheoul Yun; Moon, Jin Ho [Armed Forces Daejeon Hospital, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-02-01

    In young male patients who suffered several kinds of trauma with subsequent suspicious reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome, we performed three-phasic bone scan in order to investigate its usefulness. Patients with narrow range of age (21-25. mean 22.8 {+-}1.3, all male) were included with suspicious reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome of 12 feet and 5 hands. Only one was bilateral feet case and 16 were ipsilateral (Rt:13, Lt:3). The etiologic traumas were 4 fractures, 4 sprains, 3 blunt trauma, 2 cellulitis, 1 tendon teat, 1 crush injury, 1 overexercise, and 1 unknown. Radiologically 3 showed osteoporotic changes. Three-phasic bone scans were performed 21.1 {+-}7.3 wks after trauma. According to symptom complex, confirmatory reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome 4 cases and suspicious 13 were analyzed. All confirmatory cases (100%) showed increased uptake at delay phase with periarticular accentuation. Of confirmatory 4 cases, 2 showed increased uptake in all three phases (perfusion: P, blood pool: B, and delay: D), and other 2 revealed decreased P but, both increased B and D. Of suspicious 13 cases, 9(69.2%) had increased D (4 periarticular and 5 focal), 2 decreased D, and 2 symmetric D. In 12 foot cases, so-called weight bearing patterns-increased contralateral sole at P and B- were revealed in 7(58.3%). Diffuse periarticular increased uptake at delay phase of three-phasic bone scan was a compatible finding to reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome in young male patients whose symptom complex strongly designated post traumatic reflex sympathetic dystrophy syndrome.

  1. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Document Server

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  2. Blood irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandy, Mammen

    1998-01-01

    Viable lymphocytes are present in blood and cellular blood components used for transfusion. If the patient who receives a blood transfusion is immunocompetent these lymphocytes are destroyed immediately. However if the patient is immunodefficient or immunosuppressed the transfused lymphocytes survive, recognize the recipient as foreign and react producing a devastating and most often fatal syndrome of transfusion graft versus host disease [T-GVHD]. Even immunocompetent individuals can develop T-GVHD if the donor is a first degree relative since like the Trojan horse the transfused lymphocytes escape detection by the recipient's immune system, multiply and attack recipient tissues. T-GVHD can be prevented by irradiating the blood and different centers use doses ranging from 1.5 to 4.5 Gy. All transfusions where the donor is a first degree relative and transfusions to neonates, immunosuppressed patients and bone marrow transplant recipients need to be irradiated. Commercial irradiators specifically designed for irradiation of blood and cellular blood components are available: however they are expensive. India needs to have blood irradiation facilities available in all large tertiary institutions where immunosuppressed patients are treated. The Atomic Energy Commission of India needs to develop a blood irradiator which meets international standards for use in tertiary medical institutions in the country. (author)

  3. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... amount of blood given. Although rare, a hemolytic transfusion reaction can occur when transfused red cells are damaged ... center staff needs to be aware of this reaction and take precautions if you undergo subsequent transfusions. Viral infection transmission . Since blood is a biological ...

  4. Blood Sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of your body's cells to use for energy. Diabetes is a disease in which your blood sugar levels are too high. Over time, having too ... serious problems. Even if you don't have diabetes, sometimes you may have problems with blood sugar that is too low or too high. Keeping ...

  5. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  6. Total quality in spent fuel pool reracking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cranston, J.S.; Bradbury, R.B.; Cacciapouti, R.J.

