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Sample records for blood plasma protein

  1. Plasma and Plasma Protein Product Transfusion: A Canadian Blood Services Centre for Innovation Symposium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeller, Michelle P; Al-Habsi, Khalid S; Golder, Mia; Walsh, Geraldine M; Sheffield, William P

    2015-07-01

    Plasma obtained via whole blood donation processing or via apheresis technology can either be transfused directly to patients or pooled and fractionated into plasma protein products that are concentrates of 1 or more purified plasma protein. The evidence base supporting clinical efficacy in most of the indications for which plasma is transfused is weak, whereas high-quality evidence supports the efficacy of plasma protein products in at least some of the clinical settings in which they are used. Transfusable plasma utilization remains composed in part of applications that fall outside of clinical practice guidelines. Plasma contains all of the soluble coagulation factors and is frequently transfused in efforts to restore or reinforce patient hemostasis. The biochemical complexities of coagulation have in recent years been rationalized in newer cell-based models that supplement the cascade hypothesis. Efforts to normalize widely used clinical hemostasis screening test values by plasma transfusion are thought to be misplaced, but superior rapid tests have been slow to emerge. The advent of non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants has brought new challenges to clinical laboratories in plasma testing and to clinicians needing to reverse non-vitamin K-dependent oral anticoagulants urgently. Current plasma-related controversies include prophylactic plasma transfusion before invasive procedures, plasma vs prothrombin complex concentrates for urgent warfarin reversal, and the utility of increased ratios of plasma to red blood cell units transfused in massive transfusion protocols. The first recombinant plasma protein products to reach the clinic were recombinant hemophilia treatment products, and these donor-free equivalents to factors VIII and IX are now being supplemented with novel products whose circulatory half-lives have been increased by chemical modification or genetic fusion. Achieving optimal plasma utilization is an ongoing challenge in the interconnected

  2. Microfiltration platform for continuous blood plasma protein extraction from whole blood during cardiac surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aran, Kiana; Fok, Alex; Sasso, Lawrence A; Kamdar, Neal; Guan, Yulong; Sun, Qi; Ündar, Akif; Zahn, Jeffrey D

    2011-09-07

    This report describes the design, fabrication, and testing of a cross-flow filtration microdevice, for the continuous extraction of blood plasma from a circulating whole blood sample in a clinically relevant environment to assist in continuous monitoring of a patient's inflammatory response during cardiac surgeries involving cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) procedures (about 400,000 adult and 20,000 pediatric patients in the United States per year). The microfiltration system consists of a two-compartment mass exchanger with two aligned sets of PDMS microchannels, separated by a porous polycarbonate (PCTE) membrane. Using this microdevice, blood plasma has been continuously separated from blood cells in a real-time manner with no evidence of bio-fouling or cell lysis. The technology is designed to continuously extract plasma containing diagnostic plasma proteins such as complements and cytokines using a significantly smaller blood volume as compared to traditional blood collection techniques. The microfiltration device has been tested using a simulated CPB circulation loop primed with donor human blood, in a manner identical to a clinical surgical setup, to collect plasma fractions in order to study the effects of CPB system components and circulation on immune activation during extracorporeal circulatory support. The microdevice, with 200 nm membrane pore size, was connected to a simulated CPB circuit, and was able to continuously extract ~15% pure plasma volume (100% cell-free) with high sampling frequencies which could be analyzed directly following collection with no need to further centrifuge or modify the fraction. Less than 2.5 ml total plasma volume was collected over a 4 h sampling period (less than one Vacutainer blood collection tube volume). The results tracked cytokine concentrations collected from both the reservoir and filtrate samples which were comparable to those from direct blood draws, indicating very high protein recovery of the microdevice

  3. Blood plasma proteins and protein fractions in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate some selected biochemical blood parameters in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.. The experiment covered 15 from 2 to 3-year-old bucks from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The animals were shot by individual hunters on the shooting grounds during the hunting season of 2008/2009 (in the accordance with the Journal of Laws No 48. The material for the research was blood plasma obtained after centrifuging full, nonhemolyzed blood. The blood was collected from the zygomatic vein directly to the test tubes with EDTA and transported in cooling conditions to the laboratory. After transporting the samples of blood to a certified analytical laboratory, the following elements of the obtained blood plasma were examined: ceruloplasmin . using turbidimetric method; transferrin . using immunoturbimetric method; troponin- using a third generation assay on an Elecsys; total protein, albumin, globulin . using spectrophotometric method and total iron . using colorimetric method. The results were statistically analyzed, i.e. the correlation between the parameters was measured by means of Pearsonfs correlation coefficient. The analysis of the results revealed a number of statistically significant relations between the parameters under the investigation, especially among the compounds directly responsible for metabolism of iron and copper. A statistically important positive correlation was observed between ceruloplasmin and ferritin (r = 0.563; P.0.05 and a negative one between transferrin and troponin (r = -0.609; P.0.05. Moreover, the content of transferrin . an iron-binding protein . was 0.17 g/l, while the concentration of iron was 58 ƒĘmol/l. The content of ceruloplasmin . a protein responsible for metabolism of copper . was very low (0.036 g/l. The level of proteins in the blood plasma of the animals under the research was approximately 72 g/l, with the share of albumins about 46%. The albumin-globulin ratio was 0.86.

  4. Cancer associated proteins in blood plasma: Determining normal variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenemo, Markus; Teleman, Johan; Sjöström, Martin; Grubb, Gabriel; Malmström, Erik; Malmström, Johan; Niméus, Emma

    2016-07-01

    Protein biomarkers have the potential to improve diagnosis, stratification of patients into treatment cohorts, follow disease progression and treatment response. One distinct group of potential biomarkers comprises proteins which have been linked to cancer, known as cancer associated proteins (CAPs). We determined the normal variation of 86 CAPs in 72 individual plasma samples collected from ten individuals using SRM mass spectrometry. Samples were collected weekly during 5 weeks from ten volunteers and over one day at nine fixed time points from three volunteers. We determined the degree of the normal variation depending on interpersonal variation, variation due to time of day, and variation over weeks and observed that the variation dependent on the time of day appeared to be the most important. Subdivision of the proteins resulted in two predominant protein groups containing 21 proteins with relatively high variation in all three factors (day, week and individual), and 22 proteins with relatively low variation in all factors. We present a strategy for prioritizing biomarker candidates for future studies based on stratification over their normal variation and have made all data publicly available. Our findings can be used to improve selection of biomarker candidates in future studies and to determine which proteins are most suitable depending on study design.

  5. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo;

    2008-01-01

    , HUPO later re-analysed their own original dataset with a more stringent statistical treatment that resulted in a much reduced list of high confidence (at least 95%) proteins compared with their original findings. In order to facilitate the discovery of novel biomarkers in the future and to realize...... the full diagnostic potential of blood plasma, we feel that there is still a need for an ultra-high confidence reference list (at least 99% confidence) of blood plasma proteins. METHODS: To address the complexity and dynamic protein concentration range of the plasma proteome, we employed a linear ion...

  6. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    OpenAIRE

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia; Fábio Rangel Marques; Cássia Thaïs Bussamra Vieira Zaia

    2005-01-01

    A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins) and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B) was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin) was measured and...

  7. Adsorbed plasma proteins modulate the effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes on neutrophils in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlasova, Irina I; Mikhalchik, Elena V; Barinov, Nikolay A; Kostevich, Valeria A; Smolina, Natalia V; Klinov, Dmitry V; Sokolov, Alexey V

    2016-08-01

    Proteins adsorbed on a surface may affect the interaction of this surface with cells. Here, we studied the binding of human serum albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG) and immunoglobulin G (IgG) to PEGylated single-walled carbon nanotubes (PEG-SWCNTs) and evaluated the impact of PEG-SWCNT treated by these proteins on neutrophils in whole blood samples. Measurements of adsorption parameters revealed tight binding of proteins to PEG-SWCNTs. AFM was employed to directly observe protein binding to sidewalls of PEG-SWCNTs. Fluorescein-labeled IgG was used to ascertain the stability of PEG-SWCNT-IgG complexes in plasma. In blood samples, all plasma proteins mitigated damage of neutrophils observed just after blood exposure to PEG-SWCNTs, while only treatment of PEG-SWCNTs with IgG resulted in dose- and time-dependent enhancement of CNT-induced neutrophil activation and in potentiation of oxidative stress. Our study demonstrates the ability of adsorbed plasma proteins to influence neutrophil response caused by PEG-SWCNTs in whole blood.

  8. Proteins involved in the Vroman effect during exposure of human blood plasma to glass and polyethylene

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Turbill, P.; Beugeling, T.; Poot, A.A.

    1996-01-01

    The amounts of fibrinogen adsorbed to glass from various human blood plasmas have been measured as a function of time. The plasmas were 11 single donor plasmas, pooled plasma, a single donor high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK)-deficient plasma and HMWK-deficient plasma, which had been reconstitut

  9. Coarse-grained model of adsorption of blood plasma proteins onto nanoparticles

    CERN Document Server

    Lopez, Hender

    2016-01-01

    We present a coarse-grained model for evaluation of interactions of globular proteins with nanoparticles. The protein molecules are represented by one bead per aminoacid and the nanoparticle by a homogeneous sphere that interacts with the aminoacids via a central force that depends on the nanoparticle size. The proposed methodology is used to predict the adsorption energies for six common human blood plasma proteins on hydrophobic charged or neutral nanoparticles of different sizes as well as the preferred orientation of the molecules upon adsorption. Our approach allows one to rank the proteins by their binding affinity to the nanoparticle, which can be used for predicting the composition of the NP-protein corona. The predicted ranking is in good agreement with known experimental data for protein adsorption on surfaces.

  10. Plasma protein fractions in healthy blood donors quantitated by an automated multicapillary electrophoresis system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Hansson, Lars-Olof

    2006-09-01

    During the last decade, capillary electrophoresis (CE) has emerged as an important alternative to traditional analysis of serum and plasma proteins by agarose or celluloseacetate electrophoresis. CE analysis of plasma proteins can now be fully automated and also includes bar-code identification of samples, preseparation steps, and direct post-separation quantitation of individual peaks, which permits short assay times and high throughput. For laboratory work, it is important to have reference values from healthy individuals. Therefore, plasma samples from 156 healthy blood donors (79 females and 77 males) have been analyzed with the Capillarys instrument and the new high resolution buffer, which yields higher resolution than the beta1-beta2+ buffer. Albumin concentrations in samples are measured using nephelometry in order to assign protein concentrations to each peak. The 2.5 and 97.5 percentiles for both the percentages of different peaks and the protein concentrations in the peaks are calculated according to the recommendations of the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry on the statistical treatment of reference values. The Capillarys instrument is a reliable system for plasma protein analysis, combining advantages of full automation with high analytical performances and throughput.

  11. The plasma protein fibrinogen stabilizes clusters of red blood cells in microcapillary flows

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, M; Thiebaud, M; Flormann, D; Verdier, C; Kaestner, L; Laschke, M W; Selmi, H; Benyoussef, A; Podgorski, T; Coupier, G; Misbah, C; Wagner, C

    2014-01-01

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients and the disposal of metabolic waste in the organs depend strongly on how blood, especially red blood cells, flow through the microvascular network. Macromolecular plasma proteins such as fibrinogen cause red blood cells to form large aggregates, called rouleaux, which are usually assumed to be disaggregated in the circulation due to the shear forces present in bulk flow. This leads to the assumption that rouleaux formation is only relevant in the venule network and in arterioles at low shear rates or stasis. Thanks to an excellent agreement between combined experimental and numerical approaches, we show that despite the large shear rates present in microcapillaries, the presence of either fibrinogen or the synthetic polymer dextran leads to an enhanced formation of robust clusters of red blood cells, even at haematocrits as low as 1%. Robust aggregates are shown to exist in microcapillaries even for fibrinogen concentrations within the healthy physiological range. These pers...

  12. The plasma protein fibrinogen stabilizes clusters of red blood cells in microcapillary flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brust, M.; Aouane, O.; Thiébaud, M.; Flormann, D.; Verdier, C.; Kaestner, L.; Laschke, M. W.; Selmi, H.; Benyoussef, A.; Podgorski, T.; Coupier, G.; Misbah, C.; Wagner, C.

    2014-03-01

    The supply of oxygen and nutrients and the disposal of metabolic waste in the organs depend strongly on how blood, especially red blood cells, flow through the microvascular network. Macromolecular plasma proteins such as fibrinogen cause red blood cells to form large aggregates, called rouleaux, which are usually assumed to be disaggregated in the circulation due to the shear forces present in bulk flow. This leads to the assumption that rouleaux formation is only relevant in the venule network and in arterioles at low shear rates or stasis. Thanks to an excellent agreement between combined experimental and numerical approaches, we show that despite the large shear rates present in microcapillaries, the presence of either fibrinogen or the synthetic polymer dextran leads to an enhanced formation of robust clusters of red blood cells, even at haematocrits as low as 1%. Robust aggregates are shown to exist in microcapillaries even for fibrinogen concentrations within the healthy physiological range. These persistent aggregates should strongly affect cell distribution and blood perfusion in the microvasculature, with putative implications for blood disorders even within apparently asymptomatic subjects.

  13. Detection of prion protein particles in blood plasma of scrapie infected sheep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oliver Bannach

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The agent of the disease is the prion consisting mainly, if not solely, of a misfolded and aggregated isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP. Transmission of prions can occur naturally but also accidentally, e.g. by blood transfusion, which has raised serious concerns about blood product safety and emphasized the need for a reliable diagnostic test. In this report we present a method based on surface-FIDA (fluorescence intensity distribution analysis, that exploits the high state of molecular aggregation of PrP as an unequivocal diagnostic marker of the disease, and show that it can detect infection in blood. To prepare PrP aggregates from blood plasma we introduced a detergent and lipase treatment to separate PrP from blood lipophilic components. Prion protein aggregates were subsequently precipitated by phosphotungstic acid, immobilized on a glass surface by covalently bound capture antibodies, and finally labeled with fluorescent antibody probes. Individual PrP aggregates were visualized by laser scanning microscopy where signal intensity was proportional to aggregate size. After signal processing to remove the background from low fluorescence particles, fluorescence intensities of all remaining PrP particles were summed. We detected PrP aggregates in plasma samples from six out of ten scrapie-positive sheep with no false positives from uninfected sheep. Applying simultaneous intensity and size discrimination, ten out of ten samples from scrapie sheep could be differentiated from uninfected sheep. The implications for ante mortem diagnosis of prion diseases are discussed.

  14. Spectrophotometric determination of total proteins in blood plasma: a comparative study among dye-binding methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimas Augusto Morozin Zaia

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available A comparative study between the biuret method (standard method for total proteins and spectrophotometric methods using dyes (Bradford, 3',3",5',5"-tetrabromophenolphthalein ethyl ester-TBPEE, and erythrosin-B was carried out for the determination of total proteins in blood plasma from rats. Bradford method showed the highest sensitivity for proteins and biuret method showed the lowest. For all the methods, the absorbance for different proteins (BSA, casein, and egg albumin was measured and Bradford method showed the lowest variation of absorbance. The concentration of total protein obtained by using Bradford method was not statistically different (p>0.05 from concentration of total protein obtained by the biuret method. But in regard to erythrosin-B and TBPEE methods the concentrations of total protein were statistically different (pA determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo é importante em diversas áreas de pesquisa. Um estudo comparativo entre o método de biureto (método padrão para proteínas totais e diversos métodos que utilizam corantes (Bradford, tetrabromofenolftaleína etil éster-TBPEE, e eritrosina-B foi realizado para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo de ratos. O método de Bradford mostrou a maior sensibilidade para proteínas e o de biureto a menor. Para todos os métodos, as absorbâncias para diferentes proteínas (BSA, caseína, e ovoalbumina foram medidas e o método de Bradford mostrou a menor variação da absorbância. Utilizando o método de Bradford a concentração de proteínas totais obtida não foi estatisticamente diferente (p>0.05 daquela obtida pelo método do biureto. Porém, para os métodos da eritrosina-B e TBPEE as concentrações de proteínas totais foram estatisticamente diferentes (p<0.05 da obtida pelo método de biureto. Portanto o método de Bradford pode ser utilizado no lugar do método de biureto para a determinação de proteínas totais em plasma sangüíneo.

  15. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiniger, I W; de Oliveira, J F; Caldeira-de-Araújo, A; Bernardo-Filho, M

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with 99mTc was studied. Stannous chloride and 99mTc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of 99mTc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  16. Effect of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wancke Reiniger, Ingrid; Fonseca de Oliveira, Joelma; Caldeira-de-Araujo, Adriano [Departamento de Biofisica e Biometria, Instituto de Biologia Roberto Alcantara Gomes, Universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Instituto Nacional de Cancer, Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1999-08-01

    Peumus boldus is used in popular medicine in Brazil. The influence of Peumus boldus on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with {sup 99m}Tc was studied. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc pertechnetate were incubated with blood and a tincture of Peumus boldus. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were isolated from the mixture and treated with trichloroacetic acid (TCA). After separation, analysis of the soluble and insoluble fractions showed a rapid uptake of the radioactivity by blood cells in the presence of the drug, whereas there was a slight decrease in the amount of {sup 99m}Tc radioactivity in the TCA-insoluble fraction of plasma.

  17. [Blood plasma protein adsorption capacity of perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by proxanol 268 (in vitro and in vivo studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklifas, A N; Zhalimov, V K; Temnov, A A; Kukushkin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption abilities of the perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by Proxanol 268 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the saturation point for the blood plasma proteins was nearly reached after five minutes of incubation of the emulsion with human/rabbit blood plasma and was stable for all incubation periods studied. The decrease in volume ratio (emulsion/plasma) was accompanied by the increase in the adsorptive capacity of the emulsion with maximal values at 1/10 (3.2 and 1.5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion, for human and rabbit blood plasma, respectively) that was unchanged at lower ratios. In vivo, in rabbits, intravenously injected with the emulsion, the proteins with molecular masses of 12, 25, 32, 44, 55, 70, and 200 kDa were adsorbed by the emulsion (as in vitro) if it was used 6 hours or less before testing. More delayed testing (6 h) revealed elimination of proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 44 kDa and an additional pool of adsorpted new ones of 27, 50, and 150 kDa. Specific adsorptive capacity of the emulsion enhanced gradually after emulsion injection and reached its maximum (3.5-5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion) after 24 hours.

  18. Quantitative analysis of plasma proteins in whole blood-derived fresh frozen plasma prepared with three pathogen reduction technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larrea, Luis; Ortiz-de-Salazar, María-Isabel; Martínez, Patricia; Roig, Roberto

    2015-06-01

    Several plasma pathogen reduction technologies (PRT) are currently available. We evaluated three plasma PRT processes: Cerus Amotosalen (AM), Terumo BCT riboflavin (RB) and Macopharma methylene blue (MB). RB treatment resulted in the shortest overall processing time and in the smallest volume loss (1%) and MB treatment in the largest volume loss (8%). MB treatment retained the highest concentrations of factors II, VII, X, IX, Protein C, and Antithrombin and the AM products of factor V and XI. Each PRT process evaluated offered distinct advantages such as procedural simplicity and volume retention (RB) and overall plasma protein retention (MB).

  19. 血浆蛋白粉、血球蛋白粉及血粉三者之间的差异%Differences Among the Plasma Protein Powder Blood Protein Powder and Blood Meal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄百花; 杨朝旭; 张玉民; 高荣玲; 李伟; 刘飞

    2012-01-01

    The differences among the plasma protein powder, blood protein powder and blood meal from sens-es, processing, chemical composition and freshness. The results showed that the plasma protein powder nutrition val-ue higher, blood protein powder protein content was higher, including plasma, blood protein powder processing tech-nology and safety science than blood meal, the freshness of plasma protein pouder and blood protein powder was al- so significantly higher than the blood meal, more safety.%文章主要从感官、加工工艺、化学组成和新鲜度4个方面分析比较血浆蛋白粉、血球蛋白粉和血粉的差异。结果表明,血浆蛋白粉的营养价值较高,血球蛋白粉蛋白含量较高,其中血浆、血球蛋白粉的加工工艺比血粉科学及安全,前两者的新鲜度也明显高于血粉,更易保存。

  20. Selected complete blood cell count and plasma protein electrophoresis parameters in pet psittacine birds evaluated for illness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briscoe, Jeleen A; Rosenthal, Karen L; Shofer, Frances S

    2010-06-01

    Veterinarians rely on results of both the complete blood cell count (CBC) and plasma protein electrophoresis (EPH) in conjunction with the results of the plasma biochemical analysis to evaluate the health status of avian patients. Because the CBC and protein EPH measure different aspects of the immune response to disease, both tests are recommended in avian patients to rule out infectious or inflammatory disease. To evaluate results of the CBC and protein EPH in pet psittacine birds, the records of 144 pet psittacine birds, comprising 11 genera, that were presented for suspected illness were reviewed. Results of the CBC (total white blood cell count and packed cell volume) and protein EPH (alpha, beta, and gamma globulin concentrations) from submitted blood samples from each bird were evaluated. Of the 144 birds, 63 (43.8%) had abnormal CBC results, and 25 (17.4%) had abnormal EPH measurements. Results of the CBC and protein EPH were within reference ranges in 73 birds (50.7%). Abnormal results of the CBC in conjunction with normal EPH results were present in 46 birds (31.9%), compared with 8 birds (5.6%) with normal results of the CBC and abnormal EPH results. The findings of this study could aid practitioners in evaluating psittacine patients and prioritizing the value of individual diagnostic tests.

  1. Scale-up of the process to obtain functional ingredients based in plasma protein concentrates from porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parés, Dolors; Toldrà, Mònica; Saguer, Elena; Carretero, Carmen

    2014-01-01

    The feasibility of a scaled-up process to obtain two protein concentrates from porcine blood plasma, i.e. serum and albumin, for use as functional food ingredients was assessed. The process consisted of fractionating plasma proteins by salting out, concentrating and purifying fractions by means of membrane technology, and subsequently dehydrating through spray-drying. The fractionation process allowed a good isolation of the desired proteins, which were then concentrated and desalted in a tangential flow filtration (TFF) process combining ultra and diafiltration. Purification, pre-concentration and dehydration were successfully achieved. The functional properties of dehydrated serum and albumin were determined. As compared to the same hemoderivatives obtained by a lab-scale production system, serum maintained the gelling properties; albumin exhibited similar foaming properties; and both serum and albumin concentrates showed slightly improved emulsifying properties.

  2. The effect of polycarboxylate shell of magnetite nanoparticles on protein corona formation in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekeres, Márta; Tóth, Ildikó Y.; Turcu, R.; Tombácz, Etelka

    2017-04-01

    The development of protein corona around nanoparticles upon administration to the human body is responsible in a large part for their biodistribution, cell-internalization and toxicity or biocompatibility. We studied the influence of the chemical composition of polyelectrolyte shells (citric acid (CA) and poly(acrylic-co-maleic acid) (PAM)) of core-shell magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on the evolution of protein corona in human plasma (HP). The aggregation state and zeta potential of the particles were measured in the range of HP concentration between 1 and 80 (v/v)% 3 min and 20 h after dispersing the particles in HP diluted with Tris buffered saline. Naked MNPs aggregated in HP solution, but the carboxylated MNPs became stabilized colloidally at higher plasma concentrations. Significant differences were observed at low plasma concentration. CA@MNPs aggregated instantly while the hydrodynamic diameter of PAM@MNP increased only slightly at 1-3 v/v % HP concentrations. The observed differences in protein corona formation can be explained by the differences in the steric effects of the polycarboxylate shells. It is interesting that relatively small but systematic changes in zeta potential alter the aggregation state significantly.

  3. [Isolation and purification of human blood plasma proteins able to form potassium channels in artificial bilayer lipid membrane].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venediktova, N I; Kuznetsov, K V; Gritsenko, E N; Gulidova, G P; Mironova, G D

    2012-01-01

    Protein fraction able to induce K(+)-selective transport across bilayer lipid membrane was isolated from human blood plasma with the use of the detergent and proteolytic enzyme-free method developed at our laboratory. After addition of the studied sample to the artificial membrane in the presence of 100 mM KCl, a discrete current change was observed. No channel activity was recorded in the presence of calcium and sodium ions. Channel forming activity of fraction was observed only in the presence of K+. Using a threefold gradient of KCl in the presence of studied proteins the potassium-selective potential balanced by voltage of -29 mV was registered. This value is very close to the theoretical Nernst potential in this case. This means that the examined ion channel is cation-selective. According to data obtained with MS-MALDI-TOF/TOF and database NCBI three protein components were identified in isolated researched sample.

  4. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  5. Plasma protein induced clustering of red blood cells in micro capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Christian; Brust, Mathias; Aouane, Othmane; Flormann, Daniel; Thiebaud, Marine; Verdier, Claude; Coupier, Gwennou; Podgorski, Thomas; Misbah, Chaouqi; Selmi, Hassib

    2013-11-01

    The plasma molecule fibrinogen induces aggregation of RBCs to clusters, the so called rouleaux. Higher shear rates in bulk flow can break them up which results in the pronounced shear thinning of blood. This led to the assumption that rouleaux formation does not take place in the microcapillaries of the vascular network where high shear rates are present. However, the question is of high medical relevance. Cardio vascular disorders are still the main cause of death in the western world and cardiac patients have often higher fibrinogen level. We performed AFM based single cell force spectroscopy to determine the work of separation. Measurements at low hematocrit in a microfluidic channel show that the number of size of clusters is determined by the adhesion strength and we found that cluster formation is strongly enhanced by fibrinogen at physiological concentrations, even at shear rate as high as 1000 1/s. Numerical simulations based on a boundary integral method confirm our findings and the clustering transition takes place both in the experiments and in the simulations at the same interaction energies. In vivo measurements with intravital fluorescence microscopy in a dorsal skin fold chamber in a mouse reveal that RBCs indeed form clusters in the micrcapillary flow. This work was supported by the German Science Foundation research imitative SFB1027.

  6. Neurogenically mediated leakage of plasma protein occurs from blood vessels in dura mater but not brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Markowitz, S.; Saito, K.; Moskowitz, M.A.

    1987-12-01

    Utilizing /sup 125/I-BSA administered intravenously, a simple, reliable, and sensitive method was established for the detection of plasma protein extravasation in the dura of rats and guinea pigs following chemical, electrical, or immunological stimulation. Extravasated /sup 125/I-BSA or Evans blue was noted in the dura and conjunctiva but not in the temporalis muscle of saline-perfused rats following intravenous capsaicin, 1 mumol/kg. Capsaicin-induced extravasation was mediated by unmyelinated and small myelinated fibers since leakage did not develop in adult animals in whom these fibers were destroyed by capsaicin pretreatment (50 mg/kg) as neonates. An ipsilateral increase in Evans blue and /sup 125/I-BSA was found in the dura, eyelids, lips and gingival mucosa, and snout following electrical stimulation of the rat trigeminal ganglion. This increase was also C-fiber dependent. Among those peptides contained in perivascular afferent fibers and administered intravenously, substance P (SP) and neurokinin A (NKA), but not calcitonin gene-related peptide, caused a dose-dependent extravasation in the dura and conjunctiva of rats. Neonatal capsaicin pretreatment did not attenuate SP- nor NKA-induced effects in the dura and actually increased extravasation in the conjunctiva. Intravenous administration of 5-HT or bradykinin to normal adult rats or adult rats pretreated as neonates with capsaicin increased levels of /sup 125/I-BSA in both the dura and the conjunctiva. Histamine and prostaglandin E2, on the other hand, caused protein leakage in the conjunctiva but not in the dura of rats; however, histamine did induce extravasation in the dura of guinea pigs.

  7. The effect of quercetin on plasma oxidative status, C-reactive protein and blood pressure in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Javadi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, quercetin had no effect on oxidative and inflammatory status of plasma and blood pressure in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to ensure the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and inflammation in human.

  8. Aggressive periodontitis and chronic arthritis: blood mononuclear cell gene expression and plasma protein levels of cytokines and cytokine inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars K; Havemose-Poulsen, Anne; Bendtzen, Klaus

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti-inflammatory c......BACKGROUND: Cytokines and cytokine inhibitors have been associated with many immunoinflammatory diseases. In the present study, we examined whether peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression mirrors the corresponding plasma levels of clinically important pro- and anti...

  9. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-09-15

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS-PAGE to be a plasma protein concentration of about 10mg/ml in 3% (w/v) Triton X-114. 2DE of proteins obtained by CPE of 400 μl of human plasma revealed about 200 spots constituting a spot pattern very different from the pattern of total plasma. The CPE procedure only had a limited contribution to the technical variation. Identification of about 60 spots, representing only 22 proteins, revealed that several proteins in the obtained subfraction were present in more isoforms or modifications. Among these were apolipoproteins (A-1, D, E, L1, and M), haptoglobin-related protein, phosphatidylcholine-sterol acyltransferase, serum amyloid A, and serum paraoxonase/arylesterase 1, which are proteins of a hydrophobic nature, as in plasma they relate to lipoprotein particles. Thus, Triton X-114-based CPE is a simple plasma prefractionation tool, attractive for detailed 2DE studies of hydrophobic plasma proteins and their isoforms or modifications.

  10. Detection of Prion Protein Particles in Blood Plasma of Scrapie Infected Sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bannach, O.; Birkmann, E.; Reinartz, E.; Karl-Erich, J.; Langeveld, J.P.M.; Rohwer, R.G.; Gregori, L.; Terry, L.A.; Willbold, D.; Riesner, D.

    2012-01-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible neurodegenerative diseases affecting humans and animals. The agent of the disease is the prion consisting mainly, if not solely, of a misfolded and aggregated isoform of the host-encoded prion protein (PrP). Transmission of prions can occur naturally but also acciden

  11. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, M A M L; Ronconi, A; Cordeiro, N; Bossi, D E P; Bergallo, H G; Costa, M C C; Balieiro, J C C; Varzim, F L S B

    2007-08-01

    A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species) were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  12. [Recent circumstances in the supply and demand of various blood products in Japan, and appropriate use of blood components or plasma protein derivatives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohyama, H

    1986-10-01

    In Japan, as in the United States and several other advanced countries, the use of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) and albumin has increased dramatically over the past 10 years. Especially in Japan the increase has been at least tenfold, and half of this usage has been for surgery. Most reviews of albumin usage acknowledge that there is a high ratio of wastage, or use in clinical circumstances without a firm scientific basis. Recently Japan has imported an enormous volume of various plasma fraction products such as albumin, Factor VIII etc., or plasma as raw material from foreign countries, especially the United States. As a result, Japan has come to monopolized a quarter of the albumin manufactured in the world, and has therefore received much internal and external criticism from or ethical standpoint. As countermeasures against shortage of these blood products, it will be necessary for doctors to use these blood products more sparingly and to increase the yield of volunteer donor's blood, especially plasma. More red blood cell concentrate should be utilized for hemorrhage in routine surgical operations. Because whole blood transfusion is rarely used except in cases of massive bleeding that cannot be stopped immediately, exchange transfusion has been performed in the United States and European countries recently. Transfusion of FFP is appropriately used only for replacement of coagulation factor deficiencies, massive transfusion etc. in the United States. It should be particularly noted that these carry the risk of transmission of diseases such as hepatitis and possibly AIDS. Albumin is an effective oncotic agent in the treatment of acute shock and in the maintenance of intravascular volume and cardiac output. However, albumin and FFP have no demonstrable effect in the general supportive management of chronic hypoproteinemia and undernutrition.

  13. Triton X-114 cloud point extraction to subfractionate blood plasma proteins for two-dimensional gel electrophoresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jessen, Flemming; Wulff, Tune

    2015-01-01

    A simple and reproducible procedure for enrichment of a plasma protein subfraction suitable for two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (2DE) was developed, using a Triton X-114-based cloud point extraction (CPE). Appropriate conditions for such a CPE procedure were found by SDS...

  14. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]. E-mail: gllf@hotmail.com; Lima, Glaydes M.T. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Hospital das Clinicas; Catanho, Maria T.J.A. [Pernambuco Univ., Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica e Radiobiologia

    2002-07-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ({sup 99m} Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and {sup 99m}Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p < 0.05) in BC (95.08 {+-}1.94 to 80.68 {+-} 3.35), in IF-P (74.42 {+-}4.50 to 39.94{+-} 5.51) and in IF-BC (89.91{+-} 3.91 to 79.54 {+-} 5.42) in presence of PHY. These results suggest that the chelating property of PHY can modify the labeling of the BC, although other effects of PHY could be responsible. As PHY is found in many food and it could alter the labeling of blood elements with {sup 99m} Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  15. Blood parasites, total plasma protein and packed cell volume of small wild mammals trapped in three mountain ranges of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAML. Silva

    Full Text Available A study of blood parasites in small wild non-flying mammals was undertaken in three areas of the Atlantic Forest in Southeastern Brazil: Serra de Itatiaia, RJ, Serra da Bocaina, SP and Serra da Fartura, SP, from June 1999 to May 2001. A total of 450 animals (15 species were captured in traps and it was observed in 15.5% of the blood smears the presence of Haemobartonella sp. and Babesia sp. in red blood cells. There was no statistically significant difference between parasited and non-parasited specimens regarding total plasma protein, packed cell volume and body weight, which strongly suggests that these specimens might be parasite reservoirs.

  16. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 < t°a < 72 dyne/cm (O° ≤ theta < 120°), falling sharply through a broad minimum within the 20 < t°a < 40 dyne/cm (55° < theta < 75°). Furthermore, contact activation of FXII in buffer solution produces an ensemble of protein fragments exhibiting either procoagulant properties in plasma (proteolysis of blood factor XI or prekallikrein), amidolytic properties (cleavage of s-2302 chromogen), or the ability to suppress autoactivation through currently unknown biochemistry. The relative proportions of these fragments depend on activator surface chemistry/energy. We have also discovered that contact activation is moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an

  17. Effect of different anticoagulants on the labelling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with [sup 99]Tc[sup m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernardo-Filho, M. (Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha (Brazil). Inst. National de Cancer); Gutfilen, B. (Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia); Maciel, O. de S. (Centro de Pesquisa Basica, Praca Cruz Vermelha (Brazil). Inst. National de Cancer)

    1994-09-01

    There are controversies about the effect of different anticoagulants on the labelling of blood elements with [sup 99]Tc[sup m]. Our results show that the type of anticoagulant employed to withdraw the whole blood can modify the [sup 99]Tc[sup m] labelling of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma proteins (PP). The anticoagulants ACD (citric acid, sodium citrate and dextrose solution), heparin and sodium oxalate present similar results for the [sup 99]Tc[sup m] labelling of RBC with the exception of 0.13 [mu]M stannous chloride. In this assay oxalate provides the best RBC labelling. In addition, with ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) the labelling of RBC is almost always lower than with the other anticoagulants, probably due to its high chelating capacity. The anticoagulants ACD, oxalate and heparin show the same results as expected with [sup 99]Tc[sup m] labelling of PP. The lowest labelling at 13.00 [mu]M stannous chloride in the presence of oxalate is probably due to its low chelating capacity. The results also reinforce the idea that the erythrocyte membrane exerts an important role in the regulation of stannous ion transport into RBCs. (author).

  18. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information...

  19. Comparison of the level of thrombus precursor protein in blood plasma between patients with acute cerebral infarction and healthy persons at different time

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chenghua Xiao; Peng Zhang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thrombus precursor protein (TpP) is the index of thrombus activity level, and it is also early referencing index in detecting thrombus diseases.OBJECTIVE: To dynamically observe the changes of TpP level in blood plasma of patients with acute cerebral infarction at different time after onset, and to compare the differences of plasma TpP level between patients with acute cerebral infarction and healthy persons who received health examination.DESIGN: Controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Totally 58 patients with acute cerebral infarction who received the treatment in the Department of Neurology, Affiliated Hospital of Xuzhou Medical College between September 2004 and March 2005 were recruited in this study. They all met the diagnostic criteria revised by the 4th National Conference of Cerebrovascular Disorders in 1995 and were diagnosed by clinical and skull CT and (or) MRI examinations. The patients included 33 male and 25 female aged from 36 to 87 years. Time to onset < 6 hours, 6 to 11 hours, 12 to 23 hours, 24 to 48 hours and > 48 hours were found in 10,11,14,10 and 13 patients respectively. Another 51 persons who homeochronously received the health body examination in our hospital were recruited, including 34 male and 17 female, aged 38 to 85 years, serving as control group. Patients with cardio-cerebrovascualr diseases or liver and kidney diseases were excluded. All the involved subjects were informed of the detected items.METHODS: About 4 mL venous blood was respectively taken from patients admitted to the hospital within 6 hours, 6 to11 hours, 12 to 23 hours, 24 to 48 hours and more then 48 hours after onset, and healthy persons when receiving health examination. The level of TpP in blood plasma was measured with enzymelinked immunosorbent assay.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: ① Comparison of the level of plasma TpP between patients and controls; ② Comparison of the level

  20. Protein Quality of Rice Drinks Fortified with Bovine and Porcine Blood Plasma / Calidad Proteica de Bebidas de Arroz Fortificadas con Plasma Sanguíneo de Bovino y Porcino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piedad Margarita Montero Castillo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The future of nutrition in Colombia, and perhaps inother developing countries, will depend in large part on the abilityof food technology to take full advantage of the food sourcesavailable in the country and to adapt and develop new productsthat will vary and complement the diets of the majority of thepopulation at a low cost. The objective of this study was to evaluatethe protein quality of rice-based drinks fortified with bovine andporcine blood plasma. Six treatments were prepared with differentlevels of fortification (14.5%, 18.5% and 29%. The effects of theplasma type and the addition levels on the protein content, theamino acid profile, and the in vitro digestibility of the drinks wereobserved. The AOAC method was employed for the determinationof the protein content; the amino acid profile was created usingHPLC. The protein digestibility was determined by subjecting adispersion of the drink to the action of a multi-enzymatic solution.The protein content increased with the level of fortification. Thedrinks fortified with bovine plasma (104% and porcine plasma(89% presented a better protein quality index than the unfortifieddrink. The digestibility of the fortified drinks did not demonstratesignificant improvements in comparison with the unfortified drink.The chemical score of the drinks fortified with porcine plasma(71.6 and bovine plasma (78.5 showed that the latter had thebest nutritional quality. / Resumen. El futuro de la alimentación en Colombia y quizás deotros países en desarrollo va a depender en gran parte de quela tecnología de alimentos sea capaz de aprovechar las fuentesdisponibles de alimentos en el país y de adaptar y desarrollarnuevos productos que permitan variar y complementar la dietade la mayoría de la población a bajo costo. El objetivo de estetrabajo fue evaluar la calidad proteica de bebidas a base dearroz fortificadas con plasma sanguíneo de bovino y porcino. Seprepararon seis tratamientos con

  1. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  2. Role of plasma C-reactive protein and white blood cell count in predicting in-hospital clinical events of acute type A aortic dissection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEN Dan; WU Hai-ying; JIANG Xiong-jing; ZHANG Hui-min; ZHOU Xian-liang; LI Jian-jun; HUI Ru-tai

    2011-01-01

    Background A few recent studies have reported that inflammation is associated with the prognosis of acute aortic dissection (AD).There is,however,no systemic investigation regarding the role of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC) levels in predicting in-hospital clinical events of acute type AAD.Methods The levels of high-sensitivity CRP and WBC counts were systemically determined after admission in 36 patients with acute type A AD.The variations of plasma CRP and WBC levels in different time windows (admission,1,2,3,4,6,8 days) in patients with acute type A AD were analyzed between patients with events and without events.Results During hospitalization,five patients died,and increased levels of CRP and WBC were found in patients died with acute type A AD compared with patients survived (P <0.01,respectively).Medical treatment may significantly decrease inflammatory response in survived patients with acute type A AD.Additionally,patients with complication of pleural effusion showed higher CRP and WBC levels (P=0.046,P=0.018,respectively).Lower WBC levels were found in survived patients treated medically (P=0.001).Moreover,mean CRP and WBC levels had positive correlations with aortic diameter (r=0.364,P=0.000;r=0.333,P=0.000,respectively) and age (r=0.270,P=0.000,respectively),while negative correlations with the time from onset of symptoms to hospital admission (r=-0.229,P=0.000,r=-0.200,P=0.002,respectively).Univariate analysis showed that age ≥65 years,CRP ≥12.05 mg/L,WBC ≥12.16×109/L,aortic diameter ≥48mm,pleural effusion and diastolic blood pressure ≥105 mmHg were associated with hospital mortality.While CRP ≥12.05 mg/L,WBC ≥12.16×109/L,aortic diameter ≥48 mm were strongly associated with hospital mortality in multiple Logistic regression analysis.Conclusions The results suggested that CRP and WBC were preferred markers for predicting the clinical events in patients with acute type A AD,especially death during

  3. Photoaffinity Labeling of Plasma Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaki Otagiri

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Photoaffinity labeling is a powerful technique for identifying a target protein. A high degree of labeling specificity can be achieved with this method in comparison to chemical labeling. Human serum albumin (HSA and α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP are two plasma proteins that bind a variety of endogenous and exogenous substances. The ligand binding mechanism of these two proteins is complex. Fatty acids, which are known to be transported in plasma by HSA, cause conformational changes and participate in allosteric ligand binding to HSA. HSA undergoes an N-B transition, a conformational change at alkaline pH, that has been reported to result in increased ligand binding. Attempts have been made to investigate the impact of fatty acids and the N-B transition on ligand binding in HSA using ketoprofen and flunitrazepam as photolabeling agents. Meanwhile, plasma AGP is a mixture of genetic variants of the protein. The photolabeling of AGP with flunitrazepam has been utilized to shed light on the topology of the protein ligand binding site. Furthermore, a review of photoaffinity labeling performed on other major plasma proteins will also be discussed. Using a photoreactive natural ligand as a photolabeling agent to identify target protein in the plasma would reduce non-specific labeling.

  4. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Amorim Terra

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc. Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (pO objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da Artemisia vulgaris L.(artemisa na marcação dos constituintes sangüíneos com tecnécio-99m (99mTc. Amostras de sangue obtidas de ratos Wistar foram incubadas com um extrato de artemisa e o processo de radiomarcação dos constituintes sangüíneos foi realizado. Plasma e células sangüíneas foram isoladas por centrifugação. Alíquotas de plasma e células sangüíneas foram também precipitadas com ácido tricloroacético para isolamento de frações solúvel e insolúvel. A radiatividade em cada fração foi contada e as porcentagens de radioatividade (%ATI foram calculadas. O extrato de artemisa diminuiu significantemente (p<0,05 a %ATI nas células sanguíneas e nas proteínas celulares. A análise dos resultados indicou que o extrato de artemisa apresentaria substâncias que interferir no transporte de íons estanoso e/ou pertecnetato através da membrana do eritrócito alterando a marcação das células sangúineas com 99mTc.

  5. Assessment of the effect of Mentha crispa L. (hortela) extract on the labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos-Filho, Sebastiao D. [UNIFOA - Centro Universitario de Volta Redonda, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Biofisica; Dire, Glaucio L.; Lima, Elaine [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Pereira, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Anatomia; Bernardo-Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria]|[Instituto Nacional do Cancer, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisa Basica

    2002-07-01

    We have investigated the possibility of M. Crispa L. extract being capable to alter the labeling of blood elements with 99mTc. Blood was incubated with M. Crispa L. extract. Stannous chloride solution and Tc-99m, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cells (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated, centrifuged and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) separated. The percentage of radioactivity (% ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC was calculated. Histological evaluations were performed and the morphology of the red blood cells was observed under optical microscopy showing important morphological alterations on the shape of the RBC treated with 6.25% M. Crispa L. extract. The % ATI decreased: on BC from 97.3 {+-} 1.92 to 60.0 {+-} 2.44; on IF-P from 74.8 {+-} 3.78 to 9.99 {+-} 3.61; on IF-BC from 88.6 {+-} 5.41 to 58.4 {+-} 11.55. The substances of the M. Crispa L. extract could increase the valence of these stannous (+2) ions to stannic (+4) and this fact would decrease the % ATI on blood elements and indicates the possible presence of oxidant agents in the M. Crispa L. extract. (author)

  6. Content research on antibody titer and plasma protein of plasma and red blood cell suspension supernatant fluid%血浆与红细胞悬液上清液中抗体效价及血浆蛋白的含量研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵敏

    2012-01-01

      目的分析红细胞悬浮液与血浆对应的抗体效价及其蛋白含量.方法随机收集无偿献血者261名.针对各全血制备对应的血浆和红细胞悬浮液,检测各血上清的抗A、抗B效价及其对应的血浆蛋白含量并比较分析.结果 A型血浆抗B效价的效价为31.05±20.29,A型红细胞悬液抗B的抗体效价为5.86±3.60;B型血浆抗A的效价为21.69±18.34,B型红细胞悬液抗A的抗体效价为3.08±1.99;O型血浆抗A的效价为34.02±20.76,血浆抗B的抗体效价为31.98±19.32;O型红细胞悬液的抗体抗A效价为5.96±2.86,抗B抗体效价为5.32±2.45.A型血的血浆蛋白与红细胞悬液上清液存在显著差异,且血浆抗体的效价是红细胞上清效价均数的7倍;血浆蛋白则为红细胞悬液的5-8倍.结论与血浆比较,各血型红细胞悬浮液的抗体效价明显低,含有较少蛋白,可只用主侧配血.%  Objective To analyse the antibody titer and its protein content of red blood cell suspension and plasma corresponding. Methods Random collect voluntary blood donors 261. On the whole blood preparation corresponding plasma and erythrocytes suspension, detecting the blood supernatant of A resistance, resistance to B valence and the corresponding plasma protein content and comparative analysis. Results The results showed that the type A plasma resistance to B titer of valence was 31.05±20.29, type A red blood cell suspension resistance to B antibody titer was5.86±3.60; Type B plasma resistance to A titer was 21.69±18.34, type B cell suspension resistance to A antibody titer was 3.08±1.99; Type O blood plasma resistance to A titer was 34.02±20.76, plasma resistance to B antibody titer was 31.98±19.32; Type O red blood cell suspension antibody resistance to A titer was 5.96±2.86, resistance to B antibody titer was 5.32±2.45. Type A blood plasma protein and red blood cell suspension supernatant fluid exists significant difference, and plasma antibody

  7. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ...) Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma AGENCY: Food and... requirements for blood and blood components, including Source Plasma, into one section of the Code of Federal..., and Source Plasma,'' which amended Sec. 606.121(d)(2) by adding ``or in solid black,''...

  8. 新鲜血浆与去冷沉淀血浆中血型抗体效价及血浆蛋白的含量的比较%Comparison of the titers of blood group antibody and the content of plasma proteins between the fresh plasma and the cryoprecipitate-reduced plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李福照

    2015-01-01

    Objective To compare the titers of blood group antibody and the content of plasma proteins between the fresh plasma and the cryoprecipitate-reduced plasma.Methods Seventy cases of the fresh plasma and 60 cases of the cryoprecipitate-reduced plasma were selected as the research objects, and then the blood group antibodies, plasma proteins and clotting factors were detected.Results The antibody titers of A type anti-B, B-type anti-A, 0 anti-A, 0 anti-B in the fresh plasma respectively were 4.61 ± 1.05,3.82 ± 1.19,4.80 ± 1.02,4.58 ± 1.10, which were lower than the those of the cryoprecipitate-reduced plasma, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).Factor Ⅴ, Ⅷ factor, X factor in the fresh plasma respectively were 73.26 ± 3.96, 69.22 ± 4.87, 69.24 ± 5.62, which were all higher than those of the cryoprecipitate-reduced plasma, the differences were significant (P < 0.05).The levels of Atype albumin, B-type albumin, O-total albumin, globulin, albumin in the fresh plasma were all lower than those of the cryoprecipitate-reduced plasma, and the differences were significant (P < 0.05).Conclusions In the preparation process of the cryoprecipitate-reduced plasma, blood antibody titer, blood clotting mechanisms and other things are affected, and there are limitations in the clinical application.%目的 比较新鲜血浆与去冷沉淀血浆中血型抗体效价及血浆蛋白的含量.方法 选取70例新鲜血浆和60例去冷沉淀血浆开展研究,均行血型抗体、血浆蛋白和凝血因子检测.结果 新鲜血浆A型抗-B、B型抗-A、0型抗-A、0型抗-B抗体效价分别为4.61±1.05、3.82±1.19、4.80±1.02、4.58±1.10,均低于去冷沉淀血浆,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).新鲜血浆Ⅴ因子、Ⅷ因子、X因子分别为73.26±3.96、69.22±4.87、69.24±5.62,高于去冷沉淀血浆,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).新鲜血浆A型、B型、O型总蛋白、球蛋白、白蛋白均低于去冷沉淀血

  9. Identification of highly active flocculant proteins in bovine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, George J; Nuñez, Alberto; Garcia, Rafael A

    2012-03-01

    Synthetic polymeric flocculants are used extensively for wastewater remediation, soil stabilization, and reduction in water leakage from unlined canals. Sources of highly active, inexpensive, renewable flocculants are needed to replace synthetic flocculants. High kaolin flocculant activity was documented for bovine blood (BB) and blood plasma with several anticoagulant treatments. BB serum also had high flocculant activity. To address the hypothesis that some blood proteins have strong flocculating activity, the BB proteins were separated by SEC. Then, the major proteins of the flocculant-active fractions were separated by SDS-PAGE. Identity of the major protein components was determined by tryptic digestion and peptide analysis by MALDI TOF MS. The sequence of selected peptides was confirmed using TOF/TOF-MS/MS fragmentation. Hemoglobin dimer (subunits α and β) was identified as the major protein component of the active fraction in BB; its high flocculation activity was confirmed by testing a commercial sample of hemoglobin. In the same manner, three proteins from blood plasma (fibrinogen, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin) were found to be highly active flocculants, but bovine serum albumin, α-globulin, and β-globulin were not flocculants. On a mass basis, hemoglobin, γ-globulin, α-2-macroglobulin were as effective as anionic polyacrylamide (PAM), a widely used synthetic flocculant. The blood proteins acted faster than PAM, and unlike PAM, the blood proteins flocculants did not require calcium salts for their activity.

  10. POLY(N-VINYLPYRROLIDONE)-MODIFIED SURFACES REPEL PLASMA PROTEIN ADSORPTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-li Liu; Zhao-qiang Wu; Dan Li; Hong Chen

    2012-01-01

    The present work aimed to study the interaction between plasma proteins and PVP-modified surfaces under more complex protein conditions.In the competitive adsorption of fibrinogen (Fg) and human serum albumin (HSA),the modified surfaces showed preferential adsorption of HSA.In 100% plasma,the amount of Fg adsorbed onto PVP-modified surfaces was as low as 10 ng/cm2,suggesting the excellent protein resistance properties of the modified surfaces.In addition,immunoblots of proteins eluted from the modified surfaces after plasma contact confirmed that PVP-modified surfaces can repel most plasma proteins,especially proteins that play important roles in the process of blood coagulation.

  11. Identification of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simone Talens

    Full Text Available Several proteins are known to bind to a fibrin network and to change clot properties or function. In this study we aimed to get an overview of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins. A plasma clot was formed by adding thrombin, CaCl(2 and aprotinin to citrated platelet-poor plasma and unbound proteins were washed away with Tris-buffered saline. Non-covalently bound proteins were extracted, separated with 2D gel electrophoresis and visualized with Sypro Ruby. Excised protein spots were analyzed with mass spectrometry. The identity of the proteins was verified by checking the mass of the protein, and, if necessary, by Western blot analysis. Next to established fibrin-binding proteins we identified several novel fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins, including α(2-macroglobulin, carboxypeptidase N, α(1-antitrypsin, haptoglobin, serum amyloid P, and the apolipoproteins A-I, E, J, and A-IV. The latter six proteins are associated with high-density lipoprotein particles. In addition we showed that high-density lipoprotein associated proteins were also present in fibrinogen preparations purified from plasma. Most plasma proteins in a fibrin clot can be classified into three groups according to either blood coagulation, protease inhibition or high-density lipoprotein metabolism. The presence of high-density lipoprotein in clots might point to a role in hemostasis.

  12. Relative quantification of several plasma proteins during liver transplantation surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parviainen, Ville; Joenväärä, Sakari; Tukiainen, Eija; Ilmakunnas, Minna; Isoniemi, Helena; Renkonen, Risto

    2011-01-01

    Plasma proteome is widely used in studying changes occurring in human body during disease or other disturbances. Immunological methods are commonly used in such studies. In recent years, mass spectrometry has gained popularity in high-throughput analysis of plasma proteins. In this study, we tested whether mass spectrometry and iTRAQ-based protein quantification might be used in proteomic analysis of human plasma during liver transplantation surgery to characterize changes in protein abundances occurring during early graft reperfusion. We sampled blood from systemic circulation as well as blood entering and exiting the liver. After immunodepletion of six high-abundant plasma proteins, trypsin digestion, iTRAQ labeling, and cation-exchange fractionation, the peptides were analyzed by reverse phase nano-LC-MS/MS. In total, 72 proteins were identified of which 31 could be quantified in all patient specimens collected. Of these 31 proteins, ten, mostly medium-to-high abundance plasma proteins with a concentration range of 50-2000 mg/L, displayed relative abundance change of more than 10%. The changes in protein abundance observed in this study allow further research on the role of several proteins in ischemia-reperfusion injury during liver transplantation and possibly in other surgery.

  13. Relative Quantification of Several Plasma Proteins during Liver Transplantation Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ville Parviainen

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma proteome is widely used in studying changes occurring in human body during disease or other disturbances. Immunological methods are commonly used in such studies. In recent years, mass spectrometry has gained popularity in high-throughput analysis of plasma proteins. In this study, we tested whether mass spectrometry and iTRAQ-based protein quantification might be used in proteomic analysis of human plasma during liver transplantation surgery to characterize changes in protein abundances occurring during early graft reperfusion. We sampled blood from systemic circulation as well as blood entering and exiting the liver. After immunodepletion of six high-abundant plasma proteins, trypsin digestion, iTRAQ labeling, and cation-exchange fractionation, the peptides were analyzed by reverse phase nano-LC-MS/MS. In total, 72 proteins were identified of which 31 could be quantified in all patient specimens collected. Of these 31 proteins, ten, mostly medium-to-high abundance plasma proteins with a concentration range of 50–2000 mg/L, displayed relative abundance change of more than 10%. The changes in protein abundance observed in this study allow further research on the role of several proteins in ischemia-reperfusion injury during liver transplantation and possibly in other surgery.

  14. Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003691.htm Parathyroid hormone-related protein blood test To use the ... features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTH-RP) test measures the ...

  15. Smart Pipette and Microfluidic Pipette Tip for Blood Plasma Separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Byeongyeon; Choi, Sungyoung

    2016-01-13

    An integrated method for blood plasma separation is presented by combining a pneumatic device, which is referred to as a "smart pipette," and a hydrophoretic microchannel as a microfluidic pipette tip for whole-blood sample preparation. This method enables hemolysis-free, high-purity plasma separation through smart pipetting of whole blood, potentially providing the means for rapid, inexpensive blood sample preparation for point-of-care testing.

  16. Rheology of human blood plasma: Viscoelastic versus Newtonian behavior

    CERN Document Server

    Brust, M; Pan, L; Garcia, M; Arratia, P E; Wagner, C; 10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.078305

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the rheological characteristics of human blood plasma in shear and elongational flows. While we can confirm a Newtonian behavior in shear flow within experimental resolution, we find a viscoelastic behavior of blood plasma in the pure extensional flow of a capillary break-up rheometer. The influence of the viscoelasticity of blood plasma on capillary blood flow is tested in a microfluidic device with a contraction-expansion geometry. Differential pressure measurements revealed that the plasma has a pronounced flow resistance compared to that of pure water. Supplementary measurements indicate that the viscoelasticity of the plasma might even lead to viscoelastic instabilities under certain conditions. Our findings show that the viscoelastic properties of plasma should not be ignored in future studies on blood flow.

  17. [Biosensors as a tool to use in the experiments on blood and selected blood proteins].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pawlaczyk, Izabela; Ziewiecki, Rafał; Czerchawski, Leszek; Krotkiewski, Hubert; Gancarz, Roman

    2013-01-01

    Over last few years, biosensors have become increasingly used as a research tool. Using innovative techniques of detection and estimation of the strength of intermolecular bonds, is particularly important in biochemical processes, including the study of mechanisms of interactions between plasma proteins in the circulatory system. With the numerous enhancements biosensors have become extremely sensitive devices, allowing for analysis of diverse biological material. Moreover, the use of immobilization techniques enables to use sample repeatedly, which significantly reduces costs and the ability to monitor tests in real-time shorten the time of experiment. The presented work discusses examples of the usage of biosensors in the research on the mechanisms of the interactions of blood plasma proteins. The experiments on cancer biomarkers present in the blood circulation system, protein C deficiency causing non-controlled hemorrhagic accidents, and on the level of fibrinogen, as well as 20S proteasome concentration in plasma, are just some examples of biosensors usage in the analyses of blood. They are also applicable in the research work performed the project WROVASC--Integrated Cardiovascular Center, concerning the mechanisms of anticoagulant activity in blood plasma of the polyphenolic-polysaccharide macromolecules of plant origin.

  18. Bacteria-killing ability of fresh blood plasma compared to frozen blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Anne C; Fair, Jeanne M

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, the bacteria-killing assay (BKA) has become a popular technique among ecoimmunologists. New variations of that assay allow researchers to use smaller volumes of blood, an important consideration for those working on small-bodied animals. However, this version of the assay requires access to a lab with a nanodrop spectrophotometer, something that may not be available in the field. One possible solution is to freeze plasma for transport; however, this assumes that frozen plasma samples will give comparable results to fresh ones. We tested this assumption using plasma samples from three species of birds: chickens (Gallus gallus), ash-throated flycatchers (Myiarchus cinerascens), and western bluebirds (Sialia mexicana). Chicken plasma samples lost most or all of their bacterial killing ability after freezing. This did not happen in flycatchers and bluebirds; however, frozen plasma did not produce results comparable to those obtained using fresh plasma. We caution researchers using the BKA to use fresh samples whenever possible, and to validate the use of frozen samples on a species-by-species basis.

