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Sample records for blood plasma magnesium

  1. The reference range of serum, plasma and erythrocyte magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzanna Immanuel

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available The interest in the clinical importance of serum magnesium level has just recently begun with the analysis and findings of abnormal magnesium level in cardiovascular, metabolic and neuromuscular disorder. Although the serum level does not reflect the body magnesium level, but currently, only serum magnesium determination is widely used. Erythrocyte magnesium is considered more sensitive than serum magnesium as it reflects intracellular magnesium status. According to NCCLS (National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards every laboratory is recommended to have its own reference range for the tests it performs, including magnesium determination. The reference range obtained is appropriate for the population and affected by the method and technique. This study aimed to find the reference range of serum and plasma magnesium and also intracellular magnesium i.e. erythrocyte magnesium by direct method, and compare the results of serum and plasma magnesium. Blood was taken from 114-blood donor from Unit Transfusi Darah Daerah (UTDD Budhyarto Palang Merah Indonesia (PMI DKI Jakarta, consisted of 57 male and 57 female, aged 17 – 65 years, clinically healthy according to PMI donor criteria. Blood was taken from blood set, collected into 4 ml vacuum tube without anticoagulant for serum magnesium determination and 3 ml vacuum tube with lithium heparin for determination of erythrocyte and plasma magnesium Determination of magnesium level was performed with clinical chemistry auto analyzer Hitachi 912 by Xylidil Blue method colorimetrically. This study showed no significant difference between serum and heparinized plasma extra cellular magnesium. The reference range for serum or plasma magnesium was 1.30 – 2.00 mEq/L and for erythrocyte magnesium was 4.46 - 7.10 mEq/L. (Med J Indones 2006; 15:229-35Keywords: Reference range, extracellular magnesium, intracellular magnesium

  2. Blood compatibility of magnesium and its alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feyerabend, Frank; Wendel, Hans-Peter; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2015-10-01

    Blood compatibility analysis in the field of biomaterials is a highly controversial topic. Especially for degradable materials like magnesium and its alloys no established test methods are available. The purpose of this study was to apply advanced test methodology for the analysis of degrading materials to get a mechanistic insight into the corrosion process in contact with human blood and plasma. Pure magnesium and two magnesium alloys were analysed in a modified Chandler-Loop setup. Standard clinical parameters were determined, and a thorough analysis of the resulting implant surface chemistry was performed. The contact of the materials to blood evoked an accelerated inflammatory and cell-induced osteoconductive reaction. Corrosion products formed indicate a more realistic, in vivo like situation. The active regulation of corrosion mechanisms of magnesium alloys by different cell types should be more in the focus of research to bridge the gap between in vitro and in vivo observations and to understand the mechanism of action. This in turn could lead to a better acceptance of these materials for implant applications. The presented study deals with the first mechanistic insights during whole human blood contact and its influence on a degrading magnesium-based biomaterial. The combination of clinical parameters and corrosion layer analysis has been performed for the first time. It could be of interest due to the intended use of magnesium-based stents and for orthopaedic applications for clinical applications. An interest for the readers of Acta Biomaterialia may be given, as one of the first clinically approved magnesium-based devices is a wound-closure device, which is in direct contact with blood. Moreover, for orthopaedic applications also blood contact is of high interest. Although this is not the focus of the manuscript, it could help to rise awareness for potential future applications. Copyright © 2015 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  3. Plasma Magnesium and the Risk of Ischemic Stroke among Women

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    Akarolo-Anthony, Sally N.; Jiménez, Monik C.; Chiuve, Stephanie E.; Spiegelman, Donna; Willett, Walter C.; Rexrode, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Lower plasma magnesium levels may be associated with higher blood pressure and endothelial dysfunction, but sparse prospective data are available for stroke. Methods Among 32,826 participants in the Nurses’ Health Study who provided blood samples in 1989–1990, incident ischemic strokes were identified and confirmed by medical records through 2006. We conducted a nested case-control analysis of 459 cases, matched 1:1 to controls on age, race/ethnicity, smoking status, date of blood draw, fasting status, menopausal status and hormone use. We used conditional logistic regression models to estimate the multivariable adjusted association of plasma magnesium and the risk of ischemic stroke and ischemic stroke subtypes. Results Median magnesium levels did not differ between ischemic stroke cases and controls (median=0.86 mmol/l for both; p-value=0.14). Conditional on matching factors, women in the lowest magnesium quintile had a relative risk (RR) of 1.34 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.86–2.10, p trend=0.13) for total ischemic stroke, compared to women in the highest quintile. Additional adjustment for risk factors and confounders did not substantially alter the risk estimates for total ischemic stroke. Women with magnesium levels magnesium levels ≥0.82 mmol/l. No significant effect modification was observed by age, body mass index, hypertension or diabetes. Conclusions Lower plasma magnesium levels may contribute to higher risk of ischemic stroke among women. PMID:25116874

  4. Plasma magnesium concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting.

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    Kotlinska-Hasiec, Edyta; Makara-Studzinska, Marta; Czajkowski, Marek; Rzecki, Ziemowit; Olszewski, Krzysztof; Stadnik, Adam; Pilat, Jacek; Rybojad, Beata; Dabrowski, Wojciech

    2017-05-11

    [b]Introduction[/b]. Magnesium (Mg) plays a crucial role in cell physiology and its deficiency may cause many disorders which often require intensive treatment. The aim of this study was to analyse some factors affecting preoperative plasma Mg concentration in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). [b]Materials and method[/b]. Adult patients scheduled for elective CABG with cardio-pulmonary bypass (CPB) under general anaesthesia were studied. Plasma Mg concentration was analysed before surgery in accordance with age, domicile, profession, tobacco smoking and preoperative Mg supplementation. Blood samples were obtained from the radial artery just before the administration of anaesthesia. [b]Results. [/b]150 patients were studied. Mean preoperative plasma Mg concentration was 0.93 ± 0.17 mmol/L; mean concentration in patients - 1.02 ± 0.16; preoperative Mg supplementation was significantly higher than in patients without such supplementation. Moreover, intellectual workers supplemented Mg more frequently and had higher plasma Mg concentration than physical workers. Plasma Mg concentration decreases in elderly patients. Patients living in cities, on average, had the highest plasma Mg concentration. Smokers had significantly lower plasma Mg concentration than non-smokers. [b]Conclusions. [/b]1. Preoperative magnesium supplementation increases its plasma concentration. 2. Intellectual workers frequently supplement magnesium. 3. Smoking cigarettes decreases plasma magnesium concentration.

  5. IFCC guideline for sampling, measuring and reporting ionized magnesium in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rayana, M.C. Ben; Burnett, R.W.; Covington, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    Analyzers with ion-selective electrodes (ISEs) for ionized magnesium (iMg) should yield comparable and unbiased results for iMg. This IFCC guideline on sampling, measuring and reporting iMg in plasma provides a prerequisite to achieve this goal [in this document, "plasma" refers to circulating...... plasma and the forms in which it is sampled, namely the plasma phase of anticoagulated whole blood (or "blood"), plasma separated from blood cells, or serum]. The guideline recommends measuring and reporting ionized magnesium as a substance concentration relative to the substance concentration...... of magnesium in primary aqueous calibrants with magnesium, sodium, and calcium chloride of physiological ionic strength. The recommended name is "the concentration of ionized magnesium in plasma". Based on this guideline, results will be approximately 3% higher than the true substance concentration and 4...

  6. Ionized magnesium in plasma and erythrocytes for the assessment of low magnesium status in alcohol dependent patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordak, Michal; Maj-Zurawska, Magdalena; Matsumoto, Halina; Bujalska-Zadrozny, Magdalena; Kieres-Salomonski, Ilona; Nasierowski, Tadeusz; Muszynska, Elzbieta; Wojnar, Marcin

    2017-09-01

    Studies on the homeostasis of magnesium in alcohol-dependent patients have often been characterized by low hypomagnesemia detection rates. This may be due to the fact that the content of magnesium in blood serum constitutes only 1% of the average magnesium level within the human body. However, the concentration of ionized magnesium is more physiologically important and makes up 67% of the total magnesium within a human organism. There are no data concerning the determination of the ionized fraction of magnesium in patients addicted to alcohol and its influence on mental health status. This study included 100 alcohol-dependent patients and 50 healthy subjects. The free magnesium fraction was determined using the potentiometric method by means of using ion-selective electrodes. The total magnesium level was determined by using a biochemical Indiko Plus analyzer. In this study, different psychometric scales were applied. Our results confirm the usefulness of ionized magnesium concentrations in erythrocytes and plasma as a diagnostic parameter of low magnesium status in alcohol-dependent patients. The lower the concentration of ionized magnesium, the worse the quality of life an alcohol-dependent person might experience. In the case of total magnesium, no such correlation was determined. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Research Progress in Plasma arc welding of Magnesium Alloys and Magnesium Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hui, Li; Yang, Zou; Yongbo, Li; Lei, Jiao; Ruijun, Hou

    2017-11-01

    Magnesium alloys and magnesium matrix composites by means of its excellent performance have wide application prospect in electronics, automotive, biotechnology, aerospace field, and welding technology has become a key of restricting its application. This paper describes the welding characteristics of magnesium, the obvious advantages in the application and the domestic and foreign research advance technology of plasma arc welding of magnesium, and summarizes the existing problems and development trends of plasma arc welding technology of magnesium.

  8. Blood triggered corrosion of magnesium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geis-Gerstorfer, J., E-mail: juergen.geis-gerstorfer@uni-tuebingen.de [Section Medical Materials and Technology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Schille, Ch.; Schweizer, E.; Rupp, F.; Scheideler, L. [Section Medical Materials and Technology, University Hospital Tuebingen, Tuebingen (Germany); Reichel, H.-P. [Weisensee Company, Eichenzell (Germany); Hort, N. [GKSS Research Center, Institute of Materials Research, Geesthacht (Germany); Nolte, A.; Wendel, H.-P. [Div. Congenital and Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Intravascular stents manufactured out of bioabsorbable magnesium (Mg) or Mg-alloys are considered as auspicious candidates for the next stent generation. However, before clinical application numerous physical and biological tests, especially to predict the clinically highly important degradation kinetics in vivo, have to be performed. In a Chandler-Loop model, the initial degradation of eight different magnesium alloys during 6 h in contact with human whole blood was investigated. The magnesium release varied between 0.91 {+-} 0.33 mg/cm{sup 2} (MgAl9Zn1) and 2.57 {+-} 0.38 mg/cm{sup 2} (MgZn1). No correlation could be found with Mg release data obtained after immersion in simulated body fluid (SBF). This pilot study showed that Mg corrosion is highly influenced by the biological test environment (SBF or blood, etc.) and that a modified Chandler-Loop model with human whole blood may be superior to predict corrosion of Mg alloys under clinical conditions than the SBF models presently used.

  9. Research of Plasma Spraying Process on Aluminum-Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patricija Kavaliauskaitė

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The article examines plasma sprayed 95Ni-5Al coatings on alu-minum-magnesium (Mg ≈ 2,6‒3,6 % alloy substrate. Alumi-num-magnesium samples prior spraying were prepared with mechanical treatment (blasting with Al2O3. 95Ni-5Al coatings on aluminum-magnesium alloys were sprayed with different parameters of process and coating‘s thickness, porosity, micro-hardness and microstructure were evaluated. Also numerical simulations in electric and magnetic phenomena of plasma spray-ing were carried out.

  10. Dialysate magnesium level and blood pressure.

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    Kyriazis, John; Kalogeropoulou, Konstantina; Bilirakis, Leonidas; Smirnioudis, Nikolaos; Pikounis, Vasilios; Stamatiadis, Dimitrios; Liolia, Ekaterini

    2004-09-01

    We investigated the way dialysate magnesium (dMg) concentrations could affect blood pressure (BP) during hemodialysis (HD). Eight HD patients underwent four midweek HD treatments consecutively, using, during each four-hour HD session, one of the following four dialysate formulations, in randomized order, which differed only with regard to dMg and dialysate calcium (dCa) concentrations (in mmol/L): 0.75 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group I); 0.25 dMg, 1.75 dCa (group II); 0.75 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group III); 0.25 dMg, 1.25 dCa (group IV). Before HD and at four 60-minute intervals during the HD sessions, BP and noninvasive measurements of cardiac index (CI) were obtained. Additionally, 14 HD patients were treated for four weeks with 0.5 mmol/L dMg, followed by four weeks with 0.25 mmol/L dMg, and another four weeks with 0.75 mmol/L dMg, in random order. In all treatments dCa was 1.25 mmol/L. BP and symptoms were recorded during each HD session. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) decreased to a significantly (P dMg was superior to the other two treatments regarding intradialytic morbidity (P dMg level to 0.75 mmol/L could prevent IDH frequently seen with the use of 1.25 mmol/L dCa. Thus, manipulating dMg levels independently or in concert with dCa levels might have important implications with regard to dialysis tolerance.

  11. Short Communication - Blood Magnesium levels in migraineurs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Some probable mechanisms have been described to the relationship between magnesium (Mg) level and migraine headache attacks. In the study reported here, we sought to determine the total Mg serum status of patients with migraine within and between the headache attacks and compare it with ...

  12. Relation of urinary calcium and magnesium excretion to blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kesteloot, Hugo; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Brown, Ian J

    2011-01-01

    Data indicate an inverse association between dietary calcium and magnesium intakes and blood pressure (BP); however, much less is known about associations between urinary calcium and magnesium excretion and BP in general populations. The authors assessed the relation of BP to 24-hour excretion...... of calcium and magnesium in 2 cross-sectional studies. The International Study of Macro- and Micro-Nutrients and Blood Pressure (INTERMAP) comprised 4,679 persons aged 40-59 years from 17 population samples in China, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States, and the International Cooperative Study...... on Salt, Other Factors, and Blood Pressure (INTERSALT) comprised 10,067 persons aged 20-59 years from 52 samples around the world. Timed 24-hour urine collections, BP measurements, and nutrient data from four 24-hour dietary recalls (INTERMAP) were collected. In multiple linear regression analyses...

  13. Effect of increased magnesium intake on plasma cholesterol, triglyceride and oxidative stress in alloxan-diabetic rats.

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    Olatunji, L A; Soladoye, A O

    2007-06-01

    Cardiovascular disorders are the primary causes of morbidity and mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). Agents that improve lipid profile and reduce oxidative stress have been shown to reduce the ensuing risk factors. In the present study, we investigated whether increased magnesium intake could improve hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia, and reduce oxidative stress in alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Male Wistar rats were divided into non-diabetic (ND), diabetic (DM) and diabetic fed on a high magnesium diet (DM-Mg) groups. Plasma concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were used as markers of oxidative stress. Plasma levels of ascorbic acid, magnesium and calcium were also determined. Diabetes was induced by injecting alloxan (100 mg/kg B.W). The fasting blood glucose levels were significantly lower in the DM-Mg rats than in the DM rats. Plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, TBARS levels were significantly higher while plasma HDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio, ascorbic acid levels were significantly lowered in DM rats compared with the ND rats. Increased intake of magnesium significantly abrogated these alterations. There were no significant differences in the plasma levels of magnesium and calcium between the DM and ND groups. However, plasma levels of magnesium but not calcium were significantly elevated in DM-Mg rats when compared with other groups. In conclusion, these results suggest that diet rich in magnesium could exert cardioprotective effect through reduced plasma total cholesterol, triglyceride, oxidative stress and ameliorated HDL-cholesterol/total cholesterol ratio as well as increased plasma ascorbic acid and magnesium in diabetic rats.

  14. Magnesium Gluconate

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    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  15. AC plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium with zirconia nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrabal, R.; Matykina, E.; Viejo, F.; Skeldon, P.; Thompson, G.E.; Merino, M.C.

    2008-01-01

    The incorporation of monoclinic zirconia nanoparticles and their subsequent transformation is examined for coatings formed on magnesium by plasma electrolytic oxidation under AC conditions in silicate electrolyte. The coatings are shown to comprise two main layers, with nanoparticles entering the coating at the coating surface and through short-circuit paths to the region of the interface between the inner and outer coating layers. Under local heating of microdischarges, the zirconia reacts with magnesium species to form Mg 2 Zr 5 O 12 in the outer coating layer. Relatively little zirconium is present in the inner coating layer. In contrast, silicon species are present in both coating layers, with reduced amounts in the inner layer

  16. Synthesis of nanocrystalline magnesium nitride (Mg3N2) powder using thermal plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Dong-Wook; Kim, Tae-Hee; Park, Hyun-Woo; Park, Dong-Wha

    2011-01-01

    Nanocrystalline magnesium nitride (Mg 3 N 2 ) powder was synthesized from bulk magnesium by thermal plasma at atmospheric pressure. Magnesium vapor was generated through heating the bulk magnesium by DC plasma jet and reacted with ammonia gas. Injecting position and flow rates of ammonia gas were controlled to investigate an ideal condition for Mg 3 N 2 synthesis. The synthesized Mg 3 N 2 was cooled and collected on the chamber wall. Characteristics of the synthesized powders for each experimental condition were analyzed by X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravity analysis (TGA). In absence of NH 3 , magnesium metal powder was formed. The synthesis with NH 3 injection in low temperature region resulted in a formation of crystalline magnesium nitride with trigonal morphology, whereas the mixture of magnesium metal and amorphous Mg 3 N 2 was formed when NH 3 was injected in high temperature region. Also, vaporization process of magnesium was discussed.

  17. Plasma plume induced during laser welding of Magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffman, J.; Szymanski, Z.; Azharonok, V.

    2005-01-01

    The laser welding process is influenced by the plasma produced by laser irradiation. When the pressure of the metal vapour reaches 1 atm and the plasma temperature is 10-15 kK then the electron density is about 2-3x10 23 m -3 . Under these conditions the absorption coefficient can reach several cm -1 . This means that dense plasma over the keyhole can block the laser radiation within the path of a few millimetres. Knowledge of plasma parameters helps to control technological process. The emission spectra were registered during laser welding of magnesium alloy using of a CCD camera connected to a spectrograph of focal length 1.3 m. The entrance slit of the spectrograph was perpendicular to the metal surface, so that successive tracks of the detector recorded the radiation from the plasma slices situated at different distances (heights) from the metal surface. The space-averaged electron densities are determined from the Stark broadening of the 5528.41 A Mg I spectral line and 4481.16 A Mg II line. The Stark widths of magnesium lines are taken from other paper. It has been found that the plasma density reaches 1x10 23 m -3 . Experimentally measured line broadening is obtained from the profiles of the spectral lines integrated along the line of sight (plasma diameter) and does not correspond to the maximum plasma density. Since the plasma is non-uniform, both the electron densities and temperatures obtained from spatially integrated line profiles are lower than their maximum values in the plasma centre. This effect is much stronger for the atomic line because its intensity reaches the maximum on the plasma periphery while the maximum intensity of the ionic line originates from the plasma centre. Therefore, the absorption of the laser beam evaluated from the space-averaged plasma parameters is underestimated. To find the maximum plasma density and temperature the radial temperature distribution in the plasma plume has to be reproduced. This has been done numerically by

  18. Urinary and plasma magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, Michel M.; Gansevoort, Ron T.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; van der Harst, Pim; Geleijnse, Johanna M.; Feskens, Edith J. M.; Navis, Gerjan; Bakker, Stephan J. L.

    Background: Previous studies on dietary magnesium and risk of ischemic heart disease (IHD) have yielded inconsistent results, in part because of a lack of direct measures of actual magnesium uptake. Urinary excretion of magnesium, an indicator of dietary magnesium uptake, might provide more

  19. The magnesium reference value in whole blood using nuclear activation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Laura C.; Zamboni, Cibele B.

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to establish an indicative interval for reference value for Mg in whole blood, using the Absolute Neutron Activation Analysis Technique. The necessity of this measurement is related to the fact that the conventional clinical analysis for Mg quantification is performed using plasma, so there is no reference values established for Mg in whole blood for Brazilian population. Ours results provide information which can help in diagnosis of patients and permit to perform a discussion about the advantages and limitations of using this nuclear methodology in hematological examinations. (author)

  20. Comparison of magnesium and methyldopa for the control of blood pressure in pregnancies complicated with hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frølich, A; Pilsgaard, K

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Although magnesium is now the drug of choice for the prevention of eclamptic seizures only few studies have evaluated whether magnesium may reduce blood pressure in pregnancies complicated with hypertension. METHODS: A total of 33 patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension were rand...

  1. Effects of magnesium on erythrocyte sodium-lithium countertransport and some of plasma biochemical parameters in rabbit

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    Samad Akbarzadeh

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Magnesium acts as an essential cofactor for the activity of many enzymes. It regulates the work of cardiovascular system. The activity of sodium–lithium countertransport (SLC and the concentrations of plasma biochemical parameters such as VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol, sodium, potassium, urea and creatinine are changed in cardiovascular diseases. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of magnesium on SLC activity and some of the plasma biochemical parameters. Methods: New Zealand white rabbits (weighed 1350 ± 50g were chosen for these experiments. This study was conducted through two in vitro and in vivo techniques. Through in vitro method, the effects of different concentrations of magnesium on SLC activity were investigated. In order to conduct in vivo method, the rabbits were divided into two groups (5 /group. One group was treated by MgSo4 (40 mg/kg body weight through peritoneum for two weeks. For the second group, deionized water was used. The activity of SLC and mentioned biochemical parameters were determined. Results: The results of both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that magnesium can significantly decrease the SLC activity and also causes an increase in Km and decreased Vmax/Km of the system and plasma concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly decreased. Conclusion: Magnesium may cause a reduction in blood pressure through decreasing the SLC activity and affecting the concentrations of VLDL, LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and triglycerides and so improvement the cardiovascular diseases.

  2. Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2014-02-06

    Feb 6, 2014 ... Spectral analysis of K-shell X-ray emission of magnesium plasma, produced by laser pulses of 45 fs duration, focussed up to an intensity of ∼1018 W cm-2, is carried out. The plasma conditions prevalent during the emission of X-ray spectrum were identified by comparing the experimental spectra with the ...

  3. Corrosion resistance of magnesium treated by hydrocarbon plasma immersion ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yekehtaz, M.; Baba, K.; Hatada, R.; Flege, S.; Sittner, F.; Ensinger, W.

    2009-01-01

    Due to its low weight, magnesium is increasingly being used as construction materials for e.g. automobile bodies or cell phone housings. However, the material suffers from poor tribological features and particularly from poor corrosion resistance. In order to protect magnesium from corrosion, it was treated by hydrocarbon plasma immersion ion implantation. Magnesium samples were implanted with methane and acetylene at different process times at ambient temperature. Electrochemical corrosion measurements in dilute buffered acetic acid showed that the treatment led to well-adhering films with an effective corrosion protection.

  4. Corrosion resistance of magnesium treated by hydrocarbon plasma immersion ion implantation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yekehtaz, M. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)], E-mail: Yekehtaz@ca.tu-darmstadt.de; Baba, K. [Nagasaki Center of Industrial Technology, 2-1303-8 Ikeda, Omura, Nagasaki 856-0026 (Japan); Hatada, R. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Nagasaki Center of Industrial Technology, 2-1303-8 Ikeda, Omura, Nagasaki 856-0026 (Japan); Flege, S.; Sittner, F.; Ensinger, W. [Technische Universitaet Darmstadt, Department of Materials Science, Petersenstr. 23, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2009-05-01

    Due to its low weight, magnesium is increasingly being used as construction materials for e.g. automobile bodies or cell phone housings. However, the material suffers from poor tribological features and particularly from poor corrosion resistance. In order to protect magnesium from corrosion, it was treated by hydrocarbon plasma immersion ion implantation. Magnesium samples were implanted with methane and acetylene at different process times at ambient temperature. Electrochemical corrosion measurements in dilute buffered acetic acid showed that the treatment led to well-adhering films with an effective corrosion protection.

  5. Effects of magnesium supplements on blood pressure, endothelial function and metabolic parameters in healthy young men with a family history of metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosaro, E; Bonafini, S; Montagnana, M; Danese, E; Trettene, M S; Minuz, P; Delva, P; Fava, C

    2014-11-01

    Magnesium plays an important role in the modulation of vascular tone and endothelial function and can regulate glucose and lipid metabolism. Patients with hypertension, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have low body magnesium content; indeed, magnesium supplementation has been shown to have a positive effect on blood pressure (BP) and gluco-metabolic parameters. The aim of our study was to evaluate the effect of magnesium supplements on hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in healthy men with a positive family history of MetS or T2DM. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled 8-week crossover trial with a 4 week wash-out period, oral supplements of 8.1 mmol of magnesium-pidolate or placebo were administered twice a day to 14 healthy normomagnesemic participants, aged 23-33 years. The primary endpoint was office BP, measured with a semiautomatic oscillometric device. Secondary endpoints included characteristics of the MetS, namely endothelial function, arterial stiffness and inflammation. Plasma and urinary magnesium were measured in all participants while free intracellular magnesium was measured only in a subsample. There was no significant difference in either systolic and diastolic BP in participants post-magnesium supplementation and post-placebo treatment when compared to baseline BP measurements. Further, the metabolic, inflammatory and hemodynamic parameters did not vary significantly during the study. Our study showed no beneficial effect of magnesium supplements on BP, vascular function and glycolipid profile in young men with a family history of MetS/T2DM (trial registration at clinicaltrial.gov ID: NCT01181830; 12th of Aug 2010). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Decrease in Ionized and Total Magnesium Blood Concentrations in Endurance Athletes Following an Exercise Bout Restores within Hours-Potential Consequences for Monitoring and Supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terink, Rieneke; Balvers, Michiel G J; Hopman, Maria T; Witkamp, Renger F; Mensink, Marco; Gunnewiek, Jacqueline M T Klein

    2017-06-01

    Magnesium is essential for optimal sport performance, generating an interest to monitor its status in athletes. However, before measuring magnesium status in blood could become routine, more insight into its diurnal fluctuations and effects of exercise itself is necessary. Therefore, we measured the effect of an acute bout of exercise on ionized (iMg) and total plasma magnesium (tMg) in blood obtained from 18 healthy well-trained endurance athletes (age, 31.1 ± 8.1 yr.; VO 2max , 50.9 ± 7.5 ml/kg/min) at multiple time points, and compared this with a resting situation. At both days, 7 blood samples were taken at set time points (8:30 fasted, 11:00, 12:30, 13:30, 15:00, 16:00, 18:30). The control day was included to correct for a putative diurnal fluctuation of magnesium. During the exercise day, athletes performed a 90 min bicycle ergometer test (70% VO 2max ) between 11:00 and 12:30. Whole blood samples were analyzed for iMg and plasma for tMg concentrations. Both concentrations decreased significantly after exercise (0.52 ± 0.04-0.45 ± 0.03 mmol/L and 0.81 ± 0.07-0.73 ± 0.06 mmol/L, respectively, p exercise. These findings suggest that timing of blood sampling to analyze Mg status is important. Additional research is needed to establish the recovery time after different types of exercise to come to a general advice regarding the timing of magnesium status assessment in practice.