    1993-01-01

    The nuclear utility environment is one of strict cost control under prescriptive regulations and increasing public scrutiny. This paper presents the results of A Total Quality approach, by a dedicated team, that addresses the need for increased on-site spent fuel storage in this environment. Innovations to spent fuel pool reracking, driven by utilities' specific technical needs and shrinking budgets, have resulted in both product improvements and lower prices. A Total Quality approach to the entire turnkey project is taken, thereby creating synergism and process efficiency in each of the major phases of the project: design and analysis, licensing, fabrication, installation and disposal. Specific technical advances and the proven quality of the team members minimizes risk to the utility and its shareholders and provides a complete, cost effective service. Proper evaluation of spent fuel storage methods and vendors requires a full understanding of currently available customer driven initiatives that reduce cost while improving quality. In all phases of a spent fuel reracking project, from new rack design and analysis through old rack disposal, the integration of diverse experts, at all levels and throughout all phases of a reracking project, better serves utility needs. This Total Quality environment in conjunction with many technical improvements results in a higher quality product at a lower cost

  7. Pooling birth cohorts in allergy and asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bousquet, Jean; Anto, Josep; Sunyer, Jordi

    2013-01-01

    Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated i...... of this paper is to review current and past EU-funded projects in order to make a summary of their goals and achievements and to suggest future research needs of these European birth cohort networks.......Long-term birth cohort studies are essential to understanding the life course and childhood predictors of allergy and the complex interplay between genes and the environment (including lifestyle and socioeconomic determinants). Over 100 cohorts focusing on asthma and allergy have been initiated...... in the world over the past 30 years. Since 2004, several research initiatives funded under the EU Framework Program for Research and Technological Development FP6-FP7 have attempted to identify, compare, and evaluate pooling data from existing European birth cohorts (GA(2)LEN: Global Allergy and European...

  8. Leidenfrost drops on a heated liquid pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maquet, L.; Sobac, B.; Darbois-Texier, B.; Duchesne, A.; Brandenbourger, M.; Rednikov, A.; Colinet, P.; Dorbolo, S.

    2016-09-01

    We show that a volatile liquid drop placed at the surface of a nonvolatile liquid pool warmer than the boiling point of the drop can be held in a Leidenfrost state even for vanishingly small superheats. Such an observation points to the importance of the substrate roughness, negligible in the case considered here, in determining the threshold Leidenfrost temperature. A theoretical model based on the one proposed by Sobac et al. [Phys. Rev. E 90, 053011 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevE.90.053011] is developed in order to rationalize the experimental data. The shapes of the drop and of the liquid substrate are analyzed. The model notably provides scalings for the vapor film thickness profile. For small drops, these scalings appear to be identical to the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For large drops, in contrast, they are different, and no evidence of chimney formation has been observed either experimentally or theoretically in the range of drop sizes considered in this study. Concerning the evaporation dynamics, the radius is shown to decrease linearly with time whatever the drop size, which differs from the case of a Leidenfrost drop on a solid substrate. For high superheats, the characteristic lifetime of the drops versus the superheat follows a scaling law that is derived from the model, but, at low superheats, it deviates from this scaling by rather saturating.

  9. Pool critical assembly pressure vessel facility benchmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Remec, I.; Kam, F.B.K.

    1997-07-01

    This pool critical assembly (PCA) pressure vessel wall facility benchmark (PCA benchmark) is described and analyzed in this report. Analysis of the PCA benchmark can be used for partial fulfillment of the requirements for the qualification of the methodology for pressure vessel neutron fluence calculations, as required by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulatory guide DG-1053. Section 1 of this report describes the PCA benchmark and provides all data necessary for the benchmark analysis. The measured quantities, to be compared with the calculated values, are the equivalent fission fluxes. In Section 2 the analysis of the PCA benchmark is described. Calculations with the computer code DORT, based on the discrete-ordinates method, were performed for three ENDF/B-VI-based multigroup libraries: BUGLE-93, SAILOR-95, and BUGLE-96. An excellent agreement of the calculated (C) and measures (M) equivalent fission fluxes was obtained. The arithmetic average C/M for all the dosimeters (total of 31) was 0.93 ± 0.03 and 0.92 ± 0.03 for the SAILOR-95 and BUGLE-96 libraries, respectively. The average C/M ratio, obtained with the BUGLE-93 library, for the 28 measurements was 0.93 ± 0.03 (the neptunium measurements in the water and air regions were overpredicted and excluded from the average). No systematic decrease in the C/M ratios with increasing distance from the core was observed for any of the libraries used

  10. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  11. Positive year for Alberta power pool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reid-Carlson, D.