  19. Espectrofotometria de proteínas totais em plasma de sangue bovino por análise em fluxo Spectrophotometry of total protein in bovine blood plasma by flow analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilmara Caseri de Luca

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available A concentração de proteína total em plasma é um parâmetro utilizado no controle da saúde e nutrição animal, sendo que a faixa de concentração considerada normal para animais em bom desenvolvimento situa-se entre 60 e 85 g L -1. Os métodos analíticos propostos para esta determinação geralmente apresentam como limitação a excessiva manipulação das amostras. Este trabalho descreve o desenvolvimento de um procedimento de análises em fluxo para a determinação de proteína total em plasma de sangue bovino, empregando o método do Biureto. O sistema em fluxo, constituído por um injetor comutador automático e uma válvula solenóide de três vias controlados por um microcomputador, foi projetado visando permitir diluição em linha das amostras. Um fator de diluição era estimado procedendo-se a diluição em linha de uma solução com concentração conhecida de albumina e este fator era empregado para o cálculo final das concentrações das amostras após diluição em linha. As soluções das amostras eram inseridas através da válvula solenóide, a qual permitia precisas diluições, diminuindo operações manuais. A faixa analítica estabelecida foi entre 2,5 e 20,0 g L-1, e considerando a diluição gerada, amostras de plasma bovino contendo entre 12,5 e 100,0 g L-1 de proteína total puderam ser analisadas. O procedimento apresentou desvio padrão relativo de 2,8 %, e a freqüência analítica alcançada foi de 76 determinações por hora. Os resultados foram comparados com o método tradicional de análises (Biureto e não foram observadas diferenças estatisticamente significativas a 95%.Total protein concentration in plasma samples is normally used as a parameter to control animal health and nutritional conditions. Normal concentration levels are in the range of 60 to 85 g L-1 total protein for animals of good development. The methods proposed for its determination generally present as a disadvantage an excessive

  20. Finger prick blood plasma separation using a standard lab equipment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kwasny, Dorota; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Pfreundt, Andrea

    separation and analyte detection on-chip are reported in the literature [1]. Although versatile, these plasma separation techniques often require sample dilution prior to separation and use low flow rates resulting in longer processing times which greatly hinders their use in commercial systems. Here we......Blood is a complex biological matrix that has a huge potential for diagnostics as it contains various analytes and biomarkers. Traditionally the analysis is performed on plasma and white blood cells separated from venous blood. However, the collection of venous blood samples is painful and requires...... a few milliliters of blood. It has been demonstrated that the blood taken from finger prick contains the same analytes as venous blood in sufficient abundance and could therefore be used for diagnosis as an alternative in many cases. Various approaches towards analysis of finger prick blood with plasma...

  1. Plasma functionalization of titanium surface for repulsion of blood platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Cvelbar, Uros; Modic, Martina; Kovac, J.; Lazovic, S; Filipic, G; Vujosevic, D; Junkar, Ita; Elersic, Kristina; Brühl, S.P.; Canal Barnils, Cristina; Belmonte, Thierry; Mozetic, Miran

    2012-01-01

    Thrombosis and restenosis are the most common problems during insertion of biocompatible implants like titanium stents into human blood, due to aggregation of platelets on their surfaces. Because of this reason, we studied the response of blood platelets to a plasma treated titanium surface. The aim was to design a functionalized surface which would repel blood platelets or prevent their adhesion. Therefore, we functionalized surfaces with low-temperature inductively coupled oxygen plasma tre...

  2. Guanfacine in essential hypertension: Effect on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity

    OpenAIRE

    Schoeppe, W.; Brecht, H. M.

    1980-01-01

    1 The acute and chronic effects of guanfacine on blood pressure, plasma noradrenaline concentration and plasma renin activity were investigated in 23 patients (15 males, 8 females) with essential hypertension (WHO grade I-II).

  3. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodica Căpriță

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method, and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g% were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%. There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709 between the total protein values, determined with both methods. Protein is the major determinant of plasma refractive index, but glucose contributes too. The refractometric method is not recommended in chickens for the determination of total protein, because avian blood glucose concentration averages about twice than in mammalian blood.

  4. Wavelet-analysis for Laser Images of Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANGELSKY, A.-P.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The possibilities of the local wavelet-analysis of polarization-inhomogeneous laser image of human blood plasma were considered. The set of statistics, correlation and fractal parameters of the distributions of wavelet-coefficients that are characterize different scales of the polarization maps of polycrystalline networks of amino acids of blood plasma were defined. The criteria for the differentiation of the transformation of birefringence optical-anisotropic structures of blood plasma at different scales of their geometric dimensions were determined.

  5. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII......:Ag) or estimated with an amidolytic method (FVII:Am). We have investigated whether FVII:Am is a valuable alternative to FVII:Ag. FVII:Ag and FVII:Am were measured in 147 plasma samples from blood donors, patients on oral anticoagulant therapy, postmenopausal women on hormone replacement therapy, in postprandial...

  6. Differential plasma protein binding to metal oxide nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Zhou J; Mortimer, Gysell; Minchin, Rodney F [School of Biomedical Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia); Schiller, Tara; Musumeci, Anthony; Martin, Darren, E-mail: r.minchin@uq.edu.a [Australian Institute for Bioengineering and Nanotechnology, University of Queensland, Brisbane, QLD 4072 (Australia)

    2009-11-11

    Nanoparticles rapidly interact with the proteins present in biological fluids, such as blood. The proteins that are adsorbed onto the surface potentially dictate the biokinetics of the nanomaterials and their fate in vivo. Using nanoparticles with different sizes and surface characteristics, studies have reported the effects of physicochemical properties on the composition of adsorbed plasma proteins. However, to date, few studies have been conducted focusing on the nanoparticles that are commonly exposed to the general public, such as the metal oxides. Using previously established ultracentrifugation approaches, two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and mass spectrometry, the current study investigated the binding of human plasma proteins to commercially available titanium dioxide, silicon dioxide and zinc oxide nanoparticles. We found that, despite these particles having similar surface charges in buffer, they bound different plasma proteins. For TiO{sub 2}, the shape of the nanoparticles was also an important determinant of protein binding. Agglomeration in water was observed for all of the nanoparticles and both TiO{sub 2} and ZnO further agglomerated in biological media. This led to an increase in the amount and number of different proteins bound to these nanoparticles. Proteins with important biological functions were identified, including immunoglobulins, lipoproteins, acute-phase proteins and proteins involved in complement pathways and coagulation. These results provide important insights into which human plasma proteins bind to particular metal oxide nanoparticles. Because protein absorption to nanoparticles may determine their interaction with cells and tissues in vivo, understanding how and why plasma proteins are adsorbed to these particles may be important for understanding their biological responses.

  7. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma...

  8. Improving quality of components and protein preparations of blood plasma by introduction of quality management according to the principles of GMP and ISO 9001 in the blood service institutions with benchmarking effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liubchack V.V.

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aspects of harmonious introduc¬tion of the new standards of quality management in the institutions of blood service were considered. It was proved that it does not contradict to current legislation and significantly increases pathogenic security of blood components and blood products.

  9. Drop coating deposition Raman spectroscopy of blood plasma for the detection of colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pengpeng; Chen, Changshui; Deng, Xiaoyuan; Mao, Hua; Jin, Shaoqin

    2015-03-01

    We have recently applied the technique of drop coating deposition Raman (DCDR) spectroscopy for colorectal cancer (CRC) detection using blood plasma. The aim of this study was to develop a more convenient and stable method based on blood plasma for noninvasive CRC detection. Significant differences are observed in DCDR spectra between healthy (n=105) and cancer (n=75) plasma from 15 CRC patients and 21 volunteers, particularly in the spectra that are related to proteins, nucleic acids, and β-carotene. The multivariate analysis principal components analysis and the linear discriminate analysis, together with leave-one-out, cross validation were used on DCDR spectra and yielded a sensitivity of 100% (75/75) and specificity of 98.1% (103/105) for detection of CRC. This study demonstrates that DCDR spectroscopy of blood plasma associated with multivariate statistical algorithms has the potential for the noninvasive detection of CRC.

  10. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirichenko, M. N.; Chaikov, L. L.; Zaritskii, A. R.

    2016-08-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r-4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids.

  11. Redox regulation of protein damage in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Helen R; Dias, Irundika H K; Willetts, Rachel S; Devitt, Andrew

    2014-01-01

    The presence and concentrations of modified proteins circulating in plasma depend on rates of protein synthesis, modification and clearance. In early studies, the proteins most frequently analysed for damage were those which were more abundant in plasma (e.g. albumin and immunoglobulins) which exist at up to 10 orders of magnitude higher concentrations than other plasma proteins e.g. cytokines. However, advances in analytical techniques using mass spectrometry and immuno-affinity purification methods, have facilitated analysis of less abundant, modified proteins and the nature of modifications at specific sites is now being characterised. The damaging reactive species that cause protein modifications in plasma principally arise from reactive oxygen species (ROS) produced by NADPH oxidases (NOX), nitric oxide synthases (NOS) and oxygenase activities; reactive nitrogen species (RNS) from myeloperoxidase (MPO) and NOS activities; and hypochlorous acid from MPO. Secondary damage to proteins may be caused by oxidized lipids and glucose autooxidation. In this review, we focus on redox regulatory control of those enzymes and processes which control protein maturation during synthesis, produce reactive species, repair and remove damaged plasma proteins. We have highlighted the potential for alterations in the extracellular redox compartment to regulate intracellular redox state and, conversely, for intracellular oxidative stress to alter the cellular secretome and composition of extracellular vesicles. Through secreted, redox-active regulatory molecules, changes in redox state may be transmitted to distant sites.

  12. Middle cerebral artery blood velocity and plasma catecholamines during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pott, F; Jensen, K; Hansen, H;

    1996-01-01

    During dynamic exercise, mean blood velocity (Vmean) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) demonstrates a graded increase to work rate and reflects regional cerebral blood flow. At a high work rate, however, vasoactive levels of plasma catecholamines could mediate vasoconstriction of the MCA...

  13. Evaluation of the refractometric method for the determination of total protein in avian plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lumeij, J T; de Bruijne, J J

    1985-07-01

    Serum total protein concentrations in pigeon blood determined with the biuret method (TPB-se) were compared with total protein concentrations in plasma (TPR-pl) and serum (TPR-se) obtained by estimation from refractive index. The refractometric method consistently yielded higher values (Prefractometric method for determination of TP in pigeon blood is not recommended.

  14. Removal of Chronic Intravascular Blood Clots using Liquid Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Chul; Choi, Myeong; Koo, Il; Yu, Zengqi; Collins, George

    2011-10-01

    An electrical embolectomy device for removing chronic intravascular blood clots using liquid plasma under saline environment was demonstrated. We employed a proxy experimental blood clot model of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and actual equine blood clot. Thermal damage to contiguous tissue and the collagen denaturing via the plasma irradiation were investigated by histological analysis using birefringence of the tissue and verified by FT-IR spectroscopic study, respectively, which showed the high removal rate up to 2 mm per minute at room temperature and small thermal damage less than 200 μm.

  15. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  16. Evaluation of blood compatibility of plasma deposited heparin-like films and SF6 plasma treated surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanira Antunes Perrenoud

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In devices used in open-heart surgery and dialysis, blood must be continuously processed using extracorporeal circuits composed of peristaltic pumps and active components such as specific filters and oxygenators. Several procedures have been employed to avoid blood coagulation induced by contact with the artificial surfaces of such devices. Often heparin, a bioactive protein able to prevent clot formation, is employed. In this work, we have used heparin-containing gas plasmas to evaluate the possibility of depositing adherent anticoagulant films onto PVC and glass surfaces. The films were produced by radiofrequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition from heparin/isopropanol and heparin/hexamethyldisiloxane solutions. In addition, the effects of exposure to SF6 plasmas on the compatibility of such surfaces have also been investigated. The blood compatibility was evaluated through the determination of the density of platelets and fibrinogen and activated partial thromboplastin (APTT and prothrombin times (PT of human blood freshly collected and after contact for 2.5 hours with different surfaces. The deposited films were also characterized by infrared spectroscopy, contact angle and surface energy measurements. The coagulation time of blood, placed in contact with glass substrates coated by PECVD films of heparin/isopropanol mixtures, and in contact with SF6 plasma-treated PVC, increased by about 60 and 20%, respectively, compared to the values measured with untreated samples.

  17. Modifications of blood platelet proteins of patients with schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietrich-Muszalska, Anna; Olas, Beata

    2009-03-01

    Oxidative damage to lipids in plasma, blood platelets and neurons in patients with schizophrenia was described. The aim of our present study was to evaluate oxidative/nitrative modifications of blood platelets proteins by measurement the level of biomarkers of oxidative stress such as carbonyl groups, thiol groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in proteins in patients with schizophrenia and compare with a control group. Levels of carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine residues in platelet proteins were measured by ELISA and competition ELISA, respectively. The method with 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid) has been used to analyse thiol groups in platelet proteins. We demonstrated for the first time in platelet proteins from patients with schizophrenia a statistically significant increase of the level of biomarkers of oxidative/nitrative stress such as carbonyl groups or 3-nitrotyrosine; in schizophrenic patients the amount of thiol groups in platelet proteins was lower than in platelets from healthy subjects. Our results strongly indicate that in patients with schizophrenia reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species induce not only peroxidation of lipids, but also may stimulate oxidative/nitrative modifications of platelet proteins. The consequence of these modifications may be the alteration of platelet protein structure and function.

  18. Seasonal effects on the hematology and blood plasma proteins of two species of mice Mus musculus domesticus and M. spretus (Rodentia: Muridae from Portugal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    António Mira

    1994-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Blood samples were taken from Mus musculus domesticus (Rutty, 1772 and M. spretus (Lataste, 1883, live-trapped at one month intervals, from September 88 to July 89, in the district of Lisbon, Portugal. The seasonal hematological variations in the commensal species, M. musculus domesticus, were characterized by an increase in red blood cells, hemoglobin and hematocrit values in winter which reverse during summer. On the contrary, in M. spretus hematocrit values slightly change throughout the year. In both species the albumin/globulin ratio was low in spring and high in autumn. These results were analysed and discussed taking into account environmental factors and physiological conditions of mice. Riassunto Effetti stagionali sull'ematologia e le proteine del plasma di Mus musculus domesticus e M. spretus (Rodentia: Muridae in Portogallo - I campioni di sangue provengono da individui di Mus musculus domesticus (Rutty, 1772 e M. spretus (Lataste, 1883. Gli animali sono stati catturati vivi ogni mese, da settembre 88 a luglio 89, nel distretto di Lisbona, in Portogallo. Le variazioni stagionali ematologiche nella specie commensale, M. m. domesticus, sono caratterizzate da un incremento di cellule rosse del sangue, di emoglobina e dei valori di ematocrito in inverno che assumono un andamento opposto in estate. Al contrario, in M. spretus i valori di ematocrito non cambiano sensibilmente durante tutto l'anno. In entrambe le specie il rapporto albumina/globulina risulta basso in primavera e alto in autunno. Questi risultati sono stati analizzati e discussi tenendo conto dei fattori ambientali e le condizioni fisiologiche dei topi.

  19. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian;

    2015-01-01

    the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from......) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old...

  20. Statistical analysis of polarizing maps of blood plasma laser images for the diagnostics of malignant formations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ungurian, V. P.; Ivashchuk, O. I.; Ushenko, V. O.

    2012-01-01

    This work is aimed at searching the interconnections between the statistic structure of blood plasma microscopic images and manifestations of optical anisotropy of liquid crystal protein network. The model of linear birefringence of albumin and globulin crystals underlies in the ground of this work. The results of investigating the interrelation between statistical moments of the 1st-4th order are presented that characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization ellipticity of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in human organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency and its severity degree differentiation are determined.

  1. Method for breast cancer diagnosis by phase spectrophotometry of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibility of breast cancer diagnostics by means of phase structure measurements of laser radiation transformed by human blood plasma samples. The theoretical fundamentals of polarization filtration method for direct phase shifts measurements of microscopic images are provided. The optical model of polycrystalline networks of blood plasma proteins is suggested. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of statistical (statistical moments of the 1st-4th order), correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of phase shifts between the orthogonal components of the amplitude in the points of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological changes in the mammary gland tissue. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  2. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak;

    2012-01-01

    , a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were......Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover...... design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P

  3. Integrated separation of blood plasma from whole blood for microfluidic paper-based analytical devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaoxi; Forouzan, Omid; Brown, Theodore P; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S

    2012-01-21

    Many diagnostic tests in a conventional clinical laboratory are performed on blood plasma because changes in its composition often reflect the current status of pathological processes throughout the body. Recently, a significant research effort has been invested into the development of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) implementing these conventional laboratory tests for point-of-care diagnostics in resource-limited settings. This paper describes the use of red blood cell (RBC) agglutination for separating plasma from finger-prick volumes of whole blood directly in paper, and demonstrates the utility of this approach by integrating plasma separation and a colorimetric assay in a single μPAD. The μPAD was fabricated by printing its pattern onto chromatography paper with a solid ink (wax) printer and melting the ink to create hydrophobic barriers spanning through the entire thickness of the paper substrate. The μPAD was functionalized by spotting agglutinating antibodies onto the plasma separation zone in the center and the reagents of the colorimetric assay onto the test readout zones on the periphery of the device. To operate the μPAD, a drop of whole blood was placed directly onto the plasma separation zone of the device. RBCs in the whole blood sample agglutinated and remained in the central zone, while separated plasma wicked through the paper substrate into the test readout zones where analyte in plasma reacted with the reagents of the colorimetric assay to produce a visible color change. The color change was digitized with a portable scanner and converted to concentration values using a calibration curve. The purity and yield of separated plasma was sufficient for successful operation of the μPAD. This approach to plasma separation based on RBC agglutination will be particularly useful for designing fully integrated μPADs operating directly on small samples of whole blood.

  4. Comparative proteomics evaluation of plasma exosome isolation techniques and assessment of the stability of exosomes in normal human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalra, Hina; Adda, Christopher G; Liem, Michael; Ang, Ching-Seng; Mechler, Adam; Simpson, Richard J; Hulett, Mark D; Mathivanan, Suresh

    2013-11-01

    Exosomes are nanovesicles released by a variety of cells and are detected in body fluids including blood. Recent studies have highlighted the critical application of exosomes as personalized targeted drug delivery vehicles and as reservoirs of disease biomarkers. While these research applications have created significant interest and can be translated into practice, the stability of exosomes needs to be assessed and exosome isolation protocols from blood plasma need to be optimized. To optimize methods to isolate exosomes from blood plasma, we performed a comparative evaluation of three exosome isolation techniques (differential centrifugation coupled with ultracentrifugation, epithelial cell adhesion molecule immunoaffinity pull-down, and OptiPrep(TM) density gradient separation) using normal human plasma. Based on MS, Western blotting and microscopy results, we found that the OptiPrep(TM) density gradient method was superior in isolating pure exosomal populations, devoid of highly abundant plasma proteins. In addition, we assessed the stability of exosomes in plasma over 90 days under various storage conditions. Western blotting analysis using the exosomal marker, TSG101, revealed that exosomes are stable for 90 days. Interestingly, in the context of cellular uptake, the isolated exosomes were able to fuse with target cells revealing that they were indeed biologically active.

  5. Microdevice for plasma separation from whole human blood using bio-physical and geometrical effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Kumar, Y. V. BalaVarun; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.

    2016-01-01

    In this research work, we present a simple and efficient passive microfluidic device for plasma separation from pure blood. The microdevice has been fabricated using conventional photolithography technique on a single layer of polydimethylsiloxane, and has been extensively tested on whole blood and enhanced (upto 62%) hematocrit levels of human blood. The microdevice employs elevated dimensions of about 100 μm; such elevated dimensions ensure clog-free operation of the microdevice and is relatively easy to fabricate. We show that our microdevice achieves almost 100% separation efficiency on undiluted blood in the flow rate range of 0.3 to 0.5 ml/min. Detailed biological characterization of the plasma obtained from the microdevice is carried out by testing: proteins by ultra-violet spectrophotometric method, hCG (human chorionic gonadotropin) hormone, and conducting random blood glucose test. Additionally, flow cytometry study has also been carried on the separated plasma. These tests attest to the high quality of plasma recovered. The microdevice developed in this work is an outcome of extensive experimental research on understanding the flow behavior and separation phenomenon of blood in microchannels. The microdevice is compact, economical and effective, and is particularly suited in continuous flow operations. PMID:27279146

  6. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    and 5 days after rapid, passive transport to high altitude (4,559 m). Acute mountain sickness scores ranged from 5 to 16 (maximal attainable score: 20) on the first day but were reduced to 0-8 by the fifth day. Systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and plasma epinephrine increased on day 1 at altitude...... compared with sea level but declined again on day 5, whereas diastolic and mean blood pressures continued to rise in parallel with plasma norepinephrine. With local cooling, an increased vasoactive response was seen on the fifth day at altitude. Very high pressures were obtained, and the pressure elevation...

  7. Plasma protein haptoglobin modulates renal iron loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagoonee, Sharmila; Gburek, Jakub; Hirsch, Emilio

    2005-01-01

    Haptoglobin is the plasma protein with the highest binding affinity for hemoglobin. The strength of hemoglobin binding and the existence of a specific receptor for the haptoglobin-hemoglobin complex in the monocyte/macrophage system clearly suggest that haptoglobin may have a crucial role in heme...... distribution of hemoglobin in haptoglobin-deficient mice resulted in abnormal iron deposits in proximal tubules during aging. Moreover, iron also accumulated in proximal tubules after renal ischemia-reperfusion injury or after an acute plasma heme-protein overload caused by muscle injury, without affecting...... morphological and functional parameters of renal damage. These data demonstrate that haptoglobin crucially prevents glomerular filtration of hemoglobin and, consequently, renal iron loading during aging and following acute plasma heme-protein overload....

  8. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood, and Dried Blood Spot Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart A; Chernyak, Sergey; Su, Feng-Chiao

    2016-01-01

    The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs) is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS). Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs). Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models. Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R (2) > 0.80), and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  9. Measurement and Comparison of Organic Compound Concentrations in Plasma, Whole Blood and Dried Blood Spot Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stuart A Batterman

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The preferred sampling medium for measuring human exposures of persistent organic compounds (POPs is blood, and relevant sample types include whole blood, plasma, and dried blood spots (DBS. Because information regarding the performance and comparability of measurements across these sample types is limited, it is difficult to compare across studies. This study evaluates the performance of POP measurements in plasma, whole blood and DBS, and presents the distribution coefficients needed to convert concentrations among the three sample types. Blood samples were collected from adult volunteers, along with demographic and smoking information, and analyzed by GC/MS for organochlorine pesticides (OCPs, chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, and brominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs. Regression models were used to evaluate the relationships between the sample types and possible effects of personal covariates. Distribution coefficients also were calculated using physically-based models.Across all compounds, concentrations in plasma were consistently the highest; concentrations in whole blood and DBS samples were comparable. Distribution coefficients for plasma to whole blood concentrations ranged from 1.74 to 2.26 for pesticides/CHCs, averaged 1.69 ± 0.06 for the PCBs, and averaged 1.65 ± 0.03 for the PBDEs. Regression models closely fit most chemicals (R2 > 0.80, and whole blood and DBS samples generally showed very good agreement. Distribution coefficients estimated using biologically-based models were near one and did not explain the observed distribution. Among the study population, median concentrations of several pesticides/CHCs and PBDEs exceeded levels reported in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, while levels of other OCPs and PBDEs were comparable or lower. Race and smoking status appeared to slightly affect plasma/blood concentration ratios for several POPs. The experimentally

  10. Effect of anticoagulants and glucose on refractometric estimation of protein in canine and rabbit plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubin, S; Hunt, P

    1978-10-01

    The effect of ethylenediaminetetraacetate (EDTA) compounds on the refractometric estimation of plasma protein concentration was attributed largely to osmotic fluid shifts, as reflected in changes in hematocrit, and to addition of total solids to the plasma. With H4EDTA, these two mechanisms were additive and caused increased plasma protein readings of significant magnitude even at recommended (1--2 mg/ml) anticoagulant concentrations. For the potassium and sodium salts, the two mechanisms were partly compensatory, which ameliorated the effect at 1--2 mg/ml concentration. At higher concentrations, such as might occur if a blood collecting tube were incompletely filled, all of the EDTA compounds caused technically significant over-estimation of plasma protein. When dextrose (d-glucose) was added in-vitro to canine blood, in amounts analogous to clinical hyperglycemia, the effect upon plasma protein estimation was minimal.

  11. Proteomic methodological recommendations for studies involving human plasma, platelets, and peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Roos, Baukje; Duthie, Susan J; Polley, Abigael C J; Mulholland, Francis; Bouwman, Freek G; Heim, Carolin; Rucklidge, Garry J; Johnson, Ian T; Mariman, Edwin C; Daniel, Hannelore; Elliott, Ruan M

    2008-06-01

    This study was designed to develop, optimize and validate protocols for blood processing prior to proteomic analysis of plasma, platelets and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and to determine analytical variation of a single sample of depleted plasma, platelet and PBMC proteins within and between four laboratories each using their own standard operating protocols for 2D gel electrophoresis. Plasma depleted either using the Beckman Coulter IgY-12 proteome partitioning kit or the Amersham albumin and IgG depletion columns gave good quality gels, but reproducibility appeared better with the single-use immuno-affinity column. The use of the Millipore Filter Device for protein concentration gave a 16% ( p appears as a single abundant spot. The average within-laboratory coefficient of variation (CV) for each of the matched spots after automatic matching using either PDQuest or ProteomWeaver software ranged between 18 and 69% for depleted plasma proteins, between 21 and 55% for platelet proteins, and between 22 and 38% for PBMC proteins. Subsequent manual matching improved the CV with on average between 1 and 16%. The average between laboratory CV for each of the matched spots after automatic matching ranged between 4 and 54% for depleted plasma proteins, between 5 and 60% for platelet proteins, and between 18 and 70% for PBMC proteins. This variation must be considered when designing sufficiently powered studies that use proteomics tools for biomarker discovery. The use of tricine in the running buffer for the second dimension appears to enhance the resolution of proteins especially in the high molecular weight range.

  12. Plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Pavel; Terry, Mary Beth; Gammon, Marilie D; Agrawal, Meenakshi; Zhang, Fang Fang; Ferris, Jennifer S; Teitelbaum, Susan L; Eng, Sybil M; Gaudet, Mia M; Neugut, Alfred I; Santella, Regina M

    2007-01-01

    To study the role of oxidative stress in breast cancer risk, we analysed plasma levels of protein carbonyls in 1050 cases and 1107 controls. We found a statistically significant trend in breast cancer risk in relation to increasing quartiles of plasma protein carbonyl levels (OR = 1.2, 95% CI = 0.9-1.5; OR = 1.5, 95% CI = 1.2-2.0; OR = 1.6, 95% CI = 1.2-2.1, for the 2(nd), 3(rd) and 4(th) quartile relative to the lowest quartile, respectively, P for trend = 0.0001). The increase in risk was similar for younger ( or = 15 grams/day for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile OR = 2.3, 95% CI = 1.1-4.7), and hormone replacement therapy use (HRT, OR = 2.6, 95% CI = 1.6-4.4 for 4(th) quartile versus lowest quartile). The multiplicative interaction terms were statistically significant only for physical activity and HRT. The positive association between plasma protein carbonyl levels and breast cancer risk was also observed when the analysis was restricted to women who had not received chemotherapy or radiation therapy prior to blood collection. Among controls, oxidized protein levels significantly increased with cigarette smoking and higher fruit and vegetable consumption, and decreased with alcohol consumption >30 grams per day. Women with higher levels of plasma protein carbonyl and urinary 15F(2t)-isoprostane had an 80% increase in breast cancer risk (OR = 1.8, 95% CI = 1.2-2.6) compared to women with levels below the median for both markers of oxidative stress. In summary, our results suggest that increased plasma protein carbonyl levels may be associated with breast cancer risk.

  13. Computational lipidology: predicting lipoprotein density profiles in human blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katrin Hübner

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring cholesterol levels is strongly recommended to identify patients at risk for myocardial infarction. However, clinical markers beyond "bad" and "good" cholesterol are needed to precisely predict individual lipid disorders. Our work contributes to this aim by bringing together experiment and theory. We developed a novel computer-based model of the human plasma lipoprotein metabolism in order to simulate the blood lipid levels in high resolution. Instead of focusing on a few conventionally used predefined lipoprotein density classes (LDL, HDL, we consider the entire protein and lipid composition spectrum of individual lipoprotein complexes. Subsequently, their distribution over density (which equals the lipoprotein profile is calculated. As our main results, we (i successfully reproduced clinically measured lipoprotein profiles of healthy subjects; (ii assigned lipoproteins to narrow density classes, named high-resolution density sub-fractions (hrDS, revealing heterogeneous lipoprotein distributions within the major lipoprotein classes; and (iii present model-based predictions of changes in the lipoprotein distribution elicited by disorders in underlying molecular processes. In its present state, the model offers a platform for many future applications aimed at understanding the reasons for inter-individual variability, identifying new sub-fractions of potential clinical relevance and a patient-oriented diagnosis of the potential molecular causes for individual dyslipidemia.

  14. Redox regulation of protein damage in plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helen R. Griffiths

    2014-01-01

    In this review, we focus on redox regulatory control of those enzymes and processes which control protein maturation during synthesis, produce reactive species, repair and remove damaged plasma proteins. We have highlighted the potential for alterations in the extracellular redox compartment to regulate intracellular redox state and, conversely, for intracellular oxidative stress to alter the cellular secretome and composition of extracellular vesicles. Through secreted, redox-active regulatory molecules, changes in redox state may be transmitted to distant sites.

  15. Stability of catecholamines in whole blood, plasma, and platelets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, T B; Smith, C C; Round, J M; Betteridge, D J

    1986-05-01

    Checking catecholamine stability in whole blood, plasma, and platelets, we found that specimens stored at room temperature or frozen for periods ranging from 1.5 h to three weeks show no significant difference in measured catecholamine concentration. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  16. Early Diagnosis of Intestinal Ischemia Using Urinary and Plasma Fatty Acid Binding Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thuijls, Geertje; van Wijck, Kim; Grootjans, Joep; Derikx, Joep P. M.; van Bijnen, Annemarie A.; Heineman, Erik; Dejong, Cornelis H. C.; Buurman, Wim A.; Poeze, Martijn

    2011-01-01

    Objective: This study aims at improving diagnosis of intestinal ischemia, by measuring plasma and urinary fatty acid binding protein (FABP) levels. Methods: Fifty consecutive patients suspected of intestinal ischemia were included and blood and urine were sampled at time of suspicion. Plasma and uri

  17. How to Motivate Whole Blood Donors to Become Plasma Donors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaston Godin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study tested the efficacy of interventions to recruit new plasma donors among whole blood donors. A sample of 924 donors was randomized to one of three conditions: control; information only by nurse; and information plus self-positive image message by nurse (SPI. Participants in the control condition only received a leaflet describing the plasma donation procedure. In the two experimental conditions the leaflet was explained face-to-face by a nurse. The dependent variables were the proportion of new plasma donors and the number of donations at six months. Overall, 141 (15.3% new plasma donors were recruited at six months. There were higher proportions of new plasma donors in the two experimental conditions compared to the control condition (P<.001; the two experimental conditions did not differ. Also, compared to the control condition, those in the experimental conditions (all Ps<.001 gave plasma more often (information only by nurse:  d=.26; SPI: d=.32; the SPI intervention significantly outperformed (P<.05 the information only by nurse condition. The results suggest that references to feelings of SPI such as feeling good and being proud and that giving plasma is a rewarding personal experience favor a higher frequency of plasma donation.

  18. Classical scrapie prions in ovine blood are associated with B lymphocytes and platelet-rich plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dassanayake Rohana P

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy of sheep and goats characterized by cellular accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrPSc in the central nervous system and the follicles of peripheral lymphoid tissues. Previous studies have shown that the whole blood and buffy coat blood fraction of scrapie infected sheep harbor prion infectivity. Although PrPSc has been detected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs, plasma, and more recently within a subpopulation of B lymphocytes, the infectivity status of these cells and plasma in sheep remains unknown. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine whether circulating PBMCs, B lymphocytes and platelets from classical scrapie infected sheep harbor prion infectivity using a sheep bioassay. Results Serial rectal mucosal biopsy and immunohistochemistry were used to detect preclinical infection in lambs transfused with whole blood or blood cell fractions from preclinical or clinical scrapie infected sheep. PrPSc immunolabeling was detected in antemortem rectal and postmortem lymphoid tissues from recipient lambs receiving PBMCs (15/15, CD72+ B lymphocytes (3/3, CD21+ B lymphocytes (3/3 or platelet-rich plasma (2/3 fractions. As expected, whole blood (11/13 and buffy coat (5/5 recipients showed positive PrPSc labeling in lymphoid follicles. However, at 549 days post-transfusion, PrPSc was not detected in rectal or other lymphoid tissues in three sheep receiving platelet-poor plasma fraction. Conclusions Prion infectivity was detected in circulating PBMCs, CD72+ pan B lymphocytes, the CD21+ subpopulation of B lymphocytes and platelet-rich plasma of classical scrapie infected sheep using a sheep bioassay. Combining platelets with B lymphocytes might enhance PrPSc detection levels in blood samples.

  19. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savelyeva, Anna V; Kuligina, Elena V; Bariakin, Dmitry N; Kozlov, Vadim V; Ryabchikova, Elena I; Richter, Vladimir A; Semenov, Dmitry V

    2017-01-01

    Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs' fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches.

  20. Diagnosis of breast cancer by polarization cartography of human blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mintser, Ozar P.; Oliinychenko, B. P.

    2012-01-01

    The possibilities of polarization-optical diagnostics of plasma protein structures changes, which are connected with the breast pathologies, were investigated. As the main investigation object it has been used the coordinate structure of polarization states distributions of blood plasma images. The results were obtained by means of novel technique of digital polarimetry. The results of investigating the interrelation between the values of correlation (correlation area, asymmetry coefficient and autocorrelation function excess) and fractal (dispersion of logarithmic dependencies of power spectra) parameters are presented. They characterize the coordinate distributions of polarization azimuth of laser images of blood plasma smears and pathological state of the organism. The diagnostic criteria of breast cancer nascency are determined.

  1. Novel blood protein based scaffolds for cardiovascular tissue engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuhn Antonia I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A major challenge in cardiovascular tissue engineering is the fabrication of scaffolds, which provide appropriate morphological and mechanical properties while avoiding undesirable immune reactions. In this study electrospinning was used to fabricate scaffolds out of blood proteins for cardiovascular tissue engineering. Lyophilised porcine plasma was dissolved in deionised water at a final concentration of 7.5% m/v and blended with 3.7% m/v PEO. Electrospinning resulted in homogeneous fibre morphologies with a mean fibre diameter of 151 nm, which could be adapted to create macroscopic shapes (mats, tubes. Cross-linking with glutaraldehyde vapour improved the long-term stability of protein based scaffolds in comparison to untreated scaffolds, resulting in a mass loss of 41% and 96% after 28 days of incubation in aqueous solution, respectively.

  2. Plasma membrane electron transport in frog blood vessels

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rashmi P Rao; K Nalini; J Prakasa Rao

    2009-12-01

    In an attempt to see if frog blood vessels possess a plasma membrane electron transport system, the postcaval vein and aorta isolated from Rana tigrina were tested for their ability to reduce ferricyanide, methylene blue, and 2,6-dichloroindophenol. While the dyes remained unchanged, ferricyanide was reduced to ferrocyanide. This reduction was resistant to inhibition by cyanide and azide. Heptane extraction or formalin fixation of the tissues markedly reduced the capability to reduce ferricyanide. Denuded aortas retained only 30% of the activity of intact tissue. Our results indicate that the amphibian postcaval vein and aorta exhibit plasma membrane electron transport

  3. Age-related differences in plasma proteins: how plasma proteins change from neonates to adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Ignjatovic

    Full Text Available The incidence of major diseases such as cardiovascular disease, thrombosis and cancer increases with age and is the major cause of mortality world-wide, with neonates and children somehow protected from such diseases of ageing. We hypothesized that there are major developmental differences in plasma proteins and that these contribute to age-related changes in the incidence of major diseases. We evaluated the human plasma proteome in healthy neonates, children and adults using the 2D-DIGE approach. We demonstrate significant changes in number and abundance of up to 100 protein spots that have marked differences in during the transition of the plasma proteome from neonate and child through to adult. These proteins are known to be involved in numerous physiological processes such as iron transport and homeostasis, immune response, haemostasis and apoptosis, amongst others. Importantly, we determined that the proteins that are differentially expressed with age are not the same proteins that are differentially expressed with gender and that the degree of phosphorylation of plasma proteins also changes with age. Given the multi-functionality of these proteins in human physiology, understanding the differences in the plasma proteome in neonates and children compared to adults will make a major contribution to our understanding of developmental biology in humans.

  4. [Effect of water on silica gel adsorption of blood plasma components].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gall', L N; Malakhova, M Ia; Melenevskaia, E Iu; Podosenova, N G; Sharonova, L V

    2011-01-01

    In this work, the study of properties of silica gel as an adsorbent for plasmasorption has been performed. Investigations have been realized of the effect of silica gel preliminary treatment conditions and a period of plasma with silica gel contact on plasmasorption characteristics of human blood plasma components, such as protein, triglycerides, cholesterol (high-density and low-density one). The results obtained can be used for variation of silica gel adsorption properties, in situ at the adsorbent preparation process. For explanation of the experimental concentration and kinetic (temporal) characteristics of plasmasorption, the model of silica gel grains charging at the hydration was used.

  5. Increased capillary permeability for plasma proteins in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Kvenild, K; Strand, H; Oian, P; Maltau, J M

    1992-05-01

    The transcapillary fluid balance was examined in eleven women before administration of a monophasic oral contraceptive (desogestrel 0.15 mg, ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg), and after three and six months of use. The interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured by the "wick" method, and the interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method in subcutaneous tissue on thorax and leg. During the six-month observation period, the following changes were observed: Plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased (mean 1.8 mmHg, p = 0.047), as well as serum albumin (mean 5.1 g/l, p = 0.0006), total protein concentration (mean 2.8 g/l, p = 0.0006), hemoglobin (mean 0.5 g/dl, p = 0.014) and hematocrit (mean 1.8%, p = 0.047). Blood pressure and body weight remained unchanged, but foot volume showed a significant increase. The colloid osmotic pressure gradient (plasma-interstitium) was significantly reduced. The results indicate an increase in plasma volume in addition to an increased capillary permeability to plasma proteins during oral contraceptive use. We suggest that the observed changes in transcapillary fluid balance is caused by the estrogen component of the oral contraceptive pill.

  6. Proteins of the canine seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annice Aquino-Cortez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Studies have been performed to identify the proteins present in canine seminal plasma (SP and relate them to sperm quality as well as to discover molecular markers of reproductive tract diseases. There is evidence that heparin-binding proteins, zinc-binding proteins, and lactoferrin as well as the matrix metalloproteinase, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase enzymes are associated with canine sperm quality. Other studies indicate that prolactin and enzymes like arginine esterase, acid phosphatase, and alkaline phosphatase could be successfully used as biomarkers of reproductive disorders. Thus, the present literature review aims to address aspects related to proteins of the canine SP, their influence on fertility, and their importance as biomarkers of reproductive disorders.

  7. Soluble Proteins Form Film by the Treatment of Low Temperature Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikehara, Sanae; Sakakita, Hajime; Ishikawa, Kenji; Akimoto, Yoshihiro; Nakanishi, Hayao; Shimizu, Nobuyuki; Hori, Masaru; Ikehara, Yuzuru

    2015-09-01

    It has been pointed out that low temperature plasma in atmosphere was feasible to use for hemostasis without heat injury. Indeed, earlier studies demonstrated that low temperature plasma played an important role to stimulate platelets to aggregate and turned on the proteolytic activities of coagulation factors, resulting in the acceleration of the natural blood coagulation process. On the other hands, our developed equips could immediately form clots upon the contact with plasma flair, while the histological appearance was different from natural coagulation. Based on these findings in formed clots, we sought to determine if plasma flair supplied by our devices was capable of forming film using a series of soluble proteins Following plasma treatment, films were formed from bovine serum albumin, and the other plasma proteins at physiological concentration. Analysis of trans-electron microscope demonstrated that plasma treatment generated small protein particles and made them fuse to be larger aggregations The combined results demonstrated that plasma are capable of aggregating soluble proteins and that platelets and coagulation factors are not necessary for plasma induced blood coagulation. Supported in part by Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research on Priority Area (21590454, 24590498, and 24108006 to Y. I.).

  8. Effects of garcinol and guttiferone K isolated from Garcinia cambogia on oxidative/nitrative modifications in blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Masullo, Milena; Olas, Beata; Piacente, Sonia; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2009-11-01

    The effects of garcinol and guttiferone K, two polyisoprenylated benzophenones occurring a food plant called Garcinia cambogia, on oxidative/nitrative protein damage (determined by parameters such as levels of protein carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)) were studied in vitro. We also investigated the effects of garcinol and guttiferone K on lipid peroxidation in blood platelets and plasma induced by ONOO(-) (100 microM). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to peroxynitrite (100 microM) resulted in an increased level of carbonyl groups and nitrotyrosine residues in proteins, and an increase of lipid peroxidation measured by the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS). In the presence of garcinol and guttiferone K (0.1-25 microg/ml), a distinct reduction in the formation of carbonyl groups in plasma and platelet proteins together with the decrease of TBARS caused by 100 microM peroxynitrite, was observed. However, garcinol and guttiferone K did not inhibit plasma and platelet protein nitration induced by peroxynitrite. Polyisoprenylated benzophenones present in human diet such as garcinol or guttiferone K in vitro have protective effects against lipid and protein oxidation and may have some promising effects in vivo because they are good antioxidants in the tested models in vitro. Garcinol and guttiferone K can be also useful as protecting factors against diseases associated with oxidative stress.

  9. Measuring the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma using potentiometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessutti, L S; Macedo, D V; Kubota, L T; Alves, A A

    2013-10-15

    The use of potentiometry to measure plasma antioxidant capacity to contribute to oxidative stress evaluation is presented. In this assay, plasma (n=60) diluted (0.3 to 1 ml) in phosphate buffer, pH 7.4, NaCl 9%, was submitted to potentiometry. A platinum wire was the working electrode and saturated calomel the reference. The results are presented as the difference between sample and buffer potential (ΔE). ΔE presented a good inverse correlation with added increasing concentrations of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L; R=-0.99), urate (9.0-150 μmol/L; R=-0.99), and bilirubin (0.78-13 μmol/L; R=-0.99). Increase in the antioxidant capacity decreased ΔE. Depletion of the antioxidant capacity by tert-butylhydroperoxide (6.5-50 μmol/L) presented a direct correlation (0.97) with ΔE. Furthermore, ΔE presented an inverse correlation (R=-0.99) with increased antioxidant capacity of plasma (FRAP) induced by the addition of ascorbate (2.5-75 μmol/L). The response of the potentiometric method proved be adequate for measuring the plasma antioxidant depletion induced by acute exhaustive exercise in rats (control, n=15; exercised, n=15). This exercise decreased the concentration of urate (ppotentiometry for evaluating the antioxidant capacity of blood plasma samples.

  10. Identification of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Talens (Simone); F.W.G. Leebeek (Frank); J.A.A. Demmers (Jeroen); D.C. Rijken (Dingeman)

    2012-01-01

    textabstractSeveral proteins are known to bind to a fibrin network and to change clot properties or function. In this study we aimed to get an overview of fibrin clot-bound plasma proteins. A plasma clot was formed by adding thrombin, CaCl2 and aprotinin to citrated platelet-poor plasma and unbound

  11. Nanoliter viscometer for analyzing blood plasma and other liquid samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Nimisha; Davenport, Robertson D; Burns, Mark A

    2005-01-15

    We have developed a microfabricated nanoliter capillary viscometer that quickly, easily, and inexpensively measures the viscosity of liquids. The measurement of viscosity is based on capillary pressure-driven flow inside microfluidic channels (depth approximately 30 microm and width approximately 300 microm). Accurate and precise viscosity measurements can be made in less than 100 s while using only 600 nL of liquid sample. The silicon-glass hybrid device (18 mm by 15 mm) contains on-chip components that measure the driving capillary pressure difference and the relevant geometrical parameters; these components make the nanoliter viscometer completely self-calibrating, robust, and easy to use. Several different microfabricated viscometers were tested using solutions with viscosities ranging from 1 to 5 cP, a range relevant to biological fluids (urine, blood, blood plasma, etc.). Blood plasma samples collected from patients with the symptoms of hyperviscosity syndrome were tested on the nanoliter capillary viscometer to an accuracy of 3%. Such self-calibrating nanoliter viscometers may have widespread applications in chemical, biological, and medical laboratories as well as in personal health care.

  12. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  13. Long term alterations of blood plasma albumin in Chernobyl clean-up workers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inta Kalnina

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Albumin is the most generously represented protein in human blood plasma. Therefore it is important to follow and assess the transport function of albumin in clinic researches. Disturbances in structural/functional properties of albumin play an important role in the pathogenesis of various diseases and immune state in patients. Changes in albumin transformation can serve as a diagnostic and prognostic criterion in pathologies. ABM (3-aminobenzanthrone derivative developed at the Daugavpils University, Latvia has been previously shown as a potential biomarker for determination of the immune state of patients with different pathologies. The aim of this study was to determine the several aspects of plasma albumin alterations in the group of Chernobyl clean-up workers in long term period in relation with humans having no professional contact with radioactivity. The following parameters were examined: (1 spectral characteristics of ABM in blood plasma; (2 and #8216;effective and #8217; and total albumin (EA and TA concentration in blood plasma; (3 quantitative parameters of albumin auto-fluorescence; (4 albumin binding site characteristics. Screening of the individuals with a period of 25-26 years after the work in Chernobyl revealed two groups of patients differing in structural and functional albumin properties; first on conformations of plasma albumin, and second characteristics of tryptophanyl region of the molecule. The revealed structural modifications of albumin are dependent on radiation-induced factors. Concomitant diseases such as diabetes mellitus or cardio-vascular diseases reinforce radiation-induced effects. In conclusion, ABM is a sensitive probe for albumin alterations and can be used to elucidate the changes in protein systems. Significant differences in albumin dynamics exist between control (donors and groups of Chernobyl clean-up workers. [J Exp Integr Med 2014; 4(3.000: 165-170

  14. 阿托伐他汀对高血压前期合并高脂血症患者血压及妊娠相关血浆蛋白A的影响%Impact of Atorvastatin Therapy on Blood Pressure and Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein A in Patients with Prehypertension and Hyperlipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江文艳; 宋巧凤; 王希柱; 郭永辉

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the therapeutic effects of atorvastatin on blood pressure and pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP - A ) in patients with prehypertension and hyperlipidemia. Methods Eighty patients with prehyperten-sion and hyperlipidemia were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into the treatment group and the control group. The control group was treated with placebo and the treatment group was treated with atorvastatin for 12 weeks. Blood pressure, pregnancy associated plasma protein A and lipid levels were checked after treatment and compared between the two groups. Results After 12 weeks of treatment, blood pressure, total cholesterol level ( TC ), triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein cholesterol level ( LDL - C ) and pregnancy associated plasma protein A ( PAPP - A ) were significantly decreased ( P 0. 05 ). Conclusion Intervention treatment with atorvastatin is one of the effective measures that decrease blood pressure and pregnancy associated plasma protein A in patients with prehypertension.%目的 探讨阿托伐他汀对高血压前期合并高脂血症患者血压及妊娠相关血浆蛋白A(PAPP-A)的影响.方法 将体检发现的80例高血压前期合并高脂血症患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组进行12周阿托伐他汀药物干预性治疗;对照组给予安慰剂治疗.观察两组患者治疗前后血压、血脂及PAPP-A水平的变化.结果 治疗12周后,治疗组血压、血清总胆固醇(TC)、三酰甘油(TG)、低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)及PAPP-A水平较治疗前及对照组均有明显下降(P<0.05),血清高密度脂蛋白胆固醇(HDL-C)较治疗前及对照组明显上升(P<0.05),而对照组治疗前后上述指标均无明显变化(P>0.05).结论 阿托伐他汀在有效降脂的同时,可以降低高血压前期患者的血压及PAPP-A水平.

  15. Plasma selenium status in a group of Australian blood donors and fresh blood components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Charles; Colebourne, Kathryn; Faddy, Helen M; Flower, Robert; Fraser, John F

    2013-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess plasma selenium levels in an Australian blood donor population and measure extra-cellular selenium levels in fresh manufactured blood components. Selenium levels were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry with Zeeman background correction. The mean plasma selenium level in healthy plasmapharesis donors was 85.6±0.5 μg/L and a regional difference was observed between donors in South East Queensland and Far North Queensland. Although participants had selenium levels within the normal range (55.3-110.5 μg/L), 88.5% had levels below 100 μg/L, a level that has been associated with sub-optimal activity of the antioxidant enzyme glutathione peroxidase (GPx). Extra-cellular selenium levels in clinical fresh frozen plasma (cFFP) and apheresis-derived platelets (APH Plt) were within the normal range. Packed red blood cells (PRBC) and pooled buffy coat-derived platelets (BC Plt) had levels at the lower limit of detection, which may have clinical implications to the massively transfused patient.

  16. Nitrite-induced methemoglobinaemia affects blood ionized and total magnesium level by hydrolysis of plasma adenosine triphosphate in rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md Mizanur; Kim, Shang-Jin; Kim, Gi-Beum; Hong, Chul-Un; Lee, Young-Up; Kim, Sung-Zoo; Kim, Jin-Shang; Kang, Hyung-Sub

    2009-11-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of sodium nitrite (NaNO(2))-induced methemoglobinaemia on plasma ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and corresponding changes of blood-ionized magnesium (iMg(2+)) as well as total magnesium (tMg(2+)) in a time-dependent manner. This study was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to which NaNO(2) was injected (10 mg/kg i.p.) to induce methemoglobinaemia. Methemoglobin (MetHb) in blood was measured before (0 min.) and after 10, 30, 60 and 120 min. of NaNO(2) injection. At respective time points, the tMg(2+), blood ions and gases were measured by atomic absorption spectrometry and ion selective electrode, respectively. Haematological parameters were checked by automatic blood cell count, and blood films were observed under light microscope. Plasma ATP was measured by bioluminescence assay using a luminometer, and plasma proteins were measured by an automatic analyser. Blood cell count (RBC, WBC and platelet), haematocrit, and haemoglobin were found to be decreased with the advancement of MetHb concentration. With the gradual increase of MetHb concentration, the plasma ATP decreased and blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) increased significantly as time passed by in comparison with the pre-drug values. A significant decrease of the ratio of ionized calcium to iMg(2+), Na(+) and increase of K(+) was observed. In conclusion, NaNO(2)-induced methemoglobinaemia is a cause of hydrolysis of plasma ATP which is responsible for the increase of blood iMg(2+) and plasma tMg(2+) in rats.

  17. Characterization of thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Pin-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Chun; Young, Kung-Chia

    2016-09-01

    In this study, we developed a fully thermoplastic microfiltration chip for the separation of blood plasma from human blood. Spiral microchannels were manufactured on a PMMA substrate using a micromilling machine, and a commercial polycarbonate membrane was bonded between two thermoplastic substrates. To achieve an excellent bonding between the commercial membrane and the thermoplastic substrates, we used a two-step injection and curing procedure of UV adhesive into a ring-shaped structure around the microchannel to efficiently prevent leakage during blood filtration. We performed multiple filtration experiments using human blood to compare the influence of three factors on separation efficiency: hematocrit level (40%, 23.2%, and 10.9%), membrane pore size (5 μm, 2 μm, and 1 μm), and flow rate (0.02 ml/min, 0.06 ml/min, 0.1 ml/min). To prevent hemolysis, the pressure within the microchannel was kept below 0.5 bars throughout all filtration experiments. The experimental results clearly demonstrated the following: (1) The proposed microfiltration chip is able to separate white blood cells and red blood cells from whole human blood with a separation efficiency that exceeds 95%; (2) no leakage occurred during any of the experiments, thereby demonstrating the effectiveness of bonding a commercial membrane with a thermoplastic substrate using UV adhesive in a ring-shaped structure; (3) separation efficiency can be increased by using a membrane with smaller pore size, by using diluted blood with lower hematocrit, or by injecting blood into the microfiltration chip at a lower flow rate.

  18. Large-scale inference of protein tissue origin in gram-positive sepsis plasma using quantitative targeted proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malmström, Erik; Kilsgård, Ola; Hauri, Simon; Smeds, Emanuel; Herwald, Heiko; Malmström, Lars; Malmström, Johan

    2016-01-06

    The plasma proteome is highly dynamic and variable, composed of proteins derived from surrounding tissues and cells. To investigate the complex processes that control the composition of the plasma proteome, we developed a mass spectrometry-based proteomics strategy to infer the origin of proteins detected in murine plasma. The strategy relies on the construction of a comprehensive protein tissue atlas from cells and highly vascularized organs using shotgun mass spectrometry. The protein tissue atlas was transformed to a spectral library for highly reproducible quantification of tissue-specific proteins directly in plasma using SWATH-like data-independent mass spectrometry analysis. We show that the method can determine drastic changes of tissue-specific protein profiles in blood plasma from mouse animal models with sepsis. The strategy can be extended to several other species advancing our understanding of the complex processes that contribute to the plasma proteome dynamics.

  19. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahimi, Mehran; Ng, E. -P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Rostami, F. Bakhshandeh; de Vries, Marcel; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-01-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and th

  20. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rahimi (Mehran); E.-P. Ng; K. Bakhtiari (Kamran); M. Vinciguerra (Manlio); H.A. Ahmad (H. Ali); H. Awala; S. Mintova; M. Daghighi (Mojtaba); F. Bakhshandeh Rostami; M. de Vries (Marieke); M.M. Motazacker (Mohammad); M.P. Peppelenbosch (Maikel); M. Mahmoudi; F. Rezaee (Farhad)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractThe affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentra

  1. Idiopathic recurrent calcium urolithiasis (IRCU: pathophysiology evaluated in light of oxidative metabolism, without and with variation of several biomarkers in fasting urine and plasma - a comparison of stone-free and -bearing male patients, emphasizing mineral, acid-base, blood pressure and protein status*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwilie PO

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background IRCU is traditionally considered as lifestyle disease (associations with, among others, overweight, obesity, hypertension, type-2 diabetes, arising from excess, in 24 h urine, of calcium (Ca salts (calcium oxalate (CaOx, calcium phosphate (CaPi, supersaturation of, and crystallization in, tubular fluid and urine, causing crystal-induced epithelial cell damage, proteinuria, crystal aggregation and uroliths. Methods Another picture emerges from the present uncontrolled study of 154 male adult IRCU patients (75 stone-bearing (SB and 79 age-matched stone-free (SF, in whom stone-forming and other parameters in fasting urine and plasma were contrasted with five biomarkers (see footnote of oxidative metabolism (OM, without and with variation of markers. Results 1 In SB vs. SF unstratified OM biomarkers were statistically unchanged, but the majority of patients was overweight; despite, in SB vs. SF urine pH, total and non-albumin protein concentration were elevated, fractional urinary uric acid excretion and blood bicarbonate decreased, whereas urine volume, sodium, supersaturation with CaOx and CaPi (as hydroxyapatite were unchanged; 2 upon variation of OM markers (strata below and above median numerous stone parameters differed significant!', among others urine volume, total protein, Ca/Pi ratio, pH, sodium, potassium, plasma Ca/Pi ratio and parathyroid hormone, blood pressure, renal excretion of non-albumin protein and other substances; 3 a significant shift from SF to SB patients occurred with increase of urine pH, decrease of blood bicarbonate, and increase of diastolic blood pressure, whereas increase of plasma uric acid impacted only marginally; 4 in both SF and SB patients a strong curvilinear relationship links a rise of urine Ca/Pi to urine Ca/Pi divided by plasma Ca/Pi, but in SB urine Ca/Pi failed to correlate significantly with urine hydroxyapatite supersaturation; 5 also in SB, plasma Ca/Pi and urinary nitrate were

  2. Plasma protein corona modulates the vascular wall interaction of drug carriers in a material and donor specific manner.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel J Sobczynski

    Full Text Available The nanoscale plasma protein interaction with intravenously injected particulate carrier systems is known to modulate their organ distribution and clearance from the bloodstream. However, the role of this plasma protein interaction in prescribing the adhesion of carriers to the vascular wall remains relatively unknown. Here, we show that the adhesion of vascular-targeted poly(lactide-co-glycolic-acid (PLGA spheres to endothelial cells is significantly inhibited in human blood flow, with up to 90% reduction in adhesion observed relative to adhesion in simple buffer flow, depending on the particle size and the magnitude and pattern of blood flow. This reduced PLGA adhesion in blood flow is linked to the adsorption of certain high molecular weight plasma proteins on PLGA and is donor specific, where large reductions in particle adhesion in blood flow (>80% relative to buffer is seen with ∼60% of unique donor bloods while others exhibit moderate to no reductions. The depletion of high molecular weight immunoglobulins from plasma is shown to successfully restore PLGA vascular wall adhesion. The observed plasma protein effect on PLGA is likely due to material characteristics since the effect is not replicated with polystyrene or silica spheres. These particles effectively adhere to the endothelium at a higher level in blood over buffer flow. Overall, understanding how distinct plasma proteins modulate the vascular wall interaction of vascular-targeted carriers of different material characteristics would allow for the design of highly functional delivery vehicles for the treatment of many serious human diseases.

  3. Capture stress and the bactericidal competence of blood and plasma in five species of tropical birds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matson, Kevin D; Tieleman, B Irene; Klasing, Kirk C

    2006-01-01

    In wild birds, relatively little is known about intra- or interspecific variation in immunological capabilities, and even less is known about the effects of stress on immune function. Immunological assays adaptable to field settings and suitable for a wide variety of taxa will prove most useful for addressing these issues. We describe a novel application of an in vitro technique that measures the intrinsic bacteria-killing abilities of blood. We assessed the capacities of whole blood and plasma from free-living individuals of five tropical bird species to kill a nonpathogenic strain of E. coli before and after the birds experienced an acute stress. Killing invasive bacteria is a fundamental immune function, and the bacteria-killing assay measures constitutive, innate immunity integrated across circulating cell and protein components. Killing ability varied significantly across species, with common ground doves exhibiting the lowest levels and blue-crowned motmots exhibiting the highest levels. Across species, plasma killed bacteria as effectively as whole blood, and higher concentrations of plasma killed significantly better. One hour of acute stress reduced killing ability by up to 40%. This assay is expected to be useful in evolutionary and ecological studies dealing with physiological and immunological differences in birds.

  4. Anemia plus hypoproteinemia in dogs; various proteins in diet show various patterns in blood protein production; beef muscle,. egg, lactalbumin, fibrin, viscera, and supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    WHIPPLE, G H; ROBSCHEIT-ROBBINS, F S

    1951-09-01

    Dogs with sustained anemia plus hypoproteinemia due to bleeding and a continuing low protein or protein-free diet containing abundant iron have been used in the present work to test food proteins and supplements as to their See PDF for Structure capacity to produce new hemoglobin and plasma proteins. The reserve stores of blood protein-producing materials are thus largely depleted in such animals and sustained levels of 6 to 8 gm. per cent hemoglobin and 4 to 5 gm. per cent plasma protein can be maintained for considerable periods of time. The stimulus of double depletion drives the body to use all protein building materials with the utmost conservation. This represents a severe biological test for food and body proteins and its assay value must have significance. Measured by this biological test in these experiments, casein stands well up among the best food proteins. The ratio of plasma protein to hemoglobin is about 40 to 50 per cent, which emphasizes the fact that these dogs produce on most diets about 2 gm. hemoglobin to 1 gm. plasma protein. The reason for this preference for hemoglobin production is obscure. The mass of circulating hemoglobin is greater even in this degree of anemia and the life cycle of hemoglobin is much longer than that of the plasma protein. Egg protein, egg albumin, and lactalbumin all favor the production of more plasma protein and less hemoglobin as compared with casein. The plasma protein to hemoglobin ratio is increased, sometimes above 100 per cent. Supplements to the above proteins of casein digests or several amino acids may return the response toward that which is standard for casein. Histidine as a supplement to egg protein increases the total blood protein output and brings the ratio of plasma protein to hemoglobin toward that of casein. Beef muscle goes to the other extreme and favors new hemoglobin production up to 4 gm. hemoglobin to 1 gm. plasma protein-a ratio of 25 per cent. The total amounts of new blood proteins are

  5. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Tauson, Anne-Helene; Skrede, Anders

    2007-01-01

    The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM) on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets......, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver funtion were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended...... to increase (P = 0.07) with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters....