  7. Prognostic importance of plasma total magnesium in a cohort of cats with azotemic chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Broek, D Hendrik N; Chang, Yu-Mei; Elliott, Jonathan; Jepson, Rosanne E

    2018-04-27

    Hypomagnesemia is associated with increased mortality and renal function decline in humans with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Magnesium is furthermore inversely associated with fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23), an important prognostic factor in CKD in cats. However, the prognostic significance of plasma magnesium in cats with CKD is unknown. To explore associations of plasma total magnesium concentration (tMg) with plasma FGF23 concentration, all-cause mortality, and disease progression in cats with azotemic CKD. Records of 174 client-owned cats with IRIS stage 2-4 CKD. Cohort study. Cats with azotemic CKD were identified from the records of two London-based first opinion practices (1999-2013). Possible associations of baseline plasma tMg with FGF23 concentration and risks of death and progression were explored using, respectively, linear, Cox, and logistic regression. Plasma tMg (reference interval, 1.73-2.57 mg/dL) was inversely associated with plasma FGF23 when controlling for plasma creatinine and phosphate concentrations (partial correlation coefficient, -0.50; P tMg augments prognostic information in cats with CKD, but whether these observations are associations or causations warrants further investigation. © 2018 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  8. Association Between Seminal Plasma Copper and Magnesium Levels with Oxidative Stress in Iraqi Infertile Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar F. Abdul-Rasheed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To study the association between copper, magnesium and malondialdehyde levels in seminal plasma of oligozoospermic, azoospermic in relation to normozoospermic men.Methods: The present study was conducted at the Chemistry and Biochemistry department, College of Medicine, Al-Nahrain University, Baghdad-Iraq during September 2007 to February 2008 after obtaining approval from the research and ethics committee and obtaining written consent, 78 infertile men (age range 33.01±4.20 years were recruited at the institute of embryo research and infertility treatment, Al-Kadhimiya teaching hospital, Iraq and were categorized according to their seminal fluid parameters to oligozoospermia (n=43 and azoospermia (n=35. 41 fertile men (age range 30.29±2.30 years were selected as controls. Seminal plasma copper and magnesium were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Malondialdehyde was measured calorimetrically using thiobarbituric acid assay which detects thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. Results: Seminal plasma copper level was decreased significantly (p=0.000 in the azoospermic group compared to the control group. Whereas, the level decreased non-significantly in the oligozoospermic group. Seminal plasma magnesium levels were decreased significantly (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied. On the other hand, malondialdehyde levels which is an end product of lipid peroxidation were significantly elevated (p=0.000 in all the infertility groups studied.Conclusion: Copper and magnesium work in different ways in order to maintain normal environment for spermatozoa for normal fertilization to occur.

  9. Interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Chen, Minghua

    2011-09-01

    This paper presents the results of the investigation on the interactions between laser and arc plasma during laser-arc hybrid welding on magnesium alloy AZ31B using the spectral diagnose technique. By comparably analyzing the variation in plasma information (the shape, the electron temperature and density) of single tungsten inert gas (TIG) welding with the laser-arc hybrid welding, it is found that the laser affects the arc plasma through the keyhole forming on the workpiece. Depending on the welding parameters there are three kinds of interactions taking place between laser and arc plasma.

  10. Hydrodynamic blood plasma separation in microfluidic channels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jouvet, Lionel

    2010-01-01

    The separation of red blood cells from plasma flowing in microchannels is possible by biophysical effects such as the Zweifach–Fung bifurcation law. In the present study, daughter channels are placed alongside a main channel such that cells and plasma are collected separately. The device is aimed...

  11. Normal blood magnesium levels in volunteers of Rawalpindi by atomic absorption absorption technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, I.; Rehman, S.; Yawar, W.; Rusheed, A.; Ahraf, M.; Syed, N.H.

    1999-01-01

    Magnesium levels in whole blood samples of 67 healthy volunteers (mean 6.46 -+ 0.221; range 1.345 - 13.163 mg/dL) of Rawalpindi district have been determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. Magnesium levels of 41 male and 26 female subjects including doctors, nurses, patients attendees, medical students, sweepers and peons of Rawalpindi Medical College and Rawalpindi General Hospital revealed the normal mean blood levels of 6.088 - + 0.258 mg/dL (range 1.345 - 10.679 mg/dL)and 7.060 -+ 0.375 mg/dL (range 4.495 - 13.163 mg/dL),P<0.05 respectively. Only 10 male volunteers were smokers exhibiting 6.768 -+ 0.558 mg/dL (range 4.466 -10.679 mg/dL). Significant relationship was found in magnesium levels between males and females of poor socio-economic group (P<0.05). No relationship occurred between male smokers and non-smokers and magnesium levels in the age groups of males or females or both, when data was compared by 't' test. (author)

  12. Formation of a Spinel Coating on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieber, Maximilian; Simchen, Frank; Scharf, Ingolf; Lampke, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a common means for the surface modification of light metals. However, PEO of magnesium substrates in dilute electrolytes generally leads to the formation of coatings consisting of unfavorable MgO magnesium oxide. By incorporation of electrolyte components, the phase constitution of the oxide coatings can be modified. Coatings consisting exclusively of MgAl2O4 magnesium-aluminum spinel are produced by PEO in an electrolyte containing hydroxide, aluminate, and phosphate anions. The hardness of the coatings is 3.5 GPa on Martens scale on average. Compared to the bare substrate, the coatings reduce the corrosion current density in dilute sodium chloride solution by approx. one order of magnitude and slightly shift the corrosion potential toward more noble values.

  13. Metallurgical bond between magnesium AZ91 alloy and aluminium plasma sprayed coatings

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kubatík, Tomáš František; Pala, Zdeněk; Neufuss, Karel; Vilémová, Monika; Mušálek, Radek; Stoulil, J.; Slepička, P.; Chráska, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 282, November (2015), s. 163-170 ISSN 0257-8972 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GP14-31538P Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : Plasma spraying * AZ91 magnesium alloy * Aluminium * Metallurgical bond * X-ray diffraction Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 2.139, year: 2015 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0257897215303297

  14. Rotation of a magnesium plasma column in a background gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bosco, E. Del; Dallaqua, R.S.

    1993-01-01

    Measurements of the angular velocity of a plasma column in a surrounding gas atmosphere are presented. The plasma is produced by a pulsed, high current arc discharge in the presence of an axial magnetic field. The angular velocity is measured using the cross correlation technique applied to the floating potential signals measured by two Langmuir probes. The main result is that when gas is added to the discharge the angular velocity is always lower than the case when there is no gas, this effect been more pronounced in the beginning of the discharge. For pressures higher than ∼ 2 x 10 -2 Pa there is a effect of the gas on the plasma column rotation and the angular velocity diminishes even at the end of discharge. (author)

  15. Total plasma magnesium in healthy and critically ill foals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariella, J; Isani, G; Andreani, G; Freccero, F; Carpenè, E; Castagnetti, C

    2016-01-15

    Abnormalities in total Mg (tMg) concentration in plasma and/or serum are common in critically ill humans, and the association with increased mortality has been documented in several clinical studies in adults and newborns with hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Abnormalities in tMg were studied in hospitalized dogs, cats, and adult horses. Newborn foals were scarcely studied with regard to Mg concentration. The aims of the present study were: (1) to compare two analytical methods for the determination of tMg in plasma: the automated colorimetric method and the atomic absorption spectrometry; (2) to measure plasma tMg in healthy foals during the first 72 hours after birth and in sick foals during the first 72 hours of hospitalization; (3) to compare total plasma Mg concentration among healthy foals, foals affected by perinatal asphyxia syndrome (PAS), prematurity and/or dismaturity, and sepsis; (4) to evaluate tMg plasma concentration in surviving and non-surviving foals. One hundred seventeen foals were included in the study: 20 healthy and 97 sick foals. The automated method used in clinical practice probably overestimates plasma tMg. Due to its higher sensitivity and specificity, the atomic absorption spectrometry should be considered the method of choice from an analytical point of view, but requires an instrumentation not easily available in any laboratory and specific technical skills and competencies. Plasma tMg in healthy foals were included in the range 0.52 to 1.01 mmol/L and did not show any time-dependent change during the first 72 hours of life. In sick foals, tMg evaluated at T0 was statistically higher than tMg measured at subsequent times. Foals affected by PAS had a tMg at T0 significantly higher (P tMg measured at T0 in non-surviving than in surviving foals. Plasma tMg could be a useful parameter for the diagnosis of PAS and the formulation of the prognosis in critically ill foals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Spectroscopic study of plasma during electrolytic oxidation of magnesium- and aluminium-alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jovović, J.; Stojadinović, S.; Šišović, N.M.; Konjević, N.

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of an optical emission spectroscopy study of Plasma during Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) of magnesium- and aluminum-alloy. Plasma electron number density N e diagnostics is performed either from the H β line shape or from the width or shift of non-hydrogenic ion lines of aluminum and magnesium. The line profile analysis of the H β suggests presence of two PEO processes characterized by relatively low electron number densities N e ≈1.2×10 15 cm −3 and N e ≈2.3×10 16 cm −3 . Apart from these two low N e processes, there is the third one related to the ejection of evaporated anode material through micro-discharge channels. This process is characterized by larger electron density N e =(1.2–1.6)10 17 cm −3 , which is detected from the shape and shift of aluminum and magnesium singly charged ion lines. Two low N e values detected from the H β and large N e measured from the widths and shift of ion lines suggest presence of three types of discharges during PEO with aluminum- and magnesium-alloy anode. On the basis of present and earlier results one can conclude that low N e processes do not depend upon anode material or electrolyte composition. The electron temperature of 4000 K and 33,000 K are determined from relative intensities of Mg I and O II lines, respectively. The attention is drawn to the possibility of N e application for T e evaluation using Saha equation what is of importance for PEO metal plasma characterization. During the course of this study, difficulties in the analysis of spectral line shapes are encountered and the ways to overcome some of the obstacles are demonstrated. -- Highlights: ► Optical emission spectroscopy of plasma during electrolytic oxidation. ► Spectral line profiles of the H-beta and non-hydrogenic singly charged ion lines of aluminum and magnesium. ► Experimental line profiles with complex structure. ► Three plasma processes involved. ► The application of Saha equation for the process

  17. Low magnesium level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  18. Corrosion resistance of plasma-anodized AZ91D magnesium alloy by electrochemical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barchiche, C.-E.; Rocca, E.; Juers, C.; Hazan, J.; Steinmetz, J.

    2007-01-01

    Anodic coatings formed on magnesium alloys by plasma anodization process are mainly used as protective coatings against corrosion. The effects of KOH concentration, anodization time and current density on properties of anodic layers formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy were investigated to obtain coatings with improved corrosion behaviour. The coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), electron dispersion X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The film is porous and cracked, mainly composed of magnesium oxide (MgO), but contains all the elements present in the electrolyte and alloy. The corrosion behaviour of anodized Mg alloy was examined by using stationary and dynamic electrochemical techniques in corrosive water. The best corrosion resistance measured by electrochemical methods is obtained in the more concentrated electrolyte 3 M KOH + 0.5 M KF + 0.25 M Na 3 PO 4 .12 H 2 O, with a long anodization time and a low current density. A double electrochemical effects of the anodized layer on the magnesium corrosion is observed: a large inhibition of the cathodic process and a stabilization of a large passivation plateau

  19. HUBUNGAN ASUPAN MAGNESIUM DAN KADAR GLUKOSA DARAH PUASA PASIEN RAWAT JALAN DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2 (CORRELATION BETWEEN MAGNESIUM INTAKE AND FASTING BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN OUTPATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anggun Faradhita

    2014-12-01

    Diabetes Mellitus type 2 reveals resistance insulin. Inadequate magnesium consumption has been reported to promote insulin resistance. The potential role of magnesium in Diabetes Mellitus is improving insulin sensitivity. Previous studies indicated that there is an inverse correlation between magnesium intakes and the incidence of type 2 Diabetes. This study aimed to analyze the association between magnesium intake and fasting blood glucose levels in outpatients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus in Al Ihsan Hospital. Cross-sectional study in 46 participants was taken by purposive sampling. Data collection was conducted in June-July 2013 which included common data, exercise habits, nutritional status, energy intake, magnesium intake, protein intake, fiber intake and fasting blood glucose levels. This research showed that there was a significant association between magnesium intake and fasting blood glucose levels of patients (p < 0.001 with a correlation of moderate strength (r = -0.562, high magnesium intake was followed by a decrease in fasting blood glucose levels. It is then suggested that people with diabetes mellitus consume adequate amounts of magnesium and set a good diet and regular exercise as a step in the control of blood glucose levels. Keywords: Magnesium Intake, Fasting Blood Glucose, Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

  20. Magnesium enhances exercise performance via increasing glucose availability in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuan-Ying Chen

    Full Text Available Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy. Magnesium (Mg is involved in energy production and plays a role in exercise performance. This study aimed to explore the effects of Mg on the dynamic changes in glucose and lactate levels in the muscle, blood and brain of exercising rats using a combination of auto-blood sampling and microdialysis. Sprague-Dawley rats were pretreated with saline or magnesium sulfate (MgSO4, 90 mg/kg, i.p. 30 min before treadmill exercise (20 m/min for 60 min. Our results indicated that the muscle, blood, and brain glucose levels immediately increased during exercise, and then gradually decreased to near basal levels in the recovery periods of both groups. These glucose levels were significantly enhanced to approximately two-fold (P<0.05 in the Mg group. Lactate levels in the muscle, blood, and brain rapidly and significantly increased in both groups during exercise, and brain lactate levels in the Mg group further elevated (P<0.05 than those in the control group during exercise. Lactate levels significantly decreased after exercise in both groups. In conclusion, Mg enhanced glucose availability in the peripheral and central systems, and increased lactate clearance in the muscle during exercise.

  1. Interaction of blood plasma with antifouling surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš; Sedláková, Zdeňka; Houska, Milan; Bologna Alles, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 25, č. 11 (2009), s. 6328-6333 ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : blood plasma fouling * antigouling coatings * SPR biosensors Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.898, year: 2009

  2. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium and its alloys: Mechanism, properties and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Barati Darband

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Plasma Electrolyte Oxidation (PEO process has increasingly been employed to improve magnesium surface properties by fabrication of an MgO-based coating. Originating from conventional anodizing procedures, this high-voltage process produces an adhesive ceramic film on the surface. The present article provides a comprehensive review around mechanisms of PEO coatings fabrication and their different properties. Due to complexity of PEO coatings formation, a complete explanation regarding fabrication mechanisms of PEO coatings has not yet been proposed; however, the most important advancements in the field of fabrication mechanisms of PEO coatings were gathered in this work. Mechanisms of PEO coatings fabrication on magnesium were reviewed considering voltage–time plots, optical spectrometry, acoustic emission spectrometry and electronic properties of the ceramic film. Afterwards, the coatings properties, affecting parameters and improvement strategies were discussed. In addition, corrosion resistance of coatings, important factors in corrosion resistance and methods for corrosion resistance improvement were considered. Tribological properties (important factors and improvement methods of coatings were also studied. Since magnesium and its alloys are broadly used in biological applications, the biological properties of PEO coatings, important factors in their biological performance and existing methods for improvement of coatings were explained. Addition of ceramic based nanoparticles and formation of nanocomposite coatings may considerably influence properties of plasma electrolyte oxidation coatings. Nanocomposite coatings properties and nanoparticles adsorption mechanisms were included in a separate sector. Another method to improve coatings properties is formation of hybrid coatings on PEO coatings which was discussed in the end.

  3. Factors Influencing Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation(PEO) Coatings on Magnesium Alloys: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shim, Gunchoo [KISTI ReSEAT Program, Daejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Magnesium alloys, which possess excellent specific strength and castability, are highly susceptible to corrosion. Although anodizing is widely used to resolve this problem, it requires toxic electrolytes and produces relatively thin and weak surface coatings. Recently, plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) has emerged as an alternative to anodizing. Although it is derived from conventional anodizing, it uses eco-friendly electrolytes and forms thicker, denser, and harder coatings on the surface of magnesium alloys. However, PEO is a complex process involving physical, chemical, and electrochemical reactions, and it is influenced by various factors such as the alloy substrate composition, electrolyte/additive composition, and the electrical variables including the mode of power supply, applied voltage/current density, frequency, and duty cycle. In this article, the detailed effects of these parameters on the microstructure and properties of the PEO coatings are reviewed, and methods of improving the coatings are proposed.

  4. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    OpenAIRE

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy; K. Shanmugam; V. Balasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 w...

  5. Contact activation of blood-plasma coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Avantika

    Surface engineering of biomaterials with improved hemocompatibility is an imperative, given the widespread global need for cardiovascular devices. Research summarized in this dissertation focuses on contact activation of FXII in buffer and blood plasma frequently referred to as autoactivation. The extant theory of contact activation imparts FXII autoactivation ability to negatively charged, hydrophilic surfaces. According to this theory, contact activation of plasma involves assembly of proteins comprising an "activation complex" on activating surfaces mediated by specific chemical interactions between complex proteins and the surface. This work has made key discoveries that significantly improve our core understanding of contact activation and unravel the existing paradigm of plasma coagulation. It is shown herein that contact activation of blood factor XII (FXII, Hageman factor) in neat-buffer solution exhibits a parabolic profile when scaled as a function of silanized-glass-particle activator surface energy (measured as advancing water adhesion tension t°a=g° Iv costheta in dyne/cm, where g°Iv is water interfacial tension in dyne/cm and theta is the advancing contact angle). Nearly equal activation is observed at the extremes of activator water-wetting properties --36 moderated by adsorption of plasma proteins unrelated to coagulation through an "adsorption-dilution" effect that blocks FXII contact with hydrophobic activator surfaces. The adsorption-dilution effect explains the apparent specificity for hydrophilic activators pursued by earlier investigators. Finally a comparison of FXII autoactivation in buffer, serum, protein cocktail, and plasma solutions is shown herein. Activation of blood plasma coagulation in vitro by contact with material surfaces is demonstrably dependent on plasma-volume-to-activator-surface-area ratio. However, activation of factor XII dissolved in buffer, protein cocktail, heat-denatured serum, and FXI deficient plasma does not

  6. Simple, miniaturized blood plasma extraction method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Hee; Woenker, Timothy; Adamec, Jiri; Regnier, Fred E

    2013-12-03

    A rapid plasma extraction technology that collects a 2.5 μL aliquot of plasma within three minutes from a finger-stick derived drop of blood was evaluated. The utility of the plasma extraction cards used was that a paper collection disc bearing plasma was produced that could be air-dried in fifteen minutes and placed in a mailing envelop for transport to an analytical laboratory. This circumvents the need for venipuncture and blood collection in specialized vials by a phlebotomist along with centrifugation and refrigerated storage. Plasma extraction was achieved by applying a blood drop to a membrane stack through which plasma was drawn by capillary action. During the course of plasma migration to a collection disc at the bottom of the membrane stack blood cells were removed by a combination of adsorption and filtration. After the collection disc filled with an aliquot of plasma the upper membranes were stripped from the collection card and the collection disc was air-dried. Intercard differences in the volume of plasma collected varied approximately 1% while volume variations of less than 2% were seen with hematocrit levels ranging from 20% to 71%. Dried samples bearing metabolites and proteins were then extracted from the disc and analyzed. 25-Hydroxy vitamin D was quantified by LC-MS/MS analysis following derivatization with a secosteroid signal enhancing tag that imparted a permanent positive charge to the vitamin and reduced the limit of quantification (LOQ) to 1 pg of collected vitamin on the disc; comparable to values observed with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) of a venipuncture sample. A similar study using conventional proteomics methods and spectral counting for quantification was conducted with yeast enolase added to serum as an internal standard. The LOQ with extracted serum samples for enolase was 1 μM, linear from 1 to 40 μM, the highest concentration examined. In all respects protein quantification with extracted serum samples was comparable to

  7. Corrosion of experimental magnesium alloys in blood and PBS: A gravimetric and microscopic evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schille, Ch., E-mail: Christine.Schille@med.uni-tuebingen.de [University Hospital Tuebingen, Center for Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Section Medical Materials and Technology, Osianderstr. 2-8, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Braun, M.; Wendel, H.P. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Div. Congenital and Paediatric Cardiac Surgery, University Children' s Hospital, Tuebingen, Germany, Calwerstr. 7/1, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Scheideler, L. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Center for Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Section Medical Materials and Technology, Osianderstr. 2-8, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany); Hort, N. [GKSS Research Centre, Institute of Materials Research, Max-Planck-Str. 1, D-21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Reichel, H.-P. [Weissensee Company, Buergermeister-Ebert-Str. 30-32, D-36124 Eichenzell (Germany); Schweizer, E.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J. [University Hospital Tuebingen, Center for Dentistry, Oral Medicine and Maxillofacial Surgery, Section Medical Materials and Technology, Osianderstr. 2-8, D-72076 Tuebingen (Germany)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion of eight Mg-based Biomaterials was tested in saline and human blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Corrosion behaviour in physiological saline and in blood was entirely different. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Al and Zn had the highest influence on corrosion behaviour in both electrolytes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1 showed least corrosion in human whole blood. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Tests in buffered corrosion media are not sufficient to predict corrosion in vivo. - Abstract: Corrosion tests for medical materials are often performed in simulated body fluids (SBF). When SBF are used for corrosion measurement, the open question is, how well they match the conditions in the human body. The aim of the study was to compare the corrosion behaviour of different experimental magnesium alloys in human whole blood and PBS{sup minus} (phosphate buffered saline w/o Ca and Mg) as a simulated body fluid by gravimetric weight measurements and microscopic evaluation. Eight different experimental magnesium alloys, containing neither Mn nor other additives, were manufactured. With these alloys, a static immersion test in PBS{sup minus} and a dynamic test using the Chandler-loop model with human whole blood over 6 h were performed. During the static immersion test, the samples were weighed every hour. During the dynamic test, the specimens were weighed before and after the 6 h incubation period in the Chandler-loop. From both tests, the total mass change was calculated for each alloy and the values were compared. Additionally, microscopic pictures from the samples were taken at the end of the test period. All alloys showed different corrosion behaviour in both tests, especially the alloys with high aluminium content, MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1. Generally, alloys in PBS showed a weight gain due to generation of a microscopically visible corrosion layer, while in the blood test system a more or less distinct weight

  8. Corrosion of experimental magnesium alloys in blood and PBS: A gravimetric and microscopic evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schille, Ch.; Braun, M.; Wendel, H.P.; Scheideler, L.; Hort, N.; Reichel, H.-P.; Schweizer, E.; Geis-Gerstorfer, J.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► Corrosion of eight Mg–based Biomaterials was tested in saline and human blood. ► Corrosion behaviour in physiological saline and in blood was entirely different. ► Al and Zn had the highest influence on corrosion behaviour in both electrolytes. ► MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1 showed least corrosion in human whole blood. ► Tests in buffered corrosion media are not sufficient to predict corrosion in vivo. - Abstract: Corrosion tests for medical materials are often performed in simulated body fluids (SBF). When SBF are used for corrosion measurement, the open question is, how well they match the conditions in the human body. The aim of the study was to compare the corrosion behaviour of different experimental magnesium alloys in human whole blood and PBS minus (phosphate buffered saline w/o Ca and Mg) as a simulated body fluid by gravimetric weight measurements and microscopic evaluation. Eight different experimental magnesium alloys, containing neither Mn nor other additives, were manufactured. With these alloys, a static immersion test in PBS minus and a dynamic test using the Chandler-loop model with human whole blood over 6 h were performed. During the static immersion test, the samples were weighed every hour. During the dynamic test, the specimens were weighed before and after the 6 h incubation period in the Chandler-loop. From both tests, the total mass change was calculated for each alloy and the values were compared. Additionally, microscopic pictures from the samples were taken at the end of the test period. All alloys showed different corrosion behaviour in both tests, especially the alloys with high aluminium content, MgAl9 and MgAl9Zn1. Generally, alloys in PBS showed a weight gain due to generation of a microscopically visible corrosion layer, while in the blood test system a more or less distinct weight loss was observed. When alloys are ranked according to corrosion susceptibility, the results differ also between the test systems. The

  9. Apolipoprotein E in umbilical cord blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forte, T.M.; Davis, P.A.; Blum, C.B.

    1983-01-01

    Adolipoprotein E (apo E), with a molecular weight of approximately 37,000 daltons, is a minor apolipoprotein constituent in adult plasma lipoproteins. This apolipoprotein, like apolipoprotein B, is a ligand recognized by specific lipoprotein receptor sites (B-E receptors) on cell surfaces. We have recently shown that a pronounced apo E band appears in umbilical cord blood low-density (LDL) lipoproteins and also in high density (HDL) lipoproteins. Densitometric scans of Coomassie blue G-250 stained polyacrylamide gels suggested that apo E was probably elevated in cord blood lipoproteins. To pursue this suggestion, apo E in cord blood was quantitated by radioimmunoassay and correlated with cord blood lipid levels. In addition, apo E levels in 20 normal adult volunteers were also examined

  10. Association between blood pressure and magnesium and uric acid levels in indigenous Argentinean children at high altitude.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirschler, Valeria; González, Claudio; Maccallini, Gustavo; Molinari, Claudia; Castano, Luis

    2017-07-08

    To determine the association between nontraditional risk factors such as magnesium and uric acid with blood pressure (BP) in Indigenous children. A total of 263 school-aged indigenous children living at high altitude were enrolled in a cross-sectional study in November 2011. Prehypertension (preHTN) and hypertension (HTN) were defined by systolic and/or diastolic BP ≥ 90th to magnesium levels were identified in 21.7% (57/263): 28.1% (16/57) of the children with low magnesium levels had preHTN versus 9.7% (20/206) with normal magnesium values. Furthermore, 21.8% (12/57) of the children with low magnesium levels had HTN versus 4.5% (20/206) with normal magnesium values. There was a significant association between mean arterial pressure and magnesium (r = -026), uric acid (r = 0.20), phosphorus (r = -0.17), z-BMI (r = 0.22), potassium (r = -0.10), HOMA-IR (r = 0.17), calcium (r = -0.10), and sodium (r = -0.13). Multiple linear regression analysis showed that mean arterial pressure was associated significantly and directly with BMI, age, gender, and uric acid; and inversely with magnesium, adjusted for sodium, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, and HOMA-IR (R 2  = 0.43). Furthermore, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that magnesium (OR = 0.015) and uric acid (OR = 2.95) were significantly associated with preHTN. Similar results were obtained when preHTN was replaced by HTN. Our results indicate that HTN was associated inversely with magnesium and positively with uric acid in indigenous school children. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Composition of highly concentrated silicate electrolytes and ultrasound influencing the plasma electrolytic oxidation of magnesium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simchen, F.; Rymer, L.-M.; Sieber, M.; Lampke, T.

