WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood plasma

  1. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  2. Interaction of blood plasma with antifouling surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Houska, Milan; Bologna Alles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 11 (2009), s. 6328-6333 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : blood plasma fouling * antigouling coatings * SPR biosensors Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2009

  3. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... device that warms blood or plasma, by means other than electromagnetic radiation, prior to administration... electromagnetic radiation (radiowaves or microwaves) to warm a bag or bottle of blood or plasma prior to... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section...

  4. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  5. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information regarding a 60-day notice that...

  6. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  7. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr; Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G 0 -stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors’ blood irradiated in vitro to 0–40 Gy acute γ-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 ± 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 ± 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 ± 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2–4 Gy and 16.7 ± 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6–10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  8. Finger prick blood plasma separation using a standard lab equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Pfreundt, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    and white blood cells for further analysis. The procedure requires 2 min spinning and can efficiently separate the plasma and white blood cells from red blood cells. The device allows for handling blood with varying hematocrit levels readout of which is included in the device design. After separation...

  9. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  10. Haematology, plasma biochemistry and whole blood minerals of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematology, plasma biochemistry and whole blood minerals of the captive adult african grasscutter (thryonomys swinderianus, temminck). A.O. Ogunsanmi, P.C. Ozegbe, O. Ogunjobi, V.O. Taiwo, J.O. Adu ...

  11. Ciclosporine A asxay: RIA or HPLC, plasma or total blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapalus, P.; Garraffo, R.; Krebs, B.; Lapalus, F.

    1985-01-01

    The two methods now in force for ciclosporine A assay are radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in various biological media (plasma, serum, total blood). The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are presented [fr

  12. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  13. Cryopreservation of Autologous Blood (Red Blood Cells, Platelets and Plasma)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebine, Kunio

    Prevention of post-transfusion hepatitis is still a problem in cardiovascular surgery. We initiated the cryopreservation of autologous blood for the transfusion in elective cardiovascular surgery since 1981. This study includes 152 surgical cases in which autologous frozen, allogeneic frozen, and/or allogeneic non-frozen blood were used. In the 152 surgical cases, there were 69 cases in which autologous blood only (Group I) was used; 12 cases with autologous and allogeneic frozen blood (Group II); 46 cases with autologous and allgeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group III); and 25 cases with allogeneic frozen plus allogeneic non-frozen blood (Group IV). No hepatitis developed in Groups I (0%) and II (0%), but there was positive hepatitis in Groups III (4.3%) and IV (8.0%) . In 357 cases of those who underwent surgery with allogeneic non-frozen whole blood during the same period, the incidence rate of hepatitis was 13.7% (49/357). Patients awaiting elective surgery can store their own blood in the frozen state. Patients who undergo surgery with the cryoautotransfusion will not produce any infections or immunologic reactions as opposed to those who undergo surgery with the allogeneic non-frozen blood.

  14. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......), self-reported medically healthy. RESULTS: Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  15. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  16. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and ...

  17. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and controls (n=13) comprising angiography normal individuals. In vitro high-resolution NMR spectroscopy of these blood plasma samples was carried out at 400 MHz, and intensity data were analysed with partial least ...

  18. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  19. A microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation using electro-osmotic flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hai; Weng, Xuan; Chon, Chan Hee; Wu, Xudong; Li, Dongqing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a microfluidic-based chip with two straight microchannels and five branch microchannels was designed and tested to separate blood plasma from a small sample of fresh human blood. The electro-osmotic flow method was used to control the separation of blood plasma. Blood cell removal and blood plasma extraction were realized in experiments. The efficiency of extracting blood plasma can be as high as 26%

  20. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and plasma catecholamines during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, F; Jensen, K; Hansen, H

    1996-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA...... and thereby elevate Vmean at a given volume flow. To evaluate transcranial Doppler-determined Vmean at high plasma catecholamine levels, seven elite cyclists performed a maximal performance test on a bicycle ergometer. Results were compared with those elicited during five incremental exercise bouts and during...

  1. Contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood: solubility in plasma and distribution in blood components following separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjonsberg, O.H.; Kierulf, P.; Gravem, K.; Fagerhol, M.K.; Godal, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to estimate the solubility of contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood, thrombin induced fibrin polymerzation in CPD-plasma was examined by light scattering and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) determinations. In addition, I-125 fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood was used to investigate fibrin monomer retention in blood bags and transfusion filters (170 microns) and fibrin distribution in blood components derived from CPD-blood. Initial fibrin polymerization in CPD-blood occurred after conversion of 15 per cent of the fibrinogen to fibrin, implying that substantial amounts of fibrin may be kept solubilized in CPD-blood bags. Only minor amounts of I-125 fibrin monomers were retained in blood bags (2.4 per cent) and in transfusion filters (2.9 per cent) after sham transfusions. After separating I-125-fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood into its constituent components, the major part of fibrin (75.0 per cent) could be traced in the cryoprecipitate

  2. Prehospital use of plasma: the blood bankers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Tor; Doughty, Heidi; Ness, Paul; Badloe, John F; Berseus, Olle; Glassberg, Elon; Heier, Hans E

    2014-05-01

    At the 2013 Traumatic Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation symposium, a panel of senior blood bankers with both civilian and military background was invited to discuss their willingness and ability to supply prehospital plasma for resuscitation of massively bleeding casualties and to comment on the optimal preparations for such situations. Available evidence indicates that prehospital use of plasma may improve remote damage control resuscitation, although level I evidence is lacking. This practice is well established in several military services and is also being introduced in civilian settings. There are few, if any, clinical contraindications to the prehospital use of plasma, except for blood group incompatibility and the danger of transfusion-induced acute lung injury, which can be circumvented in various ways. However, the choice of plasma source, plasma preparation, and logistics including stock management require consideration. Staff training should include hemovigilance and traceability as well as recognition and management of eventual adverse effects. Prehospital use of plasma should occur within the framework of clinical algorithms and prospective clinical studies. Clinicians have an ethical responsibility to both patients and donors; therefore, the introduction of new clinical capabilities of transfusion must be safe, efficacious, and sustainable. The panel agreed that although these problems need further attention and scientific studies, now is the time for both military and civilian transfusion systems to prepare for prehospital use of plasma in massively bleeding casualties.

  3. Blood and plasma volumes in normal west African dwarf sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and plasma volumes were determined using T-1824 in 36 normal adult West African Dwarf sheep. In the rams, dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes, the mean values for the blood volume (ml/kg body weight) were 64.08 ± 6.11, 55.74 ± 9.31, 71.46 ± 6.46 and 147.12 ± 12.79 respectively, while the mean values ...

  4. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  5. Modelling of the Blood Plasma Species of Biguanide Derivatives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NJD

    Modelling of the Blood Plasma Species of. Biguanide Derivatives Exhibiting Potential as. Diagnostic Radiopharmaceuticals. Judith M. Wagenera*, Midred K. Dithebea, Daniel Moganob, Ignacy Cukrowskib and Jan Rijn Zeevaartc. aRadiochemistry, NECSA, P.O. Box 582, Pretoria 0001, South Africa. bDepartment of ...

  6. Changes in blood pressure and plasma urate induced by the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... as yet another risk factor for hypertension, known to be common amongst habitual ethanol drinkers. Further research is however, required to establish the mechanism (s) involved in such relationships. Key Words: Blood pressure, plasma urate, hypertension, alcohol. Global Jnl Medical Sciences Vol.2(2) 2003: 157-160 ...

  7. Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc and blood selenium in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Concentrations of plasma copper and zinc as well as blood selenium were determined in single and twin lambs and their dams for a period of 120 days from the birth of the lambs, using Merino, Dohne Merino and SA Mutton Merino sheep. The ewes and their lambs were kept on the same pastures and received the same ...

  8. Determination of cortisol in blood plasma by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.

    1978-01-01

    A method to measure cortisol in blood plasma is developed using tritium a tracer. Thin-layer chromatographer is used for very accurate separation and determination of cortisol free of impurities. Results show a concentration of 14,02+-5,79 μg/100ml for cortisol in blod. This method appears to be especially useful when interfering substances are present [pt

  9. Measurement of Uranium in Blood-Plasma of Bavarian Females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Watling, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the water supply in some parts of Bavaria (Germany) contains Uranium. In order to study its effects we have determined the concentrations of U in the blood plasma of 25 females. All the females came from Bavaria and were not on any medication. Blood samples were drawn from a superficial arm vein, centrifuged and plasma extracted. The plasma samples were freeze-dried and analysed in our Analytical Laboratory in Perth, Western Australia by using the technique of ICP-MS. The U contents found varied from less than 0.1 to 8.2 ppb (6.6 ng/L to 543 ng/L)

  10. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT 50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT 50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  11. Molecular interactions of graphene oxide with human blood plasma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenry, Affa Affb Affc; Loh, Kian Ping; Lim, Chwee Teck

    2016-04-01

    We investigate the molecular interactions between graphene oxide (GO) and human blood plasma proteins. To gain an insight into the bio-physico-chemical activity of GO in biological and biomedical applications, we performed a series of biophysical assays to quantify the molecular interactions between GO with different lateral size distributions and the three essential human blood plasma proteins. We elucidate the various aspects of the GO-protein interactions, particularly, the adsorption, binding kinetics and equilibrium, and conformational stability, through determination of quantitative parameters, such as GO-protein association constants, binding cooperativity, and the binding-driven protein structural changes. We demonstrate that the molecular interactions between GO and plasma proteins are significantly dependent on the lateral size distribution and mean lateral sizes of the GO nanosheets and their subtle variations may markedly influence the GO-protein interactions. Consequently, we propose the existence of size-dependent molecular interactions between GO nanosheets and plasma proteins, and importantly, the presence of specific critical mean lateral sizes of GO nanosheets in achieving very high association and fluorescence quenching efficiency of the plasma proteins. We anticipate that this work will provide a basis for the design of graphene-based and other related nanomaterials for a plethora of biological and biomedical applications.

  12. [Elimination of haloperidol from erythrocytes surfaces supernatant and blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanidze, L A

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the adsorption rate of haloperidol on erythrocytes surfaces. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters of haloperidol were monitored in the experiment. The neuroleptic was administered to 12 adult dogs and the blood samples were collected for further analysis following 20, 30, 60, 180, 240, 360, 420 and 480 minutes after the injection. The groups of samples (blood plasma and supernatant) were monitored during this period. The differences between haloperidol concentration in the supernatant and blood plasma were compared. Our data have shown that dynamics of the elimination of intact and acidified forms of haloperidol from the supernatant and the blood serum are not the same. Intact and acidified forms are differently regulated by plasma. albumines and globulines. The process of redistribution of haloperidol between the both substrates takes place, while the supernatant has a donor function for the free form of haloperidol and represents the acceptor of the haloperidol's metabolites. This provides the possibility to develop multidiscipline approach to the optimization to the prescription of haloperidol.

  13. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  14. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    This study measured the pressor and plasma catecholamine response to local hypothermia during adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and after 10 and 45 min of local cooling of one hand and forearm as well as after 30 min of rewarming at sea level and again 24 h...... and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...

  15. Dynamics of blood plasma by spectropolarimetry and biochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuka, Tetjana; Prydij, Olexander; Gruia, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  16. Spectropolarimetry of blood plasma in optimal molecular targeted therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuk, Tetjana; Yermolenko, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  17. Radioimmunossay of hormones and metabolites in blood serum and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    Hormones or metabolites which are capable of producing antibodies can be detected and precisely quantitated by this method. Antibodies, to various hormones or metabolites whose assay is desired, are adsorbed onto commercially available imitation or cultured pearls. These pearls coated with antibody are contacted with a buffered reaction mixture containing blood serum or plasma specimen and respective radioactive antigen. The entire reaction is allowed to proceed for a time sufficient to form antigen (radioactive or non-radioactive)-antibody complex. These complexes on the pearls are washed and the total amount of radioactivity emanating from the complex is measured. This is indicative of the extent of binding of radioactive antigen and provides an indirect correlation of the amount of non-radioactive antigen present in the serum or plasma sample

  18. [Reference values for the blood coagulation tests in Mexico: usefulness of the pooled plasma from blood donors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calzada-Contreras, Adriana; Moreno-Hernández, Manuel; Castillo-Torres, Noemi Patricia; Souto-Rosillo, Guadalupe; Hernández-Juárez, Jesús; Ricardo-Moreno, María Tania; Sánchez-Fernández, Maria Guadalupe de Jesús; García-González, América; Majluf-Cruz, Abraham

    2012-01-01

    The blood coagulation system maintains the blood in a liquid state and bleeding and thrombosis are the manifestations of its malfunction. Blood coagulation laboratory evaluates the physiology of this system. To establish both, the reference values for several tests performed at the blood coagulation laboratory as well as the utility of the pooled plasma to perform these assays. MATERIAL AND: In this descriptive, cross-sectional, randomized study, we collected plasma from Mexican Mestizos. Each pooled plasma was prepared with the plasma from at least 20 blood donors. We performed screening and special tests and the Levey-Jennings graphs were built and interpreted after each pass. Results of the tests were analyzed and their distribution was established using the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test. To establish the reference values we used 95% confidence intervals. We collected 72 pooled plasmas. The distribution for PT, APTT, and TT tests was abnormal. Although the PT test showed a bimodal distribution it was normal for factor VII. The reference values for the hemostatic, anticoagulant, and fibrinolytic factors were different from those suggested by the manufacturers. We established the reference values for the blood coagulation tests in the adult Mexican population. We have shown that the pooled plasma must be used for the screening tests. We suggest that each clinical laboratory should establish its own reference values (at least for the screening tests). To reach this objective, we encourage the use of the pooled plasma.

  19. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  20. Comparison between Plasma and Whole Blood Specimens for Detection of Aspergillus DNA by PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, Juergen; Hebart, Holger; Brauchle, Ulrike; Schumacher, Ulrike; Einsele, Hermann

    2000-01-01

    Ninety-six plasma and whole blood specimens from nine selected patients were analyzed for the presence of Aspergillus DNA. Nineteen specimens from three patients with proven aspergillosis were PCR positive in both materials, whereas an additional 22 were PCR positive in whole blood only. All 36 samples from six patients without signs of aspergillosis were negative in both assays. We conclude that although plasma and whole blood spiked with Aspergillus conidia showed an identical lower detection limit (10 CFU), the sensitivity of plasma PCR was lower than that of PCR performed on whole blood samples. PMID:11015412

  1. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    , and 30 days at the same temperatures. 27 inflammatory markers in serum and plasma and 25 markers in DBSS were measured by a previously validated multiplex sandwich immunoassay using Luminex xMAP technology. The measurable concentrations of several cytokines in serum and plasma were significantly......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable...

  2. Plasma and blood volume in the calf from birth till 90 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    Determinations of plasma volume were made of 9 clinically healthy Swedish Red and White calves from birth to 90 days of age by means of the isotop dilution technique. Commercially available 131 I labelled human serum albumin was used. Calculation of the total blood volume was based on the plasma volume and packed cell volume. The plasma and blood volumes increased per kg body weight in average 17 and 14 percent respectively from directly after birth to 24 hrs. old. From 1 to 90 days of age the plasma and blood volume fell steadily per kg body weight. Plasma volume expressed as a percentage of body weight was 5.3 percent at birth, 6.5 percent at 1 day old, and 4.9 percent at 90 days old. Corresponding values for blood were 8.4, 9.3 and 7.0 percent. (author)

  3. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    , HUPO later re-analysed their own original dataset with a more stringent statistical treatment that resulted in a much reduced list of high confidence (at least 95%) proteins compared with their original findings. In order to facilitate the discovery of novel biomarkers in the future and to realize......BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list...... the full diagnostic potential of blood plasma, we feel that there is still a need for an ultra-high confidence reference list (at least 99% confidence) of blood plasma proteins. METHODS: To address the complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of the plasma proteome, we employed a linear ion...

  4. A comparison of plasma pyridoxal 5'-phosphate concentrations in capillary (finger prick) and venous blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andon, M B; Reynolds, R D

    1987-06-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate the validity of using capillary blood plasma to estimate the pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP) concentration of venous blood plasma. To accommodate the small volumes of capillary blood usually obtained, we modified the experimental conditions of the L-tyrosine apodecarboxylase (TDC) assay for PLP by increasing both the specific activity of 14C-tyrosine and the reaction incubation time. Plasma PLP concentrations determined by the TDC assay and the micro-modified TDC assay were highly correlated (r = 0.995, p = 4.0 X 10(-6)). Using the micro-modified TDC assay, we observed no significant difference between the plasma PLP concentrations of venous and capillary (finger prick) blood from 10 healthy adults. Thus, capillary blood plasma can be used to estimate the PLP concentration of venous blood plasma. This observation will aid in verifying data concerning the vitamin B-6 status assessment of individuals as determined by capillary blood plasma PLP concentrations.

  5. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk lead: lactational transfer and contribution to infant exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettinger, Adrienne S; Roy, Ananya; Amarasiriwardena, Chitra J; Smith, Donald; Lupoli, Nicola; Mercado-García, Adriana; Lamadrid-Figueroa, Hector; Tellez-Rojo, Martha Maria; Hu, Howard; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Human milk is a potential source of lead exposure. Yet lactational transfer of lead from maternal blood into breast milk and its contribution to infant lead burden remains poorly understood. We explored the dose-response relationships between maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk to better understand lactational transfer of lead from blood and plasma into milk and, ultimately, to the breastfeeding infant. We measured lead in 81 maternal blood, plasma, and breast milk samples at 1 month postpartum and in 60 infant blood samples at 3 months of age. Milk-to-plasma (M/P) lead ratios were calculated. Multivariate linear, piecewise, and generalized additive models were used to examine dose-response relationships between blood, plasma, and milk lead levels. Maternal lead levels (mean±SD) were as follows: blood: 7.7±4.0 μg/dL; plasma: 0.1±0.1 μg/L; milk: 0.8±0.7 μg/L. The average M/P lead ratio was 7.7 (range, 0.6-39.8) with 97% of the ratios being >1. The dose-response relationship between plasma lead and M/P ratio was nonlinear (empirical distribution function=6.5, p=0.0006) with the M/P ratio decreasing by 16.6 and 0.6 per 0.1 μg/L of plasma lead, respectively, below and above 0.1 μg/L plasma lead. Infant blood lead level (3.4±2.2 μg/dL) increased by 1.8 μg/dL per 1 μg/L milk lead (pbreastfeeding infants.

  7. Stability of direct oral anticoagulants in whole blood and plasma from patients in steady state treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McGrail, Rie; Revsholm, Jesper; Nissen, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    Using functional haemostasis assays, we demonstrated important differences in stability of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) in citrated whole blood and plasma from DOAC treated patients. Laboratories and clinicians should take this into consideration and adjust clinical practices accordingly....

  8. Cysteine peroxidase activity in rat blood plasma | Razygraev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat plasma found to be able to accelerate greatly the H2O2-dependent oxidation of cysteine. The activity was a characteristic of a protein fraction precipitated at 30—44% ammonium sulfate saturation, and the specific activity in protein fraction was significantly higher than in plasma. Cysteine:H2O2 oxidoreductase ...

  9. Advantages of porcine blood plasma as a component of functional drinks

    OpenAIRE

    O. V. Kriger

    2014-01-01

    The composition and properties of blood plasma obtained from slaughtered farm animals and intended for use in the manufacturing of foods for the prevention of oxygen deficiency (hypoxia) are analyzed in the present paper. The use of aerated functional products (oxygen cocktails) is an efficient approach to hypoxia prevention. Protein-based foaming agents are known to form the most stable foams. Porcine blood plasma is a rich source of high molecular weight proteins. A method of processing of ...

  10. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  11. Effect of occupational lead-exposure on blood pressure, serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shouman, A E; El-Safty, I A

    2000-01-01

    Numerous observations have indicated a relationship between lead exposure and elevated blood pressure. The present study aims to investigate the association between occupational lead-exposure and elevated blood pressure as well as serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity as parameters affecting blood pressure. Fifty occupationally lead-exposed (16 males and 34 females) and 50 non-exposed (15 males and 34 females) workers were selected after application of certain exclusion criteria. All workers were admitted to complete clinical examination, including standard blood pressure measurement. Also, blood lead level, serum aldosterone concentration and plasma renin activity were estimated. The results of both occupationally lead-exposed males and females demonstrated no significant differences regarding age, work duration, systolic and diastolic blood pressures when compared to occupationally non-exposed males and females; respectively. In addition, occupationally lead-exposed males and females revealed a significant increase in blood lead level and serum aldosterone concentration in comparison to their controls. Moreover, plasma renin activity is significantly decreased among the lead-exposed male workers while it is significantly increased among the lead-exposed female workers in comparison to their controls. It is concluded that serum aldosterone level and plasma renin activity are affected by occupationally low-level of lead exposure, and the present study provide further support for the association between blood lead exposure and blood pressure related hormones.

  12. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  13. Recovery from Bell Palsy after Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Seffer, Istvan; Nemeth, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are multipotent, and plasma contains growth factors involving tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of PBMC-plasma will promote the recovery of paralyzed facial muscles in Bell palsy. This case report describes the effects of PBMC-plasma transplantations in a 27-year-old female patient with right side Bell palsy. On the affected side of the face, the treatment resulted in both morphological and functional recovery includi...

  14. Safety of Blood and Plasma Derivatives: Pathogen Reducing Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Pourfathollah

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Human blood and blood products is the source of a wide range of medicinal products used for the treatment and prevention of a variety of injuries and disease. Despite stringent routine measures and filters employed, residual pathogen infectivity remains an important challenge in the field of blood transfusion. In this article various measures and technologies that can be applied in order to reduce the residual risk are reviewed.

  15. Blood and plasma viscosity in diabetes: possible contribution to late organ complications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, N. H.; van Arkel, E. C.; Hardeman, M. R.; Bilo, H. J.; Michels, R. P.; Vreeken, J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been postulated that an increased whole blood and plasma viscosity contribute to diabetic organ complications. Blood viscosity was measured in 30 controls and four groups of insulin-dependent diabetic patients at three shear rates: 70 sec-1, 0.5 sec-1 and 0.05 sec-1. Results were compared

  16. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part I: Immunoassay development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a known drug against high blood pressure. In this report, the development of a new and rapid analytical technique, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is described. The

  17. THz spectroscopy of whole blood, plasma and cells in mice of SHR line with various pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, A.; Tyndyk, M.; Smolyanskaya, O.; Sulatskiy, M.; Kravtsenyuk, O.; Balbekin, N.; Khodzitsky, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to studying of optical properties of whole blood and blood plasma in SHR mice grafted Ehrlich's carcinoma and mice with chronic inflammation at the terahertz frequency range. Additionally physiological saline solution suspension of ascites Ehrlich's carcinoma cells was explored.

  18. [Profile of RNA cytokines in blood plasma under conditions of normal physiological state of human body].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turchaninova, M A; Rebrikov, D V

    2009-01-01

    The level of representation of extracellular RNA 14 cytokines in blood plasma in a group of apparently healthy subjects was analyzed. The level of representation of the transcripts of these cytokines in extracellular medium is characterized by specific profile different from the profile of expression of the genes in blood cells.

  19. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2015-01-11

    Jan 11, 2015 ... amino acids by the human heart except Glu and Ala (Carlsten et al. 1961). Ala is a dietary non-essential gluconeogenic amino acid and is synthesized in muscle by transamination of pyruvate and then released into the blood stream. Liver takes up Ala from the blood and its carbon skeleton is reconverted to ...

  20. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet...... concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing...

  1. Prophylactic Plasma Transfusion Is Not Associated With Decreased Red Blood Cell Requirements in Critically Ill Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Matthew A; Chandran, Arun; Jenkins, Gregory; Kor, Daryl J

    2017-05-01

    Critically ill patients frequently receive plasma transfusion under the assumptions that abnormal coagulation test results confer increased risk of bleeding and that plasma transfusion will decrease this risk. However, the effect of prophylactic plasma transfusion remains poorly understood. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between prophylactic plasma transfusion and bleeding complications in critically ill patients. This is a retrospective cohort study of adults admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) at a single academic institution between January 1, 2009 and December 31, 2013. Inclusion criteria included age ≥18 years and an international normalized ratio measured during ICU admission. Multivariable propensity-matched analyses were used to evaluate associations between prophylactic plasma transfusion and outcomes of interest with a primary outcome of red blood cell transfusion in the ensuing 24 hours and secondary outcomes of hospital- and ICU-free days and mortality within 30 days of ICU discharge. A total of 27,561 patients were included in the investigation with 2472 (9.0%) receiving plasma therapy and 1105 (44.7%) for which plasma transfusion was prophylactic in nature. In multivariable propensity-matched analyses, patients receiving plasma had higher rates of red blood cell transfusion (odds ratio: 4.3 [95% confidence interval: 3.3-5.7], P plasma in the critically ill was not associated with improved clinical outcomes. Further investigation examining the utility of plasma transfusion in this population is warranted.

  2. Fluorescence spectra of blood plasma treated with ultraviolet irradiation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Maslova, T. O.

    2010-09-01

    We have studied the fluorescence spectra of blood plasma from patients with acute coronary syndrome, and also the effect of therapeutic doses of in vivo ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) on the spectra. We have established that the maxima in the fluorescence spectra of the original plasma samples, obtained from unirradiated blood, are located in the wavelength interval 330-340 nm, characteristic for the fluorescence of tryptophan residues. In extracorporeal UBI ( λ = 254 nm), we observed changes in the shape and also both a blue and a red shift in the maxima of the fluorescence spectra, differing in magnitude for blood plasma samples from different patients in the test group. We show that UBI-initiated changes in the fluorescence spectra of the plasma depend on the original pathological disturbances of metabolite levels, and also on the change in the oxygen-transport function of the blood and the acid-base balance, affecting the oxidative stability of the plasma. We have concluded that UV irradiation, activating buffer systems in the blood, has an effect on the universal and specific interactions of the tryptophan residue with the amino acid residues and water surrounding it.

  3. Relative Abundance of Proteins in Blood Plasma Samples from Patients with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Artur T; Ponomarenko, Elena A; Kiseleva, Olga I; Teryaeva, Nadezhda B; Potapov, Alexander A; Izotov, Alexander А; Morozov, Sergei G; Kudryavtseva, Valeria Yu; Archakov, Alexander I

    2018-03-01

    A comparative protein profile analysis of 17 blood plasma samples from patients with ischemia and 20 samples from healthy volunteers was carried out using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of measurements was performed using the proteomics search engine OMSSA. Normalized spectrum abundance factor (NSAF) in the biological samples was assessed using SearchGUI. The findings of mass spectrometry analysis of the protein composition of blood plasma samples demonstrate that the depleted samples are quite similar in protein composition and relative abundance of proteins. By comparing them with the control samples, we have found a small group of 44 proteins characteristic of the blood plasma samples from patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. These proteins contribute to the processes of homeostasis maintenance, including innate immune response unfolding, the response of a body to stress, and contribution to the blood clotting cascade.

  4. Recovery from Bell Palsy after Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffer, Istvan; Nemeth, Zoltan

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are multipotent, and plasma contains growth factors involving tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of PBMC-plasma will promote the recovery of paralyzed facial muscles in Bell palsy. This case report describes the effects of PBMC-plasma transplantations in a 27-year-old female patient with right side Bell palsy. On the affected side of the face, the treatment resulted in both morphological and functional recovery including voluntary facial movements. These findings suggest that PBMC-plasma has the capacity of facial muscle regeneration and provides a promising treatment strategy for patients suffering from Bell palsy or other neuromuscular disorders.

  5. Detection of melanoma cells suspended in mononuclear cells and blood plasma using photoacoustic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Emily M.; Viator, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Although the initial malignant cells are removed, it is impossible to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized until a secondary tumor forms that is large enough to detect with conventional imaging. Photoacoustic detection of circulating melanoma cells in the bloodstream has shown promise for early detection of metastasis that may aid in treatment of this aggressive cancer. When blood is irradiated with energy from an Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, photoacoustic signals are created and melanoma cells can be differentiated from the surrounding cells based on waveforms produced by an oscilloscope. Before this can be used as a diagnostic technique, however, we needed to investigate several parameters. Specifically, the current technique involves the in vitro separation of blood through centrifugation to isolate and test only the white blood cell layer. Using this method, we have detected a single cultured melanoma cell among a suspension of white blood cells. However, the process could be made simpler if the plasma layer were used for detection instead of the white blood cell layer. This layer is easier to obtain after blood separation, the optical difference between plasma and melanoma cells is more pronounced in this layer than in the white blood cell layer, and the possibility that any stray red blood cells could distort the results is eliminated. Using the photoacoustic apparatus, we detected no melanoma cells within the plasma of whole blood samples spiked with cultured melanoma cells.

  6. Plasma copper, zinc and blood selenium concentrations of sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sheep in January and July 1987. If the plasma Cu concentrations of all three species during. 1987 are taken as a criterion, a marginal Cu deficiency must be assumed for the Nortier Experimental Farm. No Se deficiency is expected, while Zn appears to be marginally deficient in sheep. Production and reproduction rates of ...

  7. Finger prick blood plasma separation using a standard lab equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Pfreundt, Andrea

    separation and analyte detection on-chip are reported in the literature [1]. Although versatile, these plasma separation techniques often require sample dilution prior to separation and use low flow rates resulting in longer processing times which greatly hinders their use in commercial systems. Here we...

  8. Plasma Skimming in a Spiral Groove Bearing of a Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Plasma skimming is a phenomenon in which discharge hematocrit is lower than feed hematocrit in microvessels. Plasma skimming has been investigated at a bearing gap in a spiral groove bearing (SGB), as this has the potential to prevent hemolysis in the SGB of a blood pump. However, it is not clear whether plasma skimming occurs in a blood pump with the SGB, because the hematocrit has not been obtained. The purpose of this study is to verify plasma skimming in an SGB of a centrifugal blood pump by developing a hematocrit measurement method in an SGB. Erythrocyte observation using a high-speed microscope and a bearing gap measurement using a laser confocal displacement meter was performed five times. In these tests, bovine blood as a working fluid was diluted with autologous plasma to adjust the hematocrit to 1.0%. A resistor was adjusted to achieve a pressure head of 100 mm Hg and a flow rate of 5.0 L/min at a rotational speed of 2800 rpm. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was measured using an image analysis based on motion image of erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume, the measured bearing gap, and a cross-sectional area of erythrocyte. Mean hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was linearly reduced from 0.97 to 0.07% with the decreasing mean bearing gap from 38 to 21 μm when the rotational speed was changed from 2250 to 3000 rpm. A maximum plasma skimming efficiency of 93% was obtained with a gap of 21 μm. In conclusion, we succeeded in measuring the hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB of the blood pump. Hematocrit decreased on the ridge region in the SGB and plasma skimming occurred with a bearing gap of less than 30 μm in the hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump. © 2016 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Study on the changes in blood plasma electroconductivity and dielectric constant in irradiated mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskalev, Z.; Bancheva, E.

    1975-01-01

    Blood plasma electroconductivity and dielectric constant were measured in C57BL mice exposed to an uncontaminated gamma or neutron field or a mixed gamma-neutron field at a total dose of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25 rad. Measurements were also made with blood plasma from Wistar rats given 200, 400, or 600 R X-rays. The results obtained revealed a characteristic pattern of radiation-induced changes in electroconductivity and dielectric constant, these end-points being indicative, respectively, or shifts in saline concentrations and in conformation of protein fractions of blood plasma. Analysis of the data showed that within a few days after exposure there were changes occurring in cellular and tissue water-salt metabolism, followed by enhancement or recovery to norm, depending on the dose. A possibility is thus rendered to use the blood plasma parameters studied as a test for detecting early shifts in cellular water-salt metabolism and in conformation of protein fractions at a time when no characteristic changes are yet to be observed in amounts of individual types of protein fractions from blood plasma of irradiated organisms. (author)

  10. Blood content and excretory plasma clearance of plutonium 104 days after injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rundo, J.; Ilcewicz, F.H.

    1978-01-01

    Blood samples were taken from two subjects who had been injected intravenously with about 0.3 μCi 239 Pu(IV) as the citrate 10 4 days previously; the subjects were on a metabolic ward, and all urine and feces were collected. Plutonium was determined by alpha-spectrometric isotope dilution in the samples of excreta and in separated plasma and red cells. The concentration of 239 Pu in the plasma of each subject was four or five times that in the red cells; the 239 Pu in the latter was thought to be due to entrained plasma. In dividing the daily excretion rate (urinary or urinary plus fecal) by the contemporary concentration in the plasma, the urinary or total excretory plasma clearance was obtained. The results show that while the excretion rate is higher for the female than for the male, the reverse is true for the plasma clearance

  11. Plasma fractionation, a useful means to improve national transfusion system and blood safety: Iran experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, A M; Abolghasemi, H

    2009-03-01

    In 1974, the government of Iran established Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) as national and centralized transfusion system. Since then donations of blood may not be remunerated and therapy with blood and its components are free of charges for all Iranian patients. Donations are meticulously screened through interviewing donors and lab testing the donations using serological methods. Currently, Iranian donors donate 1735 00 units of blood annually (donation index: 25/1000 population). Implementation of a highly efficient donor selection programme, including donors interview, establishment of confidential unit exclusion programme and laboratory screening of donated bloods by IBTO have led to seroprevalence rates of 0.41%, 0.12% and 0.004% for HBV, HCV and HIV in donated bloods respectively. Since 2004, IBTO has initiated a programme to enter into a contract fractionation agreement for the surplus of recovered plasma produced in its blood collecting centres. Although IBTO has used this project as a mean to improve national transfusion system through upgrading its quality assurance systems, IBTO fractionation project has played a major role in improving availability of plasma-derived medicines in Iran. During 2006-2007, this project furnished the Iran market with 44% and 14% of its needs to the intravenous immunoglobulin and albumin, respectively. Iranian experience showed that contract fractionation of plasma in countries with organized centralized transfusion system, which lack national plasma fractionation facility, in addition to substantial saving on national health resource and enhancing availability of plasma-derived medicines, could serve as a useful means to improve national blood safety profile.

  12. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  13. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  14. studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected.

  15. Studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected

  16. Red blood cell morphology and plasma proteins electrophoresis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... The European pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West. Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected.

  17. Red blood cell morphology and plasma proteins electrophoresis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The European pond terrapin(Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected from the dorsal sinus ...

  18. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  19. WARMING-UP AFFECTS PERFORMANCE AND LACTATE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN PLASMA AND RED BLOOD CELLS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Wahl

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Warming-up (WU is a widely used preparation for training and competition. However, little is known about the potential mechanisms of WU on performance and on the lactate distribution in the blood compartment. The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether different WU procedures affect performance and lactate distribution between plasma and red blood cells (RBCs after maximal exercise. At three different occasions eleven subjects performed one 30 s maximal effort exercise on a cycle ergometer. Before each exercise, subjects warmed up at different intensities: 1. no WU (NWU; 2. extensive WU (EWU; 3. intensive WU (IWU. Blood samples were taken under resting conditions, after WU, and in 1 minute intervals during recovery to determine lactate concentrations [LA] in whole blood ([LA]WB, plasma ([LA]plasma and erythrocytes ([LA]RBC. Mean power output was +58 Watt (EWU and +60 Watt (IWU higher compared to NWU. For each WU condition [LA]plasma and [LA]RBC differed significantly at any time point, showing greater [LA]plasma compared to [LA]RBC. The maximal effort exercise caused a rapid decrease of the [LA]RBC/[LA]plasma ratio. [LA]RBC reached the peak 3-5 minutes later than [LA]plasma depending on the WU condition. The initial increments in [LA]RBC were 10-16% lower after IWU compared to NWU and EWU. The lower increment of [LA]RBC after IWU might be due to a "higher preloading" with lactate before exercise, causing a smaller initial [LA] gradient between plasma and RBCs. It seems that the influx decreases with increasing intracellular [LA]. Another possibility one could speculate about is, that the extracellular increase in [LA] inhibits the outflux of lactate produced by the RBC itself. This inhibited export of lactate from RBCs may lead to an intracellular lactate accumulation. But the relatively fast increase in [LA]RBC and other investigations partly contradicts this possibility

  20. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Shaharuddin Mohd; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  1. The influence of blood plasma of irradiated animals on activity of Ca2+ - ATPase and Mg2+ - ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Rats were irradiated at doses 1.5, 4.0, 7.0 and 10 Gy. After 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days the effect of blood plasma on activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes was investigated. It was found that the raise of irradiation dose leads to increasing of blood plasma effect on membrane-bound enzymes

  2. System of polarization phasometry of polycrystalline blood plasma networks in mammary gland pathology diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabolotna, Natalia I.; Oliinychenko, Bogdan P.; Radchenko, Kostiantyn O.; Krasnoshchoka, Anastasiia K.; Shcherba, Olga K.

    2015-09-01

    The polarizing phase meter system of polycrystalline networks of human blood plasma which is used for the mammary gland pathology diagnostics was proposed in this paper. Increasing the accuracy of the phase value determination was achieved using a combination of low coherent source of radiation and circularly polarized probing of biological object. Thus, high informativity of polarizing phase meter system for the diagnosis of breast pathology using the phase mapping of the human blood plasma films were determined, thereafter statistical, correlational, fractal structure analysis of the obtained phase maps was carried out and the quantitative criterias of the phase diagnostics and differentiation of the breast pathological conditions were determined too.

  3. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  4. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  5. Effects of anesthesia and blood sampling techniques on plasma metabolites and corticosterone in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Myrtha; Langhans, Wolfgang

    2010-04-19

    Blood is routinely sampled from laboratory animals in biomedical research, and many of the commonly applied sampling techniques require anesthesia. Acute effects of many sampling and anesthesia procedures may confound the results, but those effects are incompletely characterized. We here compare the effects of four common anesthesia procedures (inhalation anesthesia with ether (EA) or isoflurane (IA) and intraperitoneal injection anesthesia with xylazin/ketamine (XKA) or medetomidine/midazolam/fentanyl (MMFA)) on plasma concentrations of glucose, lactate, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs), and corticosterone in blood obtained from a previously implanted jugular vein (JV) catheter with the effect of JV blood sampling from non-anesthetized, freely-moving rats (JV-NA). Also, we included in the comparison two other blood sampling procedures usually performed without anesthesia (NA), i.e., puncture of the saphenic vein (SV) and tail incision (TI). Whereas the control procedure (JV-NA) did not significantly affect any of the target parameters, plasma glucose increased from 14 (JV-IA) to 44 (JV-MMFA) % (all Ps=0.05 when compared with the control procedure) in all blood samples collected in anesthesia and was 12 and 14% lower (both Psprocedures except for JV-XKA and JV-MMF. Plasma NEFAs increased to 52% (Pprocedure and appeared to decrease with the JV-IA and JV-MMFA procedures (both Ps>0.05). Finally, only the JV-EA and the JV-MMFA procedures increased plasma corticosterone (+525 and +353%, respectively, both Psprocedures appeared to increase it as well, but these differences did not reach statistical significance. Thus, anesthesia and blood sampling procedures can have profound acute effects on plasma metabolite and hormone concentrations. This must be considered for the design and interpretation of blood sampling experiments in laboratory animals. (c) 2010. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  6. Discriminating the hemolytic risk of blood type A plasmas using the complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnion, Kenji M; Hair, Pamela S; Krishna, Neel K; Sass, Megan A; Enos, Clinton W; Whitley, Pamela H; Maes, Lanne Y; Goldberg, Corinne L

    2017-03-01

    The agglutination-based cross-matching method is sensitive for antibody binding to red blood cells but is only partially predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis, which is important in many acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. Here, we describe complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assays that directly evaluate complement-mediated hemolysis between individual serum-plasma and red blood cell combinations. The CHUHE assay is used to evaluate correlations between agglutination titers and complement-mediated hemolysis as well as the hemolytic potential of plasma from type A blood donors. Plasma or serum from each type A blood donor was incubated with AB or B red blood cells in the CHUHE assay and measured for free hemoglobin release. CHUHE assays for serum or plasma demonstrate a wide, dynamic range and high sensitivity for complement-mediated hemolysis for individual serum/plasma and red blood cell combinations. CHUHE results suggest that agglutination assays alone are only moderately predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis. CHUHE results also suggest that plasma from particular type A blood donors produce minimal complement-mediated hemolysis, whereas plasma from other type A blood donors produce moderate to high-level complement-mediated hemolysis, depending on the red blood cell donor. The current results indicate that the CHUHE assay can be used to assess complement-mediated hemolysis for plasma or serum from a type A blood donor, providing additional risk discrimination over agglutination titers alone. © 2016 AABB.

  7. Imaging of blood plasma coagulation at supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxälv, Lars; Hume, Jasmin; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-12-15

    The blood coagulation system relies on lipid membrane constituents to act as regulators of the coagulation process upon vascular trauma, and in particular the 2D configuration of the lipid membranes is known to efficiently catalyze enzymatic activity of blood coagulation factors. This work demonstrates a new application of a recently developed methodology to study blood coagulation at lipid membrane interfaces with the use of imaging technology. Lipid membranes with varied net charges were formed on silica supports by systematically using different combinations of lipids where neutral phosphocholine (PC) lipids were mixed with phospholipids having either positively charged ethylphosphocholine (EPC), or negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups. Coagulation imaging demonstrated that negatively charged SiO(2) and membrane surfaces exposing PS (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of PS) had coagulation times which were significantly shorter than those for plain PC membranes and EPC exposing membrane surfaces (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of EPC). Coagulation times decreased non-linearly with increasing negative surface charge for lipid membranes. A threshold value for shorter coagulation times was observed below a PS content of ∼6%. We conclude that the lipid membranes on solid support studied with the imaging setup as presented in this study offers a flexible and non-expensive solution for coagulation studies at biological membranes. It will be interesting to extend the present study towards examining coagulation on more complex lipid-based model systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  9. Dialyzer-augmented whole blood and plasma exchange for patients with hepatic or hepatorenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselmeier, T J; Merino, G E; Rodrigo, F; Meyer, R M; Bosl, B H; Kjellstrand, C M; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1975-01-01

    We have utilized new methods of dialyzer-augmented whole blood and plasma exchange tranfusion in the treatment of hepatic coma. The method employs the new fast flow Buselmeier shunt so that the exchange can be done from a peripheral radial artery shunt site rather than a shunt site in a more major vessel, such as the brachial artery. The method employs in-line dialysis of citrated (CPD) blood or plasma to normalize pH, electrolytes, and blood sugar while infusion heparinization decreases heparin requirements. The application of a single roller pump to the administration and withdrawal lines (placed in opposite directions) helps equalize inflow and outflow where whole blood exchange is done while identical opposing pumps accomplish the same with plasma exchange. The administration of albumin and metaraminol bitartate prevents hypotension due to fluid shifts or compartmental venous dilatation. A closed circuit which does not require disconnection throughout the 30- 60-minute whole blood exchange or the 2 1/2-hour plasma exchange decreases the risk of septic contamination to both medical staff and patients.

  10. Silver nanoparticles influence on the blood activation process and their release to blood plasma from synthetic polymer scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, blood and blood plasma interaction to silver stabilised polyelectrolytes was investigated in vitro. The designed materials are dedicated for regeneration of the cardiovascular system. Silver nanoparticles were introduced into the polyelectrolyte structure in order to reduce the risk of bacterial biofilm formation. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles occurred by deposition at high vacuum by magnetron sputtering. The analysis of blood-materials interactions were performed by using commercially available tester, Impact-R (Diamed). The assessment of silver ion nanoparticles release into the plasma consisted in determining the Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). Unmodified surface of polyelectrolytes is a strong activator for blood elements. The introduction of silver nanoparticles resulted in a significant reduction in the probability of clotting. The extrinsic pathway of coagulation determined on the basis of the PT and the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation measured by the APTT did not indicate the danger out of range. Microstructure was studied using TEM on thin foils prepared from the cross-section of samples subjected to biomedical treatments. The observations revealed hetero- interface between two different crystalline solids.

  11. Prospects of Vitamin C as an Additive in Plasma of Stored Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dire necessity to improve blood storage and prolong shelf-life of blood. Very few studies have focused on oxidative stress (OS in blood and its influence on plasma with storage. This study attempts to (i elucidate the continuous changes occurring in plasma during storage through oxidant levels and antioxidant status and (ii evaluate the influence of vitamin C (VC as an additive during blood storage. Blood was drawn from male Wistar rats and stored for 25 days at 4°C. Blood samples were divided into control and experimental groups. Plasma was isolated every 5 days and the OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation products, were studied. Catalase activity increased in all groups with storage. Lipid peroxidation decreased in VC (10 but was maintained in VC (30 and VC (60. Although there were variations in all groups, carbonyls were maintained towards the end of storage. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP increased in VC (30 and were maintained in VC (10 and VC (60. Sulfhydryls were maintained in all groups. Vitamin C could not sufficiently attenuate OS and hence, this opens the possibilities for further studies on vitamin C in combination with other antioxidants, in storage solutions.

  12. Nifedipine effect on the labelling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, B.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Bernardo Filho, M.

    1988-01-01

    The labeling of red blood cells (RBC) with Tc-99m depends on the presence of stannous ion (Sn) that helps this radionuclide's fixation on the hemoglobin molecule. Nifedipine is an agent capable to block a specific way where calcius (Ca) ion acrosses the cellular membrane and to bind itself on plasma proteins. The effect of nifedipine in the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca and Sn ions. Blood with anticoagulant was treated with nifedipine concentration of 10 -6 M for 15 min at 37 0 C. The labeling of RBC with Tc-99m was done incubating with Sn ion solution (3 uM) for different times. The % of radioactivity in RBC was determined. Samples of plasma were precipited with trichloroacetic acid and the % of radiocctivity in insoluble fraction was calculated. The same procedure was done using different nifedipine concentrations and the blood was incubated for 60 min with Sn ion. The determination of the % of Tc-99m labeled in RBC and plasma proteins showed that this drug does not have the capability to alter this incorporation because the results are similar to control. It is suggested that the Sn ions passage across RBC is not altered by nifedipine although this drug could bind to plasma protein, it does not modify the Tc-99m fixation on it. (author) [pt

  13. Hierarchical clustering analysis of blood plasma lipidomics profiles from mono- and dizygotic twin families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, H.H.M.; Reijmers, Th.H.; Meulman, J.J.; van der Greef, J.; Hankemeier, Th.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Twin and family studies are typically used to elucidate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental variation to phenotypic variation. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic method based on hierarchical clustering, to blood plasma lipidomics data obtained in a healthy cohort consisting of

  14. Assessment of Renal Function by the Stable Oxygen and Hydrogen Isotopes in Human Blood Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Tai-Chih; Wang, Chung-Ho; Lin, Hsiu-Chen; Lin, Yuan-Hau; Lin, Matthew; Lin, Chun-Mao; Kuo, Hsien-Shou

    2012-01-01

    Water (H2O) is the most abundant and important molecule of life. Natural water contains small amount of heavy isotopes. Previously, few animal model studies have shown that the isotopic composition of body water could play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Here we study the stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) in human blood plasma. The stable isotopic ratio is defined and determined by δsample = [(Rsample/RSTD)−1] * 1000, where R is the molar ratio of rare to abundant, for example, 18O/16O. We observe that the δ2H and the δ18O in human blood plasma are associated with the human renal functions. The water isotope ratios of the δ2H and δ18O in human blood plasma of the control subjects are comparable to those of the diabetes subjects (with healthy kidney), but are statistically higher than those of the end stage renal disease subjects (pisotopes in all subjects, except the end stage renal disease subjects under the haemodialysis treatment. Furthermore, the unexpected water contents (δ2H and δ18O) in blood plasma of body water may shed light on a novel assessment of renal functions. PMID:22348150

  15. Passive blood plasma separation at the microscale: a review of design principles and microdevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Bala Varun Kumar, Y. V.; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-08-01

    Blood plasma separation is vital in the field of diagnostics and health care. Due to the inherent advantages obtained in the transition to microscale, the recent trend in these fields is a rapid shift towards the miniaturization of complex macro processes. Plasma separation in microdevices is one such process which has received extensive attention from researchers globally. Blood plasma separation techniques based on microfluidic platforms can be broadly classified into two categories. While active techniques utilize external force fields for separation, the passive techniques are dependent on biophysical effects, cell behavior, hydrodynamic forces and channel geometry for blood plasma separation. In general, passive separation methods are favored in comparison to active methods because they tend to avoid design complexities and are relatively easy to integrate with biosensors; additionally they are cost effective. Here we review passive separation techniques demonstrating separation and blood behavior at microscale. We present an extensive review of relevant biophysical laws, along with experimental details of various passive separation techniques and devices exploiting these physical effects. The relative performances, and the advantages and disadvantages of microdevices discussed in the literature, are compared and future challenges are brought about.

  16. Blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for non-invasive optical detection of cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shangyuan; Lin, Duo; Lin, Juqiang; Li, Buhong; Huang, Zufang; Chen, Guannan; Zhang, Wei; Wang, Lan; Pan, Jianji; Chen, Rong; Zeng, Haishan

    2013-07-21

    Based on blood plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) analysis, a simple and label-free blood test for non-invasive cervical cancer detection is presented in this paper. SERS measurements were performed on blood plasma samples from 60 cervical cancer patients and 50 healthy volunteers. Both the empirical approach and multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA), were employed to analyze and differentiate the obtained blood plasma SERS spectra. The empirical diagnostic algorithm based on the integration area of the SERS spectral bands (1310-1430 and 1560-1700 cm(-1)) achieved a diagnostic sensitivity of 70% and 83.3%, and a specificity of 76% and 78%, respectively, whereas the diagnostic algorithms based on PCA-LDA yielded a better diagnostic sensitivity of 96.7% and a specificity of 92% for separating cancerous samples from normal samples. This exploratory work demonstrates that a silver nanoparticle based SERS plasma analysis technique in conjunction with PCA-LDA has potential for improving cervical cancer detection and screening.