  6. A comparative study of the protein C system in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid.

    OpenAIRE

    Ewa Zekanowska; Waldemar Uszyński; Mieczysław Uszyński; Jarosław Kuczyński; Marek Szymański

    2010-01-01

    Activated protein C (APC) is an important anticoagulant which plays a role in pathophysiology of pregnancy, e.g. in maintenance of the uteroplacental circulation and development of the fetus as well as in pathogenesis of preeclampsia. The study objective was to compare the levels of the respective components of the protein C system (protein C, PC; protein S, PS; thrombomodulin, TM) as well as thrombin activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor - TAFI in mother's blood, cord blood and amniotic fluid. ...

  7. Blood and Plasma Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Wild Juvenile American Alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew T; Kupar, Caitlin A; Kelley, Meghan D; Finger, John W; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-07-01

    : American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) are one of the most studied crocodilian species in the world, yet blood and plasma biochemistry information is limited for juvenile alligators in their northern range, where individuals may be exposed to extreme abiotic and biotic stressors. We collected blood samples over a 2-yr period from 37 juvenile alligators in May, June, and July to establish reference intervals for 22 blood and plasma analytes. We observed no effect of either sex or blood collection time on any analyte investigated. However, our results indicate a significant correlation between a calculated body condition index and aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Glucose, total protein, and potassium varied significantly between sampling sessions. In addition, glucose and potassium were highly correlated between the two point-of-care devices used, although they were significantly lower with the i-STAT 1 CG8+ cartridge than with the Vetscan VS2 Avian/Reptile Rotor. The reference intervals presented herein should provide baseline data for evaluating wild juvenile alligators in the northern portion of their range.

  8. The 82-plex plasma protein signature that predicts increasing inflammation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tepel, Martin; Beck, Hans C; Tan, Qihua;

    2015-01-01

    transplant recipients and quantified 359 plasma proteins simultaneously using nano-Liquid-Chromatography-Tandem Mass-Spectrometry in individual samples and plasma C-reactive protein on the index day and the next day. Next-day C-reactive protein increased in 59 patients whereas it decreased in 32 patients......The objective of the study was to define the specific plasma protein signature that predicts the increase of the inflammation marker C-reactive protein from index day to next-day using proteome analysis and novel bioinformatics tools. We performed a prospective study of 91 incident kidney....... The prediction model selected and validated 82 plasma proteins which determined increased next-day C-reactive protein (area under receiver-operator-characteristics curve, 0.772; 95% confidence interval, 0.669 to 0.876; P protein signature (P 

  9. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  10. Preferential adsorption of high density lipoprotein (HDL) in blood plasma/polymer interaction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bantjes, A.; Breemhaar, W.; Beugeling, T.; Brinkman, E.; Ellens, D.J

    1985-01-01

    A few studies on the adsorption of plasma proteins to polymeric surfaces show that major plasma proteins: albumin (Alb), fibrinogen (Fb) and immunoglobulin (IgG) are adsorbed in much smaller quantities from plasma than from protein solutions (1,2). Present results show that this difference in adsorp

  11. HIP2: An online database of human plasma proteins from healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen Changyu

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background With the introduction of increasingly powerful mass spectrometry (MS techniques for clinical research, several recent large-scale MS proteomics studies have sought to characterize the entire human plasma proteome with a general objective for identifying thousands of proteins leaked from tissues in the circulating blood. Understanding the basic constituents, diversity, and variability of the human plasma proteome is essential to the development of sensitive molecular diagnosis and treatment monitoring solutions for future biomedical applications. Biomedical researchers today, however, do not have an integrated online resource in which they can search for plasma proteins collected from different mass spectrometry platforms, experimental protocols, and search software for healthy individuals. The lack of such a resource for comparisons has made it difficult to interpret proteomics profile changes in patients' plasma and to design protein biomarker discovery experiments. Description To aid future protein biomarker studies of disease and health from human plasma, we developed an online database, HIP2 (Healthy Human Individual's Integrated Plasma Proteome. The current version contains 12,787 protein entries linked to 86,831 peptide entries identified using different MS platforms. Conclusion This web-based database will be useful to biomedical researchers involved in biomarker discovery research. This database has been developed to be the comprehensive collection of healthy human plasma proteins, and has protein data captured in a relational database schema built to contain mappings of supporting peptide evidence from several high-quality and high-throughput mass-spectrometry (MS experimental data sets. Users can search for plasma protein/peptide annotations, peptide/protein alignments, and experimental/sample conditions with options for filter-based retrieval to achieve greater analytical power for discovery and validation.

  12. [Changes in the blood coagulating properties of preserved blood and the native and lyophilized plasma of cattle during storage].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khubenov, Kh D

    1984-01-01

    Studied were some of the indices characterizing the blood clotting system (thrombocytes, fibrinogen, recalcified clotting time, CA-thromboplastin time, kephalin-kaolin time, thrombin time. F II, and F V) in preserved glucose-citrate blood kept at 4 degrees C, in untreated bovine plasma kept at 20 degrees C, 4 degrees C, and -20 degrees C, and in freeze-dried bovine plasma. It was concluded that bovine blood preserved with L-12 could be used as a hemostatic agent up to the 10th day after it was obtained; untreated plasma could be used up to one month after it was obtained; and freeze-dried plasma could be used up to two months after it was obtained. Following freeze-drying the coagulation properties of the plasma remained active for more than a year, and it could also be used as a hemostatic agent.

  13. Meal composition and plasma amino acid ratios: Effect of various proteins or carbohydrates, and of various protein concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokogoshi, Hidehiko; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1986-01-01

    The effects of meals containing various proteins and carbohydrates, and of those containing various proportions of protein (0 percent to 20 percent of a meal, by weight) or of carbohydrate (0 percent to 75 percent), on plasma levels of certain large neutral amino acids (LNAA) in rats previously fasted for 19 hours were examined. Also the plasma tryptophan ratios (the ratio of the plasma trytophan concentration to the summed concentrations of the other large neutral amino acids) and other plasma amino acid ratios were calculated. (The plasma tryptophan ratio has been shown to determine brain tryptophan levels and, thereby, to affect the synthesis and release of the neurotransmitter serotonin). A meal containing 70 percent to 75 percent of an insulin-secreting carbohydrate (dextrose or dextrin) increased plasma insulin levels and the tryptophan ratio; those containing 0 percent or 25 percent carbohydrate failed to do so. Addition of as little as 5 percent casein to a 70 percent carbohydrate meal fully blocked the increase in the plasma tryptophan ratio without affecting the secretion of insulin - probably by contributing much larger quantities of the other LNAA than of tryptophan to the blood. Dietary proteins differed in their ability to suppress the carbohydrate-induced rise in the plasma tryptophan ratio. Addition of 10 percent casein, peanut meal, or gelatin fully blocked this increase, but lactalbumin failed to do so, and egg white did so only partially. (Consumption of the 10 percent gelatin meal also produced a major reduction in the plasma tyrosine ratio, and may thereby have affected brain tyrosine levels and catecholamine synthesis.) These observations suggest that serotonin-releasing neurons in brains of fasted rats are capable of distinguishing (by their metabolic effects) between meals poor in protein but rich in carbohydrates that elicit insulin secretion, and all other meals. The changes in brain serotonin caused by carbohydrate-rich, protein

  14. Changes in plasma protein levels as an early indication of a bloodstream infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joenväärä, Sakari; Kaartinen, Johanna; Järvinen, Asko; Renkonen, Risto

    2017-01-01

    Blood culture is the primary diagnostic test performed in a suspicion of bloodstream infection to detect the presence of microorganisms and direct the treatment. However, blood culture is slow and time consuming method to detect blood stream infections or separate septic and/or bacteremic patients from others with less serious febrile disease. Plasma proteomics, despite its challenges, remains an important source for early biomarkers for systemic diseases and might show changes before direct evidence from bacteria can be obtained. We have performed a plasma proteomic analysis, simultaneously at the time of blood culture sampling from ten blood culture positive and ten blood culture negative patients, and quantified 172 proteins with two or more unique peptides. Principal components analysis, Orthogonal Projections to Latent Structures Discriminant Analysis (OPLS-DA) and ROC curve analysis were performed to select protein(s) features which can classify the two groups of samples. We propose a number of candidates which qualify as potential biomarkers to select the blood culture positive cases from negative ones. Pathway analysis by two methods revealed complement activation, phagocytosis pathway and alterations in lipid metabolism as enriched pathways which are relevant for the condition. Data are available via ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD005022. PMID:28235076

  15. Molecular distribution of gold(I) in human blood plasma after treatment with the antiarthritic disodium aurothiomalate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayner, M H; Grootveld, M; Sadler, P J

    1989-01-01

    On-line separation and detection of both high- and low-molecular-weight gold species in human blood plasma treated with disodium aurothiomalate were achieved by a technique incorporating a combination of fast protein liquid chromatography with continuous monitoring of absorbance at 254 nm and eluant gold concentration by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The fate of gold (40 microM disodium aurothiomalate) in human blood plasma was monitored over a period of 24 h. Results obtained indicated that more than 50% of the gold is associated with a peak identified as albumin after a 5 min incubation period at 37 degrees C, and by 30 min more than 90% is found to be associated with albumin. This novel analytical combination enables the rapid, selective and sensitive determination of gold(I) and its biotransformation products (both protein--and non-protein-bound) in biological fluids.

  16. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O; Herzke, Dorte;

    2012-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56......), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid......:creatinine ratios and liver enzymes ALKP and ALAT were positively correlated to PCBs, chlordanes, p,p'-DDE, HCB, PFCs and/or PBDEs. Total bilirubin and glucose were negatively correlated to PCBs while magnesium and potassium were negatively correlated to HCB and p,p'-DDE. In addition, protein:creatinine and ALAT...

  17. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... increased when blood samples were stored for a period of time before the centrifugation, for certain cytokines more than 1000 fold compared to serum and plasma isolated and frozen immediately after venepuncture. The concentrations in serum generally increased more than in plasma. The measurable...

  18. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Frolova, A. Y.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of "International Society for Extracellular Vesicles". The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  19. Quantitative dynamic nuclear polarization-NMR on blood plasma for assays of drug metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerche, Mathilde H; Meier, Sebastian; Jensen, Pernille R; Hustvedt, Svein-Olaf; Karlsson, Magnus; Duus, Jens Ø; Ardenkjaer-Larsen, Jan H

    2011-01-01

    Analytical platforms for the fast detection, identification and quantification of circulating drugs with a narrow therapeutic range are vital in clinical pharmacology. As a result of low drug concentrations, analytical tools need to provide high sensitivity and specificity. Dynamic nuclear polarization-NMR (DNP-NMR) in the form of the hyperpolarization-dissolution method should afford the sensitivity and spectral resolution for the direct detection and quantification of numerous isotopically labeled circulating drugs and their metabolites in single liquid-state NMR transients. This study explores the capability of quantitative in vitro DNP-NMR to assay drug metabolites in blood plasma. The lower limit of detection for the anti-epileptic drug (13)C-carbamazepine and its pharmacologically active metabolite (13)C-carbamazepine-10,11-epoxide is 0.08 µg/mL in rabbit blood plasma analyzed by single-scan (13)C DNP-NMR. An internal standard is used for the accurate quantification of drug and metabolite. Comparison of quantitative DNP-NMR data with an established analytical method (liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry) yields a Pearson correlation coefficient r of 0.99. Notably, all DNP-NMR determinations were performed without analyte derivatization or sample purification other than plasma protein precipitation. Quantitative DNP-NMR is an emerging methodology which requires little sample preparation and yields quantitative data with high sensitivity for therapeutic drug monitoring.

  20. NMR Studies of Some Plasma Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawrence, Mark P.

    Available from UMI in association with The British Library. Requires signed TDF. The work reported in this thesis consists of a study of the solution structure of a domain of protein structure found in some of the enzymes involved in blood coagulation. These domains, known as kringles, are of between 78 and 82 residues and contain three conserved disulphide bridges in their primary sequence. The study attempts to elucidate the nature of the lysine-binding site of the fourth kringle of human plasminogen to probe its physiological action, and a theory is developed to explain the overall fold of the protein in terms of its physiological role. The protein structure is found to contain only one small region of secondary structure, an antiparallel beta-sheet of about 8 residues, which provides the support for the binding site. The binding site itself consists of a hydrophobic channel provided by the aromatic residues at positions 61, 63, 71 and 73 in the beta-sheet and a negatively charged site at one end of this channel provided by the aspartic acid residues at positions 54 and 56. The beta-sheet appears to become more tightly defined on binding the kringle with alpha,omega -amino acids which are analogues of lysine and exhibit known anti-fibrinolytic properties. The rest of the solution structure appears to be less clearly defined and relies mainly on the three disulphide bridges and some rather isolated hydrogen bonding for maintenance of the fold. An explanation for this structure with a rigid binding site and a more flexible region for the remainder of the domain is proposed. Shorter studies are reported on the second kringle of bovine prothrombin and the first of human plasminogen which suggest strongly that the kringle fold is conserved.

  1. Plasma PIVKA proteins in rabbits given warfarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivelin, A; Rao, L V; Rapaport, S I

    1996-06-01

    The presence of partially carboxylated forms of the vitamin K dependent coagulation factors (PIVKA) was evaluated in the plasma of rabbits treated with warfarin. Excess antigen over activity as measured in rabbit specific assays was taken as evidence for PIVKA. Our data confirm a previous report of the absence of plasma PIVKA prothrombin. In contrast, plasma PIVKA factors VII, IX, and X were demonstrable. A striking excess of plasma factor IX antigen over activity was measured and a large fraction of the factor IX antigen persisted in the plasma after its adsorption with barium citrate.

  2. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... maternity. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  3. Capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for blood plasma separation and on-chip glucose detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Rakesh, P E; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2016-09-01

    We report capillary flow of blood in a microchannel with differential wetting for the separation of a plasma from sample blood and subsequent on-chip detection of glucose present in a plasma. A rectangular polydimethylsiloxane microchannel with hydrophilic walls (on three sides) achieved by using oxygen plasma exposure enables capillary flow of blood introduced at the device inlet through the microchannel. A hydrophobic region (on all four sides) in the microchannel impedes the flow of sample blood, and the accumulated blood cells at the region form a filter to facilitate the separation of a plasma. The modified wetting property of the walls and hence the device performance could be retained for a few weeks by covering the channels with deionised water. The effects of the channel cross-section, exposure time, waiting time, and location and length of the hydrophobic region on the volume of the collected plasma are studied. Using a channel cross-section of 1000 × 400 μm, an exposure time of 2 min, a waiting time of 10 min, and a hydrophobic region of width 1.0 cm located at 10 mm from the device inlet, 450 nl of plasma was obtained within 15 min. The performance of the device was found to be unaffected (provides 450 nl of plasma in 15 min) even after 15 days. The purification efficiency and plasma recovery of the device were measured and found to be comparable with that obtained using the conventional centrifugation process. Detection of glucose at different concentrations in whole blood of normal and diabetic patients was performed (using 5 μl of sample blood within 15 min) to demonstrate the compatibility of the device with integrated detection modules.

  4. Differential regulation of plasma proteins between members of a family with homozygous HbE and HbEβ-thalassemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suchismita Halder

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In this report we’ve compared the plasma protein profiles of 4 individuals in a family. Father and the younger son both are hemoglobin (Hb Eβ-thalassemic {Cod 26 (G-A/IVS 1- 5 (G-C}, but the father never requires transfusion, whereas the younger son requires monthly blood transfusion. Mother and the elder son are HbEE {Cod 26 (G-A/Cod 26 (GA} without any history of transfusion. Proteomic study was done on the plasma fraction of the blood following ammonium sulphate precipitation. Proteins were separated by 2D-gel electrophoresis, expression of proteins compared by densitometry and proteins identified by tandem MALDI mass spectrometry. Proteins responsible in hemolysis, hypercoagulation and hemoglobin scavenging have shown differential regulation, establishing the relation between the differences in the levels of plasma proteins with the progression of the disease phenotype, manifested in the extent of transfusion dependence of the patient.

  5. Gold nanoparticles: role of size and surface chemistry on blood protein adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benetti, F., E-mail: filippo.benetti@unitn.it; Fedel, M. [BIOtech Research Centre (Italy); Minati, L.; Speranza, G. [Fondazione Bruno Kessler (Italy); Migliaresi, C. [BIOtech Research Centre (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Material interaction with blood proteins is a critical issue, since it could influence the biological processes taking place in the body following implantation/injection. This is particularly important in the case of nanoparticles, where innovative properties, such as size and high surface to volume ratio can lead to a behavioral change with respect to bulk macroscopic materials and could be responsible for a potential risk for human health. The aim of this work was to compare gold nanoparticles (AuNP) and planar surfaces to study the role of surface curvature moving from the macro- to the nano-size in the process of blood protein adsorption. In the course of the study, different protocols were tested to optimize the analysis of protein adsorption on gold nanoparticles. AuNP with different size (10, 60 and 200 nm diameter) and surface coatings (citrate and polyethylene glycol) were carefully characterized. The stabilizing action of blood proteins adsorbed on AuNP was studied measuring the variation of size and solubility of the nanoparticles following incubation with single protein solutions (human serum albumin and fibrinogen) and whole blood plasma. In addition, we developed a method to elute proteins from AuNP to study the propensity of gold materials to adsorb plasma proteins in function of dimensional characteristics and surface chemistry. We showed a different efficacy of the various eluting media tested, proving that even the most aggressive agent cannot provide a complete detachment of the protein corona. Enhanced protein adsorption was evidenced on AuNP if compared to gold laminae (bare and PEGylated) used as macroscopic control, probably due to the superior AuNP surface reactivity.

  6. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Kontek, Bogdan; Malinowska, Paulina; Żuchowski, Jerzy; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation) and the generation of superoxide anion (O2 (-∙)) in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin) were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals). The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5- 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min) inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2 (-∙) in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL). The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  7. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-∙ in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals. The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2-∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL. The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  8. Rational use of plasma protein and tissue binding data in drug design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xingrong; Wright, Matthew; Hop, Cornelis E C A

    2014-10-23

    It is a commonly accepted assumption that only unbound drug molecules are available to interact with their targets. Therefore, one of the objectives in drug design is to optimize the compound structure to increase in vivo unbound drug concentration. In this review, theoretical analyses and experimental observations are presented to illustrate that low plasma protein binding does not necessarily lead to high in vivo unbound plasma concentration. Similarly, low brain tissue binding does not lead to high in vivo unbound brain tissue concentration. Instead, low intrinsic clearance leads to high in vivo unbound plasma concentration, and low efflux transport activity at the blood-brain barrier leads to high unbound brain concentration. Plasma protein and brain tissue binding are very important parameters in understanding pharmacokinetics, pharmacodynamics, and toxicities of drugs, but these parameters should not be targeted for optimization in drug design.

  9. The synthesis of proteins in unnucleated blood platelets

    OpenAIRE

    Michał Bijak; Joanna Saluk; Michał Błażej Ponczek Ponczek; Paweł Nowak; Barbara Wachowicz

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are the smallest, unnucleated blood cells that play a key role in maintaining normal hemostasis. In the human body about 1x1011 platelets are formed every day, as a the result of complex processes of differentiation, maturation and fragmentation of megakaryocytes. Studies done over 4 decades ago demonstrated that circulating in blood mature platelets can synthesize proteins. Recent discoveries confirm protein synthesis by unnucleated platelets in response to activation. Moreover, pr...

  10. Gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, and plasma during long-term chrysotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Pedersen, S.M.; Graabaek, P M

    1980-01-01

    The concentrations of gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, cell-rich plasma, and cell-free plasma were investigated in 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing long-term chrysotherapy. Gold estimations were performed with a graphite tube atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Significant quantities of gold were found in isolated erythrocytes of 12 patients. There was no correlation between erythrocyte gold and therapeutic response, plasma gold, and gold in whole blood. Nor did gold in who...

  11. Dietary protein, blood pressure and mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S.M.A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are the main cause of death worldwide. In 2012, about 17.5 million people died from CVD, accounting for 30% of all deaths. High blood pressure (BP) is a major cardiovascular risk factor, which was responsible for 10.4 million deaths in 2013. Diet and lifestyle play an i

  12. Prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein in the evaluation of paraquat poisoning patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong NingΔ; Yu-Long BaiΔ; Hua Lu; Kang-Lin Mo

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein (CRP) level in patients with paraquat poisoning. Methods: This study included 162 patients with paraquat poisoning. The data of plasma paraquat,CRP level and arterial blood gas were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors of prognosis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and area under curve were used to calculate the predictive power of significant variable. Differences in patient survival were determined using the Kaplan-Meier method and a log-rank test. Results:PlasmaCRP level was significantly increased in non-survival patients compared with survival patients (P Conclusions: These results suggest that plasmaCRP level is distinct increased in patients with paraquat poisoning, and the plasmaCRP level may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in paraquat poisoning.

  13. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice W Nduati

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  14. Glycosylation of hemoglobin and plasma proteins in petrochemical plant workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unrug, A.; Tomaszewski, L.

    1985-01-01

    The concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin and (plasma) proteins has been measured in 111 workers of 6 MZRiP departments in Plock and in 54 healthy people. In all subjects the mean concentrations of glycosylated hemoglobin and glycosylated plasma proteins have been in so called wide range of normal values. Significant shifts of glycosylated Hb concentrations have been found in two departments--those of ethylenederivatives and distillation. The concentration of glycosylated plasma proteins has been elevated only in workers of the Catalytic Processes Department.

  15. Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of Healthy and Defective Red Blood Cell Settling in Blood Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Z; Rahnama, M; Jafari, S

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, an attempt has been made to study sedimentation of a red blood cell (RBC) in a plasma-filled tube numerically. Such behaviors are studied for a healthy and a defective cell which might be created due to human diseases, such as diabetes, sickle-cell anemia, and hereditary spherocytosis. Flow-induced deformation of RBC is obtained using finite-element method (FEM), while flow and fluid-membrane interaction are handled using lattice Boltzmann (LB) and immersed boundary methods (IBMs), respectively. The effects of RBC properties as well as its geometry and orientation on its sedimentation rate are investigated and discussed. The results show that decreasing frontal area of an RBC and/or increasing tube diameter results in a faster settling. Comparison of healthy and diabetic cells reveals that less cell deformability leads to slower settling. The simulation results show that the sicklelike and spherelike RBCs have lower settling velocity as compared with a biconcave discoid cell.

  16. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  17. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring. Fu....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  18. A highly stable nonbiofouling surface with well-packed grafted zwitterionic polysulfobetaine for plasma protein repulsion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung; Liao, Shih-Chieh; Higuchi, Akon; Ruaan, Ruoh-Chyu; Chu, Chih-Wei; Chen, Wen-Yih

    2008-05-20

    An ideal nonbiofouling surface for biomedical applications requires both high-efficient antifouling characteristics in relation to biological components and long-term material stability from biological systems. In this study we demonstrate the performance and stability of an antifouling surface with grafted zwitterionic sulfobetaine methacrylate (SBMA). The SBMA was grafted from a bromide-covered gold surface via surface-initiated atom transfer radical polymerization to form well-packed polymer brushes. Plasma protein adsorption on poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (polySBMA) grafted surfaces was measured with a surface plasmon resonance sensor. It is revealed that an excellent stable nonbiofouling surface with grafted polySBMA can be performed with a cycling test of the adsorption of three model proteins in a wide range of various salt types, buffer compositions, solution pH levels, and temperatures. This work also demonstrates the adsorption of plasma proteins and the adhesion of platelets from human blood plasma on the polySBMA grafted surface. It was found that the polySBMA grafted surface effectively reduces the plasma protein adsorption from platelet-poor plasma solution to a level superior to that of adsorption on a surface terminated with tetra(ethylene glycol). The adhesion and activation of platelets from platelet-rich plasma solution were not observed on the polySBMA grafted surface. This work further concludes that a surface with good hemocompatibility can be achieved by the well-packed surface-grafted polySBMA brushes.

  19. Glycation of wood frog (Rana sylvatica) hemoglobin and blood proteins: in vivo and in vitro studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Justin A; Degenhardt, Thorsten; Baynes, John W; Storey, Kenneth B

    2009-10-01

    The effects of in vivo freezing and glucose cryoprotectant on protein glycation were investigated in the wood frog, Rana sylvatica. Our studies revealed no difference in the fructoselysine content of blood plasma sampled from control, 27 h frozen and 18 h thawed wood frogs. Glycated hemoglobin (GHb) decreased slightly with 48 h freezing exposure and was below control levels after 7d recovery, while glycated serum albumin was unchanged by 48 h freezing but did increase after 7d of recovery. In vitro exposure of blood lysates to glucose revealed that the GHb production in wood frogs was similar to that of the rat but was lower than in leopard frogs. We conclude that wood frog hemoglobin was glycated in vitro; however, GHb production was not apparent during freezing and recovery when in vivo glucose is highly elevated. It is possible that wood frog blood proteins have different in vivo susceptibilities to glycation.

  20. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-09-01

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100 μg/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5 μg/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases.

  1. A comprehensive analysis of the Streptococcus pyogenes and human plasma protein interaction network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjöholm, Kristoffer; Karlsson, Christofer; Linder, Adam; Malmström, Johan

    2014-07-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes is a major human bacterial pathogen responsible for severe and invasive disease associated with high mortality rates. The bacterium interacts with several human blood plasma proteins and clarifying these interactions and their biological consequences will help to explain the progression from mild to severe infections. In this study, we used a combination of mass spectrometry (MS) based techniques to comprehensively quantify the components of the S. pyogenes-plasma protein interaction network. From an initial list of 181 interacting human plasma proteins defined using liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS analysis we further subdivided the interacting protein list using selected reaction monitoring (SRM) depending on the level of enrichment and protein concentration on the bacterial surface. The combination of MS methods revealed several previously characterized interactions between the S. pyogenes surface and human plasma along with many more, so far uncharacterised, possible plasma protein interactions with S. pyogenes. In follow-up experiments, the combination of MS techniques was applied to study differences in protein binding to a S. pyogenes wild type strain and an isogenic mutant lacking several important virulence factors, and a unique pair of invasive and non-invasive S. pyogenes isolates from the same patient. Comparing the plasma protein-binding properties of the wild type and the mutant and the invasive and non-invasive S. pyogenes bacteria revealed considerable differences, underlining the significance of these protein interactions. The results also demonstrate the power of the developed mass spectrometry method to investigate host-microbial relationships with a large proteomics depth and high quantitative accuracy.

  2. Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, van M.A.; Bakker, S.J.; Navis, G.; Veer, van 't P.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background - Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, incl

  3. Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure : A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van der Kuil, Wieke; Engberink, Marielle F.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; van Baak, Marleen A.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Navis, Gerjan; van't Veer, Pieter; Geleijnse, Johanna M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, inclu

  4. Dietary protein and blood pressure: A systematic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf, W.; Kuil, W.A. van der; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; Baak, M.A. van; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Veer, P. van't; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, inclu

  5. Dietary Protein and Blood Pressure: A Systematic Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altorf-van Der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M.F.; Brink, E.J.; van Baak, M.A.; Bakker, Stephan; Navis, Ger Jan; van't Veer, P.; Geleijnse, J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Elevated blood pressure (BP), which is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, is highly prevalent worldwide. Recently, interest has grown in the role of dietary protein in human BP. We performed a systematic review of all published scientific literature on dietary protein, inclu

  6. Pathogen inactivation in fresh frozen plasma using riboflavin and ultraviolet light: Effects on plasma proteins and coagulation factor VIII

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanojković Zoran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Riboflavin (vitamin B2 activated by ultraviolet (UV light, produces active oxygen which damages cell membrane and prevents replication of the carrier of diseases (viruses, bacteria, protozoa in all blood products. The aim of this study was to establish the influence of the process of photo inactivation in pathogens using riboflavin and UV rays on the concentration of coagulation factor VIII:C (FVIII:C and proteins in plasma that were treated before freezing. Methods. The examination included 20 units of plasma, separated from whole blood donated by voluntary blood donors around 6 hours from the moment of collection. The units were pooled and separated in to two groups: one consisted of 10 control units and the other of 10 experimental units. Experimental units of the plasma were treated by riboflavin (35 mL and UV rays (6.24 J/mL, 265-370 nm on Mirasol aparature (Caridian BCT Biotechnologies, USA in approximate duration of 6 minutes. Furthermore, 35 mL of saline solution was added to the control plasma. One sample for examining was taken from the control plasma (KG and two residual were taken from experimental plasma after the addition of riboflavin either before (EG1 or post illumination (EG2. Results. Comparing the mean values of FVIII:C (% we noticed statistically significantly higher level in the EG1 group than in the EG2 group (65.00 ± 4.52 vs 63.20 ± 4.73; t = 4.323, p = 0.002, while between the KG and experimental groups (EG1 and EG2 there was no statistically significant difference in the concentration of FVIII:C. There was a statistically significant decrease of albumin concentration (g/L in the EG2 group comparing to the KG (33.35 ± 0.94 vs 31.94 ± 0.84; t = 3.534, p = 0.002, but there was no mentioned difference in albumin concentration between the KG and the EG1, so as between the EG1 and the EG2. Conclusion. Plasma inactivated by riboflavin and UV rays (Mirasol PRT sistem, Caridian BCT, USA keeps all the

  7. Effect of whey protein on plasma amino acids in diabetic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Ting; Cai, Donglian; Geng, Shanshan; Wang, Ying; Zhen, Hui; Wu, Peiying

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein on plasma amino acid levels in a mouse model of type II diabetes, using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The composition and content of amino acids in the whey proteins were analyzed using HPLC. Type I and type II diabetic mouse models were prepared using streptozotocin (STZ) and normal mice were used as a control. The ICR mice in each group were then randomly divided into four subgroups, to which 0, 10, 20 and 40% whey protein, respectively, was administered for four weeks. Changes in the plasma amino acid levels were observed in each group. The proportions of leucine, isoleucine and valine in the whey proteins were 14.40, 5.93 and 5.32% of the total amino acids, respectively, that is, the branched-chain amino acid content was 25.65%. The levels of branched-chain amino acids increased in the plasma of the normal and model mice following the administration of whey proteins by gavage and the amino acid levels increased as the concentration of the administered protein increased. In addition, the branched-chain amino acid levels in the blood of the model mice were higher than those in the normal mice. The levels of plasma amino acids in diabetic mice increased following gavage with whey protein, which is rich in branched-chain amino acids.

  8. Blood plasma separation in a long two-phase plug flowing through disposable tubing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Meng; Khan, Zeina S; Vanapalli, Siva A

    2012-12-21

    We report a simple technique to separate plasma from blood in a flowing immiscible plug. We investigate the effect of various control parameters such as blood dilution, injection flow rate, observation time and fluid properties on plasma separation. We find that the technique works best for diluted blood samples at low plug velocities and long observation times. We postulate that the main mechanism responsible for efficient separation is the sedimentation of blood cells in the plug and their subsequent collection by the moving plug causing a significant accumulation of cells at the rear of the plug. We discuss the time scales determining the sedimentation, advection and collection of a blood cell in the immiscible plug and propose a phase diagram that is able to predict the operating space for effective plasma separation. We demonstrate that the technique allows for the extraction of more than 60% of the plasma by volume from 1 μL of diluted blood. We show the practical significance of this method by compartmentalizing the separated plasma into discrete microfluidic droplets and detecting cholesterol. This technique features low consumption of blood (nL-scale) and low shear rate (∼1 s(-1)). It is inexpensive, easy to use, and has the potential to be developed as an efficient point-of-care device for blood diagnostics in resource-poor environments. More advanced applications could also be envisioned by integrating our plasma separation method into existing microfluidic drop manipulation techniques.

  9. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I; Kristensen, Annemarie T; Daugaard, Gedske; Ostrowski, Sisse R

    2011-04-01

    Functional whole blood haemostatic assays are used increasingly to guide transfusion therapy and monitor medical treatment and are also applied for in-vitro evaluations of the haemostatic potential of stored platelets. We investigated how the cellular and plasmatic elements, both isolated and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results differently. The results emphasize that the concentrations of all cellular and plasmatic components in whole blood should be taken into account when interpreting results obtained by TEG and multiplate.

  10. Protective action of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts against oxidative/nitrative damages of blood platelet and plasma components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel, Agnieszka; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna; Głowacki, Rafał; Olas, Beata

    2014-01-01

    The oxidative/nitrative stress induced by different factors plays an important role in the pathogenesis of various disorders, including cardiovascular diseases and cancer. Proanthocyanidins have antioxidative properties and may protect biomolecules (lipids, DNA, and proteins) exposed to reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, including peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). The effects of proanthocyanidin fraction from Medemia argun nuts on oxidative/nitrative protein damages (determined by such parameters as level of thiol groups, carbonyl groups, and nitrotyrosine residues) and on the amount of glutathione (as an important component of redox status; using HPLC) in human blood platelets and plasma after treatment with peroxynitrite were studied in vitro. The preincubation of blood platelets and plasma with proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts (0.5-50 µg/ml) reduced the formation of 3-nitrotyrosine, diminished oxidation of thiol groups, and decreased the level of carbonyl groups in proteins caused by 100 µM peroxynitrite. An action of tested plant fraction and ONOO(-) evoked a significant increase of GSH in platelets and plasma in comparison with platelets and plasma treated with ONOO(-) only. The proanthocyanidin fraction from M. argun nuts can be useful as a protecting factor against oxidative/nitrative stress associated with different diseases (cancer, cardiovascular, and neurodegenerative diseases) and proanthocyanidins of M. argun nuts may be promising antioxidants.

  11. Transport proteins of the plant plasma membrane

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assmann, S. M.; Haubrick, L. L.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1996-01-01

    Recently developed molecular and genetic approaches have enabled the identification and functional characterization of novel genes encoding ion channels, ion carriers, and water channels of the plant plasma membrane.

  12. Hypochlorite-induced oxidation of proteins in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hawkins, C L; Davies, Michael Jonathan

    1999-01-01

    Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 microM) with dil......Activated phagocyte cells generate hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of H2O2 and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Plasma proteins are major targets for HOCl, although little information is available about the mechanism(s) of oxidation. In this study the reaction of HOCl (at least 50 micro......M) with diluted fresh human plasma has been shown to generate material that oxidizes 5-thio-2-nitrobenzoic acid; these oxidants are believed to be chloramines formed from the reaction of HOCl with protein amine groups. Chloramines have also been detected with isolated plasma proteins treated with HOCl. In both...... more efficient. The reaction of fresh diluted plasma with HOCl also gives rise to protein-derived nitrogen-centred radicals in a time- and HOCl-concentration-dependent manner; these have been detected by EPR spin trapping. Identical radicals have been detected with isolated HOCl-treated plasma proteins...

  13. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M; Ng, E-P; Bakhtiari, K; Vinciguerra, M; Ali Ahmad, H; Awala, H; Mintova, S; Daghighi, M; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F; de Vries, M; Motazacker, M M; Peppelenbosch, M P; Mahmoudi, M; Rezaee, F

    2015-11-30

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy.

  14. Zeolite Nanoparticles for Selective Sorption of Plasma Proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimi, M.; Ng, E.-P.; Bakhtiari, K.; Vinciguerra, M.; Ahmad, H. Ali; Awala, H.; Mintova, S.; Daghighi, M.; Bakhshandeh Rostami, F.; de Vries, M.; Motazacker, M. M.; Peppelenbosch, M. P.; Mahmoudi, M.; Rezaee, F.

    2015-11-01

    The affinity of zeolite nanoparticles (diameter of 8-12 nm) possessing high surface area and high pore volume towards human plasma proteins has been investigated. The protein composition (corona) of zeolite nanoparticles has been shown to be more dependent on the plasma protein concentrations and the type of zeolites than zeolite nanoparticles concentration. The number of proteins present in the corona of zeolite nanoparticles at 100% plasma (in vivo state) is less than with 10% plasma exposure. This could be due to a competition between the proteins to occupy the corona of the zeolite nanoparticles. Moreover, a high selective adsorption for apolipoprotein C-III (APOC-III) and fibrinogen on the zeolite nanoparticles at high plasma concentration (100%) was observed. While the zeolite nanoparticles exposed to low plasma concentration (10%) exhibited a high selective adsorption for immunoglobulin gamma (i.e. IGHG1, IGHG2 and IGHG4) proteins. The zeolite nanoparticles can potentially be used for selectively capture of APOC-III in order to reduce the activation of lipoprotein lipase inhibition during hypertriglyceridemia treatment. The zeolite nanoparticles can be adapted to hemophilic patients (hemophilia A (F-VIII deficient) and hemophilia B (F-IX deficient)) with a risk of bleeding, and thus might be potentially used in combination with the existing therapy.

  15. Protein supplementation lowers blood pressure in overweight adults : effect of dietary proteins on blood pressure (PROPRES), a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BR Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (similar to 25% compared with similar to 15% of energy intake that isoenerg

  16. Protein supplementation lowers blood pressure in overweight adults: Effect of dietary proteins on blood pressure (PROPRES), a randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, K.F.M.; Dopheide, J.; Geleijnse, J.M.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Brink, E.J.; Leeuw, P.W. de; Baak, M.A. van

    2012-01-01

    Background: Dietary protein intake may help to manage blood pressure (BP) and prevent complications associated with elevated BP. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine whether 4 wk of increased protein intake (∼25% compared with ;15% of energy intake that isoenergetically replaces c

  17. The effect of different alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin and plasma glucose in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, L C; Couri, S; Trugo, N F; Lollo, P C B

    2014-09-01

    In the present work we studied the effects of four alcoholic beverages on blood alcohol levels, plasma insulin concentrations and plasma glucose concentrations in men and women. The volunteers were healthy non-smokers and they were divided according to sex into two groups of ten individuals. The alcoholic beverages used in the study were beer, red wine, whisky and "cachaça". In men, ingestion of the distilled drinks promoted a spike in blood alcohol levels more quickly than ingestion of the fermented drinks. In women, beer promoted the lowest blood alcohol levels over the 6h of the experiment. Whisky promoted highest blood alcohol levels in both sexes. The ingestion of wine promoted a significant difference in relation to the blood alcohol concentration (BAC) as a function of gender. The ingestion of cachaça by women produced BAC levels significantly smaller than those obtained for wine.

  18. Interaction of plasma proteins with commercial protein repellent polyvinyl chloride (PVC): a word of caution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Somer, F; Van Landschoot, A; Van Nooten, G; Delanghe, J

    2008-07-01

    Protein adsorption onto polymers remains a problem. In recent years, several protein-repellent PVC tubings have been developed. Although several studies report the interaction between plasma coagulation proteins and PVC, few address the interaction with other plasma proteins. Two commercial brands of untreated medical grade PVC tubing, phosphorylcholine-coated PVC tubing, triblock-copolymer (polycaprolactone-polydimethylsiloxane-polycaprolactone)-treated PVC tubing and poly-2-methoxyethylacrylate (PMEA)-coated tubing were exposed for 60 minutes to human plasma. A broad spectrum of plasma proteins was found on all tubing. The adsorbed albumin to total protein ratio is lower than the similar ratio in plasma while alpha1 and alpha2 globulins are over-represented in the protein spectrum. On PMEA tubing, not only alpha globulins, but also beta and gamma globulins, are found in high concentrations in the adsorbed protein. PMEA tubing and uncoated PVC tubing of brand B had a higher amount of protein adsorbed compared against all other tubing (p < 0.05). There were no statistical differences in protein adsorption between the triblock-copolymer-treated tubing, the phosphorylcholine-coated tubing and the uncoated PVC tubing of brand A. The average thickness of the protein layer was 23 nm. Plasma protein adsorption still exists on uncoated and protein-repellent tubing and can initiate a systemic inflammatory reaction.

  19. Effect of anticoagulants on the protein corona-induced reduced drug carrier adhesion efficiency in human blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobczynski, Daniel J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2017-01-15

    Plasma proteins rapidly coat the surfaces of particulate drug carriers to form a protein corona upon their injection into the bloodstream. The high presence of immunoglobulins in the corona formed on poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) surfaces was recently shown to negatively impact their adhesion to activated endothelial cells (aECs) in vitro. Here, we characterized the influence of anticoagulants, or their absence, on the binding efficiency of VTCs of various materials via modulation of their protein corona. Specifically, we evaluated the adhesion of PLGA, poly(lactic acid) (PLA), polycaprolactone (PCL), silica, and polystyrene VTCs to aECs in heparinized, citrated, and non-anticoagulated (serum and whole) blood flows relative to buffer control. Particle adhesion is substantially reduced in non-anticoagulated blood flows regardless of the material type while only moderate to minimal reduction is observed for VTCs in anticoagulant-containing blood flow depending on the anticoagulant and material type. The substantial reduction in VTC adhesion in blood flows was linked to a high presence of immunoglobulin-sized proteins in the VTC corona via SDS-PAGE analysis. Of all the materials evaluated, PLGA was the most sensitive to plasma protein effects while PCL was the most resistant, suggesting particle hydrophobicity is a critical component of the observed negative plasma protein effects. Overall, this work demonstrates that anticoagulant positively alters the effect of plasma proteins in prescribing VTC adhesion to aECs in human blood flow, which has implication in the use of in vitro blood flow assays for functional evaluation of VTCs for in vivo use.

  20. Protein Adsorption on Various Plasma-Treated Polyethylene Terephthalate Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Stana-Kleinschek

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Protein adhesion and cell response to plasma-treated polymer surfaces were studied. The polymer polyethylene terephthalate (PET was treated in either an oxygen plasma to make the surface hydrophilic, or a tetrafluoromethane CF4 plasma to make the surface hydrophobic. The plasma source was radiofrequency (RF discharge. The adsorption of albumin and other proteins from a cell-culture medium onto these surfaces was studied using a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and atomic force microscopy (AFM. The cellular response to plasma-treated surfaces was studied as well using an MTT assay and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The fastest adsorption rate was found on the hydrophilic oxygen plasma-treated sample, and the lowest was found on the pristine untreated sample. Additionally, the amount of adsorbed proteins was higher for the oxygen-plasma-treated surface, and the adsorbed layer was more viscoelastic. In addition, cell adhesion studies support this finding because the best cell adhesion was observed on oxygen-plasma-treated substrates.

  1. The dynamics of plant plasma membrane proteins: PINs and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luschnig, Christian; Vert, Grégory

    2014-08-01

    Plants are permanently situated in a fixed location and thus are well adapted to sense and respond to environmental stimuli and developmental cues. At the cellular level, several of these responses require delicate adjustments that affect the activity and steady-state levels of plasma membrane proteins. These adjustments involve both vesicular transport to the plasma membrane and protein internalization via endocytic sorting. A substantial part of our current knowledge of plant plasma membrane protein sorting is based on studies of PIN-FORMED (PIN) auxin transport proteins, which are found at distinct plasma membrane domains and have been implicated in directional efflux of the plant hormone auxin. Here, we discuss the mechanisms involved in establishing such polar protein distributions, focusing on PINs and other key plant plasma membrane proteins, and we highlight the pathways that allow for dynamic adjustments in protein distribution and turnover, which together constitute a versatile framework that underlies the remarkable capabilities of plants to adjust growth and development in their ever-changing environment.

  2. Comparative Plasma Protein Profiling of Hemoglobin H Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamonlak Leecharoenkiat

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available HbH and HbH-constant spring (HbH-CS are the most common forms of α-thalassemia detected in the Thai population. The accumulation of excess β globin chains in these diseases results in increased red cell hemolysis, and patients with HbH-CS normally have a more severe clinical presentation than patients with HbH disease. This study aimed to detect alterations in the expression of plasma proteins of HbH and HbH-CS patients as compared to normal plasma. Platelet poor plasma was separated from HbH and HbH-CS and normal subjects and differential plasma proteins were detected using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and identified using LC/MS/MS. A total of 14 differentially expressed proteins were detected of which 5 proteins were upregulated and 9 were downregulated. Most of the differentially expressed proteins are liver secreted proteins involved in hemolysis, oxidative stress response, and hemoglobin degradation. Seven proteins were found to be differentially expressed between HbH and HbH-CS. Levels of haptoglobin, a hemoglobin scavenging protein, were significantly increased in HbH patients as compared to HbH-CS patients. The identification of differentially expressed proteins may lead to a better understanding of the biological events underlying the clinical presentation of HbH and HbH-CS patients and can have application as hemolytic markers or severity predictors.

  3. Effect of source and sex on blood protein fractions of West African Dwarf Goats (WADG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Okonkwo,

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Source and sex effects on the total blood protein and its various fractions were studied using juvenile West African Dwarf goats derived from Southern Nigeria. The goats were sourced from three distinct towns in the humid tropics namely, South-East (Umuahia, South-South (Ugheli and South-West (Akure at the rate of 6 males and 18 females per location. The mean values of the total blood plasma protein and its fractions obtained for the WADGs from different zones are 10.01±0.07 g/100ml, 10.07±0.08 g/100ml and 10.16±0.35 g/100ml (total plasma protein; 9.62±0.10 g/100ml, 9.68±0.08 g/100ml and 9.68±0.09 g/100ml (total serum protein, 0.38±0.03 g/100ml, 0.39±0.01 g/100ml, and 0.38±0.04 g/100ml (plasma fibrinogen, 5.62±0.23 g/100ml, 5.78±0.24 g/100ml and 5.45±0.26 g/100ml (serum albumin, 4.00±0.19 g/100ml, 3.89±0.29 g/100ml, and 4.12±0.25 g/100ml (serum globulin, and 1.41±0.27, 1.49±0.15 and 1.34±0.12 (albumin/globulin ratio for the goats from South-East (Umuahia, South-South (Ugheli and South-West (Akure respectively. The studies also indicate that albumin accounts for 53-58% of the total serum protein; globulin accounts for 42-47% serum protein, and the plasma fibrinogen 3.6-4% of the total plasma protein. sex and source interaction had no significant (P>0.05 effects on serum proteins; plasma fibrinogen is sex dependent, and the source of goat affects the proportions of the serum albumin, globulin, and albumin/globulin ratio characteristics of the experimental goats.

  4. Organization and Dynamics of Receptor Proteins in a Plasma Membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koldsø, Heidi; Sansom, Mark S P

    2015-11-25

    The interactions of membrane proteins are influenced by their lipid environment, with key lipid species able to regulate membrane protein function. Advances in high-resolution microscopy can reveal the organization and dynamics of proteins and lipids within living cells at resolutions membranes of in vivo-like complexity. We explore the dynamics of proteins and lipids in crowded and complex plasma membrane models, thereby closing the gap in length and complexity between computations and experiments. Our simulations provide insights into the mutual interplay between lipids and proteins in determining mesoscale (20-100 nm) fluctuations of the bilayer, and in enabling oligomerization and clustering of membrane proteins.

  5. Regulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-ARegulation of IGF binding protein proteolysis by pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaidamauskas, Ervinas

    During his PhD studies, Ervinas Gaidamauskas researched the proteins pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) and its homologue PAPP-A2 in vitro. As suggested by its name, PAPP-A plays an important role in pregnancy and fetal development. Additionally, recent studies indicate a newly...

  6. Blood parameters in growing pigs fed increasing levels of bacterial protein meal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tauson Anne-Helene

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The experiment investigated the effects of increasing dietary levels of bacterial protein meal (BPM on various blood parameters reflecting protein and fat metabolism, liver function, and purine base metabolism in growing pigs. Sixteen barrows were allocated to four different experimental diets. The control diet was based on soybean meal. In the other three diets soybean meal was replaced with increasing levels of BPM, approximately 17%, 35%, and 50% of the nitrogen being derived from BPM. Blood samples from the jugular vein were taken when the body weights of the pigs were approximately 10 kg, 21 kg, 45 kg, and 77 kg. The blood parameters reflecting fat metabolism and liver function were not affected by diet. Both the plasma albumin and uric acid concentrations tended to decrease (P = 0.07 and 0.01, respectively with increasing dietary BPM content, whereas the plasma glucose concentration tended to increase (P = 0.07 with increasing dietary BPM content. It was concluded that up to 50% of the nitrogen could be derived from BPM without affecting metabolic function, as reflected in the measured blood parameters.

  7. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  8. Hierarchical zwitterionic modification of a SERS substrate enables real-time drug monitoring in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Fang; Hung, Hsiang-Chieh; Sinclair, Andrew; Zhang, Peng; Bai, Tao; Galvan, Daniel David; Jain, Priyesh; Li, Bowen; Jiang, Shaoyi; Yu, Qiuming

    2016-11-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is an ultrasensitive analytical technique with molecular specificity, making it an ideal candidate for therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM). However, in critical diagnostic media including blood, nonspecific protein adsorption coupled with weak surface affinities and small Raman activities of many analytes hinder the TDM application of SERS. Here we report a hierarchical surface modification strategy, first by coating a gold surface with a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) designed to attract or probe for analytes and then by grafting a non-fouling zwitterionic polymer brush layer to effectively repel protein fouling. We demonstrate how this modification can enable TDM applications by quantitatively and dynamically measuring the concentrations of several analytes--including an anticancer drug (doxorubicin), several TDM-requiring antidepressant and anti-seizure drugs, fructose and blood pH--in undiluted plasma. This hierarchical surface chemistry is widely applicable to many analytes and provides a generalized platform for SERS-based biosensing in complex real-world media.

  9. INFLUENCE OF NATURAL IMMUNOMODULATORS ON PROTEIN FRACTIONS AND CORTISOL CONTENT IN RABBIT BLOOD UNDER STRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grabovskyi S.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The results of determination of protein fractions, cortisol content in blood of rabbits, which further added to the feed of natural origin biologically active substances are presented in the article. As an antistressors and immunomodulators in pre-slaughter period are using of spleen extract biologically active substances were obtained with ultrasound application. The purpose of research — determination of changes of protein fractions, cortisol content in rabbits blood before slaughter and their correction of natural origin biologically active substances (spleen extract. Object and research methods. The experiment was conducted on 15 rabbits with standard diet. Three groups of rabbits five month of age (5 rabbits each was formed for research. The spleen extract were using as an biologically active substances to the feed rabbits in pre-slaughter period (five days before slaughter. The extracts were applied to feed by aerosol method (70 °alcohol solution of spleen extract volume of 1.4 ml per rabbit (group I. The rabbits (group II received to the feed in the same way of 70 °alcohol solution in the same volume. The control group rabbits received the standard feed in the same volume. The feed eating by rabbits was exercised daily. The rabbits ate food completely. The rabbits slaughter was carried out in the morning. The blood plasma protein fractions separation was carried out by horizontal electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gel (PAAG. Mathematical treatment of the research results worked statistically using the software package Statistica 6.0 and Microsoft Excel for Windows XP. Probability differences was assessed by Student t-test and results considered likely at P ≤ 0.05. Results and discussion. We measured the ratio of blood plasma protein fractions of rabbits, which in addition to the feed fed of natural origin biologically active substances. As a result of research was found that aerosol introduction of the spleen extract to the rabbits

  10. Extracellular matrix protein fibulin-1 plasma levels are associated with increased cardiovascular risk in chronic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholze, Alexandra

    INTRODUCTION AND AIMS: Fibulin-1 is one of the few extracellular matrix proteins present in blood in high concentrations. We aimed to define the relationship between plasma fibulin-1 levels and risk markers of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. METHODS: Plasma fibulin-1...... of plasma fibulin-1. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma fibulin-1 levels were associated with impaired kidney function and diabetes. Fibulin-1 levels were also associated with hemodynamic cardiovascular risk markers. We conclude, that fibulin-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease observed...

  11. Prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein in the evaluation of paraquat poisoning patients简

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zong; Ning; Yu-Long; Bai; Hua; Lu; Kang-Lin; Mo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the prognostic value of plasma C-reactive protein(CRP) level in patients with paraquat poisoning.Methods: This study included 162 patients with paraquat poisoning. The data of plasma paraquat, CRP level and arterial blood gas were analyzed. Cox regression analysis was applied to evaluate the risk factors of prognosis. Receiver operating characteristics curve analysis and area under curve were used to calculate the predictive power of significant variable. Differences in patient survival were determined using the Kaplan–Meier method and a log-rank test.Results: Plasma CRP level was significantly increased in non-survival patients compared with survival patients(P < 0.05), and positively correlated with plasma paraquat level(P < 0.05). Cox regression analysis revealed that plasma CRP level was an independent prognostic marker of mortality within 30 days. The receiver operating characteristics curve analysis indicated that area under curve of plasma CRP level was0.867(95% CI: 0.81–0.93), and the cut-off value was 18 mg/L, and patients with CRP level over this value had a poor survival time compared with those with less than this value.Conclusions: These results suggest that plasma CRP level is distinct increased in patients with paraquat poisoning, and the plasma CRP level may be useful for the prediction of prognosis in paraquat poisoning.

  12. [Determination of capillary plasma C-reactive protein during therapy for acute infectious lung diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarenko, V V; Vavilikhina, N F; Kastrikina, T N; El'chaninova, S A

    2011-06-01

    Changes in the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP), leukocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and differential blood count were comparatively estimated in the treatment of 66 infants (aged 1.12 +/- 0.95 years) with acute infectious lung diseases. There was a high correlation between capillary plasma and venous serum CRP concentrations. On the first day of effective antibiotic therapy, there was a significant decrease in CRP levels; the sensitivity and specificity were 96 and 94%, respectively. Thus, measurement of capillary blood CRP is an accessible and informative tool to monitor therapy for infectious lung diseases in infants.

  13. The Effects of Soy Protein and Isoflavones on Lipid Oxidation and Blood Lipid Profile on Humans Participating in Moderate Physical Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Shehadeh, Sandra C

    1999-01-01

    THE EFFECTS OF SOY PROTEIN AND ISOFLAVONES ON LIPID OXIDATION AND BLOOD LIPID PROFILE ON HUMANS PARTICIPATING IN MODERATE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Sandra C. Shehadeh The purpose of our study was to compare the effects of dietary soy protein and animal protein (casein) on plasma lipoprotein concentrations, and exercise induced oxidation in human subjects. Sixteen normocholesterolemic young men participated in 30 min of cycling at 70% VO2pk to induce plasma oxidation. Each subject then followe...

  14. Targeted mass spectrometry analysis of the proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, IBP3 and A2GL by blood protein precipitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Bache, Nicolai; Callesen, Anne K

    2015-01-01

    UNLABELLED: Biomarker analysis of blood samples by liquid chromatography (LC) mass spectrometry (MS) is extremely challenging due to the high protein concentration range, characterised by abundant proteins that suppress and mask other proteins of lower abundance. This situation is further...... aggravated when using fast high-throughput methods, which are necessary for analysis of hundreds and thousands of samples in clinical laboratories. The blood proteins IGF1, IGF2, IBP2, IBP3 and A2GL have been proposed as indirect biomarkers for detection of GH administration and as putative biomarkers...... for breast cancer diagnosis. We describe a sensitive and scalable method to quantify these 5 proteins of medium and low abundance by selected reaction monitoring (SRM) LC-MS/MS analysis in blood samples. Our method requires 7μL of plasma and reaches a throughput of up to ca. 80 analyses per day. It includes...

  15. Sex and storage affect cholinesterase activity in blood plasma of Japanese quail

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, E.F.

    1989-01-01

    Freezing at -25?C had confounding effects on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in blood plasma from breeding female quail, but did not affect ChE activity in plasma from males. Plasma ChE activity of control females increased consistently during 28 days of storage while both carbamate- and cidrotophos-inhibited ChE decreased. Refrigeration of plasma at 4?C for 2 days had little effect of ChE activity. Plasma ChE activity was averaged about 34% higher in breeding males than in females. Extreme caution should be exercised in use of blood plasma for evaluation of anti ChE exposure in free-living birds.

  16. Αlpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma from LRRK2 mutation carriers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Gorostidi

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD remains primarily a clinical issue, based mainly on phenotypic patterns. The identification of biomarkers capable of permitting the preclinical detection of PD is critically needed. α-Synuclein is a key protein in PD, with missense and multiplication mutations in the gene encoding α-synuclein (SNCA having been reported in familial cases of PD, and accumulation of the protein identified in Lewy bodies (LBs and Lewy neurites (LNs in affected brain regions. With the objective of validating the use of α-synuclein as a clinical or progressive biomarker in an accessible tissue, we used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA to measure α-synuclein levels in the peripheral blood plasma of idiopathic PD and LRRK2 mutation carrier patients and compared our findings with healthy control subjects. Compared to healthy controls, we found a significant decrease in plasma total α-synuclein levels in idiopathic PD (iPD patients (n = 134, p = 0.010. However, the reduction was less significant in patients who were LRRK2 mutation carriers (n = 32, p = 0.133. This lack of significance could be due to the small number of individuals employed in this group. No predictive value of total α-synuclein in the diagnosis of PD was found in a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analysis. Although this is a pilot study requiring corroboration on a larger cohort of patients, our results highlight the possible use of plasma α-synuclein as a biomarker for PD.

  17. Integration of acoustic radiation force and optical imaging for blood plasma clot stiffness measurement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Caroline W; Perez, Matthew J; Helmke, Brian P; Viola, Francesco; Lawrence, Michael B

    2015-01-01

    Despite the life-preserving function blood clotting serves in the body, inadequate or excessive blood clot stiffness has been associated with life-threatening diseases such as stroke, hemorrhage, and heart attack. The relationship between blood clot stiffness and vascular diseases underscores the importance of quantifying the magnitude and kinetics of blood's transformation from a fluid to a viscoelastic solid. To measure blood plasma clot stiffness, we have developed a method that uses ultrasound acoustic radiation force (ARF) to induce micron-scaled displacements (1-500 μm) on microbeads suspended in blood plasma. The displacements were detected by optical microscopy and took place within a micro-liter sized clot region formed within a larger volume (2 mL sample) to minimize container surface effects. Modulation of the ultrasound generated acoustic radiation force allowed stiffness measurements to be made in blood plasma from before its gel point to the stage where it was a fully developed viscoelastic solid. A 0.5 wt % agarose hydrogel was 9.8-fold stiffer than the plasma (platelet-rich) clot at 1 h post-kaolin stimulus. The acoustic radiation force microbead method was sensitive to the presence of platelets and strength of coagulation stimulus. Platelet depletion reduced clot stiffness 6.9 fold relative to platelet rich plasma. The sensitivity of acoustic radiation force based stiffness assessment may allow for studying platelet regulation of both incipient and mature clot mechanical properties.