    2017-03-01

    Magnesium and its alloys are increasingly in use as lightweight construction materials. However, their inappropriate corrosion and wear resistance often prevent their direct practical use. The plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) is a promising, environmentally friendly method to improve the surface characteristics of magnesium materials by the formation of oxide coatings. These PEO layers contain components of the applied electrolyte and can be shifted in their composition by increasing the concentration of the electrolyte constituents. Therefore, in contrast to the use of conventional low concentrated electrolytes, the process results in more stable protective coatings, in which electrolyte species are the dominating constitutes. In the present work, the influence of the composition of highly concentrated alkaline silicate electrolytes with additives of phosphate and glycerol on the quality of PEO layers on the magnesium alloy AZ31 was examined. The effect of ultrasound coupled into the electrolyte bath was also considered. The process was monitored by recording the electrical process variables with a transient recorder and by observation of the discharge phenomena on the sample surface with a camera. The study was conducted on the basis of a design of experiments. The effects of the process parameter variation are considered with regard to the coatings thickness, hardness and corrosion resistance. Information about the statistical significance of the effects of the parameters on the considered properties is obtained by an analysis of variance (ANOVA).

  12. 77 FR 6463 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-08

    ... Blood Components, Including Source Plasma; Correction AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION..., Including Source Plasma,'' which provided incorrect publication information regarding a 60-day notice that...

  13. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels of magnesium). (b) Classification. Class I. ...

  14. Magnesium plasma immersion ion implantation in a large straight magnetic duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Ing Hwie; Ueda, Mario; Dallaqua, Renato S; Rossi, Jose O; Beloto, Antonio F; Abramof, Eduardo; Inoue, Y; Takai, Osamu

    2002-01-01

    Magnesium ions were implanted on silicon wafers using a vacuum arc plasma system with a straight 1 m long magnetic duct, 0.22 m in diameter. Good macroparticle filtering was obtained in samples positioned facing the plasma stream and complete filtering was achieved in samples with surfaces parallel to the plasma stream and magnetic field. Deposition is also minimized by placing sample surfaces parallel to the plasma stream. High resolution x-ray diffraction rocking curves of implanted samples show that the changes in lattice constant are due to compressive strain, and the distortion is larger for higher voltages. Without magnetic field the implantation was a few hundred angstroms deep, as expected, but with magnetic field the depth profile was surprisingly extended to over 0.1 μm, a fact for which we do not yet have a convincing explanation, but could be related to radiation enhanced segregation. The presence of a magnetic field increases substantially the retained implantation dose due to the increase in plasma density by two orders of magnitude

  15. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr, E-mail: vlad.vinnikov@mail.ru [Grigoriev Institute for Medical Radiology of the National Academy of Medical Science of Ukraine (Ukraine); Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul [Centre for Radiation, Chemical and Environmental Hazards of the Health Protection Agency of the United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2012-03-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G{sub 0}-stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors' blood irradiated in vitro to 0-40 Gy acute {gamma}-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 Degree-Sign C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 {+-} 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 {+-} 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 {+-} 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2-4 Gy and 16.7 {+-} 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6-10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  16. Bystander apoptosis in human cells mediated by irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinnikov, Volodymyr; Lloyd, David; Finnon, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Following exposure to high doses of ionizing radiation, due to an accident or during radiotherapy, bystander signalling poses a potential hazard to unirradiated cells and tissues. This process can be mediated by factors circulating in blood plasma. Thus, we assessed the ability of plasma taken from in vitro irradiated human blood to produce a direct cytotoxic effect, by inducing apoptosis in primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM), which mainly comprised G 0 -stage lymphocytes. Plasma was collected from healthy donors’ blood irradiated in vitro to 0–40 Gy acute γ-rays. Reporter PBM were separated from unirradiated blood with Histopaque and held in medium with the test plasma for 24 h at 37 °C. Additionally, plasma from in vitro irradiated and unirradiated blood was tested against PBM collected from blood given 4 Gy. Apoptosis in reporter PBM was measured by the Annexin V test using flow cytometry. Plasma collected from unirradiated and irradiated blood did not produce any apoptotic response above the control level in unirradiated reporter PBM. Surprisingly, plasma from irradiated blood caused a dose-dependent reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter PBM. The yields of radiation-induced cell death in irradiated reporter PBM (after subtracting the respective values in unirradiated reporter PBM) were 22.2 ± 1.8% in plasma-free cultures, 21.6 ± 1.1% in cultures treated with plasma from unirradiated blood, 20.2 ± 1.4% in cultures with plasma from blood given 2–4 Gy and 16.7 ± 3.2% in cultures with plasma from blood given 6–10 Gy. These results suggested that irradiated blood plasma did not cause a radiation-induced bystander cell-killing effect. Instead, a reduction of apoptosis in irradiated reporter cells cultured with irradiated blood plasma has implications concerning oncogenic risk from mutated cells surviving after high dose in vivo irradiation (e.g. radiotherapy) and requires further study.

  17. Association of Magnesium Intake with High Blood Pressure in Korean Adults: Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2007–2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Mi-Kyeong; Bae, Yun Jung

    2015-01-01

    Background Magnesium is known to lower the risk of cardiovascular disease. However, studies on its relationship with hypertension, a single and common cause of various chronic diseases, are limited and their findings are not consistent. The purpose of the present study is to identify the relationship between magnesium intake and high blood pressure (HBP) risk in Koreans. Methods This research is a cross-sectional study based on the 2007~2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey data. This study investigated 11,685 adults aged over 20 to examine their general characteristics, anthropometry and blood pressure. Daily magnesium intake was analyzed using the 24-hour dietary recall method. To calculate the odds ratio (OR) of HBP risk (130/85 mmHg or over) according to the quartile of magnesium intake (mg/1000kcal) together with its 95% confidence interval (CI), multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed. Results No significant association between dietary magnesium intake and the risk of HBP was found. In obese women, particularly, after adjusting relevant factors, the adjusted odds ratio of HBP prevalence in the highest magnesium intake quartile was 0.40 compared with the lowest magnesium intake quartile (95% CI = 0.25~0.63, P for trend = 0.0014). Women, especially obese women, were found to have a negative relationship of magnesium intake with HBP. Conclusions The present results indicate that sufficient magnesium intake could be useful in decreasing the high blood pressure risk of obese women. PMID:26075385

  18. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-09-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept "bio-adaption" between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed.

  19. Bio-Adaption between Magnesium Alloy Stent and the Blood Vessel: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jun; Zhao, Nan; Betts, Lexxus; Zhu, Donghui

    2016-01-01

    Biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloy stents are the most promising next generation of bio-absorbable stents. In this article, we summarized the progresses on the in vitro studies, animal testing and clinical trials of biodegradable Mg alloy stents in the past decades. These exciting findings led us to propose the importance of the concept “bio-adaption” between the Mg alloy stent and the local tissue microenvironment after implantation. The healing responses of stented blood vessel can be generally described in three overlapping phases: inflammation, granulation and remodeling. The ideal bio-adaption of the Mg alloy stent, once implanted into the blood vessel, needs to be a reasonable function of the time and the space/dimension. First, a very slow degeneration of mechanical support is expected in the initial four months in order to provide sufficient mechanical support to the injured vessels. Although it is still arguable whether full mechanical support in stented lesions is mandatory during the first four months after implantation, it would certainly be a safety design parameter and a benchmark for regulatory evaluations based on the fact that there is insufficient human in vivo data available, especially the vessel wall mechanical properties during the healing/remodeling phase. Second, once the Mg alloy stent being degraded, the void space will be filled by the regenerated blood vessel tissues. The degradation of the Mg alloy stent should be 100% completed with no residues, and the degradation products (e.g., ions and hydrogen) will be helpful for the tissue reconstruction of the blood vessel. Toward this target, some future research perspectives are also discussed. PMID:27698548

  20. Continuous synthesis of magnesium-hydroxide, zinc-oxide, and silver nanoparticles by microwave plasma in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hattori, Yoshiaki; Mukasa, Shinobu; Toyota, Hiromichi; Inoue, Toru; Nomura, Shinfuku

    2011-01-01

    Nanoparticles are continuously synthesized from submerged magnesium, zinc, and silver rods 1–2 mm in diameter by microwave plasma in pure water at 20 kPa. Magnesium-hydroxide nanoplates shaped as triangles, truncated triangles or hexagons with 25–125 nm in size are synthesized with a production rate of 60 g h −1 . Zinc-oxide nanoparticles formed as sharp sticks with diameters of 50 nm and lengths of 150–200 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 14 g h −1 . Silver nanoparticles with a diameter of approximately 6 nm are synthesized with a production rate of 0.8 g h −1 . The excitation temperature is estimated by applying the Boltzmann plot method in assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium. The excitation temperatures obtained from hydrogen, magnesium, and zinc lines are 3300 ± 100 K, 4000 ± 500 K, and 3200 ± 500 K, respectively.

  1. Corrosion behavior of AZ91 magnesium alloy treated by plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition in artificial physiological fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Chenglong; Xin Yunchang; Tian Xiubo; Chu, Paul K.

    2007-01-01

    Due to the good biocompatibility and tensile yield strength, magnesium alloys are promising in degradable prosthetic implants. The objective of this study is to investigate the corrosion behavior of surgical AZ91 magnesium alloy treated by aluminum, zirconium, and titanium plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIII and D) at 10 kV in artificial physiological fluids. The surface layers show a characteristic intermixed layer and the outer surface are mainly composed of aluminum, zirconium or titanium oxide with a lesser amount of magnesium oxide. Comparing the three sets of samples, aluminum PIII and D significantly shifts the open circuit potential (OCP) to a more positive potential and improves the corrosion resistance at OCP

  2. Effect of electrolyte additives on performance of plasma electrolytic oxidation films formed on magnesium alloy AZ91D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duan, Hongping; Yan, Chuanwei; Wang, Fuhui

    2007-01-01

    Various plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films were prepared on magnesium alloy AZ91D in a silicate bath with different additives such as phosphate, fluoride and borate. Effects of the additives on chemical composition and corrosion resistance of the PEO films were examined by means of scanning electron microscopy (SEM), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 3.5% NaCl solution. The results showed that the PEO films obtained in solutions with both borate and fluoride had better corrosion resistance. In order to understand the corrosion mechanism of PEO films on magnesium alloy AZ91D, electronic property of the magnesium electrode with PEO films was studied by Mott-Schottky approach in a solution containing borate and chloride. The results indicated that magnesium electrodes with and without PEO films all exhibited n-type semiconducting property. However, in comparison with the magnesium electrode treated in solutions containing phosphate or borate, the electrode treated in solutions containing both borate and fluoride (M-film) had lower donor concentration and much negative flat band potential; therefore, the M-film had lower reactivity and higher corrosion resistance

  3. Association of blood pressure and metabolic syndrome components with magnesium levels in drinking water in some Serbian municipalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasic-Milutinovic, Zorica; Perunicic-Pekovic, Gordana; Jovanovic, Dragana; Gluvic, Zoran; Cankovic-Kadijevic, Milce

    2012-03-01

    Chronic exposure to insufficient levels of magnesium (Mg) in drinking water increases the risk of magnesium deficiency and its association with hypertension, dyslipidemia and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of the study was to assess the potential association of mineral contents in drinking water with blood pressure and other components of metabolic syndrome (MetS) (BMI as measure of obesity, triglycerides, glucose, and insulin resistance, index-HOMA IR), in a healthy population. This study was conducted in three randomly selected municipalities (Pozarevac, Grocka and Banovci), and recruited 90 healthy blood donors, aged 20-50 years. The Pozarevac area had a four times higher mean Mg level in drinking water (42 mg L(-1)) than Grocka (11 mg L(-1)). Diastolic blood pressure was lowest in subjects from Pozarevac. Serum Mg (sMg) was highest, and serum Ca(2+)/Mg (sCa/Mg) lowest in subjects from Pozarevac, and after adjustment for confounders (age, gender, BMI), only total cholesterol and sMg levels were independent predictors of diastolic blood pressure, sMg levels were independent predictors of triglycerides, and sCa/Mg predicted glucose levels. These results suggest that Mg supplementation in areas of lower magnesium levels in drinking water may be an important measure in the prevention of hypertension and MetS in general.

  4. TiO2 Deposition on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Using Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leon White

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO has been used in the past as a useful surface treatment technique to improve the anticorrosion properties of Mg alloys by forming protective layer. Coatings were prepared on AZ31 magnesium alloy in phosphate electrolyte with the addition of TiO2 nanoparticles using plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO. This present work focuses on developing a TiO2 functional coating to create a novel electrophotocatalyst while observing the surface morphology, structure, composition, and corrosion resistance of the PEO coating. Microstructural characterization of the coating was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM followed by image analysis and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX. The corrosion resistance of the PEO treated samples was evaluated with electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS and DC polarization tests in 3.5 wt.% NaCl. The XRD pattern shows that the components of the oxide film include Mg from the substrate as well as MgO and Mg2TiO4 due to the TiO2 nanoparticle addition. The results show that the PEO coating with TiO2 nanoparticles did improve the corrosion resistance when compared to the AZ31 substrate alloy.

  5. Characterization of coatings formed on AZX magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anawati, Anawati; Gumelar, Muhammad Dikdik

    2018-05-01

    Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) is an electrochemical anodization process which involves the application of a high voltage to create intense plasma on a metal surface to form a ceramic type of oxide. The resulted coating exhibits high wear resistance and good corrosion barrier which are suitable to enhance the performance of biodegradable Mg alloys. In this work, the role of alloying element Ca in modifying the characteristics of PEO layer formed on AZ61 series magnesium alloys was investigated. PEO treatment was conducted on AZ61, AZX611, and AZX612 alloys in 0.5 M Na3PO4 solution at a constant current of 200 A/m2 at 25°C for 8 min. The resulted coatings were characterized by field emission-scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), and X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (XRF), as well as hardness test. The presence of alloying element Ca in the AZ61 alloys accelerated the PEO coatings formation without altering the coating properties significantly. The coating formed on AZX specimen was slightly thicker ( 14-17 µm) than that of formed onthe AZ specimens ( 13 µm). Longer exposure time to plasma discharge was the reason for faster thickening of the coating layer on AZX specimen. XRD detected a similar crystalline oxide phase of Mg3(PO4)2 in the oxide formed on all of the specimens. Zn was highly incorporated in the coatings with a concentration in the range 24-30 wt%, as analyzed by XRF. Zn compound might exist in amorphous phases. The microhardness test on the coatings revealed similar average hardness 124 HVon all of the specimens.

  6. Characterization of Porous Phosphate Coatings Enriched with Magnesium or Zinc on CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Rokosz

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the paper is to study and determine the effect of voltage increasing from 500 up to 650 VDC on chemical and electrochemical properties of the obtained porous coatings with plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO processes, known also as micro arc oxidation (MAO. In the present paper, the chemical and electrochemical characterization of porous phosphate coatings enriched with magnesium or zinc on commercially pure (CP Titanium Grade 2 under DC-PEO obtained in electrolytes based on concentrated 85% analytically pure H3PO4 (98 g/mole acid with additions of 500 g·L−1 of zinc nitrate Zn(NO32∙6H2O or magnesium nitrate Mg(NO32∙6H2O, are described. These materials were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM with energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES. It was found that the voltage of PEO process has influence on the chemical composition and thickness of the obtained porous coatings as well as on their electrochemical behavior. The higher the potential of PEO treatment, the higher the amount of zinc-to-phosphorus ratio for zinc enriched coatings was obtained, whereas in magnesium enriched coatings, the average amount of magnesium detected in PEO coating is approximately independent of the PEO voltages. Based on XPS studies, it was found out that most likely the top 10 nm of porous coatings is constructed of titanium (Ti4+, magnesium (Mg2+, zinc (Zn2+, and phosphates PO43− and/or HPO42− and/or H2PO4− and/or P2O74−. On the basis of GDOES studies, a four-sub-layer model of PEO coatings is proposed. Analysis of the potentiodynamic corrosion curves allowed to conclude that the best electrochemical repeatability was noted for magnesium and zinc enriched coatings obtained at 575 VDC.

  7. Self-separation of blood plasma from whole blood during the capillary flow in microchannel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunna, Bharath Babu; Zhuang, Shiqiang; Lee, Eon Soo

    2017-11-01

    Self-separation of blood plasma from whole blood in microchannels is of great importance due to the enormous range of applications in healthcare and diagnostics. Blood is a multiphase complex fluid, composed of cells suspended in blood plasma. RBCs are the suspended particles whose shape changes during the flow of blood. The primary constituents of blood are erythrocytes or red blood cells (RBCs), leukocytes or white blood cells (WBCs), thrombocytes or platelets and blood plasma. The existence of RBCs in blood makes the blood a non-Newtonian fluid. The current study of separation of blood plasma from whole blood during self-driven flows in a single microchannel without bifurcation, by enhancing the capillary effects. The change in the capillary effect results in a change in contact angle which directly influences the capillary flow. The flow velocity directly influences the net force acting on the RBCs and influence the separation process. The experiments are performed on the PDMS microchannels with different contact angles by altering the surface characteristics using plasma treatment. The change in the separation length is studied during the capillary flow of blood in microchannel. Bharath Babu Nunna is a researcher in mechanical engineering and implementing the novel and innovative technologies in the biomedical devices to enhance the sensitivity of the disease diagnosis.

  8. Effects of CH3OH Addition on Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation of AZ31 Magnesium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongyi; Chen, Li; Yan, Zongcheng; Zhang, Yalei

    2015-09-01

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) films on AZ31 magnesium alloys were prepared in alkaline silicate electrolytes (base electrolyte) with the addition of different volume concentrations of CH3OH, which was used to adjust the thickness of the vapor sheath. The compositions, morphologies, and thicknesses of ceramic layers formed with different CH3OH concentrations were determined via X-ray diffraction (XRD), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Corrosion behavior of the oxide films was evaluated in 3.5 wt.% NaCl solution using potentiodynamic polarization tests. PEO coatings mainly comprised Mg, MgO, and Mg2SiO4. The addition of CH3OH in base electrolytes affected the thickness, pores diameter, and Mg2SiO4 content in the films. The films formed in the electrolyte containing 12% CH3OH exhibited the highest thickness. The coatings formed in the electrolyte containing different concentrations of CH3OH exhibited similar corrosion resistance. The energy consumption of PEO markedly decreased upon the addition of CH3OH to the electrolytes. The result is helpful for energy saving in the PEO process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 21376088), the Project of Production, Education and Research, Guangdong Province and Ministry of Education (Nos. 2012B09100063, 2012A090300015), and Guangzhou Science and Technology Plan Projects of China (No. 2014Y2-00042)

  9. Role of Ca in Modifying Corrosion Resistance and Bioactivity of Plasma Anodized AM60 Magnesium Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anawati, Anawati; Asoh, Hidetaka; Ono, Sachiko [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-06-15

    The effect of alloying element Ca (0, 1, and 2 wt%) on corrosion resistance and bioactivity of the as-received and anodized surface of rolled plate AM60 alloys was investigated. A plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) was carried out to form anodic oxide film in 0.5 mol dm{sup -3} Na{sub 3}PO{sub 4} solution. The corrosion behavior was studied by polarization measurements while the in vitro bioactivity was tested by soaking the specimens in Simulated Body Fluid (1.5xSBF). Optical micrograph and elemental analysis of the substrate surfaces indicated that the number of intermetallic particles increased with Ca content in the alloys owing to the formation of a new phase Al2Ca. The corrosion resistance of AM60 specimens improved only slightly by alloying with 2 wt% Ca which was attributed to the reticular distribution of Al2Ca phase existed in the alloy that might became barrier for corrosion propagation across grain boundaries. Corrosion resistance of the three alloys was significantly improved by coating the substrates with anodic oxide film formed by PEO. The film mainly composed of magnesium phosphate with thickness in the range 30 - 40 μm. The heat resistant phase of Al{sub 2}Ca was believed to retard the plasma discharge during anodization and, hence, decreased the film thickness of Ca-containing alloys. The highest apatite forming ability in 1.5xSBF was observed for AM60-1Ca specimens (both substrate and anodized) that exhibited more degradation than the other two alloys as indicated by surface observation. The increase of surface roughness and the degree of supersaturation of 1.5xSBF due to dissolution of Mg ions from the substrate surface or the release of film compounds from the anodized surface are important factors to enhance deposition of Ca-P compound on the specimen surfaces.

  10. [Ratio of erythrocyte and plasma in massive blood transfusion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xian-Hui; Liu, Feng-Xia; Zhang, Jun-Hua; Gui, Rong

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the suitable ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte by retrospective analysis of coagulation in patients with massive blood transfusion. The clinical data of 151 cases with massive blood transfusion from January 2011 to January 2013 were analyzed retrospectively. According to coagulation, patients were divided into coagulation normal group (138 cases) and coagulation dysfunction group (13 cases). Based on the ratio of 1:1 of fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte, the patients were divided into high plasma group(2:1), medium plasma group (1:1) and low plasma (blood transfusion. The results showed that prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT) and thrombin time (TT) were prolonged, fibrinogen (FIB) level decreased significantly (all P blood transfusion 24 h; the high plasma and the medium plasma group of coagulation normal group had no significant changes in coagulation (P > 0.05); prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time and fibrinogen level in the medium plasma and low plasma subgroup of coagulation dysfunction group after massive transfusion was still in abnormal levels (P > 0.05), coagulation function in high plasma subgroup was improved significantly (P blood transfusion, the ratio between fresh frozen plasma and erythrocyte is recommended to be 2:1 in patients of coagulation dysfunction in order to improve the patient's coagulation function and to reduce the incidence of adverse event, the ratio of fresh frozen plasma to erythrocyte is recommended to be 1:1 in patients with normal coagulation so as to reduce the dilutional coagulopathy and hypervolemia of blood.

  11. Magnesium and trace metals: risk factors for coronary heart disease - associations between blood levels and angiographic findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manthey, J.; Stoeppler, M.; Morgenstern, W.; Nussel, E.; Opherk, D.; Weintraut, A.; Wesch, H.; Kubler, W.

    1981-01-01

    A deficiency or an excessive intake of metals with cardiovascular effects is suspected to be involved in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease (CHD) and sudden death. Therefore, in 106 patients undergoing coronary arteriography, serum levels of six essential metals (magnesium, chromium, copper, manganese, selenium and zinc) and whole blood concentrations of two elements without known essential function (cadmium and lead) were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometry, including the flameless technique, or neutron activation analysis. Our results suggest that a deficiency of magnesium but not of the other metals studied may be present in patients with severe CHD; elevated serum copper and manganese levels do not play a role in the development of CHD in the sample of patients studied; and cigarette smoking may be associated with increased serum cadmium levels, which may explain in part the contribution of smoking to the risk of sudden death in patients with CHD

  12. 21 CFR 640.64 - Collection of blood for Source Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Collection of blood for Source Plasma. 640.64... (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL STANDARDS FOR HUMAN BLOOD AND BLOOD PRODUCTS Source Plasma § 640.64 Collection of blood for Source Plasma. (a) Supervision. All blood for the collection of Source Plasma shall...

  13. Ciclosporine A asxay: RIA or HPLC, plasma or total blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapalus, P.; Garraffo, R.; Krebs, B.; Lapalus, F.

    1985-01-01

    The two methods now in force for ciclosporine A assay are radioimmunoassay (RIA) and high pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) in various biological media (plasma, serum, total blood). The advantages and disadvantages of the two methods are presented [fr

  14. Relationships of Whole Blood Serotonin and Plasma Norepinephrine within Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Bennett L.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    This study of 47 families of autistic probands found that whole blood serotonin was positively correlated between autistic children and their mothers, fathers, and siblings, but plasma norepinephrine levels were not. (Author/JDD)

  15. blood and plasma volumes in normal west african dwarf sheep

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    volume (PCV) and haemoglobin (Hb) values were determined as descried by Benjamin (1978) using the microhaematocrit and ... Standard dye concentration of 20 mg/ml was used for determining the dye concentration in plasma. ... Haemoglobin (Hb), Plasma Volume and Blood Volume in the West African Dwarf. Sheep.

  16. Reference intervals of plasma calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium for African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus) and Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Carvalho, Fernanda M; Gaunt, Stephen D; Kearney, Michael T; Rich, Gregory A; Tully, Thomas N

    2009-12-01

    Calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and magnesium (Mg) are important elements for body homeostasis in several diseases associated with imbalances in the plasma concentration of these ions. This is the first published report of reference intervals for Mg in association with Ca and P levels for psittacine species. One milliliter of blood was collected from 26 Hispaniolan parrots (Amazona ventralis) and 24 African grey parrots (Psittacus erithacus). The plasma concentrations of Ca, P, and Mg were determined for each sample. Statistical analyses were performed including all data (analysis 1) and after exclusion of the subjects with Ca > or = 14.00 mg/dl (3.5 mmol) (analysis 2). The data from analysis 1 have a narrower interval than that observed in analysis 2. Following the normality test (Shapiro-Wilk, alpha = 0.05), the univariate and mean procedures were run. For the reference intervals, the lower and upper values were used, after elimination of the outliers calculated by Blom scores from the ranked variables. The analysis 1 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.40 mg/dl (2.20-2.60 mmol/L), P = 1.80-4.40 mg/dl (0.58-1.42 mmol/L), Mg = 1.80-3.10 mg/dl (0.74-1.27 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 1 references were Ca = 8.20-20.20 mg/dl (2.05-5.05 mmol/L), P = 2.50-5.90 mg/dl (0.81-1.91 mmol/L), Mg = 2.10-3.40 mg/dl (0.82-1.4 mmol/L), and Ca:P ratio = 1.81-3.77. The analysis 2 references for the Hispaniolans were Ca = 8.80-10.30 mg/dl (2.20-2.58 mmol/L), P = 1.80-3.80 mg/dl (0.58-1.23 mmol/L), Mg = 1.90-3.00 mg/dl (0.82-1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 2.62-5.39; for the African greys analysis 2 references were Ca = 1.07 mmol/L), Ca:P ratio = 1.67-3.50. The results of this study are important for evaluating Mg concentrations in relation to the Ca and P parameters in psittacines. This information will be particularly helpful for veterinarians evaluating the hypocalcemic syndrome in African grey parrots and other disease processes

  17. Biochemical characterization of blood plasma of coronary artery ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    This study aimed to investigate the biochemical profile of blood plasma of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and angiographically normal subjects (controls) to determine biomarkers for their differentiation. In this double blind study, 5 mL venous blood was drawn before angiography from CAD patients (n=60) and ...