  17. Optical biosensors for real-time measurement of analytes in blood plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Brynda, Eduard; Houska, Milan; Brandenburg, A.; Wikerstal, A.

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 17, č. 8 (2002), s. 665-675 ISSN 0956-5663 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA102/99/0549; GA AV ČR IAA4050006 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : blood plasma * immunosensors * grating coupler Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.445, year: 2002

  18. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  19. Assessment of renal function by the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopes in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Chih Kuo

    Full Text Available Water (H(2O is the most abundant and important molecule of life. Natural water contains small amount of heavy isotopes. Previously, few animal model studies have shown that the isotopic composition of body water could play important roles in physiology and pathophysiology. Here we study the stable isotopic ratios of hydrogen (δ(2H and oxygen (δ(18O in human blood plasma. The stable isotopic ratio is defined and determined by δ(sample = [(R(sample/R(STD-1] * 1000, where R is the molar ratio of rare to abundant, for example, (18O/(16O. We observe that the δ(2H and the δ(18O in human blood plasma are associated with the human renal functions. The water isotope ratios of the δ(2H and δ(18O in human blood plasma of the control subjects are comparable to those of the diabetes subjects (with healthy kidney, but are statistically higher than those of the end stage renal disease subjects (p<0.001 for both ANOVA and Student's t-test. In addition, our data indicate the existence of the biological homeostasis of water isotopes in all subjects, except the end stage renal disease subjects under the haemodialysis treatment. Furthermore, the unexpected water contents (δ(2H and δ(18O in blood plasma of body water may shed light on a novel assessment of renal functions.

  20. Amperometric Sensor for Heparin: Sensing Mechanism and Application in Human Blood Plasma Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Olšák, J.; Samcová, E.; Samec, Zdeněk; Trojánek, Antonín

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, 13-14 (2006), s. 1329-1338 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heparin * amperometry * PVC membrane electrode * sensing mechanism * human blood plasma Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  1. Polarized Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    In India oral cancer ranks the top due to the habitual usage of tobacco in its various forms and remains the major burden. Hence priority is given for early diagnosis as it is the better solution for cure or to improve the survival rate. For the past three decades, optical spectroscopic techniques have shown its capacity in the discrimination of normal and malignant samples. Many research works have conventional Raman in the effective detection of cancer using the variations in bond vibrations of the molecules. However in addition polarized Raman provides the orientation and symmetry of biomolecules. If so can polarized Raman be the better choice than the conventional Raman in the detection of cancer? The present study aimed to found the answer for the above query. The conventional and polarized Raman spectra were acquired for the same set of blood plasma samples of normal subjects and oral malignant (OSCC) patients. Thus, obtained Raman spectral data were compared using linear discriminant analysis coupled with artificial neural network (LDA-ANN). The depolarization ratio of biomolecules such as antioxidant, amino acid, protein and nucleic acid bases present in blood plasma was proven to be the best attributes in the categorization of the groups. The polarized Raman results were promising in discriminating oral cancer blood plasma from that of normal blood plasma with improved efficiency. The results will be discussed in detail.

  2. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostrowski, Sisse R; Berg, Ronan M G; Windeløv, Nis A

    2013-01-01

    Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia...

  3. Fast blood plasma separation device for point-of-care applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďurč, P.; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 183, JUN (2018), s. 55-60 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : blood plasma separation * capillary electrophoresis * point of care analysis * methanol * metabolites Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  4. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  5. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; de Almeida, André Martinho; Ventosa, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abund...

  6. Preparing Platelet-Rich Plasma with Whole Blood Harvested Intraoperatively During Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhou, Ning-Feng; Huang, Yu-Feng; Bao, Yu-Jie; Wu, De-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Dong

    2017-07-22

    BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained growing popularity in use in spinal fusion procedures in the last decade. Substantial intraoperative blood loss is frequently accompanied with spinal fusion, and it is unknown whether blood harvested intraoperatively qualifies for PRP preparation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Whole blood was harvested intraoperatively and venous blood was collected by venipuncture. Then, we investigated the platelet concentrations in whole blood and PRP, the concentration of growth factors in PRP, and the effects of PRP on the proliferation and viability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). RESULTS Our results revealed that intraoperatively harvested whole blood and whole blood collected by venipuncture were similar in platelet concentration. In addition, PRP formulations prepared from both kinds of whole blood were similar in concentration of platelet and growth factors. Additional analysis showed that the similar concentrations of growth factors resulted from the similar platelet concentrations of whole blood and PRP between the two groups. Moreover, these two kinds of PRP formulations had similar effects on promoting cell proliferation and enhancing cell viability. CONCLUSIONS Therefore, intraoperatively harvested whole blood may be a potential option for preparing PRP spinal fusion.

  7. Voluntary whole-blood donors, and compensated platelet donors and plasma donors: motivation to donate, altruism and aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trimmel, Michael; Lattacher, Helene; Janda, Monika

    2005-10-01

    To establish if voluntary whole-blood donors and compensated platelet donors and plasma donors may differ in their motivation to donate, altruism, aggression and autoaggression. Whole-blood (n=51), platelet (n=52) and plasma donors (n=48) completed a battery of validated questionnaires while waiting to donate. Bivariate and multivariate analyses of variance and t-tests were performed to detect differences between groups as noted. Altruism (mean=40.2) was slightly higher in whole-blood donors than in platelet (mean=38.3) and plasma donors (mean=39.1) (p=0.07). Blood donors (mean=2.8) scored lower in the spontaneous aggression measure than platelet (mean=4.1) and plasma donors (mean=4.4) (p=0.01). Plasma donors (mean=4.9) had higher auto-aggression than whole-blood donors and platelet donors (mean for both groups=3.4) (p=0.01). Differences between the three groups were mediated by sociodemographic variables (MANCOVA). Whole-blood donors donated to help others, platelet and plasma donors mostly to receive the compensation. However, those platelet and plasma donors, who would continue to donate without compensation were similar in altruism and aggression to whole-blood donors. While most platelet donors and plasma donors were motivated by the compensation, those who stated that they would continue to donate without compensation had altruism and aggression scores similar to voluntary whole-blood donors.

  8. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  9. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  10. The Interchangeability of Plasma and Whole Blood Metal Ion Measurement in the Monitoring of Metal on Metal Hips

    OpenAIRE

    Malek, Ibrahim A.; Rogers, Joanne; King, Amanda Christina; Clutton, Juliet; Winson, Daniel; John, Alun

    2015-01-01

    One hundred and twenty six paired samples of plasma and whole blood were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique for metal ions analysis to determine a relationship between them. There was a significant difference between the mean plasma and whole blood concentrations of both cobalt (Co) and chromium (Cr) (p < 0.0001 for both Co and Cr). The mean ratio between plasma and whole blood Cr and Co was 1.56 (range: 0.39?3.85) and 1.54 (range: 0.64?18.26), respectively, ...

  11. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  12. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomathi, N., E-mail: gomathi@iist.ac.in [Department of Chemistry, Indian Institute of Space Science and Technology, Department of Space, Trivandrum, 695547 (India); Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Rajasekar, R. [Materials Science Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Department of BIN Fusion Technology, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk, 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Babu, R. Rajesh [Rubber Technology Center, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Advanced Tyre Research, Apollo Tyres, Baroda, 391750 (India); Mishra, Debasish [Department of Biotechnolgy, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India); Neogi, S. [Department of Chemical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur, 721302 (India)

    2012-10-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH{sup 2+} and NH{sup +} was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Nitrogen plasma surface modification. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  13. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, N.; Rajasekar, R.; Babu, R. Rajesh; Mishra, Debasish; Neogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH 2+ and NH + was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: ► Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. ► Nitrogen plasma surface modification. ► Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. ► Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  14. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of 3 H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of 3 H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of 3 H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown

  15. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  16. Plasma extraction rate enhancement scheme for a real-time and continuous blood plasma separation device using a sheathless cell concentrator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Dong-Hyun; Kim, Kyongtae; Kim, Yong-Jun

    2018-02-01

    Microfluidic devices for plasma extraction are popular because they offer the advantage of smaller reagent consumption compared to conventional centrifugations. The plasma yield (volume percentage of plasma that can be extracted) is an important factor for diagnoses in microdevices with small reagent consumptions. However, recently designed microfluidic devices tend to have a low plasma yield because they have been optimized to improve the purity of extracted plasma. Thus, these devices require large amounts of reagents, and this complexity has eliminated the advantage of microfluidic devices that can operate with only small amounts of reagents. We therefore propose a continuous, real-time, blood plasma separation device, for plasma extraction rate enhancements. Moreover, a blood plasma separation device was designed to achieve improved plasma yields with high-purity efficiency. To obtain a high plasma yield, microstructures were placed on the bottom side of the channel to increase the concentration of blood cells. Plasma separation was then accomplished via microfluidic networks based on the Zweifach-Fung effect. The proposed device was fabricated based on the polydimethylsiloxane molding process using the SU-8 microfluidic channel for the fabrication of the mold and bottom structures. Human blood diluted in a phosphate buffered saline solution (25% hematocrit) was injected into the inlet of the device. The purity efficiencies were approximately equal to 96% with a maximum of 96.75% at a flow rate of 2 µl min-1, while the plasma yield was approximately 59% with a maximum of 59.92% at a flow rate of 4 µl min-1. Compared to results obtained using other devices, our proposed device could obtain comparable or higher plasma purity and a high plasma yield.

  17. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  18. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse R Ostrowski

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG.Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour, with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05. Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05, whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05. Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h, whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT, p<0.001 and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049. After endotoxemia (6 h, whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05. In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001.Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are

  19. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Akira; Ogawa, Tatsuhisa; Okamoto, Keishi; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Nitta, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  20. Effects of blood lead and cadmium levels on homocysteine level in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, R; Zheng, Y-F; Bu, J-G; Zhang, Y-Y; Fu, S-L; Wang, X-G; Guo, L-L; Zhang, J-R

    2017-01-01

    We studied the effect of non-occupational exposure to lead and cadmium on homocysteine level in plasma. Homocysteine is a marker for plasma folate folic acid metabolism in urban populations. 159 individuals from Beijing, Guangzhou, Shenzhen and Shanghai with no history of close exposure to heavy metals and no history of metabolic diseases were enrolled to participate in this study. Blood lead and cadmium levels were detected using ICP-MS method and the level of homocysteine was also measured using enzyme method. Our results showed that blood lead and cadmium levels in males were significantly higher than those in females. Also, blood lead and cadmium levels in smokers were higher than those in non-smokers; homocysteine level was significantly higher in smokers as well. According to blood lead and cadmium levels, cases were divided into four groups. Our results showed that a surge in blood lead and cadmium levels could result in an increase in homocysteine level. We concluded that in the Chinese population, smoking and gender might be the risk factors for elevated levels of lead and cadmium. Meanwhile, blood lead and cadmium levels may influence the homocysteine levels in the body. It is possible to speculate that non-occupational exposure to lead and cadmium, by increasing the homocysteine levels, negatively affect the cardiovascular and nervous system.

  1. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  2. Blood plasma proteins and protein fractions in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate some selected biochemical blood parameters in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.. The experiment covered 15 from 2 to 3-year-old bucks from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The animals were shot by individual hunters on the shooting grounds during the hunting season of 2008/2009 (in the accordance with the Journal of Laws No 48. The material for the research was blood plasma obtained after centrifuging full, nonhemolyzed blood. The blood was collected from the zygomatic vein directly to the test tubes with EDTA and transported in cooling conditions to the laboratory. After transporting the samples of blood to a certified analytical laboratory, the following elements of the obtained blood plasma were examined: ceruloplasmin . using turbidimetric method; transferrin . using immunoturbimetric method; troponin- using a third generation assay on an Elecsys; total protein, albumin, globulin . using spectrophotometric method and total iron . using colorimetric method. The results were statistically analyzed, i.e. the correlation between the parameters was measured by means of Pearsonfs correlation coefficient. The analysis of the results revealed a number of statistically significant relations between the parameters under the investigation, especially among the compounds directly responsible for metabolism of iron and copper. A statistically important positive correlation was observed between ceruloplasmin and ferritin (r = 0.563; P.0.05 and a negative one between transferrin and troponin (r = -0.609; P.0.05. Moreover, the content of transferrin . an iron-binding protein . was 0.17 g/l, while the concentration of iron was 58 ƒĘmol/l. The content of ceruloplasmin . a protein responsible for metabolism of copper . was very low (0.036 g/l. The level of proteins in the blood plasma of the animals under the research was approximately 72 g/l, with the share of albumins about 46%. The albumin-globulin ratio was 0.86.

  3. Polymorphism of transferrin of carp seminal plasma: relationship to blood transferrin and sperm motility characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojtczak, Mariola; Dietrich, Grzegorz J; Irnazarow, Ilgiz; Jurecka, Patrycja; Słowińska, Mariola; Ciereszko, Andrzej

    2007-12-01

    Transferrin (Tf) is a major protein of carp (Cyprinus carpio) seminal plasma. Its relationship with milt quality is unknown. In this study, we sought to determine if Tf is polymorphic in carp seminal plasma and if this polymorphism is related to sperm motility characteristics. We screened males of purebred common carp line (Polish line R6) for Tf polymorphism in blood plasma. The majority of Tf genotypes represented only DD and DG variants. We then collected milt from preselected DD and DG genotypes and tested their sperm motility characteristics using computer-aided sperm analysis (CASA). Tf polymorphism in seminal plasma was found to be identical with that of blood. However, the relationships between Tf polymorphism and iron metabolic parameters were different for blood and semen. These data suggest different regulation of Tf in liver and testis. We found substantial differences in sperm motility characteristics between both genotypes. Spermatozoa of DG males were characterized by lower curvilinear velocity (VCL), amplitude of lateral head displacement (ALH), higher linearity (LIN) and straightness (STR) of movement as compared to DD males. No differences were found in other sperm characteristics such as sperm concentration and percentage of sperm motility. Our results suggest that sperm motility parameters are related to Tf polymorphism and therefore this polymorphism may be related to sperm competitive ability.

  4. Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in whole blood and plasma by TaqMan PCR and in peripheral blood lymphocytes by competitive PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Laus, Stella; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven A; Rowe, David

    2003-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load values were measured in samples of whole blood (n = 60) and plasma (n = 59) by TaqMan PCR and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) (n = 60) by competitive PCR (cPCR). The samples were obtained from 44 transplant recipients. The whole-blood and PBL loads correlated highly (r(2) > 0.900), whereas the plasma and PBL loads correlated poorly (r(2) = 0.512). Testing of whole blood by TaqMan PCR is an acceptable alternative to testing of PBLs by cPCR for quantifying EBV DNA load.

  5. A simple assay method for added stable caesium in blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaikkonen, M. [Dept. of Basic Veterinary Sciences, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland); Lehto, J. [Lab. of Radiochemistry, Univ. of Helsinki (Finland)

    2006-07-01

    A new assay method was developed to determine added stable caesium (Cs) in blood plasma. The simple and inexpensive method is based on the competition between stable and radioactive Cs in binding to ammonium-iron(II)-hexacyanoferrate(III) (AFCF), followed by the precipitation of AFCF-bound Cs with plasma proteins, and the measurement of the radioactivity of the precipitate. For data treatment, standard procedures of radioimmunoassay were used. At present stage, the qualitative detection limit is around 0.2 {mu}mol L{sup -1}, and the practical limit for quantitative results around 1 {mu}mol L{sup -1}. The method is applicable only for recently added Cs in blood plasma, and cannot be used to measure endogenous plasma Cs or Cs in other tissues. Determining plasma kinetics of Cs might be useful in the study of some aspects of potassium kinetics, since these two alkali metals are transported into cells by the same cellular mechanism (Na,K-ATPase). (orig.)

  6. Stability of magnetite nanoparticles with different coatings in a simulated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Pérez-Robles, J. Francisco [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of National Polytechnic Institute, CINVESTAV-Querétaro Unit (Mexico); García-Casillas, Perla E. [Autonomous University of Juarez, Department of Materials Science, Institute of Engineering and Technology (Mexico); Godinez-Garcia, Andrés, E-mail: andgodinez@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated to be a potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, magnetite is unstable at the blood plasma conditions. Therefore, to study their stability in a broad range of particle size, the MNPs were synthesized using two methods, the fast injection co-precipitation method (FIC) and the reflux co-precipitation method (RC). The MNPs obtained by the RC and the FIC methods have an average size of agglomerates of 200 and 45 nm respectively. They were dispersed using sodium citrate as surfactant and were coated with silica and chitosan. A total of four kind of coated MNPs were synthesized: magnetite/sodium citrate, magnetite/silica, magnetite/sodium citrate/silica and magnetite/sodium citrate/silica/chitosan. Different samples of the coated MNPs were immersed in a simulated blood plasma solution (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, PBS, Gibco{sup ®}), for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was used to analyze the composition of the simulated plasma after those periods of time. The obtained results suggest that the uncoated samples showed an appreciable weight loss, and the iron composition in the simulated plasma increased. This last means that the used coatings avoid iron dissolution from the MNPs.Graphical abstract.

  7. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  8. TD-GC-MS Investigation of the VOCs Released from Blood Plasma of Dogs with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical TD-GC-MS method was developed and used for the assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs released from the blood plasma of dogs with/without cancer. VOCs released from 40 samples of diseased blood and 10 control samples were compared in order to examine the difference between both sample groups that were showing qualitatively similar results independent from the disease’s presence. However, mild disturbances in the spectra of dogs with cancer in comparison with the control group were observed, and six peaks (tentatively identified by comparison with mass spectral library as hexanal, octanal, toluene, 2-butanone, 1-octen-3-ol and pyrrole revealed statistically significant differences between both sample groups, thereby suggesting that these compounds are potential biomarkers that can be used for cancer diagnosis based on the blood plasma TD-GC-MS analysis. Statistical comparison with the application of principal component analysis (PCA provided accurate discrimination between the cancer and control groups, thus demonstrating stronger biochemical perturbations in blood plasma when cancer is present.

  9. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Some Biochemical Indicators in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Simpraga, M.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionising radiation before incubation on concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation ( 60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was the control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for the both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of all three parameters was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The concentration of total protein was significantly decreased in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3, 7 and 30 and increased only on day 5. The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma was increased in the same chickens on days 1 and 30. The concentration of the cholesterol was decreased in the same chickens on day 7, and increased on day 10. Obtained results indicate that low-dose of gamma radiation has effects on some metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (author)

  10. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  11. Concentration of Some Minerals and Activity of Alkaline Phosphate in Blood Plasma of Irradiated Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Simpraga, M.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Stojevic, Z.; Kraljevic, P.; Starcevic, Z.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    The results of our previous papers have shown the changes on hematological parameters, some enzymes activity and mineral metabolism in blood plasma of chickens after internal contamination with a lethal amount of radioactive isotope 32 P. So, this time an attempt has been made to investigate the effects of whole body irradiation by semilethal dose (8 Gy) of gamma-rays on some mineral concentration and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma of chickens for early detecting of acute radiation syndrome. Experiments were carried out on fifty-days-old hybrid chickens of the 'Jata' breed of male sex with 2 to 2.3 kg of body mass. The animals were divided into two groups with five chickens in each group. The experimental group was whole body irradiated by gamma-rays ( 60 Co) with single dose of 8 Gy. Blood samples for biochemical analysis were drawn from wing vein on day before irradiation and on the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, 9th and 15th days after irradiation. The concentration of calcium, inorganic phosphorus and magnesium as well as the activity of alkaline phosphatase, were determined in blood plasma. The statistical analysis was performed and the results obtained are shown as a mean value. The significance of the changes was checked according to the Student and Fisher t-test. Obtained results have shown that activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma of whole body gamma-rays irradiated chickens significantly changes only on the first day after irradiation. In the same time the calcium, phosphorus and magnesium concentration were not significantly changed during the whole experiment. Therefore, we can conclude that the concentration of this mineral would not be an acceptable parameter for early detecting of acute radiation syndrome in 50 day-old chickens after irradiation by semilethal dose of gamma-radiation. (author)

  12. Study Of Blood Lead Levels, Hemoglobin & Plasma AscorbicAcid In ACarCompanyWelders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AR Dorosti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Background and aim: About 30-40% of lead entered the respiratorysystem, is absorbed to the bloodstream. Some studies have demonstrated that cigarette smokingresults in blood-lead levels elevation as well as decreased blood ascorbic acid. This study hasperformed on this issue in lead exposed welder workers.Method:Adescriptive cross-sectional study was performed to evaluate associations of smokinghabit with blood lead, hemoglobin and plasma ascorbic acid levels in 32 welders. All the casesused to work in a car factory in Tehran suburb as welders 8 hours a day. They were divided intothree groups based on blood lead level quartiles.The blood lead levels were determined by 8003 NAIOSH method and blood ascorbic acid levelwas determined by Lowery method. Results were compared (based on mean values usingindependent sample t-test and analysis of variance (ANOVA methods.Results: Results indicated that the blood lead levels in those who smoke 7+ cigarettes per day wassignificantly higher than those who smoke <7 cigarettes per day (p<0.05 or no smoking group(p<0.001. The hemoglobin concentrations in 7+ group was significantly lower than of the <7(p<0.01 and no smoking (p<0.05 groups.Conclusion :Smoking hait in population, who occupationally exposed to lead, causes an increaseexposure to lead and, hence, elevation of blood-lead levels as well as inhibition of hemoglobinsynthesis and therefore reduces hemoglobin concentration.

  13. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3...

  14. Phase transitions during compression and decompression of clots from platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Chernysh, Irina; Purohit, Prashant K; Weisel, John W

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots are required to stem bleeding and are subject to a variety of stresses, but they can also block blood vessels and cause heart attacks and ischemic strokes. We measured the compressive response of human platelet-poor plasma (PPP) clots, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clots and whole blood clots and correlated these measurements with confocal and scanning electron microscopy to track changes in clot structure. Stress-strain curves revealed four characteristic regions, for compression-decompression: (1) linear elastic region; (2) upper plateau or softening region; (3) non-linear elastic region or re-stretching of the network; (4) lower plateau in which dissociation of some newly made connections occurs. Our experiments revealed that compression proceeds by the passage of a phase boundary through the clot separating rarefied and densified phases. This observation motivates a model of fibrin mechanics based on the continuum theory of phase transitions, which accounts for the pre-stress caused by platelets, the adhesion of fibrin fibers in the densified phase, the compression of red blood cells (RBCs), and the pumping of liquids through the clot during compression/decompression. Our experiments and theory provide insights into the mechanical behavior of blood clots that could have implications clinically and in the design of fibrin-based biomaterials. The objective of this paper is to measure and mathematically model the compression behavior of various human blood clots. We show by a combination of confocal and scanning electron microscopy that compression proceeds by the passage of a front through the sample that separates a densified region of the clot from a rarefied region, and that the compression/decompression response is reversible with hysteresis. These observations form the basis of a model for the compression response of clots based on the continuum theory of phase transitions. Our studies may reveal how clot rheology under large compression in vivo due

  15. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  16. A Systematic Evaluation of Blood Serum and Plasma Pre-Analytics for Metabolomics Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jobard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent thriving development of biobanks and associated high-throughput phenotyping studies requires the elaboration of large-scale approaches for monitoring biological sample quality and compliance with standard protocols. We present a metabolomic investigation of human blood samples that delineates pitfalls and guidelines for the collection, storage and handling procedures for serum and plasma. A series of eight pre-processing technical parameters is systematically investigated along variable ranges commonly encountered across clinical studies. While metabolic fingerprints, as assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, are not significantly affected by altered centrifugation parameters or delays between sample pre-processing (blood centrifugation and storage, our metabolomic investigation highlights that both the delay and storage temperature between blood draw and centrifugation are the primary parameters impacting serum and plasma metabolic profiles. Storing the blood drawn at 4 °C is shown to be a reliable routine to confine variability associated with idle time prior to sample pre-processing. Based on their fine sensitivity to pre-analytical parameters and protocol variations, metabolic fingerprints could be exploited as valuable ways to determine compliance with standard procedures and quality assessment of blood samples within large multi-omic clinical and translational cohort studies.

  17. [Effectiveness of different methods of blood separation in performing plasma- and cytapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhko, V V; Gorodetskiĭ, V M; Rogova, E M

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining of a therapeutic dose of platelets from donors, necessary to stop spontaneous hemorrhage and sufficient enough to correct hemostasis in surgical interventions in patients with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, therapeutic plasmapheresis with the removal of 1.5-2.01 of plasma, effective erythrocytapheresis can be done with the help of refrigerator centrifuges and plastic containers. This method can be also employed for effective leukocytapheresis in patients with the leukocyte level exceeding 100.10(9)/l. It is simple, economical, reliable; several donors (patients) can be involved in the procedure at a time. Blood cell separators can be most effectively used for therapeutic lymphocytoplasmapheresis, massive plasmapheresis with the removal of over 2.51 of plasma, for obtaining a large number of platelets and granulocytes. The CS-3000 blood cell separator ensures automatic control over blood separation and possible complications during a procedure; a constant temperature regimen of blood separation; one-time use of equipment in direct contact with patient's (donor's) blood; a high efficacy and safety of the procedure.

  18. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position...

  19. [Isolation, extractive concentration, and determination of caffeine in the studies of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ia I; Shormanov, V K; Mokshina, N Ia; Krivosheeva, O A; Golubitskiĭ, G B

    2012-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the isolation of caffeine from human blood by means of acetone extraction are described with special reference to the peculiarities of extraction from aqueous solutions. The possibility of concentration and purification of caffeine from blood plasma using acetone and aceton-chlorophorm mixture (2:8) as the solvents is illustrated. In addition, purification by silica-gel thin layer chromatography is discussed. Thin layer chromatography, UV-spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography are considered as potential methods for the identification and quantitative determination of caffeine.

  20. Self-driven filter-based blood plasma separator microfluidic chip for point-of-care testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Hojjat; Casals-Terré, Jasmina; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a growing need for lab-on-a-chip devices for use in clinical analysis and diagnostics, especially in the area of patient care. The first step in most blood assays is plasma extraction from whole blood. This paper presents a novel, self-driven blood plasma separation microfluidic chip, which can extract more than 0.1 μl plasma from a single droplet of undiluted fresh human blood (∼5 μl). This volume of blood plasma is extracted from whole blood with high purity (more than 98%) in a reasonable time frame (3 to 5 min), and without the need for any external force. This would be the first step towards the realization of a single-use, self-blood test that does not require any external force or power source to deliver and analyze a fresh whole-blood sample, in contrast to the existing time-consuming conventional blood analysis. The prototypes are manufactured in polydimethylsiloxane that has been modified with a strong nonionic surfactant (Silwet L-77) to achieve hydrophilic behavior. The main advantage of this microfluidic chip design is the clogging delay in the filtration area, which results in an increased amount of extracted plasma (0.1 μl). Moreover, the plasma can be collected in one or more 10 μm-deep channels to facilitate the detection and readout of multiple blood assays. This high volume of extracted plasma is achieved thanks to a novel design that combines maximum pumping efficiency without disturbing the red blood cells’ trajectory through the use of different hydrodynamic principles, such as a constriction effect and a symmetrical filtration mode. To demonstrate the microfluidic chip’s functionality, we designed and fabricated a novel hybrid microdevice that exhibits the benefits of both microfluidics and lateral flow immunochromatographic tests. The performance of the presented hybrid microdevice is validated using rapid detection of thyroid stimulating hormone within a single droplet of whole blood. (paper)

  1. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3.......04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid (r = 0.34, P dose. The observed effects of fish oil are in accordance with findings in adults. The long-term health implications......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...

  2. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine G Aabye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn screening. AIM: To develop a robust and sensitive ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection in plasma, dried blood spots (DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS; to validate the ELISA in clinically relevant samples; and to assess the performance of the assay for detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV and M.tuberculosis specific immune responses. METHOD: We raised mice and rat monoclonal antibodies against human IP-10 and developed an ELISA. The assay was validated and applied to the detection of CMV and M.tuberculosis specific responses in 18 patients with immune reactivity towards M.tuberculosis and 32 healthy controls of which 22 had immune reactivity towards CMV and none towards M.tuberculosis. We compared the performance of this new assay to IFN-γ. RESULTS: The ELISA was reliable for IP-10 detection in both plasma and filter paper samples. The linear range of the ELISA was 2.5-600 pg/ml. IFN-γ was not readily detectable in DPS samples. IP-10 was stabile in filter paper samples for at least 4 weeks at 37 °C. The correlation between IP-10 detected in plasma, DPS and DBS samples was excellent (r(2>0.97. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed assay is reliable for IP-10 quantification in plasma, DBS and DPS samples from antigen stimulated and non-stimulated whole blood. The filter paper assays enable easy sample acquisition and transport at ambient temperature e.g. via the postal system. The system can potentially simplify diagnostic assays for M.tuberculosis and CMV infection.

  3. Parameterizing the Morse potential for coarse-grained modeling of blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Na; Zhang, Peng; Kang, Wei; Bluestein, Danny; Deng, Yuefan

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale simulations of fluids such as blood represent a major computational challenge of coupling the disparate spatiotemporal scales between molecular and macroscopic transport phenomena characterizing such complex fluids. In this paper, a coarse-grained (CG) particle model is developed for simulating blood flow by modifying the Morse potential, traditionally used in Molecular Dynamics for modeling vibrating structures. The modified Morse potential is parameterized with effective mass scales for reproducing blood viscous flow properties, including density, pressure, viscosity, compressibility and characteristic flow dynamics of human blood plasma fluid. The parameterization follows a standard inverse-problem approach in which the optimal micro parameters are systematically searched, by gradually decoupling loosely correlated parameter spaces, to match the macro physical quantities of viscous blood flow. The predictions of this particle based multiscale model compare favorably to classic viscous flow solutions such as Counter-Poiseuille and Couette flows. It demonstrates that such coarse grained particle model can be applied to replicate the dynamics of viscous blood flow, with the advantage of bridging the gap between macroscopic flow scales and the cellular scales characterizing blood flow that continuum based models fail to handle adequately

  4. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  5. Use of pooled blood plasmas in the assessment of fouling resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bologna Alles, A.; Brynda, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 5 (2014), s. 2318-2321 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : blood plasma * fouling * biomaterials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  6. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  7. Placenta-derived fetal specific mRNA is more readily detectable in maternal plasma than in whole blood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Macy M S Heung

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Placental mRNA was detected in maternal whole blood, raising the possibility of using maternal blood for noninvasive prenatal diagnosis. We investigated fetal mRNA detection in maternal whole blood and determined if it offered advantages over maternal plasma analysis. METHODOLOGY: The concentrations of placental expressed genes, CSH1, KISS1, PLAC4 and PLAC1 in plasma and whole blood from healthy pregnant and non-pregnant individuals were compared by real-time quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction analysis. Their fetal specificity was investigated by comparing the transcript concentrations in pre- and post-delivery samples and through SNP genotyping by matrix-assisted laser-desorption and ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The gene expression profiles of pregnant and non-pregnant whole blood were investigated by microarray analysis. Upregulated genes in pregnant whole blood were selected for further quantitative analysis. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The concentrations of the four transcripts were significantly higher in third trimester maternal whole blood than corresponding plasma without significant correlations. KISS1, PLAC4 and PLAC1 were detected in non-pregnant whole blood but not plasma. The transcripts remained detectable in some postpartum whole blood samples. The PLAC4 mRNA in maternal plasma showed fetal genotype while that in corresponding whole blood indicated both fetal and maternal contributions. Microarray analysis revealed upregulation of genes involved in neutrophil functions in pregnant whole blood including DEFA4, CEACAM8, OLFM4, ORM1, MMP8 and MPO. Though possibly pregnancy-related, they were not pregnancy-specific as suggested by the lack of post-delivery reduction in concentrations. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal plasma is preferred over maternal whole blood for placenta-derived fetal RNA detection. Most studied 'placental' mRNA molecules in maternal whole blood were of maternal origin and might

  8. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal and cord blood plasma of several northern Canadian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.J. [Bureau Chemical Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Oostdam, J. van [Management Toxic Substances Div., Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) funded by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada has carried out a number of baseline studies in Nunavut and the North West Territories of northern Canada (figure 1) to assess the exposure of indigenous peoples to a variety of chemical classes including POPs and metals. These studies, summarized by Walker et al, have used both maternal and cord human blood plasma as the media from sampling which took place in four phases over the years 1994-1999. Small amounts of individual blood plasma have remained from these investigations. We combined these individual samples into 23 composite samples of maternal and cord blood based mainly on the region and ethnicity of the donors. These composites have been used to study the exposure of northern peoples to PBDEs and to estimate, where possible, the influence of ethnicity, region of collection, and time on such exposure. Comparison is also made between the levels in plasma from northern populations and in human milk from those inhabiting the more numerous south.

  9. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  10. ABO blood group in relation to plasma lipids and proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Sha; Xu, Rui-Xia; Guo, Yuan-Lin; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Cheng-Gang; Sun, Jing; Li, Jian-Jun

    2015-04-01

    Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9), a newly-identified member that plays an essential role in cholesterol homeostasis and holds decent promise for hyperlipidemia and coronary artery disease (CAD) treatment. However, the determining factors of PCSK9 are not well-characterized. It is well established that ABO blood group is associated with cholesterol metabolism. Therefore, the relationship between ABO blood groups and plasma PCSK9 level was examined. A group of 507 consecutive patients undergoing diagnostic or interventional coronary angiography were enrolled in this cross-sectional study. The baseline clinical characteristics were collected, and the plasma PCSK9 levels were determined using ELISA. As a result, subjects of non-O type had higher levels of total cholesterol (TC), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), non high density lipoprotein cholesterol (NHDL-C), apolipoprotein B (apo B), and PCSK9 compared with that of O type (p ABO group was significantly and independently associated with PCSK9 level (β = 7.91, p = 0.009). Additionally, mediation analysis indicated that ≈8%-19% of the effect of ABO blood group on PCSK9 levels was mediated by TC, LDL-C or NHDL-C levels. These data firstly suggested that the ABO blood group might be a significant determinant factor for plasma PCSK9 level. It is also possible that the observed association between PCSK9 and ABO blood group might be in part involved in their CAD susceptibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  12. [Determination of fibrinogen content in human blood plasma using thrombin-like enzyme of ancistron N and analysis of hemostasis under presence of blood coagulation inhibitors].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platonova, T N; Sushko, O O; Colovĭov, D O; Iena, Ia M

    1993-01-01

    The cases of non-coagulation or only partial coagulation of blood plasma fibrinogen under the effect of thrombin have been revealed while examining the homeostasis-state in practically healthy elderly and old people and those with hypertonic disease. These cases have been analyzed. It is shown that the suggested method of fibrinogen determination in blood plasma using thrombin-like enzyme ancistrone-H extracted from venom of snakes (Agkistrodon halys halys) permits determining the fibrinogen content in blood plasma even in the cases connected with the presence of circulating coagulation inhibitors in plasma. The determination is not hindered by the introduction of exogenous heparin, including low-molecular heparins of the fraxiparin type.

  13. A case of ABO-incompatible blood transfusion treated by plasma exchange therapy and continuous hemodiafiltration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namikawa, Akio; Shibuya, Yuko; Ouchi, Haruki; Takahashi, Hiroko; Furuto, Yoshitaka

    2018-05-01

    ABO-incompatible blood transfusion is potentially a life-threatening event. A 74-year-old type O Rh-positive male was accidentally transfused with 280 mL type B Rh-positive red blood cells during open right hemicolectomy, causing ABO-incompatible blood transfusion. Immediately after the transfusion, the patient experienced a hypotension episode followed by acute hemolytic reaction, disseminated intravascular coagulation and acute kidney injury. Plasma exchange therapy was performed to remove anti-B antibody and free hemoglobin because they caused acute hemolytic reaction, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute kidney injury. Free hemoglobin levels decreased from 13 to 2 mg/dL for 2 h. Continuous hemodiafiltration was used to stabilize hemodynamics. The patient was successfully treated for acute hemolytic reaction, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute kidney injury. Plasma exchange therapy and continuous hemodiafiltration are likely to be effective treatments for ABO-incompatible blood transfusion, and further studies are required to assess this effectiveness in future.

  14. Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, YAN; Qikang, JIN; Chao, ZHENG; Guanlei, DENG; Shengyong, YIN; Zhen, LIU

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

  15. Site-specific O-Glycosylation Analysis of Human Blood Plasma Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Marcus; Marx, Kristina; Reichl, Udo; Wuhrer, Manfred; Rapp, Erdmann

    2016-02-01

    Site-specific glycosylation analysis is key to investigate structure-function relationships of glycoproteins, e.g. in the context of antigenicity and disease progression. The analysis, though, is quite challenging and time consuming, in particular for O-glycosylated proteins. In consequence, despite their clinical and biopharmaceutical importance, many human blood plasma glycoproteins have not been characterized comprehensively with respect to their O-glycosylation. Here, we report on the site-specific O-glycosylation analysis of human blood plasma glycoproteins. To this end pooled human blood plasma of healthy donors was proteolytically digested using a broad-specific enzyme (Proteinase K), followed by a precipitation step, as well as a glycopeptide enrichment and fractionation step via hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography, the latter being optimized for intact O-glycopeptides carrying short mucin-type core-1 and -2 O-glycans, which represent the vast majority of O-glycans on human blood plasma proteins. Enriched O-glycopeptide fractions were subjected to mass spectrometric analysis using reversed-phase liquid chromatography coupled online to an ion trap mass spectrometer operated in positive-ion mode. Peptide identity and glycan composition were derived from low-energy collision-induced dissociation fragment spectra acquired in multistage mode. To pinpoint the O-glycosylation sites glycopeptides were fragmented using electron transfer dissociation. Spectra were annotated by database searches as well as manually. Overall, 31 O-glycosylation sites and regions belonging to 22 proteins were identified, the majority being acute-phase proteins. Strikingly, also 11 novel O-glycosylation sites and regions were identified. In total 23 O-glycosylation sites could be pinpointed. Interestingly, the use of Proteinase K proved to be particularly beneficial in this context. The identified O-glycan compositions most probably correspond to mono- and disialylated core-1

  16. Association between the plasma/whole blood lead ratio and history of spontaneous abortion: a nested cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith Donald

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood lead has been associated with an elevated risk of miscarriage. The plasmatic fraction of lead represents the toxicologically active fraction of lead. Women with a tendency to have a higher plasma/whole blood Pb ratio could tend towards an elevated risk of miscarriage due to a higher plasma Pb for a given whole blood Pb and would consequently have a history of spontaneous abortion. Methods We studied 207 pregnant Mexico City residents during the 1st trimester of pregnancy, originally recruited for two cohorts between 1997 and 2004. Criteria for inclusion in this study were having had at least one previous pregnancy, and having valid plasma and blood Pb measurements. Pb was measured in whole blood and plasma by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry using ultra-clean techniques. History of miscarriage in previous pregnancies was obtained by interview. The incidence rate of spontaneous abortion was defined as the proportion of previous pregnancies that resulted in miscarriage. Data were analyzed by means of Poisson regression models featuring the incidence rate of spontaneous abortion as the outcome and continuous or categorized plasma/blood Pb ratios as predictor variables. All models were adjusted for age and schooling. Additionally, logistic regression models featuring inclusion in the study sample as the outcome were fitted to assess potential selection bias. Results The mean number of miscarriages was 0.42 (range 0 to 4; mean Pb concentrations were 62.4 and 0.14 μg/L in whole blood and plasma respectively. Mean plasma/blood Pb ratio was 0.22%. We estimated that a 0.1% increment in the plasma/blood Pb ratio lead was associated to a 12% greater incidence of spontaneous abortion (p = 0.02. Women in the upper tertile of the plasma/blood Pb ratio had twice the incidence rate of those in the lower tertile (p = 0.02. Conditional on recruitment cohort, inclusion in the study sample was unrelated to observable

  17. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of 4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  18. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position....... The orthostatic drop in systolic blood pressure was in most cases only moderately increased after ingestion of imipramine, but in three subjects pronounced orthostatic hypotension developed when the sodium balance was low, whereas no clinical symptoms were seen in the same subjects when tested after imipramine...

  19. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  20. The effect of quercetin on plasma oxidative status, C-reactive protein and blood pressure in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Javadi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, quercetin had no effect on oxidative and inflammatory status of plasma and blood pressure in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to ensure the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and inflammation in human.

  1. Native fluorescence spectroscopy of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes: identifying fingerprints of glucose-related metabolic pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirshin, Evgeny; Cherkasova, Olga; Tikhonova, Tatiana; Berlovskaya, Elena; Priezzhev, Alexander; Fadeev, Victor

    2015-05-01

    We present the results of a native fluorescence spectroscopy study of blood plasma of rats with experimental diabetes. It was shown that the fluorescence emission band shape at 320 nm excitation is the most indicative of hyperglycemia in the blood plasma samples. We provide the interpretation of this fact based on the changes in reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate concentration due to glucose-related metabolic pathways and protein fluorescent cross-linking formation following nonenzymatic glycation.

  2. Improving Blood Plasma Glycoproteome Coverage by Coupling Ultracentrifugation Fractionation to Electrostatic Repulsion-Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adav, Sunil S.; Hwa, Ho Hee; De Kleijn, Dominique; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma is considered to be an excellent source of disease biomarkers because it contains proteins, lipids, metabolites, cell, and cell-derived extracellular vesicles from different cellular origins including diseased tissues. Most secretory and membranous proteins that can be found in plasma

  3. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2012-12-21

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  4. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Frolova, A. Y.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of "International Society for Extracellular Vesicles". The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  5. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusova, N. V., E-mail: Bochkarevanv@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tamkovich, S. N., E-mail: s.tamk@niboch.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Lavrentiev Avenue 8, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Stakheeva, M. N., E-mail: StakheyevaM@oncology.tomsk.ru; Afanas’ev, S. G., E-mail: Afanasievsg@oncology.tomsk.ru; Kondakova, I. V., E-mail: Kondakova@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Frolova, A. Y., E-mail: Frolovalenya@mail.ru [Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of “International Society for Extracellular Vesicles”. The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  6. Magnesium, zinc and copper in plasma and blood cellular components in children with IDDM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohn, R D; Pleban, P; Jenkins, L L

    1993-04-16

    The levels of magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in the plasma, erythrocytes (RBC) and polymorphonuclear (PMN) and lymphocyte (L), leukocytes (WBC) of 45 diabetic children were compared to those of 12 normal children and were related to the diabetic control via HbA1 and fasting blood sugar (FBS) assessments. Mineral levels were determined via Zeeman-effect atomic absorption spectrophotometry following separation of plasma, RBC, and WBC fractions (PMN vs. M). ANOVA (four-way, blood components, by two-way, diabetic vs. normal children) was significant for Mg only (F = 4.60, P < 0.004). Plasma Mg and M-WBC Mg were significantly lower in children with diabetes (780 +/- 16 vs. 860 +/- 29 mumol/l and 519 +/- 33 vs. 866 +/- 86 micrograms/10(10) cells, respectively). RBC Zn was significantly lower in diabetic youngsters by t-test (0.48 +/- 0.012 vs. 0.57 +/- 0.046 per mumol/g Hgb, t = 2.79, P < 0.004), but the ANOVA for Zn was not significant. Cu level differences were not significant. HbA1 was predicted only by PMN-WBC Mg (F = 8.78, P < 0.04) and FBS by none. In conclusion, the mineral status of these diabetic children was altered in regard to Mg, but was mainly independent of diabetic control.

  7. Metabolomic Analysis of Clinical Plasma from Cerebral Infarction Patients Presenting with Blood Stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis (BS is characterized as a disorder of blood circulation. In traditional Korean medicine (TKM, it is viewed as a cause factor of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. This study investigated differences in the plasma metabolites profiles of subjects displaying BS or non-BS patterns. Thirty-one patients with cerebral infarction diagnosed with BS and an equal number of sex- and age-matched non-BS patients were enrolled. Metabolic profiling was performed using UPLC-MS. The ratio of subjects with a rough pulse and purple coloration of the tongue was higher in patients presenting with BS pattern. Through metabolomics analysis, 82 metabolites that differed significantly between the BS and non-BS pattern were identified, and the two groups were significantly separated using an orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis model (P<0.001. Of these 82 metabolites, acetyl carnitine, leucine, kynurenine, phosphocholine, hexanoyl carnitine, and decanoyl carnitine were present in significantly higher levels in patients with a BS pattern than those with a non-BS pattern. Our results also demonstrated that seven plasma metabolites, including acyl-carnitines and kynurenine, were associated with a BS pattern, suggesting that variant plasma metabolic profiles may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis of BS in patients with cerebral infarction.

  8. New evidence that a large proportion of human blood plasma cell-free DNA is localized in exosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, M Rohan; Jiang, Chao; Krzyzanowski, Gary D; Ryan, Wayne L

    2017-01-01

    Cell-free DNA (cfDNA) in blood is used as a source of genetic material for noninvasive prenatal and cancer diagnostic assays in clinical practice. Recently we have started a project for new biomarker discovery with a view to developing new noninvasive diagnostic assays. While reviewing literature, it was found that exosomes may be a rich source of biomarkers, because exosomes play an important role in human health and disease. While characterizing exosomes found in human blood plasma, we observed the presence of cfDNA in plasma exosomes. Plasma was obtained from blood drawn into K3EDTA tubes. Exosomes were isolated from cell-free plasma using a commercially available kit. Sizing and enumeration of exosomes were done using electron microscopy and NanoSight particle counter. NanoSight and confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate the association between dsDNA and exosomes. DNA extracted from plasma and exosomes was measured by a fluorometric method and a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) method. Size of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma was heterogeneous and showed a mean value of 92.6 nm and a mode 39.7 nm. A large proportion of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma were identified as exosomes using a fluorescence probe specific for exosomes and three protein markers, Hsp70, CD9 and CD63, that are commonly used to identify exosome fraction. Fluorescence dye that stain dsDNA showed the association between exosomes and dsDNA. Plasma cfDNA concentration analysis showed more than 93% of amplifiable cfDNA in plasma is located in plasma exosomes. Storage of a blood sample showed significant increases in exosome count and exosome DNA concentration. This study provide evidence that a large proportion of plasma cfDNA is localized in exosomes. Exosome release from cells is a metabolic energy dependent process, thus suggesting active release of cfDNA from cells as a source of cfDNA in plasma.

  9. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 minutes by direct PCR from plasma or serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz Friedrich; Flegel, Willy Albert; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. PMID:27991657

  10. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  11. Surface-mediated molecular events in material-induced blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Kaushik

    Coagulation and thrombosis persist as major impediments associated with the use of blood-contacting medical devices. We are investigating the molecular mechanism underlying material-induced blood-plasma coagulation focusing on the role of the surface as a step towards prospective development of improved hemocompatible biomaterials. A classic observation in hematology is that blood/blood-plasma in contact with clean glass surface clots faster than when in contact with many plastic surfaces. The traditional biochemical theory explaining the underlying molecular mechanism suggests that hydrophilic surfaces, like that of glass, are specific activators of the coagulation cascade because of the negatively-charged groups on the surface. Hydrophobic surfaces are poor procoagulants or essentially "benign" because they lack anionic groups. Further, these negatively-charged surfaces are believed to not only activate blood factor XII (FXII), the key protein in contact activation, but also play a cofactor role in the amplification and propagation reactions that ultimately lead to clot formation. In sharp contrast to the traditional theory, our investigations indicate a need for a paradigm shift in the proposed sequence of contact activation events to incorporate the role of protein adsorption at the material surfaces. These studies have lead to the central hypothesis for this work proposing that protein adsorption to hydrophobic surfaces attenuates the contact activation reactions so that poorly-adsorbent hydrophilic surfaces appear to be stronger procoagulants relative to hydrophobic surfaces. Our preliminary studies measuring the plasma coagulation response of activated FXII (FXIIa) on different model surfaces suggested that the material did not play a cofactor role in the processing of this enzyme dose through the coagulation pathway. Therefore, we focused our efforts on studying the mechanism of initial production of enzyme at the procoagulant surface. Calculations for the

  12. Investigation of Atmospheric Pressure Plasma Discharge and Its Application to Surface Modification of Blood-Filtering Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiaoliang; Feng, Xianping; Qiu, Gao; Yan, Yonghui; Shi, Yuncheng

    2004-10-01

    Melt-blown polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) nonwoven materials treated by using plasma is regarded as one of the excellent materials to filter white blood cells (WBC) from blood. In this paper, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source at an improved quasi-stable atmospheric pressure is achieved when discharge voltage, discharge current, and gap between the electrodes are carefully controlled. This plasma source has been used to modify the surface of PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials. Experimental results indicate that both the wettability and permeation of treated PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials are greatly improved.

  13. Investigation of atmospheric pressure plasma discharge and its application to surface modification of blood-filtering material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang Xiaoliang; Qiu Gao; Yan Yonghui; Shi Yuncheng

    2004-01-01

    Melt-blown polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) nonwoven materials treated by using plasma is regarded as one of the excellent materials to filter white blood cells (WBC) from blood. In this paper, dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma source at an improved quasi-stable atmospheric pressure is achieved when discharge voltage, discharge current, and gap between the electrodes are carefully controlled. This plasma source has been used to modify the surface of PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials. Experimental results indicate that both the wettability and permeation of treated PBT melt-blown nonwoven materials are greatly improved. (authors)

  14. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled data...