  18. NMR identification of endogenous metabolites interacting with fatted and non-fatted human serum albumin in blood plasma: Fatty acids influence the HSA-metabolite interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jupin, Marc; Michiels, Paul J.; Girard, Frederic C.; Spraul, Manfred; Wijmenga, Sybren S.

    2013-03-01

    Metabolites and their concentrations are direct reporters on body biochemistry. Thanks to technical developments metabolic profiling of body fluids, such as blood plasma, by for instance NMR has in the past decade become increasingly accurate enabling successful clinical diagnostics. Human Serum Albumin (HSA) is the main plasma protein (∼60% of all plasma protein) and responsible for the transport of endogenous (e.g. fatty acids) and exogenous metabolites, which it achieves thanks to its multiple binding sites and its flexibility. HSA has been extensively studied with regard to its binding of drugs (exogenous metabolites), but only to a lesser extent with regard to its binding of endogenous (non-fatty acid) metabolites. To obtain correct NMR measured metabolic profiles of blood plasma and/or potentially extract information on HSA and fatty acids content, it is necessary to characterize these endogenous metabolite/plasma protein interactions. Here, we investigate these metabolite-HSA interactions in blood plasma and blood plasma mimics. The latter contain the roughly twenty metabolites routinely detected by NMR (also most abundant) in normal relative concentrations with fatted or non-fatted HSA added or not. First, we find that chemical shift changes are small and seen only for a few of the metabolites. In contrast, a significant number of the metabolites display reduced resonance integrals and reduced free concentrations in the presence of HSA or fatted HSA. For slow-exchange (or strong) interactions, NMR resonance integrals report the free metabolite concentration, while for fast exchange (weak binding) the chemical shift reports on the binding. Hence, these metabolites bind strongly to HSA and/or fatted HSA, but to a limited degree because for most metabolites their concentration is smaller than the HSA concentration. Most interestingly, fatty acids decrease the metabolite-HSA binding quite significantly for most of the interacting metabolites. We further find

  19. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliva, Laia; Baron, Cristian; Fernández-López, José-Antonio; Remesar, Xavier; Alemany, Marià

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet. Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC) membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate. Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls). In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight). The detected levels of glucose in RBC were lower

  20. Marked increase in rat red blood cell membrane protein glycosylation by one-month treatment with a cafeteria diet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laia Oliva

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives. Glucose, an aldose, spontaneously reacts with protein amino acids yielding glycosylated proteins. The compounds may reorganize to produce advanced glycosylation products, which regulatory importance is increasingly being recognized. Protein glycosylation is produced without the direct intervention of enzymes and results in the loss of function. Glycosylated plasma albumin, and glycosylated haemoglobin are currently used as index of mean plasma glucose levels, since higher glucose availability results in higher glycosylation rates. In this study we intended to detect the early changes in blood protein glycosylation elicited by an obesogenic diet.Experimental Design. Since albumin is in constant direct contact with plasma glucose, as are the red blood cell (RBC membranes, we analyzed their degree or glycosylation in female and male rats, either fed a standard diet or subjected to a hyper-energetic self-selected cafeteria diet for 30 days. This model produces a small increase in basal glycaemia and a significant increase in body fat, leaving the animals in the initial stages of development of metabolic syndrome. We also measured the degree of glycosylation of hemoglobin, and the concentration of glucose in contact with this protein, that within the RBC. Glycosylation was measured by colorimetric estimation of the hydroxymethylfurfural liberated from glycosyl residues by incubation with oxalate.Results. Plasma glucose was higher in cafeteria diet and in male rats, both independent effects. However, there were no significant differences induced by sex or diet in either hemoglobin or plasma proteins. Purified RBC membranes showed a marked effect of diet: higher glycosylation in cafeteria rats, which was more marked in females (not in controls. In any case, the number of glycosyl residues per molecule were higher in hemoglobin than in plasma proteins (after correction for molecular weight. The detected levels of glucose in

  1. [The synthesis of proteins in unnucleated blood platelets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijak, Michał; Saluk, Joanna; Ponczek, Michał Błażej Ponczek; Nowak, Paweł; Wachowicz, Barbara

    2013-07-23

    Platelets are the smallest, unnucleated blood cells that play a key role in maintaining normal hemostasis. In the human body about 1x1011 platelets are formed every day, as a the result of complex processes of differentiation, maturation and fragmentation of megakaryocytes. Studies done over 4 decades ago demonstrated that circulating in blood mature platelets can synthesize proteins. Recent discoveries confirm protein synthesis by unnucleated platelets in response to activation. Moreover, protein synthesis alters the phenotype and function of platelets. Platelets synthesize several proteins involved in hemostasis (COX, αIIbβ3, TF PAI-1, Factor XI, protein C inhibitor) and in inflammatory process (IL-1β, CCL5/RANTES). In spite of lack of transcription platelets have a stable mRNA transcripts with a long life correlated with platelet life span. Platelets also show expression of two important key regulators of translation eIF4E and EIF-2α and have a variety of miRNA molecules responsible for translational regulation. This article describes the historical overview of research on protein synthesis by platelets and presents the molecular mechanisms of protein synthesis in activated platelets (and synthesis of the most important platelet proteins).

  2. [Blood proteins in African trypanosomiasis: variations and statistical interpretations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cailliez, M; Poupin, F; Pages, J P; Savel, J

    1982-01-01

    The estimation of blood orosomucoid, haptoglobin, C-reactive protein and immunoglobulins levels, has enable us to prove a specific proteic profile in the human african trypanosomiasis, as compared with other that of parasitic diseases, and with an healthy african reference group. Data processing informatique by principal components analysis, provide a valuable pool for epidemiological surveys.

  3. THz spectroscopy of whole blood, plasma and cells in mice of SHR line with various pathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchenko, A.; Tyndyk, M.; Smolyanskaya, O.; Sulatskiy, M.; Kravtsenyuk, O.; Balbekin, N.; Khodzitsky, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper is devoted to studying of optical properties of whole blood and blood plasma in SHR mice grafted Ehrlich's carcinoma and mice with chronic inflammation at the terahertz frequency range. Additionally physiological saline solution suspension of ascites Ehrlich's carcinoma cells was explored.

  4. Glycan Moieties as Bait to Fish Plasma Membrane Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fei; Zhao, Qun; Sui, Zhigang; Liang, Yu; Jiang, Hao; Yang, Kaiguang; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Lihua; Zhang, Yukui

    2016-05-17

    Plasma membrane proteome analysis is of significance for screening candidate biomarkers and drug targets. However, due to their low abundance and lack of specific groups that can enable their capture, the plasma membrane proteins (PMPs) are under-represented. On the basis of the fact that PMPs are embedded in or anchored to the phospholipid bilayer of the plasma membrane and the glycan moieties of proteins and lipids located on the plasma membrane are exposed outside of the cell surface, we proposed a strategy to capture PMPs, termed as glycan moieties-directed PMPs enrichment (GMDPE). With the glycan moieties exposed outside of the cells as bait to ensure the selectivity and the phospholipid bilayer as raft to provide the sensitivity, we applied this strategy into the plasma membrane proteome analysis of HeLa cells, and in total, 772 PMPs were identified, increased by 4.5 times compared to those identified by the reported cell surface biotinylation method. Notably, among them, 86 CD antigens and 16 ion channel proteins were confidently identified. All these results demonstrated that our proposed approach has great potential in the large scale plasma membrane proteome profiling.

  5. Multiplexing slanted spiral microchannels for ultra-fast blood plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafeie, Mehdi; Zhang, Jun; Asadnia, Mohsen; Li, Weihua; Warkiani, Majid Ebrahimi

    2016-08-07

    Blood and blood products are critical components of health care. Blood components perform distinct functions in the human body and thus the ability to efficiently fractionate blood into its individual components (i.e., plasma and cellular components) is of utmost importance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes. Although conventional approaches like centrifugation and membrane filtration for blood processing have been successful in generating relatively pure fractions, they are largely limited by factors such as the required blood sample volume, component purity, clogging, processing time and operation efficiency. In this work, we developed a high-throughput inertial microfluidic system for cell focusing and blood plasma separation from small to large volume blood samples (1-100 mL). Initially, polystyrene beads and blood cells were used to investigate the inertial focusing performance of a single slanted spiral microchannel as a function of particle size, flow rate, and blood cell concentration. Afterwards, blood plasma separation was conducted using an optimised spiral microchannel with relatively large dimensions. It was found that the reject ratio of the slanted spiral channel is close to 100% for blood samples with haematocrit (HCT) values of 0.5% and 1% under an optimal flow rate of 1.5 mL min(-1). Finally, through a unique multiplexing approach, we built a high-throughput system consisting of 16 spiral channels connected together, which can process diluted samples with a total flow rate as high as 24 mL min(-1). The proposed multiplexed system can surmount the shortcomings of previously reported microfluidic systems for plasma separation and cell sorting in terms of throughput, yield and operation efficiency.

  6. Lowering of plasma phospholipid transfer protein activity by acute hyperglycaemia-induced hyperinsulinaemia in healthy men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanTol, A; Ligtenberg, JJM; Riemens, SC; vanHaeften, TW; Dullaart, RPF

    1997-01-01

    Human plasma contains two lipid transfer proteins involved in the remodelling of plasma lipoproteins: cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). CETP mediates the transfer/exchange of cholesterylesters, triglycerides and phospholipids between high-density lip

  7. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  8. Gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, and plasma during long-term chrysotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, S M; Graabaek, P M

    1980-12-01

    The concentrations of gold in erythrocytes, whole blood, cell-rich plasma, and cell-free plasma were investigated in 17 patients with rheumatoid arthritis undergoing long-term chrysotherapy. Gold estimations were performed with a graphite tube atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Significant quantities of gold were found in isolated erythrocytes of 12 patients. There was no correlation between erythrocyte gold and therapeutic response, plasma gold, and gold in whole blood. Nor did gold in whole blood or plasma show any correlation with therapeutic responses and toxic reaction. However, all patients (3) with toxic reactions had a significantly higher gold concentration in the erythrocytes than the patients without toxic reactions. This result indicates that erythrocyte gold estimations could provide a useful warning of impeding toxic reactions.

  9. Pentobarbital effects on plasma catecholamines: temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baum, D; Halter, J B; Taborsky, G J; Porte, D

    1985-01-01

    The effects of intravenous pentobarbital were studied in dogs. Plasma pentobarbital concentrations were inversely related to epinephrine and norepinephrine concentrations. Plasma catecholamines appeared fully suppressed at pentobarbital levels greater than 25-30 micrograms/ml. Furthermore, pentobarbital levels were negatively related to rectal temperature, heart rate, and mean blood pressure. The methods of pentobarbital administration influenced plasma pentobarbital as well as epinephrine and norepinephrine levels, temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. These observations suggest the possibility that pentobarbital inhibits the sympathetic nervous system, which in turn may affect temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure. Because pentobarbital anesthesia affects plasma catecholamine concentrations, the regimen used in animal models requires consideration when interpreting data potentially influenced by the sympathetic nervous system.

  10. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    and combined, influenced the two methodologically different assays, thrombelastography (TEG) and impedance aggregometry (Multiplate). Platelet-rich plasma (200 × 10/l) or pure plasma (0 platelets), with and without added red blood cells (RBCs), hematocrit 0, 0.15 or 0.29, were produced in vitro from platelet...... concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... and Multiplate. In the TEG, increasing amounts of RBC reduced clot strength and clot kinetics (α-angle), most markedly in plasma/RBC without platelets. In contrast, RBC in a platelet concentrate matrix enhanced Multiplate aggregation in response to weak agonists (ADP and arachidonic acid). Furthermore, removing...

  11. Analysis of zinc oxide nanoparticles binding proteins in rat blood and brain homogenate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shim KH

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Kyu Hwan Shim,1 John Hulme,1 Eun Ho Maeng,2 Meyoung-Kon Kim,3 Seong Soo A An1 1Department of Bionano Technology, Gachon Medical Research Institute, Gachon University, Sungnam-si, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea; 2Department of Analysis, KTR, Kimpo, Gyeonggi-do, South Korea; 3Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Korea University Medical School and College, Seoul, South Korea Abstract: Nanoparticles (NPs are currently used in chemical, cosmetic, pharmaceutical, and electronic products. Nevertheless, limited safety information is available for many NPs, especially in terms of their interactions with various binding proteins, leading to potential toxic effects. Zinc oxide (ZnO NPs are included in the formulation of new products, such as adhesives, batteries, ceramics, cosmetics, cement, glass, ointments, paints, pigments, and supplementary foods, resulting in increased human exposures to ZnO. Hence, we investigated the potential ZnO nanotoxic pathways by analyzing the adsorbed proteins, called protein corona, from blood and brain from four ZnO NPs, ZnOSM20(-, ZnOSM20(+, ZnOAE100(-, and ZnOAE100(+, in order to understand their potential mechanisms in vivo. Through this study, liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy/mass spectroscopy technology was employed to identify all bound proteins. Totals of 52 and 58 plasma proteins were identified as being bound to ZnOSM20(- and ZnOSM20(+, respectively. For ZnOAE100(- and ZnOAE100(+, 58 and 44 proteins were bound, respectively. Similar numbers of proteins were adsorbed onto ZnO irrespective of size or surface charge of the nanoparticle. These proteins were further analyzed with ClueGO, a Cytoscape plugin, which provided gene ontology and the biological interaction processes of identified proteins. Interactions between diverse proteins and ZnO nanoparticles could result in an alteration of their functions, conformation, and clearance, eventually affecting many biological processes. Keywords: brain

  12. HIV migration between blood plasma and cellular subsets before and after HIV therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jun Yong; Chaillon, Antoine; Oh, Jin Ok; Ahn, Jin Young; Ann, Hae Won; Jung, In Young; Ahn, Mi-Young; Jeon, Yong Duk; Ku, Nam Su; Smith, Davey M; Kim, June Myung

    2016-04-01

    The cellular source of HIV RNA circulating in blood plasma remains unclear. Here, we investigated whether sequence analysis of HIV RNA populations circulating before combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and HIV DNA populations in cellular subsets (CS) after cART could identify the cellular sources of circulating HIV RNA. Blood was collected from five subjects at cART initiation and again 6 months later. Naïve CD4+ T cells, resting central memory and effector memory CD4+ T cells, activated CD4+ T cells, monocytes, and natural killer cells were sorted using a fluorescence-activated cell sorter. HIV-1 env C2V3 sequences from HIV RNA in blood plasma and HIV DNA in CSs were generated using single genome sequencing. Sequences were evaluated for viral compartmentalization (Fst test) and migration events (MEs; Slatkin Maddison and cladistic measures) between blood plasma and each CS. Viral compartmentalization was observed in 88% of all cellular subset comparisons (range: 77-100% for each subject). Most observed MEs were directed from blood plasma to CSs (52 MEs, 85.2%). In particular, there was only viral movement from plasma to NK cells (15 MEs), monocytes (seven MEs), and naïve cells (five ME). We observed a total of nine MEs from activated CD4 cells (2/9 MEs), central memory T cells (3/9 MEs), and effector memory T cells (4/9 MEs) to blood plasma. Our results revealed that the HIV RNA population in blood plasma plays an important role in seeding various cellular reservoirs and that the cellular source of the HIV RNA population is activated central memory and effector memory T cells.

  13. High-throughput blood cell focusing and plasma isolation using spiral inertial microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Nan; Ni, Zhonghua

    2015-12-01

    Herein, we explored the blood cell focusing and plasma isolation using a spiral inertial microfluidic device. First, the flow-rate and concentration effects on the migration dynamics of blood cells were systematically investigated to uncover the focusing mechanisms and steric crowding effects of cells in Dean-coupled inertial flows. A novel phenomenon that the focusing status of discoid red blood cells (RBCs) changes according to the channel height was discovered. These experimental data may provide valuable insights for the high-throughput processing of blood samples using inertial microfluidics. On the basis of the improved understandings on blood cell focusing, efficient isolation of plasma from whole blood with a 20-fold dilution was achieved at a throughput up to 700 μl/min. The purity of the isolated blood plasma was close to 100 %, and the plasma yield was calculated to be 38.5 %. As compared with previously-reported devices, our spiral inertial microfluidic device provides a balanced overall performance, and has overriding advantages in terms of processing throughput and operating efficiency.

  14. Plasma concentrations of four pregnancy proteins in complications of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, T M; Halbert, S P; Spellacy, W N; Berne, B H

    1977-08-01

    Toxemia of pregnancy was associated with an elevation of the pregnancy-associated plasma protein (PAPP)-A concentration, as compared to the level in normal pregnancy in the last month of gestation. The other pregnancy proteins measured were not altered in toxemia. In twin pregnancies, the PAPP-A, PAPP-C, and human placental lactogen levels were all increased, particularly PAPP-A. On the other hand, pregnancy zone protein was not affected by twinning. Pregnancy with diabetes showed normal levels of these proteins.

  15. The importance of selecting a proper biological milieu for protein corona analysis in vitro: Human plasma versus human serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirshafiee, Vahid; Kim, Raehyun; Mahmoudi, Morteza; Kraft, Mary L

    2016-06-01

    Nanoparticle (NP) exposure to biological fluids in the body results in protein binding to the NP surface, which forms a protein coating that is called the "protein corona". To simplify studies of protein-NP interactions and protein corona formation, NPs are incubated with biological solutions, such as human serum or human plasma, and the effects of this exposure are characterized in vitro. Yet, how NP exposure to these two different biological milieus affects protein corona composition and cell response has not been investigated. Here, we explore the differences between the protein coronas that form when NPs are incubated in human serum versus human plasma. NP characterization indicated that NPs that were exposed to human plasma had higher amounts of proteins bound to their surfaces, and were slightly larger in size than those exposed to human serum. In addition, significant differences in corona composition were also detected with gel electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry, where a higher fraction of coagulation proteins and complement factors were found on the plasma-exposed NPs. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy showed that the uptake of plasma-exposed NPs was higher than that of serum-exposed NPs by RAW 264.7 macrophage immune cells, but not by NIH 3T3 fibroblast cells. This difference is likely due to the elevated amounts of opsonins, such as fibrinogen, on the surfaces of the NPs exposed to plasma, but not serum, because these components trigger NP internalization by immune cells. As the human plasma better mimics the composition of the in vivo environment, namely blood, in vitro protein corona studies should employ human plasma, and not human serum, so the biological phenomena that is observed is more similar to that occurring in vivo.

  16. Stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qi SHEN; Lu WANG; Hui ZHOU; Hui-di JIANG; Lu-shan YU; Su ZENG

    2013-01-01

    Chiral drugs show distinct biochemical and pharmacological behaviors in the human body.The binding of chiral drugs to plasma proteins usually exhibits stereoselectivity,which has a far-reaching influence on their pharmacological activities and pharmacokinetic profiles.In this review,the stereoselective binding of chiral drugs to human serum albumin (HSA),α1-acid glycoprotein (AGP)and lipoprotein,three most important proteins in human plasma,are detailed.Furthermore,the application of AGP variants and recombinant fragments of HSA for studying enantiomer binding properties is also discussed.Apart from the stereoselectivity of enantiomer-protein binding,enantiomer-enantiomer interactions that may induce allosteric effects are also described.Additionally,the techniques and methods used to determine drug-protein binding parameters are briefly reviewed.

  17. Washing older blood units before transfusion reduces plasma iron and improves outcomes in experimental canine pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés-Puch, Irene; Wang, Dong; Sun, Junfeng; Solomon, Steven B; Remy, Kenneth E; Fernandez, Melinda; Feng, Jing; Kanias, Tamir; Bellavia, Landon; Sinchar, Derek; Perlegas, Andreas; Solomon, Michael A; Kelley, Walter E; Popovsky, Mark A; Gladwin, Mark T; Kim-Shapiro, Daniel B; Klein, Harvey G; Natanson, Charles

    2014-02-27

    In a randomized controlled blinded trial, 2-year-old purpose-bred beagles (n = 24), with Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia, were exchanged-transfused with either 7- or 42-day-old washed or unwashed canine universal donor blood (80 mL/kg in 4 divided doses). Washing red cells (RBC) before transfusion had a significantly different effect on canine survival, multiple organ injury, plasma iron, and cell-free hemoglobin (CFH) levels depending on the age of stored blood (all, P blood improved survival rates, shock score, lung injury, cardiac performance and liver function, and reduced levels of non-transferrin bound iron and plasma labile iron. In contrast, washing fresh blood worsened all these same clinical parameters and increased CFH levels. Our data indicate that transfusion of fresh blood, which results in less hemolysis, CFH, and iron release, is less toxic than transfusion of older blood in critically ill infected subjects. However, washing older blood prevented elevations in plasma circulating iron and improved survival and multiple organ injury in animals with an established pulmonary infection. Our data suggest that fresh blood should not be washed routinely because, in a setting of established infection, washed RBC are prone to release CFH and result in worsened clinical outcomes.

  18. Revisions to labeling requirements for blood and blood components, including source plasma. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is revising the labeling requirements for blood and blood components intended for use in transfusion or for further manufacture by combining, simplifying, and updating specific regulations applicable to labeling and circulars of information. These requirements will facilitate the use of a labeling system using machine-readable information that would be acceptable as a replacement for the ``ABC Codabar'' system for the labeling of blood and blood components. FDA is taking this action as a part of its efforts to comprehensively review and, as necessary, revise its regulations, policies, guidances, and procedures related to the regulation of blood and blood components. This final rule is intended to help ensure the continued safety of the blood supply and facilitate consistency in labeling.

  19. A successful experience of the Iranian blood transfusion organization in improving accessibility and affordability of plasma derived medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chegini, Azita; Torab, Seyed Ardeshir; Pourfatollah, Ali Akbar

    2017-02-01

    Plasma is the liquid part of blood. It is estimated 21.6 million liters of plasma collect from Whole blood annually. From these plasma, 4.2 million liters transfuse, 8.1 million liters fractionate, 9.3 million liters waste. Nowadays, blood products and PDM (plasma derived medicine) consider as essential medicine in modern health care and transfusion medicine. Iranian blood transfusion organization as a non-profit organization was established in 1974 in order to centralize all blood transfusion activities from donor recruitment to distribution of blood components to hospitals. Iran is the only country in EMR region with the rate of 20-29.9 blood donations per 1000 population and reached 100% voluntary non-remunerated blood donation in 2007. RBCs and platelets demand are much more than FFPs so the IBTO was faced the surplus plasma that could cause surplus plasma wastage. Simultaneously, hospitals need more plasma derived medicine especially albumin, IVIG, factor VIII, factor IX. IBTO was faced the challenges such as Fractionators selection, Plasma volume shipment, Contract duration, Product profile, Multiple External audits, Cold chain maintenance, Transporting plasma across international borders, NAT test. To overcome plasma wastage and storage of PDM. IBTO involved toll manufacturing in 2005 and not only prevents plasma wastage but also save MOH (ministry of health) budget.

  20. Plasma Skimming in a Spiral Groove Bearing of a Centrifugal Blood Pump.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murashige, Tomotaka; Sakota, Daisuke; Kosaka, Ryo; Nishida, Masahiro; Kawaguchi, Yasuo; Yamane, Takashi; Maruyama, Osamu

    2016-09-01

    Plasma skimming is a phenomenon in which discharge hematocrit is lower than feed hematocrit in microvessels. Plasma skimming has been investigated at a bearing gap in a spiral groove bearing (SGB), as this has the potential to prevent hemolysis in the SGB of a blood pump. However, it is not clear whether plasma skimming occurs in a blood pump with the SGB, because the hematocrit has not been obtained. The purpose of this study is to verify plasma skimming in an SGB of a centrifugal blood pump by developing a hematocrit measurement method in an SGB. Erythrocyte observation using a high-speed microscope and a bearing gap measurement using a laser confocal displacement meter was performed five times. In these tests, bovine blood as a working fluid was diluted with autologous plasma to adjust the hematocrit to 1.0%. A resistor was adjusted to achieve a pressure head of 100 mm Hg and a flow rate of 5.0 L/min at a rotational speed of 2800 rpm. Hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was measured using an image analysis based on motion image of erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume, the measured bearing gap, and a cross-sectional area of erythrocyte. Mean hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB was linearly reduced from 0.97 to 0.07% with the decreasing mean bearing gap from 38 to 21 μm when the rotational speed was changed from 2250 to 3000 rpm. A maximum plasma skimming efficiency of 93% was obtained with a gap of 21 μm. In conclusion, we succeeded in measuring the hematocrit on the ridge region in the SGB of the blood pump. Hematocrit decreased on the ridge region in the SGB and plasma skimming occurred with a bearing gap of less than 30 μm in the hydrodynamically levitated centrifugal blood pump.

  1. Plasma degradome affected by variable storage of human blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaisar, Maria; Van Dullemen, Leon F. A.; Thezenas, Marie-Laetitia; Akhtar, M. Zeeshan; Huang, Honglei; Rendel, Sandrine; Charles, Philip D.; Fischer, Roman; Ploeg, Rutger J.; Kessler, Benedikt M.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The successful application of-omics technologies in the discovery of novel biomarkers and targets of therapeutic interventions is facilitated by large collections of well curated clinical samples stored in bio banks. Mining the plasma proteome holds promise to improve our understanding o

  2. Plasma protein characteristics of long-term hemodialysis survivors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao-Ping Lin

    Full Text Available Hemodialysis (HD patients are under recurrent circulatory stress, and hemodialysis has a high mortality rate. The characteristics of plasma proteomes in patients surviving long-term HD remain obscure, as well as the potential biomarkers in predicting prognoses. This study reports the proteome analyses of patient plasma from non-diabetic long-term HD (LHD, dialysis vintage 14.9±4.1 years, n = 6 and the age/sex/uremic etiology-comparable short-term HD (SHD, dialysis vintage 5.3±2.9 years, n = 6 using 2-DE and mass spectrometry. In addition, a 4-year longitudinal follow-up of 60 non-diabetic HD patients was subsequently conducted to analyze the baseline plasma proteins by ELISA in predicting prognosis. Compared to the SHD, the LHD survivors had increased plasma vitamin D binding proteins (DBP and decreased clusterin, apolipoprotein A-IV, haptoglobin, hemopexin, complement factors B and H, and altered isoforms of α1-antitrypsin and fibrinogen gamma. During the 45.7±15 months for follow-up of the 60 HD patient cases, 16 patients died. Kaplan-Meier analysis demonstrated that HD patients with the lowest tertile of the baseline plasma DBP level have a significantly higher mortality rate. Multivariate Cox regression analysis further indicated that DBP is an independent predictor of mortality. In summary, the altered plasma proteins in LHD implicated accelerated atherosclerosis, defective antioxidative activity, increased inflammation/infection, and organ dysfunction. Furthermore, lower baseline plasma DBP in HD patients is related to mortality. The results suggest that the proteomic approach could help discover the potential biomarker in HD prognoses.

  3. Hemorheological alterations of red blood cells induced by non-thermal dielectric barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeongho; Kim, Jae Hyung; Chang, Boksoon; Choi, Eun Ha; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2016-11-01

    Atmospheric pressure non-thermal plasma has been introduced in various applications such as wound healing, sterilization of infected tissues, blood coagulation, delicate surgeries, and so on. The non-thermal plasma generates reactive oxygen species (ROS), including ozone. Various groups have reported that the produced ROS influence proliferation and differentiation of cells, as well as apoptosis and growth arrest of tumor cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of non-thermal plasma on rheological characteristics of red blood cells (RBC). We experimentally measured the extent of hemolysis, deformability, and aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) with respect to exposure times of non-thermal plasma. RBC morphology was also examined using field-emission scanning electron microscopy. The absorbance of hemoglobin released from the RBCs increased with increasing exposure time of the non-thermal plasma. Values of the elongation index and aggregation index were shown to decrease significantly with increasing plasma exposure times. Therefore, hemorheological properties of RBCs could be utilized to assess the performance of various non-thermal plasmas.

  4. Differential scanning calorimetry of blood plasma for clinical diagnosis and monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Mekmaysy, Chongkham S; Helm, C William; Jenson, A Bennett; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2009-06-01

    Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) provides a useful method to study the unfractionated plasma proteome. Plasma from healthy individuals yields a reproducible signature thermogram which results from the weighted sum of the thermal denaturation of the most abundant plasma proteins. Further investigation of the thermogram for healthy individuals showed it to be sensitive to ethnicity and gender. DSC analysis of plasma from diseased individuals revealed significant changes in the thermogram which are suggested to result not from changes in the concentration of the major plasma proteins but from interactions of small molecules or peptides with these proteins. Closer examination of the diseased thermograms showed a thermogram characteristic of each disease. For cervical cancer, the DSC method yields a progressively shifted thermogram as the disease advances from pre-invasive conditions to late stage cancer. Our application of the DSC method has provided a potential tool for the early diagnosis, monitoring and screening of cancer patients.

  5. Optical monitoring of the concentration profile of submicron latex particles in flow through a translucent water-permeable tube: demonstration of flow-dependent concentration polarization of plasma proteins at a blood/endothelium boundary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Shigeo; Iwai, Toshiaki; Karino, Takeshi

    1999-05-01

    It is well accepted that hemodynamics plays an important role in atherogenesis in man. However, the precise mechanisms have not been elucidated yet. Recently, Karino and his coworkers hypothesized that flow-dependent concentration polarization of low-density lipoproteins (LDL: a carrier of cholesterol) may occur at a blood/endothelium boundary, leading to a high risk of atherogenesis in regions of slow flow and low wall shear rate where the concentration of LDL builds up. In this study, we attempted to confirm experimentally their predictions by measuring optically the concentration profile of polystyrene microspheres (used as a model of LDL) flowing in steady flow through a dialyses tube (used as a model of an artery) by transversing a laser beam across the tube and detecting the intensity of the transmitted light. It was found that surface concentration of the microsphere certainly increases with decreasing the flow rate (hence wall shear rate) and it occurs even under the conditions of a very low water filtration velocity encountered in normal arteries in vivo, thus giving a strong support to the hypothesis proposed by Karino et al.

  6. The effect of heat- or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on complement deposition from human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Harmankaya, Necati; Askendal, Agneta; Areva, Sami; Lausmaa, Jukka; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a well known metallic biomaterial extensively used in dental, orthopaedic-, and occasionally also in blood contacting applications. It integrates well to bone and soft tissues, and is shown upon blood plasma contact to activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and bind complement factor 3b. The material properties depend largely on those of the nm-thick dense layer of TiO(2) that becomes rapidly formed upon contact with air and water. The spontaneously formed amorphous Ti-oxide has a pzc approximately 5-6 and its water solubility is at the order of 1-2 micromolar. It is often subjected to chemical- and heat treatments in order to increase the anatase- and rutile crystallinity, to modify the surface topography and to decrease the water solubility. In this work, we prepared sol-gel derived titanium and smooth PVD titanium surfaces, and analysed their oxide and protein deposition properties in human blood plasma before and after annealing at 100-500 degrees C or upon UVO-treatment for up to 96 hours. The blood plasma results show that complement deposition vanished irreversibly after heat treatment at 250-300 degrees C for 30 minutes or after UVO exposure for 24 hours or longer. XPS and infrared spectroscopy indicated change of surface water/hydroxyl binding upon the heat- and UVO treatments, and increased Ti oxidation. XRD analysis confirmed an increased crystallinity and both control (untreated) and annealed smooth titanium displayed low XRD-signals indicating some nanocrystallinity, with predominantly anatase phase. The current results show that the behaviour of titanium dioxide in blood contact can be controlled through relatively simple means, such as mild heating and illumination in UV-light, which both likely irreversibly change the stoichiometry and structure of the outmost layers of titanium dioxide and its OH/H(2)O binding characteristics.

  7. Centrifugation:an important pre-analytic procedure that influences plasma microRNA quantification during blood processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Hui Zheng; Cui Cui; Xin-Xi Zhou; Yi-Xin Zeng; Wei-Hua Jia

    2013-01-01

    Circulating microRNAs are robustly present in plasma or serum and have become a research focus as biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. Centrifugation is a necessary procedure for obtaining high-quality blood supernatant. Herein, we investigated one-step and two-step centrifugations, two centrifugal methods routinely used in microRNA study, to explore their effects on plasma microRNA quantification. The microRNAs obtained from one-step and two-step centrifugations were quantified by microarray and TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Dynamic light scattering was performed to explore the difference underlying the two centrifugal methods. The results from the microarray containing 1,347 microRNAs showed that the signal detection rate was greatly decreased in the plasma sample prepared by two-step centrifugation. More importantly, the microRNAs missing in this plasma sample could be recovered and detected in the precipitate generated from the second centrifugation. Consistent with the results from microarray, a marked decrease of three representative microRNAs in two-step centrifugal plasma was validated by Q-PCR. According to the size distribution of all nanoparticles in plasma, there were fewer nanoparticles with size >1,000 nm in two-step centrifugal plasma. Our experiments directly demonstrated that different centrifugation methods produced distinct quantities of plasma microRNAs. Thus, exosomes or protein complexes containing microRNAs may be involved in large nanoparticle formation and may be precipitated after two-step centrifugation. Our results remind us that sample processing methods should be first considered in conducting research.

  8. Isolation of plasma from whole blood using planar microfilters for lab-on-a-chip applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowley, Timothy A; Pizziconi, Vincent

    2005-09-01

    Researchers are actively developing devices for the microanalysis of complex fluids, such as blood. These devices have the potential to revolutionize biological analysis in a manner parallel to the computer chip by providing very high throughput screening of complex samples and massively parallel bioanalytical capabilities. A necessary step performed in clinical chemistry is the isolation of plasma from whole blood, and effective sample preparation techniques are needed for the development of miniaturized clinical diagnostic devices. This study demonstrates the use of passive, operating entirely on capillary action, transverse-flow microfilter devices for the microfluidic isolation of plasma from whole blood. Using these planar microfilters, blood can be controllably fractionated with minimal cell lysis. A characterization of the device performance reveals that plasma filter flux is dependent upon the wall shear rate of blood in the filtration channel, and this result is consistent with macroscale blood filtration using microporous membranes. Also, an innovative microfluidic layout is demonstrated that extends device operation time via capillary action from seconds to minutes. Efficiency of these microfilters is approximately three times higher than the separation efficiencies predicted for microporous membranes under similar conditions. As such, the application of the microscale blood filtration designs used in this study may have broad implications in the design of lab-on-a-chip devices, as well as the field of separation science.

  9. SDS-binding assay based on tyrosine fluorescence as a tool to determine binding properties of human serum albumin in blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhdanova, Nadezda; Shirshin, Evgeny; Fadeev, Victor; Priezzhev, Alexander

    2016-04-01

    Among all plasma proteins human serum albumin (HSA) is the most studied one as it is the main transport protein and can bind a wide variety of ligands especially fatty acids (FAs). The concentration of FAs bound to HSA in human blood plasma differs by three times under abnormal conditions (fasting, physical exercises or in case of social important diseases). In the present study a surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) was used to simulate FAs binding to HSA. It was shown that the increase of Tyr fluorescence of human blood plasma due to SDS addition can be completely explained by HSA-SDS complex formation. Binding parameters of SDS-HSA complex (average number of sites and apparent constant of complex formation) were determined from titration curves based on tyrosine (Tyr) fluorescence.

  10. Plasma protein oxidation and total antioxidant power in premenstrual syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eans Tara Tuladhar; Anjali Rao

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To explore whether oxidative stress has any role inpremenstrual syndrome (PMS). Methods: Female volunteers suffering from PMS , in the age group of 20-24 years were compared to their asymptomatic normomennorhoeic counterparts in follicular phase and late luteal phase for ferric reducing antioxidant power of plasma(FRAP), plasma protein thiols(PPT) and protein carbonyls(PPC) levels.Results:There was no significant change in FRAP and PPC levels in controls andPMS groups but PPT decreased significantly in luteal phase ofPMS (P< 0.05) when compared to follicular phase.Conclusions:Estrogen and progesterone, might be responsible for a healthy antioxidant profile inPMS. However, a marked decrease inPPT in luteal phase of PMS group may be due to pro-oxidant nature of estrogen-active in this phase of PMS leading to consumption of the sacrificial antioxidant-protein thiol.

  11. Comparisons of home blood glucose testing and glycated protein measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, P D; Sherman, L D; O'Day, M R; Rognerud, C L; Ou, C N

    1992-04-01

    We examined the relationships between 4 glycated protein assays and home blood glucose monitoring (HBGM) in 26 children with poorly-controlled insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) during a period of improved management. At 2 week intervals for 6 visits (12 weeks in total), HBGM records were collected and a blood sample was obtained for measurement of glycated proteins and glucose. Assays included glycated hemoglobin (GHb) and glycated serum proteins (GP) by boronate affinity chromatography, hemoglobin A1C by PolyCAT A high performance liquid chromatography (HAC) and fructosamine (FA). All 4 glycated protein levels declined significantly over the 12 week period. Significant correlations between the glycated proteins and HBGM were observed over 2 week intervals. None of the 4 assays were affected by the glucose level in the sample. Changes in mean HBGM readings over 2 week intervals were correlated with both FA and GP with wide prediction intervals. Over cumulative 2 week intervals, which may more accurately reflect longitudinal trends, all 4 glycated proteins were correlated with mean HBGM readings. At each cumulative interval, GHb and GP showed the largest variation with MBG, while FA showed the least variation with MBG. Our data indicate that of the 4 assays tested, FA has limited clinical values as compared to other glycated protein assays, whereas assays based on boronate affinity chromatography (GHb and GP) provide the most useful clinical indicators of short-term changes in glycemic control. The clinical utility of a new HPLC method for determination of glycated hemoglobins is also demonstrated.

  12. Adsorption of proteins from plasma at polyester non-wovens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klomp, A J; Engbers, G H; Mol, J; Terlingen, J G; Feijen, J

    1999-07-01

    Polyester non-wovens in filters for the removal of leukocytes from platelet concentrates (PCs) must be platelet compatible. In PC filtration, the adsorption of proteins at the plasma-non-woven interface can be of great importance with respect to the yield of platelets. Unmodified and radio frequency glow discharge (RFGD) treated poly(ethylene terephthalate) non-woven (NW-PET) and two commercial surface-modified non-wovens were contacted with human plasma. Protein desorption by sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) was evaluated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The desorbed proteins were characterized by gel electrophoresis and immunoblotting. Compared to the commercial surface-modified non-wovens, unmodified and RFGD-treated NW-PETs adsorbed a relatively high amount of protein. Significantly more protein was removed from the hydrophobic NW-PET by SDS than from the hydrophilic RFGD-treated non-wovens. RFGD treatment of NW-PET reduces the reversibility of protein adsorption. Less albumin and fibrinogen were removed from the RFGD-treated non-wovens than from NW-PET. In addition, a large amount of histidine-rich glycoprotein was removed from RFGD-treated non-wovens, but not from NW-PET. The different behaviour of RFGFD-treated non-wovens towards protein adsorption is probably caused by differences in the chemical reactivity of the non-woven surfaces.

  13. Reliability of plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) from repeated measures in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citronberg, Jessica S; Wilkens, Lynne R; Lim, Unhee; Hullar, Meredith A J; White, Emily; Newcomb, Polly A; Le Marchand, Loïc; Lampe, Johanna W

    2016-09-01

    Plasma lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), a measure of internal exposure to bacterial lipopolysaccharide, has been associated with several chronic conditions and may be a marker of chronic inflammation; however, no studies have examined the reliability of this biomarker in a healthy population. We examined the temporal reliability of LBP measured in archived samples from participants in two studies. In Study one, 60 healthy participants had blood drawn at two time points: baseline and follow-up (either three, six, or nine months). In Study two, 24 individuals had blood drawn three to four times over a seven-month period. We measured LBP in archived plasma by ELISA. Test-retest reliability was estimated by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Plasma LBP concentrations showed moderate reliability in Study one (ICC 0.60, 95 % CI 0.43-0.75) and Study two (ICC 0.46, 95 % CI 0.26-0.69). Restricting the follow-up period improved reliability. In Study one, the reliability of LBP over a three-month period was 0.68 (95 % CI: 0.41-0.87). In Study two, the ICC of samples taken ≤seven days apart was 0.61 (95 % CI 0.29-0.86). Plasma LBP concentrations demonstrated moderate test-retest reliability in healthy individuals with reliability improving over a shorter follow-up period.

  14. The singular approach for processing polarization-inhomogeneous laser images of blood plasma layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelsky, P. O.; Ushenko, A. G.; Dubolazov, A. V.; Sidor, M. I.; Bodnar, G. B.; Koval, G.; Trifonyuk, L.

    2013-04-01

    We present in this work the results of an investigation to analyse the coordinate distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization (polarization maps) in laser images of blood plasma layers for three groups of patients: healthy (group 1), mastopathy (group 2) and breast cancer (group 3). To characterize polarization maps for all groups of samples we use three groups of parameters: statistical moments of the first to fourth orders, autocorrelation functions and logarithmic dependences for power spectra related to distributions of azimuths and ellipticity of polarization inherent to laser images of blood plasma. We ascertain the criteria for diagnosis and differentiation of pathological changes of the breast.

  15. Association of Plasma Heat Shock Protein 70, Interleukin 6, and Creatine Kinase Concentrations in a Healthy, Young Adult Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Contreras-Sesvold

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Variations of baseline plasma concentrations of creatine kinase (CK, heat shock protein 70 (HSP70, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 have been reported. We report categorical associations which may influence these protein levels. Methods. Blood was harvested for DNA and plasma protein analysis from 567 adults. Mean protein levels of CK, HSP70, and IL-6 were compared by sex, ethnicity, genetic variants—CKMM Nco1 (rs1803285, HSPA1B +A1538G (rs1061581, and IL6 G-174C (rs1800795—self-reported history of exercise, oral contraceptive use, and dietary supplement use. Results. SNP major allele frequencies for CKMM, HSPA1B, and IL6 were 70% A, 57% A, and 60%. Mean CK statistically differed by sex, ethnicity, oral contraceptives, and caffeine. Plasma HSP70 differed by caffeine and protein. Mean IL-6 concentration differed by sex, ethnicity, and genotype. Plasma IL-6 was significantly lower (29% in males (1.92 ± 0.08 pg/mL and higher (29% among African Americans (2.85 ± 0.50 pg/mL relative to the others. IL6 G-174C GG genotype (2.23 ± 0.14 pg/mL was 19% greater than CG or CC genotypes. Conclusion. Differences in baseline CK and IL-6 plasma protein concentrations are associated with genetics, sex, ethnicity, and the use of oral contraceptives, caffeine, and protein supplements in this young and athletic population.

  16. Silver nanoparticles influence on the blood activation process and their release to blood plasma from synthetic polymer scaffold

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, R.; Lackner, J. M.; Sanak, M.; Major, B.

    2016-03-01

    In the present work, blood and blood plasma interaction to silver stabilised polyelectrolytes was investigated in vitro. The designed materials are dedicated for regeneration of the cardiovascular system. Silver nanoparticles were introduced into the polyelectrolyte structure in order to reduce the risk of bacterial biofilm formation. The introduction of Ag nanoparticles occurred by deposition at high vacuum by magnetron sputtering. The analysis of blood-materials interactions were performed by using commercially available tester, Impact-R (Diamed). The assessment of silver ion nanoparticles release into the plasma consisted in determining the Prothrombin Time (PT) and Activated Partial Thromboplastin Time (APTT). Unmodified surface of polyelectrolytes is a strong activator for blood elements. The introduction of silver nanoparticles resulted in a significant reduction in the probability of clotting. The extrinsic pathway of coagulation determined on the basis of the PT and the intrinsic and common pathways of coagulation measured by the APTT did not indicate the danger out of range. Microstructure was studied using TEM on thin foils prepared from the cross-section of samples subjected to biomedical treatments. The observations revealed hetero- interface between two different crystalline solids.

  17. Plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations and follicular dynamics in ewes fed proteins of different degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Bianchi Lazarin

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of overfeeding with protein of different degradability on body condition, plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone concentrations, ovulation number and follicular dynamics were assessed in Santa Ines ewes. Twelve ewes were assigned to a randomized block design according to body weight and received overfeeding with soybean meal or with corn gluten meal or maintenance diet for 28 days before ovulation and during the next estrous cycle. Blood samples were taken on days 7, 14, 21, and 28 after the beginning of treatments for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and on days 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 into the estrous cycle for analysis of plasma urea nitrogen and progesterone. Follicular dynamics was monitored daily by ultrasound during one estrous cycle. Dry matter and crude protein intake, weight gain, plasma urea nitrogen concentration before ovulation, number of ovulations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 1st and of the 2nd waves and the growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave were higher in the ewes that received overfeeding. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave was higher in the ewes fed maintenance diet. The back fat thickness, plasma urea nitrogen before ovulation and progesterone concentrations, diameter of the largest follicle of the 2nd wave and growth rate of the largest follicle of the 3rd wave were higher in ewes that received overfeeding with soybean meal. The growth rate of the largest follicle of the 1st wave was higher in ewes that received overfeeding with corn gluten meal. Overfeeding with protein-rich feeds may increase the ovulation number and with soybean meal, it may be effective in increasing plasma progesterone concentration in ewes.

  18. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  19. Capillary flow-driven microfluidic device with wettability gradient and sedimentation effects for blood plasma separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M. Sneha; Rakesh, P. E.; Chandra, T. S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-01-01

    We report a capillary flow-driven microfluidic device for blood-plasma separation that comprises a cylindrical well between a pair of bottom and top channels. Exposure of the well to oxygen-plasma creates wettability gradient on its inner surface with its ends hydrophilic and middle portion hydrophobic. Due to capillary action, sample blood self-infuses into bottom channel and rises up the well. Separation of plasma occurs at the hydrophobic patch due to formation of a ‘self-built-in filter’ and sedimentation. Capillary velocity is predicted using a model and validated using experimental data. Sedimentation of RBCs is explained using modified Steinour’s model and correlation between settling velocity and liquid concentration is found. Variation of contact angle on inner surface of the well is characterized and effects of well diameter and height and dilution ratio on plasma separation rate are investigated. With a well of 1.0 mm diameter and 4.0 mm height, 2.0 μl of plasma was obtained (from <10 μl whole blood) in 15 min with a purification efficiency of 99.9%. Detection of glucose was demonstrated with the plasma obtained. Wetting property of channels was maintained by storing in DI water under vacuum and performance of the device was found to be unaffected over three weeks. PMID:28256564

  20. Use of dried blood spots and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for multi-element determination in blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vacchina, Véronique; Huin, Vincent; Hulo, Sébastien; Cuny, Damien; Broly, Franck; Renom, Gilles; Perini, Jean-Marc

    2014-07-01

    The paper describes the development of an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP MS) method for multitrace element determination in dried blood spots (DBSs). The analytical conditions were optimized using Seronorm™ L-3 and L-1 Certified Reference Materials. The best results were obtained by sampling blood drops on a decontaminated PVDF filter membrane. After drying under metal-free conditions, the DBSs underwent acidic digestion and were analyzed with ICP MS. The method was then validated for As, Cd, Cu, Pb, Mo, Se and Zn. Using a matrix-matched calibration curve, the recovery levels ranged from 96% to 117%. The repeatability and reproducibility were generally below 15%. Limits of quantification ranging from 0.5 to 50 μg/L. In order to investigate the analytical procedure under real sampling conditions, the results obtained from DBSs and liquid blood aliquots (less subject to contamination) from two adult subjects were compared.

  1. Speed associated with plasma pH, oxygen content, total protein and urea in an 80 km race.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, R M; Hess, T M; Williams, C A; Kronfeld, D S; Griewe-Crandell, K M; Waldron, J E; Graham-Thiers, P M; Gay, L S; Splan, R K; Saker, K E; Harris, P A

    2002-09-01

    To test the hypothesis that endurance performance may be related quantitatively to changes in blood, we measured selected blood variables then determined their reference ranges and associations with speed during an 80 km race. The plan had 46 horses in a 2 x 2 factorial design testing a potassium-free electrolyte mix and a vitamin supplement. Blood samples were collected before the race, at 21, 37, 56 and 80 km, and 20 min after finishing, for assay of haematocrit, plasma pH, pO2, pCO2, [Na+], [K+], [Ca++], [Mg++], [Cl-], lactate, glucose, urea, cortisol, alpha-tocopherol, ascorbate, creatine kinase, aspartate amino transferase, lipid hydroperoxides, total protein, albumin and creatinine, and erythrocyte glutathione and glutathione peroxidase. Data from 34 finishers were analysed statistically. Reference ranges for resting and running horses were wide and overlapping and, therefore, limiting with respect to evaluation of individual horses. Speed correlations were most repeatable, with variables reflecting blood oxygen transport (enabling exercise), acidity and electrolytes (limiting exercise) and total protein (enabling then, perhaps, limiting). Stepwise regressions also included plasma urea concentration (limiting). The association of speed with less plasma acidity and urea suggests the potential for fat adaptation and protein restriction in endurance horses, as found previously in Arabians performing repeated sprints. Conditioning horses fed fat-fortified and protein-restricted diets may not only improve performance but also avoid grain-associated disorders.

  2. Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor type-1 and serum C-reactive protein levels in patients with colorectal cancer. The RANX05 Colorectal Cancer Study Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Hans Jørgen; Christensen, Ib Jarle; Sørensen, Steen

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Preoperative plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is a prognostic variable in patients with colorectal cancer. It has been suggested, however, that plasma PAI-1 is a nonspecific prognostic parameter similar to the acute-phase reactant C-reactive protein (CRP). In the present...... statistical analysis including Dukes classification, gender, age, tumor location, perioperative blood transfusion, PAI-1 and CRP, plasma PAI-1 was a dependent prognostic variable, while serum CRP (P

  3. Haptoglobin-related protein is a high-affinity hemoglobin-binding plasma protein

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Marianne Jensby; Petersen, Steen Vang; Jacobsen, Christian

    2006-01-01

    Haptoglobin-related protein (Hpr) is a primate-specific plasma protein associated with apolipoprotein L-I (apoL-I)-containing high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles shown to be a part of the innate immune defense. Despite the assumption hitherto that Hpr does not bind to hemoglobin, the present...

  4. Capillarity-driven blood plasma separation on paper-based devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kar, Shantimoy; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2015-10-01

    We demonstrate capillarity-driven plasma separation from whole blood on simple paper-based H-channels. This methodology, unlike other reported techniques, does not necessitate elaborate and complex instrumentation, and the usage of expensive consumables. We believe that this technique will be ideally suited to be implemented in rapid and portable blood diagnostic devices designed to be operative at locations with limited resources.

  5. Radioimmunoassay for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinosich, M.J. (Royal North Shore Hospital, Sidney, New South Wales, Australia); Teisner, B.; Folkerson, J.; Saunders, D.M.; Grudzinskas, J.G.

    1982-01-01

    A specific and highly sensitive radioimmunoassay for determination of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in human serum is described. The minimum detection limit for this protein was 2.9 ..mu..g/L. The within- and between-assay coefficients of variation were 4.0 and 4.5%, respectively. The circulating protein was detected within 32 days of conception in eight normal pregnancies and within 21 days in a twin pregnancy. Circulating concentrations in the mother at term were consistently higher (10-fold) than in matched amniotic fluid; none was detected in the umbilical circulation. This protein was also detected in the circulation of patients with hydatidiform mole. This assay will permit investigations into the clinical evaluation of measurements of the protein during early pregnancy and trophoblastic disease.

  6. Blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values in healthy ostriches: the effect of age and sex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouda, J; Núñez-Ochoa, L; Avila-González, E; Doubek, J; Fuente-Martínez, B; Aguilar-Bobadilla, J

    2009-08-01

    The effect of age and sex on blood acid-base and plasma electrolyte values was determined in venous blood samples from 45 clinically healthy ostriches (Struthio camelus) from 26 days to 6 years of age. Animals were divided by age into four groups and the group of adults was divided by sex into two subgroups. Blood samples were collected without sedation. There was a significant (Pvalues of base excess (BE), plasma HCO(3)(-), total CO(2) (TCO(2)), Na(+), K(+), Cl(-) and anion gap (AG). The highest plasma concentrations of Na(+), Cl(-) and value of AG were found in adult ostriches with a steady decrease to chicks. A significant (Psex difference in adult animals with higher blood pH, lower blood values of pCO(2), BE, plasma concentrations of HCO(3)(-), TCO(2) and K(+) was found in females. We concluded that blood acid-base values and plasma electrolyte concentrations in ostriches are affected by age and sex.

  7. Blood Plasma Thermograms Dataset Analysisby Means of InterCriteria and Correlation Analyses for the Case of Colorectal Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Todinova

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The approaches of InterCriteria Analysis and Correlation Analysis are applied to a dataset of calorimetric and statistical parameters obtained from blood plasma proteome thermograms of colorectal cancer patients. The analysis was performed for four individual predefined subsets of calorimetric profiles. Specific interrelations between the studied criteria were identified that were found to differ among the different calorimetric subsets. For three of the subsets the enthalpy of the thermal profiles was in strong consonance with the excess heat capacity of the immunoglobulins assigned thermal transition. For the calorimetric subsets that differed most from the control healthy set a strong interrelation between the excess heat capacities of the main plasma proteins (albumin and immunoglobulins was additionally evident. Our results demonstrate that these mathematical approaches can complement the analysis of calorimetric datasets generated for a variety of diseases.

  8. Determination of protein carbonyls in plasma, cell extracts, tissue homogenates, isolated proteins: Focus on sample preparation and derivatization conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Daniela; Davies, Michael J; Grune, Tilman

    2015-08-01

    Protein oxidation is involved in regulatory physiological events as well as in damage to tissues and is thought to play a key role in the pathophysiology of diseases and in the aging process. Protein-bound carbonyls represent a marker of global protein oxidation, as they are generated by multiple different reactive oxygen species in blood, tissues and cells. Sample preparation and stabilization are key steps in the accurate quantification of oxidation-related products and examination of physiological/pathological processes. This review therefore focuses on the sample preparation processes used in the most relevant methods to detect protein carbonyls after derivatization with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine with an emphasis on measurement in plasma, cells, organ homogenates, isolated proteins and organelles. Sample preparation, derivatization conditions and protein handling are presented for the spectrophotometric and HPLC method as well as for immunoblotting and ELISA. An extensive overview covering these methods in previously published articles is given for researchers who plan to measure protein carbonyls in different samples.

  9. Do plasma proteins distinguish between liposomes of varying charge density?

    KAUST Repository

    Capriotti, Anna Laura

    2012-03-01

    Cationic liposomes (CLs) are one of the most employed nonviral nanovector systems in gene therapy. However, their transfection efficiency is strongly affected by interactions with plasma components, that lead to the formation of a "protein corona" onto CL surface. The interactions between nanoparticles entering the body and biomolecules have an essential role for their biodistribution. Because the knowledge of proteins adsorbed onto vector surface could be useful in the screening of new, more efficient and more biocompatible liposomal formulations, the behavior of three CLs with different membrane charge densities was investigated. The proteins of the three coronas were identified by nano-liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, and quantified with label-free spectral counting strategy. Fibrinogen displayed higher association with CLs with high membrane charge density, while apolipoproteins and C4b-binding protein with CLs with low membrane charge density. These results are discussed in terms of the different lipid compositions of CLs and may have a deep biological impact for in vivo applications. Surface charge of nanoparticles is emerging as a relevant factor determining the corona composition after interaction with plasma proteins. Remarkably, it is also shown that the charge of the protein corona formed around CLs is strongly related to their membrane charge density. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

  10. Dietary zinc depletion and repletion affects plasma proteins: an analysis of the plasma proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grider, Arthur; Wickwire, Kathie; Ho, Emily; Chung, Carolyn S; King, Janet

    2013-02-01

    Zinc (Zn) deficiency is a problem world-wide. Current methods for assessing Zn status are limited to measuring plasma or serum Zn within populations suspected of deficiency. Despite the high prevalence of Zn deficiency in the human population there are no methods currently available for sensitively assessing Zn status among individuals. The purpose of this research was to utilize a proteomic approach using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2DE) and mass spectrometry to identify protein biomarkers that were sensitive to changes in dietary Zn levels in humans. Proteomic analysis was performed in human plasma samples (n = 6) obtained from healthy adult male subjects that completed a dietary Zn depletion/repletion protocol, current dietary zinc intake has a greater effect on fractional zinc absorption than does longer term zinc consumption in healthy adult men. Chung et al. (Am J Clin Nutr 87 (5):1224-1229, 2008). After a 13 day Zn acclimatization period where subjects consumed a Zn-adequate diet, the male subjects consumed a marginal Zn-depleted diet for 42 days followed by consumption of a Zn-repleted diet for 28 days. The samples at baseline, end of depletion and end of repletion were pre-fractionated through immuno-affinity columns to remove 14 highly abundant proteins, and each fraction separated by 2DE. Following staining by colloidal Coomassie blue and densitometric analysis, three proteins were identified by mass spectrometry as affected by changes in dietary Zn. Fibrin β and chain E, fragment double D were observed in the plasma protein fraction that remained bound to the immunoaffinity column. An unnamed protein that was related to immunoglobulins was observed in the immunodepleted plasma fraction. Fibrin β increased two-fold following the Zn depletion period and decreased to baseline values following the Zn repletion period; this protein may serve as a viable biomarker for Zn status in the future.

  11. Krill protein hydrolysate reduces plasma triacylglycerol level with concurrent increase in plasma bile acid level and hepatic fatty acid catabolism in high-fat fed mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie S. Ramsvik

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Krill powder, consisting of both lipids and proteins, has been reported to modulate hepatic lipid catabolism in animals. Fish protein hydrolysate diets have also been reported to affect lipid metabolism and to elevate bile acid (BA level in plasma. BA interacts with a number of nuclear receptors and thus affects a variety of signaling pathways, including very low density lipoprotein (VLDL secretion. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether a krill protein hydrolysate (KPH could affect lipid and BA metabolism in mice. Method: C57BL/6 mice were fed a high-fat (21%, w/w diet containing 20% crude protein (w/w as casein (control group or KPH for 6 weeks. Lipids and fatty acid composition were measured from plasma, enzyme activity and gene expression were analyzed from liver samples, and BA was measured from plasma. Results: The effect of dietary treatment with KPH resulted in reduced levels of plasma triacylglycerols (TAG and non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs. The KPH treated mice had also a marked increased plasma BA concentration. The increased plasma BA level was associated with induction of genes related to membrane canalicular exporter proteins (Abcc2, Abcb4 and to BA exporters to blood (Abcc3 and Abcc4. Of note, we observed a 2-fold increased nuclear farnesoid X receptor (Fxr mRNA levels in the liver of mice fed KPH. We also observed increased activity of the nuclear peroxiosme proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα target gene carnitine plamitoyltransferase 2 (CPT-2. Conclusion: The KPH diet showed to influence lipid and BA metabolism in high-fat fed mice. Moreover, increased mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation and elevation of BA concentration may regulate the plasma level of TAGs and NEFAs.