  18. The effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or noncommunicable chronic diseases: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dibaba, Daniel T; Xun, Pengcheng; Song, Yiqing; Rosanoff, Andrea; Shechter, Michael; He, Ka

    2017-09-01

    Background: To our knowledge, the effect of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP) in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases has not been previously investigated in a meta-analysis, and the findings from randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have been inconsistent. Objective: We sought to determine the pooled effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in participants with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases. Design: We identified RCTs that were published in English before May 2017 that examined the effect of magnesium supplementation on BP in individuals with preclinical or noncommunicable diseases through PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, clinicaltrials.gov, SpringerLink, and Google Scholar databases as well as the reference lists from identified relevant articles. Random- and fixed-effects models were used to estimate the pooled standardized mean differences (SMDs) with 95% CIs in changes in BP from baseline to the end of the trial in both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) between the magnesium-supplementation group and the control group. Results: Eleven RCTs that included 543 participants with follow-up periods that ranged from 1 to 6 mo (mean: 3.6 mo) were included in this meta-analysis. The dose of elemental magnesium that was used in the trials ranged from 365 to 450 mg/d. All studies reported BP at baseline and the end of the trial. The weighted overall effects indicated that the magnesium-supplementation group had a significantly greater reduction in both SBP (SMD: -0.20; 95% CI: -0.37, -0.03) and DBP (SMD: -0.27; 95% CI: -0.52, -0.03) than did the control group. Magnesium supplementation resulted in a mean reduction of 4.18 mm Hg in SBP and 2.27 mm Hg in DBP. Conclusion: The pooled results suggest that magnesium supplementation significantly lowers BP in individuals with insulin resistance, prediabetes, or other noncommunicable chronic diseases. © 2017 American Society for Nutrition.

  19. Influence of chloride ion concentration on the electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AM50 magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Dietzel, W.

    2010-01-01

    The electrochemical degradation of a silicate- and a phosphate-based plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AM50 magnesium alloy obtained using a pulsed DC power supply was investigated using potentiodynamic polarisation and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in NaCl solutions of different chloride ion concentrations viz., 0.01 M, 0.1 M, 0.5 M and 1 M. The surface of the PEO coated specimens after 50 h of immersion/EIS testing was examined by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that the corrosion deterioration of PEO coated magnesium alloy in NaCl solutions was significantly influenced by chloride ion concentration. The silicate-based coating was found to offer a superior corrosion resistance to the magnesium substrate than the phosphate-based coatings in lower chloride ion concentration NaCl solutions (0.01 M and 0.1 M NaCl). On the other hand both these PEO coatings were found to be highly susceptible to localized damage, and could not provide an effective corrosion protection to Mg alloy substrate in solutions containing higher chloride concentrations (0.5 M and 1 M). The extent of localized damage was observed to be more with increase in chloride concentration in both the cases.

  20. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO).

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-06-01

    We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na 2 SiO 3 , KF and NaH 2 PO 4 ·2H 2 O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  1. Enhanced antimicrobial properties, cytocompatibility, and corrosion resistance of plasma-modified biodegradable magnesium alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ying; Jamesh, Mohammed Ibrahim; Li, Wing Kan; Wu, Guosong; Wang, Chenxi; Zheng, Yufeng; Yeung, Kelvin W K; Chu, Paul K

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable materials and have received increasing attention due to their outstanding biological performance and mechanical properties. However, rapid degradation in the physiological environment and potential toxicity limit clinical applications. Recently, special magnesium-calcium (Mg-Ca) and magnesium-strontium (Mg-Sr) alloys with biocompatible chemical compositions have been reported, but the rapid degradation still does not meet clinical requirements. In order to improve the corrosion resistance, a rough, hydrophobic and ZrO(2)-containing surface film is fabricated on Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys by dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation. Weight loss measurements and electrochemical corrosion tests show that the corrosion rate of the Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys is reduced appreciably after surface treatment. A systematic investigation of the in vitro cellular response and antibacterial capability of the modified binary magnesium alloys is performed. The amounts of adherent bacteria on the Zr-O-implanted and Zr-implanted samples diminish remarkably compared to the unimplanted control. In addition, significantly enhanced cell adhesion and proliferation are observed from the Zr-O-implanted sample. The results suggest that dual zirconium and oxygen ion implantation, which effectively enhances the corrosion resistance, in vitro biocompatibility and antimicrobial properties of Mg-Ca and Mg-Sr alloys, provides a simple and practical means to expedite clinical acceptance of biodegradable magnesium alloys. Copyright © 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A PILOT STUDY ON THE EFFECTS OF MAGNESIUM SUPPLEMENTATION WITH HIGH AND LOW HABITUAL DIETARY MAGNESIUM INTAKE ON RESTING AND RECOVERY FROM AEROBIC AND RESISTANCE EXERCISE AND SYSTOLIC BLOOD PRESSURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lindsy S. Kass

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The effects of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure (BP have been studied for over 25 years and results have been inconsistent. Blood pressure reductions in randomized studies have varied from 12 mmHg reductions to no reduction. The objective of this pilot intervention was to investigate the effect of magnesium supplementation on systolic blood pressure whilst resting and during recovery from aerobic and resistance exercise and on performance. A further objective was to see whether the effect of a high vs low habitual dietary magnesium intake affected these results. Sixteen male volunteers were randomly assigned to either a 300 mg·d-1 magnesium oxide supplementation (MO or a control group (CG for 14 days. Resting blood pressure (BP and heart rate (HR were measured before subjects performed a maximal 30 minute cycle, immediately followed by three x 5 second isometric bench press, both at baseline and after the intervention. Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded immediately post exercise and after five minutes recovery. A 3 day food diary was recorded for all subjects to measure dietary magnesium intake. At the end of the intervention, the supplemented group, had a reduction in mean resting systolic BP by 8.9 mmHg (115.125 ± 9.46 mmHg, p = 0.01 and post exercise by 13 mmHg (122.625 ± 9. 88 mmHg, p = 0.01. Recovery BP was 11.9 mmHg lower in the intervention group compared to control (p = 0.006 and HR decreased by 7 beats per minute in the experimental group (69.0 ± 11.6 bpm, p = 0. 02. Performance indicators did not change within and between the groups. Habitual dietary magnesium intake affected both resting and post exercise systolic BP and the subsequent effect of the magnesium supplementation. These results have an implication in a health setting and for health and exercise but not performance.

  3. Intravenous Infusion of Magnesium Chloride Improves Epicenter Blood Flow during the Acute Stage of Contusive Spinal Cord Injury in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muradov, Johongir M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Vasospasm, hemorrhage, and loss of microvessels at the site of contusive or compressive spinal cord injury lead to infarction and initiate secondary degeneration. Here, we used intravenous injection of endothelial-binding lectin followed by histology to show that the number of perfused microvessels at the injury site is decreased by 80–90% as early as 20 min following a moderate T9 contusion in adult female rats. Hemorrhage within the spinal cord also was maximal at 20 min, consistent with its vasoconstrictive actions in the central nervous system (CNS). Microvascular blood flow recovered to up to 50% of normal volume in the injury penumbra by 6 h, but not at the epicenter. A comparison with an endothelial cell marker suggested that many microvessels fail to be reperfused up to 48 h post-injury. The ischemia was probably caused by vasospasm of vessels penetrating the parenchyma, because repeated Doppler measurements over the spinal cord showed a doubling of total blood flow over the first 12 h. Moreover, intravenous infusion of magnesium chloride, used clinically to treat CNS vasospasm, greatly improved the number of perfused microvessels at 24 and 48 h. The magnesium treatment seemed safe as it did not increase hemorrhage, despite the improved parenchymal blood flow. However, the treatment did not reduce acute microvessel, motor neuron or oligodendrocyte loss, and when infused for 7 days did not affect functional recovery or spared epicenter white matter over a 4 week period. These data suggest that microvascular blood flow can be restored with a clinically relevant treatment following spinal cord injury. PMID:23302047

  4. Magnesium in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... sources of magnesium: Fruits or vegetables (such as bananas, dried apricots, and avocados) Nuts (such as almonds ... deficiency: Low blood calcium level (hypocalcemia) Low blood potassium level (hypokalemia) Recommendations These are the recommended daily ...

  5. Contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood: solubility in plasma and distribution in blood components following separation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skjonsberg, O.H.; Kierulf, P.; Gravem, K.; Fagerhol, M.K.; Godal, H.C.

    1986-01-01

    In order to estimate the solubility of contaminating fibrin in CPD-blood, thrombin induced fibrin polymerzation in CPD-plasma was examined by light scattering and fibrinopeptide A (FPA) determinations. In addition, I-125 fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood was used to investigate fibrin monomer retention in blood bags and transfusion filters (170 microns) and fibrin distribution in blood components derived from CPD-blood. Initial fibrin polymerization in CPD-blood occurred after conversion of 15 per cent of the fibrinogen to fibrin, implying that substantial amounts of fibrin may be kept solubilized in CPD-blood bags. Only minor amounts of I-125 fibrin monomers were retained in blood bags (2.4 per cent) and in transfusion filters (2.9 per cent) after sham transfusions. After separating I-125-fibrin monomer enriched CPD-blood into its constituent components, the major part of fibrin (75.0 per cent) could be traced in the cryoprecipitate

  6. Blood sampling and hemolysis affect concentration of plasma metabolites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Pedersen, Lene Juul; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2012-01-01

    design and blood was collected after restraint via vein puncture 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding. Plasma samples were categorized as without or with minor or major hemolysis [clear (n = 218), yellow (n = 97), or red (n = 37)] upon centrifugation. Plasma NEFA (P ...Two experiments were carried out to reveal and quantify plasma metabolites that are sensitive to hemolysis and animal stress due to the blood sampling procedure (vein puncture vs. catheter). In Exp. 1, 48 sows were fed 4 diets either once (0800 h) or twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) in a crossover......, a subset of samples from 24 sows fed twice daily in Exp. 1 was combined with data obtained from 30 sows sampled using jugular vein catheters. All sows in Exp. 2 were fed twice daily (0800 h and 1500 h) and blood samples collected repeatedly 1, 4, 11, and 23 h after morning feeding (other conditions were...

  7. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Collins, Boyce; Badve, Aditya; Dong, Zhongyun; Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. A microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation using electro-osmotic flow control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Hai; Weng, Xuan; Chon, Chan Hee; Wu, Xudong; Li, Dongqing

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a microfluidic-based chip with two straight microchannels and five branch microchannels was designed and tested to separate blood plasma from a small sample of fresh human blood. The electro-osmotic flow method was used to control the separation of blood plasma. Blood cell removal and blood plasma extraction were realized in experiments. The efficiency of extracting blood plasma can be as high as 26%

  9. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi; Neralla, Sudheer; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na_2SiO_3, KF and NaH_2PO_4·2H_2O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  10. Corrosion performance of atmospheric plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy under immersion environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. The alumina powders were plasma sprayed on AZ31B magnesium alloy with three different plasma spraying parameters. In the present work, the influence of plasma spray parameters on the corrosion behavior of the coatings was investigated. The corrosion behavior of the coated samples was evaluated by immersion corrosion test in 3.5 wt% NaCl solution. Empirical relationship was established to predict the corrosion rate of plasma sprayed alumina coatings by incorporating process parameters. The experiments were conducted based on a three factor, five-level, central composite rotatable design matrix. The developed relationship can be effectively used to predict the corrosion rate of alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. The results indicate that the input power has the greatest influence on corrosion rate, followed by stand-off distance and powder feed rate.

  11. Blood and plasma volumes in normal west African dwarf sheep ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Blood and plasma volumes were determined using T-1824 in 36 normal adult West African Dwarf sheep. In the rams, dry ewes, pregnant ewes and lactating ewes, the mean values for the blood volume (ml/kg body weight) were 64.08 ± 6.11, 55.74 ± 9.31, 71.46 ± 6.46 and 147.12 ± 12.79 respectively, while the mean values ...

  12. Viable bacteria associated with red blood cells and plasma in freshly drawn blood donations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian; Nilsson, Martin; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Holmstrup, Palle; Nielsen, Claus Henrik

    2015-01-01

    Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from the oral cavity, and to determine the distribution of bacteria revealed in plasma and in the red blood cell (RBC)-fraction. Cross-sectional study. Blood were separated into plasma and RBC-suspensions, which were incubated anaerobically or aerobically for 7 days on trypticase soy blood agar (TSA) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. 60 donors (≥50 years old), self-reported medically healthy. Bacterial growth was observed on plates inoculated with plasma or RBCs from 62% of the blood donations. Growth was evident in 21 (35%) of 60 RBC-fractions and in 32 (53%) of 60 plasma-fractions versus 8 of 60 negative controls (p = 0.005 and p = 2.6x10-6, respectively). Propionibacterium acnes was found in 23% of the donations, and Staphylococcus epidermidis in 38%. The majority of bacteria identified in the present study were either facultative anaerobic (59.5%) or anaerobic (27.8%) species, which are not likely to be detected during current routine screening. Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing of RBC-fractions for adherent bacteria should be recommended.

  13. Prehospital use of plasma: the blood bankers' perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hervig, Tor; Doughty, Heidi; Ness, Paul; Badloe, John F; Berseus, Olle; Glassberg, Elon; Heier, Hans E

    2014-05-01

    At the 2013 Traumatic Hemostasis and Oxygenation Research Network's Remote Damage Control Resuscitation symposium, a panel of senior blood bankers with both civilian and military background was invited to discuss their willingness and ability to supply prehospital plasma for resuscitation of massively bleeding casualties and to comment on the optimal preparations for such situations. Available evidence indicates that prehospital use of plasma may improve remote damage control resuscitation, although level I evidence is lacking. This practice is well established in several military services and is also being introduced in civilian settings. There are few, if any, clinical contraindications to the prehospital use of plasma, except for blood group incompatibility and the danger of transfusion-induced acute lung injury, which can be circumvented in various ways. However, the choice of plasma source, plasma preparation, and logistics including stock management require consideration. Staff training should include hemovigilance and traceability as well as recognition and management of eventual adverse effects. Prehospital use of plasma should occur within the framework of clinical algorithms and prospective clinical studies. Clinicians have an ethical responsibility to both patients and donors; therefore, the introduction of new clinical capabilities of transfusion must be safe, efficacious, and sustainable. The panel agreed that although these problems need further attention and scientific studies, now is the time for both military and civilian transfusion systems to prepare for prehospital use of plasma in massively bleeding casualties.

  14. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Yongseok; Tan, Zongqing; Jurey, Chris; Collins, Boyce; Badve, Aditya; Dong, Zhongyun; Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang; Sankar, Jagannathan; Yun, Yeoheung

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. - Highlights: • Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 in vitro and in vivo • Retardation of degradation via plasma electrolytic oxidation in vitro and in vivo • Differentiation of in vitro and in vivo corrosion types and products

  15. Systematic understanding of corrosion behavior of plasma electrolytic oxidation treated AZ31 magnesium alloy using a mouse model of subcutaneous implant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Yongseok [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Tan, Zongqing [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States); Jurey, Chris [Luke Engineering, Wadsworth, OH 44282 (United States); Collins, Boyce [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Badve, Aditya [Business and Biology, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, NC 27514 (United States); Dong, Zhongyun [Internal Medicine, College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati, OH 45211 (United States); Park, Chanhee; Kim, Cheol Sang [Department of Bio-nano System Engineering, Chonbuk National University, Jeonju, Jeonbuk 561-756 (Korea, Republic of); Sankar, Jagannathan [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States); Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu [Engineering Research Center for Revolutionizing Metallic Biomaterials (ERC-RMB), North Carolina A and T State University, Greensboro, NC, 27411 (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This study was conducted to identify the differences between corrosion rates, corrosion types, and corrosion products in different physiological environments for AZ31 magnesium alloy and plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) treated AZ31 magnesium alloy. In vitro and in vivo tests were performed in Hank's Balanced Salt Solution (HBSS) and mice for 12 weeks, respectively. The corrosion rates of both AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy were calculated based on DC polarization curves, volume of hydrogen evolution, and the thickness of corrosion products formed on the surface. Micro X-ray computed tomography (Micro-CT), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to analyze morphological and chemical characterizations of corrosion products. The results show that there is more severe localized corrosion after in vitro test in HBSS; however, the thicknesses of corrosion products formed on the surface for AZ31 magnesium alloy and PEO treated AZ31 magnesium alloy in vivo were about 40% thicker than the thickness of corrosion products generated in vitro. The ratio of Ca and P (Ca/P) in the corrosion products also differed. The Ca deficient region and higher content of Al in corrosion product than AZ31 magnesium alloy were identified after in vivo test in contrast with the result of in vitro test. - Highlights: • Effects of plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 in vitro and in vivo • Retardation of degradation via plasma electrolytic oxidation in vitro and in vivo • Differentiation of in vitro and in vivo corrosion types and products.

  16. Correlation of Cadmium and Magnesium in the Blood and Serum Samples of Smokers and Non-Smokers Chronic Leukemia Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Noman; Afridi, Hasan Imran; Kazi, Tasneem Gul; Arain, Muhammad Balal; Bilal, Muhammad; Akhtar, Asma; Khan, Mustafa

    2017-03-01

    It was studied that cancer-causing processes are related with the disproportions of essential and toxic elements in body tissues and fluid. The purpose of the current study was to evaluate the levels of magnesium (Mg) and cadmium (Cd) in serum and blood samples of smokers and nonsmokers who have chronic myeloid (CML) and lymphocytic (CLL) leukemia, age ranged 31-50 years. For comparative study, age-matched smokers and nonsmoker males were chosen as controls/referents. The levels of elements in patient were analyzed before any treatment by atomic absorption spectrophotometer, after microwave assisted acid digestion. The validation of the method was done by using certified reference materials of serum and blood samples. The resulted data indicated that the adult male smokers and nonsmokers have two- to fourfold higher levels of Cd in the blood and sera samples as compared to the referents (p blood and serum samples of both types of leukemia patients as related to referent values. The resulted data indicates significant negative correlation among Mg and Cd in leukemia patients and smoker referents. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of these elements in pathogenesis of chronic leukemia.

  17. studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    A study to determine the blood parameters and plasma biochemical values of ... highest in animals at the 4th month state (9.75g/dl) and lowest at the 12th ... study is indicative of satisfactory physiological, nutritional and pathological ... domestication and integration into the micro-livestock farming system is ..... Principles and.

  18. 21 CFR 864.9205 - Blood and plasma warming device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Blood and plasma warming device. 864.9205 Section 864.9205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES HEMATOLOGY AND PATHOLOGY DEVICES Products Used In Establishments That Manufacture...

  19. Determination of cortisol in blood plasma by isotopic dilution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimizu, T.

    1978-01-01

    A method to measure cortisol in blood plasma is developed using tritium a tracer. Thin-layer chromatographer is used for very accurate separation and determination of cortisol free of impurities. Results show a concentration of 14,02+-5,79 μg/100ml for cortisol in blod. This method appears to be especially useful when interfering substances are present [pt

  20. Measurement of Uranium in Blood-Plasma of Bavarian Females

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaudhri, M.A.; Watling, R.J.

    2011-01-01

    It has recently been reported that the water supply in some parts of Bavaria (Germany) contains Uranium. In order to study its effects we have determined the concentrations of U in the blood plasma of 25 females. All the females came from Bavaria and were not on any medication. Blood samples were drawn from a superficial arm vein, centrifuged and plasma extracted. The plasma samples were freeze-dried and analysed in our Analytical Laboratory in Perth, Western Australia by using the technique of ICP-MS. The U contents found varied from less than 0.1 to 8.2 ppb (6.6 ng/L to 543 ng/L)

  1. Assessment of light stability of drugs in blood and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Ronald; Diels, Luc; Dillen, Lieve; Sips, Luc; Van Roosbroek, Dirk; Verhaeghe, Tom; Timmerman, Philip

    2016-10-01

    A procedure was developed for the assessment of photochemical stability of drugs in blood and plasma under standardized conditions. The procedure avoids a variable outcome of photochemical stability experiments and tests relevant worst case conditions so that unnecessary light protection is avoided. Results/methodology: Blood and plasma were spiked with a mixture of drugs and incubated in a Suntest CPS(+), in the laboratory on the bench and near the window on a sunny summer day. The results were compared. No protection from light, limited protection from light and full protection from light are advised for drugs that are stable in plasma in the Suntest CPS(+) at 250 W/m(2) for at least 30 min, for 5-30 min and for <5 min, respectively.

  2. Improvement of laser keyhole formation with the assistance of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process of magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2009-11-01

    In the previous work, low-power laser/arc hybrid welding technique is used to weld magnesium alloy and high-quality weld joints are obtained. In order to make clear the interactions between low-power laser pulse and arc plasma, the effect of arc plasma on laser pulse is studied in this article. The result shows that the penetration of low-power laser welding with the assistance of TIG arc is more than two times deeper than that of laser welding alone and laser welding transforms from thermal-conduction mode to keyhole mode. The plasma behaviors and spectra during the welding process are studied, and the transition mechanism of laser-welding mode is analyzed in detail. It is also found that with the assistance of arc plasma, the threshold value of average power density to form keyhole welding for YAG laser is only 3.3×10 4 W/cm 2, and the average peak power density is 2.6×10 5 W/cm 2 in the present experiment. Moreover, the distribution of energy density during laser pulse is modulated to improve the formation and stability of laser keyholes.

  3. [Distribution of chemical elements in whole blood and plasma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barashkov, G K; Zaĭtseva, L I; Kondakhchan, M A; Konstantinova, E A

    2003-01-01

    The distribution factor (Fd) of 35 elements of plasma and whole blood in 26 healthy men and women was detected by ICP-OES. Usilig this parameter the elements were subdivided in 3 pools. 9 of them have Fd higher than 1.5 ("elements of plasma"-Ag, Ca, Cu, In, Li, Na, Se, Si, Sr); 6 have lower than 0.5 ("elements of blood cells"-Fe, K, Mn, Ni, V, Zn), other 20-about 1 ("blood elements"). Fd of all elements depends on ionic radius. Elements of 2nd sub-groups of all groups of Mendeleev's periodic table ("heavy metals") depend on the similar law: "with growing of ionic radius the concentration of elements in plasma enhances". In alkaline metals Fd depends on the opposite law:" with growing of ionic radius of alkaline metal the quantity of elements in blood cells enhance". Dependence of Fd on the value of atomic mass in periods or in exterior electronic cloud (s-, p-, d-, f-) was not established. The table of distribution of all detected elements in whole blood in relation to 8 macroelements (Ca, Mg, K, Na, S, P, Fe, Zn,) is presented, as a basic diagnostic criteria in metal-ligand homeostasis disturbance.

  4. Time bound changes (in 24 h in human sperm motility and level of calcium and magnesium in seminal plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Valsa

    2016-09-01

    Level of calcium (27.2 mg/dl and magnesium (13.54 mg/dl in seminal plasma did not show any significant changes during study period from that of at ½ h. The study concluded that electrolytes under study were not responsible for the decrease in motility during study period.

  5. Variety of RNAs in Peripheral Blood Cells, Plasma, and Plasma Fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuligina, Elena V.; Bariakin, Dmitry N.; Kozlov, Vadim V.; Richter, Vladimir A.; Semenov, Dmitry V.

    2017-01-01

    Human peripheral blood contains RNA in cells and in extracellular membrane vesicles, microvesicles and exosomes, as well as in cell-free ribonucleoproteins. Circulating mRNAs and noncoding RNAs, being internalized, possess the ability to modulate vital processes in recipient cells. In this study, with SOLiD sequencing technology, we performed identification, classification, and quantification of RNAs from blood fractions: cells, plasma, plasma vesicles pelleted at 16,000g and 160,000g, and vesicle-depleted plasma supernatant of healthy donors and non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. It was determined that 16,000g blood plasma vesicles were enriched with cell-free mitochondria and with a set of mitochondrial RNAs. The variable RNA set of blood plasma 160,000g pellets reflected the prominent contribution of U1, U5, and U6 small nuclear RNAs' fragments and at the same time was characterized by a remarkable depletion of small nucleolar RNAs. Besides microRNAs, the variety of fragments of mRNAs and snoRNAs dominated in the set of circulating RNAs differentially expressed in blood fractions of NSCLC patients. Taken together, our data emphasize that not only extracellular microRNAs but also circulating fragments of messenger and small nuclear/nucleolar RNAs represent prominent classes of circulating regulatory ncRNAs as well as promising circulating biomarkers for the development of disease diagnostic approaches. PMID:28127559

  6. Effect of solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma on fibrinolysis in reconstituted whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadah, Nicholas H; van der Meer, Pieter F; Brinkman, Herm Jan M; de Korte, Dirk; Bontekoe, Ido J; Korsten, Herbert H; Middelburg, Rutger A; van der Bom, Johanna G; Schipperus, Martin R

    2017-10-01

    Hyperfibrinolysis has been observed in patients heavily transfused with solvent/detergent-treated pooled plasma (S/D plasma). We compared coagulation and fibrinolytic variables in blood containing S/D plasma with blood containing fresh-frozen plasma (FFP), with and without α2-antiplasmin or tranexamic acid (TXA) supplementation. Whole blood samples were reconstituted from red blood cells, platelet (PLT) concentrates, and varying mixtures of FFP and S/D plasma. Hematocrit and PLT count of reconstituted whole blood samples were varied. For a subset of runs, α2-antiplasmin or TXA was added to S/D plasma whole blood samples. Thromboelastography (TEG) analysis was performed to assess 50% clot lysis time (CLT 50% ), maximum amplitude (MA), and initial clotting time (R-time). The change in CLT 50% of whole blood as the plasma compartment transitions from FFP to S/D plasma was -52% (95% confidence interval [CI], -60% to -45%; p plasma in whole blood. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restored clot lysis time in S/D plasma whole blood. Whole blood with S/D plasma has shorter clot lysis times in vitro compared to whole blood with FFP. α2-Antiplasmin and TXA restore clot lysis time of S/D plasma whole blood to that of FFP whole blood. Clinicians should be aware of the decreased clot lysis time associated with S/D plasma transfusion. © 2017 AABB.