  15. Comparison of Hepatitis C Virus RNA and antibody detection in dried blood spots and plasma specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dokubo, E Kainne; Evans, Jennifer; Winkelman, Valerie; Cyrus, Sherri; Tobler, Leslie H; Asher, Alice; Briceno, Alya; Page, Kimberly

    2014-04-01

    Current diagnostic tests for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) involve phlebotomy and serologic testing for HCV antibodies (anti-HCV) and RNA, which are not always feasible. Dried blood spots (DBS) present a minimally invasive sampling method and are suitable for sample collection, storage and testing. To assess the utility of DBS in HCV detection, we evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of DBS for anti-HCV and HCV RNA detection compared to plasma specimens. This cross-sectional validation study was conducted in the context of an existing prospective study of HCV in young injection drug users. Blood samples were collected by venipuncture into serum separator tubes (SST) and via finger stick onto Whatman 903(®) protein-saver cards. Plasma samples and eluates from the DBS were tested for anti-HCV using either a third generation enzyme-linked or chemiluminescent immunoassay (IA), and HCV RNA using discriminatory HCV transcription-mediated amplification assay (dHCV TMA). DBS results were compared to their corresponding plasma sample results. 148 participants were tested for anti-HCV and 132 participants were tested for HCV RNA. For anti-HCV, the sensitivity of DBS was 70%, specificity was 100%, positive predictive value (PPV) was 100%, negative predictive value (NPV) was 76% and Kappa was 0.69. For HCV RNA, the sensitivity of DBS was 90%, specificity was 100%, PPV was 100%, NPV was 94% and Kappa was 0.92. DBS are sensitive and very specific in detecting anti-HCV and HCV RNA, demonstrate good correlation with plasma results, and have potential to facilitate diagnosis of HCV infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Microcantilever based disposable viscosity sensor for serum and blood plasma measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Onur; Elbuken, Caglar; Ermek, Erhan; Mostafazadeh, Aref; Baris, Ibrahim; Erdem Alaca, B; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Urey, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measuring blood plasma and serum viscosity with a microcantilever-based MEMS sensor. MEMS cantilevers are made of electroplated nickel and actuated remotely with magnetic field using an electro-coil. Real-time monitoring of cantilever resonant frequency is performed remotely using diffraction gratings fabricated at the tip of the dynamic cantilevers. Only few nanometer cantilever deflection is sufficient due to interferometric sensitivity of the readout. The resonant frequency of the cantilever is tracked with a phase lock loop (PLL) control circuit. The viscosities of liquid samples are obtained through the measurement of the cantilever's frequency change with respect to a reference measurement taken within a liquid of known viscosity. We performed measurements with glycerol solutions at different temperatures and validated the repeatability of the system by comparing with a reference commercial viscometer. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions based on Sader's theory and agreed reasonably well. Afterwards viscosities of different Fetal Bovine Serum and Bovine Serum Albumin mixtures are measured both at 23°C and 37°C, body temperature. Finally the viscosities of human blood plasma samples taken from healthy donors are measured. The proposed method is capable of measuring viscosities from 0.86 cP to 3.02 cP, which covers human blood plasma viscosity range, with a resolution better than 0.04 cP. The sample volume requirement is less than 150 μl and can be reduced significantly with optimized cartridge design. Both the actuation and sensing are carried out remotely, which allows for disposable sensor cartridges. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Evaluating the optimum rest period prior to blood collection for fractionated plasma free metanephrines analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    The high diagnostic accuracy of plasma metanephrines (PMets) in the di-agnosis of Phaeochromocytoma\\/Paraganglioma (PPGL) is well established. Considerable controversy exists regarding optimum sampling conditions for PMets. The use of reference intervals that do not compromise diagnostic sensitivity is recommended. However, the optimum rest period prior to sampling has yet to be clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMets concentrations in paired blood samples collected following 30 and 40 min seated-rest prior to sampling, in patients in whom it was clinically rea-sonable to suspect that PPGL may be present.

  18. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    :Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...... omitting the data from patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, with mean values of 113 U/ml for FVII:Ag and 110 U/ml for FVII:Am (p regression analysis, the intercept (alpha=-21.50) was different from zero (p

  19. Comparison of cross-sectional HIV incidence assay results from dried blood spots and plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine E Schlusser

    Full Text Available Assays have been developed for cross-sectional HIV incidence estimation using plasma samples. Large scale surveillance programs are planned using dried blood spot (DBS specimens for incidence assessment. However, limited information exists on the performance of HIV cross-sectional incidence assays using DBS.The assays evaluated were: Maxim HIV-1 Limiting Antigen Avidity EIA (LAg-Avidity, Sedia HIV-1 BED-Capture EIA (BED-CEIA, and CDC modified BioRad HIV-1/2 Plus O Avidity-based Assay (CDC-BioRad Avidity using pre-determined cutoff values. 100 matched HIV-1 positive plasma and DBS samples, with known duration of infection, from the Consortium for the Evaluation and Performance of HIV Incidence Assays repository were tested. All assays were run in duplicate. To examine the degree of variability within and between results for each sample type, both categorical and continuous results were analyzed. Associations were assessed with Bland Altman, R2 values and Cohen's kappa coefficient (ĸ.Intra-assay variability using the same sample type was similar for all assays (R2 0.96 to 1.00. The R2 values comparing DBS and plasma results for LAg-Avidity, BED-CEIA, and CDC-BioRad Avidity were 0.96, 0.94, and 0.84, respectively. The concordance and ĸ values between DBS and plasma for all three assays were >87% and >0.64, respectively. The Bland-Altman analysis showed significant differences between plasma and DBS samples. For all three assays, a higher number of samples were classified as recent infections using DBS samples.DBS and plasma sample results were highly correlated. However, when compared to plasma, each assay performed somewhat differently in DBS at the lower and higher ends of the dynamic range. DBS samples were more likely to be classified as recently infected by all three assays, which may lead to overestimation of incidence in surveys using performance criteria derived for plasma samples.

  20. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kopp

    Full Text Available Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs, we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs and dried plasma spots (DPSs as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  1. The Interchangeability of Plasma and Whole Blood Metal Ion Measurement in the Monitoring of Metal on Metal Hips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim A. Malek

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and twenty six paired samples of plasma and whole blood were measured with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry technique for metal ions analysis to determine a relationship between them. There was a significant difference between the mean plasma and whole blood concentrations of both cobalt (Co and chromium (Cr (p<0.0001 for both Co and Cr. The mean ratio between plasma and whole blood Cr and Co was 1.56 (range: 0.39–3.85 and 1.54 (range: 0.64–18.26, respectively, but Bland and Altman analysis illustrated that this relationship was not universal throughout the range of concentrations. There was higher variability at high concentrations for both ions. We conclude that both these concentrations should not be used interchangeably and conversion factors are unreliable due to concentration dependent variability.

  2. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    glucose measured in whole blood (x-variable) and in plasma (y-variable) gave the following equations: Y = 0.974 X + 0.55, n = 583 (Exp. 1) and Y = 0.949 X + 0.65, n = 655 (Exp. 2). The net absorption of glucose found in blood was in accordance with that found in plasma: Y = 1.012 X , n = 281 (no intercept......, P = 0.79; Exp. 1) and Y = 0.954 X, n = 316 (no intercept, P = 0.97; Exp. 2). It was concluded that glucose measured in blood and plasma were slightly biased whereas net glucose absorption in blood and in plasma were unbiased......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...

  3. Estimates of plasma, packed cell and total blood volume in tissues of the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gingerich, W.H.; Pityer, R.A.; Rach, J.J.

    1987-01-01

    1. Total blood volume and relative blood volumes in selected tissues were determined in non-anesthetized, confined rainbow trout by using 51Cr-labelled trout erythrocytes as a vascular space marker.2. Mean total blood volume was estimated to be 4.09 ± 0.55 ml/100 g, or about 75% of that estimated with the commonly used plasma space marker Evans blue dye.3. Relative tissue blood volumes were greatest in highly perfused tissues such as kidney, gills, brain and liver and least in mosaic muscle.4. Estimates of tissue vascular spaces, made using radiolabelled erythrocytes, were only 25–50% of those based on plasma space markers.5. The consistently smaller vascular volumes obtained with labelled erythrocytes could be explained by assuming that commonly used plasma space markers diffuse from the vascular compartment.

  4. COMPARISON OF WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN GREEN TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS) DETERMINED USING A GLUCOMETER AND A DRY CHEMISTRY ANALYZER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bresette, Michael J; Mott, Cody R; Stacy, Nicole I

    2018-01-01

    :  We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement ( r s =0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).

  5. Comparison of whole blood, serum, and plasma for early detection of candidemia by multiplex-tandem PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lau, Anna; Halliday, Catriona; Chen, Sharon C-A; Playford, E Geoffrey; Stanley, Keith; Sorrell, Tania C

    2010-03-01

    We applied multiplex-tandem PCR (MT-PCR) to 255 EDTA whole-blood specimens, 29 serum specimens, and 24 plasma specimens from 109 patients with Candida bloodstream infection (candidemia) to determine whether a diagnosis could be expedited in comparison with the time to diagnosis by the use of standard blood culture. Overall, the MT-PCR performed better than blood culture with DNA extracted from whole blood from 52/74 (70%) patients, accelerating the time to detection (blood culture flagging) and determination of the pathogenic species (by use of the API 32C system [bioMérieux, Marcy l'Etoile, France]) by up to 4 days (mean, 2.2 days; range, 0.5 to 8 days). Candida DNA was detected more often in serum (71%) and plasma (75%) than in whole blood (54%), although relatively small numbers of serum and plasma specimens were tested. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the assay with whole blood were 75%, 97%, 95%, and 85%, respectively. Fungal DNA was not detected by MT-PCR in 6/24 (25%) whole-blood samples drawn simultaneously with the positive blood culture sample. MT-PCR performed better with whole-blood specimens stored at -20 degrees C (75%) and when DNA was extracted within 1 week of sampling (66%). The molecular and culture identification results correlated for 61 of 66 patients (92%); one discrepant result was due to misidentification by culture. All but one sample from 53 patients who were at high risk of candidemia but did not have proven disease were negative by MT-PCR. The results demonstrate the good potential of MT-PCR to detect candidemia, to provide Candida species identification prior to blood culture positivity, and to provide improved sensitivity when applied to with serum and plasma specimens.

  6. Levels of organochlorine pesticide residues in blood plasma of various species of birds from India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhananjayan, Venugopal; Muralidharan, Subramanian

    2010-08-01

    Concentrations of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were measured in blood plasma of 13 species of birds collected from Ahmedabad, India. Among the various OCPs determined, HCHs and its isomers had higher contribution to the total OCPs. Concentration of summation operatorHCHs varied from 11.4 ng/mL in White ibis Threskiornis melanocephalus to 286 ng/mL in Sarus Crane Grus antigone, while summation operatorDDT ranged between 19 ng/mL in Black Ibis Pseudibis papillosa and 147 ng/mL in Painted Stork Mycteria leucocephala. p,p'-DDE was accounted for more than 50% of total DDT in many of the samples analysed. However, a p,p'-DDT to p,p'-DDE ratio higher than one obtained for many species of birds indicates the recent use of DDT in this study region. The concentrations of cyclodiene insecticides, heptachlor epoxide, dieldrin and total endosulfan ranged from 15.8 to 296.2 ng/mL, below detectable level to 15 and 41.1-153.2 ng/mL, respectively. The pattern of total OCP load generally occurred in the following order: granivores organochlorine residues detected in blood plasma of birds are not indicative of toxicity, the presence of residues in birds over the years (2005-2007) indicates continued exposure to organochlorine compounds. However, continuous monitoring is recommended to facilitate the early identification of risks to the survival of a species.

  7. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehresman, David J.; Froehlich, John W.; Olsen, Geary W.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells

  8. Dealcoholized red wine decreases systolic and diastolic blood pressure and increases plasma nitric oxide: short communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiva-Blanch, Gemma; Urpi-Sarda, Mireia; Ros, Emilio; Arranz, Sara; Valderas-Martínez, Palmira; Casas, Rosa; Sacanella, Emilio; Llorach, Rafael; Lamuela-Raventos, Rosa M; Andres-Lacueva, Cristina; Estruch, Ramon

    2012-09-28

    Experimental studies have shown a potential blood pressure (BP) lowering effect of red wine polyphenols, whereas the effects of ethanol and polyphenols on BP in humans are not yet clear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the effects of red wine fractions (alcoholic and nonalcoholic) on BP and plasma nitric oxide (NO) in subjects at high cardiovascular risk. Sixty-seven men at high cardiovascular risk were studied. After a 2-week run-in period, subjects were randomized into 3 treatment periods in a crossover clinical trial, with a common background diet plus red wine (30g alcohol/day), the equivalent amount of dealcoholized red wine, or gin (30g alcohol/day), lasting 4 weeks each intervention. At baseline and after each intervention, anthropometrical parameters, BP and plasma NO were measured. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly after the dealcoholized red wine intervention and these changes correlated with increases in plasma NO. Dealcoholized red wine decreases systolic and diastolic BP. Our results point out through an NO-mediated mechanism. The daily consumption of dealcoholized red wine could be useful for the prevention of low to moderate hypertension. Trial registered at controlled-trials.com: ISRCTN88720134.

  9. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of new psychoactive substances in plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vårdal, Linda; Askildsen, Hilde-Merete; Gjelstad, Astrid; Øiestad, Elisabeth Leere; Edvardsen, Hilde Marie Erøy; Pedersen-Bjergaard, Stig

    2017-03-24

    Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS) and the potential for screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS) was investigated for the first time. PALME was performed in 96-well format comprising a donor plate, a supported liquid membrane (SLM), and an acceptor plate. Uncharged NPS were extracted from plasma or whole blood, across an organic SLM, and into an aqueous acceptor solution, facilitated by a pH gradient. MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane), methylone, PFA (para-fluoroamphetamine), mCPP (meta-chlorophenylpiperazine), pentedrone, methoxetamine, MDPV (methylenedioxypyrovalerone), ethylphenidate, 2C-E (2,5-dimethoxy-4-ethylphenethylamine), bromo-dragonfly, and AH-7921 (3,4-dichloro-N-{[1-(dimethylamino)cyclohexyl]methyl}benzamide) were selected as representative NPS. Optimization of operational parameters was necessary as the NPS were novel to PALME, and because PALME was performed from whole blood for the very first time. In the PALME method developed for plasma, NPS were extracted from a 250μL alkalized donor solution consisting of 125μL plasma sample, 115μL 40mM NaOH, and 10μL internal standard. In the PALME method from whole blood, the 250μL alkalized donor solution consisted of 100μL whole blood, 50μL deionized water, 75μL 80mM NaOH, and 25μL internal standard. In both methods, extraction was accomplished across an SLM of 5μL dodecyl acetate with 1% trioctylamine (w/w), and further into an acidic acceptor solution of 50μL 20mM formic acid. The extraction was promoted by agitation at 900rpm and was carried out for 120min. Method validation was performed and the following parameters were considered: linearity, limits of quantification (LOQ), intra- and inter-day precision, accuracy, extraction recoveries, carry-over, and matrix effects. The validation results were in accordance with FDA guidelines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All

  10. Survey on basal blood plasma catecholamine concentrations in Martina Franca donkey (Equus asinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palo, P; Maggiolino, A; Ceci, E; Calzaretti, G; Centoducati, P; Tateo, A

    2017-12-19

    Catecholamines are among the most frequently investigated parameters for studying sympathoadrenal activity in response to stress conditions. To evaluate basal plasma concentrations of catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline and dopamine) in healthy donkeys. Cross-sectional study. Catecholamine concentrations from 440 Martina Franca donkeys were determined: 269 females and 171 entire males, aged from 4 months to 24 years. Animals were subdivided into four age categories: under 12 months old (64 males and 54 females), from 13 to 36 months (56 males and 75 females), from 37 to 120 months (49 males and 80 females) and over 120 months (24 males and 38 females). Indwelling jugular catheters were inserted at least 12 h before drawing blood. The data set was subjected to analysis of variance considering age, sex and the two-way interaction between them as independent variables. Pearson's correlation coefficients between the three catecholamines were evaluated. Confidence intervals (CI) for noradrenaline concentration ranged between 239.98 and 255.07 ng/L (mean 247.52 ng/L), for adrenaline between 129.27 and 137.90 ng/L (mean 133.59 ng/L), dopamine concentrations between 149.62 and 160.80 ng/L (mean 155.21 ng/L) and noradrenaline/adrenaline ratio between 1.91 and 2.05 (mean 1.98). Catecholamine plasma concentrations were not influenced by sex. Donkeys older than 37 months had lower adrenaline and noradrenaline plasma concentrations (P<0.001) and higher noradrenaline/adrenaline ratios (P<0.01) than younger animals. Indwelling catheters and blood drawing procedures may have influenced catecholamine levels. Catecholamine concentrations were established within a large group of healthy Martina Franca donkeys. © 2017 EVJ Ltd.

  11. Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. VanabinP, a novel vanadium-binding protein in the blood plasma of an ascidian, Ascidia sydneiensis samea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Masao; Ueki, Tatsuya; Watanabe, Takahiro; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kamino, Kei; Michibata, Hitoshi

    2005-09-25

    Some ascidians accumulate high levels of the transition metal vanadium in their blood cells. The process of vanadium accumulation has not yet been elucidated. In this report, we describe the isolation and cDNA cloning of a novel vanadium-binding protein, designated as VanabinP, from the blood plasma of the vanadium-rich ascidian, Ascidia sydneiensis samea. The predicted amino acid sequence of VanabinP was highly conserved and similar to those of other Vanabins. The N-terminus of the mature form of VanabinP was rich in basic amino acid residues. VanabinP cDNA was originally isolated from blood cells, as were the other four Vanabins. However, Western blot analysis revealed that the VanabinP protein was localized to the blood plasma and was not detectable in blood cells. RT-PCR analysis and in situ hybridization indicated that the VanabinP gene was transcribed in some cell types localized to peripheral connective tissues of the alimentary canal, muscle, blood cells, and a portion of the branchial sac. Recombinant VanabinP bound a maximum of 13 vanadium(IV) ions per molecule with a Kd of 2.8 x 10(-5) M. These results suggest that VanabinP is produced in several types of cell, including blood cells, and is immediately secreted into the blood plasma where it functions as a vanadium(IV) carrier.

  13. Antioxidant efficacy of Kalanchoe daigremontiana bufadienolide-rich fraction in blood plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Wachowicz, Barbara; Piechocka, Justyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The main source of bufadienolides is toad venom; however, plants such as members of Kalanchoe Adans. (Crassulaceae) genus may also synthesize these bioactive substances. This is the first study on antioxidant effects and cytotoxicity of bufadienolide-rich fraction isolated from Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier. The methanolic fraction was extracted from the plant roots and contained 0.48 mg bufadienolides/mg of dry mass (11α,19-dihydroksytelocinobufagin, bersaldegenin-1-acetate, bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate, 19-(acetyloxy)-3β,5β,11α,14-tetrahydroxyl-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide and 19-(acetyloxy)-1β,3β,5β,14-tetrahydroxyl-bufa-20,22-dienolide, mainly). The cytotoxicity of K. daigremontiana fraction was evaluated in an in vitro experimental model of blood platelets. The viability of blood platelets was determined on the basis of a release of lactate dehydrogenase. The fraction scavenged DPPH • radicals, with EC 50 of 21.80 μg/mL. Studies on an experimental model of blood plasma under peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress revealed that the plant preparation had moderate antioxidant properties. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and thiol groups indicated that the protective effect of K. daigremontiana was significant mainly for its concentration of 50 μg/mL. No effect was found in prevention of oxidation of low-molecular plasma thiols (glutathione, cysteine and cysteinylglycine). Simultaneously, measurements of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) indicated that the examined fraction might be effective antioxidant at broader concentration range, that is 1-5 and 25-50 μg/mL for hydroperoxides and TBARS generation, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed at the concentration range of 1-50 μg/mL. Based on the obtained results, we suggest that antioxidant activity may additionally contribute to beneficial properties of K. daigremontiana-derived extracts.

  14. Endocannabinoids and related lipids in blood plasma following touch massage: a randomised, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindgren, Lenita; Gouveia-Figueira, Sandra; Nording, Malin L; Fowler, Christopher J

    2015-09-29

    The endocannabinoid system is involved in the regulation of stress and anxiety. In a recent study, it was reported that short-term changes in mood produced by a pleasant ambience were correlated with changes in the levels of plasma endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines (Schrieks et al. PLoS One 10: e0126421, 2015). In the present study, we investigated whether stress reduction by touch massage (TM) affects blood plasma levels of endocannabinoids and related N-acylethanolamines. A randomized two-session crossover design for 20 healthy participants was utilised, with one condition that consisted of TM and a rest condition as control. TM increased the perceived pleasantness rating of the participants, and both TM and rest reduced the basal anxiety level as assessed by the State scale of the STAI-Y inventory. However, there were no significant effects of either time (pre- vs. post-treatment measures) as main effect or the interaction time x treatment for the plasma levels of the endocannabinoids anandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol or for eight other related lipids. Four lipids showed acceptable relative reliabilities, and for two of these (linoleoyl ethanolamide and palmitoleoyl ethanolamide) a significant correlation was seen between the TM-related change in levels, calculated as (post-TM value minus pre-TM value) - (post-rest value minus pre-rest value), and the corresponding TM-related change in perceived pleasantness. It is concluded that in the participants studied here, there are no overt effects of TM upon plasma endocannabinoid levels. Possible associations of related N-acylethanolamines with the perceived pleasantness should be investigated further.

  15. Clinical value of indicators of cationic proteins, leukocytes myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma in viral meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: was to establish clinical and diagnostic value of cytochemical indices of peripheral blood leukocytes (cationic protein and myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma to assess the severity, predict the course and outcome of viral meningitis in children.Subjects and methods. In 450 patients with viral meningitis (enterovirus, arbovirus, parotitic, herpesviral, adenovirus etiology at the age of 14 years, the parameters of the microbicidal system of leukocytes (cation proteins, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma were determined. Etiological diagnosis of meningitis was confirmed by release of viral RNA from blood and cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.The results and conclusion. Found that severe, prolonged duration, lethal outcome of viral meningitis in children are accompanied by sugnificant suppression of cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma, maximally expressed in lethal outcomes, compared with the severe form, but with a favorable outcome and control. Settings imbalance cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma are objective criteria of the adaptation syndrome that reflects the state of the phagocytosis system in viral meningitis in children and can be considered as additional criteria for predicting the course and outcome of disease.

  16. Effect of chronic elevation of plasma calcium concentration by PTH or vitamin D3on blood pressure and hypotensive activity of nifedipine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, F.A.M.; Thoolen, M.J.M.C.; Wilffert, B.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a chronically elevated total plasma calcium concentration on blood pressure and heart rate was investigated in conscious normotensive rats. The plasma calcium concentration was elevated by continuous subcutaneous infusion with parathormone (PTH) after parathyreoidectomy, and by oral

  17. Dynamics of lipoprotein level in blood plasma of pregnant women as a function of gestational age according to FTIR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolik, E. V.; Korolenko, E. A.; Tretinnikov, O. N.; Kozlyakova, O. V.; Korolik, A. K.; Kirkovskiy, V. V.

    2013-01-01

    Results of an IR spectroscopic investigation of films of blood plasma taken from women of reproductive age, pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors, and Rh-immunized women were presented as a function of gestational age. It was found that the lipoprotein content in blood plasma of all groups of pregnant women increased during the early stages of pregnancy (17-23 weeks) irrespective of the Rh factor and attained its peak value by weeks 30-35. It was shown that the lipoprotein level in blood plasma as a function of gestational age was quantitatively the same for pregnant women with positive and negative Rh factors. It was established for the first time that this dependence for Rh-immunized women featured a considerable increase of lipoprotein content at gestational age 30-32 weeks and declined acutely by week 36.

  18. Investigation of the in vitro gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in malarial infected red blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethorn, Nongluk; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Noedl, Harald; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-10-01

    The investigation of gender-specific partitioning of the antimalarial drug mefloquine to cellular and fluid blood compartments was performed using blood collected from a female and male healthy subject that were infected with Plasmodium falciparum PCM2 clone and spiked with mefloquine (0.25, 1, and 5 μM). Mefloquine concentrations in red cells of both female and male subjects were significantly higher than plasma, which suggests an intensive uptake by red cells. This was supported by a high ratio of mefloquine concentrations in the parasitized and non-parasitized red cells of about 4-fold. Gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in parasitized blood was seen only in plasma where significantly higher concentrations were observed in female compared with male plasma. Down-adjusting the therapeutic dose of mefloquine in female patients with malaria is not advisable because mefloquine concentrations in the target cellular compartment are similar in both genders.

  19. Study on changes of the plasma cytokines in 60Co γ-ray irradiated blood and leukocyte reduction of whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Le Jiayi; Qu Yihua; Xu Wenhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α in 60 Co γ-ray irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood, and to understand the fever phenomenon in patients received blood transfusion. Methods: ELISA method was used to measure changes of the cytokines. Results: The plasma levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α did not change significantly with extending the conservation period both in 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. The frequency of fever decreaed obviously with transfusion of 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. Conclusion: 60 Co-irradiated blood can not only prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), but also decrease non-hemolytic febrile transfusion reactions (NHFTR) effectively. (authors)

  20. Ammonia concentrations in canine whole blood, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood, and plasma measured by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunayo, Adesola; Tobias, Karen M; Okafor, Chika C; Flatland, Bente

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma. ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration. RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.

  1. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice W Nduati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  2. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the ionic contrast media diatrizoate, iocarmate and metrizoate and the non-ionic metrizamide on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit was investigated. All the contrast media increased whole blood and plasma viscosity and reduced the hematocrit. The whole blood viscosity increased with increasing osmolality of the contrast medium solutions, whereas the plasma viscosity increased with increasing viscosity of the contrast medium solutions. The higher the osmolality of the contrast media, the lower the hematocrit became. The normal shear-thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) property of blood was reduced when contrast medium was added to the blood. At 50 per cent volume ratio (contrast medium to blood), the ionic contrast media converted the blood into a shear-thickening (increasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) suspension, indicating a marked rigidification of the single red cell, while the non-ionic contrast medium still produced shear-thinning, indicating less rigidification of the red cell (p<0.01). (Auth.)

  3. Isotopic analysis of calcium in blood plasma and bone from mouse samples by multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Takafumi; Tanoshima, Mina; Suga, Akinobu; Tanaka, Yu-ki; Nagata, Yuichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Chiba, Momoko

    2008-01-01

    The biological processing of Ca produces significant stable isotope fractionation. The level of isotopic fractionation can provide key information about the variation in dietary consumption or Ca metabolism. To investigate this, we measured the 43 Ca/ 42 Ca and 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for bone and blood plasma samples collected from mice of various ages using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratio in bones was significantly (0.44 - 0.84 per mille) lower than the corresponding ratios in the diet, suggesting that Ca was isotopically fractionated during Ca metabolism for bone formation. The resulting 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for blood plasma showed almost identical, or slightly higher, values (0.03 - 0.2 per mille) than found in a corresponding diet. This indicates that a significant amount of Ca in the blood plasma was from dietary sources. Unlike that discovered for Fe, there were not significant differences in the measured 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios between female and male specimens (for either bone or blood plasma samples). Similarity, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios suggests that there were no significant differences in Ca dietary consumption or Ca metabolism between female and male specimens. In contrast, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios of blood plasma from mother mice during the lactation period were significantly higher than those for all other adult specimens. This suggests that Ca supplied to infants through lactation was isotopically lighter, and the preferential supply of isotropically lighter Ca resulted in isotopically heavier Ca in blood plasma of mother mice during the lactation period. The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the Ca isotopic ratio has a potential to become a new tool for evaluating changes in dietary consumption, or Ca metabolism of animals. (author)

  4. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P; Chen, C Y; Fan, H W; Tarasenko, O; Scott, A; Lahiani, M; Alusta, P; Chang, J; Popovic, S; Drake, J D; Nikolic, M

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  5. A portable blood plasma clot micro-elastometry device based on resonant acoustic spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krebs, C R; Li, Ling; Wolberg, Alisa S; Oldenburg, Amy L

    2015-07-01

    Abnormal blood clot stiffness is an important indicator of coagulation disorders arising from a variety of cardiovascular diseases and drug treatments. Here, we present a portable instrument for elastometry of microliter volume blood samples based upon the principle of resonant acoustic spectroscopy, where a sample of well-defined dimensions exhibits a fundamental longitudinal resonance mode proportional to the square root of the Young's modulus. In contrast to commercial thromboelastography, the resonant acoustic method offers improved repeatability and accuracy due to the high signal-to-noise ratio of the resonant vibration. We review the measurement principles and the design of a magnetically actuated microbead force transducer applying between 23 pN and 6.7 nN, providing a wide dynamic range of elastic moduli (3 Pa-27 kPa) appropriate for measurement of clot elastic modulus (CEM). An automated and portable device, the CEMport, is introduced and implemented using a 2 nm resolution displacement sensor with demonstrated accuracy and precision of 3% and 2%, respectively, of CEM in biogels. Importantly, the small strains (<0.13%) and low strain rates (<1/s) employed by the CEMport maintain a linear stress-to-strain relationship which provides a perturbative measurement of the Young's modulus. Measurements of blood plasma CEM versus heparin concentration show that CEMport is sensitive to heparin levels below 0.050 U/ml, which suggests future applications in sensing heparin levels of post-surgical cardiopulmonary bypass patients. The portability, high accuracy, and high precision of this device enable new clinical and animal studies for associating CEM with blood coagulation disorders, potentially leading to improved diagnostics and therapeutic monitoring.

  6. The effect of blood collection procedure on plasma renin activity (PRA) and concentrations of direct renin (DRC) and aldosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glinicki, Piotr; Jeske, Wojciech; Gietka-Czernel, Małgorzata; Bednarek-Papierska, Lucyna; Kruszyńska, Aleksandra; Słowińska-Srzednicka, Jadwiga; Zgliczyński, Wojciech

    2015-06-01

    Performing measurements of plasma renin activity (PRA) or direct renin concentration (DRC) and aldosterone concentration, we should be well informed about requirements concerning blood sample processing. Forty-seven patients had blood collected in the supine and upright positions. Blood was withdrawn into two EDTA2K tubes and one with clot activator. One EDTA2K tube was cooled at +4 °C and centrifuged at +4 °C whereas the other was prepared at room temperature. PRA and DRC were measured by radioimmunoassay (RIA) and radioimmunometry (IRMA), respectively, in both cooled and not cooled plasma samples, and aldosterone was measured by RIA in not cooled plasma and in serum. In all the groups, with low, medium, and high values of PRA and direct renin, the temperature of sample processing within 30 minutes had no marked influence on the final result (correlation coefficient for renin was 0.9994, and for PRA, 0.8297). The measured concentrations of aldosterone also showed high correlation (r = 0.9790) but were markedly higher in plasma. The measurements of DRC, and to a lesser extent PRA, were similar regardless of temperature condition during the 20-30 minutes necessary for blood sample processing. Aldosterone concentrations in plasma vs serum samples appeared to be markedly higher. © The Author(s) 2013.

  7. Fibrinogen measurements in plasma and whole blood: a performance evaluation study of the dry-hematology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Nakayama, Yoshinobu; Takeshita, Jun; Arai, Masatoshi; Mizobe, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and rapid determination of fibrinogen level is important during hemorrhage to establish a timely hemostatic intervention. The accuracy of fibrinogen measurements may be affected by the specific methodology for its determination, fluid therapies, and anticoagulant agents. The dry-hematology method (DRIHEMATO®) is a novel approach to determine fibrinogen levels in plasma and whole blood based on thrombin-activated coagulation time. We hypothesized that plasma or whole blood fibrinogen level using the dry-hematology method would be similar to those measured with conventional plasma fibrinogen assays. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia was modeled by serial dilutions of blood samples obtained from 12 healthy volunteers. Citrated whole blood samples were diluted with either normal saline, 5% human albumin, or 6% hydroxyethyl starch to achieve 25%, 50%, and 75% volume replacement. The dry-hematology method, the Clauss method, the prothrombin time (PT)-derived method, determination of antigen levels, and thromboelastometric fibrin formation were compared in plasma or whole blood samples. The effect of heparin on each assay was examined (0 to 6 IU/mL). Comparisons of dry-hematology and other methods were also conducted using ex vivo samples obtained from cardiac surgical patients (n = 60). In plasma samples, there were no significant differences between dry-hematology and the Clauss method, while dry-hematology showed lower fibrinogen levels compared with PT-derived and antigen level methods. The dry-hematology method yielded acceptable concordance correlation coefficients (Pc) with the Clauss method, the PT-derived method, and fibrinogen antigen levels (Pc = 0.91-0.99). The type of diluents and heparin affected the results of the PT-derived method and thromboelastometric assay, but not the dry-hematology method. In cardiac surgical patients, the overall correlation in fibrinogen levels between dry-hematology and the other methods was comparable to the results from

  8. [Progesterone and estradiol levels in blood plasma of calves following superovulation treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, F; Rommel, P; Riedel, B; Drossel, M

    1980-01-01

    Studies into quantitative behaviours of oestradiol and progesterone in the blood plasma of six heads of prepuberal cattle, following superovulation treatment, using pregnant-mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) and human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) have shown the oestradiol concentrations to double, as early as two days after PMSG, and to go up to ten times their original values, after another four days had elapsed. Progesterone values increased, as early as along with induced oestrus, and, consequently, suggested scatter of the ovulation process. The maximum progesterone levels reached something in the vicinity of 100 ng/ml, following superovulation, and, consequently, were far in excess of anything recordable from spontaneously ovulating cyclic cattle. Hormone analyses were continued over six weeks from induced oestrus and superovulation, with evidence being produced to the effect that no permanent cyclic activity had been introduced. All calves rather returned to their prepuberal condition.

  9. Fast differentiation of SIRS and sepsis from blood plasma of ICU patients using Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neugebauer, Ute; Trenkmann, Sabine; Bocklitz, Thomas; Schmerler, Diana; Kiehntopf, Michael; Popp, Jürgen

    2014-04-01

    Currently, there is no biomarker that can reliable distinguish between infectious and non-infectious systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). However, such a biomarker would be of utmost importance for early identification and stratification of patients at risk to initiate timely and appropriate antibiotic treatment. Within this proof of principle study, the high potential of Raman spectroscopy for the fast differentiation of non-infectious SIRS and sepsis is demonstrated. Blood plasma collected from 70 patients from the intensive care unit (31 patients with sepsis and 39 patients classified with SIRS without infection) was analyzed by means of Raman spectroscopy. A PCA-LDA based classification model was trained with Raman spectra from test samples and yielded for sepsis a sensitivity of 1.0 and specificity of 0.82. These results have been confirmed with an independent dataset (prediction accuracy 80%). Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. The IgE-dependent pathway in allergic transfusion reactions: involvement of donor blood allergens other than plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuyama, Nobuki; Yasui, Kazuta; Amakishi, Etsuko; Hayashi, Tomoya; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Ishii, Hiroyuki; Matsukura, Harumichi; Tani, Yoshihiko; Furuta, Rika A; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-07-01

    On transfusion, several plasma proteins can cause anaphylaxis in patients deficient in the corresponding plasma proteins. However, little is known about other allergens, which are encountered much more infrequently. Although it has been speculated that an allergen-independent pathway underlying allergic transfusion reactions (ATRs) is elicited by biological response modifiers accumulated in blood components during storage, the exact mechanisms remain unresolved. Furthermore, it is difficult even to determine whether ATRs are induced via allergen-dependent or allergen-independent pathways. To distinguish these two pathways in ATR cases, we established a basophil activation test, in which the basophil-activating ability of supernatants of residual transfused blood of ATR cases to whole blood basophils was assessed in the presence or absence of dasatinib, an inhibitor of IgE-mediated basophil activation. Three of 37 supernatants from the platelet concentrates with ATRs activated panel blood basophils in the absence, but not in the presence, of dasatinib. The basophil activation was inhibited by treatment of anti-fish collagen I MoAb in one case, suggesting that the involvement of fish allergens may have been present in donor plasma. We concluded that unknown non-plasma proteins, some of which had epitopes similar to fish antigens, in blood component may be involved in ATRs via an allergen/IgE-dependent pathway.

  11. Effect of DHA supplementation on oxylipin levels in plasma and immune cell stimulated blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchardt, Jan Philipp; Ostermann, Annika I; Stork, Lisa; Fritzsch, Sabrina; Kohrs, Heike; Greupner, Theresa; Hahn, Andreas; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2017-06-01

    EPA and DHA cause different physiological effects, which are in many cases mediated via their oxidative metabolites (oxylipins). However, metabolism studies investigating the effect of either EPA or DHA on comprehensive oxylipin patterns are lacking. The short and long term (1, 3, 6, and 12 week) effect of 1076mg/d DHA (free of EPA) on free (unesterified) oxylipin concentrations in plasma and lipopolysacharid (LPS) stimulated blood of 12 healthy men (mean age 25.1 ± 1.5 years) was investigated. After DHA supplementation, plasma levels of all DHA-oxylipins (HDHAs, EpDPEs, DiHDPEs) significantly increased (up to 600%) in a time-dependent fashion. Oxylipins of EPA and arachidonic acid (AA) were also affected. Whereas a slight increase in several EPA-derived hydroxy-FAs (including the RvE1 precursor 18-HEPE) and dihydroxy-FAs was observed after DHA supplementation, a trend to a slight decline in AA-derived oxylipin levels was found. In LPS stimulated blood, it is shown that DHA supplementation significantly reduces the ability of immune cells to form AA-derived COX (TXB2 and PGB2) and 12-LOX (12-HETE) eicosanoids. While no increase in EPA COX metabolites was found, n-3 PUFA 12-LOX metabolites of EPA (12-HEPE) and DHA (14-HDHA) were highly induced. We demonstrated that DHA supplementation causes a time-dependent shift in the entire oxylipin profile suggesting a cross-linked metabolism of PUFAs and subsequent formation of oxygenated lipid mediators. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of extraction and quantification methods of perfluorinated compounds in human plasma, serum, and whole blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reagen, William K. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States)], E-mail: wkreagen@mmm.com; Ellefson, Mark E. [3M Environmental Laboratory, 3M Center, Building 0260-05-N-17, St. Paul, MN 55144-1000 (United States); Kannan, Kurunthachalam [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health and Department of Environmental Health Sciences (United States); State University of New York at Albany, NY 12201-0509 (United States); Giesy, John P. [Department of Veterinary Biomedical Sciences and Toxicology Centre, University of Saskatchewan, 44 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada); Department of Biology and Chemistry, Center for Coastal Pollution and Conservation, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Zoology Department, National Food Safety and Toxicology Center, Center for Integrative Toxicology, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI (United States); School of Environment, Nanjing University, Nanjing (China)

    2008-11-03

    Perfluorinated compounds are ubiquitous in the environment and have been reported to occur in human blood. Accurate risk assessments require accurate measurements of exposures, but identification and quantification of PFCs in biological matrices can be affected by both ion suppression and enhancement in liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry techniques (LC/MS-MS). A study was conducted to quantify potential biases in LC/MS-MS quantification methods. Using isotopically labeled perfluorooctanoic acid ([{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFOA), perfluorononanoic acid ([{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFNA), and ammonium perfluorooctanesulfonate ([{sup 18}O{sub 2}]-PFOS) spiked tissues, ion-pairing extraction, solid-phase extraction, and protein precipitation sample preparation techniques were compared. Analytical accuracy was assessed using both solvent calibration and matrix-matched calibration for quantification. Data accuracy and precision of 100 {+-} 15% was demonstrated in both human sera and plasma for all three sample preparation techniques when matrix-matched calibration was used in quantification. In contrast, quantification of ion-pairing extraction data using solvent calibration in combination with a surrogate internal standard resulted in significant analytical biases for all target analytes. The accuracy of results, based on solvent calibration was highly variable and dependent on the serum and plasma matrices, the specific target analyte [{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFOA, [{sup 13}C{sub 2}]-PFNA, or [{sup 18}O{sub 2}]-PFOS, the target analyte concentration, the LC/MS-MS instrumentation used in data generation, and the specific surrogate internal standard used in quantification. These results suggest that concentrations of PFCs reported for human blood using surrogate internal standards in combination with external solvent calibration can be inaccurate unless biases are accounted for in data quantification.

  13. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  14. New evidence that a large proportion of human blood plasma cell-free DNA is localized in exosomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Rohan Fernando

    Full Text Available Cell-free DNA (cfDNA in blood is used as a source of genetic material for noninvasive prenatal and cancer diagnostic assays in clinical practice. Recently we have started a project for new biomarker discovery with a view to developing new noninvasive diagnostic assays. While reviewing literature, it was found that exosomes may be a rich source of biomarkers, because exosomes play an important role in human health and disease. While characterizing exosomes found in human blood plasma, we observed the presence of cfDNA in plasma exosomes. Plasma was obtained from blood drawn into K3EDTA tubes. Exosomes were isolated from cell-free plasma using a commercially available kit. Sizing and enumeration of exosomes were done using electron microscopy and NanoSight particle counter. NanoSight and confocal microscopy was used to demonstrate the association between dsDNA and exosomes. DNA extracted from plasma and exosomes was measured by a fluorometric method and a droplet digital PCR (ddPCR method. Size of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma was heterogeneous and showed a mean value of 92.6 nm and a mode 39.7 nm. A large proportion of extracellular vesicles isolated from plasma were identified as exosomes using a fluorescence probe specific for exosomes and three protein markers, Hsp70, CD9 and CD63, that are commonly used to identify exosome fraction. Fluorescence dye that stain dsDNA showed the association between exosomes and dsDNA. Plasma cfDNA concentration analysis showed more than 93% of amplifiable cfDNA in plasma is located in plasma exosomes. Storage of a blood sample showed significant increases in exosome count and exosome DNA concentration. This study provide evidence that a large proportion of plasma cfDNA is localized in exosomes. Exosome release from cells is a metabolic energy dependent process, thus suggesting active release of cfDNA from cells as a source of cfDNA in plasma.

  15. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  16. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  17. GLYCOSIDASES IN HUMAN BLOOD PLASMA AND URINE. MOLECULAR FORMS AND ACTIVITY LEVELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Seyed Yazdani

    1982-05-01

    Full Text Available The isoe lect r i c f ocusing p a t terns and pH activity cur ves of f i ve glycosidas e e nzymes i n blood plasma and ur i ne were s t ud i e d . This s tudy demons trated the presence o f a sing le molecular f onn in a -glucosidase and of two mole cul a r fonns of the enzymes H-a ce t yl-B-D-gluco sarni nidase, Na c e t y l -•p-D-g a l a c t o s amin i ua s e and S-glucuronidase i n both plasma and urine . B-Galactosidase existed as a s i ng le major molecular f orm i n p l asma and a t l e a st t wo molecular forms in urine. Spe cific activity of each~ le n zyme was determined in p lasma and urine The validity o f taking the ratio between two e n zvrne activities as an index for scr een .l.ng of fr ene t ic di s e a s e is discussed.

  18. Dielectric parameters of blood plasma of rats treated with cerium-144 and external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhidekova, E.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.; Miloslavov, V.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation was carried out of the dielectric parameters of blood plasma of male Wistar rats treated with cerium 144 in doses of 370 kBq/animal and external gamma irradiation in doses of 200 cGy and 400 cGy. The radioactive cerium was introduced intraperitoneally 1 h after the external irradiation with dose rate of 1,6 cGy/sec. The permittivity ε, the time of relaxation τ and the coefficient of Debaye κ of plasma protein molecules were determined at the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 15th, and 30th days after treatement for frequence ranges of 1,4, 2,2, 3,6 and 6 MHz. At the same terms the content of cerium 144 was measured in the organs of predilectional accumulation of cerium. It was established that the treatment only with cerium lead to most essential changes of dielectric parameters at frequence of 3,6 MHz. The external irradiation didn't influence essentially the kinetics of absorbed cerium. In combination of both radiation factors the action of cerium was predominant

  19. Effects of competitive red blood cell binding and reduced hematocrit on the blood and plasma levels of (/sup 14/C)Indapamide in the rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lettieri, J.T.; Portelli, S.T.

    1983-02-01

    The effects of chlorthalidone and acetazolamide on the red blood cell binding of indapamide were investigated. Both drugs caused a substantial decrease in the amount of indapamide bound to the erythrocytes in vitro. This effect was demonstrated by a change in the indapamide blood/plasma ratio from approximately 6 in control samples, to a value of 1 when either of the displacing agents was added. Coadministration of acetazolamide with /sup 14/C-labeled indapamide to rats, resulted in a 5-fold drop in the blood levels of total radioactivity, relative to rats dosed with (/sup 14/C)indapamide alone. Concomitantly, there was a 2-fold increase in the plasma levels of total radioactivity after acetazolamide coadministration. In rats whose hematocrits had been reduced by extensive bleeding, there were only minor alterations in the blood/plasma partitioning of (/sup 14/C)indapamide. Thus, chlorthalidone and acetazolamide were able to displace indapamide from erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo, possibly by competition at a carbonic anhydrase binding site. The pharmacokinetics of drugs which are extensively bound to erythrocytes may be significantly altered by the presence of other agents capable of competitive binding.

  20. Effects of whole blood viscosity and plasma NOx on cardiac function and cerebral blood flow in children with chronic kidney disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyan, Necla; Akçaboy, Meltem; Göktaş, Tayfun; Kula, Serdar; Nazlıel, Bijen; Çakar, Nilgün; Uncu, Nermin; Çelik, Bülent; Erbaş, Deniz

    2017-11-13

    Background/aim: The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of whole blood viscosity and plasma nitric oxide on cerebral and cardiovascular risks associated with chronic kidney disease. Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 40 pediatric patients and 21 healthy control subjects. Hematologic and biochemical variables, viscosity and plasma nitric oxide levels, echocardiographic findings, and middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity were examined. Results: Viscosity values of patients were significantly lower than those of the control group. Lower values of hematocrit, total protein, and albumin and higher values of ferritin in all patient groups resulted in significantly low viscosity levels. Plasma nitric oxide levels were higher in all patient groups than those in the controls. No statistically significant difference was present in middle cerebral artery blood flow velocity between the patient and control groups. Even when systolic functions were normal, the patient group had significant deterioration in diastolic functions, suggesting morbidity and mortality risks. Conclusions: Cerebral blood flow velocities were not affected by viscosity and nitric oxide levels, suggesting that cerebral circulation has the ability to make adaptive modulation. The metabolism of nitric oxide levels needs further investigation and studies in patients with chronic renal disease.

  1. Effects of competitive red blood cell binding and reduced hematocrit on the blood and plasma levels of [14C]Indapamide in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettieri, J.T.; Portelli, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chlorthalidone and acetazolamide on the red blood cell binding of indapamide were investigated. Both drugs caused a substantial decrease in the amount of indapamide bound to the erythrocytes in vitro. This effect was demonstrated by a change in the indapamide blood/plasma ratio from approximately 6 in control samples, to a value of 1 when either of the displacing agents was added. Coadministration of acetazolamide with 14 C-labeled indapamide to rats, resulted in a 5-fold drop in the blood levels of total radioactivity, relative to rats dosed with [ 14 C]indapamide alone. Concomitantly, there was a 2-fold increase in the plasma levels of total radioactivity after acetazolamide coadministration. In rats whose hematocrits had been reduced by extensive bleeding, there were only minor alterations in the blood/plasma partitioning of [ 14 C]indapamide. Thus, chlorthalidone and acetazolamide were able to displace indapamide from erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo, possibly by competition at a carbonic anhydrase binding site. The pharmacokinetics of drugs which are extensively bound to erythrocytes may be significantly altered by the presence of other agents capable of competitive binding

  2. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  3. Concentration of Proteins and Protein Fractions in Blood Plasma of Chickens Hatched from Eggs Irradiated with Low Level Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Simpraga, M.; Matisic, D.; Miljanic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In literature there are many results which have shown that low dose radiation can stimulate many physiological processes of living organism. In our earlier paper it was shown that low dose of gamma radiation has a stimulative effect upon metabolic process in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. This was proved by increase of body weight gain and body weight, as well as by increase of two enzymes activities in blood plasma (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) which play an important role in protein metabolism. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma rays upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1 s t and 3 r d day, or from the wing vein on days 5 and 7 after hatching. The total proteins concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the biuret method using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The protein fractions (albumin, α 1 -globulin, α 2 -globulin, β- and γ-globulins) were estimated electrophoretically on Cellogel strips. The total proteins concentration was significantly decreased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 (P t h day (P 2 -globulin was decreased on days 1 (P t h day of life. Obtained results indicate that low dose of gamma radiation has mostly inhibitory effect upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs before incubation. (author)

  4. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Danielle Amorim; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Amorim, Lucia de Fatima; Catanho, Maria Tereza Jansen de Almeida; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on the blood compartments and on the blood cells proteins (insoluble fraction). The analysis of the results indicates that the extract could have substances that could interfere on the transport of stannous through the erythrocyte membrane altering the labeling of blood cells with 99mTc. (author)

  5. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terra, Danielle Amorim; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias da Saude. Programa de Pos-graduacao em Ciencias da Saude]. E-mail: dan.amorim@gmail.com; Amorim, Lucia de Fatima [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Centro de Biociencias. Dept. de Biofisica; Catanho, Maria Tereza Jansen de Almeida [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro (UERJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria

    2007-09-15

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on the blood compartments and on the blood cells proteins (insoluble fraction). The analysis of the results indicates that the extract could have substances that could interfere on the transport of stannous through the erythrocyte membrane altering the labeling of blood cells with 99mTc. (author)

  6. Vitamin C in plasma is inversely related to blood pressure and change in blood pressure during the previous year in young Black and White women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hudes Mark

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The prevalence of hypertension and its contribution to cardiovascular disease risk makes it imperative to identify factors that may help prevent this disorder. Extensive biological and biochemical data suggest that plasma ascorbic acid may be such a factor. In this study we examined the association between plasma ascorbic acid concentration and blood pressure (BP in young-adult women. Methods Participants were 242 Black and White women aged 18–21 yr from the Richmond, CA, cohort of the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Growth and Health Study. We examined the associations of plasma ascorbic acid with BP at follow-up year 10, and with change in BP during the previous year. Results In cross-sectional analysis, plasma ascorbic acid at year 10 was inversely associated with systolic BP and diastolic BP after adjusting for race, body mass index, education, and dietary intake of fat and sodium. Persons in the highest one-fourth of the plasma ascorbic acid distribution had 4.66 mmHg lower systolic BP (95% CI 1.10 to 8.22 mmHg, p = 0.005 and 6.04 mmHg lower diastolic BP (95% CI 2.70 to 9.38 mmHg, p = 0.0002 than those in the lowest one-fourth of the distribution. In analysis of the change in BP, plasma ascorbic acid was also inversely associated with change in systolic BP and diastolic BP during the previous year. While diastolic blood pressure among persons in the lowest quartile of plasma ascorbic acid increased by 5.97 mmHg (95% CI 3.82 to 8.13 mmHg from year 9 to year 10, those in the highest quartile of plasma vitamin C increased by only 0.23 mmHg (95% CI -1.90 to +2.36 mmHg (test for linear trend: p Conclusion Plasma ascorbic acid was found to be inversely associated with BP and change in BP during the prior year. The findings suggest the possibility that vitamin C may influence BP in healthy young adults. Since lower BP in young adulthood may lead to lower BP and decreased incidence of age-associated vascular events in

  7. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin was measured and Bradford method showed the lowest variation of absorbance. The concentration of total protein obtained by using Bradford method was not statistically different (p>0.05 from concentration of total protein obtained by the biuret method. But in regard to erythrosin-B and TBPEE methods the concentrations of total protein were statistically different (pA determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo é importante em diversas áreas de pesquisa. Um estudo comparativo entre o método de biureto (método padrão para proteínas totais e diversos métodos que utilizam corantes (Bradford, tetrabromofenolftaleína etil éster-TBPEE, e eritrosina-B foi realizado para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo de ratos. O método de Bradford mostrou a maior sensibilidade para proteínas e o de biureto a menor. Para todos os métodos, as absorbâncias para diferentes proteínas (BSA, caseína, e ovoalbumina foram medidas e o método de Bradford mostrou a menor variação da absorbância. Utilizando o método de Bradford a concentração de proteínas totais obtida não foi estatisticamente diferente (p>0.05 daquela obtida pelo método do biureto. Porém, para os métodos da eritrosina-B e TBPEE as concentrações de proteínas totais foram estatisticamente diferentes (p<0.05 da obtida pelo método de biureto. Portanto o método de Bradford pode ser utilizado no lugar do método de biureto para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo.