    1997-01-01

    The electricity power pool in Alberta completed its first year under deregulation. Results to date indicate that the competitive market has operated as intended. The effects of electricity pricing on the oil industry following deregulation were described, given the fact that electricity prices represent the second largest cost item to the oil industry after labour. The peculiarities of the mechanism of electricity pricing (based on hourly matching of supply offers to demand bids) were explained, highlighting the opportunities and risks to the oil industry caused by the hourly price variations and the difficulties involved in accurately forecasting on-peak and off-peak prices a full year in advance. In 1996 predicted average price was $14 to $17/MWh. The actual average price was $13.40/MWh. The general conclusion was that Alberta continues to have a surplus of electricity generation and is well positioned to to take advantage of its low generating costs, at least over the longer term. Short term bidding practices, however, may results in slightly higher system marginal prices

  12. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  13. Infusion and sampling site effects on two-pool model estimates of leucine metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helland, S.J.; Grisdale-Helland, B.; Nissen, S.

    1988-01-01

    To assess the effect of site of isotope infusion on estimates of leucine metabolism infusions of alpha-[4,5-3H]ketoisocaproate (KIC) and [U- 14 C]leucine were made into the left or right ventricles of sheep and pigs. Blood was sampled from the opposite ventricle. In both species, left ventricular infusions resulted in significantly lower specific radioactivities (SA) of [ 14 C]leucine and [ 3 H]KIC. [ 14 C]KIC SA was found to be insensitive to infusion and sampling sites. [ 14 C]KIC was in addition found to be equal to the SA of [ 14 C]leucine only during the left heart infusions. Therefore, [ 14 C]KIC SA was used as the only estimate for [ 14 C]SA in the equations for the two-pool model. This model eliminated the influence of site of infusion and blood sampling on the estimates for leucine entry and reduced the impact on the estimates for proteolysis and oxidation. This two-pool model could not compensate for the underestimation of transamination reactions occurring during the traditional venous isotope infusion and arterial blood sampling

  14. Differential Aging Signals in Abdominal CT Scans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlov, Nikita V; Makrogiannis, Sokratis; Ferrucci, Luigi; Goldberg, Ilya G

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the composition of body tissues are major aging phenotypes, but they have been difficult to study in depth. Here we describe age-related change in abdominal tissues observable in computed tomography (CT) scans. We used pattern recognition and machine learning to detect and quantify these changes in a model-agnostic fashion. CT scans of abdominal L4 sections were obtained from Baltimore Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA) participants. Age-related change in the constituent tissues were determined by training machine classifiers to differentiate age groups within male and female strata ("Younger" at 50-70 years old vs "Older" at 80-99 years old). The accuracy achieved by the classifiers in differentiating the age cohorts was used as a surrogate measure of the aging signal in the different tissues. The highest accuracy for discriminating age differences was 0.76 and 0.72 for males and females, respectively. The classification accuracy was 0.79 and 0.71 for adipose tissue, 0.70 and 0.68 for soft tissue, and 0.65 and 0.64 for bone. Using image data from a large sample of well-characterized pool of participants dispersed over a wide age range, we explored age-related differences in gross morphology and texture of abdominal tissues. This technology is advantageous for tracking effects of biological aging and predicting adverse outcomes when compared to the traditional use of specific molecular biomarkers. Application of pattern recognition and machine learning as a tool for analyzing medical images may provide much needed insight into tissue changes occurring with aging and, further, connect these changes with their metabolic and functional consequences. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. The use of a scanning proton microprobe in AIDS research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cholewa, M.; Legge, G.J.F.; Weigold, H.; Holan, G.; Birch, C.