  7. Trace elements studies on Karachi populations, part III: blood copper, zinc, magnesium and lead levels in psychiatric patients with disturbed behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manser, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    Blood levels of copper, zinc, magnesium and lead were determined in 29 males and 15 females suffering from disturbed behavior. As far as we could ascertain they were under no medication and belong to low income groups. Male patients had significantly higher levels than female patients for zinc but there was no sexual difference for magnesium or cooper. In patients copper and lead levels were higher than for normals, but no difference could be found for Mg and Zn. At least one metal abnormality was observed in 19 of the males and 9 (60.0%) of the female patients. (author)

  8. Study of the effect of low-power pulse laser on arc plasma and magnesium alloy target in hybrid welding by spectral diagnosis technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Liming; Hao, Xinfeng

    2008-10-01

    In order to study the effect of laser pulses on arc plasma and target metal in the hybrid welding process, the spectra of the plasmas in the welding process of magnesium alloys are analysed in this paper. The acquisition system of plasma spectra is set up and the spectral lines of welding plasma are acquired. Compared with tungsten-inert gas (TIG) welding, the intensities of the spectral lines of magnesium increase sharply while those of Ar decrease for strong evaporation and ionization of magnesium alloys in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding. The electron temperature and density are estimated by the Boltzmann plot method and the Stark broadening effect. The result shows that the electron temperature of arc plasma in the hybrid welding process is much lower than that in TIG welding, especially in the laser beam-affected zone. In contrast, the electron density of the plasma is enhanced. The influences of laser parameters on electron temperature are also studied. The changes in electron temperature and density indicate that the effect of laser pulse on the target metal is the dominant factor influencing the electron temperature and density in low-power laser/arc hybrid welding.

  9. Egg beater as centrifuge: isolating human blood plasma from whole blood in resource-poor settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Amy P; Gupta, Malancha; Shevkoplyas, Sergey S; Whitesides, George M

    2008-12-01

    This paper demonstrates that a hand-powered egg beater can be modified to serve as a centrifuge for separating plasma from human whole blood. Immunoassays used to diagnose infectious diseases often require plasma from whole blood, and obtaining plasma typically requires electrically-powered centrifuges, which are not widely available in resource-limited settings. Human whole blood was loaded into polyethylene (PE) tubing, and the tubing was attached to the paddle of an egg beater. Spinning the paddle pelleted the blood cells to the distal end of the PE tubing; the plasma remained as the supernatant. A cholesterol assay (run on patterned paper) demonstrated the suitability of this plasma for use in diagnostic assays. The physics of the system was also analyzed as a guide for the selection of other rotating systems for use in centrifugation. Egg beaters, polyethylene tubing, and paper are readily available devices and supplies that can facilitate the use of point-of-care diagnostics at sites far from centralized laboratory facilities.

  10. Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AZ31 magnesium alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Wang, Ruiqiang; Huang, Zhiquan; Wu, Yekang; Zhang, Yi; Wu, Guorui; Li, Dalong; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Yu, Shengxue; Shen, Dejiu; Nash, Philip

    2018-03-01

    Evolution processes of the corrosion behavior and structural characteristics of the plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coated AZ31 magnesium alloy were investigated by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), potentio-dynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements. Detached coating samples were fabricated by an electrochemical method and more details of the internal micro-structure of coatings were clearly observed on the fractured cross-section morphologies of the samples compared to general polished cross-section morphologies. Evolution mechanisms of the coating corrosion behavior in relation to the evolution of micro-structural characteristics were discussed in detail.

  11. Electrochemical corrosion behaviour of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Stoermer, M.; Dietzel, W.

    2009-01-01

    PEO coatings were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation process in silicate and phosphate based electrolytes using a pulsed DC power source. The microstructure and composition of the PEO coatings were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD). The corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings was evaluated using open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarisation tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in 0.1 M NaCl solution. It was found that the electrolyte composition has a significant effect on the coating evolution and on the resulting coating characteristics, such as microstructure, composition, coating thickness, roughness and thus on the corrosion behaviour. The corrosion resistance of the PEO coating formed in silicate electrolyte was found to be superior to that formed in phosphate electrolyte in both the short-term and long-term electrochemical corrosion tests.

  12. Preparation and Performance of Plasma/Polymer Composite Coatings on Magnesium Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bakhsheshi-Rad, H. R.; Hamzah, E.; Bagheriyan, S.

    2016-01-01

    ) that homogeneously covered the surface of the plasma layers. Contact angle measurement showed that polymer coating over plasma layers significantly decreased surface wettability. The corrosion current density (icorr) of an uncoated sample (262.7 µA/cm2) decreased to 76.9 µA/cm2 after plasma coatings were applied...

  13. Viable Bacteria Associated with Red Blood Cells and Plasma in Freshly Drawn Blood Donations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damgaard, Christian; Magnussen, Karin; Enevold, Christian

    2015-01-01

    ) or blue lactose plates. For identification colony PCR was performed using primers targeting 16S rDNA. SETTING: Blood donors attending Capital Region Blood Bank, Copenhagen University Hospital, Rigshospitalet, Hvidovre, Denmark, October 29th to December 10th 2013. PARTICIPANTS: 60 donors (≥50 years old....... CONCLUSIONS: Viable bacteria are present in blood from donors self-reported as medically healthy, indicating that conventional test systems employed by blood banks insufficiently detect bacteria in plasma. Further investigation is needed to determine whether routine testing for anaerobic bacteria and testing......OBJECTIVES: Infection remains a leading cause of post-transfusion mortality and morbidity. Bacterial contamination is, however, detected in less than 0.1% of blood units tested. The aim of the study was to identify viable bacteria in standard blood-pack units, with particular focus on bacteria from...

  14. Turnover of adenosine in plasma of human and dog blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moeser, G.H.S.; Schrader, J.; Deussen, A.

    1989-01-01

    To determine half-life and turnover of plasma adenosine, heparinized blood from healthy volunteers was incubated with radiolabeled adenosine in the physiological concentration range of 0.1-1 microM. Plasma levels of adenosine in vitro were 82 +/- 14 nM and were similar to those determined immediately after blood collection with a ''stopping solution.'' Dipyridamole (83 microM) and erythro-9(2-hydroxynon-3yl)-adenine (EHNA) (8 microM) did not measurably alter basal adenosine levels but completely blocked the uptake of added adenosine. Inhibition of ecto-5'-nucleotidase with 100 microM alpha, beta-methyleneadenosine 5'-diphosphate (AOPCP) reduced plasma adenosine to 22 +/- 6 nM. For the determination of adenosine turnover, the decrease in specific radioactivity of added [ 3 H]adenosine was measured using a dipyridamole-containing stopping solution. Without altering basal adenosine levels, the half-life was estimated to be 0.6 s. Similar experiments were carried out with washed erythrocytes or in the presence of AOPCP, yielding half-lives of 0.7 and 0.9 s, respectively. When the initial adenosine concentration was 1 microM, its specific activity decreased by only 11% within 5 s, whereas total plasma adenosine exponentially decreased with a half-life of 1.5 s. Venous plasma concentrations were measured after relief of a 3-min forearm ischemia. Changes in plasma adenosine did not correlate well with changes in blood flow but were augmented in the presence of dipyridamole

  15. Aminotransferases and Leucine Aminopeptidase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Stojevic, Z.; Milinkovic-Tur, S.; Simpraga, M.; Miljanic, S.

    1998-01-01

    It has been reported that irradiation of mammals by gama-rays cause increase of some enzyme activity in their blood plasma (Miller and Gates 1949; Milch and Albaum 1959; Hughes 1958; Miholjcic et al. 1979). In our previous papers (Kraljevic et al., 1982; Kraljevic and Emanovic 1993) it has been shown that activities of some enzymes in the blood plasma of chickens after an intramuscular injection of radioactive isotope 32 P. In this paper an attempt has been made to investigate the influence of gamma-ray irradiation of the whole body of chickens upon activity of some enzymes in their blood plasma. We also wanted to investigate whether the activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and leucine-aminopeptidase (LAP) may serve as an additional test for functional liver damage in chickens caused by gamma-ray. Fifty day old hybrid male chickens of heavy Jata breeds were irradiated by gamma-ray in the dose of 7,23±0,95 Gy. Blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 9 and 15 after irradiation. Activity of AST, ALT, and LAP in the blood plasma were determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. At the end of the experiment all birds were sacrificed and, as well as died birds were photomorphologically and histologically investigated. The obtained results showed decrease of activity of all three enzymes during the whole period of investigation, but significant decrease showed only AST and LAP. It seems that both enzymes may serve as additional test for functional liver damage in chickens by external gamma-rays. (author)

  16. Dynamics of blood plasma by spectropolarimetry and biochemical techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuka, Tetjana; Prydij, Olexander; Gruia, Maria

    2014-08-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  17. Spectropolarimetry of blood plasma in optimal molecular targeted therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voloshynska, Katerina; Ilashchuk, Tetjana; Yermolenko, Sergey

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the study was to establish objective parameters of the field of laser and incoherent radiation of different spectral ranges (UV, visible, IR) as a non-invasive optical method of interaction with different samples of biological tissues and fluids of patients to determine the dynamics of metabolic syndrome and choosing the best personal treatment. As diagnostic methods have been used ultraviolet spectrometry samples of blood plasma in the liquid state, infrared spectroscopy middle range (2,5 - 25 microns) dry residue of plasma polarization and laser diagnostic technique of thin histological sections of biological tissues.

  18. Blood Biochemistry and Plasma Corticosterone Concentration in Broiler Chickens Under Heat Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvis Alexander Díaz López

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available High ambient temperatures cause susceptibility to heat stress in broiler chickens, generating metabolic changes. This paper seeks to determine the changes in blood biochemistry and plasma corticosterone concentration, as well as in glucose, total protein, albumin, globulin, sodium, chlorine, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus, and calcium in broiler chickens under chronic heat stress and at ambient temperature conditions at the Colombian Amazonian piedmont. 21-days-old male chickens of two lines were studied, distributed in an unrestricted random design, in a two-factor scheme, with four treatments. Five repetitions per treatment were performed, and 25 animals per experimental unit examined. Broilers were fed a basic diet of corn and soybean meal with 3,100 kcal ME and 19.5% protein until they reached 42 days of age. The line factor had no effect on the evaluated variables (p ≥ 0.05. However, there was statistically significant difference (p ≤ 0.05 in all variables when concentrations of metabolites in broilers under chronic heat stress were compared to those of chickens exposed to ambient temperatures at the Colombian Amazon piedmont. In conclusion, blood biochemistry suffered significant changes under both experimental temperatures, with more physiological detriment in broilers under chronic heat stress. Concentration of corticosterone became the most sensitive and consistent indicator of the physiological condition of chronic heat stress.

  19. Altering plasma sodium concentration rapidly changes blood pressure during haemodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suckling, Rebecca J; Swift, Pauline A; He, Feng J; Markandu, Nirmala D; MacGregor, Graham A

    2013-08-01

    Plasma sodium is increased following each meal containing salt. There is an increasing interest in the effects of plasma sodium concentration, and it has been suggested that it may have direct effects on blood pressure (BP) and possibly influences endothelial function. Experimental increases of plasma sodium concentration rapidly raise BP even when extracellular volume falls. Ten patients with end-stage renal failure established on haemodialysis were studied during the first 2 h of dialysis without fluid removal during this period. They were randomized to receive haemodialysis with (i) dialysate sodium concentration prescribed to 135 mmol/L and (ii) 145 mmol/L in random order in a prospective, single-blinded crossover study. BP measurements and blood samples were taken every 30 min. Pre-dialysis sitting BP was 137/76 ± 7/3 mmHg. Lower dialysate sodium concentration (135 mmol/L) reduced plasma sodium concentration [139.49 ± 0.67 to 135.94 ± 0.52 mmol/L (P area under the curve (AUC) 15823.50 ± 777.15 (mmHg)min] compared with 145 mmol/L [AUC 17018.20 ± 1102.17 (mmHg)min], mean difference 1194.70 ± 488.41 (mmHg)min, P < 0.05. There was a significant positive relationship between change in plasma sodium concentration and change in systolic BP. This direct relationship suggests that a fall of 1 mmol/L in plasma sodium concentration would be associated with a 1.7 mmHg reduction in systolic BP (P < 0.05). The potential mechanism for the increase in BP seen with salt intake may be through small but significant changes in plasma sodium concentration.

  20. Effects of Short-term Feeding Magnesium before Slaughter on Blood Metabolites and Postmortem Muscle Traits of Halothane-carrier Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifty-four, mixed-sex, halothane-carrier crossbred (Yorkshire×Landrace pigs with an average initial BW of 108.2±0.8 kg were randomly allotted to one of three dietary treatments for 5 d before slaughter: i a control corn-soybean meal finisher diet devoid of supplemental magnesium; ii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium acetate; and iii a diet supplemented with 1.5 g/kg of elemental Mg from magnesium sulfate heptahydrate. Serum creatine kinase (CK, lactate and glucose were analyzed at slaughter. Muscles from longissimus (LM were packaged and stored to simulate display storage for muscle lactate and glycogen determinations at 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 d. Mg supplementation reduced (p0.05 on serum glucose. Daily change of muscle lactate concentration linearly increased (p<0.01, while glucose concentration linearly decreased (p<0.05 as storage time increased in all treatments. However, dietary Mg acetate and Mg sulfate supplementation in pigs elevated (p<0.05 muscle glycogen and reduced (p<0.05 muscle lactate concentrations, especially during the first 2 d of display, compared with pigs fed the control diet. This study suggests that short-term feeding of magnesium acetate and magnesium sulfate to heterozygous carriers of the halothane gene has beneficial effects on stress response and pork quality by improving blood and muscle biochemical indexes.

  1. Plasma Calcium, Inorganic Phosphate and Magnesium During Hypocalcaemia Induced by a Standardized EDTA Infusion in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The intravenous Na2EDTA infusion technique allows effective specific chelation of circulating Ca2+ leading to a progressive hypocalcaemia. Methods previously used were not described in detail and results obtained by monitoring total and free ionic calcium were not comparable due to differences in sampling and analysis. This paper describes a standardized EDTA infusion technique that allowed comparison of the response of calcium, phosphorus and magnesium between 2 groups of experimental cows. The concentration of the Na2EDTA solution was 0.134 mol/l and the flow rate was standardized at 1.2 ml/kg per hour. Involuntary recumbency occurred when ionised calcium dropped to 0.39 – 0.52 mmol/l due to chelation. An initial fast drop of ionized calcium was observed during the first 20 min of infusion followed by a fluctuation leading to a further drop until recumbency. Pre-infusion [Ca2+] between tests does not correlate with the amount of EDTA required to induce involuntary recumbence. Total calcium concentration measured by atomic absorption remained almost constant during the first 100 min of infusion but declined gradually when the infusion was prolonged. The concentration of inorganic phosphate declined gradually in a fluctuating manner until recumbency. Magnesium concentration remained constant during infusion. Such electrolyte responses during infusion were comparable to those in spontaneous milk fever. The standardized infusion technique might be useful in future experimental studies.

  2. Improving corrosion resistance of magnesium-based alloys by surface modification with hydrogen by electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) and by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakkar, A. [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik, Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, 38678 Clausthal (Germany); Department of Metallurgy and Materials Engineering, Suez Canal University, P.O. Box 43721, Suez (Egypt); Neubert, V. [Institut fuer Materialpruefung und Werkstofftechnik, Dr. Doelling und Dr. Neubert GmbH, Freiberger Strasse 1, 38678 Clausthal (Germany)]. E-mail: volkmar.neubert@tu-clausthal.de

    2005-05-01

    Magnesium-based hydrides are well known that they have a high hydrogen-storage capacity. In this study, two different methods have been provided for hydrogen surface modification of high purity magnesium (hp Mg) and AZ91 magnesium alloy. One was electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) of hydrogen from an alkaline electrolyte on such Mg-based cathode. The other was plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII or PI{sup 3}) into Mg-based substrate. The depth profile of H-modified surfaces was described by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Corrosion testing was carried out in Avesta cell by potentiodynamic polarisation in chloride-containing aqueous solutions of pH 7 and pH 12. A greatly significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of H-modified surfaces was verified.

  3. Improving corrosion resistance of magnesium-based alloys by surface modification with hydrogen by electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) and by plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bakkar, A.; Neubert, V.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium-based hydrides are well known that they have a high hydrogen-storage capacity. In this study, two different methods have been provided for hydrogen surface modification of high purity magnesium (hp Mg) and AZ91 magnesium alloy. One was electrochemical ion reduction (EIR) of hydrogen from an alkaline electrolyte on such Mg-based cathode. The other was plasma immersion ion implantation (PIII or PI 3 ) into Mg-based substrate. The depth profile of H-modified surfaces was described by Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) and by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) measurements. Corrosion testing was carried out in Avesta cell by potentiodynamic polarisation in chloride-containing aqueous solutions of pH 7 and pH 12. A greatly significant improvement in the corrosion resistance of H-modified surfaces was verified

  4. The influence of magnesium deficiency on calcium metabolism in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larvor, P.; Labat, M.-L.

    1978-01-01

    Calcium metabolism was studied in magnesium-deficient rats with an isotopic technique. 45 Ca was injected intravenously and the blood calcium radioactivity curve was analyzed mathematically to compute the kinetics of calcium exchange in the whole body. No important change was noticed after a 10-day magnesium deficiency; there was a significant reduction of the ratio calcium pool/total calcium output from the pool (P/Vsub(T)). After a 20-day deficiency, a dramatic decrease in the two compartments of exchangeable calcium (-40%), and a less important decrease of Vsub(T)(-15%) was noted. Blood plasma urea level increased during magnesium deficiency, while urea urinary clearance remained

  5. Magnesium Oxide (MgO) pH-sensitive Sensing Membrane in Electrolyte-Insulator-Semiconductor Structures with CF4 Plasma Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Chyuan-Haur; Chang, Chia Lung; Su, Wei Ming; Chen, Yu Tzu; Lu, Chien Cheng; Lee, Yu Shan; Hong, Chen Hao; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chen, Hsiang

    2017-08-03

    Magnesium oxide (MgO) sensing membranes in pH-sensitive electrolyte-insulator-semiconductor structures were fabricated on silicon substrate. To optimize the sensing capability of the membrane, CF 4 plasma was incorporated to improve the material quality of MgO films. Multiple material analyses including FESEM, XRD, AFM, and SIMS indicate that plasma treatment might enhance the crystallization and increase the grain size. Therefore, the sensing behaviors in terms of sensitivity, linearity, hysteresis effects, and drift rates might be improved. MgO-based EIS membranes with CF 4 plasma treatment show promise for future industrial biosensing applications.

  6. Enhanced mechanical properties and increased corrosion resistance of a biodegradable magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Leon; Koo, Youngmi [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Neralla, Sudheer [Jet-Hot LLC, Burlington, NC 27215 (United States); Sankar, Jagannathan [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States); Yun, Yeoheung, E-mail: yyun@ncat.edu [FIT BEST Laboratory, Engineering Research Center, Department of Chemical, Biological, and Bio Engineering, North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC 27411 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Highlights: • Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) method was developed to control corrosion, porosity, and mechanical property. • Mechanical properties of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were affected by the different electrolyte. • Mechanical properties and corrosion resistance of PEO-coated AZ31 alloys were compared with uncoated one. - Abstract: We report the enhanced mechanical properties of AZ31 magnesium alloys by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating in NaOH, Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}, KF and NaH{sub 2}PO{sub 4}·2H{sub 2}O containing electrolytes. Mechanical properties including wear resistance, surface hardness and elastic modulus were increased for PEO-coated AZ31 Mg alloys (PEO-AZ31). DC polarization in Hank's solution indicating that the corrosion resistance significantly increased for PEO-coating in KF-contained electrolyte. Based on these results, the PEO coating method shows promising potential for use in biodegradable implant applications where tunable corrosion and mechanical properties are needed.

  7. Behavior of the ion Magnesium in triathlon half-ironman competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bürger-Mendonça

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study it had as objective to analyze the response of the ion magnesium before and after-competition of triathlon in athlete of the masculine sex, in the half-ironman distance, through it biochemistry analyzes of the concentration of the ion magnesium in the plasma blood. Ten physically active volunteers of the masculine sex participated in the present study, divided in two groups: control and experimental. The integrants of the experimental group was submitted to two blood collections (approximately 25 ml, after eight hours dietary restriction in the seated position. The second blood sample was collected immediately at ending of the competition of each athlete (t=1. For statistical analysis was used the software SPSS 11.0, and T-student test for statistical comparisons between the two groups (P<0.05 accepted as significant. When compared the values before the competition between the control group and experimental group a significant difference in the concentration of plasma magnesium (P=0,005 was observed. When compared the values of plasma magnesium concentration in the experimental group before and after competition a significant difference (P=0,005, with an average reduction of 35,23% was observed. In the comparison of values after-competition between the experimental group and control, a significant difference in the plasma magnesium concentration was detected, indicating that the exercises of long duration cause a depletion of magnesium reserves of the organism.

  8. Behavior of the ion magnesium in triathlon half-ironman competition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Bürger-Mendonça

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study it had as objective to analyze the response of the ion magnesium before and after-competition of triathlon in athlete of the masculine sex, in the half-ironman distance, through it biochemistry analyzes of the concentration of the ion magnesium in the plasma blood. Ten physically active volunteers of the masculine sex participated in the present study, divided in two groups: control and experimental. The integrants of the experimental group was submitted to two blood collections (approximately 25 ml, after eight hours dietary restriction in the seated position. The second blood sample was collected immediately at ending of the competition of each athlete (t=1. For statistical analysis was used the software SPSS 11.0, and T-student test for statistical comparisons between the two groups (P<0.05 accepted as significant. When compared the values before the competition between the control group and experimental group a significant difference in the concentration of plasma magnesium (P=0,005 was observed. When compared the values of plasma magnesium concentration in the experimental group before and after competition a significant difference (P=0,005, with an average reduction of 35,23% was observed. In the comparison of values after-competition between the experimental group and control, a significant difference in the plasma magnesium concentration was detected, indicating that the exercises of long duration cause a depletion of magnesium reserves of the organism.

  9. The influence of platelets, plasma and red blood cells on functional haemostatic assays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bochsen, Louise; Johansson, Pär I.; Kristensen, Annemarie Thuri

    2011-01-01

    concentrates, fresh frozen plasma and stored RBC. Pure platelets were investigated by removing plasma components from platelet concentrates by diafiltration against the platelet storage solution Intersol. Plasma was readded by diafiltration against plasma in Intersol. Haemostatic function was evaluated by TEG...... plasma from platelet concentrates eliminated the TEG response and diminished the Multiplate aggregation response, but readding plasma to the pure platelet concentrates restored the response. Each of the elements in whole blood, plasma, platelets and RBC, affected the Multiplate and TEG results...

  10. Revisiting the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy of magnesium with online inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirskiy, Viacheslav; King, Andrew D; Gharbi, Oumaïma; Volovitch, Polina; Scully, John R; Ogle, Kevin; Birbilis, Nick

    2015-02-23

    The electrochemical impedance of reactive metals such as magnesium is often complicated by an obvious inductive loop with decreasing frequency of the AC polarising signal. The characterisation and ensuing explanation of this phenomenon has been lacking in the literature to date, being either ignored or speculated. Herein, we couple electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) with online atomic emission spectroelectrochemistry (AESEC) to simultaneously measure Mg-ion concentration and electrochemical impedance spectra during Mg corrosion, in real time. It is revealed that Mg dissolution occurs via Mg(2+) , and that corrosion is activated, as measured by AC frequencies less than approximately 1 Hz approaching DC conditions. The result of this is a higher rate of Mg(2+) dissolution, as the voltage excitation becomes slow enough to enable all Mg(2+) -enabling processes to adjust in real time. The manifestation of this in EIS data is an inductive loop. The rationalisation of such EIS behaviour, as it relates to Mg, is revealed for the first time by using concurrent AESEC. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Radioimmunossay of hormones and metabolites in blood serum and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khare, G.P.

    1978-01-01

    Hormones or metabolites which are capable of producing antibodies can be detected and precisely quantitated by this method. Antibodies, to various hormones or metabolites whose assay is desired, are adsorbed onto commercially available imitation or cultured pearls. These pearls coated with antibody are contacted with a buffered reaction mixture containing blood serum or plasma specimen and respective radioactive antigen. The entire reaction is allowed to proceed for a time sufficient to form antigen (radioactive or non-radioactive)-antibody complex. These complexes on the pearls are washed and the total amount of radioactivity emanating from the complex is measured. This is indicative of the extent of binding of radioactive antigen and provides an indirect correlation of the amount of non-radioactive antigen present in the serum or plasma sample

  12. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    "Properties of Magnesium Composites for Material Scientists, Engineers and Selectors is the first book-length reference to provide an insight into current and future magnesium-based materials in terms...

  13. Modeling of the He-like magnesium spectral lines radiation from the plasma created by XeCl and Nd-glass lasers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stepanov, A. E.; Starostin, A. N.; Roerich, V. C.; Makhrov, V. A.; Faenov, A. Ya.; Magunov, A. I.; Pikuz, T. A.; Skobelev, I. Yu.; Flora, F.; Bollanti, S.; Di Lazzaro, P.; Lisi, N.; Letardi, T.; Palladino, L.; Reale, A.; Batani, D.; Bossi, S.; Bornadinelo, A.; Scafati, A.; Reale, L.