  8. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O.; Herzke, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    ), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid...

  9. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  10. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  11. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  12. [Classification of results of studying blood plasma with laser correlation spectroscopy based on semiotics of preclinical and clinical states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Musiĭchuk, Iu I; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    The usage of laser correlation spectroscopy for verification of preclinical and clinical states is substantiated. Developed "semiotic" classifier for solving the problems of preclinical and clinical states is presented. The substantiation of biological algorithms as well as the mathematical support and software for the proposed classifier for the data of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma are presented.

  13. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  14. Increased plasma noradrenaline concentration in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease: relation to haemodynamics and blood gases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Christensen, N J; Kok-Jensen, A

    1980-01-01

    present. Plasma adrenaline concentration was normal. The results point to enhanced sympathetic nervous activity in patients with chronic obstructive lung disease, probably caused by the deranged blood gases. The pulmonary haemodynamic changes and increased pulse rate may, at least partly, be due...

  15. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load in lung transplant recipients : A comparison of plasma versus whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Veeger, Nic J.; van der Bij, Wim; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kallenberg, Cees G.; Hepkema, Bouke G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Monitoring of the Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load is frequently used to identify patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Epstein-Barr virus DNA can be measured in the plasma and whole blood serum compartments. Methods: We compared levels of Epstein-Barr virus

  16. Metagenomic profiling of the viromes of plasma collected from blood donors with elevated serum alanine aminotransferase levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuta, Rika A; Sakamoto, Hirotaka; Kuroishi, Ayumu; Yasiui, Kazuta; Matsukura, Harumichi; Hirayama, Fumiya

    2015-08-01

    In Japanese Red Cross (JRC) blood centers, blood collected from donors with serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT) levels of more than 60 U/L are disqualified even if serologically negative for transfusion-transmitted infections (TTIs). To assess potential risks of TTIs in plasma with elevated serum ALT levels in the current donor screening program of the JRC, we conducted a metagenomic analysis (MGA) of virome profiles in the plasma of blood donors with or without elevated serum ALT levels. Based on serum ALT levels, donors were classified into three groups: "high," more than 79 U/L; "middle," 61 to 79 U/L; and "low," less than 61 U/L. We individually analyzed 100 plasma samples from each group by MGA, employing shotgun sequencing. Viral sequences detected using MGA were partly confirmed using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Donors with high and middle ALT levels were significantly younger than those with low ALT levels, and more than 90% were males. Herpesviridae, Anelloviridae, Picornaviridae, and Flaviviridae sequences were identified in plasma samples, and their distribution and frequency were not significantly different among the three groups. The serum ALT test may be unsuitable for monitoring for additional risks of TTIs in blood donors who were negative for typical TTIs using serologic and nucleic acid tests. Although MGA is less sensitive than PCR, it remains the best technology to detect known viruses in these donors. © 2015 AABB.

  17. Film Thickness Dependence of Protein Adsorption from Blood Serum and Plasma onto Poly(sulfobetaine)-Grafted Surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Yang, W.; Chen, S.; Cheng, G.; Xue, H.; Zhang, J.; Jiang, S.; Li, W.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 17 (2008), s. 9211-9214 ISSN 0743-7463 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine) * protein adsorption * blood serum and plasma Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.097, year: 2008

  18. Polymer brushes showing non-fouling in blood plasma challenge the currently accepted design of protein resistant surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar Adolfo; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš; Houska, Milan; Šubr, Vladimír; Bologna Alles, A.; Hasan, E.; Gautrot, J. E.; Huck, W. T. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 13 (2011), s. 952-957 ISSN 1022-1336 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biosensors * blood plasma * HPMA Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.596, year: 2011

  19. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  20. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  1. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P < 0.0001), but no significant correlation existed between EBV DNA levels in whole blood and enriched B-cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Lima, Glaydes M.T.; Catanho, Maria T.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with 99m Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p 99m Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  3. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P intake was greater (P calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.

  4. Vitamins D and A can be successfully measured by LC-MS/MS in cord blood diluted plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarhani, Ali A; Collier, Fiona; Greaves, Ronda F; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Allen, Katrina J; Vuillermin, Peter J; Roche, Peter; Clarke, Michael W

    2015-11-01

    In widely used protocols for the collection and isolation of cord blood mononuclear cells, investigators are left with substantial volumes of diluted plasma which could be used for other measurements. The aim of this study was to ascertain the validity of umbilical cord blood (UCB) diluted plasma samples for vitamin D, A and E analysis compared to UCB serum samples. Twenty UCB matched samples of diluted plasma and serum were collected. The samples were analysed by two liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) methods on two separate occasions. The results of 25(OH)D3 obtained by the two laboratories demonstrated close agreement with a mean difference of 0.14nmol/L [95% confidence interval (95% CI), -6.8 to 7.1]. Both methods demonstrate close agreement for 25(OH)D3 in UCB serum versus diluted UCB plasma; mean difference 2.2nmol/L [95% CI, -9.5 to 13.9] and 4.1nmol/L [95% CI, -14.5 to 6.1] for the results from Lab A and Lab B, respectively. Vitamin A was quantified by Lab A in UCB serum and diluted UCB plasma; mean difference 0.07μmol/L [95% CI, -0.41 to 0.28]. Results of 25(OH)D3 epimer and vitamin E in the diluted UCB plasma were below the limit of quantification, and could not be compared with UCB serum. Diluted UCB plasma can be used for the quantification of retinol and 25(OH)D3 by LC-MS/MS. By contrast, quantification of 25(OH)D3 epimer and vitamin E in diluted UCB plasma is not supported by this study due to limitations in analytical sensitivity. Copyright © 2015 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...

  6. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  7. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-09-01

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100 μg/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5 μg/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases.

  8. The effect of dissolved oxygen on the relaxation rates of blood plasma: Implications for hyperoxia calibrated BOLD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuhan; Berman, Avery J L; Pike, G Bruce

    2016-12-01

    To determine the contribution of paramagnetic dissolved oxygen in blood plasma to blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) signal changes in hyperoxic calibrated BOLD studies. Bovine blood plasma samples were prepared with partial pressures of oxygen (pO 2 ) ranging from 110 to 600 mmHg. R 1 , R 2 , and R 2 * of the plasma with dissolved oxygen were measured using quantitative MRI sequences at 3 Tesla. Simulations were performed to predict the relative effects of dissolved oxygen and deoxyhemoglobin changes in hyperoxia calibrated BOLD. The relaxivities of dissolved oxygen in plasma were found to be r 1, O2 =1.97 ± 0.09 ×10 -4 s -1 mmHg -1 , r 2, O2 =2.3 ± 0.7 ×10 -4 s -1 mmHg -1 , and r 2, O2 * = 2.3 ± 0.7 ×10 -4 s -1 mmHg -1 . Simulations predict that neither the transverse nor longitudinal relaxation rates of dissolved oxygen contribute significantly to the BOLD signal during hyperoxia. During hyperoxia, the increases in R 2 and R 2 * of blood from dissolved oxygen in plasma are considerably less than the decreases in R 2 and R 2 * from venous deoxyhemoglobin. R 1 effects due to dissolved oxygen are also predicted to be negligible. As a result, dissolved oxygen in arteries should not contribute significantly to the hyperoxic calibrated BOLD signal. Magn Reson Med 76:1905-1911, 2016. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2015 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  9. Detection of Antibodies in Blood Plasma Using Bioluminescent Sensor Proteins and a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Remco; den Hartog, Ilona; Zijlema, Stefan E; Thijssen, Vito; van der Beelen, Stan H E; Merkx, Maarten

    2016-04-19

    Antibody detection is of fundamental importance in many diagnostic and bioanalytical assays, yet current detection techniques tend to be laborious and/or expensive. We present a new sensor platform (LUMABS) based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) that allows detection of antibodies directly in solution using a smartphone as the sole piece of equipment. LUMABS are single-protein sensors that consist of the blue-light emitting luciferase NanoLuc connected via a semiflexible linker to the green fluorescent acceptor protein mNeonGreen, which are kept close together using helper domains. Binding of an antibody to epitope sequences flanking the linker disrupts the interaction between the helper domains, resulting in a large decrease in BRET efficiency. The resulting change in color of the emitted light from green-blue to blue can be detected directly in blood plasma, even at picomolar concentrations of antibody. Moreover, the modular architecture of LUMABS allows changing of target specificity by simple exchange of epitope sequences, as demonstrated here for antibodies against HIV1-p17, hemagglutinin (HA), and dengue virus type I. The combination of sensitive ratiometric bioluminescent detection and the intrinsic modularity of the LUMABS design provides an attractive generic platform for point-of-care antibody detection that avoids the complex liquid handling steps associated with conventional immunoassays.

  10. The effect of corn trypsin inhibitor and inhibiting antibodies for FXIa and FXIIa on coagulation of plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, K M; Nielsen, S; Elg, M; Deinum, J

    2014-10-01

    Corn trypsin inhibitor (CTI), an inhibitor of FXIIa, is used to prevent plasma coagulation by contact activation, to specifically investigate tissue factor (TF)-initiated coagulation. In the present work the specificity of CTI for factor (F) XIIa is questioned. In the commercial available plasma coagulation assays CTI was found to double activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) at a plasma concentration of 7.3 ± 1.5 μm CTI (assay concentration 2.4 μm). No effect was found on the prothrombin time (PT) when high TF concentrations were used. Also, with specific antibodies for FXIIa and for FXIa only APTT was found to be extended but not PT. With specific enzyme assays using chromogenic substrates CTI was shown to be a strong inhibitor of FXIIa and a competitive inhibitor of FXIa with Ki  = 8.1 ± 0.3 μm, without effect on the coagulation factors FVIIa, FIXa, FXa and thrombin. In thrombin generation and coagulation (free oscillation rheometry, FOR) assays, initiated with low TF concentrations, no effect of CTI (plasma concentrations of 4.4 and 13.6 μm CTI, 25 resp. 100 mg L(-1) in blood) was found with ≥ 1 pm TF. At ≤ 0.1 pm TF in the FOR whole blood assay the coagulation time (CT) concentration dependently increased while the plasma CT became longer than the observation time. To avoid inhibition of FXIa and the thrombin feedback loop we recommend that for coagulation assays the concentration of CTI in blood should be below 20 mg L(-1) (1.6 μm) and in plasma below 3 μm. © 2014 International Society on Thrombosis and Haemostasis.

  11. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  12. Translating plasma and whole blood fatty acid compositional data into the sum of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acid in erythrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Ken D; Aristizabal Henao, Juan J; Metherel, Adam H; Pilote, Louise

    2016-01-01

    Specific blood levels of eicosapentaenoic plus docosahexaenoic acid (EPA+DHA, wt% of total) in erythrocytes or "the omega-3 index" have been recommended for cardio-protection, but fatty acids are often measured in different blood fractions. The ability to estimate the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from the fatty acid composition of other blood fractions would enable clinical assessments of omega-3 status when erythrocyte fractions are not available and increase the ability to compare blood levels of omega-3 fatty acids across clinical studies. The fatty acid composition of baseline plasma, erythrocytes and whole blood samples from participants (n=1104) in a prospective, multicenter study examining acute coronary syndrome were determined. The ability to predict the % of EPA+DHA in erythrocytes from other blood fractions were examined using bivariate and multiple linear regression modelling. Concordance analysis was also used to compare the actual erythrocytes EPA+DHA values to values estimated from other blood fractions. EPA+DHA in erythrocytes was significantly (pacids appears to require translation by categorization rather than by translation as continuous data. This study shows that the fatty acid composition of different blood fractions can be used to estimate erythrocyte EPA+DHA in a population with acute coronary syndrome. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average......OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries....... DESIGN: Information was obtained from a population survey in Greenland: interview data, clinical data and fasting blood samples were obtained from a random sample of Inuit from three towns and four villages. SUBJECTS: Two-hundred and fifty-nine adult Inuit (74% of the sample). RESULTS: Marine diet...

  14. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=372; POST, n=457. Despite higher mean age (56 vs. 52 years, p=0.01 and APACHE II scores (12.5 vs. 11.2, p=0.006, mean units transfused per patient were lower for both packed red blood cells (0.7 vs. 1.2, p=0.03 and fresh frozen plasma (0.3 vs. 1.2, p=0.007 in the POST compared to the PRE cohort, respectively. There was no difference in inpatient mortality between the PRE and POST cohorts (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.39. There was a decreased risk of urinary tract infections (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.80 in the POST cohort after controlling for age, illness severity and amount of blood products transfused.Implementation of a restrictive transfusion protocol can effectively reduce blood product utilization in critically ill surgical patients with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

  15. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  16. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  17. Data from the analytical performance of the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress point of care analyzer in whole blood, serum, and plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Murata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the analytical performance of 14 comprehensive metabolic panel analytes on the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress® Point of Care analyzer in serum, plasma, and whole blood. A method comparison was performed on all three specimen types intended for use on the Piccolo Xpress®: serum, heparinized plasma, and whole blood. This data is also presented in Murata et al. (2015 [1]. This article includes the actual Bland-Altman bias plots of the difference in results obtained for analytes in the comprehensive metabolic panel from the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress and the comparison instrument, the Ortho Vitros. Keywords: Clinical chemistry, Point-of care testing

  18. Stability of Routine Biochemical Analytes in Whole Blood and Plasma From Lithium Heparin Gel Tubes During 6-hr Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneret, Denis; Godmer, Alexandre; Le Guen, Ronan; Bravetti, Clotilde; Emeraud, Cecile; Marteau, Anthony; Alkouri, Rana; Mestari, Fouzi; Dever, Sylvie; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    The stability of biochemical analytes has already been investigated, but results strongly differ depending on parameters, methodologies, and sample storage times. We investigated the stability for many biochemical parameters after different storage times of both whole blood and plasma, in order to define acceptable pre- and postcentrifugation delays in hospital laboratories. Twenty-four analytes were measured (Modular® Roche analyzer) in plasma obtained from blood collected into lithium heparin gel tubes, after 2-6 hr of storage at room temperature either before (n = 28: stability in whole blood) or after (n = 21: stability in plasma) centrifugation. Variations in concentrations were expressed as mean bias from baseline, using the analytical change limit (ACL%) or the reference change value (RCV%) as acceptance limit. In tubes stored before centrifugation, mean plasma concentrations significantly decreased after 3 hr for phosphorus (-6.1% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.7%]; ACL 4.62%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; -5.7% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.1%]; ACL 5.17%), and slightly decreased after 6 hr for potassium (-2.9% [95% CI: -5.3 to -0.5%]; ACL 4.13%). In plasma stored after centrifugation, mean concentrations decreased after 6 hr for bicarbonates (-19.7% [95% CI: -22.9 to -16.5%]; ACL 15.4%), and moderately increased after 4 hr for LDH (+6.0% [95% CI: +4.3 to +7.6%]; ACL 5.17%). Based on RCV, all the analytes can be considered stable up to 6 hr, whether before or after centrifugation. This study proposes acceptable delays for most biochemical tests on lithium heparin gel tubes arriving at the laboratory or needing to be reanalyzed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation by low dose gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-dose ionising radiation on AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation (6 0C o) on the seventh day of incubation, i.e. at the time when the organogenesis in chickens is completed. The control group of chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. On day 10, AST and ALT activity were significantly higher in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs, but it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma-radiation on the seventh day of incubation affects AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. However, this effect is somewhat different from the effects of egg exposure to low-dose gamma radiation before incubation.(author)

  20. Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Sukthuayat, Amnat; Sisayanarane, Thaworn; Laoratanavoraphong, Sorawut; Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2015-01-01

    Background Clinical outcomes between the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autologous blood (AB) and corticosteroid (CS) injection in lateral epicondylitis are still controversial. Materials and methods A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted with the aim of comparing relevant clinical outcomes between the use of PRP, AB and CS injection. Medline and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 2015. A network meta-analysis was ...

  1. Centrifugation: an important pre-analytic procedure that influences plasma microRNA quantification during blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Cui, Cui; Zhou, Xin-Xi; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs are robustly present in plasma or serum and have become a research focus as biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. Centrifugation is a necessary procedure for obtaining high-quality blood supernatant. Herein, we investigated one-step and two-step centrifugations, two centrifugal methods routinely used in microRNA study, to explore their effects on plasma microRNA quantification. The microRNAs obtained from one-step and two-step centrifugations were quantified by microarray and TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Dynamic light scattering was performed to explore the difference underlying the two centrifugal methods. The results from the microarray containing 1,347 microRNAs showed that the signal detection rate was greatly decreased in the plasma sample prepared by two-step centrifugation. More importantly, the microRNAs missing in this plasma sample could be recovered and detected in the precipitate generated from the second centrifugation. Consistent with the results from microarray, a marked decrease of three representative microRNAs in two-step centrifugal plasma was validated by Q-PCR. According to the size distribution of all nanoparticles in plasma, there were fewer nanoparticles with size >1,000 nm in two-step centrifugal plasma. Our experiments directly demonstrated that different centrifugation methods produced distinct quantities of plasma microRNAs. Thus, exosomes or protein complexes containing microRNAs may be involved in large nanoparticle formation and may be precipitated after two-step centrifugation. Our results remind us that sample processing methods should be first considered in conducting research.

  2. Effects of parental hypertension on longitudinal trends in blood pressure and plasma metabolic profile: mixed-effects model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumata, Kaneto; Saitoh, Shigeyuki; Ohnishi, Hirofumi; Akasaka, Hiroshi; Miura, Tetsuji

    2012-11-01

    The mechanism underlying the association of parental hypertension with cardiovascular events in offspring remains unclear. In this study, the effects of parental hypertension on longitudinal trends of blood pressure and metabolic parameters were examined by mixed-effects model analysis. From 1977 to 2006, 5198 subjects participated in the Tanno-Sobetsu Study, and we selected 2607 subjects (1095 men and 1512 women) for whom data on parental history of hypertension were available. In both men and women with and without parental hypertension, systolic blood pressure and fasting blood glucose levels consistently increased from the third to eighth decades of life, whereas diastolic blood pressure and serum triglyceride levels followed biphasic (inverted U shape) time courses during that period. However, the relationships between the parameters and age were significantly shifted upward (by ≈5.3 mm Hg in systolic blood pressure, 2.8 mm Hg in diastolic blood pressure, 0.30 mmol/L in blood glucose, and 0.09 mmol/L in triglyceride) in the group with parental hypertension compared with those in the group without parental hypertension. Both paternal and maternal histories of hypertension were determinants of systolic blood pressure and diastolic blood pressure, and there was no significant interaction between the sides of parental history. There were no significant effects of parental hypertension on age-dependent or body mass index-dependent changes in serum low-density lipoprotein cholesterol or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol level. The present results indicate that parental hypertension has an age-independent impact on elevation of blood pressure, plasma glucose, and triglyceride levels, which may underlie the reported increase in cardiovascular events by family history of hypertension.

  3. Direct speciation analysis of arsenic in whole blood and blood plasma at low exposure levels by hydride generation-cryotrapping-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Wang, Z.; Douillet, Ch.; Musil, Stanislav; Stýblo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 18 (2017), s. 9633-9637 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15174 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : speciation analysis * arsenic * blood Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  4. Direct speciation analysis of arsenic in whole blood and blood plasma at low exposure levels by hydride generation-cryotrapping-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Wang, Z.; Douillet, Ch.; Musil, Stanislav; Stýblo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 18 (2017), s. 9633-9637 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15174 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : speciation analysis * arsenic * blood Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  5. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) in the discrimination of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer is the most frequent type of cancer that occurs with 75000 to 80000 new cases reported every year in India. The carcinogens from tobacco and related products are the main cause for the oral cancer. ATR-FTIR method is label free, fast and cost-effective diagnostic method would allow for rapid diagnostic results in earlier stages by the minimal chemical changes occur in the biological metabolites available in the blood plasma. The present study reports the use of ATR-FTIR data with advanced statistical model (LDA-ANN) in the diagnosis of oral cancer from normal with better accuracy. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Jasco spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 5 spectra recorded from each blood plasma sample. The spectral data were routed through the multilayer perception of artificial neural network to evaluate for the statistical efficacy. Among the spectral data it was found that amide II (1486 cm-1) and lipid (1526 cm-1) affords about 90 % in the discrimination between groups using LDA. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal subject from oral cancer patients using blood plasma.

  6. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  7. The effect of heat- or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on complement deposition from human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Harmankaya, Necati; Askendal, Agneta; Areva, Sami; Lausmaa, Jukka; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a well known metallic biomaterial extensively used in dental, orthopaedic-, and occasionally also in blood contacting applications. It integrates well to bone and soft tissues, and is shown upon blood plasma contact to activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and bind complement factor 3b. The material properties depend largely on those of the nm-thick dense layer of TiO(2) that becomes rapidly formed upon contact with air and water. The spontaneously formed amorphous Ti-oxide has a pzc approximately 5-6 and its water solubility is at the order of 1-2 micromolar. It is often subjected to chemical- and heat treatments in order to increase the anatase- and rutile crystallinity, to modify the surface topography and to decrease the water solubility. In this work, we prepared sol-gel derived titanium and smooth PVD titanium surfaces, and analysed their oxide and protein deposition properties in human blood plasma before and after annealing at 100-500 degrees C or upon UVO-treatment for up to 96 hours. The blood plasma results show that complement deposition vanished irreversibly after heat treatment at 250-300 degrees C for 30 minutes or after UVO exposure for 24 hours or longer. XPS and infrared spectroscopy indicated change of surface water/hydroxyl binding upon the heat- and UVO treatments, and increased Ti oxidation. XRD analysis confirmed an increased crystallinity and both control (untreated) and annealed smooth titanium displayed low XRD-signals indicating some nanocrystallinity, with predominantly anatase phase. The current results show that the behaviour of titanium dioxide in blood contact can be controlled through relatively simple means, such as mild heating and illumination in UV-light, which both likely irreversibly change the stoichiometry and structure of the outmost layers of titanium dioxide and its OH/H(2)O binding characteristics. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Brain uptake of deltamethrin in rats as a function of plasma protein binding and blood-brain barrier maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaraneni, Manoj; Pang, Jing; Mortuza, Tanzir B; Muralidhara, Srinivasa; Cummings, Brian S; White, Catherine A; Vorhees, Charles V; Zastre, Jason; Bruckner, James V

    2017-09-01

    Pyrethroids, including permethrin and deltamethrin (DLM), are very widely used of insecticides. It was hypothesized that lower plasma binding and increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) penetration of DLM in immature rats contribute to the higher brain concentrations of DLM and more pronounced neurotoxicity reported in this age group. The left brain of anesthetized adult rats was perfused for 2min via a carotid artery with 1μM 14 C-DLM in: 2-5% human serum albumin (HSA); plasma from adult and 15- and 21-d-old rats; and plasma from human donors of: birth-1 week, 1-4 weeks, 4 weeks-1 year, 1-3 years and adults. The fraction of DLM bound and brain uptake of DLM did not vary significantly with the HSA concentration nor with the age of rat or human plasma donors. One, 10 and 50μM 14 C-DLM were perfused into the left-brain of anesthetized adult, 15- and 21-d-old rats. DLM deposition in the brain was linear over this range of concentrations and inversely related to age. The results of this investigation indicate that increased BBB permeability in the youngest rats enhances brain deposition of the insecticide. Plasma protein binding of DLM in immature rats and humans is not sufficiently diminished to impact its brain uptake. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Simultaneous determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in whole blood and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A; Flachs, H

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in human whole blood and plasma. The procedure involved extraction of the compounds and the internal standard...... absorbance was monitored at 286 nm. The limit of determination using a 150-microliters sample was 10 ng/ml (40 nM) for dapsone and pyrimethamine and 8 ng/ml (28 nM) for monoacetyldapsone. Given that only a small amount of blood is required in this method, it could now be applied in studies involving blood...... level monitoring and pharmacokinetics in children on Maloprim (dapsone-pyrimethamine) prophylaxis in malaria endemic areas....

  10. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: gllf@hotmail.com; Lima, Glaydes M.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Catanho, Maria T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2002-07-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in BC (95.08 {+-}1.94 to 80.68 {+-} 3.35), in IF-P (74.42 {+-}4.50 to 39.94{+-} 5.51) and in IF-BC (89.91{+-} 3.91 to 79.54 {+-} 5.42) in presence of PHY. These results suggest that the chelating property of PHY can modify the labeling of the BC, although other effects of PHY could be responsible. As PHY is found in many food and it could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  11. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  12. Septic Shock Alters Mitochondrial Respiration of Lymphoid Cell-Lines and Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells: The Role of Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clere-Jehl, Raphael; Helms, Julie; Kassem, Mohamad; Le Borgne, Pierrick; Delabranche, Xavier; Charles, Anne-Laure; Geny, Bernard; Meziani, Ferhat; Bilbault, Pascal

    2018-02-14

    In septic shock patients, post-septic immunosuppression state following the systemic inflammatory response syndrome is responsible for nosocomial infections, with subsequent increased mortality. The aim of the present study was to assess the underlying cellular mechanisms of the post-septic immunosuppression state, by investigating mitochondrial functions of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from septic shock patients over 7 days. Eighteen patients admitted to a French intensive care unit for septic shock were included. At days 1 and 7, PBMCs were isolated by Ficoll density gradient centrifugation. Mitochondrial respiration of intact septic PBMCs was assessed versus control group PBMCs, by measuring O2 consumption in plasma, using high-resolution respirometry. Mitochondrial respiration was then compared between septic plasmas and control plasmas for control PBMCs, septic PBMCs and lymphoid cell-line (CEM). To investigate the role of plasma, we measured several plasma cytokines, among them HMGB1, by ELISA. Basal O2 consumption of septic shock PBMCs was of 8.27 ± 3.39 and 10.48 ± 3.99 pmol/s/10 cells at days 1 and 7 respectively, significantly higher than in control PBMCs (5.37 ± 1.46 pmol/s/10 cells, p Septic patient PBMCs showed a lower response to oligomycin, suggesting a reduced ATP-synthase activity, as well as an increased response to FCCP suggesting an increased mitochondrial respiratory capacity. At 6 hours, septic plasmas showed a decreased O2 consumption of CEM (4.73 ± 1.46 vs. 6.58 ± 1.53, p Septic plasma impairs mitochondrial respiration in immune cells, with a possible role of the proinflammatory protein HMGB1, leading to a subsequent compensation, probably by enzymatic activation. This compensation result is an improvement of global mitochondrial respiratory capacity, but without restoring ATP-synthase activity.

  13. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Francisco J.; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M.; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Methods We conducted a case–control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. Results We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM. PMID:22046409

  14. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  15. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  16. Organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in three colonies of North Atlantic Great skua (Stercorarius skua)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Riget, Frank Farsø; Leat, Eliza H. K.

    2013-01-01

    The present study compares blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters (BCCPs) in birds from three geographically distinct North Atlantic Great skua (Stercorarius skua) colonies. Birds from these sites bioaccumulate different POP (persistent organic pollutant) concentrations and that enabled us to ...

  17. GRAVIMETRIC-DETERMINATION OF THE WATER CONCENTRATION IN WHOLE-BLOOD, PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES AND CORRELATIONS WITH HEMATOLOGICAL AND CLINICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIJNEMA, TH; HUIZENGA, [No Value; JAGER, J; MACKOR, AJ; GIPS, CH

    1993-01-01

    We have assessed gravimetric methods for determination of intravascular water, established whole blood-, plasma- and erythrocyte water reference values in a healthy volunteer group (n = 97, 48 females) and correlated these variables with 30 simultaneous hematological, clinicochemical and body

  18. Metabolomics as a Tool for Discovery of Biomarkers of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Blood Plasma of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul R.; Amaral, David G.; Bais, Preeti; Smith, Alan M.; Egnash, Laura A.; Ross, Mark E.; Palmer, Jessica A.; Fontaine, Burr R.; Conard, Kevin R.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Cezar, Gabriela G.; Donley, Elizabeth L. R.; Burrier, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the earliest age possible is important for initiating optimally effective intervention. In the United States the average age of diagnosis is 4 years. Identifying metabolic biomarker signatures of ASD from blood samples offers an opportunity for development of diagnostic tests for detection of ASD at an early age. Objectives To discover metabolic features present in plasma samples that can discriminate children with ASD from typically developing (TD) children. The ultimate goal is to identify and develop blood-based ASD biomarkers that can be validated in larger clinical trials and deployed to guide individualized therapy and treatment. Methods Blood plasma was obtained from children aged 4 to 6, 52 with ASD and 30 age-matched TD children. Samples were analyzed using 5 mass spectrometry-based methods designed to orthogonally measure a broad range of metabolites. Univariate, multivariate and machine learning methods were used to develop models to rank the importance of features that could distinguish ASD from TD. Results A set of 179 statistically significant features resulting from univariate analysis were used for multivariate modeling. Subsets of these features properly classified the ASD and TD samples in the 61-sample training set with average accuracies of 84% and 86%, and with a maximum accuracy of 81% in an independent 21-sample validation set. Conclusions This analysis of blood plasma metabolites resulted in the discovery of biomarkers that may be valuable in the diagnosis of young children with ASD. The results will form the basis for additional discovery and validation research for 1) determining biomarkers to develop diagnostic tests to detect ASD earlier and improve patient outcomes, 2) gaining new insight into the biochemical mechanisms of various subtypes of ASD 3) identifying biomolecular targets for new modes of therapy, and 4) providing the basis for individualized treatment

  19. Analysis of Proteolytic and Fibrinolytic Activity of the Blood Plasma in Patients with Bronchial Asthma Combined with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fediv A.I. Fediv A.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study — to conduct the analysis of the performance of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma in patients with bronchial asthma (BA combined with obesity. Materials and methods. The study included 40 patients divided into groups. The basic group consisted of 20 patients with BA associated with obesity (ІI group, two comparison groups — of 10 patients with BA and normal body weight (I group and 10 patients with obesity and without pathology of the bronchopulmonary system (ІІІ group. Control group included 10 apparently healthy persons. In patients with BA, there were investigated the indexes of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma. Results. Analysis of the obtained data in patients with BA showed an increase of activity of plasma coagulation factors: total fibrinolytic activity increased in comparison to the control group, and in patients with BA it was 1.46 ± 0.13 Е440/ml/h, while in apparently healthy persons — 1.23 ± 0.16 Е440/ml/h (р < 0.05. In addition, an increase was marked and in the group of patients with the isolated obesity (by 38.5 % as compared to the group of apparently healthy persons, that can be explained by the growth of activity of inflammatory process due to the immune changes related to biological activity of fatty tissue as an additional source of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions. In combination of bronchial asthma and obesity, there is an activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic systems of the blood that leads to microcirculatory and hemostatic disorders, enhancement of inflammatory process. In obesity as the state of systemic inflammatory response, the activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic blood systems is more significant, than in bronchial asthma.

  20. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  1. Use of dried spots of whole blood, plasma, and mother's milk collected on filter paper for measurement of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 burden

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ayele, Workenesh; Schuurman, Rob; Messele, Tsehaynesh; Dorigo-Zetsma, Wendelien; Mengistu, Yohannes; Goudsmit, Jaap; Paxton, William A.; de Baar, Michel P.; Pollakis, Georgios

    2007-01-01

    We studied the use of dried spots of bodily fluids (plasma, whole blood, and mother's milk) on filter paper as a means of sample collection and storage for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) viral load testing under stringent field conditions. Plasma placed directly in lysis buffer, which

  2. The pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model of telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide on blood pressure and plasma potassium after long-term administration in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dan; Chen, Yuancheng; Hao, Kun

    2015-12-01

    A pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model was developed to describe the time course of blood pressure and plasma potassium after long-term telmisartan and/or hydrochlorothiazide administration in spontaneously hypertensive rats. The spontaneously hypertensive rats were administered once daily for 6 weeks. The drug concentration, blood pressure and plasma potassium were monitored for several points. The time courses of blood pressure and plasma potassium were described by indirect response pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model. The synergistic antihypertensive pharmacodynamic interaction between telmisartan and hydrochlorothiazide was observed, which was simulated by the inhibitory function of telmisartan and stimulatory function of hydrochlorothiazide after co-administration of the two drugs. For plasma potassium, when hydrochlorothiazide administrated alone, the plasma potassium reached to a low steady-state level at 4.64 mmol/L for 6 weeks. The plasma potassium increased to a steady-state level at 4.84 mmol/L after co-administration of telmisartan. The time courses of plasma potassium were successfully characterized by indirect response pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic model after long-term administration of telmisartan and/or hydrochlorothiazide. The model captured turnovers of blood pressure and plasma potassium in the different time phases and dose conditions. © 2015 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  3. Association of Blood and Seminal Plasma Cadmium and Lead Levels With Semen Quality in Non-Occupationally Exposed Infertile Men in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola C Famurewa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate association of blood and seminal plasma lead and cadmium with sperm quality of non-occupationally exposed male partners of couples with infertility.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 men aged 20-45 years (mean = 37.1 ± 7.0 yrs. with infertility recruited from the Fertility Clinic of a hospital in Abakaliki. Sperm count done in accordance with the WHO guidelines was used to classify the participants as normospamia, oligospermia and azospermia. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine lead and cadmium levels in plasma from blood and semen.Results: There were 15 azospermics, 22 oligospermics and 36 normospermics. Seminal and blood plasma cadmium as well as blood plasma lead were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in azospermic and oligospermic men compared to normospermic men. However, while seminal plasma lead was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in oligospermic and normospernic men than in azospermic men, the seminal plasma lead was comparable between oligospermic and normospermic men. Significant inverse associations (p < 0.01 were found between blood and seminal cadmium levels and sperm count, motility and morphology; blood lead was inversely correlated with sperm count only.Conclusion: The study suggests that environmental exposure to cadmium and lead may contribute to development of poor sperm quality and infertility in men of reproductive age in Nigeria.

  4. Onlay bone augmentation on mouse calvarial bone using a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with total blood or platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Umebayashi, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Hisato; Matsuda, Shinpei; Kimura, Hideki; Asahina, Izumi; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess newly formed onlay bone on mouse calvarial bone using a new artificial bone material, a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite, with total blood or platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with normal saline, total blood or platelet-rich plasma was transplanted on mouse calvarial bone. The mice were sacrificed and the specimens were harvested four weeks after surgery. The newly formed bone area was measured on hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens using Image J software. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma induced a significantly greater amount of newly formed bone than that with normal saline. Moreover, bone marrow was observed four weeks after surgery in the transplanted materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma but not with normal saline. However, there were no significant differences in the amount of newly formed bone between materials used with total blood versus platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material was valid for onlay bone augmentation and this material should be soaked in total blood or platelet-rich plasma prior to transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  6. Bone turnover markers in peripheral blood and marrow plasma reflect trabecular bone loss but not endocortical expansion in aging mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahnazari, Mohammad; Dwyer, Denise; Chu, Vivian; Asuncion, Frank; Stolina, Marina; Ominsky, Michael; Kostenuik, Paul; Halloran, Bernard

    2012-03-01

    We examined age-related changes in biochemical markers and regulators of osteoblast and osteoclast activity in C57BL/6 mice to assess their utility in explaining age-related changes in bone. Several recently discovered regulators of osteoclasts and osteoblasts were also measured to assess concordance between their systemic levels versus their levels in marrow plasma, to which bone cells are directly exposed. MicroCT of 6-, 12-, and 24-month-old mice indicated an early age-related loss of trabecular bone volume and surface, followed by endocortical bone loss and periosteal expansion. Trabecular bone loss temporally correlated with reductions in biomarkers of bone formation and resorption in both peripheral blood and bone marrow. Endocortical bone loss and periosteal bone gain were not reflected in these protein biomarkers, but were well correlated with increased expression of osteocalcin, rank, tracp5b, and cathepsinK in RNA extracted from cortical bone. While age-related changes in bone turnover markers remained concordant in blood versus marrow, aging led to divergent changes in blood versus marrow for the bone cell regulators RANKL, OPG, sclerostin, DKK1, and serotonin. Bone expression of runx2 and osterix increased progressively with aging and was associated with an increase in the number of osteoprogenitors and osteoclast precursors. In summary, levels of biochemical markers of bone turnover in blood and bone marrow plasma were predictive of an age-related loss of trabecular surfaces in adult C57BL/6 mice, but did not predict gains in cortical surfaces resulting from cortical expansion. Unlike these turnover markers, a panel of bone cell regulatory proteins exhibited divergent age-related changes in marrow versus peripheral blood, suggesting that their circulating levels may not reflect local levels to which osteoclasts and osteoblasts are directly exposed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  7. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  8. Label-Free Optical Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction Based on Blood Plasma Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Chen, M. W.; Lin, J. Y.; Lai, W. Q.; Huang, W.; Chen, H. Y.; Weng, G. X.

    2016-11-01

    This study is intended to explore the potential of silver (Ag) nanoparticle-based plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for providing a rapid and simple "Yes/No" assessment to detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A simple, rapid, and accurate method of diagnosing AMI is critical to reduce mortality and improve prognosis. Techniques such as electrocardiography examination and use of cardiac troponins have not yet met the current clinical need. Therefore, alternative approaches need to be developed. Plasma samples from 32 patients with AMI and 32 healthy control (Clt) subjects were assessed. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component (PC) analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), were employed to develop a diagnostic algorithm for differentiating between patients with AMI and Clt subjects. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic was tested to evaluate the performance of the PCA-LDA algorithm for AMI detection. Each plasma sample was mixed with an equal volume of Ag colloidal solution, and the SERS measurement of each plasma sample was performed. The plasma SERS spectrum showed much stronger and sharper peaks compared with the normal Raman spectrum. Tentative assignments of Raman spectroscopy bands showed specific biomolecular (e.g., proteins, adenosine, adenine, and uric acid) changes. PC analysis and LDA were employed to discriminate patients with AMI from Clt subjects, yielding a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 93.8%. The findings of this study suggest that plasma SERS has a great potential for improving AMI in the future, and this will certainly reduce the difficulty, time to draw blood, and patients' pain to a great extent.

  9. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  10. Emtricitabine Seminal Plasma and Blood Plasma Population Pharmacokinetics in HIV-Infected Men in the EVARIST ANRS-EP 49 Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tréluyer, Jean-Marc; Illamola, Silvia M.; Bouazza, Naïm; Foissac, Frantz; De Sousa Mendes, Maïlys; Lui, Gabrielle; Chenevier-Gobeaux, Camille; Suzan-Monti, Marie; Rouzioux, Christine; Assoumou, Lambert; Viard, Jean-Paul; Hirt, Déborah; Urien, Saïk; Ghosn, Jade

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to describe blood plasma (BP) and seminal plasma (SP) pharmacokinetics of emtricitabine (FTC) in HIV-1-infected men, assess its penetration in the male genital tract, and evaluate its impact on seminal plasma HIV load (spVL) detection. Men from the EVARIST ANRS EP49 study receiving combined antiretroviral therapy with FTC and with suppressed BP viral load were included in the study. A total of 236 and 209 FTC BP and SP concentrations, respectively, were available. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed with Monolix 4.1.4. The impact of FTC seminal exposure on spVL detection was explored by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves and mixed-effects logistic regressions. FTC BP pharmacokinetics was described by a two-compartment model. The addition of an effect compartment with different input and output constants best described FTC SP pharmacokinetics. No covariates were found to explain the variability in SP. FTC exposures (area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h [AUC0–24]) were higher in SP than in BP (median AUC0–24, 38.04 and 12.95 mg · liter−1 · h, respectively). The median (range) SP-to-BP AUC0–24 ratio was 2.91 (0.84 to 10.08). Less than 1% of FTC AUC0–24 ratios were lower than 1. The impact of FTC SP AUC0–24 or FTC SP-to-BP AUC0–24 ratio on spVL detection was not significant (P = 0.943 or 0.893, respectively). This is the first population model describing FTC pharmacokinetics simultaneously in both BP and SP. FTC distributes well in the male genital tract with higher FTC concentrations in SP than in BP. FTC seminal plasma exposures were considered efficient in the majority of men. PMID:26282407

  11. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy a , Fy b , Jk a and Jk b antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. [Stability of blood coagulation factors in deep frozen fresh plasma by storage at -20 degrees C and -40 degrees C].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koerner, K; Stampe, D

    1984-02-01

    Fresh frozen plasma (FFP), was shock-frozen to -25 degrees C within six hours after blood donation. The platelet count was reduced to 20 000/mm3. Aliquots were stored at -20 degrees C and -40 degrees C up to 24 months. Quick, PTT, factor V, VIII, IX, thrombin, antithrombin III, plasminogen, plasma-prekallikrein and kallikrein were determined monthly. With respect to the parameters investigated there was no significant difference between storage at -20 degrees C and -40 degrees C. Factor VIII loss was 10% after 12 months of storage. The activity of factor IX and V remained unchanged during 12 months, then factor V increased during storage. The other parameters did not change. Our study indicates quality of FFP seems not primarily depend on storage temperature, but an optimal preparation technique is much more important.

  13. NH3/O2 mixed gas plasmas alter the interaction of blood components with stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zamora, Paul O; Peña, Louis; Som, Prantika; Osaki, Shigemasa

    2003-12-01

    Stainless steel treated with a mixed gas plasma of NH(3) plus O(2) had chemical and biologic characteristics distinct from untreated stainless steel or stainless steel treated with NH(3) or O(2) plasmas used separately. NH(3)/O(2) plasmas deposited nitrogen as both -CN (organic) and -NO (nitrate, nitrite)--materials not found on untreated stainless steel--and the contact angle changed from 44 degrees to 23 degrees. Treatment of stainless steel (and titanium) resulted in surfaces with enhanced resistance to platelet and leukocyte attachment. A gas plasma of N(2)O/O(2) also was found to reduce platelet and leukocyte attachment, suggesting that these properties may be common to surfaces coated with oxynitrites (nitrides). Upon subcutaneous implantation, no inflammation, hemolysis, or untoward thrombosis was noted in the tissue surrounding the wafers treated with the NH(3)/O(2) plasmas, although the cellular density was considerably reduced by 2 weeks after implant. Collectively, the results suggest that NH(3)/O(2) plasmas impart a unique character to stainless steel that may be useful in the construction of medical devices. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 994-1000, 2003

  14. Blood Plasma of Patients with Parkinson’s Disease Increases Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Neurotoxicity

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    Peng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pathological hallmark of Parkinson’s disease (PD is formation of Lewy bodies in neurons of the brain. This has been attributed to the spread of α-synuclein (α-syn aggregates, which involves release of α-syn from a neuron and its reuptake by a neighboring neuron. We found that treatment with plasma from PD patients induced more α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization than plasma from normal subjects (NS. Compared with NS plasma, PD plasma added to primary neuron cultures caused more cell death in the presence of extracellular α-syn. This was supported by the observations that phosphorylated α-syn oligomers entered neurons, rapidly increased accumulated thioflavin S-positive inclusions, and induced a series of metabolic changes that included activation of polo-like kinase 2, inhibition of glucocerebrosidase and protein phosphatase 2A, and reduction of ceramide levels, all of which have been shown to promote α-syn phosphorylation and aggregation. We also analyzed neurotoxicity of α-syn oligomers relative to plasma from different patients. Neurotoxicity was not related to age or gender of the patients. However, neurotoxicity was positively correlated with H&Y staging score. The modification in the plasma may promote spreading of α-syn aggregates via an alternative pathway and accelerate progression of PD.

  15. Optimized quantification of fragmented, free circulating DNA in human blood plasma using a calibrated duplex real-time PCR.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Horlitz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Duplex real-time PCR assays have been widely used to determine amounts and concentrations of free circulating DNA in human blood plasma samples. Circulatory plasma DNA is highly fragmented and hence a PCR-based determination of DNA concentration may be affected by the limited availability of full-length targets in the DNA sample. This leads to inaccuracies when counting PCR target copy numbers as whole genome equivalents. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: A model system was designed allowing for assessment of bias in a duplex real-time PCR research assay. We collected blood plasma samples from male donors in pools of 6 to 8 individuals. Circulatory plasma DNA was extracted and separated by agarose gel electrophoresis. Separated DNA was recovered from the gel in discrete size fractions and analyzed with different duplex real-time PCR Taqman assays detecting a Y chromosome-specific target and an autosomal target. The real-time PCR research assays used differed significantly in their ability to determine the correct copy number ratio of 0.5 between Y chromosome and autosome targets in DNA of male origin. Longer PCR targets did not amplify quantitatively in circulatory DNA, due to limited presence of full-length target sequence in the sample. CONCLUSIONS: PCR targets of the same small size are preferred over longer targets when comparing fractional circulatory DNA concentrations by real-time PCR. As an example, a DYS14/18S duplex real-time PCR research assay is presented that correctly measures the fractional concentration of male DNA in a male/female mixture of circulatory, fragmented DNA.

  16. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Tom M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.......To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index....

  17. Catalyst-free „click” functionalization of polymer brushes preserves antifouling properties enabling detection in blood plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrillo, Viviana; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 971, 8 June (2017), s. 78-87 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : affinity optical biosensors * blood plasma * fouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  18. Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A

    2014-01-01

    the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After...... LC separation, the preferred detection tool is tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) but other detection methods have been used e.g. UV, fluorescence and electrochemical detection. Major trends for sample preparation of the different groups of antimalarials for each matrix and its detection have been...

  19. Nordic school meals improve blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and insulin despite increasing waist circumference: the opus school meal study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C. T.; Dalskov, S.; Laursen, R. P.

    Background and aims Metabolic syndrome (MetS)-features are increasingly seen in childhood. Healthy school meals may help prevent lifestyle diseases from childhood, but well-designed trials are lacking. Aims We investigated the effect of providing school meals rich in fish, vegetables and fibre...... not affect a composite MetS-score but reduced diastolic blood pressure -0.5 mmHg (95% CI -1.0;-0.0), total cholesterol -0.05 mmol/L (-0.08;-0.02) (P=0.001), HDL cholesterol -0.02 mmol/L (-0.03;-0.00), triglyceride -0.02 mmol/L (-0.04;-0.00) (both P... and physical activity confirmed these results. Conclusions Nutritionally balanced school meals improved blood pressure, plasma triglyceride and glucose homeostasis in 8-11-year-old children, despite small increases in BMI and waist circumference. OPUS (Optimal well-being, development and health for Danish...

  20. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  1. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from

  2. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.A.; Moraes, V.M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R.L.; Macari, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T 4 and T 3 concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T 4 level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  3. Genome-wide association study of prolactin levels in blood plasma and cerebrospinal fluid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Lyndsay A; Ebbert, Mark T W; Parker, Sheradyn; Bailey, Matthew; Ridge, Perry G; Goate, Alison M; Kauwe, John S K

    2016-06-29

    Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that plays an essential role in lactation, tissue growth, and suppressing apoptosis to increase cell survival. Prolactin serves as a key player in many life-critical processes, including immune system and reproduction. Prolactin is also found in multiple fluids throughout the body, including plasma and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). In this study, we measured prolactin levels in both plasma and CSF, and performed a genome-wide association study. We then performed meta-analyses using METAL with a significance threshold of p prolactin levels in both biological fluids. Our efforts will help researchers understand how prolactin is regulated in both CSF and plasma, which could be beneficial in research for the immune system and reproduction.

  4. Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Osaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism.