    1991-01-01

    It is demonstrate that total quantitative scanning analysis enables the scanning proton microprobe to scan a specimen and simultaneously extract all the information required to produce maps of the distribution for each element and the elemental spectra from all regions of interest. In this study the uptake of inorganic polyanion drugs was investigated and their activity for the HIV virus in a continous T-lymphocite line and in peripheral blood lymphocites tested. Further, the uptake spectrum was measured with sufficient quantitative accuracy to determine the structure of the compound in the cellular environment. Although quantitative measurements can be made with such data, it was emphasized that in all cases the drug concentration used in the incubation treatment was subtoxic for the particular component. Extensive study of damage done to the cell by intense proton beams during elemental analysis was also performed with scanning transmission ion microscopy and it was found to be of no great concern. 2 figs

  16. Sanitary Conditions of Public Swimming Pools in Amman, Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashraf Abu Aqoulah

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out in the summer of 2005 and investigated all of active public swimming pools (85 out of 93 in Amman, the capital of Jordan. The aim of this study was to find out if these swimming pools are in compliance with Jordanian Standards for Swimming Pools Water (JS 1562/2004. The pools were surveyed against the water microbial quality and other physicochemical parameters indicated in the standards. Two samples from each pool were collected for microbial analysis and pools monitoring were carried out during the afternoon of the weekends when the pools are most heavily used. The results indicated overall poor compliance with the standards. Compliance of the pools water to the microbial parameters was 56.5%, for residual chlorine 49.4%, for pH 87.7%, water temperature 48.8%, and bathing load 70.6%. The results also indicated that water microbial quality deteriorated with time. Multivariate analysis showed significant association of water contamination with time of sample collection, residual chlorine, water temperature and load of swimmers. The poor compliance was attributed to lack of proper disinfection, staff training, proper maintenance, and timely inspection.

  17. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    gas transportation through heat exchangers (IHX) and pump to grid plate, agglomeration of gas inside grid plate ... During plant transients associated with one secondary loop, temperature in the cold pool associated with ... Flow coast down characteristics of secondary sodium pump (SSP in figure 1) and cold pool capacity ...

  18. Branchipodopsis species — specialists of ephemeral rock pools ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rock pools also closely follow ambient air temperatures with resulting fluctuations of values between 10 and 40ºC. Depending on local climatic conditions, small rock pools are usually short-lived and have several wet/dry cycles during one rainy season. Branchipodopsis species are the record-holders in this race against ...

  19. Biomass and carbon pools of disturbed riparian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laura A. B. Giese; W. M. Aust; Randall K. Kolka; Carl C. Trettin

    2003-01-01

    Quantification of carbon pools as affected by forest age/development can facilitate riparian restoration and increase awareness of the potential for forests to sequester global carbon. Riparian forest biomass and carbon pools were quantified for four riparian forests representing different seral stages in the South Carolina Upper Coastal Plain. Three of the riparian...

  20. Electricity prices and generator behaviour in gross pool electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Mahoney, Amy; Denny, Eleanor

    2013-01-01

    Electricity market liberalisation has become common practice internationally. The justification for this process has been to enhance competition in a market traditionally characterised by statutory monopolies in an attempt to reduce costs to end-users. This paper endeavours to see whether a pool market achieves this goal of increasing competition and reducing electricity prices. Here the electricity market is set up as a sealed bid second price auction. Theory predicts that such markets should result with firms bidding their marginal cost, thereby resulting in an efficient outcome and lower costs to consumers. The Irish electricity system with a gross pool market experiences among the highest electricity prices in Europe. Thus, we analyse the Irish pool system econometrically in order to test if the high electricity prices seen there are due to participants bidding outside of market rules or out of line with theory. Overall we do not find any evidence that the interaction between generator and the pool in the Irish electricity market is not efficient. Thus, the pool element of the market structure does not explain the high electricity prices experienced in Ireland. - Highlights: • We consider whether a gross pool achieves competitive behaviour. • We analyse the Irish pool system econometrically. • Results indicate the Irish pool system appears to work efficiently. • Generators appear to be bidding appropriately