    1997-01-01

    Resonant and intercombination spectral lines formation of He-like magnesium is analyzed both experimentally and numerically. It is shown that in plasma created by XeCl laser at flux density 8·10 12 W/cm 2 the peak of electron temperature is placed downstream from the critical surface at density significantly smaller than critical, and radiation in both resonant and recombination lines is also produced by the plasma region with density below critical. Simulations also show significant line radiation at large distances (1-2 mm) from the target as it was observed in experiments. This secondary peak is produced by a compression wave forming near the plasma front. As opposite, radiation in these lines in plasma created by Nd-glass laser at flux density 5·10 13 W/cm 2 comes from the plasma region placed deeper than the critical surface and has no tail at large distances

  14. Vanadium Pentoxide-Based Composite Synthesized Using Microwave Water Plasma for Cathode Material in Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsuhiko Yajima

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Multivalent cation rechargeable batteries are expected to perform well as high-capacity storage devices. Rechargeable magnesium batteries have an advantage in terms of resource utilization and safety. Here, we report on sulfur-doped vanadium pentoxide (S-V2O5 as a potential material for the cathodes of such a battery; S-V2O5 showed a specific capacity of 300 mAh·g−1. S-V2O5 was prepared by a method using a low-temperature plasma generated by carbon felt and a 2.45 GHz microwave generator. This study investigates the ability of S-V2O5 to achieve high capacity when added to metal oxide. The highest recorded capacity (420 mAh·g−1 was reached with MnO2 added to composite SMn-V2O5, which has a higher proportion of included sulfur than found in S-V2O5. Results from transmission electron microscopy, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, Micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy show that the bulk of the SMn-V2O5 was the orthorhombic V2O5 structure; the surface was a xerogel-like V2O5 and a solid solution of MnO2 and sulfur.

  15. Mechanical properties of thermoelectric n-type magnesium silicide synthesized employing in situ spark plasma reaction sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muthiah, Saravanan; Singh, R. C.; Pathak, B. D.; Dhar, Ajay

    2017-07-01

    Thermoelectric devices employing magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) offer an inexpensive and non-toxic solution for green energy generation compared to other existing conventional thermoelectric materials in the mid-temperature range. However, apart from the thermoelectric performance, their mechanical properties are equally important in order to avoid the catastrophic failure of their modules during actual operation. In the present study, we report the synthesis of Mg2Si co-doped with Bi and Sb employing in situ spark plasma reaction sintering and investigate its broad range of mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of the sintered co-doped Mg2Si suggest a significantly enhanced value of hardness ~5.4  ±  0.2 GPa and an elastic modulus ~142.5  ±  6 GPa with a fracture toughness of ~1.71  ±  0.1 MPa  √m. The thermal shock resistance, which is one of the most vital parameter for designing thermoelectric devices, was found to be ~300 W m-1, which is higher than most of the other existing state-of-the-art mid-temperature thermoelectric materials. The friction and wear characteristics of sintered co-doped Mg2Si have been reported for the first time, in order to realize the sustainability of their thermoelectric modules under actual hostile environmental conditions.

  16. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, A., E-mail: andrea.ulrich@empa.ch [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Ott, N. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); EPFL-Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne, 1015 Lausanne (Switzerland); Tournier-Fillon, A. [Laboratory for Corrosion and Material Integrity, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Homazava, N. [Laboratory for Analytical Chemistry, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Swiss Centre for Applied Ecotoxicology, Eawag/EPFL, Ueberlandstrasse 133, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland); Schmutz, P. [Laboratory for Corrosion and Material Integrity, EMPA, Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology, Ueberlandstrasse 129, 8600 Duebendorf (Switzerland)

    2011-07-15

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  17. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ulrich, A.; Ott, N.; Tournier-Fillon, A.; Homazava, N.; Schmutz, P.

    2011-01-01

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  18. Investigation of corrosion behavior of biodegradable magnesium alloys using an online-micro-flow capillary flow injection inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry setup with electrochemical control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulrich, A.; Ott, N.; Tournier-Fillon, A.; Homazava, N.; Schmutz, P.

    2011-07-01

    The development of biodegradable metallic materials designed for implants or medical stents is new and is one of the most interesting new fields in material science. Besides biocompatibility, a detailed understanding of corrosion mechanisms and dissolution processes is required to develop materials with tailored degradation behavior. The materials need to be sufficiently stable as long as they have to fulfill their medical task. However, subsequently they should dissolve completely in a controlled manner in terms of maximum body burden. This study focuses on the elemental and time resolved dissolution processes of a magnesium rare earth elements alloy which has been compared to pure magnesium with different impurity level. The here described investigations were performed using a novel analytical setup based on a micro-flow capillary online-coupled via a flow injection system to a plasma mass spectrometer. Differences in element-specific and time-dependent dissolution were monitored for various magnesium alloys in contact with sodium chloride or mixtures of sodium and calcium chloride as corrosive media. The dissolution behavior strongly depends on bulk matrix elements, secondary alloying elements and impurities, which are usually present even in pure magnesium.

  19. [Blood plasma volume dynamics in monkeys during immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krotov, V P; Burkovskaia, T E; Dotsenko, M A; Gordeev, Iu V; Nosovskiĭ, A M; Chel'naia, N A

    2004-01-01

    Dynamics of blood plasma volume (PV) was studied with indirect methods (hematocrit count, hemoglobin, total protein and high-molecular protein) during 9-d immersion of monkeys Macaca mulatta. The animals were donned in waterproof suits, motor restrained in space seat liners and immersed down to the xiphisternum. Two monkeys were immersed in the bath at one time. The suits were changed every day under ketamine (10 mg/kg of body mass). There were two groups with 12 animals in each. The first group was kept in the bath 3 days and the second--9 days. Prior to the experiment, the animals had been trained to stay in the seat liner put down into the dry bath. It was shown that already two days of exposure to the hydrostatic forces (approximately 15 mm Hg) and absence of negative pressure breathing reduced PV by 18-20% on the average in all animals. Subsequent PV dynamics was individual by character; however, PV deficit persisted during 4 days of immersion in the whole group. In this period, albumin filtration was increased significantly, whereas high-molecular protein filtration was increased to a less degree. During the remaining days in immersion PV regained normal values. Ten days of readaptation (reclined positioning of monkeys brought back into cage) raised VP beyond baseline values. This phenomenon can be attributed to the necessity to provide appropriate venous return and sufficient blood supply of organs and tissues following extension of blood vessels capacity.

  20. Use of magnesium as a test element for inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mermet, J.M.

    1991-01-01

    To optimize atomization and ionization processes in an inductively coupled plasma used as a source in atomic emission spectrometry, the Mg II 280.270-nm/Mg I 285-213-nm line intensity ratio is used. A theoretic ratio is calculated assuming a local thermodynamic equilibrium.A review of previously published experimental values of the ratio is given as a function of the parameters influencing the energy transfer between the plasma and injected species. In particular, the effects of the power, the carrier gas flow-rate, the i.d. of the torch injector, the use of a sheathing gas and the presence of hydrogen are described. Values of the ratio close to the theoretical values are obtained with a high power (>1.4 kW), a lower carrier gas flow-rate ( -1 ) and a large i.d. of the injector (>2 mm). This optimization can also be applied to the minimization of interference effects due to the presence of sodium. (author). 64 refs.; 9 figs.; 1 tab

  1. [Isolation and characterization of exosomes from blood plasma of breast cancer and colorectal cancer patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamkovich, S N; Yunusova, N V; Stakheeva, М N; Somov, A K; Frolova, А Y; Kirushina, N А; Afanasyev, S G; Grigoryeva, А E; Laktionov, P P; Kondakova, I V

    2017-03-01

    A simple approach for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma, which allows to obtain highly purified preparations of microvesicles no larger than 100 nm has been proposed. The presence of different subpopulations of exosomes in the blood plasma of healthy donors and cancer patients has been recognized. We found the presence of the universal markers CD9, CD24 and CD81 on exosomes isolated from blood plasma that can be used to their routine typing.

  2. Ultrashort Pulsed Laser Ablation of Magnesium Diboride: Plasma Characterization and Thin Films Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela De Bonis

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A MgB2 target has been ablated by Nd:glass laser with a pulse duration of 250 fs. The plasma produced by the laser-target interaction, showing two temporal separated emissions, has been characterized by time and space resolved optical emission spectroscopy and ICCD fast imaging. The films, deposited on silicon substrates and formed by the coalescence of particles with nanometric size, have been analyzed by scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, micro-Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The first steps of the films growth have been studied by Transmission Electron Microscopy. The films deposition has been studied by varying the substrate temperature from 25 to 500°C and the best results have been obtained at room temperature.

  3. Dose related anxiolytic effects of diazepam: relation with serum electrolytes, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (sbp) in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farooq, R.; Haleem, D.J.; Haleem, M.A.

    2008-01-01

    Diazepam is an anxiolytic and anticonvulsant drug that also induces hypnosis. Changes in serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and systolic blood pressure (SBP) are often associated with stress-induced anxiety. Administration of diazepam has been show to decrease stress-induced enhancement of hypothalamic pituitary adrenal cortical (HPA) axis. The present is designed to monitor the anxiolytic effects of different doses of diazepam (1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg) and its association with changes of serum electrolyte balance, plasma osmolality and SBP in rats. Administration of diazepam at doses of 1 mg/kg, 2.5 mg/kg and 5 mg/kg elicited anxiolytic effects monitored in light-dark transition test and increased serum concentration of electrolytes and plasma osmolality. Serum levels of magnesium as well as SBP decreased. The results are discussed in context of anxiolytic effects of diazepam to be mediated via a modulation of stress-induced increase in the activity of HPA-axis arid electrolytes balance. (author)

  4. Immobilized enzymes in blood plasma exchangers via radiation grafting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gombotz, Wayne; Hoffman, Allan; Schmer, Gottfried; Uenoyama, Satoshi

    The enzyme asparaginase was immobilized onto a porous hollow polypropylene (PP) fiber blood plasma exchange device for the treatment of acute lymphocytic leukemia. The devices were first radiation grafted with polymethacrylic acid (poly(MAAc)). This introduces carboxyl groups onto the surface of the fibers. Several variables were studied in the grafting reaction including the effects of solvent type and monomer concentration. The carboxyl groups were activated with N-hydroxy succinimide (NHS) using carbodiimide chemistry. Asparaginase was then covalently immobilized on the activated surfaces. Quantitative relationships were found relating the percent graft to the amount of immobilized enzyme which was active. The enzyme reactor was tested both in vitro and in vivo using a sheep as an animal model.

  5. Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  6. Magnesium Oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnesium is an element your body needs to function normally. Magnesium oxide may be used for different reasons. Some people use it as ... one to four times daily depending on which brand is used and what condition you have. Follow ...

  7. Plasma electrolytic oxidation of AZ91D magnesium alloy with different additives and its corrosion behavior

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Fa-he; Cao, Jiang-lin; Zhang, Zhao [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Zhang, Jian-qing; Cao, Chu-nan [Department of Chemistry, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); State Key Laboratory for Corrosion and Protection, Institute of Metal Research, The Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shenyang 110016 (China)

    2007-09-15

    Plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) of Mg-based AZ91D alloys was investigated using 50 Hz AC anodizing technique in an alkaline borate solution, which contained a new kind of organic additive and without F, P, and Cr. The anodizing technological parameters have been optimized and a kind of ivory-white smooth anodic film with high corrosion resistance was obtained. It was found that the formation of the anodic films was always coupled with sparking and oxygen evolution, whose intensity changed with the additive and anodizing voltage. All EIS plots have two capacitive loops and one low frequency inductive component. Two capacitive arcs present the barrier and porous layer of the PEO film and the inductive component in the low frequency domain is a complex behavior due to the porous structure connected to the electrolyte. EIS plots and fitting results show that a self-sealing process of the PEO firm with different additives takes place in the beginning of immersion time, then corrosion attack becomes a preponderant process to promote the degradation of the film. Tafel results show that PEO treatment decreases the corrosion current density by four, even five orders of magnitude, while additives content does not affect strongly the electrochemical corrosion behavior. Salt spray test shows that the PEO film formed with NaAlO{sub 2} and Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3} presents good corrosion resistance, over 600 h without any sealing treatment. The difference of corrosion resistance arose by additives examined by electrochemical techniques and salt spray test does not show strict corresponding relationship. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  8. Comparison of electrochemical corrosion behaviour of MgO and ZrO2 coatings on AM50 magnesium alloy formed by plasma electrolytic oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang, J.; Srinivasan, P. Bala; Blawert, C.; Dietzel, W.

    2009-01-01

    Two types of PEO coatings were produced on AM50 magnesium alloy using pulsed DC plasma electrolytic oxidation process in an alkaline phosphate and acidic fluozirconate electrolytes, respectively. The phase composition and microstructure of these PEO coatings were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The corrosion behaviour of the coated samples was evaluated by open circuit potential (OCP) measurements, potentiodynamic polarization tests, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) in neutral 0.1 M NaCl solution. The results showed that PEO coating prepared from alkaline phosphate electrolyte consisted of only MgO and on the other hand the one formed in acidic fluozirconate solution was mainly composed of ZrO 2 , MgF 2 . Electrochemical corrosion tests indicated that the phase composition of PEO coating has a significant effect on the deterioration process of coated magnesium alloy in this corrosive environment. The PEO coating that was composed of only MgO suffered from localized corrosion in the 50 h exposure studies, whereas the PEO coating with ZrO 2 compounds showed a much superior stability during the corrosion tests and provided an efficient corrosion protection. The results showed that the preparation of PEO coating with higher chemical stability compounds offers an opportunity to produce layers that could provide better corrosion protection to magnesium alloys.

  9. Effects of blood sample handling procedures on measurable inflammatory markers in plasma, serum and dried blood spot samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skogstrand, K.; Thorsen, P.; Vogel, I.

    2008-01-01

    of whole blood samples at low temperatures and rapid isolation of plasma and serum. Effects of different handling procedures for all markers studied are given. DBSS proved to be a robust and convenient way to handle samples for immunoassay analysis of inflammatory markers in whole blood Udgivelsesdato......The interests in monitoring inflammation by immunoassay determination of blood inflammatory markers call for information on the stability of these markers in relation to the handling of blood samples. The increasing use of stored biobank samples for such ventures that may have been collected...... and stored for other purposes, justifies the study hereof. Blood samples were stored for 0, 4, 24, and 48 h at 4 degrees C, room temperature (RT), and at 35 degrees C, respectively, before they were separated into serum or plasma and frozen. Dried blood spot samples (DBSS) were stored for 0, 1, 2, 3, 7...

  10. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on......-line measurement of stress markers in blood. However, the impact of the blood sampling itself on the corticosterone levels in blood is unknown. The present study was designed to evaluate whether the frequency of blood sampling influences the plasma corticosterone levels in male and female rats. During anaesthesia...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...

  11. Treatment goals for ambulatory blood pressure and plasma lipids after stroke are often not reached

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engberg, Aase Worså; Kofoed, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    In Danish health care, secondary prevention after stroke is currently handled mainly by general practitioners using office blood pressure (OBP) assessment of hypertension. The aim of this study was to compare the OBP approach to 24-hour assessment by ambulatory blood pressure (ABP) monitoring....... Furthermore, we aimed to record the degree of adherence to recommended therapy goals for blood pressure and plasma lipids....

  12. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate–borax

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, M.J.; Wang, X.J.; Zhang, M.F.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► The MgO ceramic coating has been prepared on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation in the borax-doped silicate system. ► Boron element exists in the PEO films in the form of noncrystal. ► The microhardness and compactness of doped ceramic coating are much higher than that of the substrate and undoped ceramic coating, and this doped coated sample shows better wear-resisting property. - Abstract: A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  13. Higher dietary magnesium intake and higher magnesium status are associated with lower prevalence of coronary heart disease in patients with type 2 diabetes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gant, C.M.; Soedamah-Muthu, S.S.; Binnenmars, S.H.; Bakker, S.J.L.; Navis, G.; Laverman, G.D.

    2018-01-01

    In type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), the handling of magnesium is disturbed. Magnesium deficiency may be associated with a higher risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). We investigated the associations between (1) dietary magnesium intake; (2) 24 h urinary magnesium excretion; and (3) plasma magnesium

  14. Plasma and blood volume in the calf from birth till 90 days of age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moellerberg, L.; Ekman, L.; Jacobsson, S.-O.

    1975-01-01

    Determinations of plasma volume were made of 9 clinically healthy Swedish Red and White calves from birth to 90 days of age by means of the isotop dilution technique. Commercially available 131 I labelled human serum albumin was used. Calculation of the total blood volume was based on the plasma volume and packed cell volume. The plasma and blood volumes increased per kg body weight in average 17 and 14 percent respectively from directly after birth to 24 hrs. old. From 1 to 90 days of age the plasma and blood volume fell steadily per kg body weight. Plasma volume expressed as a percentage of body weight was 5.3 percent at birth, 6.5 percent at 1 day old, and 4.9 percent at 90 days old. Corresponding values for blood were 8.4, 9.3 and 7.0 percent. (author)

  15. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    .... With the popularity of magnesium-based materials in the automotive, aerospace, electronics, and sports equipment industries, and its unique role as a lightweight, energy-saving and high-performance...

  16. Magnesium, magnesium alloys, and magnesium composites

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gupta, M; Sharon, Nai Mui Ling

    2011-01-01

    ... of science, characteristics, and applications. It emphasizes the properties of magnesium-based composites and the effects of different types of reinforcements, from micron length to nanometer scale, on the properties of the resulting composites...

  17. Trends of Blood and Plasma Donations in Kazakhstan: 12-Years Retrospective Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igissinov, Nurbek; Kulmirzayeva, Dariyana; Magzumova, Raushan; Sibinga, Cees Th Smit; Alpeissova, Sholpan

    2014-05-01

    Each country faces a continuing challenge to collect enough blood to meet the national needs. According to WHO, there should be at least 20 blood donations per 1,000 population for developing countries, in Kazakhstan this indicator was only 16.8 in 2011. Thus, we conducted an epidemiological assessment and drew a map of the regional distribution of blood and plasma donations in Kazakhstan during the years 2000-2011. The retrospective study was conducted from 2000 to 2011. Data on blood and its components donations were acquired from the Ministry of Health (annual statistical reporting form N° 39). During 2000-2011, number of blood donors decreased to 17.4% and blood donations to 6.3%. The proportion of non-remunerated blood donations and donors decreased from 97.6% to 77.9% and 97.9% to 87.7%, respectively. The paid donations had the opposite trend. Number of plasma donors increased in 2.1 times, plasma donations in 2.4 times, nevertheless the proportion of non-remunerated plasma donations decreased from 60.1% to 29.8%. The average number of blood donations per 1,000 population decreased from 19.8 (2000) to 16.8 (2011), plasma donations increased from 1.4 to 3.1. Regionally, annual average rates of blood and plasma donations per 1,000 population over 12 years varied greatly. This is the first study conducted in Kazakhstan to provide detailed information, including the regional characteristics of blood and plasma donations over an extended period of time, which can be used in blood transfusion services work.

  18. A high plasma: red blood cell transfusion ratio during liver transplantation is associated with decreased blood utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagano, M B; Metcalf, R A; Hess, J R; Reyes, J; Perkins, J D; Montenovo, M I

    2018-04-01

    During massive transfusion, the volume ratio of administered plasma (PL Vol) to red blood cell (RBC Vol) appears to be associated with reduced blood utilization and improved survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal component ratio in the setting of liver transplantation. This is a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent liver transplantation and received at least 500 ml of red blood cells from January 2013 through December 2015. Kernel smoothing analysis determined the proper component ratios to evaluate were a ≥0·85:1 ratio (high) to a ≤0·85:1 ratio (low). Two groups, plasma volume to RBC volume (PL Vol/RBC Vol) and plasma contained in the platelet units added to the plasma calculation [PL + PLT (platelet)] Vol/RBC Vol, were used to evaluate the component ratios. A total of 188 patients were included in the analysis. In the PL Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio revealed that 1238 ml (977-1653 ml) (P ratio, in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In the PL +PLT Vol/RBC Vol evaluation, a low ratio used 734 ml (193-1275) (P = 0·008) and 886 ml (431-1340) (P ratio in the univariable and multivariable analysis, respectively. In patients undergoing liver transplantation, the transfusion of plasma to RBC ratio ≥0·85 was associated with decreased need of RBC transfusions. © 2018 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  19. Feasibility and antihypertensive effect of replacing regular salt with mineral salt -rich in magnesium and potassium- in subjects with mildly elevated blood pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkkinen Essi S

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High salt intake is linked to hypertension whereas a restriction of dietary salt lowers blood pressure (BP. Substituting potassium and/or magnesium salts for sodium chloride (NaCl may enhance the feasibility of salt restriction and lower blood pressure beyond the sodium reduction alone. The aim of this study was to determine the feasibility and effect on blood pressure of replacing NaCl (Regular salt with a novel mineral salt [50% sodium chloride and rich in potassium chloride (25%, magnesium ammonium potassium chloride, hydrate (25%] (Smart Salt. Methods A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study was conducted with an intervention period of 8-weeks in subjects (n = 45 with systolic (SBP 130-159 mmHg and/or diastolic (DBP 85-99 mmHg. During the intervention period, subjects consumed processed foods salted with either NaCl or Smart Salt. The primary endpoint was the change in SBP. Secondary endpoints were changes in DBP, daily urine excretion of sodium (24-h dU-Na, potassium (dU-K and magnesium (dU-Mg. Results 24-h dU-Na decreased significantly in the Smart Salt group (-29.8 mmol; p = 0.012 and remained unchanged in the control group: resulting in a 3.3 g difference in NaCl intake between the groups. Replacement of NaCl with Smart Salt resulted in a significant reduction in SBP over 8 weeks (-7.5 mmHg; p = 0.016. SBP increased (+3.8 mmHg, p = 0.072 slightly in the Regular salt group. The difference in the change of SBP between study groups was significant (p Conclusions The substitution of Smart Salt for Regular salt in subjects with high normal or mildly elevated BP resulted in a significant reduction in their daily sodium intake as well as a reduction in SBP. Trial Registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN01739816

  20. Trace elements studies on Karachi population part IV: blood copper, zinc, magnesium and lead levels in psychiatric patients with depression, mental retardation and seizure disorder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manser, W.T.

    1989-01-01

    Blood copper, zinc, magnesium and lead levels were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy for 15 males and 16 female suffering from depression, 6 males and 1 female with mental retardation and 3 males and 4 females with seizure disorders. They were all under no medication and belong to low income groups. No difference in copper levels was found between the sexes in any of the groups. The levels in all the groups were significantly higher than in the normals. In depressives, males had significantly higher zinc levels than females and only female depressives had lower levels from normals. In both depressives and normals, males had higher magnesium levels than females but no group of patients had significantly different levels from normals. Lead levels were significantly higher in female depressives and for those with seizure disorders than for controls. At least one metal abnormality was found in 21 (67.7%) depressive, 5 (71.4%) of those with mental retardation and 6 (85.7%) with seizure disorders. (author)

  1. There is chronic latent magnesium deficiency in apparently healthy university students

    OpenAIRE

    Hermes Sales, Cristiane; Azevedo Nascimento, Débora; Queiroz Medeiros, Anna Cecília; Costa Lima, Kênio; Campos Pedrosa, Lucia Fátima; Colli, Célia

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Magnesium is an essential micronutrient for human body, and its deficiency has been associated with risk of non-communicable diseases. Objective: Assessment of magnesium status, and evaluation of the frequency of magnesium deficiency in a group of healthy adults. Methods: Plasma and erythrocyte magnesium levels, and magnesium intake were determined in 115 students (55 women and 60 men), from a public university in Brazil. Results: The medians of magnesium concentration in plasma...

  2. Cysteine peroxidase activity in rat blood plasma | Razygraev ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rat plasma found to be able to accelerate greatly the H2O2-dependent oxidation of cysteine. The activity was a characteristic of a protein fraction precipitated at 30—44% ammonium sulfate saturation, and the specific activity in protein fraction was significantly higher than in plasma. Cysteine:H2O2 oxidoreductase ...

  3. Abnormalities in plasma and red blood cell fatty acid profiles of patients with colorectal cancer.

    OpenAIRE

    Bar??, L.; Hermoso, J. C.; N????ez, M. C.; Jim??nez-Rios, J. A.; Gil, A.

    1998-01-01

    We evaluated total plasma fatty acid concentrations and percentages, and the fatty acid profiles for the different plasma lipid fractions and red blood cell lipids, in 17 patients with untreated colorectal cancer and 12 age-matched controls with no malignant diseases, from the same geographical area. Cancer patients had significantly lower total plasma concentrations of saturated, monounsaturated and essential fatty acids and their polyunsaturated derivatives than healthy controls; when the v...

  4. Recovery from Bell Palsy after Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma

    OpenAIRE

    Seffer, Istvan; Nemeth, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are multipotent, and plasma contains growth factors involving tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of PBMC-plasma will promote the recovery of paralyzed facial muscles in Bell palsy. This case report describes the effects of PBMC-plasma transplantations in a 27-year-old female patient with right side Bell palsy. On the affected side of the face, the treatment resulted in both morphological and functional recovery includi...

  5. Effect of processing on functional properties of animal blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Hoyo, P; Rendueles, M; Díaz, M

    2008-04-01

    A number of functional and physical properties such as solubility, foam capacity, emulsifying stability and interfacial tension were compared for standard plasma, plasma decationed by ion exchange and plasma deionized by ultrafiltration (UF). The changes in functional properties can determine the use of a protein as an additive to a food product or invalidate its use. All samples had good functional properties and hence could be used in the formulation of food products. Results showed that ion exchange and UF improved emulsifying capacity while having little effect on the other functional properties.

  6. Fabrication of Coatings on the Surface of Magnesium Alloy by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation Using ZrO2 and SiO2 Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gnedenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Results of investigation of the incorporation of zirconia and silica nanoparticles into the coatings formed on magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation are presented. Comprehensive research of electrochemical and mechanical properties of obtained coatings was carried out. It was established that the polarization resistance of the samples with a coating containing zirconia nanoparticles is two times higher than that for the sample with base PEO layer. One of the important reasons for improving the protective properties of coatings formed in electrolytes containing nanoparticles consists in enhanced morphological characteristics, in particular, the porosity decrease and increase of thickness and resistivity (up to two orders of magnitude for ZrO2-containing coating of porousless sublayer in comparison with base PEO layer. Incorporation of silica and zirconia particles into the coating increases the mechanical performances. The layers containing nanoparticles have greater hardness and are more wear resistant in comparison with the coatings formed in the base electrolyte.