  5. Pathogen inactivation efficacy of Mirasol PRT System and Intercept Blood System for non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S Y; Kim, I S; Bae, J E; Kang, J W; Cho, Y J; Cho, N S; Lee, S W

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pathogen inactivation (PI) in non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma using the Mirasol PRT System and the Intercept Blood System. Platelets were pooled using the Acrodose PL system and separated into two aliquots for Mirasol and Intercept treatment. Four replicates of each viral strain were used for the evaluation. For bacteria, both low-titre (45-152 CFU/unit) inoculation and high-titre (7·34-10·18 log CFU/unit) inoculation with two replicates for each bacterial strain were used. Platelets with non-detectable bacterial growth and platelets inoculated with a low titre were stored for 5 days, and culture was performed with the BacT/ALERT system. The inactivation efficacy expressed as log reduction for Mirasol and Intercept systems for viruses was as follows: human immunodeficiency virus 1, ≥4·19 vs. ≥4·23; bovine viral diarrhoea virus, 1·83 vs. ≥6·03; pseudorabies virus, 2·73 vs. ≥5·20; hepatitis A virus, 0·62 vs. 0·76; and porcine parvovirus, 0·28 vs. 0·38. The inactivation efficacy for bacteria was as follows: Escherichia coli, 5·45 vs. ≥9·22; Staphylococcus aureus, 4·26 vs. ≥10·11; and Bacillus subtilis, 5·09 vs. ≥7·74. Postinactivation bacterial growth in platelets inoculated with a low titre of S. aureus or B. subtilis was detected only with Mirasol. Pathogen inactivation efficacy of Intercept for enveloped viruses was found to be satisfactory. Mirasol showed satisfactory inactivation efficacy for HIV-1 only. The two selected non-enveloped viruses were not inactivated by both systems. Inactivation efficacy of Intercept was more robust for all bacteria tested at high or low titres. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  6. Analysis of human blood plasma proteome from ten healthy volunteers from Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Gautam

    Full Text Available Analysis of any mammalian plasma proteome is a challenge, particularly by mass spectrometry, due to the presence of albumin and other abundant proteins which can mask the detection of low abundant proteins. As detection of human plasma proteins is valuable in diagnostics, exploring various workflows with minimal fractionation prior to mass spectral analysis, is required in order to study population diversity involving analysis in a large cohort of samples. Here, we used 'reference plasma sample', a pool of plasma from 10 healthy individuals from Indian population in the age group of 25-60 yrs including 5 males and 5 females. The 14 abundant proteins were immunodepleted from plasma and then evaluated by three different workflows for proteome analysis using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. The analysis of reference plasma sample a without prefractionation, b after prefractionation at peptide level by strong cation exchange chromatography and c after prefractionation at protein level by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, led to the identification of 194, 251 and 342 proteins respectively. Together, a comprehensive dataset of 517 unique proteins was achieved from all the three workflows, including 271 proteins with high confidence identified by ≥ 2 unique peptides in any of the workflows or identified by single peptide in any of the two workflows. A total of 70 proteins were common in all the three workflows. Some of the proteins were unique to our study and could be specific to Indian population. The high-confidence dataset obtained from our study may be useful for studying the population diversity, in discovery and validation process for biomarker identification.

  7. ACTH, corticosterone, and beta-endorphin in rat blood plasma after prolonged immobilization stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyatkin, E.A.; Amiragova, M.G.; Kushlinskii, N.E.; Polyntsev, Yu. V.

    1986-01-01

    To assess functional relations between changes in ACTH, beta-endorphin (BE), and corticosterone (CS) levels, plasma concentrations of these hormones were studied in rats during the development of prolonged immobilization stress. Plasma hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results were analyzed by standard statistical methods on a microcomputer. A particular feature about the kit used to determine BE was the presence of 50% cross-reactivity of the antiserum against beta-lipotrophin. To determine CS a highly specific antiserum produced by a laboratory was used.

  8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and ciliary neurotrophic factor in maternal plasma and umbilical cord blood from pre-eclamptic and physiological pregnancies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bienertova-Vasku, J; Bienert, P; Zlamal, F; Splichal, Z; Tomandl, J; Tomandlova, M; Hodicka, Z; Ventruba, P; Vasku, A

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the circulating levels of ciliary neurotrophic factor (CNTF) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in maternal serum and umbilical cord blood from respective pregnancies in pre-eclampsia (PE) cases and a control cohort. A total of 12 pre-eclampsia cases and 34 healthy controls were enrolled and the maternal peripheral blood - umbilical cord blood duos, were examined for BDNF and CNTF levels. BNDF levels were significantly higher in umbilical cord blood from pre-eclamptic pregnancies; there was also significant difference between maternal plasma and umbilical cord blood levels of BDNF (p CNTF levels in umbilical cord blood (CNTF-UCB) were significantly higher in PE cases than in the controls (p = 0.03). Significant differences were observed in expression of BDNF and CNTF proteins in maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood between pre-eclampsia cases and healthy controls.

  9. Presence of medication taken by blood donors in plasma for transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tilborgh, A.J.W.; Touw, D.J.; Wiersum-Osselton, J.C.; Zijlker-Jansen, P.Y.; Hudig, F.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The TRIP national hemovigilance and biovigilance office receives reports on side effects and incidents associated with the transfusion of labile blood products. The findings are publicly reported in annual hemovigilance reports. The category of anaphylactic reaction, defined as allergic

  10. COST IDENTIFICATION AND ANALYSIS FOR THE EXTRACTION OF PLASMA IN THE BLOOD BANK OF CIENFUEGOS CUBA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gómez Alfonso, Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The cost information is an indispensable tool for planning, monitoring and timely decisions making in the organizations and is one of the most important elements for the internal management and analysis. The accurately knowledge of production and services allows the asses and analysis of the procedures, activities and productions return. The Blood Bank of Cienfuegos is unable to determinate the costs of their individual productions, which are derived from blood drawn and require different processes to obtain the final product. The objective of this work is to establish a procedure for determining the costs of production arising from the blood in the Blood Bank of Cienfuegos; this is achieved by designing and implementing a process costing accounting techniques linking management function of providing elements necessary for decision making. This shows that the currently costing that the entity applies is inadequate because it generates a single cost for all their products when in fact each involves a different cost.

  11. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  12. Florfenicol in non-lactating dairy cows: pharmacokinetics, binding to plasma proteins, and effects on phagocytosis by blood neutrophils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bretzlaff, K N; Neff-Davis, C A; Ott, R S; Koritz, G D; Gustafsson, B K; Davis, L E

    1987-09-01

    Serial blood samples were collected and plasma concentrations of florfenicol (FLO) were measured following the administration of an intravenous bolus of 50 mg/kg FLO to five healthy non-lactating dairy cows. A triexponential equation provided the best fit of the data for four of the five cows. The mean value for beta corresponded to a half-life of 3.2 h. The mean apparent volume of distribution was 0.67 l/kg, and the mean body clearance was 0.15 l/kg/h. The extent of binding of FLO to bovine plasma proteins was determined in vitro at concentrations of 5 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml by equilibrium dialysis and ultrafiltration. The drug was 18% and 19% bound by equilibrium dialysis, and 23% and 19% bound by ultrafiltration, at 5 micrograms/ml and 50 micrograms/ml, respectively. Phagocytosis of 32phosphorus-labelled Staphylococcus aureus by bovine blood neutrophils was compared in vitro between neutrophils incubated in phosphate-buffered saline alone or in combination with 5, 125, or 1000 micrograms/ml chloramphenicol or FLO. There was no significant effect of chloramphenicol at any concentration. Florfenicol significantly inhibited phagocytosis at all concentrations, but the percentage inhibition was small. The clinical significance, if any, of this effect of FLO remains to be demonstrated.

  13. Deep-Dive Targeted Quantification for Ultrasensitive Analysis of Proteins in Nondepleted Human Blood Plasma/Serum and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division; Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division; Fillmore, Thomas L. [Biological Sciences Division; Schepmoes, Athena A. [Biological Sciences Division; Brewer, Heather [Biological Sciences Division; Gao, Yuqian [Biological Sciences Division; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division; Wang, Hui [Biological Sciences Division; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division

    2017-08-11

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics (e.g., selected reaction monitoring, SRM) is emerging as an attractive alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification. Recently we have made significant progress in SRM sensitivity for enabling quantification of low ng/mL to sub-ng/mL level proteins in nondepleted human blood plasma/serum without affinity enrichment. However, precise quantification of extremely low abundant but biologically important proteins (e.g., ≤100 pg/mL in blood plasma/serum) using targeted proteomics approaches still remains challenging. To address this need, we have developed an antibody-independent Deep-Dive SRM (DD-SRM) approach that capitalizes on multidimensional high-resolution reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) separation for target peptide enrichment combined with precise selection of target peptide fractions of interest, significantly improving SRM sensitivity by ~5 orders of magnitude when compared to conventional LC-SRM. Application of DD-SRM to human serum and tissue has been demonstrated to enable precise quantification of endogenous proteins at ~10 pg/mL level in nondepleted serum and at <10 copies per cell level in tissue. Thus, DD-SRM holds great promise for precisely measuring extremely low abundance proteins or protein modifications, especially when high-quality antibody is not available.

  14. The effect of polycarboxylate shell of magnetite nanoparticles on protein corona formation in blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szekeres, Márta, E-mail: szekeres@chem.u-szeged.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Sciences, University of Szeged, Hungary, 1 Aradi vt, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Tóth, Ildikó Y. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Sciences, University of Szeged, Hungary, 1 Aradi vt, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Turcu, R. [National Institute R& D for Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Tombácz, Etelka [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Sciences, University of Szeged, Hungary, 1 Aradi vt, 6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2017-04-01

    The development of protein corona around nanoparticles upon administration to the human body is responsible in a large part for their biodistribution, cell-internalization and toxicity or biocompatibility. We studied the influence of the chemical composition of polyelectrolyte shells (citric acid (CA) and poly(acrylic-co-maleic acid) (PAM)) of core-shell magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on the evolution of protein corona in human plasma (HP). The aggregation state and zeta potential of the particles were measured in the range of HP concentration between 1 and 80 (v/v)% 3 min and 20 h after dispersing the particles in HP diluted with Tris buffered saline. Naked MNPs aggregated in HP solution, but the carboxylated MNPs became stabilized colloidally at higher plasma concentrations. Significant differences were observed at low plasma concentration. CA@MNPs aggregated instantly while the hydrodynamic diameter of PAM@MNP increased only slightly at 1–3 v/v % HP concentrations. The observed differences in protein corona formation can be explained by the differences in the steric effects of the polycarboxylate shells. It is interesting that relatively small but systematic changes in zeta potential alter the aggregation state significantly. - Highlights: • Human plasma protein corona cannot stabilize naked and citrate-coated magnetite nanoparticles. • Polycarboxylic acid (PAM) coated MNPs are well stabilized with HP protein corona. • Stability pattern of naked, CA and PAM-coated MNPs is not predicted by zeta potential.

  15. Silenced uses and moral ideals in the exchange of Danish blood and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Deleuran, Ida; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    . However, we find that available cultural discourses poorly capture the moral reasoning among many donors. In fact, when informed about the existing forms of tender, plasma trade sounds like a good idea to most of them. Furthermore, they are not particularly interested in information. We argue...

  16. Dose related anxiolytic effects of diazepam: relation with serum electrolytes, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (sbp) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, R.; Haleem, D.J.; Haleem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Diazepam is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug that also induces hypnosis. Changes in serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are often associated with stress-induced anxiety. Administration of diazepam has been show to decrease stress-induced enhancement of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal cortical (HPA) axis. The present is designed to monitor the anxiolytic effects of different doses of diazepam (1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and its association with changes of serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and SBP in rats. Administration of diazepam at doses of 1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg elicited anxiolytic effects monitored in light-dark transition test and increased serum concentration of electrolytes and plasma osmolality. Serum levels of magnesium as well as SBP decreased. The results are discussed in context of anxiolytic effects of diazepam to be mediated via a modulation of stress-induced increase in the activity of HPA-axis arid electrolytes balance. (author)

  17. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Man, E-mail: cmchou@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Seatwen District, Taichung City 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjchung@seed.net.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Biomaterials modified by nanoparticle-containing plasma polymerized films. • A superhydrophoic film was obtained, and the properties of the coating were examined. • In vitro blood compatibility tests revealed neither platelet adhesion nor fibrinogen adsorption. • Surface modification technology of medical devices: non-cytotoxic and no blood clot formation. - Abstract: This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (f{sub H}) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiO{sub x} nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The −CF functional group, −CF{sub 2} bonding, and SiO{sub x} were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply

  18. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Chia-Man; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Biomaterials modified by nanoparticle-containing plasma polymerized films. • A superhydrophoic film was obtained, and the properties of the coating were examined. • In vitro blood compatibility tests revealed neither platelet adhesion nor fibrinogen adsorption. • Surface modification technology of medical devices: non-cytotoxic and no blood clot formation. - Abstract: This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF 4 ) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF 4 (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF 4 (f H ) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiO x nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The −CF functional group, −CF 2 bonding, and SiO x were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply that the pp-HC coating can

  19. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  20. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, K E; Alleman, A R; Dennis, P M; Maxwell, L K; Lock, B A; Bennett, R A; Jacobson, E R

    2001-03-15

    To determine blood cell morphologic characteristics and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges for iguanas housed in a warm indoor and outdoor environment with regular exposure to direct sunlight. Original study. 51 clinically normal iguanas (18 males, 25 females, and 8 juveniles) housed in 3 Florida locations. Blood was collected from the coccygeal or ventral abdominal vein. Any samples that had obvious hemolysis or clot formation were not used. Leukocyte counts were determined manually; other hematologic values were obtained by use of a commercially available cell counter. Plasma biochemical values were determined by use of a spectrophotometric chemistry analyzer. Blood smears were stained with Wright-Giemsa and cytochemical stains for morphologic and cytochemical evaluation. Hematologic ranges were generally higher in this study than previously reported. Thrombocytes were variable in appearance between individuals and sometimes difficult to distinguish from lymphocytes on a Wright-Giemsa preparation. Concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, total protein, globulins, and cholesterol were significantly higher, and the albumin:globulin ratio was significantly lower, in healthy gravid females than in male or nongravid female iguanas. Nongravid females had significantly higher calcium and cholesterol concentrations, compared with males. The calcium:phosphorus ratio was > 1 in all iguanas. Gravid females had a calcium phosphorus product ranging between 210 and 800. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were identified within the erythrocytes of some iguanas. Hematologic ranges for iguanas in this study are higher than those reported for iguanas. Sex and age of the iguana should be considered when evaluating biochemical values. Healthy ovulating and gravid females may have significantly increased electrolyte and protein concentrations, but maintain a calcium:phosphorus ratio > 1.

  1. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane with highly effective blood compatibility via atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung; Chang, Wan-Ju; Shih, Yu-Ju; Wei, Ta-Chin; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Development of nonfouling membranes to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications. It is always a challenge to control the surface graft copolymerization of a highly polar monomer from the highly hydrophobic surface of a fluoropolymer membrane. In this work, the blood compatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with surface-grafted electrically neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), from atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization, was studied. The effect of surface composition and graft morphology, electrical neutrality, hydrophilicity and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Blood compatibility of the zwitterionic PVDF membranes was systematically evaluated by plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, plasma-clotting time, and blood cell hemolysis. It was found that the nonfouling nature and hydration capability of grafted PSBMA polymers can be effectively controlled by regulating the grafting coverage and charge balance of the PSBMA layer on the PVDF membrane surface. Even a slight charge bias in the grafted zwitterionic PSBMA layer can induce electrostatic interactions between proteins and the membrane surfaces, leading to surface protein adsorption, platelet activation, plasma clotting and blood cell hemolysis. Thus, the optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and the best antifouling, anticoagulant, and antihemolytic activities when comes into contact with human blood. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  2. Biomarkers of unstable angina pectoris and yangxin decoction intervention: An exploratory metabonomics study of blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Yan; Zhou, Ya-Bin

    2017-05-01

    This study aimed to explore the related metabolic biomarkers and to observe the effects of Yangxin Decoction (YXD) on plasma metabolism of patients with unstable angina (UA). In total, 10 patients with UA (intervention group) and 10 healthy participants (control group) were recruited for this study from January 2009 to December 2010. Plasma samples from both groups were analyzed using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares (PLS) were used to explore the correlations between metabolic markers in patients with UA. The LC-MS results indicated that the serum levels of 5 potential metabolic markers, namely, ceramide, glycocholic acid, allocholic acid, lithocholic acid, and leukotriene (LT) B4, were significantly higher in the intervention group than those in the control group. The results of this study demonstrated potential metabolic markers that can be used to distinguish and diagnose patients with UA.

  3. High-protein-PUFA supplementation, red blood cell membranes, and plasma antioxidant activity in volleyball athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malaguti, Marco; Baldini, Marta; Angeloni, Cristina; Biagi, Pierluigi; Hrelia, Silvana

    2008-06-01

    The authors evaluated the role of a high-protein, low-calorie, polyunsaturated fatty-acid (PUFA) -supplemented diet on anthropometric parameters, erythrocyte-membrane fatty-acid composition, and plasma antioxidant defenses of nonprofessional volleyball athletes. The athletes were divided in two groups: One (n = 5) followed the Mediterranean diet, and the other (n = 6) followed a high-protein, low-calorie diet with a 3-g/day fish-oil supplementation. All the athletes had anthropometric measurements taken, both at the beginning and at the end of the study, which lasted for 2 months. Body-mass index and total body fat were significantly diminished in the second group, while they remained unchanged in the first. Plasma total antioxidant activity (TAA) was significantly increased in the plasma of both groups, with no differences between the groups, suggesting that physical activity, not the different diets, is the main contributor to the increase of plasma TAA. The second group showed a significant increase in erythrocyte-membrane PUFA content and in the unsaturation index value (UI) because of the fish-oil supplementation.A high-protein, low-carbohydrate, fish-oil-supplemented diet seems to be useful only when the aim of the diet is to obtain weight loss in a short-term period. The significant increase in the UI of erythrocyte membranes indicates the potential for harm, because a high intake of PUFA might increase susceptibility to lipid peroxidation not counterbalanced by a higher increase in TAA. Adherence to the Mediterranean diet seems to be the better choice.

  4. Metabolic profiling of human lung cancer blood plasma using 1H NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokova, Daria; Dementeva, Natalia; Kotelnikov, Oleg; Ponomaryova, Anastasia; Cherdyntseva, Nadezhda; Kzhyshkowska, Juliya

    2017-11-01

    Lung cancer (both small cell and non-small cell) is the second most common cancer in both men and women. The article represents results of evaluating of the plasma metabolic profiles of 100 lung cancer patients and 100 controls to investigate significant metabolites using 400 MHz 1H NMR spectrometer. The results of multivariate statistical analysis show that a medium-field NMR spectrometer can obtain the data which are already sufficient for clinical metabolomics.

  5. Nyctohemeral variations in the concentration of thyroid hormones, free fatty acids and hematocrit value in blood plasma of cows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bobek, S.; Ewy, Z.; Styczynski, H.; Rzasa, J.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment was performed to establish whether any biological rhythms exist in the blood concentration of thyroxine (T4), triiodothyronine (T3), and free fatty acids (FFA) as well as the free thyroxine index, charcoal uptake test of 125 J-T3, and hematocrit values. The experiment was carried out on 10 Red-Polish breed cows, from 2 to 14 years old and 410 to 550 kg b.w. The blood was collected in three-hourly intervals from the jugular vein with the aid of the cannula. Only a small nyctohemeral variation in thyroid hormone level in the blood plasma was observed. The differences between the highest and the lowest values were as follow: for - T4-0.3 ug/100 ml; for T3-2.3 ng/100 ml; for charcoal uptake test - 2.5%; and for free thyroxine index - 0.5. The duration time of nyctohemeral rhythm of FFA and hematocrit value was longer than a day and amounted to 33 and 37.6 hours respectively. The highest values were observed between 6 and 8 P.M. The differences between the highest and lowest values were as follows: 350 μEq/1 and 3% for FFA and hematocrit respectively. (author)

  6. Presence of medication taken by blood donors in plasma for transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Tilborgh-de Jong, A.J.W.; Wiersum-Osselton, J.C.; Touw, D.J.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: The TRIP national hemovigilance and biovigilance office receives reports on side-effects and incidents associated with transfusion of labile blood products. Anaphylactic reactions accounted for the largest number of serious transfusion reactions in the period 2008-2012. In

  7. Micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic sensor for plasma and whole blood coagulation monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da; Song, Shuren; Ma, Jilong; Zhang, Zhen; Wang, Peng; Liu, Weihui; Guo, Qiuquan

    2017-05-15

    Monitoring blood coagulation is an important issue in the surgeries and the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. In this work, we reported a novel strategy for the blood coagulation monitoring based on a micro-electromechanical film bulk acoustic resonator. The resonator was excited by a lateral electric field and operated under the shear mode with a frequency of 1.9GHz. According to the apparent step-ladder curves of the frequency response to the change of blood viscoelasticity, the coagulation time (prothrombin time) and the coagulation kinetics were measured with the sample consumption of only 1μl. The procoagulant activity of thromboplastin and the anticoagulant effect of heparin on the blood coagulation process were illustrated exemplarily. The measured prothrombin times showed a good linear correlation with R 2 =0.99969 and a consistency with the coefficient of variation less than 5% compared with the commercial coagulometer. The proposed film bulk acoustic sensor, which has the advantages of small size, light weight, low cost, simple operation and little sample consumption, is a promising device for miniaturized, online and automated analytical system for routine diagnostics of hemostatic status and personal health monitoring. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry microanalysis of alpha- and gamma-tocopherol in plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zerbinati, C; Galli, F; Regolanti, R; Poli, G; Iuliano, L

    2015-06-15

    Assessing vitamin E status in humans is critical for nutritional evaluation and verification of clinical and biological compliance of supplemented subjects. An accurate analytical method for measuring the two main vitamin E isoforms, i.e. α- and γ-tocopherol (α- and γ-TOH) in small volumes of plasma can facilitate the application of this analysis to clinical trials and in situations where a limited amount of sample is available. We have developed a micro method, which uses only 5 μL plasma, based on isotope dilution, trimethylsilation and GC-MS. The method was validated according to the guidelines of the International Conference on Harmonization of analytical procedures. The method was also applied to 5 μL of whole blood for the potential use in conditions were the availability of specimens is limited. Accurate quantitation of α-TOH and γ-TOH was achieved at levels ≥ 0.417 μM and ≥ 0.007 μM, respectively. Within-day coefficient of variation was 1.31% and 4.70% for α-TOH and γ-TOH, respectively. Between-day coefficient of variation was 1.32% and 2.88% for α-TOH and γ-TOH, respectively. Recovery, assessed at three concentration levels, ranged 98-103% and 100-102% for α-TOH and γ-TOH, respectively. The method allowed the detection of α-TOH and γ-TOH in 5 μL whole blood and in membranes of red blood cells washed from 5 μL of blood as well. The analytical performance was assessed in plasma from a cohort of Italian healthy subjects (n = 205). The mean plasma concentrations were 28.01 ± 6.31 and 0.68 ± 0.48 μM (mean ± SD) for α-TOH and γ-TOH, respectively. Alpha-TOH correlated with total cholesterol (r = 0.617, p < 0.0001) and triglycerides (r = 0.420, p < 0.0001) while γ-TOH correlated modestly with total cholesterol (r = 0.213, p < 0.0001) but not with triglycerides. γ-TOH, but not α-TOH, was significantly lower in smokers than in non-smokers (0.72 ± 0.50 vs. 0.56 ± 0.37, μM, mean ± SD, p = 0.017). Given the high sensitivity, the

  9. Selectivity in the potentiation of antibacterial activity of α-peptide/β-peptoid peptidomimetics and antimicrobial peptides by human blood plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hein-Kristensen, Line; Knapp, Kolja M.; Franzyk, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising leads for novel antibiotics; however, their activity is often compromised under physiological conditions. The purpose of this study was to determine the activity of alpha-peptide/beta-peptoid peptidomimetics and AMPs against Escherichia coli...... and Staphylococcus aureus in the presence of human blood-derived matrices and immune effectors. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of two peptidomimetics against E. coli decreased by up to one order of magnitude when determined in 50% blood plasma as compared to MHB media. The MIC of a membrane-active AMP...... activity. Plasma potentiation was not mediated by an LL-37 analogue, lysozyme or hydrogen peroxide; however, plasma potentiation of activity was abolished when the complement system was heat-inactivated. Time-course experiments indicated that potentiation was due to plasma-mediated effects on bacterial...

  10. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume in peripheral arterial disease: initial findings.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bas Versluis

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of the current study was to describe a method that assesses the hyperemic microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. The reversibly albumin binding contrast agent gadofosveset was used in dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE MRI to assess the microvascular status in patients with peripheral arterial disease (PAD and healthy controls. In addition, the reproducibility of this method in healthy controls was determined. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ten PAD patients with intermittent claudication and 10 healthy control subjects were included. Patients underwent contrast-enhanced MR angiography of the peripheral arteries, followed by one DCE MRI examination of the musculature of the calf. Healthy control subjects were examined twice on different days to determine normative values and the interreader and interscan reproducibility of the technique. The MRI protocol comprised dynamic imaging of contrast agent wash-in under reactive hyperemia conditions of the calf musculature. Using pharmacokinetic modeling the hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume (V(p, unit: % of the anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles was calculated. RESULTS: V(p was significantly lower for all muscle groups in PAD patients (4.3±1.6%, 5.0±3.3% and 6.1±3.6% for anterior tibial, gastrocnemius and soleus muscles, respectively compared to healthy control subjects (9.1±2.0%, 8.9±1.9% and 9.3±2.1%. Differences in V(p between muscle groups were not significant. The coefficient of variation of V(p varied from 10-14% and 11-16% at interscan and interreader level, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Using DCE MRI after contrast-enhanced MR angiography with gadofosveset enables reproducible assessment of hyperemic fractional microvascular blood plasma volume of the calf musculature. V(p was lower in PAD patients than in healthy controls, which reflects a promising functional (hemodynamic biomarker for the

  11. Effect of Sex and Prior Exposure to a Cafeteria Diet on the Distribution of Sex Hormones between Plasma and Blood Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, María del Mar; Fernández-López, José Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2012-01-01

    It is generally assumed that steroid hormones are carried in the blood free and/or bound to plasma proteins. We investigated whether blood cells were also able to bind/carry sex-related hormones: estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone. Wistar male and female rats were fed a cafeteria diet for 30 days, which induced overweight. The rats were fed the standard rat diet for 15 additional days to minimize the immediate effects of excess ingested energy. Controls were always kept on standard diet. After the rats were killed, their blood was used for 1) measuring plasma hormone levels, 2) determining the binding of labeled hormones to washed red blood cells (RBC), 3) incubating whole blood with labeled hormones and determining the distribution of label between plasma and packed cells, discounting the trapped plasma volume, 4) determining free plasma hormone using labeled hormones, both through membrane ultrafiltration and dextran-charcoal removal. The results were computed individually for each rat. Cells retained up to 32% estrone, and down to 10% of testosterone, with marked differences due to sex and diet (the latter only for estrogens, not for DHEA and testosterone). Sex and diet also affected the concentrations of all hormones, with no significant diet effects for estradiol and DHEA, but with considerable interaction between both factors. Binding to RBC was non-specific for all hormones. Estrogen distribution in plasma compartments was affected by sex and diet. In conclusion: a) there is a large non-specific RBC-carried compartment for estrone, estradiol, DHEA and testosterone deeply affected by sex; b) Prior exposure to a cafeteria (hyperlipidic) diet induced hormone distribution changes, affected by sex, which hint at sex-related structural differences in RBC membranes; c) We postulate that the RBC compartment may contribute to maintain free (i.e., fully active) sex hormone levels in a way similar to plasma proteins non-specific binding. PMID:22479617

  12. Continuous noninvasive in vivo monitoring of intravascular plasma volume and hematocrit changes in response to blood removal and fluid replacement in a rat model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Bin; Kastner, Evan; Dent, P.; Goodisman, J.; Chaiken, J.

    2014-02-01

    We report a new algorithm and measurement system that permits simultaneous monitoring of the hematocrit and plasma volume fraction of blood within the intravascular space of an optically probed volume of skin. The system involves probing with a near infrared laser and simultaneously collecting the Rayleigh and Mie scattered light as one raw signal and the undifferentiated Raman and fluorescence emission as the second raw signal. Those two physically independent raw signals and six parameters that can be obtained by either direct calculation or empirical calibration permit monitoring of the blood in rat paws. We tested a device based on the algorithm in the context of improving detection of blood loss for people with an early undiagnosed internal hemorrhage via real-time monitoring of signal changes with direct correlation to hematocrit. We performed experiments monitoring rat paw skin in vivo while removing blood, centrally or peripherally, and then adding replacement fluids such as Normocarb and blood. Blood removal itself elicits a predictable and consistent response, decreasing hematocrit and increasing relative plasma volume, that depends on the rate and location of removal, the total amount of blood removed, the location of monitoring, and possibly other factors as yet unknown. Similarly, replacing the blood with whole blood vs. saline consistently produces a rational range of responses. Calibration across subjects and the measurement of absolute hematocrit will also be discussed.

  13. Plasma Calcium Concentration Modifies the Blood Sodium During Hemodialysis: Lessons from Hard Water Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viggiano Davide

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Extracellular sodium (Na+ concentration is maintained within a tight physiological range due to hormonal control, that mainly modulates thirst, Na+ and water renal excretion. Extra-renal regulation of Na+ and water homeostasis is only partially understood. Recently it has been debated whether the osmotically inactive Na+ storage is fixed or variable. Methods. In the present study, fourteen End-Stage Renal Disease (ESRD patients treated by chronic hemodialysis underwent by accident to a sharp increase in plasmatic calcium (Ca+2 levels due to the failure of the water control system, leading to the so-called hard water syndrome. The levels of plasmatic Ca+2 after 1 hr of hemodialysis were correlated with urea, Na+, potassium (K+ and creatinine levels. Eleven ESRD patients treated with hemodialysis under similar conditions were used as controls. Results. The hard water syndrome resulted in hypercalcemia, while mean plasma levels of Na+, K+ and urea were not different compared to controls. Plasma creatinine levels were slightly but significantly higher that control. A correlation analysis on the measured variables has showed a positive correlation between plasma Ca+2 and Na+ levels (Pearson=0.428, p=0.032, and the absence of any correlation with K+, creatinine and urea concentration. Conclusions. Our study suggests that acute changes in plasmatic Ca+2 levels may affect Na+ concentration in the absence of renal function; it is possible that hypercalcemia may trigger Na+ release from the osmotically inactive storage. These data further support previous observations on the interplay of sodium and calcium at extrarenal sites.

  14. Plasma Homocysteine and Asymmetrical Dimethyl-l-Arginine (ADMA) and Whole Blood DNA Methylation in Early and Neovascular Age-Related Macular Degeneration: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinna, Antonio; Zinellu, Angelo; Tendas, Donatella; Blasetti, Francesco; Carru, Ciriaco; Castiglia, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    To compare the plasma levels of homocysteine and asymmetrical dimethyl-l-arginine (ADMA) and the degree of whole blood DNA methylation in patients with early and neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD) and in controls without maculopathy of any sort. This observational case-control pilot study included 39 early AMD patients, 27 neovascular AMD patients and 132 sex- and age-matched controls without maculopathy. Plasma homocysteine and ADMA concentrations and the degree of whole blood DNA methylation were measured. Quantitative variables were compared by Student's t-test or Mann-Whitney test. Logistic regression models were used to investigate the significance of the association between early or wet AMD and some variables. There were no significant differences in mean plasma homocysteine and ADMA concentrations and in the degree of whole blood DNA methylation between patients with early or neovascular AMD and their controls. Similarly, logistic regression analysis disclosed that plasma homocysteine and ADMA levels were not associated with an increased risk for early or neovascular AMD. We failed to demonstrate an association between early or neovascular AMD and increased plasma homocysteine and/or ADMA. Results also suggest that the degree of whole blood DNA methylation is not a marker of AMD.

  15. Simple and rapid quantification of gadolinium in urine and blood plasma samples by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telgmann, Lena; Holtkamp, Michael; Künnemeyer, Jens; Gelhard, Carsten; Hartmann, Marcel; Klose, Annika; Sperling, Michael; Karst, Uwe

    2011-10-01

    A simple and rapid method to determine gadolinium (Gd) concentrations in urine and blood plasma samples by means of total reflection X-ray fluorescence (TXRF) was developed. With a limit of detection (LOD) of 100 μg L(-1) in urine and 80 μg L(-1) in blood plasma and a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 330 μg L(-1) in urine and 270 μg L(-1) in blood plasma, it allows analyzing urine samples taken from magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) patients during a period of up to 20 hours after the administration of Gd-based MRI contrast agents by means of TXRF. By parallel determination of the urinary creatinine concentration, it was possible to monitor the excretion kinetics of Gd from the patient's body. The Gd concentration in blood plasma samples, taken immediately after an MRI examination, could be determined after rapid and easy sample preparation by centrifugation. All measurements were validated with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). TXRF is considered to be an attractive alternative for fast and simple Gd analysis in human body fluids during daily routine in clinical laboratories. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  16. Non-thermal plasma with 2-deoxy-D-glucose synergistically induces cell death by targeting glycolysis in blood cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Neha; Lee, Su Jae; Choi, Tae Gyu; Baik, Ku Youn; Uhm, Han Sup; Kim, Chung Hyeok; Kaushik, Nagendra Kumar; Choi, Eun Ha

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we show the selective and efficient anti-cancer effects of plasma (at a low dose) when cell metabolic modifiers are also included. 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2-DG), a glycolytic inhibitor, was used with effective doses of non-thermal plasma, synergistically attenuating cell metabolic viability and inducing caspase-dependent and independent cell death. The combination treatment decreased the intracellular ATP and lactate production in various types of blood cancer cells in vitro. Taken together, our findings suggest that 2-DG enhances the efficacy and selectivity of plasma and induces the synergistic inhibition of cancer cell growth by targeting glycolysis and apoptosis. Specifically, this treatment strategy demonstrated an enhanced growth inhibitory effect of plasma in the presence of a metabolic modifier that was selective against cancer cells, not non-malignant cells. This is the first study to report the advantage of combining plasma with 2-DG to eradicate blood cancer cells. Finally, we conclude that 2-DG with non-thermal plasma may be used as a combination treatment against blood cancer cells.

  17. Phagocytic activity of granulocytes and bactericidal properties of the blood plasma in the course of radiotherapy of cancer of the lung

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wysocka, J.; Kemona, H.; Kiluk, S.; Prokopowicz, J.

    1986-01-01

    Functional condition of granulocytes and bactericidal properties of blood plasma in patients with lung cancer, as well as the effect of radiotherapy on these parameters has been evaluated. Prior to the treatment decrease of the phagocytic activity and bactericidal properties of the blood plasma have been noticed. Application of radiotherapy is not resulting in total restitution of normal functional condition of granulocytes and even deteriorates temporarily the condition of the humoral resistance. Definition of the condition of non specific resistance is important for evaluation of the degree of exposure of patients with bacterial infections. 30 refs. (author)

  18. [Pooled Umbilical Cord Blood Plasma for Culturing UCMSC and Ex Vivo Expanding Umbilical Cord Blood CD34⁺ Cells].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jie-Ying; Lu, Yan; Chen, Jin-Song; Wu, Shao-Qing; Tang, Xue-Wei; Li, Yan

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the feasibility of umbilical cord blood plasma (UCP) as a replacement for fetal bovine serum (FBS) for culturing mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from umbilical cord, and to observe the supporting effects of these cells (served as a feeder layer) on ex vivo expanding of human umbilical cord blood CD34(+) cells. Umbilical cord blood (UCB) units were suitable if the Guangzhou cord blood bank donor selection criteria strictly were fulfilled. UCP were ready to use after the collection from the plasma depletion/reduction during the processing and pooling of suitable UCB units (at least 30 units were screened for pathogens and microorganisms, and qualified). Umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cells (UCMSC) were harvested from the umbilical cord tissue of health full-term newborns after delivery by enzyme digestion and divided into 3 groups: group 1 and 2 were cultured in the presence of DMEM/F12 containing either FBS or UCP; and group 3 was cultured in serum-free medium (StemPro® MSC SFM CTS™). Morphology, proliferation and surface marker expression were examined by flow cytometry, and the differentiation toward adipogenic and osteogenic lineages was used for investigating the effect of media on UCMSC after 3-5 passages. Next, the cells cultured in the three different media were cryopreserved and thawed, then prepared as feeder layers with the name of UCMSC(FBS), UCMSC(UCP), and UCMSC(SFM), respectively. The CD34⁺ cells were separated from UCB by magnetic activated cell sorting (MACS) and divided into 4 groups cultured in StemPro(-34) SFM medium added with hematopoietic cytokine combination (StemSpan® CC100). The control group included only CD34⁺ cells as group A (blank control) and experimental groups included UCMSC(FBS) + CD34⁺ cells as group B, UCMSC(UCP) + CD34⁺ cells as group C, UCMSC(SFM) + CD34⁺ cells as group D, and cells in all groups were cultured ex vivo for 7 days. The nucleated cell (NC) number was counted by cell counter, CD34

  19. The determination of mercury in whole blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, David E.; Burritt, Mary F.; Moyer, Thomas P.

    1999-08-01

    An inductively coupled mass spectrometric (ICP-MS) method for the determination of mercury in whole blood and urine was developed. Gold and dichromate in hydrochloric acid were evaluated as agents to reduce mercury spray chamber memory. Dichromate with hydrochloric acid was found to be superior to gold. We evaluated the rapid introduction of sample to promote equilibrium and the rapid introduction of wash solutions after the sample analyses to minimize mercury memory. This ‘fast pump’ mode (2.5 ml/min) was used for 20 s at the beginning and end of each sample-wash cycle. The mercury detection limit is 0.15 μg/l in the original sample before dilution. Regressions and correlation coefficients for ICP-MS vs. target concentrations for interlaboratory comparison samples from the Centre de Toxicologie du Quebec were: whole blood: y=1.0x-0.6; r=0.9801; n=27 and urine: y=0.84x+8; r=0.9915; n=42. Patient samples were analyzed by ICP-MS and cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry (CVAAS). Regressions and correlations for patient samples were: urines: y=0.93x+1; r=0.8763; n=456 and whole blood: y=1.1x+0.2; r=0.9357; n=251. ICP-MS correlation with CVAAS for 29 urine samples containing 15-150 μg Hg/specimen was: y=0.94x+4; r=0.9864.

  20. [Changes in the interleukin-6 and interleukin-10 concentrations in the blood plasma of miners working in deep coal mines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Belkina, E B

    2000-03-01

    Blood plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) were measured in 45 miners working in a deep coal mine immediately after work shift using an immunoenzyme technique. The highest IL-6 level was recorded in those miners engaged in hard work under most adverse conditions of underground workings--it was found to exceed the control values. The same group of workers demonstrated the lowest level of IL-10 that differed from the control value. Miners aged between 41 to 50 years working in a coal mine, their underground service duration 16 to 20 years, displayed a decline in the level of IL-6. The coal mine miners with the 11- to 15-year service duration revealed an increase in the level of IL-10.

  1. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru; Lin, Cheng-Wei; Chou, Chia-Man; Chung, Chi-Jen; He, Ju-Liang

    2015-08-01

    This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF4) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF4 (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF4 (fH) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiOx nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The sbnd CF functional group, sbnd CF2 bonding, and SiOx were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply that the pp-HC coating can potentially prevent the formation of thrombi and provide an alternative means of modifying the surfaces of blood-contacting biomaterials.

  2. Structural aspects of graphitic carbon modified SBA-15 mesoporous silica and biological interactions with red blood cells and plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Diego S T; Damasceno, João Paulo V; Franqui, Lidiane S; Bettini, Jefferson; Mazali, Italo O; Strauss, Mathias

    2017-09-01

    Functional mesoporous materials have been worldwide studied for different applications. Mesoporous silicas are highlighted due to the synthetic possibilities for the preparation of such materials with different particle sizes and morphologies, and controlled pores sizes and structures. Moreover, the silica superficial silanol groups are explored in several chemical modifications, leading to functional materials with tuned functionalities and properties. In this work, an organo-functionalization and pyrolysis synthetic procedure is used to obtain graphitic carbon modified mesoporous SBA-15 silica. The carbon content was tuned during the functionalization step, and the graphitic nanodomains were formed in the pores surface and particles outer surface. Textural and small angle X-ray diffraction analysis accessed the presence of the carbon nanostructures inside the SBA-15 mesopores. Advanced microanalysis using electron energy loss spectroscopy coupled to a transmission electron microscope had confirmed the carbon distribution along the silica pores, which gives higher hydrophobicity and changed the interaction of the mesoporous material with biological systems. Finally, the influence of the surface modification with graphitic carbon species over the interaction with human red blood cells (hemolysis) and human blood plasma (protein corona formation) was elucidated for the very first time for this kind of functional materials. It was observed that the graphitic carbon species considerably reduced the hemolytic effect of the silica particles, and was responsible for modulating the loading and composition of the hard corona plasma proteins. This work deepness the fundamental knowledge on the interaction between such nanomaterials and biological systems, one step further the use of these modified silicas in biomedical applications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Standardization of a Protocol for Obtaining Platelet Rich Plasma from blood Donors; a Tool for Tissue Regeneration Procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Lina Andrea; Escobar, Magally; Peñuela, Oscar

    2015-01-01

    To develop a protocol for obtaining autologous platelet rich plasma in healthy individuals and to determine the concentration of five major growth factors before platelet activation. This protocol could be integrated into the guidelines of good clinical practice and research in regenerative medicine. Platelet rich plasma was isolated by centrifugation from 38 healthy men and 42 women ranging from 18 to 59 years old. The platelet count and quantification of growth factors were analyzed in eighty samples, stratified for age and gender of the donor. Analyses were performed using parametric the t-test or Pearson's analysis for non-parametric distribution. P platelet counts from 1.6 to 4.9 times (mean = 2.8). There was no correlation between platelet concentration and the level of the following growth factors: VEGF-D (r = 0.009, p = 0.4105), VEGF-A (r = 0.0068, p = 0.953), PDGF subunit AA (p = 0.3618; r = 0.1047), PDGF-BB (p = 0.5936; r = 0.6095). In the same way, there was no correlation between donor gender and growth factor concentrations. Only TGF-β concentration was correlated to platelet concentration (r = 0.3163, p = 0.0175). The procedure used allowed us to make preparations rich in platelets, low in leukocytes and red blood cells, and sterile. Our results showed biological variations in content of growth factors in PRP. The factors influencing these results should be further studied.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of triazole based supramolecule for interaction with cefuroxime in tap water and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Perveen, Samina; Shah, Kiramat; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ahmed, Shakil

    2018-01-01

    In this study a new calix[4]arene triazole 5 was successfully synthesized using click reaction and characterized through UV-visible, FT-IR, 1 H NMR spectroscopes and Mass Spectrometry. The supramolecular interaction of compound 5 towards commonly used drugs has been carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The supramolecule 5 showed characteristic enhancement in the absorbance intensity after mixing with Cefuroxime at pH (2-12). Compound 5 displayed considerably good interactions with cefuroxime in the presence of other drugs. Compound 5 exhibits linear relationship with cefuroxime concentration in the range of (10-80µM) with regression value of 0.9954. The standard deviation for 50µM Cefuroxime was found to be 0.01 and the limit of detection for cefuroxime was calculated to be 2µM. Job's plot experiments showed 1:1 (5: cefuroxime) binding stoichiometry between compound 5 and cefuroxime. Supramolecule 5 displayed fairly good spectrophotometric recognition of Cefuroxime in human blood plasma and tap water thus showing that the ingredients of tap water and plasma sample was inert in the recognition of cefuroxime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Binding of human myeloperoxidase to red blood cells: Molecular targets and biophysical consequences at the plasma membrane level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorudko, Irina V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Shamova, Ekaterina V; Grigorieva, Daria V; Mironova, Elena V; Kudryavtsev, Igor V; Gusev, Sergey A; Gusev, Alexander A; Chekanov, Andrey V; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Panasenko, Oleg M; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2016-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an oxidant-producing enzyme that can also bind to cellular surface proteins. We found that band 3 protein and glycophorins A and B were the key MPO-binding targets of human red blood cells (RBCs). The interaction of MPO with RBC proteins was mostly electrostatic in nature because it was inhibited by desialation, exogenic sialic acid, high ionic strength, and extreme pH. In addition, MPO failed to interfere with the lectin-induced agglutination of RBCs, suggesting a minor role of glycan-recognizing mechanisms in MPO binding. Multiple biophysical properties of RBCs were altered in the presence of native (i.e., not hypochlorous acid-damaged) MPO. These changes included transmembrane potential, availability of intracellular Ca(2+), and lipid organization in the plasma membrane. MPO-treated erythrocytes became larger in size, structurally more rigid, and hypersensitive to acidic and osmotic hemolysis. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the plasma MPO concentration and RBC rigidity index in type-2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease. These findings suggest that MPO functions as a mediator of novel regulatory mechanism in microcirculation, indicating the influence of MPO-induced abnormalities on RBC deformability under pathological stress conditions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. ACTIVITIES OF ALT, AST, ALP AND LDH ENZYMES IN CATTLE BLOOD PLASMA DEPENDING ON REPRODUCTIVE CYCLE AND SEASONAL CHANGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejra Hadžimusić

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determining levels of alanin aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, alkaline phosphatase (ALP and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH in the plasma of 229 dairy Holstein-Friesian breed cows in different stages of the re¬production cycle and regarding the seasonal changes (diet conditions. Cows were divided into the groups: lactation (Group A, postpartal period within 15 days from calving (Group B and dry period (Group C. Seasonal variations affected AST activity within Groups A and B, while Group C showed no seasonal influence. Differences between Groups A and B were determined during winter, as well as among Groups A and C during the same season. The highest activity of ALT was measured in cows from Group A during the winter season. ALP activity showed no statistical difference among groups, though statistical significance was noted within seasonal changes. The activity of LDH showed no statistical significance within Group C with regard to the seasonal changes. Statistically significant difference was found between cows of Group A and C during the winter season. Differences were considered statistically significant when p<0,05.Research results showed a significant influence of milk production and dry period on the activities of measured enzymes in the blood plasma so we can conclude that there is a need for constant monitoring of the described parameters during the production period.Key words: dairy cows, ALT, AST, ALT, LDH

  7. Effect of collection, transport, processing and storage of blood specimens on the activity of lysosomal enzymes in plasma and leukocytes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Burin

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of different conditions of collection, transport and storage on the quality of blood samples from normal individuals in terms of the activity of the enzymes ß-glucuronidase, total hexosaminidase, hexosaminidase A, arylsulfatase A and ß-galactosidase. The enzyme activities were not affected by the different materials used for collection (plastic syringes or vacuum glass tubes. In the evaluation of different heparin concentrations (10% heparin, 5% heparin, and heparinized syringe in the syringes, it was observed that higher doses resulted in an increase of at least 1-fold in the activities of ß-galactosidase, total hexosaminidase and hexosaminidase A in leukocytes, and ß-glucuronidase in plasma. When the effects of time and means of transportation were studied, samples that had been kept at room temperature showed higher deterioration with time (72 and 96 h before processing, and in this case it was impossible to isolate leukocytes from most samples. Comparison of heparin and acid citrate-dextrose (ACD as anticoagulants revealed that ß-glucuronidase and hexosaminidase activities in plasma reached levels near the lower normal limits when ACD was used. In conclusion, we observed that heparin should be used as the preferable anticoagulant when measuring these lysosomal enzyme activities, and we recommend that, when transport time is more than 24 h, samples should be shipped by air in a styrofoam box containing wet ice.

  8. Antioxidant defense system state in blood plasma and heart muscle of rats under the influence of histamine and sodium hypoclorite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Bishko

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide spectrum of antihistamine drugs in the pharmaceutical market, however all these chemical preparations cause side effects. Therefore, new alternative ways for histamine detoxication are to be found. For this aim in our experiment sodium hypochlorite was used because its solution possesses strong oxidizing properties. The influence of histamine and sodium hypochlorite on the antioxidant defence system state of blood plasma and cardiac muscle in rats has been researched. It was shown, that the investigated factors result in the disruption of the antioxidant system. It was found that histamine injection in concentration of 1 and 8 μg/kg in plasma leads to the increase of superoxi­de dismutase activity during all the experiment. When studying enzymes, that catalyze hydroperoxides and Н2О2 decomposition it was shown that under the influence of histamine in a dose 1 μg/kg, the glutathione peroxidase activity increased on the 1st day of the experiment. However, on the 7th day of the experiment the increase of both glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity was fixed. The deviation in superoxide dismutase function in rats plasma under the action of sodium hypochlorite has been established. The activity of enzymes that decompose Н2О2 and hydroperoxides were inhibi­ted. Under the influence of histamine in the heart tissues we have stated the disturbance of superoxide dismutase work and increase of catalase activity and decrease of glutathione peroxidase activity. The influence of sodium hypochlorite on the myocardium of intact animals as well as joint influence of sodium hypochlorite and histamine result in the increase of superoxide dismutase and catalase activity and lead to the conside­rable decline of activity of glutathione peroxidase.

  9. Eggshell Biliverdin and Protoporphyrin Pigments in a Songbird: Are They Derived from Erythrocytes, Blood Plasma, or the Shell Gland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, Rita; Boross, Nóra; Hámori, Susanne; Neuberger, Eszter; Nyiri, Zoltán

    Biliverdin and protoporphyrin pigments are deposited into the eggshell when the developing egg is in the shell gland. However, the site of synthesis of eggshell pigments is still uncertain, although it may influence the possible costs and potential functions of eggshell coloration in avian species. Eggshell pigments may be derived from red blood cells or be produced in other organs and then transferred to the shell gland, or they may be synthesized de novo in the shell gland. We studied in the canary (Serinus canaria) whether eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations are associated with experimentally elevated anemia, female hematocrit level, immature erythrocyte percentage, and feces and plasma pigment levels during egg laying to find out the possible origin of eggshell pigments. We found no significant effects of hematocrit level or experimentally elevated anemia on intensity of eggshell blue-green and brown pigmentations; therefore, we consider it less likely that eggshell pigments are derived from erythrocytes. In addition, we found no significant associations between female feces biliverdin concentration during egg laying and intensity of eggshell blue-green pigmentation, suggesting that eggshell biliverdin may not originate from the spleen or liver. We found a negative association between plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations during egg laying and eggshell brown chroma. This result suggests that an increased production of protoporphyrin in the liver, which could have elevated plasma and feces protoporphyrin concentrations, could inhibit eggshell protoporphyrin pigmentation, probably through affecting enzymatic activities. We suggest that both pigments are produced de novo in the shell gland in the canary, but circulating pigment levels may influence shell gland pigment synthesis, thus connecting the physiological status of the female to eggshell coloration.