  12. PLASMA PROTEIN ELECTROPHORESIS AND SELECT ACUTE PHASE PROTEINS IN HEALTHY BONNETHEAD SHARKS (SPHYRNA TIBURO) UNDER MANAGED CARE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, Michael W; Field, Cara L; Clauss, Tonya M; Arheart, Kristopher L; Cray, Carolyn

    2016-12-01

    Preventative health care of elasmobranchs is an important but understudied field of aquatic veterinary medicine. Evaluation of inflammation through the acute phase response is a valuable tool in health assessments. To better assess the health of bonnethead sharks ( Sphyrna tiburo ) under managed care, normal reference intervals of protein electrophoresis (EPH) and the acute phase proteins, C-reactive protein (CRP) and haptoglobin (HP), were established. Blood was collected from wild caught, captive raised bonnethead sharks housed at public aquaria. Lithium heparinized plasma was either submitted fresh or stored at -80°C prior to submission. Electrophoresis identified protein fractions with migration characteristics similar to other animals with albumin, α-1 globulin, α-2 globulin, β globulin, and γ globulin. These fractions were classified as fractions 1-5 as fractional contents are unknown in this species. Commercial reagents for CRP and HP were validated for use in bonnethead sharks. Reference intervals were established using the robust method recommended by the American Society for Veterinary Clinical Pathology for the calculation of 90% reference intervals. Once established, the diagnostic and clinical applicability of these reference intervals was used to assess blood from individuals with known infectious diseases that resulted in systemic inflammation and eventual death. Unhealthy bonnethead sharks had significantly decreased fraction 2, fraction 3, and fraction 3:4 ratio and significantly increased fraction 5, CRP, and HP. These findings advance our understanding of elasmobranch acute phase inflammatory response and health and aid clinicians in the diagnosis of inflammatory disease in bonnethead sharks.

  13. A Protein Extract from Chicken Reduces Plasma Homocysteine in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vegard Lysne

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate effects of a water-soluble protein fraction of chicken (CP, with a low methionine/glycine ratio, on plasma homocysteine and metabolites related to homocysteine metabolism. Male Wistar rats were fed either a control diet with 20% w/w casein as the protein source, or an experimental diet where 6, 14 or 20% w/w of the casein was replaced with the same amount of CP for four weeks. Rats fed CP had reduced plasma total homocysteine level and markedly increased levels of the choline pathway metabolites betaine, dimethylglycine, sarcosine, glycine and serine, as well as the transsulfuration pathway metabolites cystathionine and cysteine. Hepatic mRNA level of enzymes involved in homocysteine remethylation, methionine synthase and betaine-homocysteine S-methyltransferase, were unchanged, whereas cystathionine gamma-lyase of the transsulfuration pathway was increased in the CP treated rats. Plasma concentrations of vitamin B2, folate, cobalamin, and the B-6 catabolite pyridoxic acid were increased in the 20% CP-treated rats. In conclusion, the CP diet was associated with lower plasma homocysteine concentration and higher levels of serine, choline oxidation and transsulfuration metabolites compared to a casein diet. The status of related B-vitamins was also affected by CP.

  14. A pilot study of muscle plasma protein changes after exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahlqvist, Julia R; Voss, Line G; Lauridsen, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Creatine kinase (CK) and myoglobin (Mb) do not possess all good qualities as biomarkers of skeletal muscle damage. We investigated the utility of troponin I (TnI) and telethonin (Tcap) as markers and examined their temporal profiles after skeletal muscle damage. METHODS: Plasma...... profiles were measured before and after exercise in 3 groups: subjects affected by either Becker muscular dystrophy or McArdle disease, and healthy subjects. RESULTS: Mb and TnI appeared early in the blood, and the increase of TnI was only observed in patients with muscle disease. The CK increase was more...... delayed in plasma. Tcap was not detectable at any time. CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that TnI is a marker of more severe damage signifying sarcomeric damage, and it could therefore be an important supplement to CK and Mb in clinical practice. Tcap is not useful as a marker for skeletal muscle damage....

  15. Expression of Recombinant Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-A

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Bin-yan; LI; Zi-ying; ZHANG; Xue-feng; LIU; Yi-bing

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A(PAPP-A)is producted by the syntrophoblast tissue of the placenta and decidual cells.It belongs to macromolecular glycoprotein.PAPP-A is a sensitive serum marker of Down’s syndrome and has clinical valuable in the early identification of acute coronary syndrome(ACS).According to the structure of PAPP-A,PAPP-A DNA is divided into five segments(S1-S5)for

  16. Plasma norepinephrine, blood pressure and heart rate response to graded change in body position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorica, V; Kem, D C

    1985-12-01

    In this study, 44 human subjects underwent either an orthostatic postural change (supine to stand, n = 17) or a graded change in body position (head-up) on a tilt-table (n = 27). No significant changes in systolic blood pressure or mean blood pressure were observed during either maneuver; significant increases, under both conditions, were observed in diastolic blood pressure and heart rate. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations after orthostatic position change increased significantly (supine 181 +/- 14 (S.E.M.) pg X ml-1; stand, 472 +/- 35 pg X ml-1, p less than 0.01). Plasma norepinephrine concentrations during graded postural change increased proportionately with increasing degrees of tilt (r = 0.76, p less than 0.01). A significant correlation between plasma norepinephrine and heart rate was observed during both positional change maneuvers (graded tilt-table, r = 0.80, p less than 0.01; orthostatic, r = 0.50, p less than 0.01). These results suggest that the degree of sympathetic nervous system activity for blood pressure regulation during graded postural change is appropriately reflected by plasma norepinephrine concentrations.

  17. Study on Speciation of Pr(III) in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Speciation of Pr(III) in human blood plasma has been investigated by computer simulation. The speciation and distribution of Pr(III) has been obtained. It has been found that most of Pr(III) is bound to phosphate and to form precipitate. The results obtained are in accord with experimental observations.

  18. Modulation of endothelial monolayer permeability induced by plasma obtained from lipopolysaccharide-stimulated whole blood.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nooteboom, A.; Bleichrodt, R.P.; Hendriks, T.

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the time course of the permeability response of endothelial monolayers after exposure to plasma obtained from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated human whole blood; to investigate the role of apoptosis in monolayer permeability, and to inhibit the permeability inc

  19. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...

  20. Development of a simple device for processing whole-blood samples into measured aliquots of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Johnson, W F; Walker, W A

    1986-09-01

    A capillary processor and aliquoter has been designed and fabricated that is capable of accepting aliquots of whole blood and automatically processing them into discrete aliquots of plasma. The device consists of two disks, each of which contains 16 individual capillaries and a processing rotor. One disk accepts larger capillaries that hold approximately 100 microL of whole blood each. The second disk accepts 2.54-cm-long precision capillaries of various internal diameters, which provide exact sample volumes from 1 to 10 microL. The processing rotor contains 16 individual compartments and chambers to accept both disks. Applying centrifugal force transfers the aliquots of whole blood into their respective compartments, where they are separated into cellular and plasma fractions. As the rotor speed is slowly decreased, an aliquot of plasma is withdrawn by capillary action into each measuring capillary. The disk containing the 16 measured aliquots of plasma is then removed and placed into a modified rotor for conventional centrifugal analysis. This device can entrain and deliver microliter volumes of liquids with precision and accuracy (1-2%) near that of mechanical pipettes. Assays of the separated plasma aliquots also have acceptable precision (e.g., CVs approximately 3% for measurements of serum enzymes).

  1. Spectrophotometric and Refractometric Determination of Total Protein in Avian Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the total protein values obtained in heparin plasma of chickens by a spectrophotometric technique (biuret method), and the values obtained on the same day in the same samples by refractometry. The results obtained by refractometry (average value 2.638±0.153g%) were higher than those obtained by the spectrophotometric method (average value 2.441±0.181g%). There was a low correlation (r = 0.6709) between the total protein values, determined with both methods...

  2. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  3. Preclinical investigation of the pharmacokinetics, metabolism, and protein and red blood cell binding of DRDE-07: a prophylactic agent against sulphur mustard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Verma

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available DRDE-07, a newly synthesized amifostine analog currently under clinical investigation in a phase I trial, is a potent antidote against sulfur mustard toxicity. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the pharmacokinetic profile of DRDE-07 in female Swiss Albino mice after a single oral dose of 400 or 600 mg/kg. The physicochemical properties of DRDE-07, including solubility, pKa, Log P, plasma protein binding and plasma/blood partitioning, were determined to support the pharmacokinetic characterization. DRDE-07 concentration was determined by an HPLC-UV method. The profile of plasma concentration versus time was analyzed using a non-compartmental model. Plasma protein binding was assessed using ultrafiltration. DRDE-07 appeared rapidly in plasma after oral administration with peak plasma levels (Cmax observed in less than 15 min. There was a rapid decline in the plasma levels followed by a smaller second peak about 90 min after dosing. The plasma protein binding of DRDE-07 was found to be less than 25% at all concentrations studied. Plasma clearance of DRDE-07 is expected to be ~1.5 fold higher than the blood clearance of DRDE-07. The probable metabolite of DRDE-07 was identified as phenyl-S-ethyl amine.

  4. [Mechanisms of human plasma proteins adsorption on the surface of perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized with proxanol 268].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhalimov, V K; Sklifas, A N; Kukushkin, N I

    2012-01-01

    It has been shown that sorption of most proteins with the molecular weight lower than 200 kDa from human blood plasma on the surface of perfluorocarbon emulsion, stabilized with proxanol 268, is mainly based on hydrophobic interaction, whereas sorption of immunoglobulin G is mainly the result of electrostatic interaction. The removal of lipidic components from plasma leads to the increase of a total amount of adsorbed proteins by 35%. Particularly, when lipidic components are removed, sorption of apolipoprotein AI and immunoglobulin G is considerably bettered as well as sorption of other proteins with the molecular weight of about 50 and 60 kDa occurs. It has been out that apolipoprotein AI in the adsorbed condition loses its capability of tryptophan fluorescence, which might be probably determined by the quenching influence of the perfluorocarbon core of nanoparticle. We think that the findings obtained also indicates considerable conformational rearrangements of this protein during adsorption. It was shown, that the fluorescence of proteins with sorption on nanoparticles in emulsion based on the hydrophobic interaction, is completely or partially quenched.

  5. Interleukin-3 and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor levels of cord blood plasma in term neonates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    @@ AIM: Umbilical cord blood plasma contain higher hematopoietic stimulatory activities than adult peripheral blood plasma. IL-3 is regarded as multilineage hematopoietic growth factor that acts on primitive pluripotential stem cells and progenitor cells of every lineage except T and B-lymphoid lineage.

  6. Isolation of plasma from whole blood using a microfludic chip in a continuous cross-flow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xing; CUI DaFu; ZHANG LuLu

    2009-01-01

    A novel microfluidic chip is developed for crossflow filtration plasma from the whole blood which is carried out in a continuous manner. This microfluidic chip was made of a silicon substrate sealed with a compound cover. The silicon substrate fabricated by micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS)technology consisted of microposts array, microchannels and reservoirs. Then the silicon substrate was characterized by Scaning Electron Microscopy (SEM). The performance of the microfiuidic chip was valued by the experiments of plasma isolation. During more than one hour of continuous blood infusion through the chip, there were no problems of jamming or clogging, and the plasma selectivity of 97.78% was achieved. Due to the chip's simple structure and control mechanism with a continuous,real time operating manner, this microfluidic chip is easily expected to be integrated into micro total analytical system (uTAS) which will create a microanalysis system for point-of-care diagnostics.

  7. Diclofenac plasma protein binding: PK-PD modelling in cardiac patients submitted to cardiopulmonary bypass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auler Jr. J.O.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-four surgical patients of both sexes without cardiac, hepatic, renal or endocrine dysfunctions were divided into two groups: 10 cardiac surgical patients submitted to myocardial revascularization and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB, 3 females and 7 males aged 65 ± 11 years, 74 ± 16 kg body weight, 166 ± 9 cm height and 1.80 ± 0.21 m2 body surface area (BSA, and control, 14 surgical patients not submitted to CPB, 11 female and 3 males aged 41 ± 14 years, 66 ± 14 kg body weight, 159 ± 9 cm height and 1.65 ± 0.16 m2 BSA (mean ± SD. Sodium diclofenac (1 mg/kg, im Voltaren 75® twice a day was administered to patients in the Recovery Unit 48 h after surgery. Venous blood samples were collected during a period of 0-12 h and analgesia was measured by the visual analogue scale (VAS during the same period. Plasma diclofenac levels were measured by high performance liquid chromatography. A two-compartment open model was applied to obtain the plasma decay curve and to estimate kinetic parameters. Plasma diclofenac protein binding decreased whereas free plasma diclofenac levels were increased five-fold in CPB patients. Data obtained for analgesia reported as the maximum effect (EMAX were: 25% VAS (CPB vs 10% VAS (control, P<0.05, median measured by the visual analogue scale where 100% is equivalent to the highest level of pain. To correlate the effect versus plasma diclofenac levels, the EMAX sigmoid model was applied. A prolongation of the mean residence time for maximum effect (MRTEMAX was observed without any change in lag-time in CPB in spite of the reduced analgesia reported for these patients, during the time-dose interval. In conclusion, the extent of plasma diclofenac protein binding was influenced by CPB with clinically relevant kinetic-dynamic consequences

  8. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles supporting activated protein C-mediated regulation of blood coagulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshiar, Ruzica Livaja; Somajo, Sofia; Norström, Eva; Dahlbäck, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Elevated levels of erythrocyte-derived microparticles are present in the circulation in medical conditions affecting the red blood cells. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles expose phosphatidylserine thus providing a suitable surface for procoagulant reactions leading to thrombin formation via the tenase and prothrombinase complexes. Patients with elevated levels of circulating erythrocyte-derived microparticles have increased thrombin generation in vivo. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether erythrocyte-derived microparticles are able to support the anticoagulant reactions of the protein C system. Erythrocyte-derived microparticles were isolated using ultracentrifugation after incubation of freshly prepared erythrocytes with the ionophore A23187 or from outdated erythrocyte concentrates, the different microparticles preparations yielding similar results. According to flow cytometry analysis, the microparticles exposed phoshatidylserine and bound lactadherin, annexin V, and protein S, which is a cofactor to activated protein C. The microparticles were able to assemble the tenase and prothrombinase complexes and to stimulate the formation of thrombin in plasma-based thrombin generation assay both in presence and absence of added tissue factor. The addition of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay inhibited thrombin generation in a dose-dependent fashion. The anticoagulant effect of activated protein C in the thrombin generation assay was inhibited by a monoclonal antibody that prevents binding of protein S to microparticles and also attenuated by anti-TFPI antibodies. In the presence of erythrocyte-derived microparticles, activated protein C inhibited tenase and prothrombinase by degrading the cofactors FVIIIa and FVa, respectively. Protein S stimulated the Arg306-cleavage in FVa, whereas efficient inhibition of FVIIIa depended on the synergistic cofactor activity of protein S and FV. In summary, the erythrocyte-derived microparticle

  9. Association of blood lead (Pb and plasma homocysteine: a cross sectional survey in Karachi, Pakistan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Yakub

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: High blood lead (Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia have been found to be associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD. Mean blood Pb and mean plasma homocysteine levels have been reported to be high in Pakistani population. The objective of the present study was to assess the relationship of blood Pb to the risk of hyperhomocysteinemia in a low income urban population of Karachi, Pakistan. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In a cross sectional survey, 872 healthy adults (355 males, 517 females; age 18-60 years were recruited from a low income urban population of Karachi. Fasting venous blood was obtained and assessed for blood Pb and plasma/serum homocysteine, folate, pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, a coenzymic form of vitamin B6 and vitamin B12. The study population had median (IQR blood Pb of 10.82 microg/dL (8.29-13.60. Prevalence of high blood Pb (levels>10 microg/dL was higher in males compared to females (62.5% males vs 56% females; p value=0.05. Mean+/-SD/median (IQR value of plasma homocysteine was significantly higher in the highest quartile of blood Pb compared to the lowest quartile 16.13+/-11.2 micromol/L vs 13.28+/-9.7micromol/L/13.15 (10.33-17.81 micromol/L vs 11.09 (8.65 14.31 micromol/L (p value<0.001. Daily consumption of fruit juice had a positive influence on both levels of plasma homocysteine and blood Pb. Compared with the lowest quartile of blood Pb, the OR for hyperhomocysteinemia was 1.69 (95% CI, 1.00 to 2.85 for the fourth quartile when the model was adjusted for age, gender, folate and vitamin B12. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed a relationship between blood Pb and hyperhomocysteinemia in a general population of Karachi, Pakistan. The harmful effect of Pb on cardiovascular system could be due to its association with hyperhomocysteinemia.

  10. A SCREENING RESEARCH OF PLASMA BLOOD DONORS FOR MARKERS PARVOVIRUS INFECTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anastassia Ya. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Parvovirus B19 (PV B19 replicates predominantly in progenitor cells of human erythrocytes and is transmitted by an airborne, vertical through and through blood or infected tissues. At-risk are pregnant women, people with immunodeficiency of different nature and individuals who need blood transfusions or organ transplantation. The available data indicate a high risk of infection through transfusion of blood containing the DNA of parvovirus B19, with viral load 105 copies/ml and above (Hourfar M.K. et al., 2011. According to the requirements of national regulations, the production of therapeutic drugs from plasma assumes the use of raw materials, free from viruses or with minimal viral load (Filatova E.C. et al., 2011. In some foreign countries a study of donor blood for the presence of DNA PV B19 is required; in our country the need for such screening is discussed (Giburt E.B. et al., 2013. Due to the fact that parvovirus is resistant to the methods of blood products desinfection, it is especially important to assess the quality of donor blood. Objective: To investigate the prevalence of the two markers parvovirus infection (IgG and PV B19 DNA in blood samples from one of the blood centers at St. Petersburg. Plasma samples from 100 blood donors from Military Medical Academy blood centre were tested by ELISA for the presence of IgG antibodies of parvovirus B19. Positive samples were tested by PCR for the DNA of parvovirus B19. ELISA test system recomWell Parvovirus B19 IgG (Microgen GmbH, Germany and diagnostic kits of Federal State Institution of Science «Central research Institute for epidemiology» of Rospotrebnadzor (Moscow, Russia which are approved for use in RF was used according to the manufacturers instructions. It was shown that 78 out of 100 donors aged 18 to 58 years had IgG-antibodies.76 positive blood plasma samples were investigated by PCR, with the 19 donors have found DNA of parvovirus B19 (25%. Viral load of one donor was 106

  11. Using blood plasma for monitoring organochlorine contaminants in juvenile white sturgeon, Acipenser transmontanus, from the lower Columbia River.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundersen, D T; Webb, M A H; Fink, A K; Kushner, L R; Feist, G W; Fitzpatrick, M S; Foster, E P; Schreck, C B

    2008-09-01

    Organochlorine (OC) pesticide concentrations in blood plasma samples from 88 juvenile white sturgeon collected from the lower Columbia River were measured and compared to plasma sex steroid and OC tissue levels previously measured in corresponding fish. Significant squared correlation coefficients between summation operator DDT concentrations in sturgeon plasma and gonads and livers were 0.37 and 0.32, respectively. Significant negative correlations between plasma testosterone concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in male fish (r(2)=0.26), plasma 17beta estradiol concentration and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in female fish (r(2)=0.38) and condition factor and plasma Sigma DDT concentration in all fish were found (r(2)=0.17). These results suggest that blood plasma may be a suitable nondestructive method for monitoring adult sturgeon population for persistent OC contaminants.

  12. Capillary flow-driven microfluidic device with wettability gradient and sedimentation effects for blood plasma separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M. Sneha; Rakesh, P. E.; Chandra, T. S.; Sen, A. K.

    2017-03-01

    We report a capillary flow-driven microfluidic device for blood-plasma separation that comprises a cylindrical well between a pair of bottom and top channels. Exposure of the well to oxygen-plasma creates wettability gradient on its inner surface with its ends hydrophilic and middle portion hydrophobic. Due to capillary action, sample blood self-infuses into bottom channel and rises up the well. Separation of plasma occurs at the hydrophobic patch due to formation of a ‘self-built-in filter’ and sedimentation. Capillary velocity is predicted using a model and validated using experimental data. Sedimentation of RBCs is explained using modified Steinour’s model and correlation between settling velocity and liquid concentration is found. Variation of contact angle on inner surface of the well is characterized and effects of well diameter and height and dilution ratio on plasma separation rate are investigated. With a well of 1.0 mm diameter and 4.0 mm height, 2.0 μl of plasma was obtained (from purification efficiency of 99.9%. Detection of glucose was demonstrated with the plasma obtained. Wetting property of channels was maintained by storing in DI water under vacuum and performance of the device was found to be unaffected over three weeks.

  13. Effects of storage time on total protein and globulin concentrations in bovine fresh frozen plasma obtained for transfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proverbio, D; Spada, E; Baggiani, L; Bagnagatti De Giorgi, G; Roggero, N; Belloli, A; Pravettoni, D; Perego, R

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the effects of storage conditions on total protein (TP) and globulin fractions in fresh frozen bovine plasma units prepared and stored for transfusion, TP and globulin fractions were evaluated in fresh plasma and at 1 month and 6 and 12 months after blood collection in plasma stored at -20°C. Significant differences in concentrations were found in the median concentration of total protein (P=0.0336), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0108), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0023), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0027), in mean concentration (g/dL) of albumin (P=0.0394), between 0 months and 1 month (P=0.0131), 0 and 6 months (P=0.0035), and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0038), and beta-2 fraction (P=0.0401), between 0 and 6 months (P=0.0401) and 0 and 12 months (P=0.0230). This study suggests that total gamma globulin concentration in bovine frozen plasma is stable for 12 months at -20°C. Total protein, ALB, and beta-2 fraction have significantly different concentrations (g/dL) when compared to prestorage. This study has shown IgG protein fraction stability in bovine fresh frozen plasma collected for transfusion; therefore, bovine fresh frozen plasma seems to be suitable for the treatment of hypogammaglobulinemia (failure of passive transfer) in calves when stored for 12 months at -20°C.

  14. Silenced uses and moral ideals in the exchange of Danish blood and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Deleuran, Ida; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the interplay between cultural discourses, moral reasoning and silenced uses in the international exchange of Danish blood plasma. Campaigns, policymakers, health professionals working in the blood banks – and even donors – consistently refer to ideals portraying blood....... However, we find that available cultural discourses poorly capture the moral reasoning among many donors. In fact, when informed about the existing forms of tender, plasma trade sounds like a good idea to most of them. Furthermore, they are not particularly interested in information. We argue...... that the silencing of trade is infusing the system with an unnecessary vulnerability that could easily be avoided with a different communication strategy towards donors. To arrive at new and better strategies, however, one must move beyond the immediate words and reactions of donors contemplating trade and seek...

  15. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-12-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of /sup 3/H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of /sup 3/H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown.

  16. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic model to predict the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs and the impact of errors in plasma protein binding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Min; Nagar, Swati; Korzekwa, Ken

    2016-04-01

    Predicting the pharmacokinetics of highly protein-bound drugs is difficult. Also, since historical plasma protein binding data were often collected using unbuffered plasma, the resulting inaccurate binding data could contribute to incorrect predictions. This study uses a generic physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model to predict human plasma concentration-time profiles for 22 highly protein-bound drugs. Tissue distribution was estimated from in vitro drug lipophilicity data, plasma protein binding and the blood: plasma ratio. Clearance was predicted with a well-stirred liver model. Underestimated hepatic clearance for acidic and neutral compounds was corrected by an empirical scaling factor. Predicted values (pharmacokinetic parameters, plasma concentration-time profile) were compared with observed data to evaluate the model accuracy. Of the 22 drugs, less than a 2-fold error was obtained for the terminal elimination half-life (t1/2 , 100% of drugs), peak plasma concentration (Cmax , 100%), area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-t , 95.4%), clearance (CLh , 95.4%), mean residence time (MRT, 95.4%) and steady state volume (Vss , 90.9%). The impact of fup errors on CLh and Vss prediction was evaluated. Errors in fup resulted in proportional errors in clearance prediction for low-clearance compounds, and in Vss prediction for high-volume neutral drugs. For high-volume basic drugs, errors in fup did not propagate to errors in Vss prediction. This is due to the cancellation of errors in the calculations for tissue partitioning of basic drugs. Overall, plasma profiles were well simulated with the present PBPK model. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  18. Sex steroid binding proteins in the plasma of hatchling Chelonia mydas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikonomopoulou, M P; Ibrahim, K; Bradley, A J

    2008-09-01

    Sex steroid binding proteins were identified in hatchling female and male Chelonia mydas by dialysis and steady-state gel electrophoresis when examined at 4 degrees C. A testosterone binding protein with high binding affinity (K (a) = 0.98 +/- 0.5 x 10(8) M(-1)) and low to moderate binding capacity (B (max) = 7.58 +/- 4.2 x 10(-5) M) was observed in male hatchlings. An oestradiol binding protein with high affinity (K (a) = 0.35 +/- 1.8 x 10(8) M(-1)) and low to moderate binding capacity (B (max) = 0.16 +/- 0.5 x 10(-4) M) was identified in female hatchlings. This study confirmed that sex steroid binding proteins (SSBPs) become inactivate in both sexes at 36 degrees C, the maximum body temperature of sea turtle hatchlings at emergence. The inactivation of SSBPs at this temperature indicates that sex steroid hormones circulate freely in the body of the green turtles and are biologically available in the blood plasma. This observation is consistent with female and male hatchling C. mydas having different physiological (hormonal) and developmental requirements around the time of emergence. Moreover, concurrently conducted competition studies showed that sex steroids including testosterone and oestradiol do compete for binding sites in both male and female C. mydas hatchling plasma. Competition also occurred between testosterone and dihydrotestosterone for binding sites in the male C. mydas plasma. However, competition studies in the plasma of female hatchling C. mydas demonstrate that oestrone does not compete with oestradiol for binding sites.

  19. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O.; Herzke, Dorte;

    2012-01-01

    ), golden eagle (n=12) and white-tailed eagle (n=36) nestlings during three consecutive breeding seasons. We found that blood plasma concentrations of calcium, sodium, creatinine, cholesterol, albumin, total protein, urea, inorganic phosphate, protein:creatinine, urea:creatinine and uric acid...... were also negatively correlated to PCBs and PFCs, respectively. The most significant relationships were found for the highly contaminated northern goshawks and white-tailed eagles. The statistical relationships between OHCs and BCCPs indicate that biochemical pathways could be influenced while...... it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles....

  20. Impairment of liver synthetic function and the production of plasma proteins in primary breast cancer patients on doxorubicincyclophosphamide (AC) protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleem, Zikria; Ahmad, Mobasher; Hashmi, Furqan Khurshid; Saeed, Hamid; Aziz, Muhammad Tahir

    2016-09-01

    Doxorubicin and Cyclophosphamide (AC protocol) combination is usually considered as a first line therapy in newly diagnosed breast cancer patients. Thus, a retrospective observational study was conducted to monitor the effect of AC protocol on liver synthetic functions and production of plasma proteins in breast cancer patients, reporting to specialized cancer care hospital of Lahore, Pakistan. A total of 75 patients (n=75) on AC protocol with breast cancer were observed in this study. The patient data including age, gender, body surface area, dosage, disease status and laboratory biochemical values were recorded by reviewing historical treatment records. Pre-treatment values were taken as baseline values for albumin, globulin, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), albumin/globulin (A/G) ratio and total proteins. The baseline values were compared after each cycle of by applying ANOVA using statistical tool SPSS® version 21. The plasma levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN), total protein and globulin dropped significantly (p0.05). The A/G ratio level increased (pliver synthetic functions as observed by decreased blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and plasma protein levels.

  1. Label-Free Optical Detection of Acute Myocardial Infarction Based on Blood Plasma Surface-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y. X.; Chen, M. W.; Lin, J. Y.; Lai, W. Q.; Huang, W.; Chen, H. Y.; Weng, G. X.

    2016-11-01

    This study is intended to explore the potential of silver (Ag) nanoparticle-based plasma surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) for providing a rapid and simple "Yes/No" assessment to detect acute myocardial infarction (AMI). A simple, rapid, and accurate method of diagnosing AMI is critical to reduce mortality and improve prognosis. Techniques such as electrocardiography examination and use of cardiac troponins have not yet met the current clinical need. Therefore, alternative approaches need to be developed. Plasma samples from 32 patients with AMI and 32 healthy control (Clt) subjects were assessed. Multivariate statistical techniques, including principal component (PC) analysis and linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA), were employed to develop a diagnostic algorithm for differentiating between patients with AMI and Clt subjects. Furthermore, the receiver operating characteristic was tested to evaluate the performance of the PCA-LDA algorithm for AMI detection. Each plasma sample was mixed with an equal volume of Ag colloidal solution, and the SERS measurement of each plasma sample was performed. The plasma SERS spectrum showed much stronger and sharper peaks compared with the normal Raman spectrum. Tentative assignments of Raman spectroscopy bands showed specific biomolecular (e.g., proteins, adenosine, adenine, and uric acid) changes. PC analysis and LDA were employed to discriminate patients with AMI from Clt subjects, yielding a sensitivity of 87.5% and a specificity of 93.8%. The findings of this study suggest that plasma SERS has a great potential for improving AMI in the future, and this will certainly reduce the difficulty, time to draw blood, and patients' pain to a great extent.

  2. Mechanism of Copper Uptake from Blood Plasma Ceruloplasmin by Mammalian Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danny Ramos

    Full Text Available Ceruloplasmin, the main copper binding protein in blood plasma, has been of particular interest for its role in efflux of iron from cells, but has additional functions. Here we tested the hypothesis that it releases its copper for cell uptake by interacting with a cell surface reductase and transporters, producing apoceruloplasmin. Uptake and transepithelial transport of copper from ceruloplasmin was demonstrated with mammary epithelial cell monolayers (PMC42 with tight junctions grown in bicameral chambers, and purified human (64Cu-labeled ceruloplasmin secreted by HepG2 cells. Monolayers took up virtually all the (64Cu over 16h and secreted half into the apical (milk fluid. This was partly inhibited by Ag(I. The (64Cu in ceruloplasmin purified from plasma of (64Cu-injected mice accumulated linearly in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs over 3-6h. Rates were somewhat higher in Ctr1+/+ versus Ctr1-/- cells, and 3-fold lower at 2 °C. The ceruloplasmin-derived (64Cu could not be removed by extensive washing or trypsin treatment, and most was recovered in the cytosol. Actual cell copper (determined by furnace atomic absorption increased markedly upon 24h exposure to holoceruloplasmin. This was accompanied by a conversion of holo to apoceruloplasmin in the culture medium and did not occur during incubation in the absence of cells. Four different endocytosis inhibitors failed to prevent 64Cu uptake from ceruloplasmin. High concentrations of non-radioactive Cu(II- or Fe(III-NTA (substrates for cell surface reductases, or Cu(I-NTA (to compete for transporter uptake almost eliminated uptake of (64Cu from ceruloplasmin. MEFs had cell surface reductase activity and expressed Steap 2 (but not Steaps 3 and 4 or dCytB. However, six-day siRNA treatment was insufficient to reduce activity or uptake. We conclude that ceruloplasmin is a circulating copper transport protein that may interact with Steap2 on the cell surface, forming apoceruloplasmin, and Cu(I that

  3. Mechanism of Copper Uptake from Blood Plasma Ceruloplasmin by Mammalian Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Danny; Mar, David; Ishida, Michael; Vargas, Rebecca; Gaite, Michaella; Montgomery, Aaron; Linder, Maria C

    2016-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin, the main copper binding protein in blood plasma, has been of particular interest for its role in efflux of iron from cells, but has additional functions. Here we tested the hypothesis that it releases its copper for cell uptake by interacting with a cell surface reductase and transporters, producing apoceruloplasmin. Uptake and transepithelial transport of copper from ceruloplasmin was demonstrated with mammary epithelial cell monolayers (PMC42) with tight junctions grown in bicameral chambers, and purified human (64)Cu-labeled ceruloplasmin secreted by HepG2 cells. Monolayers took up virtually all the (64)Cu over 16h and secreted half into the apical (milk) fluid. This was partly inhibited by Ag(I). The (64)Cu in ceruloplasmin purified from plasma of (64)Cu-injected mice accumulated linearly in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) over 3-6h. Rates were somewhat higher in Ctr1+/+ versus Ctr1-/- cells, and 3-fold lower at 2 °C. The ceruloplasmin-derived (64)Cu could not be removed by extensive washing or trypsin treatment, and most was recovered in the cytosol. Actual cell copper (determined by furnace atomic absorption) increased markedly upon 24h exposure to holoceruloplasmin. This was accompanied by a conversion of holo to apoceruloplasmin in the culture medium and did not occur during incubation in the absence of cells. Four different endocytosis inhibitors failed to prevent 64Cu uptake from ceruloplasmin. High concentrations of non-radioactive Cu(II)- or Fe(III)-NTA (substrates for cell surface reductases), or Cu(I)-NTA (to compete for transporter uptake) almost eliminated uptake of (64)Cu from ceruloplasmin. MEFs had cell surface reductase activity and expressed Steap 2 (but not Steaps 3 and 4 or dCytB). However, six-day siRNA treatment was insufficient to reduce activity or uptake. We conclude that ceruloplasmin is a circulating copper transport protein that may interact with Steap2 on the cell surface, forming apoceruloplasmin, and Cu(I) that

  4. The effect of blood protein adsorption on cellular uptake of anatase TiO2 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allouni, Zouhir E; Gjerdet, Nils R; Cimpan, Mihaela R; Høl, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Protein adsorption onto nanoparticles (NPs) in biological fluids has emerged as an important factor when testing biological responses to NPs, as this may influence both uptake and subsequent toxicity. The aim of the present study was to quantify the adsorption of proteins onto TiO2 NPs and to test the influence on cellular uptake. The surface composition of the particles was characterized by thermal analysis and by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The adsorption of three blood proteins, ie, human serum albumin (HSA), γ-globulins (Glbs), and fibrinogen (Fib), onto three types of anatase NPs of different sizes was quantified for each protein. The concentration of the adsorbed protein was measured by ultraviolet-visible spectrophotometry using the Bradford method. The degree of cellular uptake was quantified by inductivity coupled plasma mass spectroscopy, and visualized by an ultra-high resolution imaging system. The proteins were adsorbed onto all of the anatase NPs. The quantity adsorbed increased with time and was higher for the smaller particles. Fib and Glbs showed the highest affinity to TiO2 NPs, while the lowest was seen for HSA. The adsorption of proteins affected the surface charge and the hydrodynamic diameter of the NPs in cell culture medium. The degree of particle uptake was highest in protein-free medium and in the presence HSA, followed by culture medium supplemented with Glbs, and lowest in the presence of Fib. The results indicate that the uptake of anatase NPs by fibroblasts is influenced by the identity of the adsorbed protein.

  5. Hemorheological implications of perfluorocarbon based oxygen carrier interaction with colloid plasma expanders and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Diana M; Ortiz, Daniel; Alvarez, Oscar A; Briceño, Juan C; Cabrales, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions used as artificial oxygen carriers lack colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and must be administered with colloid-based plasma expanders (PEs). Although PFC emulsions have been widely studied, there is limited information about PFC emulsion interaction with PEs and blood. Their interaction forms aggregates due to electrostatic and rheological phenomena, and change blood rheology and blood flow. This study analyzes the effects of the interaction between PFC emulsions with blood in the presence of clinically-used PEs. The rheological behavior of the mixtures was analyzed in vitro in parallel with in vivo analysis of blood flow in the microcirculation using intravital microscopy, when PEs were administered in a clinically relevant scenario. The interaction between the PFC emulsion and PE with blood produced PFC droplets and red blood cell (RBCs) aggregation and increased blood viscosity in a shear dependent fashion. The PFC droplets formed aggregates when mixed with PEs containing electrolytes, and the aggregation increased with the electrolyte concentration. Mixtures of PFC with PEs that produced PFC aggregates also induced RCBs aggregation when mixed with blood, increasing blood viscosity at low shear rates. The more viscous suspension at low shear rates produced a blunted blood flow velocity profile in vivo compared to nonaggregating mixtures of PFC and PEs. For the PEs evaluated, human serum albumin produced minimal to undetectable aggregation. PFC and PEs interaction with blood can affect sections of the microcirculation with low shear rates (e.g., arterioles, venules, and pulmonary circulation) when used in a clinical setting, because persistent aggregates could cause capillary occlusion, decreased perfusion, pulmonary emboli or focal ischemia.

  6. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  7. Personalized liposome-protein corona in the blood of breast, gastric and pancreatic cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colapicchioni, Valentina; Tilio, Martina; Digiacomo, Luca; Gambini, Valentina; Palchetti, Sara; Marchini, Cristina; Pozzi, Daniela; Occhipinti, Sergio; Amici, Augusto; Caracciolo, Giulio

    2016-06-01

    When nanoparticles (NPs) are dispersed in a biofluid, they are covered by a protein corona the composition of which strongly depends on the protein source. Recent studies demonstrated that the type of disease has a crucial role in the protein composition of the NP corona with relevant implications on personalized medicine. Proteomic variations frequently occur in cancer with the consequence that the bio-identity of NPs in the blood of cancer patients may differ from that acquired after administration to healthy volunteers. In this study we investigated the correlation between alterations of plasma proteins in breast, gastric and pancreatic cancer and the biological identity of clinically approved AmBisome-like liposomes as determined by a combination of dynamic light scattering, zeta potential analysis, one-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1D-SDS-PAGE) and semi-quantitative densitometry. While size of liposome-protein complexes was not significantly different between cancer groups, the hard corona from pancreatic cancer patients was significantly less negatively charged. Of note, the hard corona from pancreatic cancer patients was more enriched than those of other cancer types this enrichment being most likely due to IgA and IgG with possible correlations with the autoantibodies productions in cancer. Given the strict relationship between tumor antigen-specific autoantibodies and early cancer detection, our results could be the basis for the development of novel nanoparticle-corona-based screening tests of cancer.

  8. Interactions between plasma proteins and naturally occurring polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Hagerman, Ann E

    2013-05-01

    The plant natural products known as polyphenols are found at micronutrient levels in fruits, vegetables, and plant-based beverages such as wine, tea, coffee and cocoa. Consumption of a fruit- and vegetable-rich diet, the "Mediterranean diet", has been epidemiologically related to health benefits especially for chronic diseases including diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and Alzheimer's disease. The abundance of polyphenols in plant-rich diets, and the potent bioactivities of polyphenols, provide indirect evidence for a role for polyphenols in maintaining good health. However, molecular mechanisms for therapeutic or preventative activity have not been demonstrated in vivo. We summarize the chemical classes of natural polyphenols, their bioactivities and bioavailability and metabolism. Because many polyphenols bind protein, we focus on the potential of protein binding to mediate the health-related effects of polyphenols. We discuss interactions with plasma proteins as the first target organ past the digestive tract for these orally-ingested compounds.

  9. QSAR Models for the Prediction of Plasma Protein Binding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeshan Amin

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The prediction of plasma protein binding (ppb is of paramount importance in the pharmacokinetics characterization of drugs, as it causes significant changes in volume of distribution, clearance and drug half life. This study utilized Quantitative Structure – Activity Relationships (QSAR for the prediction of plasma protein binding. Methods: Protein binding values for 794 compounds were collated from literature. The data was partitioned into a training set of 662 compounds and an external validation set of 132 compounds. Physicochemical and molecular descriptors were calculated for each compound using ACD labs/logD, MOE (Chemical Computing Group and Symyx QSAR software packages. Several data mining tools were employed for the construction of models. These included stepwise regression analysis, Classification and Regression Trees (CART, Boosted trees and Random Forest. Results: Several predictive models were identified; however, one model in particular produced significantly superior prediction accuracy for the external validation set as measured using mean absolute error and correlation coefficient. The selected model was a boosted regression tree model which had the mean absolute error for training set of 13.25 and for validation set of 14.96. Conclusion: Plasma protein binding can be modeled using simple regression trees or multiple linear regressions with reasonable model accuracies. These interpretable models were able to identify the governing molecular factors for a high ppb that included hydrophobicity, van der Waals surface area parameters, and aromaticity. On the other hand, the more complicated ensemble method of boosted regression trees produced the most accurate ppb estimations for the external validation set.

  10. Plasma levels of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) and beta-endorphin as indicators of stress, pain and prognosis in horses with colic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niinistö, Kati E; Korolainen, Raija V; Raekallio, Marja R; Mykkänen, Anna K; Koho, Ninna M; Ruohoniemi, Mirja O; Leppäluoto, Juhani; Pösö, A Reeta

    2010-04-01

    A prospective observational study was performed to evaluate whether the plasma concentration of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) or beta-endorphin is related to clinical signs, blood chemistry, or severity of pain of colic. Seventy-seven horses with colic and 15 clinically healthy controls were studied. The horses were divided into four groups which reflected increasing severity of colic, from normal control horses to horses with mild, moderate and severe colic. Blood samples were collected before any treatment. Packed cell volume (PCV) and plasma HSP72, beta-endorphin, cortisol, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) and lactate concentrations were measured. Plasma beta-endorphin was related with severity of colic and survival, as well as with plasma cortisol, ACTH and lactate concentrations, heart rate, PCV and pain score. High plasma HSP72 concentration may indicate circulatory deficits, but was not associated with clinical signs of colic. Plasma lactate still seemed to be the most useful single prognostic parameter in horses with colic.

  11. Rheological characterization of a gel produced using human blood plasma and alginate mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malagón-Romero, Dionisio; Hernández, Nicolás; Cardozo, Carmen; Godoy-Silva, Rubén D

    2014-06-01

    Human blood plasma is a material used to generate tissue equivalents due to presence of fibrinogen. However, gels formed using human blood plasma has weak mechanical properties. In this study, different mixtures of sodium alginate and blood plasma were performed and evaluated. By determining ζ potential can be established the stability of the plasma-alginate mixture and by dynamic rheology can determine the most suitable parameters for the gelation of the above mixtures, when calcium chloride is used as a crosslinker. Experimental results evidence an increment in ζ potential at alginate concentrations of 0.8% and 1.6% with a resulting pseudoplastic behavior of evaluated mixtures, which described the homogenization of the mixture. On the other hand, mixtures were gelled by using aspersion of calcium chloride and characterized by dynamic rheology. Solid behavior is dominant in all range of frequency sweep test between 0.1Hz and 100Hz. Finally, the ultimate tensile strength of a gel reach 6.36938±0.24320kPa, which is enough for manual handling of the gel. Between the tasks of the gel would be used for cell entrapment, for controlled release of drugs or in the manufacture of wound dressings.

  12. Supplemental dietary protein for grazing dairy cows: reproduction, condition loss, plasma metabolites, and insulin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapa, A M; McCormick, M E; Fernandez, J M; French, D D; Ward, J D; Beatty, J F

    2001-04-01

    An experiment was conducted over a 2-yr period to investigate the influence of grain crude protein (CP) and rumen undegradable protein (RUP) concentration on reproduction and energy status of dairy cows grazing annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and oats (Avena sativa). Holstein cows (n = 122) were blocked by calving group [partum (0 d postpartum) vs. postpartum (41 +/- 19 d postpartum at study initiation)] and assigned to grain supplements containing high CP [22.8% of dry matter (DM)], moderate CP (16.6%), or moderate CP (16.2%)] supplemented with RUP from blood meal and corn gluten meal. Postpartum condition loss was greater and first-service pregnancy rate was lower for partum-group cows receiving high CP grain supplements compared with control cows receiving moderate CP supplements. The RUP supplements reduced grain consumption, increased days to first estrus, and reduced first-service pregnancy rate of partum-group cows. The reproduction of postpartum group cows was unaffected by protein supplements. Plasma urea nitrogen was higher for cows fed high CP diets, but plasma ammonia nitrogen, glycated hemoglobin, nonesterified fatty acids, beta-hydoxybutyrate, glucose, and insulin concentrations were similar to cows fed moderate CP. Excess postpartum condition loss, coupled with inconsistent protein supplement effects on days to first service and first-service pregnancy rate, suggest that energy deprivation may have contributed to the low fertility experienced by grazing cows in this study.

  13. Chemoselective small molecules that covalently modify one lysine in a non-enzyme protein in plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Sungwook; Connelly, Stephen; Reixach, Natàlia; Wilson, Ian A.; Kelly, Jeffery W. (Scripps)

    2010-02-19

    A small molecule that could bind selectively to and then react chemoselectively with a non-enzyme protein in a complex biological fluid, such as blood, could have numerous practical applications. Herein, we report a family of designed stilbenes that selectively and covalently modify the prominent plasma protein transthyretin in preference to more than 4,000 other human plasma proteins. They react chemoselectively with only one of eight lysine {epsilon}-amino groups within transthyretin. The crystal structure confirms the expected binding orientation of the stilbene substructure and the anticipated conjugating amide bond. These covalent transthyretin kinetic stabilizers exhibit superior amyloid inhibition potency compared to their noncovalent counterparts, and they prevent cytotoxicity associated with amyloidogenesis. Though there are a few prodrugs that, upon metabolic activation, react with a cysteine residue inactivating a specific non-enzyme, we are unaware of designed small molecules that react with one lysine {epsilon}-amine within a specific non-enzyme protein in a complex biological fluid.

  14. Development of a microfluidic device for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maria, M Sneha; Kumar, B S; Chandra, T S; Sen, A K

    2015-12-01

    This work presents design, fabrication and test of a microfluidic device which employs Fahraeus-Lindqvist and Zweifach-Fung effects for cell concentration and blood cell-plasma separation. The device design comprises a straight main channel with a series of branched channels placed symmetrically on both sides of the main channel. The design implements constrictions before each junction (branching point) in order to direct cells that would have migrated closer to the wall (naturally or after liquid extraction at a junction) towards the centre of the main channel. Theoretical and numerical analysis are performed for design of the microchannel network to ensure that a minimum flow rate ratio (of 2.5:1, main channel-to-side channels) is maintained at each junction and predict flow rate at the plasma outlet. The dimensions and location of the constrictions were determined using numerical simulations. The effect of presence of constrictions before the junctions was demonstrated by comparing the performances of the device with and without constrictions. To demonstrate the performance of the device, initial experiments were performed with polystyrene microbeads (10 and 15 μm size) and droplets. Finally, the device was used for concentration of HL60 cells and separation of plasma and cells in diluted blood samples. The cell concentration and blood-plasma purification efficiency was quantified using Haemocytometer and Fluorescence-Activated Cell Sorter (FACS). A seven-fold cell concentration was obtained with HL60 cells and a purification efficiency of 70 % and plasma recovery of 80 % was observed for diluted (1:20) blood sample. FACS was used to identify cell lysis and the cell viability was checked using Trypan Blue test which showed that more than 99 % cells are alive indicating the suitability of the device for practical use. The proposed device has potential to be used as a sample preparation module in lab on chip based diagnostic platforms.

  15. The Fatty Acid Composition of Blood Plasma and Arterial Wall in Atherosclerosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander N. Osipenko

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the fatty acid balance in the blood plasma, in the fragments of the intact vessels and the vessels showing signs of atherosclerosis.Material and Methods: The article presents the results of the examination of the blood plasma samples of patients with coronary heart disease and coronary atherosclerosis. The control group consisted of 16 healthy individuals. Also, the fragments of the abdominal aorta and the common carotid artery with varying degrees of atherosclerotic lesions were studied. Fatty acid analysis was conducted using capillary gas-liquid chromatography. Results: A reduction in the relative linoleic acid level with an increase in almost all the saturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated dihomo-γ-linolenic acid in the plasma was noted in patients with coronary heart disease and atherosclerosis. The relationships between certain fatty acids in patients with atherosclerosis and myocardial ischemia showed changes. In patients with atherosclerosis, a marked imbalance was observed between the monounsaturated and correspondingly the saturated fatty acids (with the same number of carbon atoms in the abdominal aorta with significant atherosclerotic lesions, as well as in the intact common carotid arteries. These disorders are probably related to the relatively low content of the linoleic acid in the blood plasma. The reasons for the increased activity of the fatty acid synthase in vessels with significant atherosclerotic lesions are described. It is concluded that most of the fatty acids of the plaque were formed due to the synthetic processes in the smooth muscle cells, and not as a result of their intake from the blood plasma.

  16. TD-GC-MS Investigation of the VOCs Released from Blood Plasma of Dogs with Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Woo Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical TD-GC-MS method was developed and used for the assessment of volatile organic compounds (VOCs released from the blood plasma of dogs with/without cancer. VOCs released from 40 samples of diseased blood and 10 control samples were compared in order to examine the difference between both sample groups that were showing qualitatively similar results independent from the disease’s presence. However, mild disturbances in the spectra of dogs with cancer in comparison with the control group were observed, and six peaks (tentatively identified by comparison with mass spectral library as hexanal, octanal, toluene, 2-butanone, 1-octen-3-ol and pyrrole revealed statistically significant differences between both sample groups, thereby suggesting that these compounds are potential biomarkers that can be used for cancer diagnosis based on the blood plasma TD-GC-MS analysis. Statistical comparison with the application of principal component analysis (PCA provided accurate discrimination between the cancer and control groups, thus demonstrating stronger biochemical perturbations in blood plasma when cancer is present.

  17. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  18. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  19. Binding of human myeloperoxidase to red blood cells: Molecular targets and biophysical consequences at the plasma membrane level.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorudko, Irina V; Sokolov, Alexey V; Shamova, Ekaterina V; Grigorieva, Daria V; Mironova, Elena V; Kudryavtsev, Igor V; Gusev, Sergey A; Gusev, Alexander A; Chekanov, Andrey V; Vasilyev, Vadim B; Cherenkevich, Sergey N; Panasenko, Oleg M; Timoshenko, Alexander V

    2016-02-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO) is an oxidant-producing enzyme that can also bind to cellular surface proteins. We found that band 3 protein and glycophorins A and B were the key MPO-binding targets of human red blood cells (RBCs). The interaction of MPO with RBC proteins was mostly electrostatic in nature because it was inhibited by desialation, exogenic sialic acid, high ionic strength, and extreme pH. In addition, MPO failed to interfere with the lectin-induced agglutination of RBCs, suggesting a minor role of glycan-recognizing mechanisms in MPO binding. Multiple biophysical properties of RBCs were altered in the presence of native (i.e., not hypochlorous acid-damaged) MPO. These changes included transmembrane potential, availability of intracellular Ca(2+), and lipid organization in the plasma membrane. MPO-treated erythrocytes became larger in size, structurally more rigid, and hypersensitive to acidic and osmotic hemolysis. Furthermore, we found a significant correlation between the plasma MPO concentration and RBC rigidity index in type-2 diabetes patients with coronary heart disease. These findings suggest that MPO functions as a mediator of novel regulatory mechanism in microcirculation, indicating the influence of MPO-induced abnormalities on RBC deformability under pathological stress conditions.

  20. Stability of magnetite nanoparticles with different coatings in a simulated blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Pérez-Robles, J. Francisco; García-Casillas, Perla E.; Godinez-Garcia, Andrés

    2016-07-01

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated to be a potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, magnetite is unstable at the blood plasma conditions. Therefore, to study their stability in a broad range of particle size, the MNPs were synthesized using two methods, the fast injection co-precipitation method (FIC) and the reflux co-precipitation method (RC). The MNPs obtained by the RC and the FIC methods have an average size of agglomerates of 200 and 45 nm respectively. They were dispersed using sodium citrate as surfactant and were coated with silica and chitosan. A total of four kind of coated MNPs were synthesized: magnetite/sodium citrate, magnetite/silica, magnetite/sodium citrate/silica and magnetite/sodium citrate/silica/chitosan. Different samples of the coated MNPs were immersed in a simulated blood plasma solution (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, PBS, Gibco®), for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was used to analyze the composition of the simulated plasma after those periods of time. The obtained results suggest that the uncoated samples showed an appreciable weight loss, and the iron composition in the simulated plasma increased. This last means that the used coatings avoid iron dissolution from the MNPs.

  1. Top-down lipidomics reveals ether lipid deficiency in blood plasma of hypertensive patients.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juergen Graessler

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dyslipoproteinemia, obesity and insulin resistance are integrative constituents of the metabolic syndrome and are major risk factors for hypertension. The objective of this study was to determine whether hypertension specifically affects the plasma lipidome independently and differently from the effects induced by obesity and insulin resistance. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We screened the plasma lipidome of 19 men with hypertension and 51 normotensive male controls by top-down shotgun profiling on a LTQ Orbitrap hybrid mass spectrometer. The analysis encompassed 95 lipid species of 10 major lipid classes. Obesity resulted in generally higher lipid load in blood plasma, while the content of tri- and diacylglycerols increased dramatically. Insulin resistance, defined by HOMA-IR >3.5 and controlled for BMI, had little effect on the plasma lipidome. Importantly, we observed that in blood plasma of hypertensive individuals the overall content of ether lipids decreased. Ether phosphatidylcholines and ether phosphatidylethanolamines, that comprise arachidonic (20:4 and docosapentaenoic (22:5 fatty acid moieties, were specifically diminished. The content of free cholesterol also decreased, although conventional clinical lipid homeostasis indices remained unaffected. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Top-down shotgun lipidomics demonstrated that hypertension is accompanied by specific reduction of the content of ether lipids and free cholesterol that occurred independently of lipidomic alterations induced by obesity and insulin resistance. These results may form the basis for novel preventive and dietary strategies alleviating the severity of hypertension.

  2. Plasma soluble prion protein, a potential biomarker for sport-related concussions: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Nam; Akonasu, Hungbo; Shishkin, Rhonda; Taghibiglou, Changiz

    2015-01-01

    Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrP(C)) as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI) in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S) by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrP(C) in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrP(C) in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrP(C) is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making.

  3. Plasma soluble prion protein, a potential biomarker for sport-related concussions: a pilot study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nam Pham

    Full Text Available Sport-related mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI or concussion is a significant health concern to athletes with potential long-term consequences. The diagnosis of sport concussion and return to sport decision making is one of the greatest challenges facing health care clinicians working in sports. Blood biomarkers have recently demonstrated their potential in assisting the detection of brain injury particularly, in those cases with no obvious physical injury. We have recently discovered plasma soluble cellular prion protein (PrP(C as a potential reliable biomarker for blast induced TBI (bTBI in a rodent animal model. In order to explore the application of this novel TBI biomarker to sport-related concussion, we conducted a pilot study at the University of Saskatchewan (U of S by recruiting athlete and non-athlete 18 to 30 year-old students. Using a modified quantitative ELISA method, we first established normal values for the plasma soluble PrP(C in male and female students. The measured plasma soluble PrP(C in confirmed concussion cases demonstrated a significant elevation of this analyte in post-concussion samples. Data collected from our pilot study indicates that the plasma soluble PrP(C is a potential biomarker for sport-related concussion, which may be further developed into a clinical diagnostic tool to assist clinicians in the assessment of sport concussion and return-to-play decision making.

  4. Relationship between Plasma Ghrelin Levels and Insulin Resistance and Blood Pressure in Octogenarians

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵荫涛; 邵莉; 滕丽莉; 张代富; 张华

    2010-01-01

    The association between fasting plasma ghrelin levels and insulin resistance and blood pressure(BP) in octogenarians was investigated in this study.A total of 487 unrelated octogenarians(including 203 men and 284 women) were enrolled in this cross-sectional study at the Healthy Care Center of Shanghai East Hospital,Tongji University,China,from October 2008 to April 2009.Plasma ghrelin was determined by using the enzyme linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA).Insulin sensitivity was assessed using the homeostasis ...

  5. A Systematic Evaluation of Blood Serum and Plasma Pre-Analytics for Metabolomics Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jobard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent thriving development of biobanks and associated high-throughput phenotyping studies requires the elaboration of large-scale approaches for monitoring biological sample quality and compliance with standard protocols. We present a metabolomic investigation of human blood samples that delineates pitfalls and guidelines for the collection, storage and handling procedures for serum and plasma. A series of eight pre-processing technical parameters is systematically investigated along variable ranges commonly encountered across clinical studies. While metabolic fingerprints, as assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, are not significantly affected by altered centrifugation parameters or delays between sample pre-processing (blood centrifugation and storage, our metabolomic investigation highlights that both the delay and storage temperature between blood draw and centrifugation are the primary parameters impacting serum and plasma metabolic profiles. Storing the blood drawn at 4 °C is shown to be a reliable routine to confine variability associated with idle time prior to sample pre-processing. Based on their fine sensitivity to pre-analytical parameters and protocol variations, metabolic fingerprints could be exploited as valuable ways to determine compliance with standard procedures and quality assessment of blood samples within large multi-omic clinical and translational cohort studies.

  6. [Isolation, extractive concentration, and determination of caffeine in the studies of blood plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korenman, Ia I; Shormanov, V K; Mokshina, N Ia; Krivosheeva, O A; Golubitskiĭ, G B

    2012-01-01

    The optimal conditions for the isolation of caffeine from human blood by means of acetone extraction are described with special reference to the peculiarities of extraction from aqueous solutions. The possibility of concentration and purification of caffeine from blood plasma using acetone and aceton-chlorophorm mixture (2:8) as the solvents is illustrated. In addition, purification by silica-gel thin layer chromatography is discussed. Thin layer chromatography, UV-spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography are considered as potential methods for the identification and quantitative determination of caffeine.

  7. Automated processing of whole blood samples into microliter aliquots of plasma

    OpenAIRE

    1988-01-01

    A rotor that accepts and automatically processes a bulk aliquot of a single blood sample into multiple aliquots of plasma has been designed and built. The rotor consists of a central processing unit, which includes a disk containing eight precision-bore capillaries. By varying the internal diameters of the capillaries, aliquot volumes ranging 1 to 10 μl can be prepared. In practice, an unmeasured volume of blood is placed in a centre well, and, as the rotor begins to spin, is moved radially i...

  8. Depleted uranium analysis in blood by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, T.I.; Xu, H.; Ejnik, J.W.; Mullick, F.G.; Squibb, K.; McDiarmid, M.A.; Centeno, J.A.