  7. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-08-01

    The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  8. High-compactness coating grown by plasma electrolytic oxidation on AZ31 magnesium alloy in the solution of silicate-borax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, M. J.; Wang, X. J.; Zhang, M. F.

    2012-10-01

    A ceramic coating was formed on the surface of AZ31 magnesium alloy by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in the silicate solution with and without borax doped. The composition, morphology, elements and roughness as well as mechanical property of the coating were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and reciprocal-sliding tribometer. The results show that the PEO coating is mainly composed of magnesia. When using borax dope, boron element is permeating into the coating and the boron containing phase exist in the form of amorphous. In addition, the microhardness and compactness of the PEO coating are improved significantly due to doped borax.

  9. Determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma: Part I: Immunoassay development

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hempen, C.M.; Gläsle-Schwarz, Liane; Kunz, Ulrich; Karst, U.

    2006-01-01

    Telmisartan is an angiotensin II receptor antagonist and a known drug against high blood pressure. In this report, the development of a new and rapid analytical technique, an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the determination of telmisartan in human blood plasma is described. The

  10. Blood and plasma viscosity in diabetes: possible contribution to late organ complications?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schut, N. H.; van Arkel, E. C.; Hardeman, M. R.; Bilo, H. J.; Michels, R. P.; Vreeken, J.

    1992-01-01

    It has been postulated that an increased whole blood and plasma viscosity contribute to diabetic organ complications. Blood viscosity was measured in 30 controls and four groups of insulin-dependent diabetic patients at three shear rates: 70 sec-1, 0.5 sec-1 and 0.05 sec-1. Results were compared

  11. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  12. The effect of chronic erythrocytic polycythemia and high altitude upon plasma and blood volumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, R. R.; Smith, A. H.

    1972-01-01

    Comparison of two kinds of physiological chronic erythrocytic polycythemias in order to differentiate the specific effect of erythrocytic polycythemia from the general effects of high altitude upon the plasma volume. The two kinds were produced hormonally in female chickens, at sea level, or by protracted high-altitude exposures. It appears that the vascular system of the body may account for an increase in red blood cell mass either by reduction in plasma volume, or by no change in plasma volume, resulting in differential changes in total blood volumes.

  13. Synthesis and characterization of in situ TiC–TiB2 composite coatings by reactive plasma spraying on a magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou Binglin; Tao Shunyan; Huang Wenzhi; Khan, Zuhair S.; Fan Xizhi; Gu Lijian; Wang Ying; Xu Jiaying; Cai Xiaolong; Ma Hongmei; Cao Xueqiang

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► TiC–TiB 2 composites coatings were produced on Mg alloy by reactive plasma spraying. ► Phase composition, microstructure and wear resistance of the coatings were studied. ► The resultant product in the coatings was composed of TiC and TiB 2 . ► The produced coatings displayed porous and dense microstructures. ► The synthesized coatings exhibited good wear resistance for Mg alloy substrate. - Abstract: TiC–TiB 2 composite coatings were successfully synthesized using the technique of reactive plasma spraying (RPS) on a magnesium alloy. Phase composition, microstructure and wear resistance of the coatings were characterized by using X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and pin-on-disk wear test, respectively. The results showed that the resultant product in the RPS coatings was composed of TiC and TiB 2 . Depending on the ignition of self-propagating high-temperature synthesis reaction in the agglomerate particles, the RPS coatings displayed porous and dense microstructures. The porosity of the RPS coatings, to some extent, decreased when the feed powders were plasma sprayed with Ni powders. The RPS coatings provided good wear resistance for the substrate under various loads. For high loads (e.g., ≥15 N), the wear resistance could be significantly improved by the proper addition of Ni into the RPS coatings.

  14. Fluorescence spectra of blood plasma treated with ultraviolet irradiation in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Maslova, T. O.

    2010-09-01

    We have studied the fluorescence spectra of blood plasma from patients with acute coronary syndrome, and also the effect of therapeutic doses of in vivo ultraviolet blood irradiation (UBI) on the spectra. We have established that the maxima in the fluorescence spectra of the original plasma samples, obtained from unirradiated blood, are located in the wavelength interval 330-340 nm, characteristic for the fluorescence of tryptophan residues. In extracorporeal UBI ( λ = 254 nm), we observed changes in the shape and also both a blue and a red shift in the maxima of the fluorescence spectra, differing in magnitude for blood plasma samples from different patients in the test group. We show that UBI-initiated changes in the fluorescence spectra of the plasma depend on the original pathological disturbances of metabolite levels, and also on the change in the oxygen-transport function of the blood and the acid-base balance, affecting the oxidative stability of the plasma. We have concluded that UV irradiation, activating buffer systems in the blood, has an effect on the universal and specific interactions of the tryptophan residue with the amino acid residues and water surrounding it.

  15. Detection of melanoma cells suspended in mononuclear cells and blood plasma using photoacoustic generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spradling, Emily M.; Viator, John A.

    2009-02-01

    Melanoma is the deadliest form of skin cancer. Although the initial malignant cells are removed, it is impossible to determine whether or not the cancer has metastasized until a secondary tumor forms that is large enough to detect with conventional imaging. Photoacoustic detection of circulating melanoma cells in the bloodstream has shown promise for early detection of metastasis that may aid in treatment of this aggressive cancer. When blood is irradiated with energy from an Nd:YAG laser at 532 nm, photoacoustic signals are created and melanoma cells can be differentiated from the surrounding cells based on waveforms produced by an oscilloscope. Before this can be used as a diagnostic technique, however, we needed to investigate several parameters. Specifically, the current technique involves the in vitro separation of blood through centrifugation to isolate and test only the white blood cell layer. Using this method, we have detected a single cultured melanoma cell among a suspension of white blood cells. However, the process could be made simpler if the plasma layer were used for detection instead of the white blood cell layer. This layer is easier to obtain after blood separation, the optical difference between plasma and melanoma cells is more pronounced in this layer than in the white blood cell layer, and the possibility that any stray red blood cells could distort the results is eliminated. Using the photoacoustic apparatus, we detected no melanoma cells within the plasma of whole blood samples spiked with cultured melanoma cells.

  16. Relative Abundance of Proteins in Blood Plasma Samples from Patients with Chronic Cerebral Ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaysheva, Anna L; Kopylov, Artur T; Ponomarenko, Elena A; Kiseleva, Olga I; Teryaeva, Nadezhda B; Potapov, Alexander A; Izotov, Alexander А; Morozov, Sergei G; Kudryavtseva, Valeria Yu; Archakov, Alexander I

    2018-03-01

    A comparative protein profile analysis of 17 blood plasma samples from patients with ischemia and 20 samples from healthy volunteers was carried out using ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry. The analysis of measurements was performed using the proteomics search engine OMSSA. Normalized spectrum abundance factor (NSAF) in the biological samples was assessed using SearchGUI. The findings of mass spectrometry analysis of the protein composition of blood plasma samples demonstrate that the depleted samples are quite similar in protein composition and relative abundance of proteins. By comparing them with the control samples, we have found a small group of 44 proteins characteristic of the blood plasma samples from patients with chronic cerebral ischemia. These proteins contribute to the processes of homeostasis maintenance, including innate immune response unfolding, the response of a body to stress, and contribution to the blood clotting cascade.

  17. Production of magnesium metal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  18. Paramedic Initiation of Neuroprotective Agent Infusions: Successful Achievement of Target Blood Levels and Attained Level Effect on Clinical Outcomes in the FAST-MAG Pivotal Trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkirkova, Kristina; Starkman, Sidney; Sanossian, Nerses; Eckstein, Marc; Stratton, Samuel; Pratt, Frank; Conwit, Robin; Hamilton, Scott; Sharma, Latisha; Liebeskind, David; Restrepo, Lucas; Valdes-Sueiras, Miguel; Saver, Jeffrey L

    2017-07-01

    Paramedic use of fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing to initiate intravenous infusions in the field may allow rapid start of neuroprotective therapy for acute stroke. In a large, multicenter trial, we evaluated its efficacy in attaining target serum levels of candidate neuroprotective agent magnesium sulfate and the relation of achieved magnesium levels to outcome. The FAST-MAG phase 3 trial (Field Administration of Stroke Therapy - Magnesium) randomized 1700 patients within 2 hours of onset to paramedic-initiated, a 15-minute loading intravenous infusion of magnesium or placebo followed by a 24-hour maintenance dose. The drug delivery strategy included fixed-size lumen, gravity-controlled tubing for field drug administration, and a shrink-wrapped ambulance kit containing both the randomized field loading and hospital maintenance doses for seamless continuation. Among patient randomized to active treatment, magnesium levels in the first 72 hours were assessed 987 times in 572 patients. Mean patient age was 70 years (SD±14 years), and 45% were women. During the 24-hour period of active infusion, mean achieved serum level was 3.91 (±0.8), consistent with trial target. Mg levels were increased by older age, female sex, lower weight, height, body mass index, and estimated glomerular filtration rate, and higher blood urea nitrogen, hemoglobin, and higher hematocrit. Adjusted odds for clinical outcomes did not differ by achieved Mg level, including disability at 90 days, symptomatic hemorrhage, or death. Paramedic infusion initiation using gravity-controlled tubing permits rapid achievement of target serum levels of potential neuroprotective agents. The absence of association of clinical outcomes with achieved magnesium levels provides further evidence that magnesium is not biologically neuroprotective in acute stroke. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Recovery from Bell Palsy after Transplantation of Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells and Platelet-Rich Plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seffer, Istvan; Nemeth, Zoltan

    2017-06-01

    Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) are multipotent, and plasma contains growth factors involving tissue regeneration. We hypothesized that transplantation of PBMC-plasma will promote the recovery of paralyzed facial muscles in Bell palsy. This case report describes the effects of PBMC-plasma transplantations in a 27-year-old female patient with right side Bell palsy. On the affected side of the face, the treatment resulted in both morphological and functional recovery including voluntary facial movements. These findings suggest that PBMC-plasma has the capacity of facial muscle regeneration and provides a promising treatment strategy for patients suffering from Bell palsy or other neuromuscular disorders.

  20. 77 FR 7 - Revisions to Labeling Requirements for Blood and Blood Components, Including Source Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-03

    ... uniform container label for blood and blood components and recommended labels that incorporated barcode... Protein Fraction (part 640, subpart I), and Immune Globulin (part 640, subpart J)). The comment noted that...

  1. Histone acetylation and histone deacetylase activity of magnesium valproate in tumor and peripheral blood of patients with cervical cancer. A phase I study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cabrera Gustavo

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The development of cancer has been associated with epigenetic alterations such as aberrant histone deacetylase (HDAC activity. It was recently reported that valproic acid is an effective inhibitor of histone deacetylases and as such induces tumor cell differentiation, apoptosis, or growth arrest. Methods Twelve newly diagnosed patients with cervical cancer were treated with magnesium valproate after a baseline tumor biopsy and blood sampling at the following dose levels (four patients each: 20 mg/kg; 30 mg/kg, or 40 mg/kg for 5 days via oral route. At day 6, tumor and blood sampling were repeated and the study protocol ended. Tumor acetylation of H3 and H4 histones and HDAC activity were evaluated by Western blot and colorimetric HDAC assay respectively. Blood levels of valproic acid were determined at day 6 once the steady-state was reached. Toxicity of treatment was evaluated at the end of study period. Results All patients completed the study medication. Mean daily dose for all patients was 1,890 mg. Corresponding means for the doses 20-, 30-, and 40-mg/kg were 1245, 2000, and 2425 mg, respectively. Depressed level of consciousness grade 2 was registered in nine patients. Ten patients were evaluated for H3 and H4 acetylation and HDAC activity. After treatment, we observed hyperacetylation of H3 and H4 in the tumors of nine and seven patients, respectively, whereas six patients demonstrated hyperacetylation of both histones. Serum levels of valproic acid ranged from 73.6–170.49 μg/mL. Tumor deacetylase activity decreased in eight patients (80%, whereas two had either no change or a mild increase. There was a statistically significant difference between pre and post-treatment values of HDAC activity (mean, 0.36 vs. 0.21, two-tailed t test p Conclusion Magnesium valproate at a dose between 20 and 40 mg/kg inhibits deacetylase activity and hyperacetylates histones in tumor tissues.

  2. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, Flemming; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...... of albumin in arterial and venous blood in seven healthy subjects before and during insulin-induced hypoglycaemia. In both vascular sites blood 51Cr content and the haematocrit increased, plasma volume and intravascular albumin content decreased and the transcapillary escape rate of albumin increased during...

  3. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamines in acute and prolonged hypoxia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kanstrup, I L; Poulsen, T D; Hansen, J M

    1999-01-01

    This study measured the pressor and plasma catecholamine response to local hypothermia during adaptation to hypobaric hypoxia. Eight healthy men were studied at rest and after 10 and 45 min of local cooling of one hand and forearm as well as after 30 min of rewarming at sea level and again 24 h...

  4. Study on the changes in blood plasma electroconductivity and dielectric constant in irradiated mammals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paskalev, Z.; Bancheva, E.

    1975-01-01

    Blood plasma electroconductivity and dielectric constant were measured in C57BL mice exposed to an uncontaminated gamma or neutron field or a mixed gamma-neutron field at a total dose of 5, 10, 15, 20, or 25 rad. Measurements were also made with blood plasma from Wistar rats given 200, 400, or 600 R X-rays. The results obtained revealed a characteristic pattern of radiation-induced changes in electroconductivity and dielectric constant, these end-points being indicative, respectively, or shifts in saline concentrations and in conformation of protein fractions of blood plasma. Analysis of the data showed that within a few days after exposure there were changes occurring in cellular and tissue water-salt metabolism, followed by enhancement or recovery to norm, depending on the dose. A possibility is thus rendered to use the blood plasma parameters studied as a test for detecting early shifts in cellular water-salt metabolism and in conformation of protein fractions at a time when no characteristic changes are yet to be observed in amounts of individual types of protein fractions from blood plasma of irradiated organisms. (author)

  5. Plasma fractionation, a useful means to improve national transfusion system and blood safety: Iran experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheraghali, A M; Abolghasemi, H

    2009-03-01

    In 1974, the government of Iran established Iranian Blood Transfusion Organization (IBTO) as national and centralized transfusion system. Since then donations of blood may not be remunerated and therapy with blood and its components are free of charges for all Iranian patients. Donations are meticulously screened through interviewing donors and lab testing the donations using serological methods. Currently, Iranian donors donate 1735 00 units of blood annually (donation index: 25/1000 population). Implementation of a highly efficient donor selection programme, including donors interview, establishment of confidential unit exclusion programme and laboratory screening of donated bloods by IBTO have led to seroprevalence rates of 0.41%, 0.12% and 0.004% for HBV, HCV and HIV in donated bloods respectively. Since 2004, IBTO has initiated a programme to enter into a contract fractionation agreement for the surplus of recovered plasma produced in its blood collecting centres. Although IBTO has used this project as a mean to improve national transfusion system through upgrading its quality assurance systems, IBTO fractionation project has played a major role in improving availability of plasma-derived medicines in Iran. During 2006-2007, this project furnished the Iran market with 44% and 14% of its needs to the intravenous immunoglobulin and albumin, respectively. Iranian experience showed that contract fractionation of plasma in countries with organized centralized transfusion system, which lack national plasma fractionation facility, in addition to substantial saving on national health resource and enhancing availability of plasma-derived medicines, could serve as a useful means to improve national blood safety profile.

  6. Study of the effect of Pyrophosphate in low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yun, Jae Gon; Kim, Eng Chan; Kim, Ki Hong

    2016-01-01

    In this study, low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) was utilized to eliminate the drawbacks of high voltage PEO such as high cost, dimensional deformation, and porosity. Low voltage PEO produces a thin coating, which leads to low corrosion resistance. In order to solve this problem, 0.1⁓0.6 M pyrophosphates were added to a bath containing 1.4 M NaOH and 0.35 M Na_2SiO_3.PEO at 70V was conducted at 25℃ for 3 minutes. The chemical composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance of the anodized coating were analyzed. The anodized film was composed of MgO, Mg_2SiO_4, and Mg_2O_7P_2. Themorphology of the film showed a inappropriately dense structure and low porosity in the anodized layers. It is found that low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in cooperation with phosphating treatment can provide good corrosion protection for the AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  7. Study of the effect of Pyrophosphate in low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation on the corrosion resistance of AZ31B Magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yun, Jae Gon; Kim, Eng Chan [Yeungnam University, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Ki Hong [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-01-15

    In this study, low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation (PEO) was utilized to eliminate the drawbacks of high voltage PEO such as high cost, dimensional deformation, and porosity. Low voltage PEO produces a thin coating, which leads to low corrosion resistance. In order to solve this problem, 0.1⁓0.6 M pyrophosphates were added to a bath containing 1.4 M NaOH and 0.35 M Na{sub 2}SiO{sub 3}.PEO at 70V was conducted at 25℃ for 3 minutes. The chemical composition, morphology, and corrosion resistance of the anodized coating were analyzed. The anodized film was composed of MgO, Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}, and Mg{sub 2}O{sub 7}P{sub 2}. Themorphology of the film showed a inappropriately dense structure and low porosity in the anodized layers. It is found that low voltage Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation in cooperation with phosphating treatment can provide good corrosion protection for the AZ31B magnesium alloy.

  8. Blood plasma glucose regulation in Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Frugivores feed on fruits and nectars that contain different types of sugars in different proportions, which provide these animals with energy. Wahlberg's epauletted fruit bat (Epomophorus wahlbergi) has a high glucose intake irrespective of sugar concentration of nectar. It is not known how these bats regulate their blood ...

  9. Changes in blood glucose and plasma lipids during gestation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ten female Chinchilla rabbits with mean weight (1.9±0.1kg) were randomly assigned into two groups comprising of five each, to evaluate the changes in blood glucose and lipid profile during pregnancy. Control Group A was mated without prior synchronization, while rabbits in group B were synchronized with 0.15mg/kg ...

  10. Studies on blood and plasma biochemical characteristics of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The rats were fed on commercial grower mash and water provided ad libitum. Two separate blood samples were collected from the jugular veins of eight rats at 4th, 8th and 12th month stages of the experiment. One group of the samples was used for haematological studies and the other for biochemical tests. Data collected

  11. Red blood cell morphology and plasma proteins electrophoresis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The European pond terrapin(Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected from the dorsal sinus ...

  12. Red blood cell morphology and plasma proteins electrophoresis of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2007-07-04

    Jul 4, 2007 ... The European pond terrapin (Emys orbicularis) is a turtle found in southern and central Europe, West. Asia and North Africa. In this study, we used juvenile E. orbicularis (females of 4 - 5 years old) which was captured from the different area of the Mazandaran province in April 2006. Blood was collected.

  13. Power law relation between particle concentrations and their sizes in the blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirichenko, M N; Chaikov, L L; Zaritskii, A R

    2016-01-01

    This work is devoted to the investigation of sizes and concentrations of particles in blood plasma by dynamic light scattering (DLS). Blood plasma contains many different proteins and their aggregates, microparticles and vesicles. Their sizes, concentrations and shapes can give information about donor's health. Our DLS study of blood plasma reveals unexpected dependence: with increasing of the particle sizes r (from 1 nm up to 1 μm), their concentrations decrease as r -4 (almost by 12 orders). We found also that such dependence was repeated for model solution of fibrinogen and thrombin with power coefficient is -3,6. We believe that this relation is a fundamental law of nature that shows interaction of proteins (and other substances) in biological liquids. (paper)

  14. A high confidence, manually validated human blood plasma protein reference set

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schenk, Susann; Schoenhals, Gary J; de Souza, Gustavo

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The immense diagnostic potential of human plasma has prompted great interest and effort in cataloging its contents, exemplified by the Human Proteome Organization (HUPO) Plasma Proteome Project (PPP) pilot project. Due to challenges in obtaining a reliable blood plasma protein list......-trap-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) and a linear ion trap-Orbitrap (LTQ-Orbitrap) for mass spectrometry (MS) analysis. Both instruments allow the measurement of peptide masses in the low ppm range. Furthermore, we employed a statistical score that allows database peptide identification searching using the products of two...... consecutive stages of tandem mass spectrometry (MS3). The combination of MS3 with very high mass accuracy in the parent peptide allows peptide identification with orders of magnitude more confidence than that typically achieved. RESULTS: Herein we established a high confidence set of 697 blood plasma proteins...

  15. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borbely-Kiss, I.; Koltay, E.; Laszlo, S.; Szabo, Gy.

    1984-01-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. (author)

  16. Digitalis-like activity in human plasma: Relation to blood pressure and sodium balance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Yamada, K.; Ishii, M.; Sugimoto, T. (Univ. of Tokyo (Japan))

    1990-10-01

    PURPOSE: On the assumption that renal tubular cells are more important as the target cells for a natriuretic factor than blood cells, we used a well-characterized cultured renal tubular cell line, Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK), cells to monitor the circulating digitalis-like factor in human plasma and examine its role in the regulation of blood pressure and sodium balance. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We investigated the effects of plasma on binding of radioactive ouabain to monolayered MDCK cells in order to determine the level of a circulating digitalis-like factor. First, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding to MDCK cells in the presence of plasma from 71 outpatients (34 normotensive subjects and 37 hypertensive patients) after incubation for 4 hours. Second, we measured specific 3H-ouabain binding after incubation of cells with plasma from 16 hospitalized subjects (eight normotensive subjects and eight hypertensive patients) receiving low and high sodium diets. RESULTS: In Study 1, ouabain binding was lower by 30% with plasma from hypertensive patients than with plasma from normotensive subjects (p less than 0.01). There was a significant negative correlation between individual subject's systolic or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.34, p less than 0.01 or r = -0.29, p less than 0.01). In Study 2, ouabain binding was also significantly reduced by 25% in the presence of plasma from hypertensive subjects as compared with plasma from normotensive subjects irrespective of sodium intake (p less than 0.01). A significant negative correlation was also found for all subjects between either systolic, diastolic, or mean blood pressure and ouabain binding (r = -0.58, p less than 0.01, r = -0.51, p less than 0.01, or r = -0.55, p less than 0.01, respectively).

  17. PIXE elemental analysis of erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from human pregnancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borbely-Kiss, I; Koltay, E; Laszlo, S; Szabo, Gy [Magyar Tudomanyos Akademia, Debrecen. Atommag Kutato Intezete; Goedeny, S [Orvostudomanyi Egyetem, Szeged (Hungary). Szueleszeti es Noegyogyaszati Klinika; Seif El-Nasr, S [Teachers' Coll. for Women, Samia (Kuwait)

    1984-07-01

    Elemental concentrations of P, S, Cl, K, Ca, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Br, Rb have been determined in erythrocyte and blood plasma samples from normal and diabetic human pregnancies. Average values, the dependence of the concentrations on the time during gestation period, the correlation coefficients for pairs of elements as well as for the same elements in plasma and erythrocyte samples are given. A marked difference appeared in a number of cases between normal and diabetic pregnancies. 11 refs.

  18. Liver insulinase and insulin-like activity of the blood plasma in irradiated rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhikhareva, A I; Dokshina, G A [Tomskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR)

    1975-05-01

    Comparative quantitative analysis of the functional effect of radiation on the activity of liver insulinase of irradiated rats has shown that the insulinase activity of the blood plasma decreases (21-45%) one to three days after the exposure at betatron. Insulinase activity of the liver extracts is also inhibited (16-22%) as compared to intact liver extracts. Twelve days after the exposure and later, insulin-like activity of the plasma and the enzyme activity increase up to 37 per cent.

  19. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  20. Discriminating the hemolytic risk of blood type A plasmas using the complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunnion, Kenji M; Hair, Pamela S; Krishna, Neel K; Sass, Megan A; Enos, Clinton W; Whitley, Pamela H; Maes, Lanne Y; Goldberg, Corinne L

    2017-03-01

    The agglutination-based cross-matching method is sensitive for antibody binding to red blood cells but is only partially predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis, which is important in many acute hemolytic transfusion reactions. Here, we describe complement hemolysis using human erythrocytes (CHUHE) assays that directly evaluate complement-mediated hemolysis between individual serum-plasma and red blood cell combinations. The CHUHE assay is used to evaluate correlations between agglutination titers and complement-mediated hemolysis as well as the hemolytic potential of plasma from type A blood donors. Plasma or serum from each type A blood donor was incubated with AB or B red blood cells in the CHUHE assay and measured for free hemoglobin release. CHUHE assays for serum or plasma demonstrate a wide, dynamic range and high sensitivity for complement-mediated hemolysis for individual serum/plasma and red blood cell combinations. CHUHE results suggest that agglutination assays alone are only moderately predictive of complement-mediated hemolysis. CHUHE results also suggest that plasma from particular type A blood donors produce minimal complement-mediated hemolysis, whereas plasma from other type A blood donors produce moderate to high-level complement-mediated hemolysis, depending on the red blood cell donor. The current results indicate that the CHUHE assay can be used to assess complement-mediated hemolysis for plasma or serum from a type A blood donor, providing additional risk discrimination over agglutination titers alone. © 2016 AABB.