  10. The metabolites in peripheral blood mononuclear cells showed greater differences between patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls than those in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minjoo; Kim, Minkyung; Han, Ji Yun; Lee, Sang-Hyun; Jee, Sun Ha; Lee, Jong Ho

    2017-03-01

    To determine differences between peripheral blood mononuclear cells and the plasma metabolites in patients with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. In all, 65 nononobese patients (aged 30-70 years) with impaired fasting glucose or type 2 diabetes and 65 nonobese sex-matched healthy controls were included, and fasting peripheral blood mononuclear cell and plasma metabolomes were profiled. The diabetic or impaired fasting glucose patients showed higher circulating and peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and tumour necrosis factor-α than controls. Compared with controls, impaired fasting glucose or diabetic subjects showed increases in 11 peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolites: six amino acids (valine, leucine, methionine, phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan), l-pyroglutamic acid, two fatty acid amides containing palmitic amide and oleamide and two lysophosphatidylcholines. In impaired fasting glucose or diabetic patients, peripheral blood mononuclear cell lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 positively associated with peripheral blood mononuclear cell lysophosphatidylcholines and circulating inflammatory markers, including tumour necrosis factor-α, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and lipoprotein phospholipase A 2 activities. In plasma metabolites between patients and healthy controls, we observed significant increases in only three amino acids (proline, valine and leucine) and decreases in only five lysophosphatidylcholines. This study demonstrates significant differences in the peripheral blood mononuclear cell metabolome in patients with impaired fasting glucose or diabetes compared with healthy controls. These differences were greater than those observed in the plasma metabolome. These data suggest peripheral blood mononuclear cells as a useful tool to better understand the inflammatory pathophysiology of diabetes.

  11. Is Platelet-rich plasma superior to whole blood in the management of chronic tennis elbow: one year randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Hassanabadi, Hossein; Rahimi, Rosa; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rostami, Khalil

    2014-01-01

    Background Lateral humeral epicondylitis, or ‘tennis elbow’, is a common condition with a variety of treatment options. Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and Autologous Whole Blood (AWB) represent new therapeutic options for chronic tendinopathies including tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the long term effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in patients with chronic tennis elbow. Methods Seventy six patients with chronic lateral humeral epicondylitis wi...

  12. Quantitative dynamic nuclear polarization‐NMR on blood plasma for assays of drug metabolism

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, Mathilde Hauge; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille Rose

    2011-01-01

    ‐NMR determinations were performed without analyte derivatization or sample purification other than plasma protein precipitation. Quantitative DNP‐NMR is an emerging methodology which requires little sample preparation and yields quantitative data with high sensitivity for therapeutic drug monitoring. Copyright......Analytical platforms for the fast detection, identification and quantification of circulating drugs with a narrow therapeutic range are vital in clinical pharmacology. As a result of low drug concentrations, analytical tools need to provide high sensitivity and specificity. Dynamic nuclear...... polarization‐NMR (DNP‐NMR) in the form of the hyperpolarization–dissolution method should afford the sensitivity and spectral resolution for the direct detection and quantification of numerous isotopically labeled circulating drugs and their metabolites in single liquid‐state NMR transients. This study...

  13. Solithromycin Pharmacokinetics in Plasma and Dried Blood Spots and Safety in Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Daniel; Palazzi, Debra L; Bhattacharya-Mithal, Leena; Al-Uzri, Amira; James, Laura P; Bradley, John; Neu, Natalie; Jasion, Theresa; Hornik, Christoph P; Smith, P Brian; Benjamin, Daniel K; Keedy, Kara; Fernandes, Prabhavathi; Cohen-Wolkowiez, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We assessed the pharmacokinetics and safety of solithromycin, a fluoroketolide antibiotic, in a phase 1, open-label, multicenter study of 13 adolescents with suspected or confirmed bacterial infections. On days 3 to 5, the mean (standard deviation) maximum plasma concentration and area under the concentration versus time curve from 0 to 24 h were 0.74 μg/ml (0.61 μg/ml) and 9.28 μg · h/ml (6.30 μg · h/ml), respectively. The exposure and safety in this small cohort of adolescents were comparable to those for adults. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under registration no. NCT01966055.). Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  14. A simplified method for the measurement of nonmetabolized 2-[{sup 18}F]F-A-85380 in blood plasma using solid-phase extraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shumway, Dean A. [Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Pavlova, Olga A. [Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Mukhin, Alexey G. [Neuroimaging Research Branch, National Institute on Drug Abuse, Intramural Research Program, NIH, DHHS, Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)]. E-mail: amukhin@intra.nida.nih.gov

    2007-02-15

    Quantification of {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 2}* nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[{sup 18}F]FA) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging requires measurement of nonmetabolized radioligand in blood plasma, which was previously accomplished using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Here, we introduce a one-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for measuring the concentration of nonmetabolized 2-[{sup 18}F]FA. This method allows many samples to be processed in a short period of time. SPE effectively separated 2-[{sup 18}F]FA from radioactive metabolites typically observed in blood plasma after administration of radioligand in humans. Measurements of the 2-[{sup 18}F]FA parent fraction in healthy human volunteers obtained using the SPE method were nearly identical to those obtained using HPLC (1.3{+-}5% average underestimation of SPE), and reproducibility was good within and between runs (2% and 6% coefficient of variation, respectively). SPE recovery of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA from blood plasma was not appreciably diminished (3{+-}0.6%) by a larger volume of blood plasma loaded onto the cartridge, suggesting the possibility of increasing the plasma sample volume at later times in a PET study to improve measurement sensitivity. 2-[{sup 18}F]FA was stable in blood stored on ice over 8 h and in saline at low concentrations (<2 MBq/ml) but not at high concentrations (ca. 130 MBq/ml). Using SPE, the elimination half-life and full body distribution volume of 2-[{sup 18}F]FA in healthy human volunteers were estimated as 4.2{+-}0.8 h and 220{+-}70 L, respectively. These results suggest that SPE is the method of choice for the determination of the plasma 2-[{sup 18}F]FA concentration when measurement of individual metabolites is not required.

  15. A simplified method for the measurement of nonmetabolized 2-[18F]F-A-85380 in blood plasma using solid-phase extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shumway, Dean A.; Pavlova, Olga A.; Mukhin, Alexey G.

    2007-01-01

    Quantification of α 4 β 2 * nicotinic acetylcholine receptors using 2-[ 18 F]fluoro-3-(2(S)-azetidinylmethoxy)pyridine (2-[ 18 F]FA) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging requires measurement of nonmetabolized radioligand in blood plasma, which was previously accomplished using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Here, we introduce a one-step solid-phase extraction (SPE) method for measuring the concentration of nonmetabolized 2-[ 18 F]FA. This method allows many samples to be processed in a short period of time. SPE effectively separated 2-[ 18 F]FA from radioactive metabolites typically observed in blood plasma after administration of radioligand in humans. Measurements of the 2-[ 18 F]FA parent fraction in healthy human volunteers obtained using the SPE method were nearly identical to those obtained using HPLC (1.3±5% average underestimation of SPE), and reproducibility was good within and between runs (2% and 6% coefficient of variation, respectively). SPE recovery of 2-[ 18 F]FA from blood plasma was not appreciably diminished (3±0.6%) by a larger volume of blood plasma loaded onto the cartridge, suggesting the possibility of increasing the plasma sample volume at later times in a PET study to improve measurement sensitivity. 2-[ 18 F]FA was stable in blood stored on ice over 8 h and in saline at low concentrations ( 18 F]FA in healthy human volunteers were estimated as 4.2±0.8 h and 220±70 L, respectively. These results suggest that SPE is the method of choice for the determination of the plasma 2-[ 18 F]FA concentration when measurement of individual metabolites is not required

  16. High levels of peripheral blood circulating plasma cells as a specific risk factor for progression of smoldering multiple myeloma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, G; Kyle, R A; Larson, D R; Witzig, T E; Kumar, S; Dispenzieri, A; Morice, W G; Rajkumar, S V

    2013-03-01

    Smoldering multiple myeloma (SMM) carries a 50% risk of progression to multiple myeloma (MM) or related malignancy within the first 5 years following diagnosis. The goal of this study was to determine if high levels of circulating plasma cells (PCs) are predictive of SMM transformation within the first 2-3 years from diagnosis. Ninety-one patients diagnosed with SMM at Mayo Clinic from January 1994 through January 2007, who had testing for circulating PCs using an immunofluorescent assay and adequate follow-up to ascertain disease progression, were studied. High level of circulating PCs was defined as absolute peripheral blood PCs >5 × 10(6)/l and/or >5% PCs per 100 cytoplasmic immunoglobulin (Ig)-positive peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Patients with high circulating PCs (14 of 91 patients, 15%) were significantly more likely to progress to active disease within 2 years compared with patients without high circulating PCs, 71% versus 24%, respectively, P=0.001. Corresponding rates for progression within 3 years were 86% versus 34%, respectively, P<0.001. Overall survival (OS) after both SMM diagnosis and MM diagnosis was also significantly different. High levels of circulating PCs identify SMM patients with an elevated risk of progression within the first 2-3 years following diagnosis.

  17. Prediction of inflammatory responses induced by biomaterials in contact with human blood using protein fingerprint from plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engberg, Anna E; Nilsson, Per H; Huang, Shan; Fromell, Karin; Hamad, Osama A; Mollnes, Tom Eirik; Rosengren-Holmberg, Jenny P; Sandholm, Kerstin; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A; Nilsson, Bo; Ekdahl, Kristina N

    2015-01-01

    Inappropriate complement activation is often responsible for incompatibility reactions that occur when biomaterials are used. Complement activation is therefore a criterion included in legislation regarding biomaterials testing. However, no consensus is yet available regarding appropriate complement-activation-related test parameters. We examined protein adsorption in plasma and complement activation/cytokine release in whole blood incubated with well-characterized polymers. Strong correlations were found between the ratio of C4 to its inhibitor C4BP and generation of 10 (mainly pro-inflammatory) cytokines, including IL-17, IFN-γ, and IL-6. The levels of complement activation products correlated weakly (C3a) or not at all (C5a, sC5b-9), confirming their poor predictive values. We have demonstrated a direct correlation between downstream biological effects and the proteins initially adhering to an artificial surface after contact with blood. Consequently, we propose the C4/C4BP ratio as a robust, predictor of biocompatibility with superior specificity and sensitivity over the current gold standard. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Improvement of Blood-Brain Barrier Integrity in Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock Following Treatment With Valproic Acid and Fresh Frozen Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolian, Vahagn C; Dekker, Simone E; Bambakidis, Ted; Higgins, Gerald A; Dennahy, Isabel S; Georgoff, Patrick E; Williams, Aaron M; Andjelkovic, Anuska V; Alam, Hasan B

    2018-01-01

    Combined traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock are highly lethal. Following injuries, the integrity of the blood-brain barrier can be impaired, contributing to secondary brain insults. The status of the blood-brain barrier represents a potential factor impacting long-term neurologic outcomes in combined injuries. Treatment strategies involving plasma-based resuscitation and valproic acid therapy have shown efficacy in this setting. We hypothesize that a component of this beneficial effect is related to blood-brain barrier preservation. Following controlled traumatic brain injury, hemorrhagic shock, various resuscitation and treatment strategies were evaluated for their association with blood-brain barrier integrity. Analysis of gene expression profiles was performed using Porcine Gene ST 1.1 microarray. Pathway analysis was completed using network analysis tools (Gene Ontology, Ingenuity Pathway Analysis, and Parametric Gene Set Enrichment Analysis). Female Yorkshire swine were subjected to controlled traumatic brain injury and 2 hours of hemorrhagic shock (40% blood volume, mean arterial pressure 30-35 mmHg). Subjects were resuscitated with 1) normal saline, 2) fresh frozen plasma, 3) hetastarch, 4) fresh frozen plasma + valproic acid, or 5) hetastarch + valproic acid (n = 5 per group). After 6 hours of observation, brains were harvested for evaluation. Immunofluoroscopic evaluation of the traumatic brain injury site revealed significantly increased expression of tight-junction associated proteins (zona occludin-1, claudin-5) following combination therapy (fresh frozen plasma + valproic acid and hetastarch + valproic acid). The extracellular matrix protein laminin was found to have significantly improved expression with combination therapies. Pathway analysis indicated that valproic acid significantly modulated pathways involved in endothelial barrier function and cell signaling. Resuscitation with fresh frozen plasma results in improved expression of

  19. Elevated 1-h post-challenge plasma glucose levels in subjects with normal glucose tolerance or impaired glucose tolerance are associated with whole blood viscosity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Maria Adelaide; Fiorentino, Teresa Vanessa; Andreozzi, Francesco; Mannino, Gaia Chiara; Perticone, Maria; Sciacqua, Angela; Perticone, Francesco; Sesti, Giorgio

    2017-08-01

    It has been suggested that glucose levels ≥155 mg/dl at 1-h during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) may predict development of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular events among adults with normal glucose tolerance (NGT 1 h-high). Studies showed a link between increased blood viscosity and type 2 diabetes. However, whether blood viscosity is associated with dysglycemic conditions such as NGT 1 h-high, impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or impaired fasting glucose (IFG) is unsettled. 1723 non-diabetic adults underwent biochemical evaluation and OGTT. A validated formula based on hematocrit and total plasma proteins was employed to estimate whole blood viscosity. Subjects were categorized into NGT with 1 h glucose h-low), NGT-1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT. Hematocrit and blood viscosity values appeared significantly higher in individuals with NGT 1 h-high, IFG and/or IGT as compared to NGT 1 h-low subjects. Blood viscosity was significantly correlated with age, waist circumference, blood pressure, HbA1c, fasting, 1- and 2-h post-challenge insulin levels, total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein, triglycerides, fibrinogen, white blood cell, and inversely correlated with high-density lipoprotein and insulin sensitivity. Of the four glycemic parameters, 1-h post-challenge glucose showed the strongest correlation with blood viscosity (β = 0.158, P h post-challenge plasma glucose. They also suggest that a subgroup of NGT individuals with 1-h post-challenge plasma >155 mg/dl have increased blood viscosity comparable to that observed in subjects with IFG and/or IGT.

  20. Rapid and simple extraction of lipids from blood plasma and urine for liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bang, Dae Young; Byeon, Seul Kee; Moon, Myeong Hee

    2014-02-28

    A simple and fast lipid extraction method from human blood plasma and urine is introduced in this study. The effective lipid extraction from biological systems with a minimization of the matrix effect is important for the successful qualitative and quantitative analysis of lipids in liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The method described here is based on the modification of the quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe (QuEChERS) extraction method, which was originally developed for pesticide residue analysis in food, for the purpose of isolating lipids from biological fluids. Applicability of QuEChERS method for lipids was evaluated by varying organic solvents for the extraction/partitioning of lipids in MgSO4/CH3COONa for the removal of water and by varying sorbents (primary secondary amines, graphitized carbon black, silica, strong anion exchange resins and C18 particles) for the dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) step. This study shows that 2:1 (v/v) CHCl3/CH3OH is effective in the extraction/partitioning step and that 50mg of C18 particles (for 0.1mL plasma and 1mL of urine) are more suitable for sample cleanup for the dSPE step of the QuEChERS method. Matrix effects were calculated by comparing the recovery values of lipid standards spiked to both plasma and urine samples after extraction with those of the same standards in a neat solution using nanoflow LC-ESI-MS/MS, resulting in improved MS signals due to the decrease of the ion suppression compared to the conventional Folch method. The modified QuEChERS method was applied to lipid extracts from both human urine and plasma samples, demonstrating that it can be powerfully utilized for high-speed (<15min) preparation of lipids compared to the Folch method, with equivalent or slightly improved results in lipid identification using nLC-ESI-MS/MS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis: blood mononuclear cell gene expression and plasma protein levels of cytokines and cytokine inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, Lars K; Havemose-Poulsen, Anne; Bendtzen, Klaus; Holmstrup, Palle

    2009-02-01

    Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and cytokine receptors in patients with periodontitis and patients with arthritis representing two examples of chronic inflammatory diseases, such as periodontitis and arthritis. To identify possible disease-specific characteristics of subjects with periodontitis relative to subjects with chronic inflammation in general, patients with arthritis (juvenile idiopathic arthritis [JIA] and rheumatoid arthritis [RA]) were included. The study population consisted of white adults aggressive periodontitis (LAgP; n = 18), generalized aggressive periodontitis (GAgP; n = 27), JIA (n = 10), and RA (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 25). PBMC transcripts of interleukin (IL) 1 alpha (IL1A), IL 1 beta (IL1B), IL 1 receptor antagonist (IL1RN), IL6, IL10, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFA), TNF alpha receptor I (TNFRI), and TNFRII were measured using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and compared to the corresponding plasma protein levels measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and a multiplex antibody bead assay. Compared to controls, soluble (s) TNF-RII levels were significantly elevated in patients with GAgP (P = 0.001) or JIA (P = 0.002), and PBMC TNFA transcript levels were lower in patients with JIA (P = 0.001). A negative correlation was found between IL6 expression and IL-6 plasma levels in patients with JIA versus controls, and a positive correlation/association was found between TNFRI expression and sTNF-RI plasma levels in patients with LAgP and RA. The study demonstrated only a few changes in the PBMC expression of various cytokine and cytokine inhibitor genes in aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis compared to controls. There were a few

  2. Addition of thrombin reduces the recovery of extracellular vesicles from blood plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anush Arakelyan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Extracellular vesicles (EVs are widely studied as a system of intercellular communication, as markers of various diseases, as well as a vehicle for delivery of various bioactive molecules to various cells. Investigation of EVs’ structure and function requires their isolation and precise quantification. However, in the current literature, there are significant discrepancies in the estimated numbers of EVs in different body fluids. In part, this discrepancy is due to the difference in EVs isolation protocols used by different investigators. A common protocol that includes ExoQuick ™ is often used to isolate EVs from body fluids and culture medium. Here, we show that in the case of isolation of EVs from blood, thrombin should be omitted from the protocol as clots formed due to the thrombin-triggered coagulation may entrap many EVs thus leading to the underestimation of their numbers.

  3. Addition of thrombin reduces the recovery of extracellular vesicles from blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arakelyan, Anush; Fitzgerald, Wendy; Vagida, Murad; Vasilieva, Elena; Grivel, Jean-Charles

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are widely studied as a system of intercellular communication, as markers of various diseases, as well as a vehicle for delivery of various bioactive molecules to various cells. Investigation of EVs’ structure and function requires their isolation and precise quantification. However, in the current literature, there are significant discrepancies in the estimated numbers of EVs in different body fluids. In part, this discrepancy is due to the difference in EVs isolation protocols used by different investigators. A common protocol that includes ExoQuick™ is often used to isolate EVs from body fluids and culture medium. Here, we show that in the case of isolation of EVs from blood, thrombin should be omitted from the protocol as clots formed due to the thrombin-triggered coagulation may entrap many EVs thus leading to the underestimation of their numbers. PMID:28936260

  4. Diabetic ketoacidosis: difference between potassium determined by blood gas analysis versus plasma measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles, Fernando César; Laguna Neto, Daniel; Dias, Fábio Guirado; Spressão, Márcia; Matos, Priscila Nascimbeni; Cordeiro, José Antônio; Pires, Antônio Carlos

    2011-06-01

    To evaluate the accuracy of potassium concentrations measured by blood gas analysis (PBG) compared with laboratory serum potassium (LSP), in the initial care of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA). Fifty three patients with diabetes mellitus were evaluated in a retrospective analysis. PBG was carried out using the Radiometer ABL 700 (Radiometer Copenhagen(®)), and results were compared with LSP ADVIA 1650 Chemistry system (Siemens(®)), the gold standard method. Both methods are based on potentiometry. Mean PBG was 3.66 mmol/L and mean LSP was 4.79 mmol/L. Mean difference between PBG and LSP was -1.13 mmol/L (p PBG measurement is faster and easier, it should not be used as a surrogate for LSP in the clinical treatment of DKA.

  5. Hepatitis B assays in serum, plasma and whole blood on filter paper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayer Theodor K

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Screening and determining the immune status of individuals for hepatitis B is usually done by detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg and hepatitis B surface antigen-specific antibodies (HBsAb. In some countries with the highest viral burden, performing these assays is currently impractical. This paper explores the use of filter paper as a blood specimen transport medium. Methods Samples, chosen from routine clinical laboratory pool, were applied and dried onto filter paper. Eluates, from the paper samples, were analyzed as routine clinical specimens on ADVIA Centaur 5634® immunoassay analyzers using the standard HBsAg and HBsAb kits. Dried blood samples were subjected to a range of environmental conditions in order to assess stability. Results After drying and elution the assays showed linearity and precision comparable to clinical assays performed on fresh serum. Elutions at various times during a 149 day incubation period showed very little variability in the Index numbers. All analytes were temperature stable except for a decrease in the HBsAg signal at 42°C. Conclusions Filter paper is an acceptable storage and transport medium for serum to be used in the detection of hepatitis B markers if atmospheric variability can be controlled. HBsAg, HBsAb and HBcAb are all stable for at least five months under storage conditions below room temperature. Drying specimens, particularly serum, on filter paper at remote locations, offers a reasonable solution to the problem of hepatitis surveillance in underdeveloped regions, although some attempt at temperature control might be desirable.

  6. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    OpenAIRE

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Bayat, Masume; Rahimi, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening...

  7. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  8. Simultaneous quantification of purine and pyrimidine bases, nucleosides and their degradation products in bovine blood plasma by high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Charlotte Stentoft; Vestergaard, Mogens; Løvendahl, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ), and their degradation products (uric acid, allantoin, β-alanine, β-ureidopropionic acid, β-aminoisobutyric acid) in blood plasma of dairy cows. The high performance liquid chromatography-based technique coupled to electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–MS/MS) was combined with individual matrix...

  9. Sensitivities of selenite, selenate, selenomethionine and trimethylselenonium ion in aqueous solution and in blood plasma - ETAAS compared with ICP-MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gammelgaard, Bente; Larsen, E.H.

    1998-01-01

    Aqueous solutions and blood plasma spiked with selenite (Se(IV)), selenate (Se(VI)), selenomethionine (SeMet) or trimethylselenonium (TMSe) iodide were analyzed by Zeeman-corrected electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) using palladium as a chemical modifier, and by inductively cou...

  10. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part II: Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method development, comparison to immunoassay and pharmacokinetic study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    A new liquid chromatography/atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/APCI-MS/MS) method with on-line sample clean-up for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is presented. This technique is compared to a previously introduced enzyme-linked immunosorbent

  11. Differential phase analysis of laser images of a polycrystalline component of blood plasma in diagnostics of pathological changes in mammary gland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, O. P.; Zabolotna, N. I.; Oliinychenko, B. P.; Komada, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is devoted to investigation of diagnostic potentiality of differential phase tomography of blood plasma. The data of further statistical, correlation and fractal analysis of phase tomograms for determining objective criteria of diagnostics of physiological state of a patient is provided.

  12. Ultralow Fouling and Functionalizable Surface Chemistry Based on a Zwitterionic Polymer Enabling Sensitive and Specific Protein Detection in Undiluted Blood Plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vaisocherová, Hana; Piliarik, Marek; Homola, Jiří; Yang, W.; Zhang, Z.; Cao, Z.; Cheng, G.; Jiang, S.

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 80, č. 20 (2008), s. 7894-79001 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20670512 Keywords : zwitterionic poly(carboxybetaine) * ultra low fouling * blood plasma Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 5.712, year: 2008

  13. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, Lawrence; Vreuls, Rene J. J.; Irth, Hubertus; Pel, Roel; Stellaard, Frans

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  14. Fatty acid profiling of raw human plasma and whole blood using direct thermal desorption combined with gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akoto, L.; Vreuls, R.J.J.; Irth, H.; Pel, R.; Stellaard, F.

    2008-01-01

    Gas chromatography (GC) has in recent times become an important tool for the fatty acid profiling of human blood and plasma. An at-line procedure used in the fatty acid profiling of whole/intact aquatic micro-organisms without any sample preparation was adapted for this work. A direct thermal

  15. Complex polarimetric and spectral techniques in diagnostics of blood plasma of patients with ovarian cancer as a preliminary stage molecular genetic screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grzegorzewski, B.; Peresunko, O. P.; Yermolenko, S. B.

    2018-01-01

    This work is devoted to the substantiation and selection of patients with ovarian cancer (OC) for the purpose of conducting expensive molecular genetic studies on genotyping. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues. Obtained results showed that the use of spectrophotometry in the range of 1000-3000 cm-1 allowed to establish quantitative parameters of the plasma absorption rate of blood of patients in the third group in different ranges, which would allow in the future to conduct an express analysis of the patient's condition (procedure screening) for further molecular-genetic typing on BRCA I and II.

  16. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian

    2010-01-01

    then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. METHODS: Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P....... falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high...... groups of individuals with different levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections. RESULTS: IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic Ig...

  17. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on post-irradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100-Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10-min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10-min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60-min postirradiation. Animals given the mast-cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels.

  18. ADONA and perfluoroalkylated substances in plasma samples of German blood donors living in South Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fromme, Hermann; Wöckner, Mandy; Roscher, Eike; Völkel, Wolfgang

    2017-04-01

    Perfluorinated compounds are fully fluorinated anthropogenic substances that have been used in various products, applications, and industrial processes. Due to their persistence and toxic effects, some of them are restricted, and therefore replacement products have been developed. The aim of the study was to quantify the body burden of different perfluorinated substances in two adult populations living close to or about 80km apart from a former perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) production plant who are exposed via drinking water, and in a control population. In this plant, the replacement emulsifier 3H-perfluoro-3-[(3-methoxy-propoxy)propanoic acid] (ADONA) has been used in the production of fluoropolymers since 2008. We quantified 7 perfluorinated compounds and ADONA in a total of 396 plasma samples collected at different time points. With regard to samples collected in 2015 or 2016, the highest 95th percentile levels were 13.5μg/l for perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), 3.0μg/l for perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and 1.5μg/l for perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS). For PFOA, the highest 95th percentile was found at the site close to the facility (85.5μg/l), while in the control region the value was 2.4μg/l. Overall, the concentration of PFOA and PFOS declined over time in all study regions. ADONA was detected only in few samples slightly above the limit of quantification (0.2μg/l). While health risks related to ADONA are unlikely under the present exposure situation, the exposure to PFOA via tap water should be reduced markedly, especially for the population living close to the plant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and fibrinogen concentration of whole blood influences the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma obtained from centrifugation methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Wenjing; Xu, Zhengliang; Sheng, Jiagen; Xie, Xuetao; Zhang, Changqing

    2017-09-01

    Erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), which reflects the sedimentation rate of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes in response to centrifugal force, may influence the cellular composition of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) obtained via centrifugation methods. However, no relevant studies have substantiated this. In the present study, blood was collected from 40 healthy volunteers and used to prepare PRP with two plasma-based preparation systems [YinPRP and Plasma Rich in Growth Factor (PRGF) systems] and two buffy coat-based systems (RegenPRP and WEGOPRP systems) in a single-donor model. Volumes of PRP and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) that were removed in the preparation process were recorded. Analyses of ESR, haematocrit, C-reaction protein, coagulation, serum glucose and serum lipid of the whole blood used for PRP preparation were performed to evaluate the levels of ESR and the factors known to influence it. Whole blood analysis was performed to evaluate the cellular composition of PRP. Results demonstrated that there were marked positive correlations between the ESR of the whole blood used for PRP preparation and PPP removal efficiencies, platelet concentrations, platelet capture efficiencies and platelet enrichment factors of PRP formulations obtained from plasma-based systems, and PRP yield efficiency of RegenPRP and PPP removal efficiency of WEGOPRP. Furthermore, there were marked negative correlations between ESR and concentrations and enrichment factors of platelets, leukocytes and erythrocytes of RegenPRP. Fibrinogen concentration of the whole blood, which had a marked positive correlation with ESR, also influenced the cellular composition of PRP. These findings may increase the understanding of PRP preparation and provide substantial evidence for the individualised optimisation of PRP preparation systems used in clinical practice.

  20. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarkodie, F.; Hassall, O.; Owusu-Dabo, E.

    2017-01-01

    reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero...... of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors.......BACKGROUND: Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma...

  1. [Investigations of humoral and cellular regulation mechanisms of the redox-homeostasis in cattle from ecological farming--2. Influence of race and age on the enzymatic redox control in the blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopyuk, T; Matthes, H D; Pastushenko, V; Heinrich, H

    2002-01-01

    The present study examined the effects of race and age on the redox potential behavior of blood plasma samples. The blood plasma from clinical healthy heifers (44) and calves (45) were investigated. The animals presented three different cattle races (Limousin, Angus and Hereford), grazed on pasture. The blood plasma test consists of two parts: analysis of the initial redoxpotential as well as the investigation of the action of biocatalists. ATP, ATP plus caffeine, GTP and FAD+ were used as an adding substances for the differential analysis. The influence of biocatalist on the redox balance and the reaction of the redox dependent enzymatic system of native plasma significant correlated with animal race and age.

  2. Oral cancer detection based on fluorescence polarization of blood plasma at excitation wavelength 405 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Manoharan, Yuvaraj; Dornadula, Koteeswaran; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    During metabolism the metabolites such as hormones, proteins and enzymes were released in to the blood stream by the cells. These metabolites reflect any change that occurs due to any disturbances in normal metabolic function of the human system. This was well observed with the altered spectral signatures observed with fluorescence spectroscopic technique. Previously many have reported on the significance of native fluorescence spectroscopic method in the diagnosis of cancer. As fluorescence spectroscopy is sensitive and simple, it has complementary techniques such as excitation-emission matrix, synchronous and polarization. The fluorescence polarization measurement provides details about any association or binding reactions and denaturing effects that occurs due to change in the micro environment of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt in the diagnosis of oral cancer at 405 nm excitation using fluorescence polarization measurement. The fluorescence anisotropic values calculated from polarized fluorescence spectral data of normal and oral cancer subjects yielded a good accuracy when analyzed with linear discriminant analysis based artificial neural network. The results will be discussed in detail.

  3. Plasma uric acid, creatinine, and urea nitrogen concentrations after whole blood administration via the gastrointestinal tract in domestic pigeons (Columba livia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheldon, Julie; Hoover, John P; Payton, Mark E

    2007-06-01

    To determine if blood administered to pigeons by gavage tube would simulate gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a noncarnivorous avian model, be digested in the gastrointestinal tract, and subsequently alter concentrations of plasma urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid, blood from common peacocks (Pavo cristatus) was administered by gavage tube to 5 healthy domestic pigeons (Columba livia) at doses of 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, and 8.0 ml/kg. No significant difference in plasma concentrations of urea nitrogen, creatinine, or uric acid was seen 4-6 hours after gavage. The findings did not support or rule out the presence of gastrointestinal blood in pigeons as a model for hemorrhage in noncarnivorous avian species.

  4. Effect of l-arginine therapy on plasma NO/sub 2/ and NO/sub 3/ levels, and blood pressure in uremic rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Khemomal, A.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Normal kidney function is regulated by Nitric oxide (NO) and Superoxide (O/sub 2/-) in the body, and consequently controls blood pressure. Nitric Oxide promotes natriuresis and diuresis, and therefore results in reduction of blood pressure. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of L-arginine supplementation on blood pressure, urinary protein, nitrite and nitrate in addition to blood urea, serum creatinine and creatinine clearance in uremic rabbits. Methods: This study was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry Basic Medical Sciences Institute, Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Centre, Karachi. A total of 48 rabbits were included in the study. Twenty-four of the rabbits on surgical intervention were prepared as uremic and so became hypertensive as well. Two groups were uremic, one group was given L-arginine and the other was remained untreated. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured on week 0, week 2, week 4, and week 6, while blood and urine was collected on week 0 and week 6. Results: On supplementation with L-arginine to uremic rabbits systolic and diastolic blood pressures were decreased significantly. Nitrite/nitrate and urinary protein were corrected to some extent while blood urea and serum creatinine were unaffected. Conclusion: L-arginine has a beneficial role as blood pressure lowering agent in uremic rabbits. It corrects NO/sub 2/NO/sub 3/ plasma level and proteinuria which is indicator of renal failure. (author)

  5. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Wu, Chun-Han; Lin, Yu-Cheng

    2014-09-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood.

  6. Using the developed cross-flow filtration chip for collecting blood plasma under high flow rate condition and applying the immunoglobulin E detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hung, Chia-Wei; Lin, Yu-Cheng; Wu, Chun-Han

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a cross-flow filtration chip for separating blood cells (white blood cells, red blood cells, and platelets) and obtaining blood plasma from human blood. Our strategy is to flow the sample solution in parallel to the membrane, which can generate a parallel shear stress to remove the clogging microparticles on the membrane, so the pure sample solution is obtained in the reservoir. The cross-flow filtration chip includes a cross-flow layer, a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane, and a reservoir layer. The three layers are packaged in a polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) frame to create the cross-flow filtration chip. Various dilutions of the blood sample (original, 2 × , 3 × , 5 × , and 10×), pore sizes with different diameters (1 µm, 2 µm, 4 µm, 7 µm, and 10 µm), and different flow rates (1 mL/min, 3 mL/min, 5 mL/min, 7 mL/min, and 10 mL/min) are tested to determine their effects on filtration percentage. The best filtration percentage is 96.2% when the dilution of the blood sample is 10 × , the diameter of pore size of a Ni-Pd alloy micro-porous membrane is 2 µm, and the flow rate is 10 mL/min. Finally, for the clinical tests of the immunoglobulin E (IgE) concentration, the cross-flow filtration chip is used to filter the blood of the allergy patients to obtain the blood plasma. This filtered blood plasma is compared with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation based on the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The results reveal that these two blood separation methods have similar detection trends. The proposed filtration chip has the advantages of low cost, short filtration time, and easy operation and thus can be applied to the separation of microparticles, cells, bacteria, and blood. (paper)

  7. Development and validation of a sensitive UPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of [(13)C]sucrose in rat plasma, blood, and brain: Its application to the measurement of blood-brain barrier permeability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miah, Mohammad K; Bickel, Ulrich; Mehvar, Reza

    2016-03-15

    Accurate and reproducible measurement of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is critical in the assessment of the pathophysiology of the central nervous system disorders and in monitoring therapeutic effects. The widely-used low molecular weight marker [(14)C]sucrose is non-specific in the absence of chromatographic separation. The purpose of this study was to develop and validate a sensitive and reproducible LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of stable isotope-modified [(13)C12]sucrose in brain, plasma, and blood to determine BBB permeability to sucrose. After addition of internal standard (IS, [(13)C6]sucrose), the marker and IS were recovered from diluted rat blood, plasma, and brain homogenate by protein precipitation using acetonitrile. The recovery of the marker and IS was almost quantitative (90-106%) for all three matrices. The recovered samples were directly injected into an isocratic UPLC system with a run time of 6 min. Mass spectrometry was conducted using multiple reaction monitoring in negative mode. The method was linear (r(2)≥0.99) in the concentration ranges tested for the diluted blood and plasma (10-1000 ng/mL) and brain homogenate (1-200 ng/mL). The lower limit of quantitation of the assay was 0.5 pg injected on column. The assay was validated (n=5) based on acceptable intra- and inter-run accuracy and precision values. The method was successfully used for the measurement of serial blood and plasma and terminal brain concentrations of [(13)C12]sucrose after a single intravenous dose (10 mg/kg) of the marker to rats. As expected, the apparent brain uptake clearance values of [(13)C12]sucrose were low in healthy rats. The method may be useful for determination of the BBB integrity in animal models. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Double blind clinical trial of mazindol on weight loss blood glucose, plasma insulin and serum lipids in overweight diabetic patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slama, G; Selmi, A; Hautecouverture, M; Tchobroutsky, G

    1978-09-01

    Mazindol, a drug with tricyclic structure unrelated to amphetamine and other anorectic drugs, has been used as an anorectic agent in a double blind clinical trial at a dose of 2 mg/day for 12 week (mazindol v. s. placebo), associated with a 1000 calorie diet on 46 obese diabetic patients. Thirty seven patients completed the trial with no significant difference between the two groups in the drop-out population; mazindol was well tolerated. In the mazindol-treated group the mean weight loss was 13.5 kg (22.3%) which was significantly greater (p less than 0.001) than in the placebo treated group where the mean weight loss was 4.2 kg (9.8%). Comparing the two groups after the 12 week trial, decrease in fasting blood glucose, serum insulin and triglycerides was not significant. In the mazindol-treated group a significant decrease of serum cholesterol, triglycerides and of the mean area under the curve of insulinemia during the OGTT has been observed. In the placebo treated group only serum triglycerides decreased significantly. The variations of plasma insulin and serum cholesterol were found to be correlated to the magnitude of weight loss. In conclusion mazindol is an effective drug for weight loss on the whole well tolerated but without specific properties on metabolism.

  9. Deproteinization is Necessary for the Accurate Determination of Ammonia Levels by Glutamate Dehydrogenase Assay in Blood Plasma From Subjects With Liver Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vodenicarovova, Melita; Skalska, Hana; Holecek, Milan

    2017-11-08

    To determine the effect of presence of high concentrations of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH)- and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-consuming enzymes on the accuracy of glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) assay for ammonia. We measured ammonia concentrations using GLDH and NADH or NADPH in blood-plasma specimens and specimens deproteinized by sulfosalicylic acid from CCl4-treated or control rats. The nonspecific oxidation of NADH and NADPH was measured in mixtures without GLDH. We observed a gradual decrease (~0.5%) in absorbance in the plasma of controls after the addition of NADH but not after adding NADPH. The decrease in absorbance in plasma of CCl4-treated animals was 13.2% and 5.2% after the addition of NADH and NADPH, respectively. The decrease in absorbance was not detected in deproteinized specimens. The values of ammonia concentration were higher in the plasma specimens compared with the deproteinized ones. Deproteinization is necessary for accurate measurement of ammonia using GLDH assay in the blood plasma of subjects with liver injury. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com

  10. Plasma PGE-2 levels and altered cytokine profiles in adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hirschowitz Edward A

    2002-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction PGE-2 is constitutively produced by many non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC and its immunosuppressive effects have been linked to altered immune responses in lung cancer. We asked whether elevated levels of plasma PGE-2 correlated with monocyte IL10 production in the NSCLC environment. Looking for correlation in NSCLC patient blood we assayed plasma from NSCLC patients for PGE2 and IL10; we further evaluated production of IL10 by adherent mononuclear cells from a subset of these patients looking for an altered cytokine profile. Results Our initial in vitro experiments show that monocyte IL10 induction correlates with tumor cell PGE-2 production, confirming similar reports in the literature. Data show plasma PGE-2 levels in 38 NSCLC patients are elevated compared to normal controls. Plasma IL10 levels were not significantly elevated; however, adherent monocytes derived from NSCLC patient blood did produce significantly more IL10 in 24 hr primary culture than those from normal controls (p Conclusions Elevated plasma PGE-2 and monocyte IL10 production are associated with NSCLC. The biological significance to elevated PGE-2 levels in NSCLC are unclear. Further investigation of each as a nonspecific marker for NSCLC tumor is warranted.

  11. Modulation of Radiation-Induced Disorders in plasma and red blood cells of females rats by combined treatment with vitamins E, C and β-Carotene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abou-Safi, H.M.; Ashry, O.M.

    2004-01-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the outcome of the main dietary micro nutrients (vitamin E, C and β-carotene) on 9 Gy whole body γ-irradiated female rats as single or fractionated (1.5 Gy daily for 6 days) doses. Animals were divided into four group: control, irradiated, vitamins treated and vitamins administered 3 hours prior to irradiation. Vitamins were orally administered for 6 consecutive days and rats were sacrificed on the 3 rd, 6 Th and 9 Th days post irradiation and/or vitamin administration. Exposure to ionizing radiation with both regimens elevated significantly malondialdehyde (MDA) levels with concomitant decline in glutathione (GSH) levels in both plasma and red blood cells (RBCs). The single dose elevated total plasma protein level, while the fractionated dose elevated total plasma protein level, while the fractionated one declined it. Both regimens increased significantly blood creatinine and urea levels than the control level, denoting renal dysfunction occurrence. Vitamins administration before irradiation modulated the MDA and GSH levels in both plasma and RBCs. Indeed, it slightly ameliorated the disturbed plasma levels of total protein, creatinine and urea. The study promotes the usage of the combined vitamins (E, ascorbic acid and β-carotene) as useful protectors against harmful environmental oxidative stresses

  12. Long-acting combination anti-HIV drug suspension enhances and sustains higher drug levels in lymph node cells than in blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraft, John C; McConnachie, Lisa A; Koehn, Josefin; Kinman, Loren; Collins, Carol; Shen, Danny D; Collier, Ann C; Ho, Rodney J Y

    2017-03-27

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether a combination of anti-HIV drugs - tenofovir (TFV), lopinavir (LPV) and ritonavir (RTV) - in a lipid-stabilized nanosuspension (called TLC-ART101) could enhance and sustain intracellular drug levels and exposures in lymph node and blood cells above those in plasma. Four macaques were given a single dose of TLC-ART101 subcutaneously. Drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells of the blood (PBMCs) and lymph nodes (LNMCs) were analysed using a validated combination LC-MS/MS assay. For the two active drugs (TFV, LPV), plasma and PBMC intracellular drug levels persisted for over 2 weeks; PBMC drug exposures were three- to four-fold higher than those in plasma. Apparent terminal half-lives (t1/2) of TFV and LPV were 65.3 and 476.9 h in plasma, and 169.1 and 151.2 h in PBMCs. At 24 and 192 h, TFV and LPV drug levels in LNMCs were up to 79-fold higher than those in PBMCs. Analysis of PBMC intracellular TFV and its active metabolite TFV-diphosphate (TFV-DP) indicated that intracellular exposures of total TFV and TFV-DP were markedly higher and persisted longer than in humans and macaques dosed with oral TFV prodrugs, tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) or tenofovir alafenamide (TAF). A simple, scalable three-drug combination, lipid-stabilized nanosuspension exhibited persistent drug levels in cells of lymph nodes and the blood (HIV host cells) and in plasma. With appropriate dose adjustment, TLC-ART101 may be a useful HIV treatment with a potential to impact residual virus in lymph nodes.

  13. Characterization of a novel vanadium-binding protein (VBP-129) from blood plasma of the vanadium-rich ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis samea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshihara, Masao; Ueki, Tatsuya; Yamaguchi, Nobuo; Kamino, Kei; Michibata, Hitoshi

    2008-02-01

    The ascidians, the so-called sea squirts, accumulate high levels of vanadium, a transition metal. Since Henze first observed this physiologically unusual phenomenon about one hundred years ago, it has attracted interdisciplinary attention from chemists, physiologists, and biochemists. The maximum concentration of vanadium in ascidians can reach 350 mM, and most of the vanadium ions are stored in the +3 oxidation state in the vacuoles of vanadium-accumulating blood cells known as vanadocytes. Many proteins involved in the accumulation and reduction of vanadium in the vanadocytes, blood plasma, and digestive tract have been identified. However, the process by which vanadium is taken in prior to its accumulation in vanadocytes has not been elucidated. In the present study, a novel vanadium-binding protein, designated VBP-129, was identified from blood plasma of the vanadium-rich ascidian Ascidia sydneiensis samea. Although VBP-129 mRNA was transcribed in all A. sydneiensis samea tissues examined, the VBP-129 protein was exclusively localized in blood plasma and muscle cells of this ascidian. It bound not only to VO(2+) but also to Fe(3+), Co(2+), Cu(2+), and Zn(2+); on the other hand, a truncated form of VBP-129, designated VBP-88, bound only to Co(2+), Cu(2+) and Zn(2+). In a pull-down assay, an interaction between VanabinP and VBP-129 occurred both in the presence and the absence of VO(2+). These results suggest that VBP-129 and VanabinP function cooperatively as metallochaperones in blood plasma.

  14. Rapid Isolation of Extracellular Vesicles from Blood Plasma with Size-Exclusion Chromatography Followed by Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomic Profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreimer, Simion; Ivanov, Alexander R

    2017-01-01

    The presented procedure allows rapid isolation of extracellular vesicles (EVs) from plasma using size-exclusion chromatography (SEC). Additionally, an approach for reducing the lipid and salt content of the EV isolate in preparation for mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomic analysis is presented. An example setup for proteomic profiling of the processed samples by nanoflow liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (nLC-MS/MS) is also presented. Approximately 1000 protein groups in blood plasma-derived EVs can be identified and quantitated following this procedure and using the described instrumentation.

  15. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chicken Hatched from Eggs Irradiated on the Seventh Day of Incubation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2008-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT), acid phosphatase (ACP) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. Investigating the effect of low dose gamma radiation upon transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 7th day of incubation, i.e. in the time when organogenesis is completely finished, we found that on day 10, AST and ALT activity was significantly higher in the blood plasma of those chickens, whereas it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. This time the goal of study was to determine the effect of low-dose gamma radiation on ACP and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated on the 7th day of incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma radiation (60Co) on the seventh day of incubation. The control group included chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. ACP activity was significantly lower in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on day 3 (P<0,01), 5 (P<0,05) and 10 (P<0,05). Throughout the experimental period ALP activity did not statistically significantly change. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma radiation on the seventh day of incubation reduces ACP activity in the blood plasma

  16. The clinical significance of EBV DNA in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells of patients with or without EBV diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanakry, Jennifer A; Hegde, Aparna M; Durand, Christine M; Massie, Allan B; Greer, Amy E; Ambinder, Richard F; Valsamakis, Alexandra

    2016-04-21

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a ubiquitous virus that establishes a latent infection within the host and in some cases can lead to the development of EBV-associated lymphomas, lymphoproliferative disorders, hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, solid tumors, and other diseases. We studied the clinical significance of detecting EBV DNA in the plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of 2146 patients who had blood specimens sent to the Johns Hopkins Hospital clinical laboratory for viral quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction assay over a 5-year period. Within this largely immunocompromised and hospitalized cohort, 535 patients (25%) had EBV detected in plasma or PBMCs. When EBV was detected in the absence of an EBV(+)disease (n = 402), it was present only in PBMCs in 69% of cases. Immunocompromised patients were less likely to have EBV in plasma than in PBMCs in the absence of EBV(+)disease. In patients with active, systemic EBV(+)diseases (n = 105), EBV was detected in plasma in 99% of cases but detected in PBMCs in only 54%. Across a range of copy number cutoffs, EBV in plasma had higher specificity and sensitivity for EBV(+)disease as compared with EBV in PBMCs. EBV copy number in plasma distinguished untreated, EBV(+)lymphoma from EBV(+)lymphoma in remission and EBV(-)lymphoma, and also distinguished untreated, EBV(+)posttransplantation lymphoproliferative disorder (PTLD) from EBV(+)PTLD in remission and EBV(-)PTLD. EBV copy number quantification is a useful diagnostic marker across the spectrum of EBV(+)diseases, even among immunocompromised patients, with plasma specimens more indicative of EBV(+)disease than PBMCs. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  17. Temporal responses of cutaneous blood flow and plasma catecholamine concentrations to histamine H1- or H2-receptor stimulation in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knigge, U; Alsbjørn, B; Thuesen, B

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the effect of histamine and H1- or H2-receptor antagonists on cutaneous blood flow and catecholamine release in man. Histamine was infused alone or in combination with mepyramine, an H1-antagonist or cimetidine, an H2-antagonist for 2 h. Cutaneous blood flow was measured...... no effect on the sustained response. The Concomitant infusion of cimetidine was without effect on the immediate vasodilatation, but abolished the sustained response. Infusion of the antagonists alone had no effect on cutaneous blood flow. Histamine caused a rapid and sustained increase in plasma...... continuously with a laser Doppler flowmeter, and noradrenaline and adrenaline concentrations were determined in blood samples drawn every 15 min. The infusion of histamine caused an immediate and sustained vasodilatation. The Concomitant infusion of mepyramine prevented the immediate vasodilatation, but had...