    2009-01-01

    In this study we report depleted uranium (DU) analysis in whole blood samples. Internal exposure to DU causes increased uranium levels as well as change in the uranium isotopic composition in blood specimen. For identification of DU exposure we used the 235U/238U ratio in blood samples, which ranges from 0.00725 for natural uranium to 0.002 for depleted uranium. Uranium quantification and isotopic composition analysis were performed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. For method validation we used eight spiked blood samples with known uranium concentrations and isotopic composition. The detection limit for quantification was determined to be 4 ng L-1 uranium in whole blood. The data reproduced within 1-5% RSD and an accuracy of 1-4%. In order to achieve a 235U/238U ratio range of 0.00698-0.00752% with 99.7% confidence limit a minimum whole blood uranium concentration of 60 ng L??1 was required. An additional 10 samples from a cohort of veterans exposed to DU in Gulf War I were analyzed with no knowledge of their medical history. The measured 235U/ 238U ratios in the blood samples were used to identify the presence or absence of DU exposure within this patient group. ?? 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  9. Parameterizing the Morse potential for coarse-grained modeling of blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Na; Zhang, Peng; Kang, Wei; Bluestein, Danny; Deng, Yuefan

    2014-01-01

    Multiscale simulations of fluids such as blood represent a major computational challenge of coupling the disparate spatiotemporal scales between molecular and macroscopic transport phenomena characterizing such complex fluids. In this paper, a coarse-grained (CG) particle model is developed for simulating blood flow by modifying the Morse potential, traditionally used in Molecular Dynamics for modeling vibrating structures. The modified Morse potential is parameterized with effective mass scales for reproducing blood viscous flow properties, including density, pressure, viscosity, compressibility and characteristic flow dynamics of human blood plasma fluid. The parameterization follows a standard inverse-problem approach in which the optimal micro parameters are systematically searched, by gradually decoupling loosely correlated parameter spaces, to match the macro physical quantities of viscous blood flow. The predictions of this particle based multiscale model compare favorably to classic viscous flow solutions such as Counter-Poiseuille and Couette flows. It demonstrates that such coarse grained particle model can be applied to replicate the dynamics of viscous blood flow, with the advantage of bridging the gap between macroscopic flow scales and the cellular scales characterizing blood flow that continuum based models fail to handle adequately.

  10. Parameterizing the Morse potential for coarse-grained modeling of blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Na [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Zhang, Peng [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11790 (United States); Kang, Wei [Center for Applied Physics and Technology, College of Engineering, Peking University, Beijing 100871 (China); Bluestein, Danny [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11790 (United States); Deng, Yuefan, E-mail: Yuefan.Deng@StonyBrook.edu [Department of Applied Mathematics and Statistics, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States)

    2014-01-15

    Multiscale simulations of fluids such as blood represent a major computational challenge of coupling the disparate spatiotemporal scales between molecular and macroscopic transport phenomena characterizing such complex fluids. In this paper, a coarse-grained (CG) particle model is developed for simulating blood flow by modifying the Morse potential, traditionally used in Molecular Dynamics for modeling vibrating structures. The modified Morse potential is parameterized with effective mass scales for reproducing blood viscous flow properties, including density, pressure, viscosity, compressibility and characteristic flow dynamics of human blood plasma fluid. The parameterization follows a standard inverse-problem approach in which the optimal micro parameters are systematically searched, by gradually decoupling loosely correlated parameter spaces, to match the macro physical quantities of viscous blood flow. The predictions of this particle based multiscale model compare favorably to classic viscous flow solutions such as Counter-Poiseuille and Couette flows. It demonstrates that such coarse grained particle model can be applied to replicate the dynamics of viscous blood flow, with the advantage of bridging the gap between macroscopic flow scales and the cellular scales characterizing blood flow that continuum based models fail to handle adequately.

  11. Concomitant increase in blood plasma levels of immunoreactive hemorphin-7 and beta-endorphin following long distance running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glämsta, E L; Mørkrid, L; Lantz, I; Nyberg, F

    1993-11-19

    Hemorphins are endogenous opioids derived by enzymatic degradation of hemoglobin, a protein released in blood plasma during long distance running. We examined levels of beta-endorphin and the heptapeptide hemorphin-7, in heparinized venous blood plasma from 15 sedentary controls (8 males, 7 females) and from 15 age- and sex-matched marathon runners at baseline and after running 42 km or 21 km. Baseline levels of beta-endorphin (range 0.2-4.3 fmol/ml) were neither dependent upon weight, body mass index weight/height, running status nor sex. Baseline levels of hemorphin-7 (range 0.2-6.9 pmol/ml) were lower in women (P < 0.04) and covariated positively with body weight (P = 0.06), explaining lower levels in runners by their lower body weight. Covariation with body mass index was positive, but not significant (P = 0.10), however, here the dependence upon sex appeared stronger (P = 0.014). Running induced significant and correlated increases in hemorphin-7 and beta-endorphin (r = 0.74; P < 0.002), possibly indicating a functional relationship between these two peptides.

  12. Impact of sex and diet on hematological and blood plasma biochemical profiles and liver histology of pikeperch (Sander lucioperca (L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakęś Zdzisław

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the impact of diet and sex on the hematological and blood plasma biochemical profiles and the liver histology of pikeperch, Sander lucioperca (L. reared in recirculating aquaculture systems (RAS (initial mean body weight (BW 1.35 kg. The proximate composition of the two commercial feeds used were (protein/lipid/nitrogen-free extracts (P/L/NFE P505/L118/NFE294 g kg−1 (group I and P471/L141/NFE290 g kg−1 (group II. Neither diet nor sex had a significant impact on final fish body weight (≈ 2.0 kg. Sex was noted to significantly impact glucose content (Glu – higher in males and cholesterol (Chol – higher in females in the blood plasma. Diet was confirmed to have a significant impact on levels of hematocrit (Ht, hemoglobin (Hb, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin (MCH, and the values of these indicators were higher in group I. Sex had a significant impact on Ht, Hb, MCH, and mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC, with higher values in male pikeperch. Diet and sex had significant impacts on the values of the pikeperch hepatosomatic index (HSI, hepatocyte size and that of their nuclei, and the values of the nucleocytoplasmic index (NCI.

  13. Analyzing the adsorption of blood plasma components by means of fullerene-containing silica gels and NMR spectroscopy in solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melenevskaya, E. Yu.; Mokeev, M. V.; Nasonova, K. V.; Podosenova, N. G.; Sharonova, L. V.; Gribanov, A. V.

    2012-10-01

    The results from studying the adsorption of blood plasma components (e.g., protein, triglycerides, cholesterol, and lipoproteins of low and high density) using silica gels modified with fullerene molecules (in the form of C60 or the hydroxylated form of C60(OH) x ) and subjected to hydration (or, alternatively, dehydration) are presented. The conditions for preparing adsorbents that allow us to control the adsorption capacity of silica gel and the selectivity of adsorption toward the components of blood plasma, are revealed. The nature and strength of the interactions of the introduced components (fullerene molecules and water) with functional groups on the silica surface are studied by means of solid state NMR spectroscopy (NMR-SS). Conclusions regarding the nature of the centers that control adsorption are drawn on the basis of NMR-SS spectra in combination with direct measurements of adsorption. The interaction of the oxygen of the hydroxyl group of silica gel with fullerene, leading to the formation of electron-donor complexes of C60-H, C60-OH, or C60-OSi type, is demonstrated by the observed changes in the NMR-SS spectra of silica gels in the presence of fullerene.

  14. Some biochemical parameters of blood plasma of turkey-hens following administration of 1,2,4-triasole derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauze, M; Truchliński, J; Cendrowska-Pinkosz, M

    2007-01-01

    The present study involved 180 slaughter turkey-hens of heavy Big-6 type divided into four groups (in triplicate repetition for 15 birds). All the birds were fed with the same standard full-dose mixtures in 5-stage system. The turkey-hens of groups I, II and III were given 1,2,4-triasole derivative (3-(2-pyridil)-4-phenyl-1,2,4-triasole-5-carboxylic acid), which has antibacterial, antifungal and immunomodulating properties, in amount of 50, 75 and 100 microg per 1 dm3 of water. Group IV--control was given water without the additive. The 1,2,4-triasole derivative was given to drinking water, starting from the first day of bird's life and for the whole rearing period. The present results of biochemical analysis of blood plasma showed that addition of examined substance significantly reduced concentration of protein, glucose, triglycerides and uric acid as compared to control. It was stated that tested 1,2,4-triasole derivative elevated the level of HDL fraction percentage and alkaline phosphatase activity in blood plasma.

  15. Reagent-free monitoring of multiple clinically relevant parameters in human blood plasma using a mid-infrared quantum cascade laser based sensor system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstetter, Markus; Sumalowitsch, Tamara; Genner, Andreas; Posch, Andreas E; Herwig, Christoph; Drolz, Andreas; Fuhrmann, Valentin; Perkmann, Thomas; Lendl, Bernhard

    2013-07-21

    We present a semi-automated point-of-care (POC) sensor approach for the simultaneous and reagent-free determination of clinically relevant parameters in blood plasma. The portable sensor system performed direct mid-infrared (MIR) transmission measurements of blood plasma samples using a broadly tunable external-cavity quantum cascade laser source with high spectral power density. This enabled the use of a flow cell with a long path length (165 μm) which resulted in high signal-to-noise ratios and a rugged system, insensitive to clogging. Multivariate calibration models were built using well established Partial-Least-Squares (PLS) regression analysis. Selection of spectral pre-processing procedures was optimized by an automated evaluation algorithm. Several analytes, including glucose, lactate, triglycerides, cholesterol, total protein as well as albumin, were successfully quantified in routinely taken blood plasma samples from 67 critically ill patients. Although relying on a spectral range from 1030 cm(-1) to 1230 cm(-1), which is optimal for glucose and lactate but rather unusual for protein analysis, it was possible to selectively determine the albumin and total protein concentrations with sufficient accuracy for POC application.

  16. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.;

    2006-01-01

    Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3.......04) than infants not administered fish oil. Plasma triacylglycerol was inversely associated with the erythrocyte content of eicosapentaenoic acid (r = 0.34, P

  17. [Blood plasma level of endothelin in miners of a deep coal mine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plotkin, V Ia; Rebrov, B A; Nikitina, I V

    2000-09-01

    In 60 miners working in a deep coal mine the blood plasma level of endoteline-1 (E-1) was measured by the immunoenzyme technique immediately after working shift. Those in the mining where the working conditions are especially harsh were found to have the highest level of E-1 exceeding the control values. In studying the age-related content of E-1 in blood plasma of coal miners the highest levels of E-1 were recordable in workers 20 to 30 years old, declining and differing in age groups 20-30 and 41-50 years old. The level of E-1 was at its greatest in those workers with minimum length of service in the underground conditions, declining with the service more than 10 years in duration.

  18. Comparison of plasma with whole blood prothrombin time and fibrinogen on the same instrument.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amukele, Timothy K; Ferrell, Chris; Chandler, Wayne L

    2010-04-01

    We compared plasma with whole blood (WB) international normalized ratio (INR) and fibrinogen using the same instrument and reagents. WBINRs were 50% higher than plasma INRs. After increasing the WB sample volume 40% and adjusting the International Sensitivity Index, WBINRs were similar to plasma INRs [adjusted WBINR = 0.99(plasma INR) - 0.02; r(2) = 0.98; n = 155], but the average difference in WB vs plasma INR was 4-fold higher than duplicate plasma INRs. Variation in hematocrit was a major determinant of the accuracy of the WBINR, with increased error at high INRs. The WB fibrinogen assay was highly dependent on the sample hematocrit (r(2) = 0.83), even after the sample volume was adjusted. Accurate WB fibrinogen measurements required a mathematical hematocrit correction. We conclude that WBINR and fibrinogen assays can be performed on point-of-care or automated analyzers, but sample volume must be adjusted to account for hematocrit. Accuracy is limited by variations in hematocrit with worsening accuracy for samples with high INRs or low fibrinogen levels.

  19. Lack of correlation of glucose levels in filtered blood plasma to density and conductivity measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, David M; Ash, Stephen R

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this research project was to determine whether the glucose level of a blood plasma sample from a diabetic patient could be predicted by measuring the density and conductivity of ultrafiltrate of plasma created by a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. Conductivity of the plasma filtrate measures electrolyte concentration and should correct density measurements for changes in electrolytes and water concentration. In vitro studies were performed measuring conductivity and density of solutions of varying glucose and sodium chloride concentrations. Plasma from seven hospitalized patients with diabetes was filtered across a 30,000 m.w. cutoff membrane. The filtrate density and conductivity were measured and correlated to glucose levels. In vitro studies confirmed the ability to predict glucose from density and conductivity measurements, in varying concentrations of glucose and saline. In plasma filtrate, the conductivity and density measurements of ultrafiltrate allowed estimation of glucose in some patients with diabetes but not others. The correlation coefficient for the combined patient data was 0.45 which was significant but only explained 20% of the variability in the glucose levels. Individually, the correlation was significant in only two of the seven patients with correlation coefficients of 0.79 and 0.88. The reasons for lack of correlation are not clear, and cannot be explained by generation of idiogenic osmoles, effects of alcohol dehydrogenase, water intake, etc. This combination of physical methods for glucose measurement is not a feasible approach to measuring glucose in plasma filtrate.

  20. Low blood and plasma carnitine levels in children receiving long-term parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlström, K A; Ament, M E; Moukarzel, A; Vinton, N E; Cederblad, G

    1990-10-01

    Total and free carnitine and acylcarnitine concentrations were analyzed in whole blood and plasma in 12 children with a mean age of 68.4 +/- 42.9 months who had received carnitine-free total parenteral nutrition (TPN) for an average of 4 years. The purpose of the study was to see if the children had become carnitine deficient and, if so, whether this correlated with poor lipid clearance. Compared to controls, the TPN-dependent children had significantly decreased concentrations of total and free carnitine in blood (26.6 +/- 9.4 (SD) mumols/L vs. 43.3 +/- 9.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and 17.1 +/- 7.7 mumols/L vs. 35.2 +/- 8.1 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). Similar results were found in plasma (total carnitine of 19.0 +/- 8.0 mumols/L vs. 41.9 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, and free carnitine of 15.7 +/- 7.3 mumols/L vs. 36.1 +/- 5.2 mumols/L, p less than 0.001, respectively). The acylcarnitine concentration in plasma was decreased in the TPN children (3.3 +/- 1.5 mumols/L vs. 5.8 +/- 3.0 mumols/L, p less than 0.01) compared to controls. Despite the low carnitine concentrations, serum triglyceride levels and serum free fatty acid levels were within the normal range. There was no correlation between carnitine concentrations in plasma and serum triglyceride and free fatty acid levels. Our data show that children receiving carnitine-free TPN for many years developed markedly decreased concentrations of carnitine in blood and plasma. However, no adverse effects of the low carnitine levels were found on triglyceride and free fatty acid metabolism under stable conditions.

  1. Yeast extract with blood plasma in diets for piglets from 21 to 35 days of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinthia Maria Carlos Pereira

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the inclusion of yeast extract as a partial replacemer of blood plasma in piglet diets and its effect on the performance and intestinal morphometry of pigs weaned at 21 days of age. One hundred and twenty animals were randomized into blocks, with five diets (4.0% blood plasma; 2.0% blood plasma with 0.0; 1.0; 2.0 or 3.0% yeast extract, six replicates and four pigs per experimental unit. At 35 days of age, one pig per experimental unit was slaughtered in order to evaluate duodenal and jejunal morphometry. The levels of yeast extract had a quadratic impact on daily feed intake and final weight, which increased up to the estimated level of 1.91%. Daily weight gain and feed conversion rate were not affected. A comparison between diets containing different levels of yeast extract and the basal diet showed that the diets containing 2.0% and 1.0% yeast extract provided the highest final weight and the worst feed conversion rate, respectively. Duodenal villus height and crypt depth were quadratically affected by yeast extract levels and the best results were achieved with the estimated levels of 1.64 and 1.16%, respectively. The levels of yeast extract provided a linear increase in the duodenal villus:crypt ratio, but did not change the morphometric variables of the jejunum. No difference was found in the morphometric variables of the duodenum and jejunum when diets containing different levels of yeast extract were compared with the basal diet. The results suggest that the inclusion of 1.91% yeast extract allows for a partial replacement for plasma in the diet, decreasing plasma inclusion from 4.0 to 2.0%.

  2. A blood-based screening tool for Alzheimer's disease that spans serum and plasma: findings from TARC and ADNI.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sid E O'Bryant

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: There is no rapid and cost effective tool that can be implemented as a front-line screening tool for Alzheimer's disease (AD at the population level. OBJECTIVE: To generate and cross-validate a blood-based screener for AD that yields acceptable accuracy across both serum and plasma. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS: Analysis of serum biomarker proteins were conducted on 197 Alzheimer's disease (AD participants and 199 control participants from the Texas Alzheimer's Research Consortium (TARC with further analysis conducted on plasma proteins from 112 AD and 52 control participants from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI. The full algorithm was derived from a biomarker risk score, clinical lab (glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, homocysteine, and demographic (age, gender, education, APOE*E4 status data. MAJOR OUTCOME MEASURES: Alzheimer's disease. RESULTS: 11 proteins met our criteria and were utilized for the biomarker risk score. The random forest (RF biomarker risk score from the TARC serum samples (training set yielded adequate accuracy in the ADNI plasma sample (training set (AUC = 0.70, sensitivity (SN = 0.54 and specificity (SP = 0.78, which was below that obtained from ADNI cerebral spinal fluid (CSF analyses (t-tau/Aβ ratio AUC = 0.92. However, the full algorithm yielded excellent accuracy (AUC = 0.88, SN = 0.75, and SP = 0.91. The likelihood ratio of having AD based on a positive test finding (LR+ = 7.03 (SE = 1.17; 95% CI = 4.49-14.47, the likelihood ratio of not having AD based on the algorithm (LR- = 3.55 (SE = 1.15; 2.22-5.71, and the odds ratio of AD were calculated in the ADNI cohort (OR = 28.70 (1.55; 95% CI = 11.86-69.47. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to create a blood-based screening algorithm that works across both serum and plasma that provides a comparable screening accuracy to that obtained from CSF analyses.

  3. Deglycosylation of serum vitamin D3-binding protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase detected in the plasma of patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, N; Naraparaju, V R; Moore, M; Brent, L H

    1997-03-01

    A serum glycoprotein, Gc protein (vitamin D3-binding protein), can be converted by beta-galactosidase of B cells and sialidase of T cells to a potent macrophage-activating factor (MAF), a protein with N-acetylgalactosamine as the remaining sugar moiety. Thus, Gc protein is the precursor for MAF. Treatment of Gc protein with immobilized beta-galactosidase and sialidase generates a remarkably high titered macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF). When peripheral blood monocytes/ macrophages (designated macrophages) of 33 systemic lupus erythematosus patients were incubated with GcMAF (100 pg/ml), the macrophages of all patients were activated as determined by superoxide generation. However, the precursor activity of patient plasma Gc protein was lost or reduced in these patients. Loss of the precursor activity was the result of deglycosylation of plasma Gc protein by alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity found in the patient plasma. Levels of plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity in individual patients had an inverse correlation with the MAF precursor activity of their plasma Gc protein. Deglycosylated Gc protein cannot be converted to macro-phage-activating factor. The resulting defect in macro-phage activation may lead to an inability to clear pathogenic immune complexes. Thus, elevated plasma alpha-N-acetylgalactosaminidase activity resulting in the loss of MAF precursor activity and reduced macro-phage activity may play a role in the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus.

  4. The modulation of platelet adhesion and activation by chitosan through plasma and extracellular matrix proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lord, Megan S; Cheng, Bill; McCarthy, Simon J; Jung, MoonSun; Whitelock, John M

    2011-10-01

    Chitosan has been shown to promote initial wound closure events to prevent blood loss. Platelet adhesion and activation are crucial early events in these processes after traumatic bleeding leading to thrombus formation. Platelet adhesion to chitosan was found to be enhanced in the presence of adsorbed plasma and extracellular matrix proteins and was found to be primarily mediated by α(IIb)β(3) integrins, while α(2)β(1) integrins were found to be involved in platelet adhesion to collagen and perlecan. Platelets were found to be activated by chitosan, as shown by an increase in the expression of α(IIb)β(3) integrins and P-selectin, while the extent of activation was modulated by the presence of proteins including perlecan and fibrinogen. Collagen-coated chitosan was found to activate platelets to the same extent as either chitosan or collagen alone. These data support the role of plasma and extracellular matrix proteins in promoting chitosan mediated platelet adhesion and activation supporting the hypothesis that chitosan promotes wound healing via these interactions.

  5. Serum Copper and Plasma Protein Status in Normal Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Noor, Nasim Jahan, Nayma Sultana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available AbstractBackground: Gradual alteration of serum copper and some plasma protein levels may occur with advancement of pregnancy, which is associated with increased maternal and infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: To observe serum copper and plasma protein levels in normal pregnant women of different trimesters in order to find out their nutritional status.Methods: This cross sectional study was carried out in the Department of Physiology, Sir Salimullah Medical College (SSMC, Dhaka, between 1st January 2010 and December 2010. Ninety normal pregnant women of different trimesters with age 20-30 years were included in the study group. They were selected from Out Patient Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, SSMC. Age matched 30 non-pregnant women were taken as control. Serum copper level was measured by Spectrophotometric method, serum total protein and albumin levels were estimated by standard method. Statistical analysis was done by one way ANOVA, Bonferroni and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test as applicable.Results: Serum Cu levels were significantly higher in all trimesters of pregnant women compared to control. Again, this value was significantly higher in 3rd trimester than that of in 1st and 2nd trimester and also in 2nd trimester than that of in 1st trimester. In addition, mean serum total protein level was significantly lower in 3rd trimester than control but no statistically significant difference was observed among different trimesters. Again, mean serum albumin level was significantly lower in 2nd and 3rd trimester than 1st trimester and control. In addition, serum Cu concentration showed significant positive correlation with different trimesters of gestation.Conclusion: This study reveals that hypercupremia along with hypoproteinemia occur in pregnant women from 1st to 3rd trimester of gestation. This gradual alteration of micro and macronutrients become more profound with advancement of pregnancy.

  6. [Influence of Perftoran nanoemulsion on blood plasma concentrations of lipophilic drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pshenkina, N N

    2012-01-01

    The influence of perfluorocarbon blood substitute Perfloran on the plasma concentrations of bendazole, drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil upon intravenous introduction after Perfloran infusion (5 ml/kg) has been investigated on rabbits. It has been found that the plasma concentrations of verapamil, drotaverine and bendazole (highly lipophilic drugs with log(P) = 4.5, 4.9 and 3.5, respectively) increased in the presence of Perfloran. The influence of Perfloran on the concentration of weakly lipophilic ketorolac was less significant. Perfloran effectively bound drotaverine, ketorolac and verapamil in vitro, whereas the binding of ketorolac by the emulsion particles was weak. Evidently, the infusion of hydrophobic nanoemulsion Perftoran elevates the sorption capacity of plasma and creates prerequisites for the redistribution drugs and favors increase in their concentrations.

  7. Thrombolytic therapy reduces red blood cell aggregation in plasma without affecting intrinsic aggregability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben-Ami, R; Sheinman, G; Yedgar, S; Eldor, A; Roth, A; Berliner, A S; Barshtein, G

    2002-03-15

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation may contribute to occlusion of the coronary microcirculation during myocardial infarction. We studied the effect of thrombolytic therapy on RBC aggregation in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Compared with patients with myocardial infarction who did not receive thrombolytic therapy, those treated with systemic thrombolysis exhibited significantly reduced RBC aggregation, reduced plasma fibrinogen levels and increased plasma D-dimer levels. Using measurement of RBC aggregation in a standardized dextran-500 solution, reduction in RBC aggregation after thrombolysis was shown to be plasma dependent. Thrombolytic therapy had no direct effect on intrinsic RBC aggregability in patients with AMI. We conclude that thrombolytic therapy has rheologic consequences that may contribute to its overall efficacy. Inhibition of RBC aggregation by thrombolytic therapy may result from the degradation of fibrinogen, a key factor in the formation of RBC aggregates, and from the generation of fibrinogen degradation products capable of disaggregating RBCs.

  8. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  9. 2-Methoxyestradiol induce the conversion of human peripheral blood memory B lymphocytes into plasma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayer, Marie-Pierre; Drouin, Mathieu; Proulx, Maryse; Jung, Daniel

    2010-04-15

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2ME), an end-metabolite of 17beta-estradiol, is an antiproliferative agent that is currently being tested in clinical trials for cancer treatment. We hereby report that sub-cytotoxic concentrations of 2ME influence the in vitro proliferation of human peripheral blood B lymphocytes. More surprisingly, we have observed that 2ME induces the conversion of CD138(-) B lymphocytes into CD138(+) cells of phenotype similar to immunoglobulin (Ig)-secreting plasma cells. Normal human B lymphocytes expressing CD138 increased in response to 2ME in a dose-dependent fashion, from 2% at baseline up to 31% in cells cultured in the presence of 0.75 microM 2ME. Moreover, most of the converted cells were also CD27(+) and secreted high levels of IgG (151 microg/10(6)cells/24h). IEF studies revealed that conversion occurred in a polyclonal manner. We then exploited this effect of 2ME to gain further insights into the molecular mechanisms that govern changes in transcription factors involved in plasma cells differentiation. Plasma cells generated by 2ME treatment of normal human B lymphocytes expressed elevated levels of IRF4 and reduced levels of Pax5 and Bcl-6. Similarly, levels of XBP-1 and Blimp-1 transcripts were increased. Our results suggest that the differentiation of peripheral blood B lymphocytes into plasma cells requires a similar modulation of transcription factors expression that for tonsil and bone marrow B lymphocytes.

  10. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  11. Exposures of Sus scrofa to a TASER(®) conducted electrical weapon: no effects on 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis patterns of plasma proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jauchem, James R; Cerna, Cesario Z; Lim, Tiffany Y; Seaman, Ronald L

    2014-12-01

    In an earlier study, we found significant changes in red-blood-cell, leukocyte, and platelet counts, and in red-blood-cell membrane proteins, following exposures of anesthetized pigs to a conducted electrical weapon. In the current study, we examined potential changes in plasma proteins [analyzed via two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE)] following two 30 s exposures of anesthetized pigs (Sus scrofa) to a TASER (®) C2 conducted electrical weapon. Patterns of proteins, separated by 2-DGE, were consistent and reproducible between animals and between times of sampling. We determined that the blood plasma collection, handling, storage, and processing techniques we used are suitable for swine blood. There were no statistically significant changes in plasma proteins following the conducted-electrical-weapon exposures. Overall gel patterns of fibrinogen were similar to results of other studies of both pigs and humans (in control settings, not exposed to conducted electrical weapons). The lack of significant changes in plasma proteins may be added to the body of evidence regarding relative safety of TASER C2 device exposures.

  12. Transactivating-transduction protein-polyethylene glycol modified liposomes traverse the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianhu Zhou; Chunyuan Wang; Shiqing Feng; Jin Chang; Xiaohong Kong; Yang Liu; Shijie Gao

    2012-01-01

    Naive liposomes can cross the blood-brain barrier and blood-spinal cord barrier in small amounts. Liposomes modified by a transactivating-transduction protein can deliver antibiotics for the treatment of acute bacterial infection-induced brain inflammation. Liposomes conjugated with polyethylene glycol have the capability of long-term circulation. In this study we prepared transactivating-transduction protein-polyethylene glycol-modified liposomes labeled with fluorescein isothiocyanate. Thus, liposomes were characterized by transmembrane, long-term circulation and fluorescence tracing. Uptake, cytotoxicity, and the ability of traversing blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers were observed following coculture with human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MCF-7). Results demonstrated that the liposomes had good biocompatibility, and low cytotoxicity when cocultured with human breast adenocarcinoma cells. Liposomes could traverse cell membranes and entered the central nervous system and neurocytes through the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers of rats via the systemic circulation. These results verified that fluorescein isothiocyanate-modified transactivating-transduction protein-polyethylene glycol liposomes have the ability to traverse the blood-spinal cord and blood-brain barriers.

  13. Localization of Short-Chain Polyphosphate Enhances its Ability to Clot Flowing Blood Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeon, Ju Hun; Mazinani, Nima; Schlappi, Travis S.; Chan, Karen Y. T.; Baylis, James R.; Smith, Stephanie A.; Donovan, Alexander J.; Kudela, Damien; Stucky, Galen D.; Liu, Ying; Morrissey, James H.; Kastrup, Christian J.

    2017-02-01

    Short-chain polyphosphate (polyP) is released from platelets upon platelet activation, but it is not clear if it contributes to thrombosis. PolyP has increased propensity to clot blood with increased polymer length and when localized onto particles, but it is unknown whether spatial localization of short-chain polyP can accelerate clotting of flowing blood. Here, numerical simulations predicted the effect of localization of polyP on clotting under flow, and this was tested in vitro using microfluidics. Synthetic polyP was more effective at triggering clotting of flowing blood plasma when localized on a surface than when solubilized in solution or when localized as nanoparticles, accelerating clotting at 10–200 fold lower concentrations, particularly at low to sub-physiological shear rates typical of where thrombosis occurs in large veins or valves. Thus, sub-micromolar concentrations of short-chain polyP can accelerate clotting of flowing blood plasma under flow at low to sub-physiological shear rates. However, a physiological mechanism for the localization of polyP to platelet or vascular surfaces remains unknown.

  14. Selenium in blood, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa of stallions and its relationship to sperm quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertelsmann, H; Keppler, S; Höltershinken, M; Bollwein, H; Behne, D; Alber, D; Bukalis, G; Kyriakopoulos, A; Sieme, H

    2010-01-01

    The essential trace element selenium is indispensable for male fertility in mammals. Until now, little data existed regarding the relationship between selenium and sperm quality in the stallion. Selenium, or selenium-dependent glutathione peroxidase activity, was determined in red blood cells, semen, seminal plasma and spermatozoa, and the percentages of spermatozoa with progressive motility (PMS), intact membranes (PMI), altered (positive) acrosomal status (PAS) and detectable DNA damage, determined by the sperm chromatin structure assay, were evaluated in 41 healthy stallions (three samples each). The pregnancy rate per oestrus cycle (PRC) served as an estimation of fertility. An adverse effect on stallion fertility caused by low dietary selenium intake was excluded, as all stallions had sufficient selenium levels in their blood. Interestingly, no significant correlations (P > 0.05) between the selenium level in blood and the selenium level in seminal plasma or spermatozoa were found, suggesting that the selenium level in blood is no indicator of an adequate selenium supply for spermatogenesis. The selenium level in spermatozoa (nmol billion(-1)) was correlated with PMI, PMS and PAS (r = 0.40, r = 0.31 and r = -0.42, respectively; P selenium concentration in spermatozoa (nmol g(-1)) was correlated with PRC (r = 0.40, P selenium status for the male equine reproduction requires the analysis of selenium in spermatozoa. Furthermore, selenium is associated with improved sperm quality and fertility in the stallion.

  15. A double-blind study on the effect of inhaled corticosteroids on plasma protein exudation in asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocker, R E; Weller, F R; Out, T A; de Riemer, M J; Jansen, H M; van der Zee, J S

    1999-05-01

    Plasma protein exudation into the airways is an important pathophysiological event in asthma. The effect of 12 wk of treatment with inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP; 250 microgram twice a day) or salbutamol (Sb; 400 microgram twice a day) on plasma protein leakage was compared in a double-blind, randomized parallel-group study of 30 patients with asthma. Primary outcomes were plasma protein leakage and size selectivity of the blood-airway lumen barrier, cell differentials in BAL fluid, and bronchial responsiveness to histamine (PC20histamine). Two independent procedures to account for the effect of variable dilution of BAL on the levels of albumin (Alb) and alpha2-macroglobulin (A2M) in BAL fluid consisted of correction based on urea levels and on the application of the relative coefficient of excretion [RCE = ([A2M] in BAL fluid/[A2M] in serum)/([Alb] in BAL fluid/[Alb] in serum)]. In the FP group a significant decrease was found in the A2M level and the RCE, and in the percentage of eosinophils in BAL fluid. The PC20histamine increased significantly (mean increase, 2.4 doubling doses), whereas PC20histamine decreased in the Sb group. Differences between groups were significant except for the decrease in eosinophils. We conclude that 12 wk of FP (250 microgram twice a day) decreased the permeability of the blood-airway lumen barrier, in particular for high molecular weight proteins.

  16. Protein-associated water and secondary structure effect removal of blood proteins from metallic substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anand, Gaurav; Zhang, Fuming; Linhardt, Robert J; Belfort, Georges

    2011-03-01

    Removing adsorbed protein from metals has significant health and industrial consequences. There are numerous protein-adsorption studies using model self-assembled monolayers or polymeric substrates but hardly any high-resolution measurements of adsorption and removal of proteins on industrially relevant transition metals. Surgeons and ship owners desire clean metal surfaces to reduce transmission of disease via surgical instruments and minimize surface fouling (to reduce friction and corrosion), respectively. A major finding of this work is that, besides hydrophobic interaction adhesion energy, water content in an adsorbed protein layer and secondary structure of proteins determined the access and hence ability to remove adsorbed proteins from metal surfaces with a strong alkaline-surfactant solution (NaOH and 5 mg/mL SDS in PBS at pH 11). This is demonstrated with three blood proteins (bovine serum albumin, immunoglobulin, and fibrinogen) and four transition metal substrates and stainless steel (platinum (Pt), gold (Au), tungsten (W), titanium (Ti), and 316 grade stainless steel (SS)). All the metallic substrates were checked for chemical contaminations like carbon and sulfur and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). While Pt and Au surfaces were oxide-free (fairly inert elements), W, Ti, and SS substrates were associated with native oxide. Difference measurements between a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D) and surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR) provided a measure of the water content in the protein-adsorbed layers. Hydrophobic adhesion forces, obtained with atomic force microscopy, between the proteins and the metals correlated with the amount of the adsorbed protein-water complex. Thus, the amount of protein adsorbed decreased with Pt, Au, W, Ti and SS, in this order. Neither sessile contact angle nor surface roughness of the metal substrates was useful as predictors here. All three globular proteins

  17. Effect of Addition of Concentrated Proteins and Seminal Plasma Low Molecular Weight Proteins in Freezing and Thawing of Equine Semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Fagundes

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Difficulties in obtaining equine frozen semen with potential fertility are recognized. This study was designed to investigate the effect of seminal plasma on frozen/thawing of eight stallion semen from different breed using the following treatments: Seminal plasma with ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender; Part of seminal plasma with proteins under 10 kDa on frozen extender; Conventional freezing, using whole seminal plasma on frozen extender. Using the parameter of 30% of seminal motility post-thawing as index of good freezability, it was verified an increased percentage of stallions that presented good freezability when semen was frozen with seminal plasma containing ten-fold concentrated proteins with molecular weight above 10 kDa on frozen extender. These results, suggested the use of seminal plasma concentrated proteins from own stallion to freezing/thawing semen.

  18. Ionic protein-lipid interaction at the plasma membrane: what can the charge do?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lunyi; Shi, Xiaoshan; Guo, Xingdong; Li, Hua; Xu, Chenqi

    2014-03-01

    Phospholipids are the major components of cell membranes, but they have functional roles beyond forming lipid bilayers. In particular, acidic phospholipids form microdomains in the plasma membrane and can ionically interact with proteins via polybasic sequences, which can have functional consequences for the protein. The list of proteins regulated by ionic protein-lipid interaction has been quickly expanding, and now includes membrane proteins, cytoplasmic soluble proteins, and viral proteins. Here we review how acidic phospholipids in the plasma membrane regulate protein structure and function via ionic interactions, and how Ca(2+) regulates ionic protein-lipid interactions via direct and indirect mechanisms.

  19. Blood levels of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP in patients with neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph A Mayer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The brain-specific astroglial protein GFAP is a blood biomarker candidate indicative of intracerebral hemorrhage in patients with symptoms suspicious of acute stroke. Comparably little, however, is known about GFAP release in other neurological disorders. In order to identify potential "specificity gaps" of a future GFAP test used to diagnose intracerebral hemorrhage, we measured GFAP in the blood of a large and rather unselected collective of patients with neurological diseases. METHODS: Within a one-year period, we randomly selected in-patients of our university hospital for study inclusion. Patients with ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack and intracerebral hemorrhage were excluded. Primary endpoint was the ICD-10 coded diagnosis reached at discharge. During hospital stay, blood was collected, and GFAP plasma levels were determined using an advanced prototype immunoassay at Roche Diagnostics. RESULTS: A total of 331 patients were included, covering a broad spectrum of neurological diseases. GFAP levels were low in the vast majority of patients, with 98.5% of cases lying below the cut-off that was previously defined for the differentiation of intracerebral hemorrhage and ischemic stroke. No diagnosis or group of diagnoses was identified that showed consistently increased GFAP values. No association with age and sex was found. CONCLUSION: Most acute and chronic neurological diseases, including typical stroke mimics, are not associated with detectable GFAP levels in the bloodstream. Our findings underline the hypothesis that rapid astroglial destruction as in acute intracerebral hemorrhage is mandatory for GFAP increase. A future GFAP blood test applied to identify patients with intracerebral hemorrhage is likely to have a high specificity.

  20. Osteopathic manipulative therapy induces early plasma cytokine release and mobilization of a population of blood dendritic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkowski, Stevan; Singh, Manindra; Puertas, Juan; Pate, Michelle; Goodrum, Kenneth; Benencia, Fabian

    2014-01-01

    It has been claimed that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT) is able to enhance the immune response of individuals. In particular, it has been reported that OMT has the capability to increase antibody titers, enhance the efficacy of vaccination, and upregulate the numbers of circulating leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown in human patients suffering chronic low back pain, that OMT is able to modify the levels of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in blood upon repeated treatment. Further, experimental animal models show that lymphatic pump techniques can induce a transient increase of cytokines in the lymphatic circulation. Taking into account all these data, we decided to investigate in healthy individuals the capacity of OMT to induce a rapid modification of the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in circulation. Human volunteers were subjected to a mixture of lymphatic and thoracic OMT, and shortly after the levels of several cytokines were evaluated by protein array technology and ELISA multiplex analysis, while the profile and activation status of circulating leukocytes was extensively evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein (CRP) in plasma were determined. In this study, our results show that OMT was not able to induce a rapid modification in the levels of plasma nitrites or CRP or in the proportion or activation status of central memory, effector memory or naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. A significant decrease in the proportion of a subpopulation of blood dendritic cells was detected in OMT patients. Significant differences were also detected in the levels of immune molecules such as IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α and most notably, G-CSF. Thus, OMT is able to induce a rapid change in the immunological profile of particular circulating cytokines and leukocytes.

  1. Osteopathic manipulative therapy induces early plasma cytokine release and mobilization of a population of blood dendritic cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevan Walkowski

    Full Text Available It has been claimed that osteopathic manipulative treatment (OMT is able to enhance the immune response of individuals. In particular, it has been reported that OMT has the capability to increase antibody titers, enhance the efficacy of vaccination, and upregulate the numbers of circulating leukocytes. Recently, it has been shown in human patients suffering chronic low back pain, that OMT is able to modify the levels of cytokines such as IL-6 and TNF-α in blood upon repeated treatment. Further, experimental animal models show that lymphatic pump techniques can induce a transient increase of cytokines in the lymphatic circulation. Taking into account all these data, we decided to investigate in healthy individuals the capacity of OMT to induce a rapid modification of the levels of cytokines and leukocytes in circulation. Human volunteers were subjected to a mixture of lymphatic and thoracic OMT, and shortly after the levels of several cytokines were evaluated by protein array technology and ELISA multiplex analysis, while the profile and activation status of circulating leukocytes was extensively evaluated by multicolor flow cytometry. In addition, the levels of nitric oxide and C-reactive protein (CRP in plasma were determined. In this study, our results show that OMT was not able to induce a rapid modification in the levels of plasma nitrites or CRP or in the proportion or activation status of central memory, effector memory or naïve CD4 and CD8 T cells. A significant decrease in the proportion of a subpopulation of blood dendritic cells was detected in OMT patients. Significant differences were also detected in the levels of immune molecules such as IL-8, MCP-1, MIP-1α and most notably, G-CSF. Thus, OMT is able to induce a rapid change in the immunological profile of particular circulating cytokines and leukocytes.

  2. Blood Plasma of Patients with Parkinson's Disease Increases Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation and Neurotoxicity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Li, Xin; Li, Xuran; Yang, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    A pathological hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD) is formation of Lewy bodies in neurons of the brain. This has been attributed to the spread of α-synuclein (α-syn) aggregates, which involves release of α-syn from a neuron and its reuptake by a neighboring neuron. We found that treatment with plasma from PD patients induced more α-syn phosphorylation and oligomerization than plasma from normal subjects (NS). Compared with NS plasma, PD plasma added to primary neuron cultures caused more cell death in the presence of extracellular α-syn. This was supported by the observations that phosphorylated α-syn oligomers entered neurons, rapidly increased accumulated thioflavin S-positive inclusions, and induced a series of metabolic changes that included activation of polo-like kinase 2, inhibition of glucocerebrosidase and protein phosphatase 2A, and reduction of ceramide levels, all of which have been shown to promote α-syn phosphorylation and aggregation. We also analyzed neurotoxicity of α-syn oligomers relative to plasma from different patients. Neurotoxicity was not related to age or gender of the patients. However, neurotoxicity was positively correlated with H&Y staging score. The modification in the plasma may promote spreading of α-syn aggregates via an alternative pathway and accelerate progression of PD. PMID:27965913

  3. Clinical Observation on Influence of Chinese Medicines for Promoting Blood Circulation to Remove Blood Stasis on FIB and DD in Plasma of Patients with Cerebral Thrombosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁晖; 陈甦; 陈少芳

    2002-01-01

    Objective: to study the influence of Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis on fibrinogen (FIB) and D-dimer (DD) in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis. Method: 73 inpatients with acute cerebral thrombosis were randomly divided into a control group of 34 cases and a treatment group of 39 cases. The content of FIB and DD in plasma was detected before treatment and on the 7th and 14th days after treatment. Result: FIB content in plasma after treatment was lower than that before treatment in the control group (P<0.01) and more remarkable in the treatment group (P<0.001). There was an obvious difference in DD content before and after treatment in both groups. DD content on the 7th and 14th days after treatment in the treatment group was obviously higher than that in the control group (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively). Conclusion: Chinese medicines for promoting blood circulation to remove blood stasis can reduce the FIB content in plasma of patients with cerebral thrombosis, raise the DD content in plasma, cause the peak of DD content appear earlier and obviously improve hypercoagulability of blood in patients with cerebral thrombosis.

  4. Remarkable effect of mobile phase buffer on the SEC-ICP-AES derived Cu, Fe and Zn-metalloproteome pattern of rabbit blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahromi, Elham Zeini; White, Wade; Wu, Qiao; Yamdagni, Raghav; Gailer, Jürgen

    2010-07-01

    The development of an analytical method to quantify the major Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloproteins in mammalian plasma has been recently reported. This method is based on the separation of plasma proteins by size exclusion chromatography (SEC) followed by the on-line detection of the metalloproteins by an inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometer (ICP-AES). To assess whether the mobile phase buffer can affect the SEC-ICP-AES-derived metalloproteome pattern, thawed rabbit plasma was analyzed using phosphate buffered saline (PBS)-buffer (0.15 M, pH 7.4), Tris-buffer (0.1 and 0.05 M, pH 7.4), Hepes-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4) or Mops-buffer (0.1 M, pH 7.4). In contrast to the Cu-specific chromatograms, the Fe and Zn-specific chromatograms that were obtained with Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer were considerably different from those attained with PBS-buffer. The Tris, Hepes and Mops-buffer mediated redistribution of ~25% plasma Zn(2+) from 100-600 kDa plasma proteins and to a smaller extent to a Hepes and Mops-buffer redistributed ~20% of plasma Fe(3+) from the 600 kDa elution range. Based on these results and considering that the utilization of PBS-buffer has previously resulted in the detection of a number of Cu, Fe and Zn-containing metalloentities in rabbit plasma that was most consistent with literature data, this mobile phase buffer is recommended for metallomic studies regarding mammalian blood plasma.

  5. Classical scrapie prions in ovine blood are associated with B lymphocytes and platelets-rich plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical scrapie is a naturally occurring fatal brain disease of sheep and goats which is caused by prions, a novel class of infectious agent, and is accompanied by the accumulation of abnormal isoforms of prion protein (PrP-Sc) in certain neural and lymphoid tissues. Although collection of a blood...

  6. Aberrant Glycosylation of Plasma Proteins in Severe Preeclampsia Promotes Monocyte Adhesion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazanjian, Avedis A.; Tinnemore, Deborah; Gafken, Philip R.; Ogata, Yuko; Napolitano, Peter G.; Stallings, Jonathan D.; Ippolito, Danielle L.

    2014-01-01

    Glycosylation of plasma proteins increases during pregnancy. Our objectives were to investigate an anti-inflammatory role of these proteins in normal pregnancies and determine whether aberrant protein glycosylation promotes monocyte adhesion in preeclampsia. Plasma was prospectively collected from nonpregnant controls and nulliparous patients in all 3 trimesters. Patients were divided into cohorts based on the applicable postpartum diagnosis. U937 monocytes were preconditioned with enzymatically deglycosylated plasma, and monocyte adhesion to endothelial cell monolayers was quantified by spectrophotometry. Plasma from nonpregnant controls, first trimester normotensives, and first trimester patients with mild preeclampsia inhibited monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion (P < .05), but plasma from first trimester patients with severe preeclampsia and second and third trimester normotensives did not. Deglycosylating plasma proteins significantly increased adhesion in all the cohorts. These results support a role of plasma glycoprotein interaction in monocyte–endothelial cell adhesion and could suggest a novel therapeutic target for severe preeclampsia. PMID:23757314

  7. Interaction between Fibrinogen and Insulin-Like Growth Factor-Binding Protein-1 in Human Plasma under Physiological Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gligorijević, N; Nedić, O

    2016-02-01

    Fibrinogen is a plasma glycoprotein and one of the principle participants in blood coagulation. It interacts with many proteins during formation of a blood clot, including insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) and their binding proteins (IGFBP). Fibrinogen complexes were found as minor fractions in fibrinogen preparations independently of the coagulation process, and their presence influences the kinetics of polymerization. The idea of this work was to investigate whether fibrinogen in human plasma interacts with IGFBPs independently of the tissue injury or coagulation process. The results have shown that fibrinogen forms complexes with IGFBP-1 under physiological conditions. Several experimental approaches have confirmed that complexes are co-isolated with fibrinogen from plasma, they are relatively stable, and they appear as a general feature of human plasma. Several other experiments excluded the possibility that alpha-2 macroglobulin/IGFBP-1 complexes or IGFBP-1 oligomers contributed to IGFBP-1 immunoreactivity. The role of fibrinogen/IGFBP-1 complexes is still unknown. Further investigation in individuals expressing both impaired glucose control and coagulopathy could contribute to identification and understanding of their possible physiological role.

  8. EDTA-treated cotton-thread microfluidic device used for one-step whole blood plasma separation and assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulum, Mokhamad Fakhrul; Maylina, Leni; Noviana, Deni; Wicaksono, Dedy Hermawan Bagus

    2016-04-21

    This study aims to observe the wicking and separation characteristics of blood plasma in a cotton thread matrix functioning as a microfluidic thread-based analytical device (μTAD). We investigated several cotton thread treatment methods using ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) anticoagulant solution for wicking whole blood samples and separating its plasma. The blood of healthy Indonesian thin tailed sheep was used in this study to understand the properties of horizontal wicking and separation on the EDTA-treated μTAD. The wicking distance and blood cell separation from its plasma was observed for 120 s and documented using a digital phone camera. The results show that untreated cotton-threads stopped the blood wicking process on the μTAD. On the other hand, the deposition of EDTA anticoagulant followed by its drying on the thread at room temperature for 10 s provides the longest blood wicking with gradual blood plasma separation. Furthermore, the best results in terms of the longest wicking and the clearest on-thread separation boundary between blood cells and its plasma were obtained using the μTAD treated with EDTA deposition followed by 60 min drying at refrigerated temperature (2-8 °C). The separation length of blood plasma in the μTADs treated with dried-EDTA at both room and refrigerated temperatures was not statistically different (P > 0.05). This separation occurs through the synergy of three factors, cotton fiber, EDTA anticoagulant and blood platelets, which induce the formation of a fibrin-filter via a partial coagulation process in the EDTA-treated μTAD. An albumin assay was employed to demonstrate the efficiency of this plasma separation method during a one-step assay on the μTAD. Albumin in blood is an important biomarker for kidney and heart disease. The μTAD has a slightly better limit of detection (LOD) than conventional blood analysis, with an LOD of 114 mg L(-1) compared to 133 mg L(-1), respectively. However, the μTAD performed

  9. Changes in blood plasma of professional football players during the continuous training-emulative activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. V. Chernev

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Any physical activity is accompanied by speed changing of metabolic processes in the organism, peculiar changing of their directivities and accordingly, the emergence of biochemical changes in the muscles that perform work, in the internal organs, as well as in blood system. Aim. To determine the changes that occur in blood plasma of professional footballers during continuous physical activity, 84 professional players were examined. Methods and results. We have determined the direction and peculiarity of the cumulative effect of the impact of physical activity on changes in the blood of sportsmen during continuous period of an educational-training session (ETS. It was established that under the conditions of intensive or continuous physical load a steady prevalence of catabolic processes in the organism wes observed. The given changes, specified by the fact that during ETS sportsmen’s tension of adaptation processes is gradually increasing. Moderate hyper-thrombotonin background in blood of the most sportsmen were observed in the beginning of ETS. Increase of permittivity membrane erythrocytes that reflected sorption capacity growth of the red blood cells was detected in individual sportsmen. Cell membrane structures damage of during intensive or continuous training is of generalized character and takes place almost in all organs and tissues. Also serum AST (Aspartate aminotransferase, ALT (Alanine transaminase and LDH (Lactate dehydrogenase activity was studied in footballers during the ETS. Conclusions. The specified level of activity of certain enzymes indicates hypoxic / ischemic state due to the training load during ETS.

  10. Z-DNA binding protein from chicken blood nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, A. G.; Spitzner, J. R.; Lowenhaupt, K.; Rich, A.

    1993-01-01

    A protein (Z alpha) that appears to be highly specific for the left-handed Z-DNA conformer has been identified in chicken blood nuclear extracts. Z alpha activity is measured in a band-shift assay by using a radioactive probe consisting of a (dC-dG)35 oligomer that has 50% of the deoxycytosines replaced with 5-bromodeoxycytosine. In the presence of 10 mM Mg2+, the probe converts to the Z-DNA conformation and is bound by Z alpha. The binding of Z alpha to the radioactive probe is specifically blocked by competition with linear poly(dC-dG) stabilized in the Z-DNA form by chemical bromination but not by B-form poly(dC-dG) or boiled salmon-sperm DNA. In addition, the binding activity of Z alpha is competitively blocked by supercoiled plasmids containing a Z-DNA insert but not by either the linearized plasmid or by an equivalent amount of the parental supercoiled plasmid without the Z-DNA-forming insert. Z alpha can be crosslinked to the 32P-labeled brominated probe with UV light, allowing us to estimate that the minimal molecular mass of Z alpha is 39 kDa.

  11. Metabolomic Analysis of Clinical Plasma from Cerebral Infarction Patients Presenting with Blood Stasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Ho Cha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Blood stasis (BS is characterized as a disorder of blood circulation. In traditional Korean medicine (TKM, it is viewed as a cause factor of diseases such as multiple sclerosis and stroke. This study investigated differences in the plasma metabolites profiles of subjects displaying BS or non-BS patterns. Thirty-one patients with cerebral infarction diagnosed with BS and an equal number of sex- and age-matched non-BS patients were enrolled. Metabolic profiling was performed using UPLC-MS. The ratio of subjects with a rough pulse and purple coloration of the tongue was higher in patients presenting with BS pattern. Through metabolomics analysis, 82 metabolites that differed significantly between the BS and non-BS pattern were identified, and the two groups were significantly separated using an orthogonal partial least square-discriminant analysis model (P<0.001. Of these 82 metabolites, acetyl carnitine, leucine, kynurenine, phosphocholine, hexanoyl carnitine, and decanoyl carnitine were present in significantly higher levels in patients with a BS pattern than those with a non-BS pattern. Our results also demonstrated that seven plasma metabolites, including acyl-carnitines and kynurenine, were associated with a BS pattern, suggesting that variant plasma metabolic profiles may serve as a biomarker for diagnosis of BS in patients with cerebral infarction.

  12. Low-density lipoprotein mimics blood plasma-derived exosomes and microvesicles during isolation and detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sódar, Barbara W; Kittel, Ágnes; Pálóczi, Krisztina; Vukman, Krisztina V; Osteikoetxea, Xabier; Szabó-Taylor, Katalin; Németh, Andrea; Sperlágh, Beáta; Baranyai, Tamás; Giricz, Zoltán; Wiener, Zoltán; Turiák, Lilla; Drahos, László; Pállinger, Éva; Vékey, Károly; Ferdinandy, Péter; Falus, András; Buzás, Edit Irén

    2016-04-18

    Circulating extracellular vesicles have emerged as potential new biomarkers in a wide variety of diseases. Despite the increasing interest, their isolation and purification from body fluids remains challenging. Here we studied human pre-prandial and 4 hours postprandial platelet-free blood plasma samples as well as human platelet concentrates. Using flow cytometry, we found that the majority of circulating particles within the size range of extracellular vesicles lacked common vesicular markers. We identified most of these particles as lipoproteins (predominantly low-density lipoprotein, LDL) which mimicked the characteristics of extracellular vesicles and also co-purified with them. Based on biophysical properties of LDL this finding was highly unexpected. Current state-of-the-art extracellular vesicle isolation and purification methods did not result in lipoprotein-free vesicle preparations from blood plasma or from platelet concentrates. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy showed an association of LDL with isolated vesicles upon in vitro mixing. This is the first study to show co-purification and in vitro association of LDL with extracellular vesicles and its interference with vesicle analysis. Our data point to the importance of careful study design and data interpretation in studies using blood-derived extracellular vesicles with special focus on potentially co-purified LDL.

  13. Venous and fingertip blood to calculate plasma volume shift following exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowlton, R G; Brown, D D; Hetzler, R K; Sikora, L M

    1990-12-01

    This study determined whether fingertip blood samples used to calculate percentage change in calculated plasma volume following exercise were in agreement with values obtained from venous blood samples. Twenty-five subjects engaged in two cycle ergometer exercises at 100 and 200 W, with percentage plasma volume shift (% PVS) determined after each from venous (VB) and fingertip (FT) blood. Values for % PVS were FT -6.25% compared with VB -8.04% (P less than 0.05), with the correlation between the two methods at r = 0.88. The following equation was established: corrected FT % PVS = (0.8662 * FT) - 2.625; SEE = 2.60%. In order to cross-validate this equation, fifteen additional subjects submitted to VB and FT. Corrected FT % PVS using the established equation resulted in a mean value of 9.53 compared with 10.53% for actual VB % PVS. Although these means were not significantly different, there was approximately a 25% chance that the corrected FT % PVS would be more than one standard error of estimate from the regression line. It was concluded that FT underestimates VB % PVS. However, when limited to group data, FT can be corrected to favorably represent VB % PVS following moderate to heavy cycle ergometer exercise.

  14. Performance study of microfluidic devices for blood plasma separation—a designer’s perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Bala Varun Kumar, Y. V.; Prabhakar, Amit; Joshi, Suhas S.; Agrawal, Amit

    2015-08-01

    In this work, design and experiments on various blood plasma microdevices based on hydrodynamic flow separation techniques is carried out. We study their performance as a function of dependent governing parameters such as flow rate, feed hematocrit, and microchannel geometry. This work focuses on understanding separation phenomena in simple geometries; subsequently, individual simple geometrical parameters and biophysical effects are combined to fabricate hybridized designs, resulting in higher separation efficiencies. The distinctive features of our microfluidic devices are that they employ elevated dimensions (of the order of hundreds of microns), and thereby can be operated continuously over sufficient duration without clogging, while simplicity of fabrication makes them cost effective. The microdevices have been experimentally demonstrated over the entire range of hematocrit (i.e. from Hct 7% to Hct 45%). A high separation efficiency of about (78.34  ±  2.7)% with pure blood is achieved in our best hybrid design. We believe that the theory and experimental results presented in this study will aid designers and researchers working in the field of blood plasma separation microdevices.

  15. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical–chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    Organohalogen contaminants (OHCs) may affect various physiological parameters in birds including blood chemistry. We therefore examined blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters and OHCs in golden eagle, white-tailed eagle and goshawk chicks from Northern Norway. Correlation analyses on pooled da...

  16. [Epidermal growth factor receptor expression and epidermal growth factor blood plasma content in simple and complex endometrial hyperplasia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dznelashvili, N; Kasradze, D; Tavartkiladze, A; Mariamidze, A

    2014-01-01

    The goal of our study was to concurrently determine the prognostic significance of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) expression in endometrium and Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF) blood content in simple and complex hyperplasia. In order to detect EGFR expression, immunohistochemical examination of endometrial scarp from 35 patients was done along with HPLC (High performance liquid chromatography) method, for measuring EGF blood plasma content. The numerical data obtained were processed statistically using computer program SPSS-12. According to the results: 1. A significant/marked increase in EGF blood plasma level together with pronounced EGFR expression in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) suggests that simple hyperplasia is likely to transform into complex form, while unchanged level of EGF against the background of mild EGFR expression is probably indicative of not very bad prognosis. 2. Normal indices of EGF blood plasma level in simple endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia), accompanied by mild EGFR expression is suggestive of good prognosis. 3. A sharp or extremely sharp increase in EGF blood plasma level with pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. However, unchanged EGF blood plasma level against the background of mild EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to point to not very bad prognosis. 4. A marked increase in EGF blood plasma level with a pronounced EGFR expression in complex endometrial hyperplasia (without atypia) is likely to indicate poor prognosis that may lead to the transformation into atypical form. Because it is evident that drastic increase in EGF blood plasma level is not necessary, other factor should be suspected to play the major role, i.e the substance that will (or will not) withstand neoplasia.

  17. Changes of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in patients with acute coronary syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jin-lai; ZHANG Hui; XIE Xu-jing; CHEN Lin; ZHAO Chang-lin

    2005-01-01

    @@ The term vulnerable patient has been proposed to define subjects susceptible to an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or sudden cardiac death based on plaque characteristics, blood abnorma-lities, or myocardial vulnerability.1 It will be important in the future to identify both vulnerable patients and vulnerable plaques. Atherosclerotic arteries obtained at autopsy from patients who died suddenly of cardiac causes indicate that pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) was abundantly expressed in plaque cells and in the extracellular matrix of ruptured and eroded unstable plaques, but not in stable plaques.2 Here we examined circulating PAPP-A levels in patients with ACS in order to evaluate its potential use in identifying vulnerable patients.

  18. Increased blood levels of IgG reactive with secreted Streptococcus pyogenes proteins in chronic plaque psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Rachkidy, Rana G; Hales, Jonathan M; Freestone, Primrose P E; Young, Helen S; Griffiths, Christopher E M; Camp, Richard D R

    2007-06-01

    A pathogenic role for Streptococcus (S) pyogenes infections in chronic plaque psoriasis is suspected but poorly defined. We separated cellular and supernatant proteins from S. pyogenes cultures by high-resolution two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, and used immunoblotting to demonstrate the diversity of serum or plasma IgGs that react with elements of the proteome of this bacterium. We have shown that a substantial proportion of IgG-reactive proteins from cultured S. pyogenes are secreted. The total secreted protein fraction, including diverse IgG-binding elements, was subsequently used in an ELISA to measure blood titers of reactive IgG. This ELISA showed that blood samples from patients with chronic plaque psoriasis contained significantly higher titers of reactive IgG than samples from age- and sex-matched healthy controls (P=0.0009). In contrast, neither a standard assay measuring antistreptolysin O titers nor ELISAs measuring titers of IgG reactive with protein fractions from Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis, were able to distinguish between blood samples from the two groups. These findings justify the hypothesis that S. pyogenes infections are more important in the pathogenesis of chronic plaque psoriasis than has previously been recognized, and indicate the need for further controlled therapeutic trials of antibacterial measures in this common skin disease.