  18. Predictive model accuracy in estimating last Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) intake from plasma and whole blood cannabinoid concentrations in chronic, daily cannabis smokers administered subchronic oral THC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karschner, Erin L; Schwope, David M; Schwilke, Eugene W; Goodwin, Robert S; Kelly, Deanna L; Gorelick, David A; Huestis, Marilyn A

    2012-10-01

    Determining time since last cannabis/Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) exposure is important in clinical, workplace, and forensic settings. Mathematical models calculating time of last exposure from whole blood concentrations typically employ a theoretical 0.5 whole blood-to-plasma (WB/P) ratio. No studies previously evaluated predictive models utilizing empirically-derived WB/P ratios, or whole blood cannabinoid pharmacokinetics after subchronic THC dosing. Ten male chronic, daily cannabis smokers received escalating around-the-clock oral THC (40-120 mg daily) for 8 days. Cannabinoids were quantified in whole blood and plasma by two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Maximum whole blood THC occurred 3.0 h after the first oral THC dose and 103.5h (4.3 days) during multiple THC dosing. Median WB/P ratios were THC 0.63 (n=196), 11-hydroxy-THC 0.60 (n=189), and 11-nor-9-carboxy-THC (THCCOOH) 0.55 (n=200). Predictive models utilizing these WB/P ratios accurately estimated last cannabis exposure in 96% and 100% of specimens collected within 1-5h after a single oral THC dose and throughout multiple dosing, respectively. Models were only 60% and 12.5% accurate 12.5 and 22.5h after the last THC dose, respectively. Predictive models estimating time since last cannabis intake from whole blood and plasma cannabinoid concentrations were inaccurate during abstinence, but highly accurate during active THC dosing. THC redistribution from large cannabinoid body stores and high circulating THCCOOH concentrations create different pharmacokinetic profiles than those in less than daily cannabis smokers that were used to derive the models. Thus, the models do not accurately predict time of last THC intake in individuals consuming THC daily. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  19. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celia G. Walker

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA multinomial regression analysis was used to identify important FA changes for plasma phosphatidylcholine (PC, cholesteryl ester (CE and triglyceride (TAG and for blood mononuclear cells (MNC, red blood cells (RBC and platelets (PLAT. Dose-dependent increases in EPA + DHA were matched by decreases in several n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA in PC, CE, RBC and PLAT, but were predominantly compensated for by oleic acid in TAG. Changes were observed for all FA classes in MNC. Consequently the n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio was reduced in a dose-dependent manner in all pools after 12 months (37%–64% of placebo in the four portions group. We conclude that the profile of the FA decreased in exchange for the increase in EPA + DHA following supplementation differs by FA pool with implications for understanding the impact of n-3 PUFA on blood lipid and blood cell biology.

  20. Optimum time of blood sampling for determination of glomerular filtration rate by single-injection [51Cr]EDTA plasma clearance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Roedbro, P.

    1976-01-01

    We have investigated the influence on reproducibility of total [ 51 Cr]EDTA plasma clearance (E) of various times and numbers of blood samples in patients with normal (13 patients) and low (14 patients) renal function. The study aims at fixing a clinically useful procedure suitable for all levels of renal function. Six different types of E were evaluated with time periods for blood sampling between 3 and 5 h after tracer injection, and the variation from counting radioactivity, s 1 , was determined as part of the total variation, s 2 . Optimum mean time, t(E), for blood sampling was calculated as a function of E, as the mean time giving the least change in E for a given change in the 'final slope' of the plasma curve. For patients with normal E, s 1 did not contribute significantly to s 2 , and t(E) was about 2h. For patients with low renal function s 1 contributed significantly to s 2 , and t(E) increased steeply with decreasing E. The relative error in s 1 from fixed Etypes was calculated for all levels of renal function. The results indicate that blood sampling individualized according to predicted E values is not necessary. A sufficient precision of E can be achieved for all function levels from three blood samples drawn at 180, 240, and 300 min after injection. (Auth.)

  1. Stable isotope models of sugar intake using hair, red blood cells, and plasma, but not fasting plasma glucose, predict sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Sarah H; Kristal, Alan R; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Boyer, Bert B; O'Brien, Diane M

    2014-01-01

    Objectively measured biomarkers will help to resolve the controversial role of sugar intake in the etiology of obesity and related chronic diseases. We recently validated a dual-isotope model based on RBC carbon (δ(13)C) and nitrogen (δ(15)N) isotope ratios that explained a large percentage of the variation in self-reported sugar intake in a Yup'ik study population. Stable isotope ratios can easily be measured from many tissues, including RBCs, plasma, and hair; however, it is not known how isotopic models of sugar intake compare among these tissues. Here, we compared self-reported sugar intake with models based on RBCs, plasma, and hair δ(13)C and δ(15)N in Yup'ik people. We also evaluated associations of sugar intake with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C. Finally, we evaluated relations between δ(13)C and δ(15)N values in hair, plasma, RBCs, and fasting plasma glucose to allow comparison of isotope ratios across tissue types. Models using RBCs, plasma, or hair isotope ratios explained similar amounts of variance in total sugar, added sugar, and sugar-sweetened beverage intake (∼53%, 48%, and 34%, respectively); however, the association with δ(13)C was strongest for models based on RBCs and hair. There were no associations with fasting plasma glucose δ(13)C (R(2) = 0.03). The δ(13)C and δ(15)N values of RBCs, plasma, and hair showed strong, positive correlations; the slopes of these relations did not differ from 1. This study demonstrates that RBC, plasma, and hair isotope ratios predict sugar intake and provides data that will allow comparison of studies using different sample types.

  2. Novel system using microliter order sample volume for measuring arterial radioactivity concentrations in whole blood and plasma for mouse PET dynamic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yuichi; Seki, Chie; Hashizume, Nobuya; Yamada, Takashi; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Nishimoto, Takahiro; Hatano, Kentaro; Kitamura, Keishi; Toyama, Hiroshi; Kanno, Iwao

    2013-11-21

    This study aimed to develop a new system, named CD-Well, for mouse PET dynamic study. CD-Well allows the determination of time-activity curves (TACs) for arterial whole blood and plasma using 2-3 µL of blood per sample; the minute sample size is ideal for studies in small animals. The system has the following merits: (1) measures volume and radioactivity of whole blood and plasma separately; (2) allows measurements at 10 s intervals to capture initial rapid changes in the TAC; and (3) is compact and easy to handle, minimizes blood loss from sampling, and delay and dispersion of the TAC. CD-Well has 36 U-shaped channels. A drop of blood is sampled into the opening of the channel and stored there. After serial sampling is completed, CD-Well is centrifuged and scanned using a flatbed scanner to define the regions of plasma and blood cells. The length measured is converted to volume because the channels have a precise and uniform cross section. Then, CD-Well is exposed to an imaging plate to measure radioactivity. Finally, radioactivity concentrations are computed. We evaluated the performance of CD-Well in in vitro measurement and in vivo (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose and [(11)C]2-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-fluorophenyl) tropane studies. In in vitro evaluation, per cent differences (mean±SE) from manual measurement were 4.4±3.6% for whole blood and 4.0±3.5% for plasma across the typical range of radioactivity measured in mouse dynamic study. In in vivo studies, reasonable TACs were obtained. The peaks were captured well, and the time courses coincided well with the TAC derived from PET imaging of the heart chamber. The total blood loss was less than 200 µL, which had no physiological effect on the mice. CD-Well demonstrates satisfactory performance, and is useful for mouse PET dynamic study.

  3. Study of blood plasma optical properties in mice grafted with Ehrlich carcinoma in the frequency range 0.1–1.0 THz

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolyanskaya, O. A.; Kravtsenyuk, O. V.; Panchenko, A. V.; Odlyanitskiy, E. L.; Guillet, J. P.; Cherkasova, O. P.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2017-12-01

    In the course of in vitro studies of blood of laboratory animals with progressing Ehrlich carcinoma, we have revealed the change of the blood plasma optical properties in the THz range, which can be used for developing the express diagnostics of the presence of oncological diseases. An applied software package is elaborated that allows the phantoms of biological samples having a complex structure to be numerically simulated and the parameters of the electromagnetic wave reflected from these samples in the THz frequency range to be calculated. Presented at the Fundamentals of Laser Micro- and Nanotechnologies (FLAMN-16) International Symposium (Pushkin, Leningrad oblast, 27 June to 1 July 2016).

  4. Relationships between blood pressure and plasma renin, aldosterone and dopamine-beta--hydroxylase in the elderly. Studies in patients over 70 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Annat, G; Vincent, M; Tourniaire, A; Sassard, J

    1981-01-01

    Plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone (PA) and dopamine-beta-hydroxylase activity (DBH) were measured in 49 subjects over 70 years of age, selected for normal or high blood pressure level. By comparison with younger controls, elderly subjects exhibited lower supine or upright PRA, but similar PA and DBH. No relationship could be found between individual blood pressure, and PRA, PA or DBH. The data favor the view that the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system does not play an important causative role in elderly hypertension. They also point to the necessity of age-matched controls when this system is being studied in elderly patients.

  5. Study on discrimination of oral cancer from normal using blood plasma based on fluorescence steady and excited state at excitation wavelength 280 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rekha, Pachaiappan; Aruna, Prakasa Rao; Ganesan, Singaravelu

    2016-03-01

    Many research works based on fluorescence spectroscopy have proven its potential in the diagnosis of various diseases using the spectral signatures of the native key fluorophores such as tryptophan, tyrosine, collagen, NADH, FAD and porphyrin. These fluorophores distribution, concentration and their conformation may be changed depending upon the pathological and metabolic conditions of cells and tissues. In this study, we have made an attempt to characterize the blood plasma of normal subject and oral cancer patients by native fluorescence spectroscopy at 280 nm excitation. Further, the fluorescence data were analyzed by employing the multivariate statistical method - linear discriminant analyses (LDA) using leaves one out cross validation method. The results illustrate the potential of fluorescence spectroscopy technique in the diagnosis of oral cancer using blood plasma.

  6. Plasma lipid peroxidation, blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes in menstruating females with ovulatory and anovulatory cycles compared with males

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G Lutosławska

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to evaluate plasma TBARS and blood GSH concentration and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase and superoxide dismutase in active, regularly menstruating female physical education students with ovulatory and anovulatory menstrual cycles and in their male counterparts. A total of 27 subjects (12 males and 15 females volunteered to participate in the study. All females were regularly menstruating with cycle length between 26-31 days. Plasma progesterone and 17-β-estradiol concentrations were assayed during the 7th-9th and 22nd-25th day of the menstrual cycle. Women with plasma progesterone concentration exceeding 19 nmol•l-1 during the 22nd-25th day were referred to as ovulatory (Group OV; n=7. Women without a peak plasma progesterone concentration were referred to as anovulatory (Group AN; n=8. Blood from male subjects was withdrawn twice - two weeks apart, at their convenience. It was found that the menstrual cycle phases did not affect plasma TBARS and blood glutathione concentration and erythrocyte GPX, CAT and SOD activity. However, erythrocyte GPX activity either in ovulatory or anovulatory women was by about 30% higher than in male subjects. Erythrocyte SOD activity in ovulatory women both in follicular and luteal phase of the menstrual cycle (1557 U/g Hb and 1394.6 U/g Hb, respectively was markedly lower than in men (1951.8 and 1937.7 U/g Hb for blood sampling I and II, respectively. In contrast, erythrocyte SOD activity in anovulatory women (1855.5 U/g Hb and 1745.7 U/g Hb in the follicular and luteal phases, respectively was similar to that found in men. The above data indicated that erythrocyte GPX and SOD activities are sensitive to plasma ovarian hormone concentration. In addition, they suggested that due to higher erythrocyte GPX activity females even with anovulatory menstrual cycles are protected better than males against hydrogen peroxide action. However, lower superoxide

  7. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS......-PAGE to be a plasma protein concentration of about 10mg/ml in 3% (w/v) Triton X-114. 2DE of proteins obtained by CPE of 400μl of human plasma revealed about 200 spots constituting a spot pattern very different from the pattern of total plasma. The CPE procedure only had a limited contribution to the technical......-sterol acyltransferase, serum amyloid A, and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which are proteins of a hydrophobic nature, as in plasma they relate to lipoprotein particles. Thus, Triton X-114-based CPE is a simple plasma prefractionation tool, attractive for detailed 2DE studies of hydrophobic plasma proteins...

  8. Effect of Age on Blood Glucose and Plasma Insulin, Glucagon, Ghrelin, CCK, GIP, and GLP-1 Responses to Whey Protein Ingestion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Giezenaar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Protein-rich supplements are used widely to prevent and manage undernutrition in older people. We have previously shown that healthy older, compared to younger, adults have less suppression of energy intake by whey protein—although the effects of age on appetite-related gut hormones are largely unknown. The aim of this study was to determine and compare the acute effects of whey protein loads on blood glucose and plasma gut hormone concentrations in older and younger adults. Sixteen healthy older (eight men, eight women; mean ± SEM: age: 72 ± 1 years; body mass index: 25 ± 1 kg/m2 and 16 younger (eight men, eight women; 24 ± 1 years; 23 ± 0.4 kg/m2 adults were studied on three occasions in which they ingested 30 g (120 kcal or 70 g (280 kcal whey protein, or a flavored-water control drink (~2 kcal. At regular intervals over 180 min, blood glucose and plasma insulin, glucagon, ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK, gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP, and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1 concentrations were measured. Plasma ghrelin was dose-dependently suppressed and insulin, glucagon, CCK, GIP, and GLP-1 concentrations were dose-dependently increased by the whey protein ingestion, while blood glucose concentrations were comparable during all study days. The stimulation of plasma CCK and GIP concentrations was greater in older than younger adults. In conclusion, orally ingested whey protein resulted in load-dependent gut hormone responses, which were greater for plasma CCK and GIP in older compared to younger adults.

  9. Characterization and biotransformation in the plasma and red blood cells of V(IV)O(2+) complexes formed by ceftriaxone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanna, Daniele; Fabbri, Davide; Serra, Maria; Buglyó, Péter; Bíró, Linda; Ugone, Valeria; Micera, Giovanni; Garribba, Eugenio

    2015-06-01

    The coordination mode and geometry in aqueous solution of oxidovanadium(IV) complexes formed by a third-generation cephalosporin, ceftriaxone (H3cef), were studied by spectroscopic (EPR, electron paramagnetic resonance), pH-potentiometric and computational (DFT, density functional theory) methods. The behavior of the model systems containing 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one (H2hmtdt) and 3-benzylthio-6-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one (Hbhmt) was examined for comparison. The stability of the tautomers of ceftriaxone and 6-hydroxy-2-methyl-3-thioxo-3,4-dihydro-1,2,4-triazine-5(2H)-one in the neutral, mono- and bi-anionic form was calculated by DFT methods, both in the gas phase and in aqueous solution, and the electron density on the oxygen atoms of the hydroxytriazinone ring was related to the pKa of the ligands. The data demonstrate that ceftriaxone coordinates V(IV)O(2+) forming mono- and bis-chelated complexes with (Oket, O(-)) donor set and formation of five-membered chelate rings. The geometry of the bis-chelated complex, cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-), is cis-octahedral and this species can deprotonate, around physiological pH, to form the corresponding mono-hydroxido cis-[VO(Hcef)2(OH)](3-). The interaction of cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) with apo-transferrin (apo-hTf) was studied and the results suggest that V(IV)O(2+) distributes between (VO)apo-hTf/(VO)2apo-hTf and cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-), whereas mixed complexes are not formed for charge and steric effects. The interaction of cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) with red blood cells shows that ceftriaxone helps V(IV)O(2+) ion to cross the erythrocyte membrane. Inside the cell cis-[VO(Hcef)2(H2O)](2-) decomposes and the same species formed by inorganic V(IV)O(2+) are observed. The relationship between the biotransformation in the plasma and red blood cells and the potential pharmacological activity of V(IV)O(2+) species of ceftriaxone is finally discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier

  10. Improving the screening of blood donors with syphilis rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkodie, F; Hassall, O; Owusu-Dabo, E; Owusu-Ofori, S; Bates, I; Bygbjerg, I C; Owusu-Ofori, A; Harritshøj, L H; Ullum, H

    2017-02-01

    Syphilis testing conventionally relies on a combination of non-treponemal and treponemal tests. The primary objective of this study was to describe the positive predictive value (PPV) of a screening algorithm in a combination of a treponemal rapid diagnostic test (RDT) and rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH), Ghana. From February 2014 to January 2015, 5 mL of venous blood samples were taken from 16 016 blood donors and tested with a treponemal RDT; 5 mL of venous blood was taken from 526 consenting initial syphilis sero-reactive blood donors. These RDT reactive samples were confirmed with an algorithm, applying the Vitros ® /Abbott-Architect ® algorithm as gold standard. A total of 478 of 526 RDT reactive donors were confirmed positive for syphilis, making a PPV of 90·9%. Of the 172 (32·7%) donors who were also RPR positive, 167 were confirmed, resulting in a PPV of 97·1%. The PPV of the combined RDT and RPR (suspected active syphilis) testing algorithm was highest among donors at an enhanced risk of syphilis, family/replacement donors (99·9%), and among voluntary donors above 25 years (98·6%). Screening of blood donors by combining syphilis RDT and RPR with relatively good PPV may provide a reasonable technology for LMIC that has a limited capacity for testing and can contribute to the improvement of blood safety with a minimal loss of donors. © 2016 British Blood Transfusion Society.

  11. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Amorim Terra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da Artemisia vulgaris L.(artemisa na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Amostras de sangue obtidas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com um extrato de artemisa e o processo de radiomarcação dos constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram isoladas por centrifugação. Alíquotas de plasma e células sangüíneas foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento de frações solúvel e insolúvel. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram calculadas. O extrato de artemisa diminuiu significantemente (p<0,05 a %ATI nas células sanguíneas e nas proteínas celulares. A análise dos resultados indicou que o extrato de artemisa apresentaria substâncias que interferir no transporte de íons estanoso e/ou pertecnetato através da membrana do eritrócito alterando a marcação das células sangúineas com 99mTc.

  12. The Pattern of Fatty Acids Displaced by EPA and DHA Following 12 Months Supplementation Varies between Blood Cell and Plasma Fractions

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Celia G.; West, Annette L.; Browning, Lucy M.; Madden, Jackie; Gambell, Joanna M.; Jebb, Susan A.; Calder, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) are increased in plasma lipids and blood cell membranes in response to supplementation. Whilst arachidonic acid (AA) is correspondingly decreased, the effect on other fatty acids (FA) is less well described and there may be site-specific differences. In response to 12 months EPA + DHA supplementation in doses equivalent to 0–4 portions of oily fish/week (1 portion: 3.27 g EPA+DHA) multinomial regression analysis was used to identify...

  13. A detailed examination of platelet function inhibition by nitric oxide in platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Robert; Krueger, Julia; Filipović, Milos R; Ivanović-Burmazović, Ivana; Calatzis, Andreas; Weiss, Dominik R; Eckstein, Reinhold

    2013-01-01

    The question of whether novel instruments such as multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) can be used for measurement of the effects of nitric oxide (NO) on platelets (PLTs) has not been examined. Therefore, we compared the effects of NO concentrations (1, 10, and 100 microM) on the PLT aggregation response to ADP, arachidonic acid (AA), collagen, ristocetin, and thrombin receptor-activating peptide 6 (TRAP6) using light transmission aggregometry (LTA) and multiple electrode aggregometry (MEA) and examined the effects of NO using the platelet function analyzer (PFA)-100. The response of PLTs to ADP and AA was strongly inhibited by all NO concentrations in LTA and MEA. The inhibition of the responses to ristocetin and collagen was detectable in MEA at lower NO concentrations than in LTA. However, the typically increasing lag phase between collagen addition and the aggregation response in the presence of NO was more obvious in LTA. TRAP caused a reproducible early response in the presence of NO in LTA which was followed by rapid PLT disaggregation, whereas even 100 microM NO did not inhibit the response to TRAP in MEA. Finally, NO prolonged the in-vitro bleeding time remarkably more in the PFA-100 collagen-epinephrin cartridge than in the collagen-ADP cartridge. Whole blood versus PLT rich plasma, citrate versus hirudin, and high versus low shear influenced the effects of NO. This shows that a careful selection of models and potentially a combination of different methods is appropriate for a differentiated evaluation of pharmacological or physiological mechanisms of NO-donors or of NO-inhibitors.

  14. Platelet-rich plasma versus autologous blood versus steroid injection in lateral epicondylitis: systematic review and network meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arirachakaran, Alisara; Sukthuayat, Amnat; Sisayanarane, Thaworn; Laoratanavoraphong, Sorawut; Kanchanatawan, Wichan; Kongtharvonskul, Jatupon

    2016-06-01

    Clinical outcomes between the use of platelet-rich plasma (PRP), autologous blood (AB) and corticosteroid (CS) injection in lateral epicondylitis are still controversial. A systematic review and network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was conducted with the aim of comparing relevant clinical outcomes between the use of PRP, AB and CS injection. Medline and Scopus databases were searched from inception to January 2015. A network meta-analysis was performed by applying weight regression for continuous outcomes and a mixed-effect Poisson regression for dichotomous outcomes. Ten of 374 identified studies were eligible. When compared to CS, AB injection showed significantly improved effects with unstandardized mean differences (UMD) in pain visual analog scale (VAS), Disabilities of Arm Shoulder and Hand (DASH), Patient-Related Tennis Elbow Evaluation (PRTEE) score and pressure pain threshold (PPT) of -2.5 (95 % confidence interval, -3.5, -1.5), -25.5 (-33.8, -17.2), -5.3 (-9.1, -1.6) and 9.9 (5.6, 14.2), respectively. PRP injections also showed significantly improved VAS and DASH scores when compared with CS. PRP showed significantly better VAS with UMD when compared to AB injection. AB injection has a higher risk of adverse effects, with a relative risk of 1.78 (1.00, 3.17), when compared to CS. The network meta-analysis suggested no statistically significant difference in multiple active treatment comparisons of VAS, DASH and PRTEE when comparing PRP and AB injections. However, AB injection had improved DASH score and PPT when compared with PRP injection. In terms of adverse effects, AB injection had a higher risk than PRP injection. This network meta-analysis provided additional information that PRP injection can improve pain and lower the risk of complications, whereas AB injection can improve pain, disabilities scores and pressure pain threshold but has a higher risk of complications. Level I evidence.

  15. The oldest old: red blood cell and plasma folate in African American and white octogenarians and centenarians in Georgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausman, D B; Johnson, M A; Davey, A; Woodard, J L; Poon, L W; Allen, R H; Stabler, S P

    2011-11-01

    To determine the overall folate status of a population-based multi-ethnic sample of octogenarians and centenarians and the specific dietary, demographic and physiological factors associated with observed abnormalities. Population-based multiethnic sample of adults aged 80 to 89 and 98 and above. Northern Georgia, USA. Men and women aged 80 to 89 (octogenarians, n = 77) and 98 and older (centenarians, n = 199). Wilcoxon rank sum tests, and Chi square and logistic regression analyses were used to examine associations of low and high folate status with hematological indicators and other variables of interest. The prevalence of low red blood cell (RBC) folate was low overall, but tended to be higher in centenarians than in octogenarians (6.5% vs. 1.3%, p = 0.058; defined as RBC folate 25th percentile for RBC folate for 60yr+ in NHANES 1999-2000) was greater in association with vitamin B12 deficiency (OR = 5.36; 95%CI: 2.87-10.01), African American race (OR = 4.29; 95%CI: 2.08-8.83), and residence in a skilled nursing facility (OR = 3.25; 95%CI: 1.56-6.78) but was not influenced by age, gender, B-vitamin supplement use, high/low food score or presence of atrophic gastritis. Combined high plasma folate and low vitamin B12 status was present in some individuals (n=11), but was not associated with increased prevalence of anemia or cognitive impairment in this study. Low RBC folate status (< 317 nmol/L) was rare in this post folic acid fortification sample of octogenarians and centenarians. RBC folate status (< 25th percentile) was strongly associated with 1) vitamin B12 deficiency, which has strong implications for vitamin treatment, and 2) with being African American, suggesting racial disparities exist even in the oldest old.

  16. Weight gain is associated with improved glycaemic control but with adverse changes in plasma lipids and blood pressure isn Type 1 diabetes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ferriss, J B

    2012-02-03

    AIMS: To assess the effects of weight gain on metabolic control, plasma lipids and blood pressure in patients with Type 1 diabetes. METHODS: Patients in the EURODIAB Prospective Complications Study (n = 3250) were examined at baseline and 1800 (55%) were re-examined a mean of 7.3 years later. Patients had Type 1 diabetes, defined as a diagnosis made before age 36 years and with a need for continuous insulin therapy within a year of diagnosis. Patients were aged 15-60 years at baseline and were stratified for age, sex and duration of diabetes. RESULTS: The change in HbA(1c) from baseline to follow-up examination was significantly more favourable in those who gained 5 kg or more during follow-up (\\'marked weight gain\\') than in patients who gained less or no weight or lost weight (\\'less or no weight gain\\'). In those with marked weight gain, there was a significantly greater rise in plasma triglycerides and total cholesterol and significantly less favourable changes in low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol compared with those with less or no weight gain, with or without adjustment for HbA(1c). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure also rose significantly more in the group with marked weight gain. CONCLUSION: Weight gain in patients with Type 1 diabetes has adverse effects on plasma lipids and blood pressure, despite a small improvement in glycaemic control.

  17. Influences of ABO blood group, age and gender on plasma coagulation factor VIII, fibrinogen, von Willebrand factor and ADAMTS13 levels in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zongkui; Dou, Miaomiao; Du, Xi; Ma, Li; Sun, Pan; Cao, Haijun; Ye, Shengliang; Jiang, Peng; Liu, Fengjuan; Lin, Fangzhao; Zhang, Rong; Li, Changqing

    2017-01-01

    ABO blood group is a hereditary factor of plasma levels of coagulation factor VIII (FVIII) and von Willebrand factor (VWF). Age and gender have been shown to influence FVIII, VWF, fibrinogen (Fbg), and ADAMTS13 (A disintegrin and metalloprotease with thrombospondin type 1 motif, 13). We investigated the effects of ABO type, age, and gender on plasma levels of FVIII, Fbg, VWF, and ADAMTS13 in a Chinese population. A total of 290 healthy volunteers were eligible for this study. ABO blood group was determined by indirect technique. FVIII:C and Fbg were measured by clotting assays. VWF antigen (VWF:Ag), collagen-binding activity (VWF:CBA), and ADAMTS13 antigen were assessed by ELISA, whereas VWF ristocetin cofactor activity (VWF:Rcof) was performed by agglutination of platelets with ristocetin. Mean FVIII:C and VWF levels (VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, and VWF:Rcof) were significantly higher in non-O than in O type subjects ( p  blood group, age, and gender showed different effects on plasma levels of FVIII:C, Fbg, VWF:Ag, VWF:CBA, VWF:Rcof, and ADAMTS13 antigen. These new data on a Chinese population are quite helpful to compare with other ethnic groups.

  18. Immunoproteasome in the blood plasma of children with acute appendicitis, and its correlation with proteasome and UCHL1 measured by SPR imaging biosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszczak, E; Sankiewicz, A; Debek, W; Gorodkiewicz, E; Milewski, R; Hermanowicz, A

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determinate the immunoproteasome concentration in the blood plasma of children with appendicitis, and its correlation with circulating proteasome and ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase L1 (UCHL1). Twenty-seven children with acute appendicitis, managed at the Paediatric Surgery Department, were included randomly into the study (age 2 years 9 months up to 14 years, mean age 9·5 ± 1 years). There were 10 girls and 17 boys; 18 healthy, age-matched subjects, admitted for planned surgeries served as controls. Mean concentrations of immunoproteasome, 20S proteasome and UCHL1 in the blood plasma of children with appendicitis before surgery 24 h and 72 h after the appendectomy were higher than in the control group. The immunoproteasome, 20S proteasome and UCHL1 concentrations in the blood plasma of patients with acute appendicitis were highest before surgery. The immunoproteasome, 20S proteasome and UCHL1 concentration measured 24 and 72 h after the operation decreased slowly over time and still did not reach the normal range (P appendicitis. © 2017 British Society for Immunology.

  19. Routine determination of [18F]-L-6-fluorodopa and its metabolites in blood plasma is essential for accurate positron emission tomography studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, G.L.Y.; Hewitt, K.A.; Pate, B.D.; Schofield, P.; Adam, M.J.; Ruth, T.J.

    1991-01-01

    A batch-contact alumina-extraction method has been used to separate [ 18 F]-L-6-fluorodopa (FD) from its principal metabolite, 3-O-methyl-[ 18 F]-6 fluorodopa (3-OMe-FD), in arterial blood plasma samples collected from subjects pretreated with carbidopa during positron emission tomography (PET) scans. The time course of the metabolite-corrected blood plasma activity is then used as an input function for kinetic analysis of striatal FD uptake. Results obtained from using the batch-contact alumina-extraction method were compared with those from high performance liquid chromatography, and also with those from a chromatographic alumina cartridge technique. In 60 human subjects including normal healthy volunteers and patients diagnoses as having a movement disorder, arterial blood plasma samples were collected after FD injection during a two-hour PET scan and analyzed by the batch-contact alumina-extraction method. The activity ratio (metabolites/FD) increased linearly with time for all subjects. However, there was a wide variation in the slope of the plot of the activity ratio versus time among the subjects. No significant linear or curved relationship was observed between the slope and the age of the subject. Separation of FD from its metabolites is therefore, necessary for each PET-FD study conducted

  20. Carbogen Breathing Differentially Enhances Blood Plasma Volume and 5-Fluorouracil Uptake in Two Murine Colon Tumor Models with a Distinct Vascular Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanneke W.M. van Laarhoven

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available For the systemic treatment of colorectal cancer, 5-fluorouracil (FU-based chemotherapy is the standard. However, only a subset of patients responds to chemotherapy. Breathing of carbogen (95% O2 and 5% CO2 may increase the uptake of FU through changes in tumor physiology. This study aims to monitor in animal models in vivo the effects of carbogen breathing on tumor blood plasma volume, pH, and energy status, and on FU uptake and metabolism in two colon tumor models C38 and C26a, which differ in their vascular structure and hypoxic status. Phosphorus-31 magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS was used to assess tumor pH and energy status, and fluorine-19 MRS was used to follow FU uptake and metabolism. Advanced magnetic resonance imaging methods using ultrasmall particles of iron oxide were performed to assess blood plasma volume. The results showed that carbogen breathing significantly decreased extracellular pH and increased tumor blood plasma volume and FU uptake in tumors. These effects were most significant in the C38 tumor line, which has the largest relative vascular area. In the C26a tumor line, carbogen breathing increased tumor growth delay by FU. In this study, carbogen breathing also enhanced systemic toxicity by FU.

  1. Method validation for preparing serum and plasma samples from human blood for downstream proteomic, metabolomic, and circulating nucleic acid-based applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammerlaan, Wim; Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Lescuyer, Pierre; Mathay, Conny; Hiller, Karsten; Betsou, Fay

    2014-08-01

    Formal method validation for biospecimen processing in the context of accreditation in laboratories and biobanks is lacking. Serum and plasma processing protocols were validated for fitness-for-purpose in terms of key downstream endpoints, and this article demonstrates methodology for biospecimen processing method validation. Serum and plasma preparation from human blood was optimized for centrifugation conditions with respect to microparticle counts. Optimal protocols were validated for methodology and reproducibility in terms of acceptance criteria based on microparticle counts, DNA and hemoglobin concentration, and metabolomic and proteomic profiles. These parameters were also used to evaluate robustness for centrifugation temperature (4°C versus room temperature [RT]), deceleration (low, medium, high) and blood stability (after a 2-hour delay). Optimal protocols were 10-min centrifugation for serum and 20-min for plasma at 2000 g, medium brake, RT. Methodology and reproducibility acceptance criteria were met for both protocols except for reproducibility of plasma metabolomics. Overall, neither protocol was robust for centrifugation at 4°C versus RT. RT gave higher microparticles and free DNA yields in serum, and fewer microparticles with less hemolysis in plasma. Overall, both protocols were robust for fast, medium, and low deceleration, with a medium brake considered optimal. Pre-centrifugation stability after a 2-hour delay was seen at both temperatures for hemoglobin concentration and proteomics, but not for microparticle counts. We validated serum and plasma collection methods suitable for downstream protein, metabolite, or free nucleic acid-based applications. Temperature and pre-centrifugation delay can influence analytic results, and laboratories and biobanks should systematically record these conditions in the scope of accreditation.

  2. Study on plasma pre-functionalized PVC film grafted with TiO2/PVP to improve blood compatible and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arjunan; Shanmugavelayutham, Gurusamy; Serra Rodríguez, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Research into the design of new biopolymers/polymer functionalized with nanoparticles is of tremendous interest to the medical sector, particularly with regard to blood-contacting devices. In this present study, a steady blood compatible and active antibacterial coating was fabricated by the grafting of titanium dioxide (TiO2)/polyvinylpyyrolidone (PVP) onto a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film surface via the direct-current glow discharge plasma method. To enhance the chemical interaction between TiO2/PVP and PVC, the surfaces of the PVC films were functionalized by different plasmas (air, argon, and oxygen) before coating. In this study, the plasma parameters were varied, such as treatment time of about 5-20 min for a constant power of 100 W, potential 300 V, and a constant gas pressure of 2 Pa for air, argon, and oxygen gas environment. Then, the different plasma treatments on the PVC films, TiO2/PVP were grafted using a simple dip-coating method. In addition, the TiO2/PVP-grafted PVC films were characterized by contact angle, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Importantly, TiO2/PVP is grafted onto the PVC surface due to the plasma-based retained functionality and demonstrates adhesive efficiency, which was observed by XPS. The bio-stability of the TiO2/PVP-modified PVC film was evaluated by in vitro platelet activation analysis and protein adsorption analysis. Then, the antibacterial properties were evaluated by the agar diffusion method against Escherichia coli. The result reveals that the grafting of TiO2/PVP was slightly higher for the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC, which significantly decreases the platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC with TiO2/PVP-grafted film is also greatly improved compared with an air- and argon-functionalized surface

  3. Study of the damping effect of human blood plasma by the after effect of optical irradiation on erythrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranova, L. N.; Kholmogorov, V. E.

    1994-06-01

    A yield of hemoglobin and different proteins from erythrocytes in physiological solution was registered by spectrophotometer Specord UV-VIS. This yield was noted after development of dark reactions upon single irradiation of erythrocytes by total light of the mercury lamp DRT-375. It was found that this effect took place in the presence of intact plasma at physiological solution (containing as much as 98% of plasma) too. However the higher percentage of plasma solution presented, the greater doses of irradiation was necessary for demonstration of a yield of different substances from erythrocytes. It was observed definite dependence of this dose versus percentage of plasma. It was indicated that the degree of the damping effect of plasma had time dependence from season, i.e. from a structural composition of plasma.

  4. No early effect of storage time of transfused red blood cells on fatigue and plasma cytokines in patients with anaemia from non-acute gastrointestinal bleeding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mynster, Tommie; Dziegiel, Morten H; Kofoed, Kristian

    2007-01-01

    Background: Fatigue in anaemia is empirically reduced by blood transfusion. Long storage time of red cells may be associated with immunomodulatory effects, and blood stored for a long time may cause tissue hypoxia upon transfusion. Patients and Methods: 22 patients admitted with haemoglobin ... scale. Clinical observations and blood samples were obtained before transfusion was started, and were repeated 2-8 h after transfusion of the 2nd unit. Measured plasma parameters included IL- 1ß, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-12 and TNF-a. Results: There were no significant differences between group S and L (ns......SL) in demographic data, observational data and blood plasma values. Haemoglobin increased from mean (± SD) 5.2 ± 0.6 to 6.4 ± 0.7 mmol/l after transfusion (nsSL). Fatigue score significantly decreased from a pre-transfusion median 6.6 (range 0.1-9.9) to post-transfusion 4.7 (0.6-10.0) (p = 0.02) for all patients...

  5. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  6. Assessment of the effect of Mentha crispa L. (hortela) extract on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao D. [UNIFOA - Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Dire, Glaucio L.; Lima, Elaine [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Anatomia; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]|[Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the possibility of M. Crispa L. extract being capable to alter the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with M. Crispa L. extract. Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) separated. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC was calculated. Histological evaluations were performed and the morphology of the red blood cells was observed under optical microscopy showing important morphological alterations on the shape of the RBC treated with 6.25% M. Crispa L. extract. The % ATI decreased: on BC from 97.3 {+-} 1.92 to 60.0 {+-} 2.44; on IF-P from 74.8 {+-} 3.78 to 9.99 {+-} 3.61; on IF-BC from 88.6 {+-} 5.41 to 58.4 {+-} 11.55. The substances of the M. Crispa L. extract could increase the valence of these stannous (+2) ions to stannic (+4) and this fact would decrease the % ATI on blood elements and indicates the possible presence of oxidant agents in the M. Crispa L. extract. (author)

  7. The effects of size and period of administration of gold nanoparticles on rheological parameters of blood plasma of rats over a wide range of shear rates: In vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdelhalim Mohamed Anwar K

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Blood viscosity appears to be independent predictor of stroke, carotid intima-media thickening, atherosclerosis and most cardiovascular diseases. In an attempt to understand the toxicity and the potential threat of GNPs therapeutic and diagnostic use, an array of rheological parameters were performed to quantify the blood plasma response to different sizes and administration periods of GNPs over a wide range of shear rates. Methods Healthy, thirty male Wistar-Kyoto rats, 8-12 weeks old (approximately 250 g body weight were divided into control group (NG: n = 10, group 1 (G1A: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G1B: intraperitoneal infusion of 10 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5, group 2 (G2A: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 3 days, n = 5 and G2B: intraperitoneal infusion of 50 nm GNPs for 7 days, n = 5. Dose of 100 μl of GNPs was administered to the animals via intraperitoneal injection. Blood samples of nearly 1 ml were obtained from each rat. Various rheological parameters such as torque, shear stress, shear rate, viscosity, plastic velocity, yield stress, consistency index (k and flow index (n were measured in the blood plasma of rats after the intraperitoneal administration of 10 and 50 nm GNP for 3 and 7 days using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. Results The relationship between shear stress and shear rate for control, G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B was linearly related. The plastic viscosity and the yield stress values for G1A, G1B, G2A and G2B significantly (p Conclusions At these particular shear rates, the estimated rheological parameters are not influenced by GNPs size and shape, number of NPs, surface area and administration period of GNPs. This study demonstrates that the highly decrease in blood plasma viscosity was accompanied with the smaller 10 nm GNPs compared with the 50 nm GNPs. The decrease in blood plasma viscosity induced with 10 and 50 nm GNPs may be attributed to

  8. Effect of aerobic exercise on plasma vasoactive intestinal peptide, blood pressure and heart rate of elderly healthy persons and coronary artery patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Amirazodi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP plays an important role in modulating coronary blood flow and heart rate. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of eight weeks of low intensity aerobic exercise on plasma levels of VIP hormone, blood pressure and heart rate in healthy elderly men and women, and patients with coronary artery disease (CAD.Methods: In this study, 15 healthy women and 15 healthy men and 15 female and 15 male with CAD disease were randomly chosen as the experimental and control groups. Subjects did aerobic exercises tree days/week, for eight weeks, with the heart rate of 10010 beats per minute. Blood samples were taken from each subject in three stages, (before, immediately after and 24 hours after the 8 weeks of exercising.Results: The results showed that there was a significant difference among plasma VIP levels in the four groups. Moreover, a significant difference was observed between the systolic blood pressure in the four groups (P=0.01 and the systolic blood pressure in male patients and healthy women (P=0.03 while there was no meaningful difference the systolic blood pressure in the two other groups. There was also a significant difference in the heart rate of the three rounds of sampling in the three of groups (P=0.002 but no significant difference was observed in healthy men.Conclusion: According to the above results, it seems that the duration and intensity of each workout should be considered to reach the VIP stimulation threshold. It may bring about considerable changes in VIP levels.

  9. [The non-etherifying and free fatty acids of blood plasma. Pathogenesis of arterial hypertension and symptoms of syndrome of overeating-metabolic syndrome: a lecture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titov, V N

    2013-12-01

    From point of view of physiology, the metabolic syndrome is a syndrome of overeating when an optimal by the content of fatty acids in food is too much a physologically. This condition forms an omental variant of increase of body mass. The oleic triglycerides cumulate in fatty cells of omentum and after activation of lypolisis at the level of paracrinically regulating associations of cells and organs release into blood many non-etherifying fatty acids. The albumin has no possibilities to bind them all. The polar fatty acids-free fatty acids which are not bind by albumin form in blood direct heterogeneous micelles which spontaneously incorporate into plasmatic membrane of monolayer of endothelium. At that, the hydrophilic lipid pores are formed through which Ca2+, Na+ and water get into cytosol and K+ gets out. The hydration of cytosol and hypercalcinemia increase dimensions, thickness of monolayer of epithelium, narrow lumen of arterioles of muscular type and increase resistance to blood flow in distal section of arterial channel. The hydrodynamic pressure increases compensatory in proximal section of arterial channel along with the development of arterial hypertension. The late in phylogenesis insulin has no possibilities to block lipolysis in fatty cells of omentum hence these cells have no receptors to this insulin. While in blood plasma the concentration of non-etherifying acids is increased the cell will not absorb and oxidize glucose. The non-etherifying form the resistance too late in phylogenesis insulin, hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. The concentration of oleic triglycerides increases in blood. The increase in omentum of number of fatty cells of loose connective tissue forms biological reaction of inflammation right up to destruction of overloaded oleic triglycerides cells on the type of apoptosis. This occurrence increases the concentration of C-reactive protein in blood plasma. All symptoms of syndrome of overeating (metabolic syndrome) are formed in

  10. Changes in the content of somatotropic hormone (STH) in the blood plasma of rats, acutely irradiated with different doses of gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanov, B.; Milanov, S.; Visheva, N.

    1986-01-01

    Male rats of Wistar breed in sexual maturity were acutely and whole-bodily irradiated with cesium gamma source at 0,5, 1,0, 2,0 and 4,0 Gy. On the 1st, 2nd, 3d, 6th, 12th, 20th, 30th and 40th day after treatment of the effect, by 10 animals of each dose-group were submited to overbleeding and in the blood plasma the content of the somatotropic hormone (STH) was assessed by radioimmunological methods. It was established that at the lowest dose of irradiation the STH level in the blood plasma was slightly decreased under the norm. At a dose of 1,0 Gy there was slightly inhibit release of STH in the blood plasma on the 6th day, while on the 12th to the 40th day it was close to the norm. In the rats irradiated with higher doses of 2,0 and 4,0 Gy the STH level in the first three days was strongly raised, and in the animals irradiated with 2,0 Gy the STH level from the 6th to the 20th day decreased, but remined with statistical reliability higher than the norm. On the 30th day STH level increased again, while on the 40th day it returned to the norm. The animals irradiated with the highest dose of 4,0 Gy maintained strongly increased STH level in the plasma, where the peaks were most vividly expressed on the second, 6th and 30th day after irradiation

  11. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Højrup Peter

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against malaria. It has been hypothesized that the initial antibody responses against parasite antigens upon first few Plasmodium falciparum infections is dominated by non-protective IgG2/IgG4 and IgM antibodies, which then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. Methods Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P. falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high molecular weight (≥ 70 kDa or low molecular weight (P. falciparum infections. Results IgG4 and IgM antibodies in plasma samples from all groups detected very few parasite antigens. IgG2 antibodies from all groups detected a common pattern of high molecular weight parasite antigens. Cytophilic IgG subclasses in plasma samples from individuals with higher levels of exposure to P. falciparum infections distinctly detected higher numbers of low molecular weight parasite antigens. Conclusions In the present study, there was no evidence for switching of antibody responses from non-cytophilic to cytophilic subclasses against blood-stage parasite antigens as a likely mechanism for induction of protective immunity against malaria.

  12. Evaluation of the overnight hold of whole blood at room temperature, before component processing: platelets (PLTs) from PLT-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Meer, Pieter F; Cancelas, Jose A; Vassallo, Ralph R; Rugg, Neeta; Einarson, Mindy; Hess, John R

    2011-01-01

    Whole blood (WB) must be refrigerated within 8 hours to optimize Factor VIII: C yield, but chilled platelets (PLTs) are rapidly removed from circulation and cannot be used clinically. It is logistically preferable to hold WB overnight at room temperature for next-day processing. We compared in vitro quality of PLT-rich plasma (PRP)-derived PLT concentrates (PCs) from fresh versus overnight-held WB. Four units of WB were pooled and split to prevent donor-dependent differences. One unit was processed immediately; three others were held at room temperature and processed after 24 to 26 hours. After soft-spin centrifugation, PRP was separated from the red blood cells. PRP was hard-spun to make PLT-poor plasma, and the PLTs were resuspended in approximately 60 mL of plasma and stored for 7 days (n = 8 paired experiments by two blood centers). After overnight hold, the PLT concentration was 1.37 × 10(9) ± 0.19 × 10(9) /mL versus 1.03 × 10(9) ± 0.32 × 10(9) /mL for freshly prepared PCs (p < 0.05). pH and glucose were significantly lower and lactate higher for overnight-held units on Day 1, but by Day 5, the differences had disappeared. Hypotonic shock response was initially better, 73 ± 14% for overnight-held versus 53 ± 12% for freshly processed (p < 0.001), but this difference also disappeared during storage. Activation marker CD62P was not different. In vitro storage conditions produce immediate differences after preparation, which disappear throughout storage. PCs from overnight-held WB have similar in vitro variables as from freshly processed WB. These findings warrant confirmation in clinical trials, but underscore the possibility of use of these PCs as being equivalent to those obtained from freshly processed WB. © 2010 American Association of Blood Banks.

  13. Determination of lead, cadmium and mercury in blood for assessment of environmental exposure: A comparison between inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry and atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Christopher D.; Lewis, Miles E.; Geraghty, Ciaran M.; Barbosa, Fernando; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2006-08-01

    A biomonitoring method for the determination of Pb, Cd, and Hg at background levels in whole blood by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry is described. While this method was optimized for assessing Pb, Cd and Hg at environmental levels, it also proved suitable for assessing concentrations associated with occupational exposure. The method requires as little as 200 μl of blood that is diluted 1 + 49 for direct analysis in the inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometer. Method performance is compared to well-established AAS methods. Initial method validation was accomplished using National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Standard Reference Material 966, Toxic Metals in Bovine Blood. Method detection limits (3s) are 0.05 μg dl - 1 for Pb, 0.09 μg l - 1 for Cd; and 0.17 μg l - 1 for Hg. Repeatability ranged from 1.4% to 2.8% for Pb; 3% to 10% for Cd; and 2.6% to 8.8% for Hg. In contrast, AAS method detection limits were 1 μg dl - 1 , 0.54 μg l - 1 , and 0.6 μg l - 1 , for Pb, Cd, and Hg, respectively. Further performance assessments were conducted over a 2-year period via participation in four international External Quality Assessment Schemes (EQAS) operated specifically for toxic metals in blood. This includes schemes operated by (a) the New York State Department of Health's Wadsworth Center, Albany, NY, USA (b) L'Institut National de Santé Publique du Québec, Centre de Toxicologie du Québec, Canada, (c) Friedrich-Alexander University, Erlangen, Germany, and (d) the University of Surrey, Guildford, UK Trace Elements scheme. The EQAS data reflect analytical performance for blind samples analyzed independently by both inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry and AAS methods.

  14. Fluoride Levels in Urine, Blood Plasma and Serum of People Living in an Endemic Fluorosis Area in the Thar Desert, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rafique, T.; Shirin, K.; Ahmed, I.; Khan, M. H.; Soomro, F.

    2015-01-01

    Fluoride (F/sup -/) levels in the urine, blood plasma and serum samples of people living in a village in the Thar Desert have been analysed where fluorosis is endemic and groundwater contains fluoride as high as 9.76 mg/L. Average values of fluoride levels in these human specimens i.e. urine, blood plasma and serum have been found to be 12.98 mg/L, 0.61 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L, respectively. These values are much higher than the normal values reported from other parts of the world. It was observed that urinary fluoride levels increase with age of an individual but with an insignificant correlation (r = 0.116), however, fluoride levels in plasma and serum samples did not vary considerably with age in male and female subjects. It has been found that after the age of 50 years the urinary fluoride decreases with its concomitant increase in serum fluoride level. Since groundwater is the only available source of water for human consumption and it contains higher fluoride (av. 7.09 mg/L) than WHO limit (1.5 mg/L), therefore, it is the main cause of fluorosis in the area. (author)

  15. Nanocomposites based on graphene oxide and mesoporous silica nanoparticles: Preparation, characterization and nanobiointeractions with red blood cells and human plasma proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Leandro C.; de Araújo, Maciel M.; de Moraes, Ana Carolina M.; da Silva, Douglas S.; Ferreira, Ariane G.; Franqui, Lidiane S.; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T.; Alves, Oswaldo L.

    2018-04-01

    The current work refers to the development of a novel nanocomposite based on graphene oxide (GO) and mesoporous amino silica nanoparticles (H2N-MSNs) and its biological interaction with red blood cells (RBCs) and human blood plasma toward the investigation of nanobiointeractions. Silica nanoparticles and several graphene oxide-based materials are, separately, known for their high hemolytic potential and strong interaction with human plasma proteins. In this context, the GO-MSN interaction and its influence in minimizing the reported effects were investigated. The materials were synthesized by covalently attaching H2N-MSNs onto the surface of GO through an amidation reaction. GO-MSN nanocomposites were obtained by varying the mass of H2N-MSNs and were characterized by FTIR, NMR, XRD, TGA, zeta potential and TEM. The characterization results confirm that nanocomposites were obtained, suggest covalent bond attachment mostly by amine-epoxy reactions and evidence an unexpected reduction reaction of GO by H2N-MSNs, whose mechanism is proposed. Biological assays showed a decrease of hemolysis (RBC lysis) and a minimization of the interaction with human plasma proteins (protein corona formation). These are important findings toward achieving in vivo biocompatibility and understanding the nanobiointeractions. Finally, this work opens possibilities for new nanomedicine applications of GO-MSN nanocomposites, such as drug delivery system.