  19. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuelsson, Linda M. [Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Foerlin, Lars [Department of Zoology/Zoophysiology, Goeteborg University, Box 463, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Karlsson, Goeran [Swedish NMR Centre at Goeteborg University, Box 465, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden); Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha [Institute of Applied Environmental Science (ITM), Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Larsson, D.G. Joakim [Department of Physiology/Endocrinology, Institute of Neuroscience and Physiology, The Sahlgrenska Academy at Goeteborg University, Box 434, SE-405 30 Goeteborg (Sweden)]. E-mail: joakim.larsson@fysiologi.gu.se

    2006-07-20

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used {sup 1}H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE{sub 2}) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE{sub 2}, which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants.

  20. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  1. Alternations in plasma volume and protein during and after a continuous 110-kilometer march with 20-kilogram backpack load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashkenazi, I; Epshtein, Y

    1998-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a continuous 110-km march with a 20-kg backpack load on plasma volume and intravascular protein content. Twenty-two healthy male volunteers, aged 19 to 20 years (mean, 19.4 years), physically conditioned for continuous strenuous exercise, with a mean (+/- SD) maximal oxygen consumption of 59.1 (+/- 7.9) ml/kg/min, participated in the study. The march was performed under ambient conditions of 17 to 32 degrees C dry temperature and 45 to 85% relative humidity. Venous blood samples were obtained before, during, and after the march. The average calculated oxygen consumption during the march was about 30% of maximal oxygen consumption. Mean body weight loss was 3.4% of the premarch weight, mean water ingestion was 14,250 ml, and mean urine volume was 2,687 ml. Relative changes of plasma volume and total content of plasma protein were calculated from hematocrit ratio and hemoglobin concentration. A significant reduction (-6.1 +/- 1.7%, mean +/- SE) in plasma volume and a minimal elevation in intravascular protein content (1.6 +/- 2.5%) were observed during the march. During the first 24 hours of recovery, plasma volume was further reduced (-8.4 +/- 1.8%), with a significant reduction in protein content (-6.6 +/- 1.8%), mainly albumin (-9.3 +/- 1.7%). During the second day of recovery, peak elevations in plasma volume (3.7 +/- 1.4%) and protein content (6.0 +/- 1.6%) were observed. The changes in protein content were related to elevations in albumin (3.7 +/- 1.3%) and globulin (10.7 +/- 3.2%) content. The elevated plasma volume and protein content were also maintained 96 hours after the end of the march. Although the changes in plasma volume during the march were associated with changes in serum albumin and globulin content, during the recovery period there was association only with the changes in serum globulin content. The possible mechanism of these findings is discussed.

  2. What Happens to Donated Blood?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... week. Learn About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Components Whole Blood and Red Blood Cells Platelets Plasma ... About Blood Blood Facts and Statistics Blood Types Blood Components What Happens to Donated Blood Blood and Diversity ...

  3. Assessment of violations of the proteomic profile in blood plasma in children being under inhalation exposure to fine dust containing vanadium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The results of research and evaluation of the protein profile in blood plasma in children, that have been exposed to long-term effect of fine dust containing vanadium in the zone of influence of metallurgical production sources, are demonstrated. It was established that under conditions of poor air quality in the residential area due to vanadium pentoxide dust content at the level up to 1.2 mean daily MAC (34 RfC chr , by the suspended solids – up to 0.6 mean daily MAC (1.2 RfC chr , there is vanadium concentration in blood of the exposed 4–7 aged children, that exceeds up to 6 times the reference level. The technology of the proteomic analysis showed that children with high content of vanadium in blood have changes in proteomic profile in blood plasma in the type of increase of the relative volume of acid glycoprotein alpha-1; reduction of clusterin, apolipoprotein A-IV, alpha-2-HS-glycoprotein, that are associated with vanadium concentration in blood. In the absence of timely primary and secondary prevention and the preservation of vanadium sustained exposure the revealed cell-molecular abnormalities allow us to predict further development of functional disturbances on tissue and organ levels as the early development of osteoporosis and osteoarticular pathology, atherosclerotic vascular changes, autoimmune allergic processes on the background of disorders of immune regulation, oncology diseases.

  4. Plasma catecholamines and blood volume in native Andeans during hypoxia and normoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa, Alfredo; Gamboa, Jorge L; Holmes, Courtney; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Leon-Velarde, Fabiola; Fischman, Gary J; Appenzeller, Otto; Goldstein, David S

    2006-02-01

    Plasma catechols and blood volume were measured in 20 male, native high-altitude residents of Cerro de Pasco, Peru (4338 m), while hypoxic and subsequently while normoxic at sea level. Ten subjects were healthy controls,with hematocrits lower than 61%, and ten had chronic mountain sickness (CMS), a syndrome of maladaptation to altitude, characterized by polycythemia (hematocrit > 61%), profound hypoxemia, and neurologic symptoms. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the chronic effects of hypoxia on plasma catechols and on blood volume, by studying these parameters during hypoxia at high altitude (HA) and shortly after exposure to normoxia at sea level (SL). Subjects were first studied at HA in their habitual hypoxic environment, and measurements were repeated within 4 hours of arrival at SL (Lima, Peru, 150 m). All subjects had higher plasma norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), and dihydroxyphenylglycol (DHPG) levels in HA (NE in controls and CMS: 414+/-47 and 514+/-35 pg/mL; DA: 9+/-1 and 13+/-1 pg/mL, DHPG: 817+/-48 and 972+/-77 pg/mL) than at SL (NE: 164+/-9 and 243+/-28 pg/mL; DA: 4+/-0.5 and 5+/-1 pg/mL DHPG: 502+/-23 and 649+/-39 pg/mL). Group differences were statistically significant only for NE in the CMS group. Plasma volume was higher in HA in both groups (p<0.05); red cell volume was higher in HA only in the CMS group. The results indicate sympathetic nervous stimulation by chronic ambient hypoxia at altitude in Andean natives, independent of maladaptation to their native environment.

  5. Bystander responses in low dose irradiated cells treated with plasma from gamma irradiated blood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheva, A; Georgieva, R; Rupova, I; Boteva, R [Laboratory Molecular Radiobiology and Epidemiology, National Centre of Radiobiology and Radiation Protection, 132 Kliment Ohridski blvd, Sofia 1756 (Bulgaria); Lyng, F [Radiation and Environmental Science Center, Dublin Institute of Technology, Kevin st, Dublin 8 (Ireland)], E-mail: anjin_a@mail.bg

    2008-02-01

    There are two specific low-dose radiation-induced responses that have been the focus of radiobiologists' interest in recent years. These are the bystander effect in non-irradiated cells and the adaptive response to a challenge dose after prior low dose irradiation. In the present study we have investigated if plasma from irradiated blood can act as a 'challenge dose' on low dose irradiated reporter epithelial cells (HaCaT cell line). The main aim was to evaluate the overall effect of low dose irradiation (0.05 Gy) of reporter cells and the influence of bystander factors in plasma from 0.5 Gy gamma irradiated blood on these cells. The effects were estimated by clonogenic survival of the reporter cells. We also investigated the involvement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) as potential factors involved in the bystander signaling. Calcium fluxes and mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) depolarization were also examined as a marker for initiation of apoptosis in the reporter cells. The results show that there are large individual differences in the production of bystander effects and adaptive responses between different donors. These may be due to the specific composition of the donor plasma. The observed effects generally could be divided into two groups: adaptive responses and additive effects. ROS appeared to be involved in the responses of the low dose pretreated reporter cells. In all cases there was a significant decrease in MMP which may be an early event in the apoptotic process. Calcium signaling also appeared to be involved in triggering apoptosis in the low dose pretreated reporter cells. The heterogeneity of the bystander responses makes them difficult to be modulated for medical uses. Specific plasma characteristics that cause these large differences in the responses would need to be identified to make them useful for radiotherapy.

  6. Evaluating the optimum rest period prior to blood collection for fractionated plasma free metanephrines analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    The high diagnostic accuracy of plasma metanephrines (PMets) in the di-agnosis of Phaeochromocytoma\\/Paraganglioma (PPGL) is well established. Considerable controversy exists regarding optimum sampling conditions for PMets. The use of reference intervals that do not compromise diagnostic sensitivity is recommended. However, the optimum rest period prior to sampling has yet to be clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMets concentrations in paired blood samples collected following 30 and 40 min seated-rest prior to sampling, in patients in whom it was clinically rea-sonable to suspect that PPGL may be present.

  7. Regulation of homeostasis in the process of protein absorption from small intestine to blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akmal Yuldashev

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Electron microscopic and immunоfluorescent study in rats aged 1 and 3 days after birth allowed to establish a process of absorption of protein from the small intestine into the lymph and blood. Blood homeostasis was provided by the proteins filtrated from glomerular capillaries of nephrons and reabsorbed by the epithelial cells in canaliculi of nephrons. The absorbed natural heterologous protein was depleted by lysosomes of epithelial cells of intestine and kidneys and macrophages. It supported not only blood homeostasis but also prevented loss of protein by an organism, formed sites for its digestion in the organism.

  8. Identification of frog photoreceptor plasma and disk membrane proteins by radioiodination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, P.L.; Bownds, M.D.

    1987-03-24

    Several functions have been identified for the plasma membrane of the rod outer segment, including control of light-dependent changes in sodium conductance and a sodium-calcium exchange mechanism. However, little is known about its constituent proteins. Intact rod outer segments substantially free of contaminants were prepared in the dark and purified on a density gradient of Percoll. Surface proteins were then labeled by lactoperoxidase-catalyzed radioiodination, and intact rod outer segments were reisolated. Membrane proteins were identified by polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and autoradiography. The surface proteins labeled included rhodopsin, the major membrane protein, and 12 other proteins. To compare the protein composition of plasma membrane with that of the internal disk membrane, purified rod outer segments were lysed by hypotonic disruption or freeze-thawing, and plasma plus disk membranes were radioiodinated. In these membrane preparations, rhodopsin was the major iodinated constituent, with 12 other proteins also labeled. Autoradiographic evidence indicated some differences in protein composition between disk and plasma membranes. A quantitative comparison of the two samples showed that labeling of two proteins, 24 kilodaltons (kDa) and 13 kDa, was enriched in the plasma membrane, while labeling of a 220-kDa protein was enriched in the disk membrane. These plasma membrane proteins may be associated with important functions such as the light-sensitive conductance and the sodium-calcium exchanger.

  9. Inhibition of platelet (/sup 3/H)- imipramine binding by human plasma protein fractions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strijewski, A.; Chudzik, J.; Tang, S.W.

    1988-01-01

    Inhibition of high-affinity (/sup 3/H)-imipramine binding to platelet membranes by human plasma fractions and isolated plasma proteins was investigated. Several plasma proteins were found to contribute to the observed apparent inhibition and this contribution was assessed in terms of inhibitor units. Alpha/sub 1/ acid glycoprotein, high density and low density lipoprotein, IgG and ..cap alpha../sub 1/-antitrypsin were identified as effective non-specific inhibitors. Alpha-1-acid glycoprotein was confirmed to be the most potent plasma protein inhibitor. Cohn fractions were evaluated for the presence of the postulated endocoid of (/sup 3/H)-imipramine binding site.

  10. Effects of protein intake on blood pressure, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voortman, Trudy; Vitezova, Anna; Bramer, Wichor M; Ars, Charlotte L; Bautista, Paula K; Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Felix, Janine F; Leermakers, Elisabeth T M; Sajjad, Ayesha; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Tharner, Anne; Franco, Oscar H; van den Hooven, Edith H

    2015-02-14

    High protein intake in early childhood is associated with obesity, suggesting possible adverse effects on other cardiometabolic outcomes. However, studies in adults have suggested beneficial effects of protein intake on blood pressure (BP) and lipid profile. Whether dietary protein intake is associated with cardiovascular and metabolic health in children is unclear. Therefore, we aimed to systematically review the evidence on the associations of protein intake with BP, insulin sensitivity and blood lipids in children. We searched the databases Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central and PubMed for interventional and observational studies in healthy children up to the age of 18 years, in which associations of total, animal and/or vegetable protein intake with one or more of the following outcomes were reported: BP; measures of insulin sensitivity; cholesterol levels; or TAG levels. In the search, we identified 6636 abstracts, of which fifty-six studies met all selection criteria. In general, the quality of the included studies was low. Most studies were cross-sectional, and many did not control for potential confounders. No overall associations were observed between protein intake and insulin sensitivity or blood lipids. A few studies suggested an inverse association between dietary protein intake and BP, but evidence was inconclusive. Only four studies examined the effects of vegetable or animal protein intake, but with inconsistent results. In conclusion, the literature, to date provides insufficient evidence for effects of protein intake on BP, insulin sensitivity or blood lipids in children. Future studies could be improved by adequately adjusting for key confounders such as energy intake and obesity.

  11. Characterization of the gene for the a subunit of human factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase), a blood coagulation factor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ichinose, A.; Davie, E.W. (Univ. of Washington, Seattle (USA))

    1988-08-01

    Factor XIII (plasma transglutaminase, fibrin stabilizing factor) is a glycoprotein that circulates in blood as a tetramer (a{sub 2}b{sub 2}) consisting of two a and two b subunits. The primary structures of the a and b subunits of human factor XIII have been reported by a combination of cDNA cloning and amino acid sequence analysis. To establish the gene structure of the a subunit for factor XIII, several human genomic libraries were screened by using the cDNA encoding the a subunit as a probe. Among {approx}5 {times} 10{sup 7} recombinant phage, 121 have been shown to contain an insert encoding a portion of the a subunit. Twenty-five unique clones were than characterized by restriction mapping, Southern blotting, and DNA sequencing. Overlapping clones encoding the a subunit of factor XIII span >160 kilobases. DNA sequence analysis revealed that the activation peptide released by thrombin, the active site cysteine region, the two putative calcium-binding regions, and the thrombin cleavage site leading to inactivation are encoded by separate exons. This suggest that the introns may separate the a subunit into functional and structural domains. A comparison of the amino acid sequence deduced from the genomic DNA sequence with those deduced from cDNA or determined by amino acid sequence analysis of the plasma and placental proteins revealed apparent amino acid polymorphisms in six positions of the polypeptide chain of the a subunit.

  12. Interaction between La(III) and proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guang-Mei; Chu, Yun-Xia; Lv, Xiao-Fen; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiao-Hua

    2012-06-01

    Lanthanum (La) is an important rare earth element in the ecological environment of plant. The proteins on the plasma membrane control the transport of molecules into and out of cell. It is very important to investigate the effect of La(III) on the proteins on the plasma membrane in the plant cell. In the present work, the interaction between La(III) and proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish was investigated using optimization of the fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. It is found that the fluorescence of the complex system of protoplasts and 1-aniline Kenai-8-sulfonic acid in horseradish treated with the low concentration of La(III) is increased compared with that of the control horseradish. The opposite effect is observed in horseradish treated with the high concentration of La(III). These results indicated that the low concentration of La(III) can interact with the proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish, causing the improvement in the structure of proteins on the plasma membrane. The high concentration of La(III) can also interact with the proteins on the plasma membrane of horseradish, leading to the destruction of the structure of proteins on the plasma membrane. We demonstrate that the proteins on the plasma membrane are the targets of La(III) action on plant cell.

  13. Estimation of protein content in the plasma of young chickens by a refractometric method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, G W; Thaxton, P; Edens, F W

    1975-07-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate a refractometric method for determination of protein content of chicken plasma. Comparison of the results obtained with the refractometric and the Lowry methods indicated that refractometry, when used with due caution in a typical laboratory situation, provided a simple, fast, inexpensive and valid method for determining the protein content of plasma from young chickens.

  14. Effects of Soy-Germ Protein on Catalase Activity of Plasma and Erythocyte of Metabolic Syndrome Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hery Winarsi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative stress always accompany patients with metabolic syndrome (MS. Several researchers reported that soy-protein is able to decrease oxidative stress level. However, there is no report so far about soy-germ protein in relation to its potential to the decrease oxidative stress level of MS patients. The aim of this study was to explore the potential of soy-germ protein on activity of catalase enzyme in blood’s plasma as well as erythrocytes of MS patients. Double-blind randomized clinical trial was used as an experimental study. Thirty respondents were included in this study with MS, normal level blood sugar, low-HDL cholesterol but high in triglyceride, 40-65 years old, Body Mass Index > 25 kg/m2, live in Purwokerto and agreed to sign the informed consent. They were randomly grouped into 3 different groups, 10 each: Group I, was given special milk that contains soy-germ protein and Zn; Group II, soy-germ protein, while Group III was placebo; for two consecutive months. Data were taken from blood samples in 3 different periods i.e. 0, 1, and 2 months after treatment. Two months after treatment, there was an increase from 5.36 to 20.17 IU/mg (P = 0.028 in activity of catalase enzyme in blood’s plasma respondents who consumed milk containing soy-germ protein with or without Zn. A similar trend of catalase activity, but at a lower level, was also noticed in erythrocyte; which increased from 88.31 to 201.11 IU/mg (P = 0.013. The increase in activity of catalase enzyme in blood’s plasma was 2.2 times higher than that in erythrocytes.

  15. [THE POSSIBILITIES OF APPLICATION OF TECHNOLOGY PROTEIN MICROARRAY (MICROCHIPS) FOR ANALYSIS OF PROTEIN COMPOSITION OF BLOOD SERUM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumanova, N G; Klimushina, M V; Metelskaya, V A; Boitsov, S A

    2015-10-01

    The microchip technology represents convenient and relatively economic tool of analyzing specific biomarkers with the purpose to diagnose diseases, to evaluate effectiveness of therapy and to investigate signaling pathways. To analyze protein composition of blood serum certain types of finished microchips which were not applied previously on the territory of Russia. The detection from 2% to 5% out of matrix of chips depending on their variety was managed without preliminary depletion of serum (removal of proteins of major fractions). Hence, partial protein composition of blood serum can be analyzed with microchips even without preliminary removal of proteins of major fractions.

  16. Red blood cell engineering in stroma and serum/plasma-free conditions and long term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun Ok; Baek, Eun Jung

    2012-01-01

    In vitro generation of artificial red blood cells (RBCs) is very important to overcome insufficient and unsafe blood supply. Despite recent progresses in RBCs engineering from several stem cell sources, none of them could succeed in generation of functional RBCs in the absence of serum/plasma and feeder cells. Without the elimination of serum and plasma, human RBC engineering in a large scale is impossible, especially for the future bioreactor system. Using an appropriate combination of cost-effective and safe reagents, the present study demonstrated the terminal maturation of hematopoietic stem cells into enucleated RBCs, which were functional comparable to donated human RBCs. Surprisingly, the viability of erythroid cells was higher in our serum- and feeder-free culture condition than in the previous serum-added condition. This was possible by supplementation with vitamin C in media and hypothermic conditions. Also, our report firstly presents the storability of artificial RBCs, which possibility is essential for clinical application. In summary, our report demonstrates engineering of human applicable RBCs with a dramatically enhanced viability and shelf-life in both serum- and stroma-free conditions. This innovative culture technology could contribute to the realization of the large-scale pharming of human RBCs using bioreactor systems.

  17. Surface modifying of microporous PTFE capillary for bilirubin removing from human plasma and its blood compatibility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin Gu [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China)], E-mail: Gjin@ustc.edu.cn; Yao Qizhi; Zhang Shanzi [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); Zhang Lei [Department of Chemistry, University of Science and Technology of China, HeFei, 230026 (China); AnHui Entry Exit Inspection and Quarantine Bureau, HeFei, 230001 (China)

    2008-12-01

    In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was covalently immobilized onto the inner surface of microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (MPTFE) capillaries for direct bilirubin removal from human plasma. To obtain active binding sites for HSA, the MPTFE capillaries were chemically functionalized by using a coating of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) copolymers. Characterization of grafted MPTFE capillaries was verified by XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Non-specific adsorption on the PVA-GMA coated capillary remains low (< 0.38 mg bilirubin/g), and higher affinity adsorption capacity, of up to 73.6 mg bilirubin/g polymer was obtained after HSA is immobilized. Blood compatibility of the grafted MPTFE capillary was evaluated by SEM and platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments. The experimental data on blood compatibility indicated that PVA-coated and PVA-GMA-HSA coated PTFE capillary showed a sharp suppress on platelets adhesion. The proposed method has the potential of serving in bilirubin removal in clinical application.

  18. Relationship between late embryonic mortality and the increase in plasma advanced oxidised protein products (AOPP) in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, Pietro; Merlo, Mariacristina; Da Dalt, Laura; Stefani, Annalisa; Barbato, Olimpia; Gabai, Gianfranco

    2011-01-01

    The involvement of protein oxidation in embryonic mortality (EM) has been poorly investigated in cows. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP) are markers of protein oxidation generated by activated neutrophils and involved in inflammation. The aim of this work was to study AOPP in cow plasma and their relationship with late EM. The outcomes of 158 artificial inseminations (AI) were examined in 72 cows, which were classified ex post on the basis of blood progesterone and pregnancy-associated glycoprotein concentrations and clinical confirmation of pregnancy into the following categories: (1) positive (AI+, resulted in pregnancy, n=58), (2) negative (AI-, did not result in pregnancy, n=86) and (3) embryonic mortality (EM, n=14). Plasma protein fractions, malondialdehyde (MDA), total glutathione and AOPP were measured at AI (Day 0) and on Days 15, 28, 35, 45 and 60. MDA was significantly higher in EM than AI+ and AI- animals on Day 45, and than AI+ animals on Day 60 (P<0.05). Mean plasma AOPP concentrations were significantly higher in the EM group (P<0.01) and the ratio of AOPP:albumin was significantly higher in the EM group on Days 15, 28, 45 and 60 (P<0.05). Based on the temporal pattern of the AOPP:albumin ratio, we propose that oxidative stress is implicated in and may possibly be a cause of EM.

  19. Experimental studies on the surface and interfacial properties of polysiloxanes and their interaction with blood proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stuart, James Oliver

    1998-12-01

    The research in this thesis is concerned with the surface and interfacial properties of polysiloxanes and their interaction with blood proteins, particularly fibrinogen. Polysiloxane properties at the polymer/air interface were investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and contact angle measurements. Polysiloxane properties at the polymer/water interface were studied using a Langmuir film balance. Interaction with blood proteins was investigated by SIMS and by aggregation studies of polysiloxanes emulsified in the presence of various blood components, namely serum, plasma, and fibrinogen solution upon exposure to the enzyme thrombin. Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS), poly(phenylmethylsiloxane) (PPMS), and poly(trifluoropropylmethylsiloxane) (PTFPMS) homopolymers and diblock copolymers thereof were studied using SIMS and contact angle measurements. Also studied were a newly synthesized series of random copolymers of poly(methyl(methyl undecanoate)siloxane)-co-poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PMMUS). Key findings include the resolution of discrepancies in SIMS mass fragment assignments in PDMS and establishment of mass peak assignments for PPMS, PTFPMS, and PMMUS. Also, it was shown by SIMS that complete surface saturation of the siloxane components of solution casts films of PDMS/PS and PTFPMS/PS diblock copolymers and blends with PS was achieved at siloxane concentrations as low as 2.0 percent by weight. On the other hand, PPMS/PS diblock copolymers show signature peaks of both polymers at siloxane concentrations as high as 51 percent by weight. All results correspond well with contact angle measurements on the same systems. Finally, the detection of trimethylsilyl end-groups was determined through systemic variation of chain termini and polymer molecular weight. The monolayer behavior of the PMMUS copolymer series of the siloxanes containing cholesteryl ester side-groups was examined using a langmuir film balance. The isotherms of the PMMUS polymers showed

  20. Plasma Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 Level as a Predictor of the Severity of Community-Acquired Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Kok-Khun; Chang, Jer-Hwa; Chien, Ming-Hsien; Tsao, Shih-Ming; Yu, Ming-Chih; Bai, Kuan-Jen; Tsao, Thomas Chang-Yao; Yang, Shun-Fa

    2016-01-29

    Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 increases in the serum of immunocompetent patients with community-acquired pneumonia (CAP). However, the correlation between the circulating level of MCP-1 and severity of CAP remains unclear. This study investigated differential changes in the plasma MCP-1 levels of patients with CAP before and after an antibiotic treatment and further analyzes the association between the CAP severity and MCP-1 levels. We measured the plasma MCP-1 levels of 137 patients with CAP and 74 healthy controls by using a commercial enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Upon initial hospitalization, Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II); confusion, urea level, respiratory rate, blood pressure, and age of >64 years (CURB-65); and pneumonia severity index (PSI) scores were determined for assessing the CAP severity in these patients. The antibiotic treatment reduced the number of white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils as well as the level of C-reactive protein (CRP) and MCP-1. The plasma MCP-1 level, but not the CRP level or WBC count, correlated with the CAP severity according to the PSI (r = 0.509, p < 0.001), CURB-65 (r = 0.468, p < 0.001), and APACHE II (r = 0.360, p < 0.001) scores. We concluded that MCP-1 levels act in the development of CAP and are involved in the severity of CAP.

  1. Mechanism of platelet activation induced by endocannabinoids in blood and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brantl, S Annette; Khandoga, Anna L; Siess, Wolfgang

    2014-01-01

    Platelets play a central role in atherosclerosis and atherothrombosis, and circulating endocannabinoids might modulate platelet function. Previous studies concerning effects of anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamide) and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) on platelets, mainly performed on isolated cells, provided conflicting results. We therefore investigated the action of three main endocannabinoids [anandamide, 2-AG and virodhamine (arachidonoylethanolamine)] on human platelets in blood and platelet-rich plasma (PRP). 2-AG and virodhamine induced platelet aggregation in blood, and shape change, aggregation and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) secretion in PRP. The EC50 of 2-AG and virodhamine for platelet aggregation in blood was 97 and 160 µM, respectively. Lower concentrations of 2-AG (20 µM) and virodhamine (50 µM) synergistically induced aggregation with other platelet stimuli. Platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine resembled arachidonic acid (AA)-induced aggregation: shape change, the first platelet response, ATP secretion and aggregation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine were all blocked by acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) or the specific thromboxane A2 (TXA2) antagonist daltroban. In addition, platelet activation induced by 2-AG and virodhamine in blood and PRP were inhibited by JZL184, a selective inhibitor of monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL). In contrast to 2-AG and virodhamine, anandamide, a substrate of fatty acid amidohydrolase, was inactive. Synthetic cannabinoid receptor subtype 1 (CB1) and 2 (CB2) agonists lacked stimulatory as well as inhibitory platelet activity. We conclude that 2-AG and virodhamine stimulate platelets in blood and PRP by a MAGL-triggered mechanism leading to free AA and its metabolism by platelet cyclooxygenase-1/thromboxane synthase to TXA2. CB1, CB2 or non-CB1/CB2 receptors are not involved. Our results imply that ASA and MAGL inhibitors will protect platelets from activation by high endocannabinoid levels, and that

  2. Determination of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, and their major metabolites in blood or plasma by spectrophotodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stronjny, N; Bratin, K; Brooks, M A; de Silva, J A

    1977-07-01

    An analytical procedure was developed for the determination of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and their major metabolites in blood or plasma. Demoxepam, a metabolite of chlordiazepoxide, is determined by spectrofluorometry after extraction. The remaining compounds are determined by spectrophotodensitometry after thin-layer chromatographic separation. The sensitivity limit of the spectrofluorometric determination of demoxepam is 0.1 to 0.2 microgram while that of the spectrophotodensitometric determination of chlordiazepoxide, diazepam and their N-desmethyl metabolites is 0.05 to 0.2 microgram. The sensitivity and specificity of the assay renders it suitable for monitoring plasma levels of chlordiazepoxide and its major metabolites following single or chronic oral administration of chlordiazepoxide hydrochloride. The sensitivity limit for diazepam and nordiazepam, its major metabolite, renders the assay useful only for the determination of plasma concentrations resulting from high dosage of diazepam. The assay was used to determine chlordiazepoxide and its metabolites following oral administration of Librium. The data showed a significant correlation to those obtained on the same specimens by differential pulse polarography and by radioimmunoassay.

  3. Multiplexed LC-MS/MS analysis of horse plasma proteins to study doping in sport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Chris; Beck, Paul; Kay, Richard; Teale, Phil; Roberts, Jane

    2009-06-01

    The development of protein biomarkers for the indirect detection of doping in horse is a potential solution to doping threats such as gene and protein doping. A method for biomarker candidate discovery in horse plasma is presented using targeted analysis of proteotypic peptides from horse proteins. These peptides were first identified in a novel list of the abundant proteins in horse plasma. To monitor these peptides, an LC-MS/MS method using multiple reaction monitoring was developed to study the quantity of 49 proteins in horse plasma in a single run. The method was optimised and validated, and then applied to a population of race-horses to study protein variance within a population. The method was finally applied to longitudinal time courses of horse plasma collected after administration of an anabolic steroid to demonstrate utility for hypothesis-driven discovery of doping biomarker candidates.

  4. Differential effects of proteins and carbohydrates on postprandial blood pressure-related responses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teunissen-Beekman, Karianna F. M.; Dopheide, Janneke; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Brink, Elizabeth J.; de Leeuw, Peter W.; Serroyen, Jan; van Baak, Marleen A.

    2014-01-01

    Diet composition may affect blood pressure (BP), but the mechanisms are unclear. The aim of the present study was to compare postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of pea protein, milk protein and egg-white protein. In addition, postprandial BP-related responses to the ingestion of malto

  5. Study on plasma pre-functionalized PVC film grafted with TiO2/PVP to improve blood compatible and antibacterial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suganya, Arjunan; Shanmugavelayutham, Gurusamy; Serra Rodríguez, Carmen

    2017-04-01

    Research into the design of new biopolymers/polymer functionalized with nanoparticles is of tremendous interest to the medical sector, particularly with regard to blood-contacting devices. In this present study, a steady blood compatible and active antibacterial coating was fabricated by the grafting of titanium dioxide (TiO2)/polyvinylpyyrolidone (PVP) onto a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) film surface via the direct-current glow discharge plasma method. To enhance the chemical interaction between TiO2/PVP and PVC, the surfaces of the PVC films were functionalized by different plasmas (air, argon, and oxygen) before coating. In this study, the plasma parameters were varied, such as treatment time of about 5–20 min for a constant power of 100 W, potential 300 V, and a constant gas pressure of 2 Pa for air, argon, and oxygen gas environment. Then, the different plasma treatments on the PVC films, TiO2/PVP were grafted using a simple dip-coating method. In addition, the TiO2/PVP-grafted PVC films were characterized by contact angle, attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, field-emission scanning electron microscope, and x-ray photo electron spectroscopy. Importantly, TiO2/PVP is grafted onto the PVC surface due to the plasma-based retained functionality and demonstrates adhesive efficiency, which was observed by XPS. The bio-stability of the TiO2/PVP-modified PVC film was evaluated by in vitro platelet activation analysis and protein adsorption analysis. Then, the antibacterial properties were evaluated by the agar diffusion method against Escherichia coli. The result reveals that the grafting of TiO2/PVP was slightly higher for the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC, which significantly decreases the platelet adhesion and protein adsorption. Moreover, the antibacterial properties of the 15 min oxygen plasma-functionalized PVC with TiO2/PVP-grafted film is also greatly improved compared with an air- and argon

  6. Separation of proteins from human plasma by sample displacement chromatography in hydrophobic interaction mode

    OpenAIRE

    Josic, Djuro; Breen, Lucas; Clifton, James; Gajdosik, Martina Srajer; Gaso-Sokac, Dajana; Rucevic, Marijana; Müller, Egbert

    2012-01-01

    Sample displacement chromatography (SDC) in reversed-phase and ion-exchange modes was introduced approximately twenty years ago. This method was first used for the preparative purification of peptides and proteins. Recently, SDC in ion-exchange mode was also successfully used for enrichment of low abundance proteins from human plasma. In this paper, the use of SDC for the separation of plasma proteins in hydrophobic interaction mode is demonstrated. By use of two or more columns coupled in se...

  7. Comparison of the effect of homocysteine in the reduced form, its thiolactone and protein homocysteinylation on hemostatic properties of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowska, Joanna; Nowak, Paweł; Olas, Beata

    2011-03-01

    Mechanisms involved in the relationship between hyperhomocysteinemia and hemostatic process are still unclear. In the literature there are few papers describing studies on the effects of homocysteine (Hcys) on proteins that participate in blood coagulation and fibrinolysis in human. The aim of our study was to establish and compare the influence of a reduced form of Hcys (at final doses of 0.01 - 1 mM) and the most reactive form of Hcys - its cyclic thioester, homocysteine thiolactone (HTL, 0.1 - 1 μM) on the clot formation (using whole human plasma and purified fibrinogen) and the fibrin lysis. Moreover, the aim of our study was to explain the effect of plasma protein modifications (S- and N-homocysteinylation) on selected parameters of hemostasis. We observed that HTL, like its precursor, a reduced form of Hcys stimulated polymerization of fibrinogen, but this process was not dose-dependent. In the presence of HTL (at the lowest tested concentration - 0.1μM) the increase was about 55%. Our present results also demonstrated that Hcys in the reduced form (0.01 - 1 mM) and HTL at lower doses than Hcys (0.1 - 1 μM) reduced the fibrin lysis in whole human plasma. Our results reported that HTL, like the reduced form of Hcys (at concentrations corresponding to concentrations in plasma during hyperhomocysteinemia) induced modifications of hemostatic plasma proteins, and the consequence of these modifications may be alteration in protein structure associated with changes of hemostatic functions.

  8. Simple filter microchip for rapid separation of plasma and viruses from whole blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang SQ

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ShuQi Wang,1 Dusan Sarenac,1 Michael H Chen,1 Shih-Han Huang,1 Francoise F Giguel,2 Daniel R Kuritzkes,3 Utkan Demirci1,41Bio-acoustic MEMS in Medicine Laboratory, Department of Medicine, Division of Biomedical Engineering, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA; 2Infectious Diseases Unit, Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 3Section of Retroviral Therapeutics, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, USA; 4Harvard-MIT Health Sciences and Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAAbstract: Sample preparation is a significant challenge for detection and sensing technologies, since the presence of blood cells can interfere with the accuracy and reliability of virus detection at the nanoscale for point-of-care testing. To the best of our knowledge, there is not an existing on-chip virus isolation technology that does not use complex fluidic pumps. Here, we presented a lab-on-a-chip filter device to isolate plasma and viruses from unprocessed whole blood based on size exclusion without using a micropump. We demonstrated that viruses (eg, HIV can be separated on a filter-based chip (2-µm pore size from HIV-spiked whole blood at high recovery efficiencies of 89.9% ± 5.0%, 80.5% ± 4.3%, and 78.2% ± 3.8%, for viral loads of 1000, 10,000 and 100,000 copies/mL, respectively. Meanwhile, 81.7% ± 6.7% of red blood cells and 89.5% ± 2.4% of white blood cells were retained on 2 µm pore–sized filter microchips. We also tested these filter microchips with seven HIV-infected patient samples and observed recovery efficiencies ranging from 73.1% ± 8.3% to 82.5% ± 4.1%. These results are first steps towards developing disposable point-of-care diagnostics and monitoring devices for resource-constrained settings, as well as hospital and primary care settings.Keywords: microchip, filtration, virus isolation, plasma separation, point-of-care

  9. Central and peripheral blood pressures in relation to plasma advanced glycation end products in a Chinese population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Q-F; Sheng, C-S; Kang, Y-Y; Zhang, L; Wang, S; Li, F-K; Cheng, Y-B; Guo, Q-H; Li, Y; Wang, J-G

    2016-07-01

    We investigated the association of plasma AGE (advanced glycation end product) concentration with central and peripheral blood pressures and central-to-brachial blood pressure amplification in a Chinese population. The study subjects were from a newly established residential area in the suburb of Shanghai. Using the SphygmoCor system, we recorded radial arterial waveforms and derived aortic waveforms by a generalized transfer function and central systolic and pulse pressure by calibration for brachial blood pressure measured with an oscillometric device. The central-to-brachial pressure amplification was expressed as the central-to-brachial systolic blood pressure difference and pulse pressure difference and ratio. Plasma AGE concentration was measured by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method and logarithmically transformed for statistical analysis. The 1051 participants (age, 55.1±13.1 years) included 663 women. After adjustment for sex, age and other confounding factors, plasma AGE concentration was associated with central but not peripheral blood pressures and with some of the pressure amplification indexes. Indeed, each 10-fold increase in plasma AGE concentration was associated with 2.94 mm Hg (P=0.04) higher central systolic blood pressure and 2.39% lower central-to-brachial pulse pressure ratio (P=0.03). In further subgroup analyses, the association was more prominent in the presence of hypercholesterolemia (+8.11 mm Hg, P=0.008) for central systolic blood pressure and in the presence of overweight and obesity (-4.89%, P=0.009), diabetes and prediabetes (-6.26%, P=0.10) or current smoking (-6.68%, P=0.045) for central-to-brachial pulse pressure ratio. In conclusion, plasma AGE concentration is independently associated with central systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure amplification, especially in the presence of several modifiable cardiovascular risk factors.

  10. Association of plasma proteins at multiple stages of glycation and antioxidant status with erythrocyte oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tupe, R S; Diwan, A G; Mittal, V D; Narayanam, P S; Mahajan, K B

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the individual stages of plasma protein glycation, antioxidant status and their association with erythrocyte oxidative stress in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Study was carried out on blood from 70 patients with T2DM and 40 healthy age- and gender-matched volunteers. Biomarkers of plasma protein glycation (fructosamine, protein carbonyls, advanced glycation end products [AGEs], amyloid), antioxidant status (thiols, total antioxidant capacity and erythrocyte oxidative parameters), osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH) and catalase were determined. Plasma glycation markers were higher in T2DM patients than in healthy volunteers: fructosamine 578 vs. 525 micromol/mL; carbonyl 21.23 vs. 18.84 nmol/mg protein (P glycation markers, positive correlations were evident between fructosamine and amyloid (r = 0.350, P glycation markers showed negative correlation with plasma antioxidant status while positive correlation was demonstrated between erythrocytes fragility and AGEs and amyloid. Erythrocyte LPO levels correlated positively with amyloid. These data suggest that increased levels of multiple plasma protein glycation products in T2DM patients play a key role in reduced plasma antioxidant status and amplified erythrocyte oxidative damage.

  11. Exposure to fipronil elevates systolic blood pressure and disturbs related biomarkers in plasma of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaguri, Joao Leandro; Godinho, Antonio Francisco; Horta, Daniel França; Gonçalves-Rizzi, Victor Hugo; Possomato-Vieira, Jose Sergio; Nascimento, Regina Aparecida; Dias-Junior, Carlos Alan

    2016-03-01

    Recent reports show that fipronil affects non-target organisms, including environmental species populations and potentially humans. We aimed to examine if fipronil exposure affects the systolic blood pressure and related biomarkers. Thus, fipronil was orally administered to rats (30 mg/kg/day) during 15 days (Fipronil group) or physiological solution (Control group). While fipronil increased significantly the systolic blood pressure (158±13 mmHg), no significant changes were observed in Control group (127±3 mmHg). Significantly, higher levels of fipronil in plasma were observed in Fipronil group (0.46±0.09 μg/mL versus 0.17±0.11 μg/mL in Control group). Fipronil group showed lower weight gain compared with Control group. While fipronil resulted in higher concentrations of endothelin-1, reduced antioxidant capacity and lower levels of circulating matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites compared to Control group, no alteration was observed in serum biomarkers of renal and hepatic/biliary functional abilities. Therefore, this study suggests that fipronil causes hypertension and endothelin-1 plays a key role. Also, these findings suggest that reductions of both MMP-2 and NO may contribute with the elevation of systolic blood pressure observed with fipronil.

  12. Effect of chronic elevation of plasma calcium concentration by PTH or vitamin D3on blood pressure and hypotensive activity of nifedipine in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonkman, F.A.M.; Thoolen, M.J.M.C.; Wilffert, B.

    1984-01-01

    The influence of a chronically elevated total plasma calcium concentration on blood pressure and heart rate was investigated in conscious normotensive rats. The plasma calcium concentration was elevated by continuous subcutaneous infusion with parathormone (PTH) after parathyreoidectomy, and by oral

  13. Biofield-effect protein-sensor: Plasma functionalization of polyaniline, protein immobilization, and sensing mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Chae-Ryong; Lee, Hyun-Uk; Ahn, Kyun; Jeong, Se-Young; Choi, Jun-Hee; Kim, Jinwoo; Cho, Jiung

    2014-06-01

    We report the fabrication of a biofield-effect protein-sensor (BioFEP) based on atmospheric-pressure plasma (AP) treatment of a conducting polyaniline (PANI) film. Successive H2 and O2 AP (OHAP) treatment generated dominant hydrophilic -OH and O=CO- functional groups on the PANI film surface, which served as strong binding sites to immobilize bovine serum albumin (BSA) protein molecules. The output current changes of the BioFEP as a function of BSA concentration were obtained. The resistance of the OHAP surface could be sensitively increased from 2.5 × 108 Ω to 2.0 × 1012 Ω with increasing BSA concentrations in the range of 0.025-4 μg/ml. The results suggest that the method is a simple and cost-effective tool to determine the concentration of BSA by measuring electrical resistance.

  14. Plasma proteins adsorption mechanism on polyethylene-grafted poly(ethylene glycol) surface by quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jing; Jiang, Wei; Yin, Jinghua; Ji, Xiangling; Stagnaro, Paola

    2013-06-04

    Protein adsorption has a vital role in biomaterial surface science because it is directly related to the hemocompatibility of blood-contacting materials. In this study, monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG) with two different molecular weights was grafted on polyethylene as a model to elucidate the adsorption mechanisms of plasma protein through quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation (QCM-D). Combined with data from platelet adhesion, whole blood clotting time, and hemolysis rate, the blood compatibility of PE-g-mPEG film was found to have significantly improved. Two adsorption schemes were developed for real-time monitoring of protein adsorption. Results showed that the preadsorbed bovine serum albumin (BSA) on the surfaces of PE-g-mPEG films could effectively inhibit subsequent adsorption of fibrinogen (Fib). Nonspecific protein adsorption of BSA was determined by surface coverage, not by the chain length of PEG. Dense PEG brush could release more trapped water molecules to resist BSA adsorption. Moreover, the preadsorbed Fib could be gradually displaced by high-concentration BSA. However, the adsorption and displacement of Fib was determined by surface hydrophilicity.

  15. Investigation of the in vitro gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in malarial infected red blood cells and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seethorn, Nongluk; Wernsdorfer, Walther H; Noedl, Harald; Karbwang, Juntra; Na-Bangchang, Kesara

    2013-10-01

    The investigation of gender-specific partitioning of the antimalarial drug mefloquine to cellular and fluid blood compartments was performed using blood collected from a female and male healthy subject that were infected with Plasmodium falciparum PCM2 clone and spiked with mefloquine (0.25, 1, and 5 μM). Mefloquine concentrations in red cells of both female and male subjects were significantly higher than plasma, which suggests an intensive uptake by red cells. This was supported by a high ratio of mefloquine concentrations in the parasitized and non-parasitized red cells of about 4-fold. Gender-specific partitioning of mefloquine in parasitized blood was seen only in plasma where significantly higher concentrations were observed in female compared with male plasma. Down-adjusting the therapeutic dose of mefloquine in female patients with malaria is not advisable because mefloquine concentrations in the target cellular compartment are similar in both genders.

  16. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, S. P.; Tarasenko, O.; Chang, J.; Popovic, S.; Chen, C. Y.; Fan, H. W.; Scott, A.; Lahiani, M.; Alusta, P.; Drake, J. D.; Nikolic, M.

    2009-11-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  17. C-reactive protein modifies the relationship between blood pressure and microalbuminuria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stuveling, EM; Bakker, SJL; Hillege, HL; Burgerhof, JGM; de Jong, PE; Gans, ROB; de Zeeuw, D

    2004-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) and microalbuminuria reflect intimately related components of the atherosclerotic disease process. Epidemiological studies found only modest associations between CRP and microalbuminuria. Blood pressure, one of the components of the metabolic syndrome in the general populati

  18. Hypochlorite-induced damage to plasma and proteins: formation of nitrogen-centred radicals and their role in protein oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, C.L.; Davies, M.J. [Heart Research Institute, Camperdown, NSW (Australia)

    1998-12-31

    The respiratory burst of activated phagocyte cells results in the generation of hypochlorite (HOCl) via the release of the hydrogen peroxide and the enzyme myeloperoxidase. Little information is available about the mechanisms and intermediates involved in these reactions. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy with spin trapping has been employed to identify radicals formed in fresh human plasma and isolated proteins and peptides on treatment with HOCI. Reaction of plasma with HOCI in the presence of a spin trap gives broad, anisotropic radical adducts consistent with the formation of large, slowly-tumbling, protein-derived radicals. The identity of the plasma-derived radical adducts was investigated further by the incubation of the pre-formed adducts with the non-specific proteolytic enzyme pronase. This treatment gave sharper, signals consistent with the release of more mobile, low-molecular-weight spin adducts from the initial protein-derived adducts. The hyperfine couplings of these sharper signals are characteristic of the formation of nitrogen-centred radical adducts. Similar or identical species are observed on treatment with isolated human serum albumin, suggesting that this is a major site of HOCI-induced oxidation. Reaction of HOCI-treated plasma or isolated proteins/peptides with excess methionine eliminates radical formation, consistent with lysine-derived chloramines (via homolysis or heterolysis of N-CI bonds) being the radical source. The effect of HOCI on the structural integrity of the plasma proteins was investigated by SDS-PAGE. It was demonstrated that incubation of HOCI-treated plasma or proteins, after removal of excess oxidant, resulted in a time- and HOCI-dependent fragmentation of the proteins. No evidence was obtained for the presence of either discrete fragments or aggregated material. This suggests that the reaction of HOCI with plasma proteins results in the formation of a large number of random fragments. Treatment with

  19. [Mass spectrometry analysis of blood plasma lipidome as method of disease diagnostics, evuation of effectiveness and optimization of drug therapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lokhov, P G; Maslov, D L; Balashova, E E; Trifonova, O P; Medvedeva, N V; Torkhovskaya, T I; Ipatova, O M; Archakov, A I; Malyshev, P P; Kukharchuk, V V; Shestakova, E A; Shestakova, M V; Dedov, I I

    2015-01-01

    A new method for the analysis of blood lipid based on direct mass spectrometry of lipophilic low molecular weight fraction of blood plasma has been considered. Such technique allows quantification of hundreds of various types of lipids and this changes existing concepts on diagnostics of lipid disorders and related diseases. The versatility and quickness of the method significantly simplify its wide use. This method is applicable for diagnostics of atherosclerosis, diabetes, cancer and other diseases. Detalization of plasma lipid composition at the molecular level by means of mass spectrometry allows to assess the effectiveness of therapy and to optimize the drug treatment of cardiovascular diseases by phospholipid preparations.

  20. Comparison of a new blood sampling device with the vacuum tube system for plasma and hematological analyses in healthy dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Brice S; Boudet, Karine G; Faucher, Mathieu R; Geffre, Anne; Germain, Claude; Lefebvre, Hervé P

    2008-01-01

    Pediatric devices based on a capillary system may provide an alternative to vacuum tubes for canine blood sampling. The potential advantages are absence of vein collapse, limited blood volume sampled, and improved safety. The aim of this study was to compare routine plasma and hematological variables in seven healthy dogs using both techniques. Five biochemical analytes were measured, and a complete hematological examination and plasma exogenous creatinine clearance test were performed. No clinically relevant difference between the two techniques was observed for any variable or functional test assessed.

  1. Identification of the blood coagulation factor interacting sequences in staphylococcal superantigen-like protein 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Saotomo; Takii, Takemasa; Onozaki, Kikuo; Tsuji, Tsutomu; Hida, Shigeaki

    2017-03-25

    Staphylococcal superantigen-like proteins (SSLs) are a family of exoproteins of Staphylococcus aureus. We have shown that SSL10 binds to vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors and inhibits blood coagulation induced by recalcification of citrated plasma. SSL10 was revealed to bind to coagulation factors via their γ-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) domain. In this study we attempted to identify the responsible sequence of SSL10 for the interaction with coagulation factors. We prepared a series of domain swap mutants between SSL10 and its paralog SSL7 that does not interact with coagulation factors, and examined their binding activity to immobilized prothrombin using ELISA-like binding assay. The domain swap mutants that contained SSL10β1-β3 ((23)MEMKN ISALK HGKNN LRFKF RGIKI QVL(60)) bound to immobilized prothrombin, and mutants that contained SSL10β10-β12 ((174)SFYNL DLRSK LKFKY MGEVI ESKQI KDIEV NLK(207)) also retained the binding activity. On the other hand, mutants that lacked these two regions did not bind to prothrombin. These sequences, each alone, bound to prothrombin as 33 amino acid length polypeptides. These results suggest that SSL10 has two responsible sequences for the binding to prothrombin. These prothrombin-binding peptides would contribute to the development of new anticoagulants.

  2. Intake of total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to blood pressure : a meta-analysis of observational and intervention studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tielemans, S. M. A. J.; Altorf-van der Kuil, W.; Engberink, M. F.; Brink, E. J.; van Baak, M. A.; Bakker, S. J. L.; Geleijnse, J. M.

    2013-01-01

    There is growing evidence from epidemiological studies that dietary protein may beneficially influence blood pressure (BP), but findings are inconclusive. We performed a meta-analysis of 29 observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of dietary protein and types of protein in relat

  3. Depletion of abundant plasma proteins by poly(N-isopropylacrylamide-acrylic acid) hydrogel particles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Such-Sanmartín, Gerard; Ventura-Espejo, Estela; Jensen, Ole N

    2014-01-01

    at higher efficiency than low abundance proteins, which are enriched in the supernatants, whereas (2) hydrogel particles incubated with high concentrations of plasma capture and irreversibly trap abundant proteins. During the elution step, irreversibly trapped proteins remain captured while low abundance...... (SRM) liquid chromatography (LC)-MS/MS. This novel use of hydrogel particles opens new perspectives for biomarker analysis based on mass spectrometry....

  4. Fabrication of All Glass Bifurcation Microfluidic Chip for Blood Plasma Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation was fabricated by a cost-effective glass molding process using an amorphous carbon (AC mold, which in turn was fabricated by the carbonization of a replicated furan precursor. To compensate for the shrinkage during AC mold fabrication, an enlarged photoresist pattern master was designed, and an AC mold with a dimensional error of 2.9% was achieved; the dimensional error of the master pattern was 1.6%. In the glass molding process, a glass microchannel plate with negligible shape errors (~1.5% compared to AC mold was replicated. Finally, an all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip was realized by micro drilling and thermal fusion bonding processes. A separation efficiency of 74% was obtained using the fabricated all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip.

  5. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly....... There was a significant inverse relationship between superficial nephron ED(NaCl) and PRC. We conclude that ED(Na) decreases during osmotic diuresis, suggesting that the increase in PRC was mediated by the macula densa. The results suggest that the natriuresis during osmotic diuresis is a result of impaired sodium...

  6. Tb(Ⅲ) Speciation in Human Blood Plasma by Computer Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-phase model was developed and Tb(Ⅲ) speciation in human blood plasma was studied. At a concentration below 3.744×10-4mol/L (or at the concentration), Tb(Ⅲ) is mostly bound to phosphate to form precipitate of TbPO4. As the concentration of Tb(Ⅲ) increases,phosphate is exceeded and another kind of precipitate of Tb2(CO3)3 appears. Among soluble Tb(Ⅲ) species, Tb(Ⅲ) mainly distribute in [Tb (Tf)] at low concentration and in [Tb (HSA)], [Tb2(Tf], [Tb (IgG)], [Tb (Lactate)]2+, [Tb (CitArgH)] and free Tb(Ⅲ) at high concentration.

  7. Rapid assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by spectrophotometry with cloud-point extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarina, Tatyana; Proskurnin, Mikhail

    2015-01-01

    Rapid photometric assessment of iron in blood plasma and serum by a simple procedure after the extraction of iron(II) complex with 1-nitroso-2-naphthol in the micellar phase of a nonionic surfactant at the cloud point upon heating (pH range is 4.5-6.3) is proposed. The procedure trueness was verified using a standard reference protocol using bathophenanthroline. The advantages of the procedure are higher sensitivity than the reference protocol: the limit of detection is 0.03 μg/mL, the limit of quantitation is 0.1 μg/mL, the determination range is 0.1 - 2.8 μg/mL (RSD 0.02-0.10). Copper does not interfere with the iron assessment.

  8. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heuck, Claus-Chr.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyacrylate (PAA adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw of the polyanion ligand. Ca++ and Mg++ inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density.

  9. Polyacrylate adsorbents for the selective adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins from plasma or blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heuck, Claus-Chr

    2011-01-24

    Polyacrylate (PAA) adsorbents selectively bind low density lipoproteins (LDL) from human plasma and blood, whereas very low density lipoproteins (VLDL) are only minimally adsorbed. The adsorption of cholesterol-rich lipoproteins to PAA adsorbents is related to the molecular weight (mw) of the polyanion ligand. Ca(++) and Mg(++) inhibit the binding of LDL to PAA adsorbents. The chemical composition of the organic hardgels of the adsorbents does not have an influence on adsorption. The selective adsorption of LDL to PAA adsorbents can be explained to result from their low negative surface charge density and the specific colloid-chemical properties of the surface-bound PAA, which do not prevent LDL from binding to charge-like domains of the ligand. By contrast, VLDL and high density lipoproteins (HDL) are repelled from the adsorbents due to their higher negative surface charge density.

  10. Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) and preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalousová, Marta; Muravská, Alexandra; Zima, Tomás

    2014-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) is a key regulator of insulin-like growth factor bioavailability essential for normal fetal development. In maternal blood, this protein increases with gestational age and then rapidly decreases after delivery. It is routinely used for Down syndrome screening in the first trimester of pregnancy, and its decrease compared to a normal pregnancy indicates an increased risk for both chromosomal anomalies and adverse pregnancy outcomes. It belongs to a group of biomarkers that predict later preeclampsia development, primarily early onset preeclampsia; however, it should be combined with a Doppler ultrasonography of the uterine artery (pulsatile index) and other biochemical and maternal factors to achieve a higher detection rate with an acceptable false positivity rate. Some studies have demonstrated an even more pronounced decrease of PAPP-A in the early second trimester of pregnancy in women who subsequently develop preeclampsia compared with women who do not develop preeclampsia. Conversely, during the last trimester of pregnancy, its concentration increases even more in patients with preeclampsia than in patients without. It is also detectable at very low levels in nonpregnant individuals, and a higher concentration indicates an adverse effect in patients with acute coronary syndromes or stable atherosclerotic disease and in patients with end-stage renal disease who are being treated with hemodialysis.

  11. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben;

    2010-01-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein and the mesen......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...... and the mesenteric artery and a flow probe around the portal vein to allow assessment of nutrient absorption using Fick's principle. In Exp. 1, six sows (mean LW = 202 ± 28 kg) were fed three diets containing 517, 216 or 225 g/kg DM of starch, respectively. In Exp. 2, six female pigs (mean LW = 59 ± 2 kg) were fed...... three different diets with similar contents of starch (470-506 g/kg DM). The diets in both studies differed regarding amount and solubility of fibre. Blood samples were collected repeatedly 0-10 h after morning feeding. Glucose was measured in whole blood using a glucometer (Accu-Chek®) and in plasma...

  12. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  13. A method for the determination of carbon 13 content in glucose and glycerol of blood plasma; Methode pour la determination de la teneur en carbone 13 du glucose et du glycerol dans les plasmas sanguins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koziet, J. [Centre de Recherche Pernod-Ricard, 94 - Creteil (France)

    1994-12-31

    The coupled gaseous chromatography and isotope ratio mass spectrometry approach was first validated on beet and maize glucose and glycerol aqueous solutions containing variable carbon 13 content. Then human plasma was used to prepare samples where glucose and glycerol were labelled with small amounts of (1.3-{sup 13}C{sub 2})-glycerol and D-(U{sup 13}-C{sub 6})-glucose. The samples are then de-proteinized with acetone before lyophilization and acetylation in order to be able to measure them in the form of acetates. Carbon 13 content evaluation should then take into account the exogenous carbons from the acetyl radicals. This method appears well adapted to the simultaneous metabolic monitoring of glycerol and glucose in the blood plasma. 1 fig., 3 tabs., 5 refs.

  14. Monitoring the native phosphorylation state of plasma membrane proteins from a single mouse cerebellum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, J.; Ye, J. Y.; Jensen, Ole Nørregaard

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal processing in the cerebellum involves the phosphorylation and dephosphorylation of various plasma membrane proteins such as AMPA or NMDA receptors. Despite the importance of changes in phosphorylation pattern, no global phospho-proteome analysis has yet been performed. As plasma membrane...

  15. Detection of boar sperm plasma membrane protein using Rhodamine 640; implications for cryobiology and physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodamine 640 (R640) was used to detect changes in boar sperm plasma membrane protein (PMP) during cryopreservation; a poorly understood phenomenon. The protocol was adapted for boar sperm so that semen samples (n = 17) could be analyzed for PMP (R640 positive) and plasma membrane integrity (PMI; Y...

  16. Purification of Pregnancy-associated Plasma Protein-A and Preparation of Its Antibodies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG; Bin-yan; LI; Zi-ying; YUAN; Zhi-gang; ZHANG; Xue-feng; LIU; Yi-bing

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A(PAPP-A)is isolated from the plasma of pregnant women.It is producted by the syntrophoblast tissue of the placenta and decidual cells.PAPP-A belongs to macromolecular glycoprotein.As a sensitive serum marker,the decreased PAPP-A levels during the first

  17. One-step isolation of plasma membrane proteins using magnetic beads with immobilized concanavalin A

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lee, Yu-Chen; Block, Gregory; Chen, Huiwen;

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a simple method for isolating and purifying plasma membrane proteins from various cell types. This one-step affinity-chromatography method uses the property of the lectin concanavalin A (ConA) and the technique of magnetic bead separation to obtain highly purified plasma membran...

  18. Mixed matrix membrane adsorbers for protein and blood purification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saiful,

    2007-01-01

    Biotechnology and bio-manufacturing markets are continuously growing, generating new sources of many valuable healthcare and life science products including therapeutic proteins and polysaccharides, monoclonals, vaccines, diagnostics, pharmaceutical chemicals and enzymes. These bioproducts have to b

  19. Proteomic profiling of human plasma exosomes identifies PPARgamma as an exosome-associated protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Looze, Christopher; Yui, David; Leung, Lester; Ingham, Matthew; Kaler, Maryann; Yao, Xianglan; Wu, Wells W; Shen, Rong-Fong; Daniels, Mathew P; Levine, Stewart J

    2009-01-16

    Exosomes are nanovesicles that are released from cells as a mechanism of cell-free intercellular communication. Only a limited number of proteins have been identified from the plasma exosome proteome. Here, we developed a multi-step fractionation scheme incorporating gel exclusion chromatography, rate zonal centrifugation through continuous sucrose gradients, and high-speed centrifugation to purify exosomes from human plasma. Exosome-associated proteins were separated by SDS-PAGE and 66 proteins were identified by LC-MS/MS, which included both cellular and extracellular proteins. Furthermore, we identified and characterized peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma), a nuclear receptor that regulates adipocyte differentiation and proliferation, as well as immune and inflammatory cell functions, as a novel component of plasma-derived exosomes. Given the important role of exosomes as intercellular messengers, the discovery of PPARgamma as a component of human plasma exosomes identifies a potential new pathway for the paracrine transfer of nuclear receptors.

  20. Automation of plasma protein binding assay using rapid equilibrium dialysis device and Tecan workstation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Zhengqi; Zetterberg, Craig; Gao, Hong

    2017-03-14

    Binding of drug molecules to plasma proteins is an important parameter in assessing drug ADME properties. Plasma protein binding (PPB) assays are routinely performed during drug discovery and development. A fully automated PPB assay was developed using rapid equilibrium dialysis (RED) device and Tecan workstation coupled to an automated incubator. The PPB assay was carried out in unsealed RED plates which allowed the assay to be fully automated. The plasma pH was maintained at 7.4 during the 6-h dialysis under 2% CO2 condition. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The percent bound results of 10 commercial drugs in plasma protein binding were very similar between the automated and manual assays, and were comparable to literature values. The automated assay increases laboratory productivity and is applicable to high-throughput screening of drug protein binding in drug discovery.

  1. Designed Proteins as Optimized Oxygen Carriers for Artificial Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    transport throughout the body. In year two, we developed a new model for oxyferrous state lifetimes, including an equation which predicts an O2...chain four helix bundle. Table 1 demonstrates that the addition of the optimized binding site to both ligating helices of the full chain more than... triples the lifetime. Table 1. Oxyferrous lifetime for single chain proteins with the optimal binding site Protein ligation Rair(s-1) Kd,O2 (mM) kox

  2. Growth, testis size, spermatogenesis, semen parameters and seminal plasma and sperm membrane protein profile during the reproductive development of male goats supplemented with de-oiled castor cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, C H A; Silva, A M; Silva, L M; van Tilburg, M F; Fernandes, C C L; Velho, A L M C; Moura, A A; Moreno, F B M B; Monteiro-Moreira, A C O; Moreira, R A; Lima, I M T; Rondina, D

    2015-06-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of de-oiled castor cake on reproductive traits of crossbreed goats. Fourteen males were grouped into two lots (n = 7/group), as described: group without de-oiled castor cake (WCC) and group fed with de-oiled castor cake (CC). Goats received two diets containing a mixture of Bermudagrass hay and concentrates with the same energy (73% total digestive nutrients) and protein content (15% crude protein) during 150 days, corresponding to ages from 40 (puberty) to 60 weeks. Blood plasma concentrations of urea, albumin, lactate dehydrogenase, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase and testosterone were determined. We also evaluated scrotal circumference, sperm parameters, quantitative aspects of spermatogenesis and daily sperm production (DSP), as well as the proteome of seminal plasma and sperm membrane. Seminal fluid and sperm proteins were analyzed by 2D SDS-PAGE and mass spectrometry. After 150 days of castor cake feeding, animals had no changes in the biochemical composition of blood plasma, suggesting the absence of intoxication by ingestion of ricin. There were no alterations in dry mater intake, weight gain, testis size, peripheral concentrations of testosterone, sperm concentration, motility and morphology. Sertoli and germ cell populations in the testis and DSP were not affected either. However, there were significant variations in the expression of five seminal plasma proteins and four sperm membrane proteins. In conclusion, the replacement of soybean meal by castor cake (with ricin concentrations of 50mg/kg) did not interfere with the growth and core reproductive development of male goats. However, the diet with ricin altered the expression of certain seminal plasma and sperm membrane proteins, which play roles in sperm function and fertilization. Lower expression of these proteins may impair the ricin-fed animals to perform as high-fertility sires.

  3. Chemical composition and biological value of spray dried porcine blood by-products and bone protein hydrolysate for young chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamroz, D; Wiliczkiewicz, A; Orda, J; Skorupińska, J; Słupczyńska, M; Kuryszko, J

    2011-10-01

    The chemical composition of spray dried porcine blood by-products is characterised by wide variation in crude protein contents. In spray dried porcine blood plasma (SDBP) it varied between 670-780 g/kg, in spray dried blood cells (SDBC) between 830-930 g/kg, and in bone protein hydrolysate (BPH) in a range of 740-780 g/kg. Compared with fish meal, these feeds are poor in Met and Lys. Moreover, in BPH deep deficits of Met, Cys, Thr and other amino acids were found. The experiment comprised 7 dietary treatments: SDBP, SDBC, and BPH, each at an inclusion rate of 20 or 40 g/kg diet, plus a control. The addition of 20 or 40 g/kg of the analysed meals into feeds for very young chickens (1-28 d post hatch) significantly decreased the body weight (BW) of birds. Only the treatments with 40 g/kg of SDBP and SDBC showed no significant difference in BW as compared with the control. There were no significant differences between treatments and type of meal for feed intake, haematocrit and haemoglobin concentrations in blood. Addition of bone protein and blood cell meals to feed decreased the IgG concentration in blood and caused shortening of the femur and tibia bones. However, changes in the mineral composition of bones were not significantly affected by the type of meal used. The blood by-products, which are rich in microelements, improved retention of Ca and Cu only. In comparison to control chickens, significantly better accretion of these minerals was found in treatments containing 20 g/kg of SDBP or 40 g/kg of SDBC. Great variability in apparent ileal amino acid digestibility in chickens was determined. In this respect, some significant differences related to the type of meal fed were confirmed for Asp, Pro, Val, Tyr and His. In general, the apparent ileal digestibility of amino acids was about 2-3 percentage units better in chickens fed on diets containing the animal by products than in control birds.

  4. Simultaneous determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in whole blood and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A; Flachs, H

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in human whole blood and plasma. The procedure involved extraction of the compounds and the internal standard...

  5. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  6. Effects of oral N-acetylcysteine on plasma homocysteine and whole blood glutathione levels in healthy, non-pregnant women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roes, Eva Maria; Raijmakers, Maarten T M; Peters, Wilbert H M; Steegers, Eric A P

    2002-05-01

    Oral N-acetylcysteine supplementation in nine young healthy females induced a quick and highly significant decrease in plasma homocysteine levels and an increase in whole blood concentration of the antioxidant glutathione. N-acetylcysteine impresses as an efficient drug in lowering homocysteine concentration and might be beneficial for individuals with hyperhomocysteinemia who are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. [Classification of results of studying blood plasma with laser correlation spectroscopy based on semiotics of preclinical and clinical states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Musiĭchuk, Iu I; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    The usage of laser correlation spectroscopy for verification of preclinical and clinical states is substantiated. Developed "semiotic" classifier for solving the problems of preclinical and clinical states is presented. The substantiation of biological algorithms as well as the mathematical support and software for the proposed classifier for the data of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma are presented.

  8. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed t

  9. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  10. Age-Dependent Variation in Hormonal Concentration and Biochemical Constituents in Blood Plasma of Indian Native Fowl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avishek Biswas

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was to investigate the age-related changes in hormonal concentration and biochemical constituents of blood plasma in Indian native desi fowl. One hundred and sixty two (54 from each breed, i.e., Kadaknath (KN, Aseel peela (AP, and White leghorn (WLH day-old female chicks were randomly divided into nine groups each of 18 chicks (3 groups × 3 replicates. WLH was taken in this study to compare the characteristics of Indian native desi fowl. The highest level of estrogen hormone in WLH and desi fowl in blood plasma was occurred at 18 and 24 wks of age, respectively. Whereas, the peak of progesterone hormone in WLH hens noticed around 24 wks, in case of desi fowls, it was at 30 wks of age. Irrespective of the breed, the hormonal profile of Triiodothyronine (T3 and Thyroxine (T4 in blood plasma was found highest around 6 to 12 wks of age. Activities of acid phosphatase (ACP increased with the reduction of alkaline phosphate (ALP activities at different time intervals. Irrespective of the breed, transaminases (glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT and glutamic pyruvic transaminase (GPT activities of blood plasma increased linearly with the advancement of the age. From this study, it may be concluded that sexual maturity of the Indian native desi fowl occurred nearly 6 wk later (24 wk than WLH.

  11. Study on Blood Coagulant/Fibrinolytic Activity at Plasma andMonocytic Levels in Coronary Heart Disease Patients withBlood-Stasis Syndrome of Traditional Chinese Medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To explore and compare the changes of coagulant/fibrinolytic activity in coronary heart disease (CHD) patients with Blood Stasis Syndrome of TCM and evaluate the roles of these changes. Methods: Eighty patients of CHD were divided into two groups by Syndrome Differentiation of TCM, the Blood-Stasis (BS) group (30 cases) and the non-Blood-Stasis (NBS) group (50 cases, including 27 cases of Phlegm-Dampness Syndrome and 23 cases of Qi-Stagnation Syndrome); and 20 healthy persons were enrolled as normal control group. Tissue type plasminogen activator (t-PA) and its inhibitor (PAI-1) in plasma and in human peripheral blood monocyte cell (PBMC), as well as the procoagulant activity (PCA) in PBMC were measured by chromogenic substrate method. Results: The plasma PAI-1 activity and PCA of PBMC in the BS group were significantly higher than those in the NBS group and the normal control group (P<0.01). PAI-1 activity of PBMC in the two groups of CHD patients was higher than those in the normal control group significantly (P<0.01), but no significant difference was found between the BS group and the NBS group (P>0.05). The difference of plasma t-PA activity between the two groups of CHD was insignificant. The PBMC t-PA activity in the BS group was lower than that in the NBS and normal control groups (P<0.01). Conclusion: In the CHD patients with BS, the PBMC PCA was increased and the fibrinolytic activity at both plasma and monocyte levels lowered significantly, these changes in coagulant/fibrinolytic activity may be the important pathologic factors in forming BS which suggests that CHD patients with BS were in the prothrombotic state.

  12. In vitro Stability of Heat Shock Protein 27 in Serum and Plasma Under Different Pre-analytical Conditions: Implications for Large-Scale Clinical Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Matthias; Traxler, Denise; Simader, Elisabeth; Bekos, Christine; Dieplinger, Benjamin; Lainscak, Mitja; Ankersmit, Hendrik Jan; Mueller, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    The effects of storage temperatures, repeated freeze-thaw cycles, or delays in separating plasma or serum from blood samples are largely unknown for heat shock protein 27 (HSP27). We evaluated (1) the imprecision of the HSP27 assay used in this study; (2) the in vitro stability of HSP27 in blood samples stored at 4°C for up to 6 hr with immediate and delayed serum/plasma separation from cells; and (3) the in vitro stability of HSP27 in blood samples stored at -80°C after repeated freeze-thaw cycles. The ELISA to detect HSP27 in this study showed a within-run CV of studies.

  13. Monoaminylation of Fibrinogen and Glia-Derived Proteins: Indication for Similar Mechanisms in Posttranslational Protein Modification in Blood and Brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummerich, René; Costina, Victor; Findeisen, Peter; Schloss, Patrick

    2015-07-15

    Distinct proteins have been demonstrated to be posttranslationally modified by covalent transamidation of serotonin (5-hydropxytryptamin) to glutamine residues of the target proteins. This process is mediated by transglutaminase (TGase) and has been termed "serotonylation." It has also been shown that other biogenic amines, including the neurotransmitters dopamine and norepinephrine, can substitute for serotonin, implying a more general mechanism of "monoaminylation" for this kind of protein modification. Here we transamidated the autofluorescent monoamine monodansylcadaverine (MDC) to purified plasma fibrinogen and to proteins from a primary glia cell culture. Electrophoretic separation of MDC-conjugated proteins followed by mass spectrometry identified three fibrinogen subunits (Aα, Bβ, γ), a homomeric Aα2 dimer, and adducts of >250 kDa molecular weight, as well as several glial proteins. TGase-mediated MDC incorporation was strongly reduced by serotonin, underlining the general mechanism of monoaminylation.

  14. Hepatitis G Viral RNA Co-infection in Plasma and Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells in Patients with Hepatitis C

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI; Shuli; ZENG; Linglan; LUO; Duande; LIU; Wei; GUO; Jingsong; YANG; Xiaoming

    2001-01-01

    The incidence of the co-infection of hepatitis G virus (HGV) and hepatitis C virus(HCV) and its clinical implication was investigated and the difference in the positive rate of HGV RNA and HCV RNA between plasma and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) observed. By using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay, HCV-RNA and HGV-RNA in plasma and PBMCs of 72 patients with hepatitis C was detected. It was showed that HGV RNA was positive in plasma of 11 patients, in PBMCs of 15 patients, and simultaneously in both of plasma and PBMCs of 10 patients with the co-infection rate being 22.2 %. Nine patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in plasma, 11 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in PBMC, and 6 patients were both HGV RNA and HCV RNA positive in both plasma and PBMC with the positive rate being 12.4 %, 15.3 % and 8.3 % respectively. The positive rate of both HGV RNA and HCV RNA in PBMCs was higher than in plasma. It was concluded that the HGV co-infection rate in the patients with hepatitis C was 22. 2 %. Simultaneous examination of plasma and PBMC can improve clinically detectable rate.

  15. Body Position Modulates Gastric Emptying and Affects the Post-Prandial Rise in Plasma Amino Acid Concentrations Following Protein Ingestion in Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew M. Holwerda

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dietary protein digestion and amino acid absorption kinetics determine the post-prandial muscle protein synthetic response. Body position may affect gastrointestinal function and modulate the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid availability. We aimed to assess the impact of body position on gastric emptying rate and the post-prandial rise in plasma amino acid concentrations following ingestion of a single, meal-like amount of protein. In a randomized, cross-over design, eight healthy males (25 ± 2 years, 23.9 ± 0.8 kg·m−2 ingested 22 g protein and 1.5 g paracetamol (acetaminophen in an upright seated position (control and in a −20° head-down tilted position (inversion. Blood samples were collected during a 240-min post-prandial period and analyzed for paracetamol and plasma amino acid concentrations to assess gastric emptying rate and post-prandial amino acid availability, respectively. Peak plasma leucine concentrations were lower in the inversion compared with the control treatment (177 ± 15 vs. 236 ± 15 mmol·L−1, p < 0.05, which was accompanied by a lower plasma essential amino acid (EAA response over 240 min (31,956 ± 6441 vs. 50,351 ± 4015 AU; p < 0.05. Peak plasma paracetamol concentrations were lower in the inversion vs. control treatment (5.8 ± 1.1 vs. 10.0 ± 0.6 mg·L−1, p < 0.05. Gastric emptying rate and post-prandial plasma amino acid availability are significantly decreased after protein ingestion in a head-down tilted position. Therefore, upright body positioning should be considered when aiming to augment post-prandial muscle protein accretion in both health and disease.

  16. Isolation of Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis from Blood Cultures by Plasma Purification and Immunomagnetic Separation Accelerates Antibiotic Susceptibility Determination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aloni-Grinstein, Ronit; Schuster, Ofir; Yitzhaki, Shmuel; Aftalion, Moshe; Maoz, Sharon; Steinberger-Levy, Ida; Ber, Raphael

    2017-01-01

    The early symptoms of tularemia and plague, which are caused by Francisella tularensis and Yersinia pestis infection, respectively, are common to other illnesses, resulting in a low index of suspicion among clinicians. Moreover, because these diseases can be treated only with antibiotics, rapid isolation of the bacteria and antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) are preferable. Blood cultures of patients may serve as a source for bacteria isolation. However, due to the slow growth rates of F. tularensis and Y. pestis on solid media, isolation by plating blood culture samples on proper agar plates may require several days. Thus, improving the isolation procedure prior to antibiotic susceptibility determination is a major clinically relevant need. In this study, we developed a rapid, selective procedure for the isolation of F. tularensis and Y. pestis from blood cultures. We examined drop-plating and plasma purification followed by immunomagnetic separation (IMS) as alternative isolation methods. We determined that replacing the classical isolation method with drop-plating is advantageous with respect to time at the expense of specificity. Hence, we also examined isolation by IMS. Sub-localization of F. tularensis within blood cultures of infected mice has revealed that the majority of the bacteria are located within the extracellular fraction, in the plasma. Y. pestis also resides within the plasma. Therefore, the plasma fraction was isolated from blood cultures and subjected to an IMS procedure using polyclonal anti-F. tularensis live vaccine strain (LVS) or anti-Y. pestis antibodies conjugated to 50-nm nano-beads. The time required to reach an inoculum of sufficient bacteria for AST was shortest when using the plasma and IMSs for both bacteria, saving up to 2 days of incubation for F. tularensis and 1 day for Y. pestis. Our isolation procedure provides a proof of concept for the clinical relevance of rapid isolation for AST from F. tularensis- and Y. pestis

  17. Involvement of activated leukocytes in the regulation of plasma levels of acute phase proteins in microgravity simulation experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larina, Olga; Bekker, Anna; Turin-Kuzmin, Alexey

    2016-07-01

    Earth-based studies of microgravity effects showed the induction of the mechanisms of acute phase reaction (APR). APR comprises the transition of stress-sensitive protein kinases of macrophages and other responsive cells into the active state and the phosphorylation of transcription factors which in turn stimulate the production of acute-phase reaction cytokines. Leukocyte activation is accompanied by the acceleration of the formation of oxygen radicals which can serve a functional indice of leukocyte cell state. The series of events at acute phase response result in selective changes in the synthesis of a number of secretory blood proteins (acute phase proteins, APPs) in liver cells thus contributing the recovery of homeostasis state in the organism. Earlier experiment with head-down tilt showed the increase in plasma concentrations of two cytokine mediators of acute phase response, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) being the outcome of the activation of producer cells, foremost, leukocytes. In experiment with 4-day dry immersion chemiluminescent (ChL) reply of the whole blood samples to a test stimulus were studied along with the measurements of plasma levels of APPs, namely, alpha1-antitrypsin (alpha1-AT), alpha1-acid glycoprotein (alpha1-AGP), alpha2-macroglobulin (alpha2-M), ceruloplasmin (Cer), haptoglobin (Hp), C3-complement component (C3), C-reactive protein (CRP). Eight individuals aged 21.2 ± 3.2 years were the test subjects in the investigation. Protein studies showed a noticeable increase in the mean plasma levels of all APPs measured in experiment thus producing the evidence of the activation of acute phase response mechanisms while individual patterns revealed variability during the immersion period. The overall trends were similar to these in the previous immersion series. The augment in the strength of signal in stimulated light emission tests was higher after 1- and 2-day of immersion exposure than before the

  18. Nanoparticle size matters in the formation of plasma protein coronas on Fe3O4 nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Zhengyan; Zhang, Hongyan; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Ren'an; Zou, Hanfa

    2014-09-01

    When nanoparticles (NPs) enter into biological systems, proteins would interact with NPs to form the protein corona that can critically impact the biological identity of the nanomaterial. Owing to their fundamental scientific interest and potential applications, Fe3O4 NPs of different sizes have been developed for applications in cell separation and protein separation and as contrast agents in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), etc. Here, we investigated whether nanoparticle size affects the formation of protein coronas around Fe3O4 NPs. Both the identification and quantification results demonstrated that particle size does play an important role in the formation of plasma protein coronas on Fe3O4 NPs; it not only influenced the protein composition of the formed plasma protein corona but also affected the abundances of the plasma proteins within the coronas. Understanding the different binding profiles of human plasma proteins on Fe3O4 NPs of different sizes would facilitate the exploration of the bio-distributions and biological fates of Fe3O4 NPs in biological systems.

  19. The role of cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein in the remodeling of plasma high-density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagrost, L

    1997-08-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that alterations in the size distribution of high-density lipoproteins (HDLs) constitute reliable markers for the risk of coronary artery disease. These observations suggested that the determination of the size distribution of HDL subpopulations by using polyacrylamide gradient gel electrophoresis might constitute an effective tool in clinical practice for the detection of patients with elevated risk. During the last decade, concordant observations revealed that all the HDL subpopulations are metabolically interrelated, and their relative abundances are dependent on the activity of several plasma factors, among them the cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and the phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP). As reviewed in the present article, although both CETP and PLTP can promote the size redistribution or conversion of HDL, the two plasma lipid transfer proteins can alter differently the plasma HDL distribution profile through distinct mechanisms. (Trends Cardiovasc Med 1997;7:218-224). © 1997, Elsevier Science Inc.

  20. Studies of single-walled carbon nanotubes-induced hepatotoxicity by NMR-based metabonomics of rat blood plasma and liver extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bencheng; Zhang, Huashan; Lin, Zhiqing; Fang, Yanjun; Tian, Lei; Yang, Honglian; Yan, Jun; Liu, Huanliang; Zhang, Wei; Xi, Zhuge

    2013-05-01

    The toxicological effects of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) were investigated after intratracheal instillation in male Wistar rats over a 15-day period using metabonomic analysis of 1H (nuclear magnetic resonance) NMR spectra of blood plasma and liver tissue extracts. Concurrent liver histopathology examinations and plasma clinical chemistry analyses were also performed. Significant changes were observed in clinical chemistry features, including alkaline phosphatase, total protein, and total cholesterol, and in liver pathology, suggesting that SWCNTs clearly have hepatotoxicity in the rat. 1H NMR spectra and pattern recognition analyses from nanomaterial-treated rats showed remarkable differences in the excretion of lactate, trimethylamine oxide, bilineurin, phosphocholine, amylaceum, and glycogen. Indications of amino acid metabolism impairment were supported by increased lactate concentrations and decreased alanine concentrations in plasma. The rise in plasma and liver tissue extract concentrations of choline and phosphocholine, together with decreased lipids and lipoproteins, after SWCNTs treatment indicated a disruption of membrane fluidity caused by lipid peroxidation. Energy, amino acid, and fat metabolism appeared to be affected by SWCNTs exposure. Clinical chemistry and metabonomic approaches clearly indicated liver injury, which might have been associated with an indirect mechanism involving nanomaterial-induced oxidative stress.

  1. Albumin modulates S1P delivery from red blood cells in perfused microvessels: mechanism of the protein effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, R H; Clark, J F; Radeva, M; Kheirolomoom, A; Ferrara, K W; Curry, F E

    2014-04-01

    Removal of plasma proteins from perfusates increases vascular permeability. The common interpretation of the action of albumin is that it forms part of the permeability barrier by electrostatic binding to the endothelial glycocalyx. We tested the alternate hypothesis that removal of perfusate albumin in rat venular microvessels decreased the availability of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is normally carried in plasma bound to albumin and lipoproteins and is required to maintain stable baseline endothelial barriers (Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 303: H825-H834, 2012). Red blood cells (RBCs) are a primary source of S1P in the normal circulation. We compared apparent albumin permeability coefficients [solute permeability (Ps)] measured using perfusates containing albumin (10 mg/ml, control) and conditioned by 20-min exposure to rat RBCs with Ps when test perfusates were in RBC-conditioned protein-free Ringer solution. The control perfusate S1P concentration (439 ± 46 nM) was near the normal plasma value at 37 °C and established a stable baseline Ps (0.9 ± 0.4 × 10(-6) cm/s). Ringer solution perfusate contained 52 ± 8 nM S1P and increased Ps more than 10-fold (16.1 ± 3.9 × 10(-6) cm/s). Consistent with albumin-dependent transport of S1P from RBCs, S1P concentrations in RBC-conditioned solutions decreased as albumin concentration, hematocrit, and temperature decreased. Protein-free Ringer solution perfusates that used liposomes instead of RBCs as flow markers failed to maintain normal permeability, reproducing the "albumin effect" in these mammalian microvessels. We conclude that the albumin effect depends on the action of albumin to facilitate the release and transport of S1P from RBCs that normally provide a significant amount of S1P to the endothelium.

  2. Blood profiling of proteins and steroids during weight maintenance with manipulation of dietary protein level and glycaemic index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Ping; Holst, Claus; Astrup, Arne

    2012-01-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is common. In the Diogenes dietary intervention study, a high-protein and low-glycaemic index (GI) diet improved weight maintenance. The objective of the present study was to identify (1) blood profiles associated with continued weight loss and weight regain (2) bl...... differences between continued weight losers and weight regainers. Increases in leptin (LEP) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were significantly associated with weight regain (P ...

  3. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... was positively associated with serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) and blood glucose and inversely with very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) and triglyceride. Association with low-density lipoprotein (LDL), diastolic and systolic blood pressure, waist-hip ratio and body mass index were inconsistent...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...

  4. Phenylketonuria : High plasma phenylalanine decreases cerebral protein synthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeksma, Marieke; Reijngoud, Dirk-Jan; Pruim, Jan; de Valk, Harold W.; Paans, Anne M. J.; van Spronsen, Francjan J.

    2009-01-01

    Left untreated, phenylketonuria biochemically results in high phenylalanine concentrations in blood and tissues, and clinically especially in severe mental retardation. Treatment consists of severe dietary restriction of phenylalanine with more or less normal intellectual outcome as result when star

  5. Direct protein introduction into plant cells using a multi-gas plasma jet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanagawa, Yuki; Kawano, Hiroaki; Kobayashi, Tomohiro; Miyahara, Hidekazu; Okino, Akitoshi; Mitsuhara, Ichiro

    2017-01-01

    Protein introduction into cells is more difficult in plants than in mammalian cells, although it was reported that protein introduction was successful in shoot apical meristem and leaves only together with a cell-penetrating peptide. In this study, we tried to introduce superfolder green fluorescent protein (sGFP)-fused to adenylate cyclase as a reporter protein without a cell-penetrating peptide into the cells of tobacco leaves by treatment with atmospheric non-thermal plasmas. For this purpose, CO2 or N2 plasma was generated using a multi-gas plasma jet. Confocal microscopy indicated that sGFP signals were observed inside of leaf cells after treatment with CO2 or N2 plasma without substantial damage. In addition, the amount of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formed by the catalytic enzyme adenylate cyclase, which requires cellular calmodulin for its activity, was significantly increased in leaves treated with CO2 or N2 plasma, also indicating the introduction of sGFP-fused adenylate cyclase into the cells. These results suggested that treatment with CO2 or N2 plasma could be a useful technique for protein introduction into plant tissues.

  6. Baseline Plasma C-Reactive Protein Concentrations and Motor Prognosis in Parkinson Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi Umemura

    Full Text Available C-reactive protein (CRP, a blood inflammatory biomarker, is associated with the development of Alzheimer disease. In animal models of Parkinson disease (PD, systemic inflammatory stimuli can promote neuroinflammation and accelerate dopaminergic neurodegeneration. However, the association between long-term systemic inflammations and neurodegeneration has not been assessed in PD patients.To investigate the longitudinal effects of baseline CRP concentrations on motor prognosis in PD.Retrospective analysis of 375 patients (mean age, 69.3 years; mean PD duration, 6.6 years. Plasma concentrations of high-sensitivity CRP were measured in the absence of infections, and the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale Part III (UPDRS-III scores were measured at five follow-up intervals (Days 1-90, 91-270, 271-450, 451-630, and 631-900.Change of UPDRS-III scores from baseline to each of the five follow-up periods.Change in UPDRS-III scores was significantly greater in PD patients with CRP concentrations ≥0.7 mg/L than in those with CRP concentrations <0.7 mg/L, as determined by a generalized estimation equation model (P = 0.021 for the entire follow-up period and by a generalized regression model (P = 0.030 for the last follow-up interval (Days 631-900. The regression coefficients of baseline CRP for the two periods were 1.41 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.21-2.61 and 2.62 (95% CI 0.25-4.98, respectively, after adjusting for sex, age, baseline UPDRS-III score, dementia, and incremental L-dopa equivalent dose.Baseline plasma CRP levels were associated with motor deterioration and predicted motor prognosis in patients with PD. These associations were independent of sex, age, PD severity, dementia, and anti-Parkinsonian agents, suggesting that subclinical systemic inflammations could accelerate neurodegeneration in PD.

  7. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces endothelial dysfunctions in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Belchior, Aucelia C S; Angeli, Jhuli K; Faria, Thaís de O; Siman, Fabiana D M; Silveira, Edna A; Meira, Eduardo F; da Costa, Carlos P; Vassallo, Dalton V; Padilha, Alessandra S

    2012-01-01

    Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery) and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery) from control (fed with Labina®) and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10(-10)-3.10(-4) M) was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10(-4) M) incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM) reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001-300 µg) and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10(-10)-10(-3) M) were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model.

  8. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces endothelial dysfunctions in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aucelia C S de Belchior

    Full Text Available Malnutrition during critical periods in early life may increase the subsequent risk of hypertension and metabolic diseases in adulthood, but the underlying mechanisms are still unclear. We aimed to evaluate the effects of post-weaning protein malnutrition on blood pressure and vascular reactivity in aortic rings (conductance artery and isolated-perfused tail arteries (resistance artery from control (fed with Labina® and post-weaning protein malnutrition rats (offspring that received a diet with low protein content for three months. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure and heart rate increased in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. In the aortic rings, reactivity to phenylephrine (10(-10-3.10(-4 M was similar in both groups. Endothelium removal or L-NAME (10(-4 M incubation increased the response to phenylephrine, but the L-NAME effect was greater in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. The protein expression of the endothelial nitric oxide isoform increased in the aortic rings from the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. Incubation with apocynin (0.3 mM reduced the response to phenylephrine in both groups, but this effect was higher in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, suggesting an increase of superoxide anion release. In the tail artery of the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats, the vascular reactivity to phenylephrine (0.001-300 µg and the relaxation to acetylcholine (10(-10-10(-3 M were increased. Post-weaning protein malnutrition increases blood pressure and induces vascular dysfunction. Although the vascular reactivity in the aortic rings did not change, an increase in superoxide anion and nitric oxide was observed in the post-weaning protein malnutrition rats. However, in the resistance arteries, the increased vascular reactivity may be a potential mechanism underlying the increased blood pressure observed in this model.

  9. A biotin enrichment strategy identifies novel carbonylated amino acids in proteins from human plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Havelund, Jesper F.; Wojdyla, Katarzyna; Davies, Michael J.

    2017-01-01

    Protein carbonylation is an irreversible protein oxidation correlated with oxidative stress, various diseases and ageing. Here we describe a peptide-centric approach for identification and characterisation of up to 14 different types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins. The modified residues...... in vitro metal ion-catalysed oxidation. Furthermore, we assigned 133 carbonylated sites in 36 proteins in native human plasma protein samples. The optimised workflow enabled detection of 10 hitherto undetected types of carbonylated amino acids in proteins: aldehyde and ketone modifications of leucine...

  10. COMPARING ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND VITAMIN C VALUES BETWEEN UMBILICAL CORD AND MATERNAL BLOOD PLASMA AND THOSE IN NEWBORNS WITH HYPOXIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bazmamoun MD

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveOxygen intoxication plays an important role in the pathogenesis of some fetal diseases such as encephalopathy, ischemia& hypoxia. Antioxidants can reduce oxidative damage in newborns. The object of this research was measuring total value of antioxidant and vitamin C in blood sample of pregnant women before delivery, and also in umbilical cord blood of their newborn, and repeating these measurements 48 hours after birth in newborns with hypoxia and controlling group.Materials & MethodsThe sample included 32 healthy pregnant women presented for delivery & also their newborns. The total values of antioxidant & vitamin C in plasma were measured by staining methods.ResultsThere was no statistical meaningful difference in total values of antioxidants & vitamin C in women's blood & their newborn's cord blood. Also totalvalues of antioxidant & vitamin C meaningfully increased in newborns with hypoxia after 48 hours.Conclusiontotal values of antioxidant & vitamin C in blood plasma of newborn, increase in oxidative damage as a defense mechanism.Key words:Antioxidants , Ascorbic Acid , Hypoxia , Umbilical cord blood.

  11. A method for studies on interactions between a gold-based drug and plasma proteins based on capillary electrophoresis with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Tam T T N; Østergaard, Jesper; Gammelgaard, Bente

    2015-01-01

    An analytical method based on capillary electrophoresis (CE) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) detection was developed for studies on the interaction of gold-containing drugs and plasma proteins using auranofin as example. A detection limit of 18 ng/mL of auranofin...... was the major auranofin-interacting protein in plasma. The CE-ICP-MS method is proposed as a novel approach for kinetic studies of the interactions between gold-based drugs and plasma proteins. Graphical Abstract Development of a CE-ICP-MS based method allows for studies on interaction of the gold containing...

  12. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  13. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-02-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels.

  14. Isolation and characterization of gelatin-binding proteins from goat seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazure Claude

    2003-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract A family of proteins designated BSP-A1, BSP-A2, BSP-A3 and BSP-30 kDa (collectively called BSP proteins for Bovine Seminal Plasma proteins constitute the major protein fraction in the bull seminal plasma. These proteins interact with choline phospholipids on the sperm surface and play a role in the membrane stabilization (decapacitation and destabilization (capacitation process. Homologous proteins have been isolated from boar and stallion seminal plasma. In the current study we report the isolation and preliminary characterization of homologous proteins from goat seminal plasma. Frozen semen (-80°C was thawed and centrifuged to remove sperm. The proteins in the supernatant were precipitated by the addition of cold ethanol. The precipitates were dissolved in ammonium bicarbonate and lyophilised. The lyophilised proteins were dissolved in phosphate buffer and loaded onto a gelatin-agarose column, which was previously equilibrated with the same buffer. The column was successively washed with phosphate buffer, with phosphate buffer saline and with 0.5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline to remove unadsorbed proteins, and the adsorbed proteins were eluted with 5 M urea in phosphate buffer saline. Analysis of pooled, dialysed and lyophilised gelatin-agarose adsorbed protein fraction by SDS-PAGE indicated the presence of four protein bands that were designated GSP-14 kDa, GSP-15 kDa, GSP-20 kDa and GSP-22 kDa (GSP, Goat Seminal Plasma proteins. Heparin-affinity chromatography was then used for the separation of GSP-20 and -22 kDa from GSP-14 and -15 kDa. Finally, HPLC separation permitted further isolation of each one from the other. Amino acid sequence analysis of these proteins indicated that they are homologous to BSP proteins. In addition, these BSP homologs bind to hen's egg-yolk low-density lipoproteins. These results together with our previous data indicate that BSP family proteins are ubiquitous in mammalian seminal plasma, exist in

  15. Interaction between a plasma membrane-localized ankyrin-repeat protein ITN1 and a nuclear protein RTV1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakamoto, Hikaru [Department of Bioproduction, Faculty of Bioindustry, Tokyo University of Agriculture, 196 Yasaka, Abashiri-shi, Hokkaido 093-2422 (Japan); Sakata, Keiko; Kusumi, Kensuke [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Kojima, Mikiko; Sakakibara, Hitoshi [RIKEN Plant Science Center, 1-7-22 Suehiro-cho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama 230-0045 (Japan); Iba, Koh, E-mail: koibascb@kyushu-u.org [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan)

    2012-06-29

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ITN1, a plasma membrane ankyrin protein, interacts with a nuclear DNA-binding protein RTV1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nuclear transport of RTV1 is partially inhibited by interaction with ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RTV1 can promote the nuclear localization of ITN1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Both overexpression of RTV1 and the lack of ITN1 increase salicylic acids sensitivity in plants. -- Abstract: The increased tolerance to NaCl 1 (ITN1) protein is a plasma membrane (PM)-localized protein involved in responses to NaCl stress in Arabidopsis. The predicted structure of ITN1 is composed of multiple transmembrane regions and an ankyrin-repeat domain that is known to mediate protein-protein interactions. To elucidate the molecular functions of ITN1, we searched for interacting partners using a yeast two-hybrid assay, and a nuclear-localized DNA-binding protein, RTV1, was identified as a candidate. Bimolecular fluorescence complementation analysis revealed that RTV1 interacted with ITN1 at the PM and nuclei in vivo. RTV1 tagged with red fluorescent protein localized to nuclei and ITN1 tagged with green fluorescent protein localized to PM; however, both proteins localized to both nuclei and the PM when co-expressed. These findings suggest that RTV1 and ITN1 regulate the subcellular localization of each other.

  16. Detection of Intracellular Factor VIII Protein in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells by Flow Cytometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gouri Shankar Pandey

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Flow cytometry is widely used in cancer research for diagnosis, detection of minimal residual disease, as well as immune monitoring and profiling following immunotherapy. Detection of specific host proteins for diagnosis predominantly uses quantitative PCR and western blotting assays. In this study, we optimized a flow cytometry-based detection assay for Factor VIII protein in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs. An indirect intracellular staining (ICS method was standardized using monoclonal antibodies to different domains of human Factor VIII protein. The FVIII protein expression level was estimated by calculating the mean and median fluorescence intensities (MFI values for each monoclonal antibody. ICS staining of transiently transfected cell lines supported the method's specificity. Intracellular FVIII protein expression was also detected by the monoclonal antibodies used in the study in PBMCs of five blood donors. In summary, our data suggest that intracellular FVIII detection in PBMCs of hemophilia A patients can be a rapid and reliable method to detect intracellular FVIII levels.

  17. Changes in red blood cell osmotic fragility induced by total plasma and plasma fractions obtained from rats bearing progressive and regressive variants of the Walker 256 tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cavalcanti T.C.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Two variants (A and B of the widely employed Walker 256 rat tumor cells are known. When inoculated sc, the A variant produces solid, invasive, highly metastasizing tumors that cause severe systemic effects and death. We have obtained a regressive variant (AR whose sc growth is slower, resulting in 70-80% regression followed by development of immunity against A and AR variants. Simultaneously with the beginning of tumor regression, a temporary anemia developed (~8 days duration, accompanied by marked splenomegaly (~300% and changes in red blood cell osmotic fragility, with mean corpuscular fragility increasing from 4.1 to 6.5 g/l NaCl. The possibility was raised that plasma factors associated with the immune response induced these changes. In the present study, we identify and compare the osmotic fragility increasing activity of plasma fractions obtained from A and AR tumor bearers at different stages of tumor development. The results showed that by day 4 compounds precipitating in 60% (NH42SO4 and able to increase red blood cell osmotic fragility appeared in the plasma of A and AR tumor bearers. Later, these compounds disappeared from the plasma of A tumor bearers but slightly increased in the plasma of AR tumor bearers. Furthermore, by day 10, compounds precipitating between 60 and 80% (NH42SO4 and with similar effects appeared only in plasma of AR tumor bearers. The salt solubility, production kinetics and hemolytic activity of these compounds resemble those of the immunoglobulins. This, together with their preferential increase in rats bearing the AR variant, suggest their association with an immune response against this tumor.

  18. Aptamer-based surface plasmon resonance sensing of glycated human blood proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reaver, Nathan G. F.; Zheng, Rui; Kim, Dong-Shik; Cameron, Brent D.

    2013-02-01

    The concentration ratio of glycated to non-glycated forms of various blood proteins can be used as a diagnostic measure in diabetes to determine a history of glycemic compliance. Depending on a protein's half-life in blood, compliance can be assessed from a few days to several months in the past, which can then be used to provide additional therapeutic guidance. Current glycated protein detection methods are limited in their ability to measure multiple proteins, and are susceptible to interference from other blood pathologies. In this study, we developed and characterized DNA aptamers for use in Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) sensors to assess the blood protein hemoglobin. The aptamers were developed by way of a modified Systematic Evolution of Ligands by Exponential Enrichment (SELEX) process which selects DNA sequences that have a high binding affinity to a specific protein. DNA products resulting from this process are sequenced and identified aptamers are then synthesized. The SELEX process was performed to produce aptamers for a glycated form of hemoglobin. Equilibrium dissociation constants for the binding of the identified aptamer to glycated hemoglobin, hemoglobin, and fibrinogen were calculated from fitted Langmuir isotherms obtained through SPR. These constants were determined to be 94 nM, 147 nM, and 244 nM respectively. This aptamer can potentially be used to create a SPR aptamer based biosensor for detection of glycated hemoglobin, a technology that has the potential to deliver low-cost and immediate glycemic compliance assessment in either a clinical or home setting.

  19. Possible Differences in the Effects of Trypanosoma cruzi on Blood Cells and Serum Protein of Two Wildlife Reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Hernández, Fernando; López-Díaz, Osvaldo; Bello-Bedoy, Rafael; Villalobos, Guiehdani; Muñoz-García, Claudia I; Alejandre-Aguilar, Ricardo; Córdoba-Aguilar, Alex; Gutiérrez-Cabrera, Ana E; Suzán, Gerardo; Villanueva-García, Claudia; Gama-Campillo, Lilia M; Díaz-Negrete, Mariela T; Rendón-Franco, Emilio

    2016-11-01

    A key step in the dynamics of vector-borne diseases is the role of seasonality. Trypanosoma cruzi is a protozoan that causes Chagas disease. Some wild mammals are considered natural hosts, yet not all mammals show the same response to infection. We explored the effect of T. cruzi on blood parameters in two mammal carnivores, coati (Nasua narica) and raccoon (Procyon lotor), that were naturally infected in summer and winter seasons. The study was carried out in the Zoological Park "Parque Museo de la Venta," in Southeastern Mexico. Blood samples were collected in summer and winter from 2010 to 2013. Parasite infection was assessed by PCR from whole blood, and a complete hemogram was determined by traditional manual methods. We found that both species had the same T. cruzi I lineage. For coatis, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and monocytes were dependent of season, while eosinophils and plasma proteins were significantly different, but with no season effect. For raccoon, erythrocytes, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, and monocytes were dependent of season. These results and a previous study that indicated interspecific differences in parasitemia in both species suggest that raccoon is a better reservoir than coati. Such a different interspecific response implies that animals do not contribute equally to maintain T. cruzi parasites in the ecosystem. Such inequality differs according to season.

  20. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is associated with differential effects on plasma cholesteryl ester transfer protein and phospholipid transfer protein activities and concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dullaart, RPF; De Vries, R; Scheek, L; Borggreve, SE; Van Gent, T; Dallinga-Thie, GM; Ito, M; Nagano, M; Sluiter, WJ; Hattori, H; Van Tol, A

    2004-01-01

    Background: Human plasma contains two lipid transfer proteins, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) and phospholipid transfer protein (PLTP), which are crucial in reverse cholesterol transport. Methods: Plasma CETP and PLTP activity levels and concentrations in 16 type 2 diabetic patients and 1

  1. Differential protein expression in seminal plasma from fertile and infertile males

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadavid J, Angela P.; Alvarez, Angela; Markert, Udo R.; Maya, Walter Cardona

    2014-01-01

    AIM: The aim of this study was to analyze human seminal plasma proteins in association with male fertility status using the proteomic mass spectrometry technology Surface-Enhanced Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight (SELDI-TOF-MS). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Semen analysis was performed using conventional methods. Protein profiles of the seminal plasma were obtained by SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry over a strong anion exchanger, ProteinChip® Q10 array. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: We found statistically significant differences in motility and sperm count between fertile and infertile men. In addition, we observed ten seminal proteins that are significantly up-regulated in the infertile group. In conclusion, comparison of seminal plasma proteome in fertile and infertile men provides new aspects in the physiology of male fertility and might help in identifying novel markers of male infertility. PMID:25395747

  2. CORRELATION OF PLASMA FIBRINOGEN WITH BLOOD PRESSURE, BMI, LIPID PROFILE AND GLYCEMIC STATUS IN TYPE II D M

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    Suresh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the most common metabolic disorder all over the world3.The incidence of diabetes is showing an alarming rise in developing countries, particularly in India. Type 2 diabetes is the most prevalent form in India and constitutes more than 95% of the cases.9 During the past decade, the potential role of haemostatic factors particularly fibrinogen in various disorders and their complication has gained considerable interest. Plasma fibrinogen is a important marker in type 2 Diabetes, but its correlation with smoking, age, sex, hypertension, obesity, family history lipids, has not been evaluated in large studies. In view of paucity of data from Indian studies, we attempt to correlate plasma fibrinogen with blood pressure, BMI, lipid profile and glycemic status in type 2 diabetes mellitus. METHODS: A total of 100, known and newly detected type-2 diabetic patients with and without associated hypertension of more than 40 years of age belonging to both sexes were included. All these patients were registered cases in Basaveshwar Teaching & General Hospital, Gulbarga as outpatients and in-patients. Type-2 diabetic patients associated with myocardial infarction, stroke, chronic inflammatory diseases, tuberculosis, malignancy, secondary hypertension and pregnancy were excluded from this study. After a detailed clinical examination, the following investigations were done: For diabetes mellitus: Random blood sugar, fasting blood sugar, post-prandial blood sugar and glycosylated haemoglobin (ERBA Kit. Renal profile: Blood urea and serum creatinine. Serum lipids: Cholesterol, triglyceride (TG, high density lipoprotein (HDL and low density lipoprotein (LDL by commercially available kits (ERBA Kit. Routine urine examination: Sugar and albumin. Estimation of plasma fibrinogen: The plasma fibrinogen was estimated by thrombin-clotting method by using FIBROQUANT KIT [Tulip Diagnostics (P Ltd.]. OBJECTIVES: To know the fibrinogen levels in patients

  3. Enhanced neutralization potency of botulinum neurotoxin antibodies using a red blood cell-targeting fusion protein.

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    Sharad P Adekar

    Full Text Available Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT potently inhibits cholinergic signaling at the neuromuscular junction. The ideal countermeasures for BoNT exposure are monoclonal antibodies or BoNT antisera, which form BoNT-containing immune complexes that are rapidly cleared from the general circulation. Clearance of opsonized toxins may involve complement receptor-mediated immunoadherence to red blood cells (RBC in primates or to platelets in rodents. Methods of enhancing immunoadherence of BoNT-specific antibodies may increase their potency in vivo. We designed a novel fusion protein (FP to link biotinylated molecules to glycophorin A (GPA on the RBC surface. The FP consists of an scFv specific for murine GPA fused to streptavidin. FP:mAb:BoNT complexes bound specifically to the RBC surface in vitro. In a mouse model of BoNT neutralization, the FP increased the potency of single and double antibody combinations in BoNT neutralization. A combination of two antibodies with the FP gave complete neutralization of 5,000 LD50 BoNT in mice. Neutralization in vivo was dependent on biotinylation of both antibodies and correlated with a reduction of plasma BoNT levels. In a post-exposure model of intoxication, FP:mAb complexes gave complete protection from a lethal BoNT/A1 dose when administered within 2 hours of toxin exposure. In a pre-exposure prophylaxis model, mice were fully protected for 72 hours following administration of the FP:mAb complex. These results demonstrate that RBC-targeted immunoadherence through the FP is a potent enhancer of BoNT neutralization by antibodies in vivo.

  4. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios.

  5. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...... may affect the normal physiology of the animals....

  6. Low-dose plasmid DNA treatment increases plasma vasopressin and regulates blood pressure in experimental endotoxemia

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    Malardo Thiago

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although plasmid DNA encoding an antigen from pathogens or tumor cells has been widely studied as vaccine, the use of plasmid vector (without insert as therapeutic agent requires further investigation. Results Here, we showed that plasmid DNA (pcDNA3 at low doses inhibits the production of IL-6 and TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide (LPS-stimulated macrophage cell line J774. These findings led us to evaluate whether plasmid DNA could act as an anti-inflammatory agent in a Wistar rat endotoxemia model. Rats injected simultaneously with 1.5 mg/kg of LPS and 10 or 20 μg of plasmid DNA had a remarkable attenuation of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP drop at 2 hours after treatment when compared with rats injected with LPS only. The beneficial effect of the plasmid DNA on MAP was associated with decreased expression of IL-6 in liver and increased concentration of plasma vasopressin (AVP, a known vasoconstrictor that has been investigated in hemorrhagic shock management. No difference was observed in relation to nitric oxide (NO production. Conclusion Our results demonstrate for the first time that plasmid DNA vector at low doses presents anti-inflammatory property and constitutes a novel approach with therapeutic potential in inflammatory diseases.

  7. Isolation of Exosomes from Blood Plasma: Qualitative and Quantitative Comparison of Ultracentrifugation and Size Exclusion Chromatography Methods.

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    Tamás Baranyai

    Full Text Available Exosomes are emerging targets for biomedical research. However, suitable methods for the isolation of blood plasma-derived exosomes without impurities have not yet been described.Therefore, we investigated the efficiency and purity of exosomes isolated with potentially suitable methods; differential ultracentrifugation (UC and size exclusion chromatography (SEC.Exosomes were isolated from rat and human blood plasma by various UC and SEC conditions. Efficiency was investigated at serial UC of the supernatant, while in case of SEC by comparing the content of exosomal markers of various fractions. Purity was assessed based on the presence of albumin. We found that the diameter of the majority of isolated particles fell into the size range of exosomes, however, albumin was also present in the preparations, when 1h UC at 4°C was applied. Furthermore, with this method only a minor fraction of total exosomes could be isolated from blood as deduced from the constant amount of exosomal markers CD63 and TSG101 detected after serial UC of rat blood plasma samples. By using UC for longer time or with shorter sedimentation distance at 4°C, or UC performed at 37°C, exosomal yield increased, but albumin impurity was still observed in the isolates, as assessed by transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering and immunoblotting against CD63, TSG101 and albumin. Efficiency and purity were not different in case of using further diluted samples. By using SEC with different columns, we have found that although a minor fraction of exosomes can be isolated without significant albumin content on Sepharose CL-4B or Sephacryl S-400 columns, but not on Sepharose 2B columns, the majority of exosomes co-eluted with albumin.Here we show that it is feasible to isolate exosomes from blood plasma by SEC without significant albumin contamination albeit with low vesicle yield.

  8. Suspension model for blood flow through a catheterized arterial stenosis with peripheral layer of plasma free from cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponalagusamy, R.

    2016-06-01

    The present article describes the blood flow in a catheterized artery with radially symmetric and axially asymmetric stenosis. To understand the effects of red cell concentration, plasma layer thickness and catheter size simultaneously, blood is considered by a two-layered model comprising a core region of suspension of all the erythrocytes (particles) supposed to be a particle-fluid mixture and a peripheral zone of cell-free plasma. The analytical expressions for flow features, such as fluid phase and particle phase velocities, flow rate, wall shear stress and resistive force are obtained. It is witnessed that the presence of the catheter causes a substantial increase in the frictional forces on the walls of arterial stenosis and catheter, shear stress and flow resistance, in addition to that, have occurred due to the presence of red cells concentration (volume fraction density of the particles) and the absence of peripheral plasma layer near the wall of the stenosed artery. The introduction of an axially asymmetric nature of stenosis and plasma layer thickness causes significant reduction in flow resistance. One can notice that the two-phase fluid (suspension model) is more profound to the thickness of peripheral plasma layer and catheter than the single-phase fluid.

  9. Extraction methods of red blood cell membrane proteins for Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT) analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Palma, Antonella; Roveri, Antonella; Zaccarin, Mattia; Benazzi, Louise; Daminelli, Simone; Pantano, Giorgia; Buttarello, Mauro; Ursini, Fulvio; Gion, Massimo; Mauri, Pier Luigi

    2010-08-13

    Since red blood cells (RBCs) lack nuclei and organelles, cell membrane is their main load-bearing component and, according to a dynamic interaction with the cytoskeleton compartment, plays a pivotal role in their functioning. Even if erythrocyte membranes are available in large quantities, the low abundance and the hydrophobic nature of cell membrane proteins complicate their purification and detection by conventional 2D gel-based proteomic approaches. So, in order to increase the efficiency of RBC membrane proteome identification, here we took advantage of a simple and reproducible membrane sub-fractionation method coupled to Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT). In addition, the adoption of a stringent RBC filtration strategy from the whole blood, permitted to remove exhaustively contaminants, such as platelets and white blood cells, and to identify a total of 275 proteins in the three RBC membrane fractions collected and analysed. Finally, by means of software for the elaboration of the great quantity of data obtained and programs for statistical analysis and protein classification, it was possible to determine the validity of the entire system workflow and to assign the proper sub-cellular localization and function for the greatest number of the identified proteins.

  10. Direct Capture of Functional Proteins from Mammalian Plasma Membranes into Nanodiscs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Jahnabi; Pondenis, Holly; Fan, Timothy M; Das, Aditi

    2015-10-20

    Mammalian plasma membrane proteins make up the largest class of drug targets yet are difficult to study in a cell free system because of their intransigent nature. Herein, we perform direct encapsulation of plasma membrane proteins derived from mammalian cells into a functional nanodisc library. Peptide fingerprinting was used to analyze the proteome of the incorporated proteins in nanodiscs and to further demonstrate that the lipid composition of the nanodiscs directly affects the class of protein that is incorporated. Furthermore, the functionality of the incorporated membrane proteome was evaluated by measuring the activity of membrane proteins: Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase and receptor tyrosine kinases. This work is the first report of the successful establishment and characterization of a cell free functional library of mammalian membrane proteins into nanodiscs.

  11. Proteomic Profiling of Nonenzymatically Glycated Proteins in Human Plasma and Erythrocyte Membrane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Qibin; Tang, Ning; Schepmoes, Athena A.; Phillips, Lawrence S.; Smith, Richard D.; Metz, Thomas O.

    2008-05-01

    Non-enzymatic glycation of peptides and proteins by D-glucose has important implications in the pathogenesis of diabetes mellitus, particularly in the development of diabetic complications. In this report, a thorough proteomic profiling of glycated proteins was attempted by using phenylboronate affinity chromatography to enrich glycated proteins and glycated, tryptic peptides from human plasma and erythrocyte membranes. Enriched peptides were subsequently analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled with electron transfer dissociation tandem mass spectrometry, and 76 and 31 proteins were confidently identified as glycated from human plasma and erythrocyte membrane, respectively. It was observed that most of the glycated proteins can be identified in samples from individuals with normal glucose tolerance, although samples from individuals with impaired glucose tolerance and type 2 diabetes mellitus have slightly higher numbers of glycated proteins and more glycation sites identified.

  12. RNAi-mediated downregulation of poplar plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) changes plasma membrane proteome composition and affects leaf physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhen; Merl-Pham, Juliane; Uehlein, Norbert; Zimmer, Ina; Mühlhans, Stefanie; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel Karl; Kaldenhoff, Ralf; Palme, Klaus; Schnitzler, Jörg-Peter; Block, Katja

    2015-10-14

    Plasma membrane intrinsic proteins (PIPs) are one subfamily of aquaporins that mediate the transmembrane transport of water. To reveal their function in poplar, we generated transgenic poplar plants in which the translation of PIP genes was downregulated by RNA interference investigated these plants with a comprehensive leaf plasma membrane proteome and physiome analysis. First, inhibition of PIP synthesis strongly altered the leaf plasma membrane protein composition. Strikingly, several signaling components and transporters involved in the regulation of stomatal movement were differentially regulated in transgenic poplars. Furthermore, hormonal crosstalk related to abscisic acid, auxin and brassinosteroids was altered, in addition to cell wall biosynthesis/cutinization, the organization of cellular structures and membrane trafficking. A physiological analysis confirmed the proteomic results. The leaves had wider opened stomata and higher net CO2 assimilation and transpiration rates as well as greater mesophyll conductance for CO2 (gm) and leaf hydraulic conductance (Kleaf). Based on these results, we conclude that PIP proteins not only play essential roles in whole leaf water and CO2 flux but have important roles in the regulation of stomatal movement.

  13. New functional assays to selectively quantify the activated protein C- and tissue factor pathway inhibitor-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshaikh, N A; Rosing, J; Thomassen, M C L G D; Castoldi, E; Simioni, P; Hackeng, T M

    2017-02-17

    Essentials Protein S is a cofactor of activated protein C (APC) and tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI). There are no assays to quantify separate APC and TFPI cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. We developed assays to measure the APC- and TFPI-cofactor activities of protein S in plasma. The assays were sensitive to protein S deficiency, and not affected by the Factor V Leiden mutation.

  14. Virus host protein interaction network analysis reveals that the HEV ORF3 protein may interrupt the blood coagulation process.

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    Yansheng Geng

    Full Text Available Hepatitis E virus (HEV is endemic worldwide and a major cause of acute liver disease in developing countries. However, the molecular mechanisms of liver pathology and clinical disease are not well understood for HEV infection. Open reading frame 3 (ORF3 of HEV encodes a small phosphoprotein, which is assumed to be involved in liver pathology and clinical disease. In this study, the interactions between the HEV ORF3 protein and human proteins were investigated using a stringent, high-throughput yeast two-hybrid (Y2H analysis. Thirty two proteins were shown to interact with genotype 1 ORF3, 28 of which have not been reported previously. These novel interactions were evaluated by coimmunoprecipitation of protein complexes from transfected cells. We found also that the ORF3 proteins of genotype 4 and rabbit HEV interacted with all of the human proteins identified by the genotype 1 ORF3 protein. However, the putative ORF3 protein derived from avian HEV did not interact with the majority of these human proteins. The identified proteins were used to infer an overall interaction map linking the ORF3 protein with components of the host cellular networks. Analysis of this interaction map, based on functional annotation with the Gene Ontology features and KEGG pathways, revealed an enrichment of host proteins involved in complement coagulation, cellular iron ion homeostasis and oxidative stress. Additional canonical pathway analysis highlighted the enriched biological pathways relevant to blood coagulation and hemostasis. Consideration of the clinical manifestations of hepatitis E reported previously and the results of biological analysis from this study suggests that the ORF3 protein is likely to lead to an imbalance of coagulation and fibrinolysis by interacting with host proteins and triggering the corresponding pathological processes. These results suggest critical approaches to further study of the pathogenesis of the HEV ORF3 protein.

  15. A rapid and simple assay for growth hormone-binding protein activity in human plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, G; Shaw, M A; Amburn, K

    1988-12-01

    The newly discovered circulating growth hormone binding proteins dictate a re-evaluation of the state of GH in plasma in health and disease as the binding proteins are known to affect GH metabolism and action. We describe a rapid and simple GH-binding assay that allows determination of free and complexed plasma GH, as well as GH-binding protein activity as an index of GH-binding protein levels, with relative ease. The method is based on incubation of plasma with 125I-GH and separation of bound from free GH on small DEAE-cellulose columns; it can be used on a large scale for routine determinations. The results obtained by this method are comparable to those obtained with the previously used slow and more cumbersome gel filtration technique. Initial data obtained in normal subjects and certain disease states show that the bound fraction of plasma GH is similar in men, women and children, is unaffected by pregnancy or acute infection, but is marginally decreased in liver cirrhosis. In acromegaly, binding protein activity also appears normal when allowance is made for partial saturation of the binding proteins by the high prevailing GH levels. The technique we describe should facilitate investigations of normal and abnormal regulation of the GH binding proteins.

  16. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

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    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=