  16. [Bacteriological control of blood preservation, production of infusion solutions and dry human plasma under conditions of aseptic work and possible sources of their contamination].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosković, S; Lucić, N; Aganović, N; Grbić, E

    1975-01-01

    In premises for blood conservation, production of dry human plasma and infusion solutions "notwithstanding the permanent measures for desinfection, new bacterial contamination occurs from time to time and whose source are the casings and material originating from non-sterile environment. Bacteriological control, which has primarily a preventive character, enables a due forecast for measures to be undertaken by the appropriate desinfection of the working surfaces and air, satisfactory conditions of aseptic work can be maintained. General hygiene should be paid attention to as well as mechanical cleansing of premises, avoidance of groups for lunch-time etc., since the treatment by desinfectors would not be sufficient for maintenance of aseptic working conditions. In order to prevent the transmission of bacterial contamination, premises for blood conservation should be strictly separated from other operations and also prevent the unnecessary movements of personnel through corridors. The results of the bacteriological control of the personnel show that greater attention should be paid to their health care since the workers there work in closed aseptic systems and thus avoid them as a bacteria transmittors in respect to danger of blood and dry human plasma contamination. It is also necessary to efficiently educate the personnel for work in aseptic conditions and also increase their elementary knowledge from bacteriology and hygiene. The bacterial skin-flora on the spot of donor's venepuncture also presents a certain danger for blood contamination. Therefore, it is necessary to establish the most optimal manner of skin desinfecate together with the most appropriate means having a fast bactericidal and fungicidal action. It would also be useful, on the basis of further test, to suggest certain standard for an allowed number of conditionally pathogenic and saprophytic microorganisms which would be used by the instutions performing the blood transfusion and production of

  17. [The effect of baseline homocysteine level on the efficacy of enalapril maleate and folic acid tablet in lowering blood pressure and plasma homocysteine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Feng; Li, Jian-ping; Wang, Shu-yu; Guan, De-ming; Ge, Jun-bo; Hu, Jian; Wang, Yan-ni; Zhang, Fu-min; Huo, Yong

    2008-11-18

    To investigate the effect of baseline homocysteine (Hcy) level on the efficacy of enalapril maleate and folic acid tablet in lowering blood pressure and plasma Hcy in patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension. 456 patients with mild or moderate essential hypertension were from 7 hospitals in Southern and Northern China, 196 males and 260 females, aged 18-75, were randomly assigned to one of the 3 groups: Group 1 treated with enalapril 10 mg (n=153); Group 2 treated with enalapril maleate and folic acid tablet at the ratio of 10/0.4 (n=151); and Group 3 treated with enalapril maleate and folic acid tablet at the ratio of 10/0.8 (n=152). Blood pressure was measured every 2 weeks and plasma Hcy level was measured before the experiment, 4 weeks after the beginning of experiment, and by the end of experiment. Compared with the baseline levels, the blood pressures of the 3 groups were all well controlled (all Por=10 micromol/L). The blood pressure and Hcy lowering rates of the subjects with hyperhomocysteinemia in Groups 2 and 3 were 70.9% and 67.0% respectively, both significantly higher than that of Group 1 [45.6%, OR(95%CI): 3.0 (1.7-5.5), P=0.000 and OR=3.3 (1.8-5.9), P=0.000], and in lowering Hcy [OR(95%CI): 7.5 (2.6-21.2), P=0.000 and 3.5 (1.4-8.7), P=0.007] subjects with hyperhomocy steinemia. The Hcy lowering efficacy in the patients without hyperhomocysteinemia of Group 3 was significantly higher than that of Group 1 (P=0.016). Hyperhomocysteinemia is s extremely common in Chinese hypertensive patients. Enalapril maleate combine with folic acid tablet shows better efficacy in lowering either blood pressure or Hcy in hypertensive patients with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  18. Simplified sample preparation in the simultaneous measurement of whole blood antimony, bismuth, manganese, and zinc by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haglock-Adler, Carrie J; Strathmann, Frederick G

    2015-02-01

    We developed and validated a simplified sample preparation for the analysis of antimony (Sb), bismuth (Bi), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) in whole blood. This simplification included a reduction in sample volume, removal of a lengthy acidic digestion, and optimization of the internal standard. Measurement of Sb, Bi, Mn and Zn in whole blood was conducted using inductively coupled-plasma mass spectrometry. Method performance characteristics, including intra- and inter-assay imprecision, accuracy, linearity, AMR, sensitivity, carryover, sample stability and assay stability were determined in accordance with clinical laboratory standards. In addition, analytical and clinical recoveries were assessed to investigate comparability between goat blood matrix and pooled patient blood. Established assay performance characteristics included inter- and intra-assay imprecision samples, proficiency testing samples, and comparison to an outside reference laboratory. This method overcomes the laborious acidic heat digestion previously used and replaces it with a simplified sample preparation involving an alkaline dilution. The method requires minimal sample preparation with the dilution of alkaline diluent and is validated to quantify Sb and Bi from 1 to 25 μg/L, Mn from 1 to 80 μg/L, and Zn from 50 to 1500 μg/dL in whole blood. Copyright © 2014 The Canadian Society of Clinical Chemists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effects of total dietary polyphenols on plasma nitric oxide and blood pressure in a high cardiovascular risk cohort. The PREDIMED randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Remón, A; Tresserra-Rimbau, A; Pons, A; Tur, J A; Martorell, M; Ros, E; Buil-Cosiales, P; Sacanella, E; Covas, M I; Corella, D; Salas-Salvadó, J; Gómez-Gracia, E; Ruiz-Gutiérrez, V; Ortega-Calvo, M; García-Valdueza, M; Arós, F; Saez, G T; Serra-Majem, L; Pinto, X; Vinyoles, E; Estruch, R; Lamuela-Raventos, R M

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is one of the main cardiovascular risk factors in the elderly. The aims of this work were to evaluate if a one-year intervention with two Mediterranean diets (Med-diet) could decrease blood pressure (BP) due to a high polyphenol consumption, and if the decrease in BP was mediated by plasma nitric oxide (NO) production. An intervention substudy of 200 participants at high cardiovascular risk was carried out within the PREDIMED trial. They were randomly assigned to a low-fat control diet or to two Med-diets, one supplemented with extra virgin olive oil (Med-EVOO) and the other with nuts (Med-nuts). Anthropometrics and clinical parameters were measured at baseline and after one year of intervention, as well as BP, plasma NO and total polyphenol excretion (TPE) in urine samples. Systolic and diastolic BP decreased significantly after a one-year dietary intervention with Med-EVOO and Med-nuts. These changes were associated with a significant increase in TPE and plasma NO. Additionally, a significant positive correlation was observed between changes in urinary TPE, a biomarker of TP intake, and in plasma NO (Beta = 4.84; 95% CI: 0.57-9.10). TPE in spot urine sample was positively correlated with plasma NO in Med-diets supplemented with either EVOO or nuts. The statistically significant increases in plasma NO were associated with a reduction in systolic and diastolic BP levels, adding to the growing evidence that polyphenols might protect the cardiovascular system by improving the endothelial function and enhancing endothelial synthesis of NO. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Histamine elimination from the cerebrospinal fluid across the blood-cerebrospinal fluid barrier: involvement of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Usui, Takuya; Nakazawa, Ayumi; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Akanuma, Shin-Ichi; Kubo, Yoshiyuki; Hosoya, Ken-Ichi

    2016-11-01

    The elimination of histamine, an excitatory neurotransmitter, from the brain/CSF across the blood-brain barrier and blood-CSF barrier (BCSFB) was investigated using Wistar rats, which were anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium. An in vivo intracerebral microinjection study suggested that there was only partial efflux of [ 3 H]histamine from the rat brain across the blood-brain barrier. The [ 3 H]histamine elimination clearance from the rat CSF was 3.8-fold greater than that of a CSF bulk flow marker, and the elimination of [ 3 H]histamine was significantly inhibited by the co-administration of unlabeled histamine, suggesting the involvement of a carrier-mediated process in histamine elimination from the CSF. The uptake study of [ 3 H]histamine by the isolated rat choroid plexus revealed histamine elimination from the CSF across the BCSFB. The [ 3 H]histamine uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells, a model cell line for the BCSFB, exhibited temperature-dependent and saturable kinetics, suggesting the involvement of carrier-mediated transport of histamine at the BCSFB. In the inhibition study, [ 3 H]histamine uptake by TR-CSFB3 cells was significantly inhibited by substrates and/or inhibitors of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT/SLC29A4), but not affected by substrates of organic cation transporters. These results suggest the elimination of histamine from the CSF via plasma membrane monoamine transporter at the BCSFB. © 2016 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  1. Association between plasma leptin and blood pressure in two population-based samples of children and adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grøntved, Anders; Steene-Johannessen, Jostein; Kynde, Iben

    2011-01-01

    In this study we examined the association between leptin and blood pressure in a population-based study of Danish and Norwegian children and adolescents. Because of the putative bidirectional relationship between leptin and adiposity we formally tested (i) the mediating effect of body mass index...... in the association between leptin and blood pressure, and (ii) the mediating effect of leptin in the association between body mass index and blood pressure....

  2. [The acute effects of the new angiotensin I-converting enzyme inhibitor, enalapril maleate, on blood pressure, plasma renin, aldosterone and kinins in hypertensive patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gotoh, M; Mizuno, K; Hashimoto, S; Kunii, N; Fukuchi, S

    1985-05-20

    The acute antihypertensive effect of a new long-acting oral angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, enalapril maleate, was assessed in 20 hypertensive patients, of whom 14 had essential hypertension, 4 had renovascular hypertension, one had hypertension associated with chronic renal failure, and one had primary aldosteronism. Enalapril maleate significantly lowered the blood pressure in either low-renin or normal- and high-renin hypertensives. There was a significant correlation for all patients as a group between the pretreatment levels of serum ACE activity and the reduction in mean blood pressure (r = -0.454, p less than 0.05, n = 20) 2 h after drug administration. The serum ACE activity decreased maximally 3 to 4 hours after drug administration and did not return to baseline levels within 24 h. There was a significant correlation between the reduction in mean blood pressure and changes in ACE activity 90 min and 2 h after drug administration, respectively, for all patients as a group (r = 0.495, p less than 0.05, n = 20, at 90 min; r = 0.508, p less than 0.05, n = 20, at 2 h). The plasma renin activity (PRA) significantly increased in normal- and high-renin hypertensives but not in low-renin hypertensives. There was a close correlation between the reduction in mean blood pressure and the PRA 8 h after drug administration in normal- and high-renin patients (r = -0.623, p less than 0.05, n = 13), while no such relationship was observed in low-renin patients. The plasma aldosterone concentration (PAC) significantly decreased within 3 h, the lowest values occurring at 8 h after drug administration, and it returned to baseline levels within 24 h in all patients. No relationship was found between the reduction in mean blood pressure and changes in PAC after drug administration in either low-renin or normal- and high-renin hypertensives. The plasma bradykinin concentration (PBC) increased within 1 h, the highest values occurring at 3 h after drug

  3. Effect of a chayotte (Sechium edule) extract on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m: in vitro and in vivo studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciano, Gláucio Diré; Lima, Elaine Alves Correia; Pereira, Mario José dos Santos; de Oliveira, Márcia Betânia Nunes; Moreno, Silvana Ramos Farias; de Mattos, Deise Mara Machado; Levi Jales, Roberto; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2002-11-01

    Sechium edule (chayotte) is used as food or as medication in popular medicine. The labeling of blood elements with technetium-99m (99mTc) has been altered by drugs (synthetic and natural). Some authors have reported biological effects concerning the chayotte. We have evaluated the influence of chayotte extracts (macerated and infusion) on the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. In vitro study, blood was incubated with the extracts, (6.25, 12.5, 25, 50 and 100% v/v). In in vivo study, the animals were treated with the extracts (100% v/v), as drinking water (15 and 60 days) and samples of blood were withdrawn. The blood samples were incubated with stannous chloride and with 99mTc. Plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated, also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and soluble (SF) and insoluble fractions (IF) separated. There was a (p < 0.05) decrease in the radioactivity in BC, IF-BC and IF-P with the infusion (100%) and a slight decrease in the uptake of 99mTc by BC and a strong decrease in the fixation in IF-P with the macerated when the extracts were administrated in vivo (15 days). In 60 days, there was a decrease in BC (98.77 to 53.53%), in IF-BC (90.36 to 21.20%) and in IF-P (77.20 to 11.01%). In vitro study no alterations on the labeling of blood elements were found, however, we have found alterations on the fixation of 99mTc in the in vivo study, probably, due to the metabolization of chayotte capable to induce the generation of active metabolites.

  4. Abnormal Igf 2 gene in Prague hereditary hypertriglyceridemic rats: its relation to blood pressure and plasma lipids

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kadlecová, Michaela; Dobešová, Zdenka; Zicha, Josef; Kuneš, Jaroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 314, 1-2 (2008), s. 37-43 ISSN 0300-8177 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) 1M0510; GA ČR(CZ) GA305/08/0139 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50110509 Keywords : plasma cholesterol * plasma triglycerides * F2 hybrids Subject RIV: FB - Endocrinology, Diabetology, Metabolism, Nutrition Impact factor: 1.764, year: 2008

  5. Changes in plasma volume, in transcapillary escape rate of albumin and in subcutaneous blood flow during hypoglycaemia in man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bonde-Petersen, F; Madsbad, S

    1985-01-01

    and transcapillary escape rate increased significantly during hypoglycaemia. Skin temperature and local subcutaneous adipose tissue blood flow were measured in four different regions. Both tended to decrease during hypoglycaemia and decreased significantly 2 h after hypoglycaemia. There was no correlation between...... changes in the two measurements, suggesting that there is no simple relationship between subcutaneous blood flow and skin temperature during hypoglycaemia....

  6. Plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D level and blood gene expression profiles: a cross-sectional study of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-genome Cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standahl Olsen, K; Rylander, C; Brustad, M; Aksnes, L; Lund, E

    2013-07-01

    Vitamin D deficiency has been associated with increased risk of developing several diseases, but much is unknown about the molecular effects involved. Gene expression technology is increasingly being used to elucidate molecular mechanisms related to nutritional factors, and in this study of free-living, middle-aged Norwegian women, we aimed at identifying gene expression pathways in the blood associated with vitamin D status. Blood samples and questionnaires were collected as a part of the Norwegian Women and Cancer Post-genome Cohort (500 invited subjects, 218 included). Plasma 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography, and we compared groups with sufficient versus deficient vitamin D status (25(OH)D >50 nmol/l (n=66) versus genome microarrays. In a targeted pathway-level analysis, several immunological processes, immune cell functions and major signaling pathways were differentially regulated according to vitamin D status (Pnutritional factors.

  7. Barium determination in gastric contents, blood and urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry in the case of oral barium chloride poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Łukasik-Głębocka, Magdalena; Sommerfeld, Karina; Hanć, Anetta; Grzegorowski, Adam; Barałkiewicz, Danuta; Gaca, Michał; Zielińska-Psuja, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    A serious case of barium intoxication from suicidal ingestion is reported. Oral barium chloride poisoning with hypokalemia, neuromuscular and cardiac toxicity, treated with intravenous potassium supplementation and hemodialysis, was confirmed by the determination of barium concentrations in gastric contents, blood, serum and urine using the inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry method. Barium concentrations in the analyzed specimens were 20.45 µg/L in serum, 150 µg/L in blood, 10,500 µg/L in urine and 63,500 µg/L in gastric contents. Results were compared with barium levels obtained from a non-intoxicated person. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Body fluids, circadian blood pressure and plasma renin during growth hormone administration: a placebo-controlled study with two growth hormone doses in healthy adults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jens; Jørgensen, Jens Otto Lunde; Frandsen, Erik

    1995-01-01

    Abstract Side effects that can be related to fluid retention are common during the initial phases of growth hormone (GH) administration. The aim of this study was to examine the changes in body fluid compartments, diurnal blood pressure and plasma renin concentration during GH administration......-2, 20.65 +/- 0.94; pbody water (l) increased significantly during GH administration (placebo, 50.8 +/- 2.6; 3 IU m-2, 52.6 +/- 2.3; 6 IU m-2, 53.9 +/- 1.8, p... of treatment a significant increase in renin (p = 0.03) was observed. Mean diurnal blood pressure levels remained unchanged, whereas mean diurnal heart rate (min-1) increased significantly (placebo, 75 +/- 3.6; 3 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.2; 6 IU m-2, 79 +/- 3.7; p

  9. Comparison of quantification algorithms for circulating cell-free DNA methylation biomarkers in blood plasma from cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Luka; Gevensleben, Heidrun; Schröck, Andreas; Franzen, Alina; Kristiansen, Glen; Bootz, Friedrich; Dietrich, Dimo

    2017-01-01

    SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylation in circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA) in blood are established powerful and clinically valuable biomarkers for diagnosis, staging, prognosis, and monitoring of cancer patients. The aim of the present study was to evaluate different quantification algorithms (relative quantification, absolute quantification, quasi-digital PCR) with regard to their clinical performance. Methylation analyses were performed in a training cohort (141 patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma [HNSCC], 170 control cases) and a testing cohort (137 HNSCC cases, 102 controls). DNA was extracted from plasma samples, bisulfite-converted, and analyzed via quantitative real-time PCR. SHOX2 and SEPT9 methylations were assessed separately and as panel [mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 ] using the ΔCT method for absolute quantification and the ΔΔCT-method for relative quantification. Quasi-digital PCR was defined as the number of amplification-positive PCR replicates. The diagnostic (sensitivity, specificity, area under the curve (AUC) of the receiver operating characteristic (ROC)) and prognostic accuracy (hazard ratio (HR) from Cox regression) were evaluated. Sporadic methylation in control samples necessitated the introduction of cutoffs resulting in 61-63% sensitivity/90-92% specificity ( SEPT9 /training), 53-57% sensitivity/87-90% specificity ( SHOX2 /training), and 64-65% sensitivity/90-91% specificity (mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 /training). Results were confirmed in a testing cohort with 54-56% sensitivity/88-90% specificity ( SEPT9 /testing), 43-48% sensitivity/93-95% specificity ( SHOX2 /testing), and 49-58% sensitivity/88-94% specificity (mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 /testing). All algorithms showed comparable cutoff-independent diagnostic accuracy with largely overlapping 95% confidence intervals ( SEPT9 : AUC training  = 0.79-0.80; AUC testing  = 0.74-0.75; SHOX2 : AUC training  = 0.78-0.81, AUC testing  = 0.77-0.79; mean SEPT9 / SHOX2 : AUC training  = 0

  10. Relations of plasma polyunsaturated Fatty acids with blood pressures during the 26th and 28th week of gestation in women of Chinese, Malay, and Indian ethnicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Wai-Yee; Chong, Mary; Calder, Philip C; Kwek, Kenneth; Chong, Yap-Seng; Gluckman, Peter D; Godfrey, Keith M; Saw, Seang-Mei; Pan, An

    2015-03-01

    Observational and intervention studies have reported inconsistent results of the relationship between polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and hypertension during pregnancy. Here, we examined maternal plasma concentrations of n-3 and n-6 PUFAs between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation in relation to blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension.We used data from a birth cohort study of 751 Chinese, Malay, and Indian women. Maternal peripheral systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were taken from the brachial arm, and central SBP and pulse pressures (PPs) were derived from radial artery pressure waveforms between the 26th and the 28th week of gestation. Pregnancy-associated hypertension (including gestational hypertension and preeclampsia) was ascertained from medical records. Plasma phosphatidylcholine n-3 and n-6 PUFAs were measured by gas chromatography and expressed as percentage of total fatty acids.Peripheral SBP was inversely associated with total n-3 PUFAs [-0.51 (95% confidence interval, CI, -0.89 to -0.13) mm Hg] and long-chain n-3 PUFAs [-0.52 (CI -0.92 to -0.13) mmHg]. Similar but weaker associations were observed for central SBP and PP. Dihomo-γ-linolenic acid was marginally positively associated with peripheral SBP, central SBP, and PP, whereas linoleic acid and total n-6 PUFAs showed no significant associations with blood pressures. We identified 28 pregnancy-associated hypertension cases, and 1% increase in total n-3 PUFAs was associated with a 24% lower odds of pregnancy-associated hypertension (odds ratio 0.76; 95% CI 0.60 to 0.97). Maternal ethnicity modified the PUFAs-blood pressure relations, with stronger inverse associations with n-3 PUFAs in Chinese women, and stronger positive associations with n-6 PUFAs in Indian women (P values for interaction ranged from 0.02 to 0.07).Higher n-3 PUFAs at midgestation are related to lower maternal blood pressures and pregnancy-associated hypertension in Asian women

  11. Relationships between postruminal casein infusion and milk production, and concentrations of plasma amino acids and blood urea in dairy cows: A multilevel mixed-effects meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martineau, R; Ouellet, D R; Kebreab, E; White, R R; Lapierre, H

    2017-10-01

    The relationships between postruminal casein infusion and production variables and concentrations of plasma AA and blood urea were evaluated using multilevel mixed-effects models derived from literature data collected in dairy cows. The data set contained 147 treatment means [i.e., 66 controls (CTL) and 81 casein-infused (CAS) means]. Each CAS mean was paired with its corresponding CTL mean to create 81 mean differences (CAS minus CTL), which were analyzed as absolute and percentage-based units (i.e., percentage increase or decrease in CAS relative to CTL). The primary variable of interest was the difference in estimated metabolizable protein (MP) supply (ΔMP) between CAS and CTL. The other explanatory variables were based on levels in CTL: MP supply, MP balance, the ratio of duodenal microbial protein (MCP) to MP supply (MCPMP), the stage of lactation (early or mid/late) and the type of forage (grass/legume- or corn silage-based). The MP supply and MP balance influenced negatively the relationship between ΔMP and the response of true protein yield. Responses of milk urea, blood urea, and plasma urea cycle AA concentrations were associated positively with ΔMP, indicating that a large amount of infused AA was catabolized to urea. Responses of plasma essential AA concentrations were related positively to ΔMP. The relative effect of ΔMP was highest for responses of plasma His concentration in cows fed grass/legume-based diets and at high MCPMP ratios. This relationship suggests that positive responses of plasma His concentrations are associated with diets relying heavily on microbial protein synthesis (high MCP), low in crude protein (low estimated MP supply), or both. The relationship between ΔMP and responses of plasma group 2 AA (Ile, Leu, Lys, and Val) concentrations was approximately 2 times greater than that for group 1 AA (His, Met, and Phe+Tyr) at mean MCPMP and MP supply. This could reflect the low hepatic removal group 2 AA compared with group 1 AA in

  12. Characterization of the analytic performance of an electrochemical point-of-care meter for measuring β-hydroxybutyrate concentration in blood and plasma from periparturient dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megahed, Ameer A; Hiew, Mark W H; Townsend, Jonathan R; Constable, Peter D

    2017-06-01

    The Precision Xtra electrochemical meter is widely used to measure blood β-hydroxybutyrate concentration (BHBb) in dairy cattle. The meter uses an algorithm optimized for human blood that assumes the HCT in cattle is the same as in people, and that intra-erythrocyte β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBe) and plasma β-hydroxybutyrate (BHBp) concentration are equivalent. The first objective was to characterize the analytic performance of the meter for measuring BHBb and BHBp in dairy cattle. The second objective was to characterize the influence of HCT and sample temperature on BHBp concentration measured by the meter. Blood and plasma samples were obtained from 106 periparturient Holstein cattle and 15 lactating Holstein cows with experimentally induced electrolyte and acid-base imbalances. Meter performance was evaluated using Deming regression and Bland-Altman plots. Multivariable linear regression was used to determine the effect of HCT and sample temperature on BHBb and BHBp concentration, respectively. The meter was linear up to BHB = 3.0 mmol/L as measured by the reference method, equivalent to meter values for BHBb > 4.5 mmol/L and BHBp > 5.2 mmol/L. An increase in HCT resulted in higher BHBb concentration. This result was partially explained by BHBe being much lower than BHBp. Changes in sample temperature caused a linear change in measured BHBp whenever BHBp > 3.0 mmol/L. Meter accuracy was markedly dependent on the BHBe-to-BHBp ratio and consequently the HCT. Therefore, the algorithm used by the meter should be revised when applied to bovine blood for improved accuracy. © 2017 American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology.

  13. Influence of biflorin on the labelling of red blood cells, plasma protein, cell protein, and lymphocytes with technetium-99m: in vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago M. Aquino

    Full Text Available In this paper we report the results of an in vitro study involving the influence of biflorin (an o-quinone isolated from Capraria biflora L. that has potent antimicrobial activity on the Tc-99m labeling of red blood cells, plasma protein, cells protein, and lymphocytes. Blood was withdrawn from Wistar rats and incubated with various concentrations of biflorin, and solutions of stannous chloride and Tc-99m were added. Plasma (P and red blood cells (RBC were isolated, precipitated, and centrifuged, and soluble (SF and insoluble (IF fractions were isolated. The results show that the highest concentration (100% of biflorin is able to reduce the uptake of Tc-99m (%ATI on RBC and the fixation on IF-P. To study the influence of biflorin on 99mTc lymphocyte labeling, human blood was submitted to a technique with Ficoll-Hypac and centrifuged, and white cells were isolated. Lymphocytes (2.5 mL; 1.0 x 10(6 cells/mL were obtained and a 0.2 mL solution was incubated with biflorin (0.1 mL. Solutions of stannous chloride and 99mTc were added. Lymphocytes were separated and the %ATI bound in these cells was evaluated. A reduction in %ATI (from 97.85 ± 0.99 to 88.86 ± 5 was observed for RBC and for IF-P (73.24 ± 5.51 to 20.72 ± 6.95. In this case the results showed no decrease in %ATI for the lymphocytes with biflorin.

  14. Resuscitation of Hypotensive Traumatic Brain Injured Animals With Spray-Dried Plasma Does Not Adversely Alter Physiology and Improves Blood-Brain Barrier Function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Steven; Golla, Stephanie; Moore, Anthony N; DaCorta, Joe; Bode, Arthur; Pati, Shibani; Dash, Pramod K; Zhao, Jing

    2017-07-01

    According to the Defense and Veterans Brain Injury Center and the Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, the number of soldiers who have sustained a traumatic brain injury (TBI) has risen dramatically over the past decade. Studies have shown that brain damage can be exacerbated if blood loss occurs (often occurring in polytrauma). As blood supply is critical for brain function and survival, TBI patients must be properly resuscitated to maintain blood volume, blood pressure, and cerebral perfusion. Recent studies have suggested that blood loss can damage the vascular endothelium and enhance blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability. Brain endothelial cells and the tight junctions between them are key structural components of the BBB. As the BBB is critical for isolating the brain from potential pathogens and for regulating the influx of molecules into the brain, evaluation of resuscitation fluids for their efficacy to improve BBB function has clinical relevance. Although whole blood and fresh frozen plasma (FFP) contain the essential coagulation factors, ions, and other factors, the transport and storage of these products in remote, austere environments can be challenging. The use of spray-dried plasma (SDP) has several advantages including storage at ambient temperature, can be readily reconstituted before use, and infectious materials can be inactivated during the drying process. In this study, we compared FFP and SDP for their effects on blood pressure, cerebral blood flow, BBB integrity, and markers of endothelial cells and tight junction proteins, in TBI animals with blood loss. All procedures were reviewed and approved by the UTHealth animal welfare committee. Sprague Dawley rats received controlled cortical impact brain injury followed by removal of 25% blood volume. Animals were resuscitated 40 minutes later with either FFP or concentrated SDP (Resusix) Heart rate and blood pressure were monitored continuously using catheters implanted into the femoral artery

  15. Relationships between the smoking status and plasma fibrinogen, white blood cell count and serum C-reactive protein in Japanese workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawada, Tomoyuki

    2015-01-01

    Confirmation of the association between smoking status and biological inflammatory or anticoagulant markers is required in the field of occupational therapy to promote anti-smoking education. The associations between the smoking status and biological markers were clarified. The study was performed in 5102 working men aged 30-60 years old. The author measured the plasma fibrinogen, white blood cell count (WBC) and serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP) as biomarkers of the smoking status. After adjustment for age, the mean plasma fibrinogen level in never-smokers was significantly lower than that in current smokers. The mean WBC count was also significantly lower in the never-smokers than that in current smokers and ex-smokers who had quit within the previous 1 year. Furthermore, the mean log-transformed serum CRP value in never-smokers was significantly lower than that in current smokers smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients between the plasma fibrinogen and the serum CRP and WBC were 0.561 and 0.243, respectively. The mean plasma fibrinogen, serum CRP and WBC count in the ex-smokers showed a trend toward decreasing as the duration of abstinence became longer. Among the three biomarkers, the plasma fibrinogen was the most strongly associated with the smoking status, its value being to be the highest in current smokers smoking ≥20 cigarettes daily. The same trend was also observed for the WBC count. Copyright © 2015 Diabetes India. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metabolic profiling of urine and blood plasma in rat models of drug addiction on the basis of morphine, methamphetamine, and cocaine-induced conditioned place preference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaitsu, Kei; Miyawaki, Izuru; Bando, Kiyoko; Horie, Hiroshi; Shima, Noriaki; Katagi, Munehiro; Tatsuno, Michiaki; Bamba, Takeshi; Sato, Takako; Ishii, Akira; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Suzuki, Koichi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro

    2014-02-01

    The metabolic profiles of urine and blood plasma in drug-addicted rat models based on morphine (MOR), methamphetamine (MA), and cocaine (COC)-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) were investigated. Rewarding effects induced by each drug were assessed by use of the CPP model. A mass spectrometry (MS)-based metabolomics approach was applied to urine and plasma of MOR, MA, and COC-addicted rats. In total, 57 metabolites in plasma and 70 metabolites in urine were identified by gas chromatography-MS. The metabolomics approach revealed that amounts of some metabolites, including tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, significantly changed in the urine of MOR-addicted rats. This result indicated that disruption of energy metabolism is deeply relevant to MOR addiction. In addition, 3-hydroxybutyric acid, L-tryptophan, cystine, and n-propylamine levels were significantly changed in the plasma of MOR-addicted rats. Lactose, spermidine, and stearic acid levels were significantly changed in the urine of MA-addicted rats. Threonine, cystine, and spermidine levels were significantly increased in the plasma of COC-addicted rats. In conclusion, differences in the metabolic profiles were suggestive of different biological states of MOR, MA, and COC addiction; these may be attributed to the different actions of the drugs on the brain reward circuitry and the resulting adaptation. In addition, the results showed possibility of predict the extent of MOR addiction by metabolic profiling. This is the first study to apply metabolomics to CPP models of drug addiction, and we demonstrated that metabolomics can be a multilateral approach to investigating the mechanism of drug addiction.

  17. Determination of boron-containing compounds in urine and blood plasma from boron neutron capture therapy patients. The importance of using coupled techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svantesson, Eva; Capala, Jacek; Markides, Karin E; Pettersson, Jean

    2002-10-15

    The necessity of using coupled techniques to analyze samples from boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) patients prior to element-specific detection has been demonstrated. BNCT patients were infused with p-boronophenylalanine (BPA)-fructose complex before the therapy started. Urine and blood plasma samples were collected at different times after the start of the BPA administration and were run on a porous graphitic carbon column coupled on-line to an inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES) and an ICP time-of-flight mass spectrometer (TOF-MS). In addition to BPA, a possible metabolite to BPA and some minor boron-containing compounds, eluting close to the front, were also found in the urine and plasma samples. Because only the total concentration of boron has been measured so far in earlier studies, the suspected metabolite could not be detected, and this is the first report indicating its presence in urine and plasma of BNCT patients. The abundance of 10B in urine was about the same for BPA and its possible metabolite (98-99%). The ratio between the possible metabolite and BPA was found to differ in the urine from different patients. Most of the patients had a metabolite concentration of approximately 10 mol % of the BPA content in their urine 5-11 h after the start of the BPA administration. This ratio increased to between 30 and 80% when 24 h had passed. The ratio of metabolite to BPA was found to be lower in the plasma than in the urine samples at comparable time after the start of BPA infusion. Preliminary results from micro-LC-electrospray ionization (ESI)-MS/MS measurements on four urine samples indicate that the metabolite has a higher mass than BPA.

  18. Transfusion of Plasma, Platelets, and Red Blood Cells in a 1:1:1 vs a 1:1:2 Ratio and Mortality in Patients With Severe Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcomb, John B.; Tilley, Barbara C.; Baraniuk, Sarah; Fox, Erin E.; Wade, Charles E.; Podbielski, Jeanette M.; del Junco, Deborah J.; Brasel, Karen J.; Bulger, Eileen M.; Callcut, Rachael A.; Cohen, Mitchell Jay; Cotton, Bryan A.; Fabian, Timothy C.; Inaba, Kenji; Kerby, Jeffrey D.; Muskat, Peter; O’Keeffe, Terence; Rizoli, Sandro; Robinson, Bryce R. H.; Scalea, Thomas M.; Schreiber, Martin A.; Stein, Deborah M.; Weinberg, Jordan A.; Callum, Jeannie L.; Hess, John R.; Matijevic, Nena; Miller, Christopher N.; Pittet, Jean-Francois; Hoyt, David B.; Pearson, Gail D.; Leroux, Brian; van Belle, Gerald

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Severely injured patients experiencing hemorrhagic shock often require massive transfusion. Earlier transfusion with higher blood product ratios (plasma, platelets, and red blood cells), defined as damage control resuscitation, has been associated with improved outcomes; however, there have been no large multicenter clinical trials. OBJECTIVE To determine the effectiveness and safety of transfusing patients with severe trauma and major bleeding using plasma, platelets, and red blood cells in a 1:1:1 ratio compared with a 1:1:2 ratio. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS Pragmatic, phase 3, multisite, randomized clinical trial of 680 severely injured patients who arrived at 1 of 12 level I trauma centers in North America directly from the scene and were predicted to require massive transfusion between August 2012 and December 2013. INTERVENTIONS Blood product ratios of 1:1:1 (338 patients) vs 1:1:2 (342 patients) during active resuscitation in addition to all local standard-of-care interventions (uncontrolled). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Primary outcomes were 24-hour and 30-day all-cause mortality. Prespecified ancillary outcomes included time to hemostasis, blood product volumes transfused, complications, incidence of surgical procedures, and functional status. RESULTS No significant differences were detected in mortality at 24 hours (12.7% in 1:1:1 group vs 17.0% in 1:1:2 group; difference, −4.2% [95% CI, −9.6% to 1.1%]; P = .12) or at 30 days (22.4% vs 26.1%, respectively; difference, −3.7% [95% CI, −10.2% to 2.7%]; P = .26). Exsanguination, which was the predominant cause of death within the first 24 hours, was significantly decreased in the 1:1:1 group (9.2% vs 14.6% in 1:1:2 group; difference, −5.4% [95% CI, −10.4% to −0.5%]; P = .03). More patients in the 1:1:1 group achieved hemostasis than in the 1:1:2 group (86% vs 78%, respectively; P = .006). Despite the 1:1:1 group receiving more plasma (median of 7 U vs 5 U, P syndrome, multiple

  19. Noninvasive determination of fetal rh blood group, D antigen status by cell-free DNA analysis in maternal plasma: experience in a Brazilian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chinen, Paulo Alexandre; Nardozza, Luciano Marcondes Machado; Martinhago, Ciro Dresch; Camano, Luiz; Daher, Silvia; Pares, David Baptista da Silva; Minett, Thais; Araujo Júnior, Edward; Moron, Antonio Fernandes

    2010-11-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of Rh blood group, D antigen (RHD) fetal genotyping, using real-time polymerase chain reaction in maternal blood samples, in a racially mixed population. We performed a prospective study conducted between January 2006 and December 2007, analyzing fetal RHD genotype in the plasma of 102 D- pregnant women by real-time polymerase chain reaction, targeting exons 7 and 10 of the RHD gene. Genotype results were compared with cord blood phenotype obtained after delivery or before the first intrauterine transfusion when necessary. Most of the participants (75.5%) were under 28 weeks of pregnancy, and 87.5% had at least one relative of black ancestry. By combining amplification of two exons, the accuracy of genotyping was 98%, sensitivity was 100%, and specificity was 92%. The positive likelihood ratio was 12.5, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0. The two false-positive cases were confirmed to be pseudogene RHD by real-time polymerase chain reaction. There were no differences between the patients with positive or negative Coombs test ( P = 0.479). Determination of fetal RHD status in maternal peripheral blood was highly sensitive in this racially mixed population and was not influenced by the presence of antierythrocyte antibodies. © Thieme Medical Publishers.

  20. Determination of the 17-β-estradiol level in blood plasma by the radioisotope method of competition bonding in mamma carcinoma patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitola, G.Ya.; Grabovska, I.K.; Pis'mennaya, A.I.

    1977-01-01

    The radioisotope method of competition bonding was used for determining the concentration of 17-β-estradiol in plasma of peripheral blood in mastopathy and mamma carcinoma patients. Eight patients with mastopathy and 76 with mamma carcinoma were examined. It was shown that for the mastopathy patients the estradiol blood level was within the normal range or had peaks of other character compared to practically healthy women of reproductive capacity. In mamma carcinoma patients of reproductive capacity the estradiol level did not differ from normal values. In half of the patients the hormonal concentration in blood did not exceed the lower limit of the norm. In mamma carcinoma patients in the menopause the parameter to be examined showed an increasing tendency and reached a maximum at stage IV. After the application of pharmacological doses of testosterone propionate an increase of the estradiol blood level was observed in 39,4% of the patients. This test can be used as one of the criteria for the choice of mamma carcinoma therapy with androgens. (author)

  1. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Ahmad Raeissadat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS, modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P>0.05. At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P<0.05. Conclusion. PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  2. Effect of Platelet-Rich Plasma (PRP) versus Autologous Whole Blood on Pain and Function Improvement in Tennis Elbow: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raeissadat, Seyed Ahmad; Sedighipour, Leyla; Rayegani, Seyed Mansoor; Bahrami, Mohammad Hasan; Bayat, Masume; Rahimi, Rosa

    2014-01-01

    Background. Autologous whole blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP) have been both suggested to treat chronic tennis elbow. The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of PRP versus autologous whole blood local injection in chronic tennis elbow. Methods. Forty patients with tennis elbow were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group 1 was treated with a single injection of 2 mL of autologous PRP and group 2 with 2 mL of autologous blood. Tennis elbow strap, stretching, and strengthening exercises were administered for both groups during a 2-month followup. Pain and functional improvements were assessed using visual analog scale (VAS), modified Mayo Clinic performance index for the elbow, and pressure pain threshold (PPT) at 0, 4, and 8 weeks. Results. All pain and functional variables including VAS, PPT, and Mayo scores improved significantly in both groups 4 weeks after injection. No statistically significant difference was noted between groups regarding pain scores in 4-week follow-up examination (P > 0.05). At 8-week reevaluations, VAS and Mayo scores improved only in PRP group (P PRP and autologous whole blood injections are both effective to treat chronic lateral epicondylitis. PRP might be slightly superior in 8-week followup. However, further studies are suggested to get definite conclusion.

  3. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  4. Centrifugal Separation Device Based on Two-Layer Laminar Flow in Microchannels for High-Throughput and Continuous Blood Cell/Plasma Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taizo Kobayashi,; Taisuke Funamoto,; Makoto Hosaka,; Satoshi Konishi,

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents a novel type of centrifugation device that is based on the two-layer laminar flow in micro flow channels for continuous blood cell/plasma separation. We propose to rotate the flow channels which are arranged along the circumference around the rotational axis. Downsizing the channel width reduced both the cell sedimentation time and the required centrifugal force, because the channel width corresponds to the centrifugal sedimentation length. First, plasma and cells were continuously extracted from pig blood in each of the branch channels using a milled acrylic prototype device (channel width = 800 μm, volume = 150 μl). Next, the relationship between the channel width (125, 250, and 500 μm) and the sedimentation time taken for various centrifugal forces (2.3, 9, 36, and 145 G) was evaluated using the downsized microchannels fabricated by hot-embossing and thermal bonding technologies. Using downsized microchannels with a width of 125 μm successfully reduced the sedimentation time to 85 s as compared to the sedimentation time of 270 s for a channel of a width of 500 μm, when a centrifugal force of 2.3 G was applied. The use of the proposed device did not result in obvious hemolysis at the centrifugal forces lower than 335 G.

  5. Distinct patterns of blood-stage parasite antigens detected by plasma IgG subclasses from individuals with different level of exposure to Plasmodium falciparum infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olesen, Cathrine Holm; Brahimi, Karima; Vandahl, Brian; Lousada-Dietrich, Susana; Jogdand, Prajakta S; Vestergaard, Lasse S; Dodoo, Daniel; Højrup, Peter; Christiansen, Michael; Larsen, Severin Olesen; Singh, Subhash; Theisen, Michael

    2010-10-26

    In endemic regions naturally acquired immunity against Plasmodium falciparum develops as a function of age and exposure to parasite infections and is known to be mediated by IgG. The targets of protective antibodies remain to be fully defined. Several immunoepidemiological studies have indicated an association of cytophilic anti-parasite IgG with protection against malaria. It has been hypothesized that the initial antibody responses against parasite antigens upon first few Plasmodium falciparum infections is dominated by non-protective IgG2/IgG4 and IgM antibodies, which then gradually develop into protective response dominated by cytophilic IgG1 and IgG3 antibodies. Naturally occurring IgG antibodies against P. falciparum blood-stage antigens were analysed from plasma samples collected from four groups of individuals differing in age and level of exposure to P. falciparum infections. Western Blot profiling of blood-stage parasite antigens displaying reactivity with individual plasma samples in terms of their subclass specificities was conducted. Parasite antigens detected by IgG were grouped based on their apparent molecular sizes resolved by SDS-PAGE as high molecular weight (≥ 70 kDa) or low molecular weight (immunity against malaria.

  6. Determination of Acetylcholinesrase and Butrylcholinestrase Activities in Whole Blood and Plasma from Different Communities of Khosestan Province (Iran-Iraq War Area) Exposed to Organophosphate Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heybatullah, K.; Jahangiri, A.; Mohebbi, G. H.

    2007-01-01

    It is well known that Organophosphate Compounds are widely used as pesticides. Therefore while handling, applying or using these compounds care and safe use should be considered. The main mechanism of toxicity action of Organophosphate Compounds is the inhibition of Actylcholinestrase and Butrylcholinesrase enzymes. It is well known that the activity measurement of Acetylcholinestrase in whole blood and Butrylcholinestrase in plasma samples are potential biomarker of exposure to Organophosphates compounds.In this study AchE and BchE activities were determined in whole blood and plasma samples of farmers from two different area of Khosestan province of Iran Gotvand and Dashte Azadegan (Iran-Iraq war zone).Determination of enzymes activities were based on the Ellman colorimetric method which was modified byWorek et al. The results obtained in this study showed that Gotvand area showed lower than normal value and Dashte Azadegan (war area) were significantly lower than the mean of activities in reference group (P less than 0.05). Also results of this study showed Acetylcholinestrase and Butrylcholinestrase inhibition can provide a good biomarker of exposure to OP pesticides in field studies in human population with consideration of other different parameters and factors which will be discussed. (author)

  7. Simultaneous photometric determination of albumin and total protein in animal blood plasma employing a multicommutated flow system to carried out on line dilution and reagents solutions handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luca, Gilmara C.; Reis, Boaventura F.

    2004-02-01

    An automatic flow procedure for the simultaneous determination of albumin and total protein in blood plasma samples is proposed. The flow network comprised a set of three-way solenoid valves assembled to implement the multicommutation. The flow set up was controlled by means of a computer equipped with an electronic interface card which running a software wrote in QUICKBASIC 4.5 performed on line programmed dilution to allow the determination of both albumin and total protein in blood plasma. The photometric methods based on Bromocresol Green and Biuret reagents were selected for determination of albumin and total protein, respectively. Two LEDs based photometers coupled together the flow cells were employed as detector. After the adjustment of the operational parameters the proposed system presented the following features: an analytical throughput of 45 sample processing per hour for two analytes; relative standard deviations of 1.5 and 0.8% ( n=10) for a typical sample presenting 34 g l -1 albumin and 90 g l -1 total protein, respectively; linear responses ranging from 0 to 15 g l -1 albumin ( r=0.998) and total protein ( r=0.999); sample and reagents consumption, 140 μl serum solution, 0.015 mg VBC and 0.432 mg CuSO 4 per determination, respectively. Applying the paired t-test between results obtained using the proposed system and reference methods no significant difference at 95 and 90% confidence level for albumin and total protein, respectively, were observed.

  8. Concentrations of Monoamines and Their Metabolites in Blood Plasma and Some Brain Structures of Mice, Participated in a Space Flight on the Aircraft BION-M1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtemberg, Andrey; Kudrin, Vladimir

    The purpose of this work was to study the possible disturbances of monoamines concentration and their metabolites in some structures of mouse brain and blood plasma caused by the influence of space flight. The forty eight C57BL/6 mice were divided into the following groups : basal control - animals , which together with a group of space flight arrived at Baykonur and then were returned to Moscow; the first space flight group - animals who spent 30 days in space, BION-M1 - board and decapitated 12 hours after the landing; animal house control to the first space flight group; second space flight group - animals who spent 30 days in space, aboard the BION-M1, and then recovered at ground conditions for 7 days; animal house control to the second space flight group; space flight imitation group - spent 30 days on board at ground model of BION-M1; animal house control to the imitation group. In all animals concentration of HA, DA, 5 -HT and their metabolites DOPAC, HVA, 3 -MT, 5 - HIAA in plasma and in the prefrontal cortex, hypothalamus, striatum and hippocampus were studied. In the blood plasma of first space flight group the concentrations of DOPAC were significantly higher compared to animal house control. The most significant changes were observed in the second space flight group, in those animals which recovered after the flight. There was a significant increase in the concentration of HA and A in blood plasma relative to the basal control and increased concentration of HA and the DOPAC/DA ratio relative to the first space flight group. No significant changes were observed in the hippocampus. In the first space flight group there was observed an increase in concentration of HA and DOPAC in the hypothalamus relative to controls. Seven days after rest concentrations of monoamines and their metabolites were significantly enhanced relative to the control and the first space flight groups. In physiology and pharmacology there is a process called as withdrawal effect

  9. Effects of lipopolysaccharide on the expression of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) at the blood-brain barrier and its implications to the transport of neurotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kuo-Chen; Lu, Ya-Hsuan; Peng, Yi-Hsuan; Hsu, Lih-Ching; Lin, Chun-Jung

    2015-12-01

    Plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT) is a polyspecific organic cation transporter that is highly expressed in the central nervous system. This study aimed to investigate the effect of lipopolysaccharide on PMAT expression at the blood-brain barrier and the interaction between PMAT and neurotoxins. As a result, PMAT mRNA was identified in brain microvessels (BMVs), brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs), astrocytes, and pericytes isolated from C57BL/6 mice and/or Wistar rats using RT-qPCR. The immunofluorescence staining confirmed the expression of PMAT protein in BMVs and striatum of C57BL/6 mice. Western blotting demonstrated its localization at the luminal and abluminal sides of BMECs. In C57BL/6 mice, PMAT protein was significantly increased in BMVs 24 h after an intraperitoneal injection of 3 mg/kg lipopolysaccharide. Lipopolysaccharide treatment also significantly increased PMAT expression in cerebral cortex and the striatum in a time-dependent manner, as well as the brain-to-plasma ratio of 1-benzyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroisoquinoline (1-benzyl-TIQ). In isolated cells, lipopolysaccharide treatment significantly increased PMAT mRNA in brain astrocytes and the BMECs co-cultured with astrocytes. In addition to 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium, the kinetic study indicated that both 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine and 1-benzyl-TIQ are substrates of human PMAT. These findings suggest that inflammation can change PMAT expression at the blood-brain barrier, which may affect PMAT-mediated transport of neurotoxins. We demonstrated the expression of plasma membrane monoamine transporter (PMAT; mRNA or protein) at several subunits of the blood-brain barrier. Lipopolysaccharide treatment can significantly increase the expression of PMAT in vivo (in brain microvessels, cerebral cortex, and the striatum of C57BL/6 mice) and in vitro (in brain astrocytes and brain microvascular endothelial cells co-cultured with astrocytes). Lipopolysaccharide treatment

  10. The Effects of Chronic Nitrate Supplementation and the Use of Strong and Weak Antibacterial Agents on Plasma Nitrite Concentration and Exercise Blood Pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonagh, S T J; Wylie, L J; Winyard, P G; Vanhatalo, A; Jones, A M

    2015-12-01

    Chlorhexidine-containing mouthwash (STRONG), which disturbs oral microflora, has been shown to diminish the rise in plasma nitrite concentration ([NO2-]) and attenuate the reduction in resting blood pressure (BP) typically seen after acute nitrate (NO3-) ingestion. We aimed to determine whether STRONG and weaker antiseptic agents attenuate the physiological effects of chronic NO3- supplementation using beetroot juice (BR). 12 healthy volunteers mouth-rinsed with STRONG, non-chlorhexidine mouthwash (WEAK) and deionised water (CON) 3 times a day, and ingested 70 mL BR (6.2 mmol NO3-), twice a day, for 6 days. BP (at rest and during 10 min of treadmill walking) and plasma and salivary [NO3-] and [NO2-] were measured prior to and on day 6 of supplementation. The change in salivary [NO3-] 4 h post final ingestion was higher (P0.05). However, during treadmill walking, the increase in systolic and mean arterial BP was higher 4 h after the final nitrate bolus in STRONG compared with CON (P<0.05) but not WEAK. The results indicate that both strong and weak antibacterial agents suppress the rise in plasma [NO2-] observed following the consumption of a high NO3- diet and the former can influence the BP response during low-intensity exercise. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  11. Transmission of the allergy reaction of a delayed type against Salmonella abortus ovis through blood plasma of gamma-irradiated guinea pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostov, G.

    1977-01-01

    Use is made of blood plasma taken from guinea pigs (sensibilized with a live culture of Salmonella abortus ovis and then irradiated with 800 rad gamma-rays) to transmit the skin allergy reaction to normal, nonsensibilized guinea pigs. The allergy reaction has been demonstrated in the recipients of plasma as early as the 3-4th hour following the injection of the allergen into the skin. It reaches its peak at the 12-24th hour and later on strongly diminishes, remaining in few of the animals only up to the 48th hour. The infiltrate at the site of injection in the skin of positively reacting animals contains at the 24th hour cells of the polymorphonuclear type, which predominate, while the cells of the mononuclear type are few in number. There are no precipitins in the plasma of the donors, and the titer of the agglutinins and the cytophile antibodies is very low. Regardless of these findings it is concluded that the transmitted allergy reaction is of the fast type (after Arthuss), and not of the delayed one. (author)