  1. Quantitative evaluation of plasma after methylene blue and white light treatment in four Chinese blood centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chunhui, Yang; Guohui, Bian; Hong, Yang; Xiaopu, Xiao; Zherong, Bai; Mingyuan, Wang; Xinsheng, Zhang; Juanjuan, Wang; Changqing, Li; Wuping, Li

    2013-12-01

    Pathogen reduction technology is an important process in the blood safety system, including solvent/detergent treatment, filtration and methylene blue-photochemical technology (MB-PCT). To investigate the quality of MB-PCT-treated plasma, plasma samples from four Chinese blood centers were analyzed over 12 months of storage to determine the recovery of activities and levels of various plasma proteins. Ten plasma units each from the Suzhou, Yancheng, Chongqing and Shandong blood centers were divided into two aliquots. One was subjected to treatment with one of two methylene blue-photochemical technology instruments and the other was used as control. The treated and untreated sample pairs were stored at -30°C. The recovery rates of coagulation factors, inhibitor proteins, total protein, immunoglobulins, and complement proteins were measured at different time points after storage. The mean recovery of most proteins exceeded 80% after MB treatment. The exceptions were factor XI and fibrinogen, of which only 71.3-74% and 69.0-92.3% were retained during storage. The two equipment types differed in terms of residual MB concentration in the plasma samples (0.18 μM and 0.29 μM, respectively). They had similar protein recovery rates at 0.5 month but differed at later time points. The four blood centers differed significantly with regard to factor II, V, VIII and fibrinogen activities. Only the samples from the Shandong blood center met the methylene blue treated fresh frozen plasma requirement. The major factor that influenced the quality of the MB-FFP samples was the time taken between blood collection and storage. Methylene blue treated plasma showed reduced coagulation factor (CF) activity and protein levels. The MB treatment-induced damage to the proteins was acceptable at the four Chinese blood centers, but the quality of the MB-treated plasma in general was not satisfactory. The main factor affecting plasma quality may be the duration of the collection and

  2. Plasma fractionation for blood products: isolation and purification of coagulating factors, albumin and immunoglobulin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siti Najila Mohd Janib; Shaharuddin Mohd; Wan Hamirul Bahrin Wan Kamal

    2005-01-01

    Approximately 12 million liters of human plasma are fractionated world-wide annually. However, with the market for clotting factors and other haemoderivatives steadily increasing from year to year, the amount processed will also increase correspondingly to keep up with the demand. In Malaysia, part of the need for the blood products are obtained commercially but a major portion of the requirement involves sending the plasma collected by the National Blood Centre to Australia for processing. Following purification and isolation of the blood products, they are sent back to Malaysia for local consumption. As yet there are no plasma fractionation plants in the South East Asia region, it would be advantageous to establish a local fractionation plant as it would be able to cater for local demands of the haemoderivatives and thus reduces the cost of importing these products. Besides, this facility will be able to provide contract fractionation services to the surrounding region. Early work in MINT has started in trying to purify plasma obtained from rats. Purification of the plasma was performed by using Sephadex G-25 column. Short term objective of this project is to develop the technique of extraction, fractionation and purification of blood products such as albumin, globulin and clotting factors (Factor VIII and Factor IX). The long term emphasis will be to scale up the production facility to a pilot plant stage and eventually to a national fractionation and purification plant. (Author)

  3. Autologous Blood and Platelet-Rich Plasma Injections for Treatment of Lateral Epicondylitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calandruccio, James H; Steiner, Murphy M

    2017-07-01

    Lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) is a frequent cause of elbow pain; most patients (80%-90%) are successfully treated with standard nonoperative methods (rest, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, bracing, and physical therapy). Autologous blood injections and platelet-rich plasma injections are the two most frequently used orthobiologic techniques in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Studies of the effectiveness of autologous blood injections and platelet-rich plasma report varying outcomes, some citing significant clinical relief and others reporting no beneficial effect. More research is needed to determine how to best use orthobiologics in the treatment of lateral epicondylitis. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. A method for estimation of plasma albumin concentration from the buffering properties of whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Diemer, Tue; Kristensen, Søren Risom

    2012-01-01

    measurements of acid-base and oxygenation status. This article presents and evaluates a new method for doing so. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mathematical method for estimating plasma albumin concentration is described. To evaluate the method at numerous albumin concentrations, blood from 19 healthy subjects......PURPOSE: Hypoalbuminemia is strongly associated with poor clinical outcome. Albumin is usually measured at the central laboratory rather than point of care, but in principle, information exists in the buffering properties of whole blood to estimate plasma albumin concentration from point of care...

  5. Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis on nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, A V; Osipov, N V; Yashchenko, S V; Kokotukha, Yu A; Baron, I J; Puzyr, A P; Olkhovskiy, I A; Bondar, V S

    2016-07-01

    Adsorption of viral particles from the blood plasma of patients with viral hepatitis B and C on modified nanodiamonds (MNDs) was shown in the in vitro experiments. PCR method showed the treatment of plasma with MNDs leads to a decrease in the viral load by 2-3 orders of magnitude or more in both cases studied. These results make it possible to predict the applicability of MNDs for the development of new technologies of hemodialysis and plasmapheresis for binding and removal of viral particles from the blood of infected patients.

  6. Imaging of blood plasma coagulation at supported lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faxälv, Lars; Hume, Jasmin; Kasemo, Bengt; Svedhem, Sofia

    2011-12-15

    The blood coagulation system relies on lipid membrane constituents to act as regulators of the coagulation process upon vascular trauma, and in particular the 2D configuration of the lipid membranes is known to efficiently catalyze enzymatic activity of blood coagulation factors. This work demonstrates a new application of a recently developed methodology to study blood coagulation at lipid membrane interfaces with the use of imaging technology. Lipid membranes with varied net charges were formed on silica supports by systematically using different combinations of lipids where neutral phosphocholine (PC) lipids were mixed with phospholipids having either positively charged ethylphosphocholine (EPC), or negatively charged phosphatidylserine (PS) headgroups. Coagulation imaging demonstrated that negatively charged SiO(2) and membrane surfaces exposing PS (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of PS) had coagulation times which were significantly shorter than those for plain PC membranes and EPC exposing membrane surfaces (obtained from liposomes containing 30% of EPC). Coagulation times decreased non-linearly with increasing negative surface charge for lipid membranes. A threshold value for shorter coagulation times was observed below a PS content of ∼6%. We conclude that the lipid membranes on solid support studied with the imaging setup as presented in this study offers a flexible and non-expensive solution for coagulation studies at biological membranes. It will be interesting to extend the present study towards examining coagulation on more complex lipid-based model systems. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Role of red cells and plasma composition on blood sessile droplet evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanotte, Luca; Laux, Didier; Charlot, Benoît; Abkarian, Manouk

    2017-11-01

    The morphology of dried blood droplets derives from the deposition of red cells, the main components of their solute phase. Up to now, evaporation-induced convective flows were supposed to be at the base of red cell distribution in blood samples. Here, we present a direct visualization by videomicroscopy of the internal dynamics in desiccating blood droplets, focusing on the role of cell concentration and plasma composition. We show that in diluted suspensions, the convection is promoted by the rich molecular composition of plasma, whereas it is replaced by an outward red blood cell displacement front at higher hematocrits. We also evaluate by ultrasounds the effect of red cell deposition on the temporal evolution of sample rigidity and adhesiveness.

  8. Dialyzer-augmented whole blood and plasma exchange for patients with hepatic or hepatorenal failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buselmeier, T J; Merino, G E; Rodrigo, F; Meyer, R M; Bosl, B H; Kjellstrand, C M; Simmons, R L; Najarian, J S

    1975-01-01

    We have utilized new methods of dialyzer-augmented whole blood and plasma exchange tranfusion in the treatment of hepatic coma. The method employs the new fast flow Buselmeier shunt so that the exchange can be done from a peripheral radial artery shunt site rather than a shunt site in a more major vessel, such as the brachial artery. The method employs in-line dialysis of citrated (CPD) blood or plasma to normalize pH, electrolytes, and blood sugar while infusion heparinization decreases heparin requirements. The application of a single roller pump to the administration and withdrawal lines (placed in opposite directions) helps equalize inflow and outflow where whole blood exchange is done while identical opposing pumps accomplish the same with plasma exchange. The administration of albumin and metaraminol bitartate prevents hypotension due to fluid shifts or compartmental venous dilatation. A closed circuit which does not require disconnection throughout the 30- 60-minute whole blood exchange or the 2 1/2-hour plasma exchange decreases the risk of septic contamination to both medical staff and patients.

  9. DYNAMIC OF CHANGES OF BLOOD PLASMA ENERGY METABOLISM PARAMETERS IN SUCKLING COWS DURING CALVING INTERVAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ales Pavlik

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, effect of environmental condition changes during gazing period on energy metabolism parameters was investigated. Totally 40 Aberdeen Angus cows were selected for observation. Calving all of cows was situated into March. The feeding ration for the animals was comprised by pasture during the grazing period and corn silage, hay and granulated distiller’s grains during the winter period. At average age 9 days before calving, and subsequently 10, 81, 151, 189 and 273 days after calving, blood was sampled and analysed for glucose and NEFA (non-esterified fatty acid concentrations on KONELAB T20xt automatic analyser (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Finland and currently available commercial kits (Biovendor-Laboratorni medicina, Czech Republic. A rapid increase (p < 0.05 of glucose concentration was detected in blood plasma of cows in period before calving to 81 days post partum. Average value of glucose concentration at 273 days postpartum was significant (p < 0.05 lower comparing to day 189. The highest concentrations of NEFA in blood plasma of cows were found at 10 day postpartum. After that, during the persisted higher temperature period the NEFA concentration decreased significantly (p < 0.01 till 189 days postpartum. At the end of monitored period concentration of NEFA in blood plasma significantly decreased (p < 0.05. Changes of hot and cold season during the grazing period probably according to forage quality and had significant effects on blood plasma NEFA and glucose concentrations.

  10. Alkaline and Acid Phosphatase Activity in Blood Plasma of Chickens Irradiated by Low dose Gamma Radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petar, K.; Marinko, V.; Saveta, M.; Miljenko, S.

    2004-01-01

    In our previous paper (Kraljevic et, al, 2000; Kraljevic et al 2002) we showed that the growth of the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma-rays before incubation was significantly higher than in controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of the same chickens was also significantly changed. In this paper an attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionizing radiation before incubation upon activity of alkaline and acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 6, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically by using Boehring Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. the activity of alkaline phosphatase in blood plasma was decreased on days 42, and the activity of acid phosphatase in the blood plasma of the same chickens was increased on day 42. Obtained results confirm our early obtained results that low dose of gamma radiation has effects upon metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (Author)

  11. The influence of blood plasma of irradiated animals on activity of Ca2+ - ATPase and Mg2+ - ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dreval', V.I.

    1994-01-01

    Rats were irradiated at doses 1.5, 4.0, 7.0 and 10 Gy. After 1, 8, 15, 22 and 30 days the effect of blood plasma on activity of Ca 2+ -ATPase and Mg 2+ -ATPase in plasma membrane of thymocytes was investigated. It was found that the raise of irradiation dose leads to increasing of blood plasma effect on membrane-bound enzymes

  12. Lipoperoxides, alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin in gamma-irradiated blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aladzhov, E.; Popzakharieva, V.

    1995-01-01

    Ceruloplasmin, alpha-tocopherol and lipid peroxide concentrations are evaluated in blood plasma for transfusion following exposure to irradiation with 60 Co gamma rays at doses 23, 50, 100 and 200 Gy. In plasma exposed to irradiation an increase in lipid peroxides and decrease in alpha-tocopherol and ceruloplasmin are observed. The addition of 2.3 U/ml ceruloplasmin to plasma prior to irradiation reduces the quantity of lipid peroxides and protects alpha-tocopherol. The possible explanation is that the metal helates prevent the formation of free hydroxyl radicals and thus inhibit the oxidation of lipid membranes. 15 refs., 1 tab. (author)

  13. Prospects of Vitamin C as an Additive in Plasma of Stored Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Vani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a dire necessity to improve blood storage and prolong shelf-life of blood. Very few studies have focused on oxidative stress (OS in blood and its influence on plasma with storage. This study attempts to (i elucidate the continuous changes occurring in plasma during storage through oxidant levels and antioxidant status and (ii evaluate the influence of vitamin C (VC as an additive during blood storage. Blood was drawn from male Wistar rats and stored for 25 days at 4°C. Blood samples were divided into control and experimental groups. Plasma was isolated every 5 days and the OS markers, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and protein oxidation products, were studied. Catalase activity increased in all groups with storage. Lipid peroxidation decreased in VC (10 but was maintained in VC (30 and VC (60. Although there were variations in all groups, carbonyls were maintained towards the end of storage. Advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP increased in VC (30 and were maintained in VC (10 and VC (60. Sulfhydryls were maintained in all groups. Vitamin C could not sufficiently attenuate OS and hence, this opens the possibilities for further studies on vitamin C in combination with other antioxidants, in storage solutions.

  14. Serial changes in plasma K concentration during storage of irradiation blood products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Togashi, Kazue; Yamada, Keiko; Otake, Sachiko; Saito, Yukiko; Sugimura, Kazuhito; Takahashi, Hoyu

    1996-01-01

    Irradiation of blood products is highly effective in the prevention of transfusion-associated graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). In order to assess the safe storage period of irradiated blood products, serial changes in plasma K, red cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (2,3-DPG) and lactic acid concentrations of whole blood and M·A·P-added red cell concentrate (RC-M·A·P) during storage at 5degC were measured after irradiation with 137 Cs by IBL 437C (CIS bio international). Plasma K concentration did not change immediately after irradiation, but increased more rapidly and in a radiation dose-dependent manner in the irradiated products than nonirradiated products. The changes in red cell 2,3-DPG and lactic acid concentrations were not affected by irradiation but were rather dependent on the storage period after blood collection. Plasma K concentrations of whole blood and RC-M·A·P irradiated with 25 Gy increased at 5 and 3 days, respectively, to the K levels observed after the storage of nonirradiated products for 21 days. It is therefore recommended that whole blood be used within 5 days and RC-M·A·P within 3 days when stored after irradiation with 25 Gy. (author)

  15. The effect of magnesium on maternal blood pressure in pregnancy-induced hypertension. A randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rudnicki, M; Frölich, A; Rasmussen, W F

    1991-01-01

    The effects of magnesium were compared with those of placebo in a randomized double-blind controlled study of 58 patients with pregnancy-induced hypertension, of whom 27 received magnesium and 31 placebo. Twenty patients in each group were nulliparas. The treatment comprised 48 h of either intrav...

  16. Magnesium compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  17. Preparing Platelet-Rich Plasma with Whole Blood Harvested Intraoperatively During Spinal Fusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Bin; Zhang, Zheng; Zhou, Ning-Feng; Huang, Yu-Feng; Bao, Yu-Jie; Wu, De-Sheng; Zhang, Ya-Dong

    2017-07-22

    BACKGROUND Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) has gained growing popularity in use in spinal fusion procedures in the last decade. Substantial intraoperative blood loss is frequently accompanied with spinal fusion, and it is unknown whether blood harvested intraoperatively qualifies for PRP preparation. MATERIAL AND METHODS Whole blood was harvested intraoperatively and venous blood was collected by venipuncture. Then, we investigated the platelet concentrations in whole blood and PRP, the concentration of growth factors in PRP, and the effects of PRP on the proliferation and viability of human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (HBMSCs). RESULTS Our results revealed that intraoperatively harvested whole blood and whole blood collected by venipuncture were similar in platelet concentration. In addition, PRP formulations prepared from both kinds of whole blood were similar in concentration of platelet and growth factors. Additional analysis showed that the similar concentrations of growth factors resulted from the similar platelet concentrations of whole blood and PRP between the two groups. Moreover, these two kinds of PRP formulations had similar effects on promoting cell proliferation and enhancing cell viability. CONCLUSIONS Therefore, intraoperatively harvested whole blood may be a potential option for preparing PRP spinal fusion.

  18. Plasma volume changes during hypoglycaemia: the effect of arterial blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hilsted, J; Bendtsen, F; Christensen, N J

    1990-01-01

    To investigate whether previously reported changes in venous blood volume and composition induced by acute hypoglycaemia in humans are representative for the entire body we measured erythrocyte 51Cr content, haematocrit, plasma volume, intravascular albumin content and transcapillary escape rate...... hypoglycaemia. The magnitude of the changes in arterial and venous blood were not significantly different. These results indicate that the above changes in blood volume and composition are whole-body phenomena: furthermore, the major part of the changes are likely to occur in tissues other than upper extremity...

  19. Photooptical response of the blood plasma to the low-intensity red light

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mints, R.I.; Skopinov, S.A.; Yakovleva, S.V.

    1990-01-01

    Photooptical response to low-intensity red light by irradiation of the whole blood as well as of its pigmentless plasma part is investigated. It is shown by the example of blood irradiation that the mechanism of action of low-intensity red light on the blood is not directly related to pigmented molecular complexes. The conclusion is made, that the effect of low-intensity red light on living organisms includes mechanism not utilizing light absorption by a specialized molecule-photoreceptor as a primary photophysical act

  20. Plasma concentrations of blood coagulation factor VII measured by immunochemical and amidolytic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bladbjerg, E-M; Gram, J; Jespersen, J

    2000-01-01

    Ever since the coagulant activity of blood coagulation factor VII (FVII:C) was identified as a risk indicator of cardiac death, a large number of studies have measured FVII protein concentrations in plasma. FVII protein concentrations are either measured immunologically with an ELISA method (FVII...

  1. Amperometric Sensor for Heparin: Sensing Mechanism and Application in Human Blood Plasma Analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Langmaier, Jan; Olšák, J.; Samcová, E.; Samec, Zdeněk; Trojánek, Antonín

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 18, 13-14 (2006), s. 1329-1338 ISSN 1040-0397 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : heparin * amperometry * PVC membrane electrode * sensing mechanism * human blood plasma Subject RIV: CG - Electrochemistry Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2006

  2. Fast blood plasma separation device for point-of-care applications

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Ďurč, P.; Foret, František; Kubáň, Petr

    2018-01-01

    Roč. 183, JUN (2018), s. 55-60 ISSN 0039-9140 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : blood plasma separation * capillary electrophoresis * point of care analysis * methanol * metabolites Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 4.162, year: 2016

  3. Blood plasma separation in ZnO nanoflowers-supported paper based microfluidic for glucose sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhimmah, Luthviyah Choirotul; Roekmono, Hadi, Harsono; Yuwono, Rio Akbar; Wahyuono, Ruri Agung

    2018-04-01

    Blood plasma separation is essential to analyze and quantify the bio-substances in the human blood and hence, allows for diagnosing various diseases. This paper presents the two layer paper-based microfluidic analytical devices coated with ZnO nanoflowers (ZnO NF-µPAD) for a rapid blood plasma separation and glucose sensing. Plasma separation in ZnO NF-µPAD was evaluated experimentally and numerically using computational fluid dynamics package for a flow over porous networks. Glucose detection was carried out using Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) measurements. The glucose concentrations in the red blood samples investigated here vary in the range of 150 - 310 mg.dl-1. The plasma separation process on ZnO NF-μPAD requires 240 ± 93 s. The spectroscopic data reveals that the IR absorptions and Raman signals at the typical vibrational frequencies of glucose are increasing at higher glucose concentration. After subtraction from absorption background arising from ZnO NF and the paper, linearly increasing IR absorption (913 and 1349 cm-1) and Raman signals (1346 and 1461 cm-1) are observable with a relatively good sensitivity.

  4. Polarized Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    In India oral cancer ranks the top due to the habitual usage of tobacco in its various forms and remains the major burden. Hence priority is given for early diagnosis as it is the better solution for cure or to improve the survival rate. For the past three decades, optical spectroscopic techniques have shown its capacity in the discrimination of normal and malignant samples. Many research works have conventional Raman in the effective detection of cancer using the variations in bond vibrations of the molecules. However in addition polarized Raman provides the orientation and symmetry of biomolecules. If so can polarized Raman be the better choice than the conventional Raman in the detection of cancer? The present study aimed to found the answer for the above query. The conventional and polarized Raman spectra were acquired for the same set of blood plasma samples of normal subjects and oral malignant (OSCC) patients. Thus, obtained Raman spectral data were compared using linear discriminant analysis coupled with artificial neural network (LDA-ANN). The depolarization ratio of biomolecules such as antioxidant, amino acid, protein and nucleic acid bases present in blood plasma was proven to be the best attributes in the categorization of the groups. The polarized Raman results were promising in discriminating oral cancer blood plasma from that of normal blood plasma with improved efficiency. The results will be discussed in detail.

  5. Analysis of multiple single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) on DNA traces from plasma and dried blood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Catsburg, Arnold; van der Zwet, Wil C.; Morre, Servaas A.; Ouburg, Sander; Vandenbroucke-Grauls, Christina M. J. E.; Savelkoul, Paul H. M.

    2007-01-01

    Reliable analysis of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in DNA derived from samples containing low numbers of cells or from suboptimal sources can be difficult. A new procedure to characterize multiple SNPs in traces of DNA from plasma and old dried blood samples was developed. Six SNPs in the

  6. Hierarchical clustering analysis of blood plasma lipidomics profiles from mono- and dizygotic twin families

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draisma, H.H.; Reijmers, T.H.; Meulman, J.J.; Greef, J. van der; Hankemeier, T.; Boomsma, D.I.

    2013-01-01

    Twin and family studies are typically used to elucidate the relative contribution of genetic and environmental variation to phenotypic variation. Here, we apply a quantitative genetic method based on hierarchical clustering, to blood plasma lipidomics data obtained in a healthy cohort consisting of

  7. The effect of colostrum intake on blood plasma proteome profile in newborn lambs: low abundance proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernandez Castellano, Lorenzo E; de Almeida, André Martinho; Ventosa, Miguel

    2014-01-01

    Colostrum intake by newborn lambs plays a fundamental role in the perinatal period, ensuring lamb survival. In this study, blood plasma samples from two groups of newborn lambs (Colostrum group and Delayed Colostrum group) at 2 and 14 h after birth were treated to reduce the content of high abund...

  8. Passive blood plasma separation at the microscale: a review of design principles and microdevices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Siddhartha; Varun Kumar, Y V Bala; Joshi, Suhas S; Agrawal, Amit; Prabhakar, Amit

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma separation is vital in the field of diagnostics and health care. Due to the inherent advantages obtained in the transition to microscale, the recent trend in these fields is a rapid shift towards the miniaturization of complex macro processes. Plasma separation in microdevices is one such process which has received extensive attention from researchers globally. Blood plasma separation techniques based on microfluidic platforms can be broadly classified into two categories. While active techniques utilize external force fields for separation, the passive techniques are dependent on biophysical effects, cell behavior, hydrodynamic forces and channel geometry for blood plasma separation. In general, passive separation methods are favored in comparison to active methods because they tend to avoid design complexities and are relatively easy to integrate with biosensors; additionally they are cost effective. Here we review passive separation techniques demonstrating separation and blood behavior at microscale. We present an extensive review of relevant biophysical laws, along with experimental details of various passive separation techniques and devices exploiting these physical effects. The relative performances, and the advantages and disadvantages of microdevices discussed in the literature, are compared and future challenges are brought about. (topical review)

  9. Nifedipine effect on the labelling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Tc-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gutfilen, B.; Boasquevisque, E.M.; Bernardo Filho, M.

    1988-01-01

    The labeling of red blood cells (RBC) with Tc-99m depends on the presence of stannous ion (Sn) that helps this radionuclide's fixation on the hemoglobin molecule. Nifedipine is an agent capable to block a specific way where calcius (Ca) ion acrosses the cellular membrane and to bind itself on plasma proteins. The effect of nifedipine in the labeling of RBC and plasma proteins with Tc-99m was studied because of similarities between Ca and Sn ions. Blood with anticoagulant was treated with nifedipine concentration of 10 -6 M for 15 min at 37 0 C. The labeling of RBC with Tc-99m was done incubating with Sn ion solution (3 uM) for different times. The % of radioactivity in RBC was determined. Samples of plasma were precipited with trichloroacetic acid and the % of radiocctivity in insoluble fraction was calculated. The same procedure was done using different nifedipine concentrations and the blood was incubated for 60 min with Sn ion. The determination of the % of Tc-99m labeled in RBC and plasma proteins showed that this drug does not have the capability to alter this incorporation because the results are similar to control. It is suggested that the Sn ions passage across RBC is not altered by nifedipine although this drug could bind to plasma protein, it does not modify the Tc-99m fixation on it. (author) [pt

  10. Single injection 51Cr EDTA plasma clearance determination in children using capillary blood samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broechner-Mortensen, J.; Christoffersen, J.

    1977-01-01

    The reliability of a determination of the total 51 Cr EDTA plasma clearance (e) (and with it the glomerular filtration rate), by a simplified single injection method (injected dose: 4.5 μCi per kg b.w.) using capillary blood samples (0.2 ml), was investigated in twenty children. Clearance values determined from capillary blood samples did not differ significantly from those measured simultaneously from venous blood samples, the mean ratio+-SD being 1.02+-0.06(n = 10). The reproducibility (total day-to-day variation) of E determined from capillary blood samples was 6.7% in children with decreased renal function (n = 3) and 6.9% in children with normal renal function (n = 7). The present data indicate that the use of capillary blood samples is an accurate and very precise approach for determination of E in children. (Auth.)

  11. Effect of (NaPO3)6 concentrations on corrosion resistance of plasma electrolytic oxidation coatings formed on AZ91D magnesium alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo Haihe; Cai Qizhou; Wei Bokang; Yu Bo; Li Dingjun; He Jian; Liu Ze

    2008-01-01

    Different plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coatings were prepared on AZ91D magnesium alloy in electrolytes containing various concentrations of (NaPO 3 ) 6 . The morphologies, chemical compositions and corrosion resistance of the PEO coatings were characterized by environmental scanning electron microscopy (ESEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), energy dispersive analysis of X-rays (EDAX), potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) test. The results showed that the PEO coatings were mainly composed of MgO, Mg 2 SiO 4 , MgAl 2 O 4 and amorphous compounds. As the (NaPO 3 ) 6 concentrations increased from 0 to 10 g/l, the thickness and surface roughness of the coatings approximately linearly increased; the MgO and Mg 2 SiO 4 phase increased within the concentration range of 0-3 and 0-5 g/l, and then decreased within the range of 3-10 and 5-10 g/l, respectively, while the MgAl 2 O 4 phase gradually decreased. Moreover, the corrosion resistance of the coatings increased within the range of 0-5 g/l and then decreased within the range of 5-10 g/l. The best corrosion resistance coating was obtained in electrolyte containing 5 g/l (NaPO 3 ) 6 , it had the most compact microstructure. Besides, a reasonable equivalent circuit was established, and the fitting results were consistent with the results of the EIS test

  12. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi; Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong; Shen, Dejiu

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  13. Corrosion behaviors and effects of corrosion products of plasma electrolytic oxidation coated AZ31 magnesium alloy under the salt spray corrosion test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Yan; Huang, Zhiquan; Yan, Qin; Liu, Chen; Liu, Peng; Zhang, Yi [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Guo, Changhong; Jiang, Guirong [College of Mechanical Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China); Shen, Dejiu, E-mail: DejiuShen@163.com [State Key Laboratory of Metastable Materials Science and Technology, College of Materials Science and Engineering, Yanshan University, Qinhuangdao 066004 (China)

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Corrosion behaviors of a PEO coating was investigated after the salt spray test. • Corrosion products have significant effects on corrosion behaviors of the coating. • An electrochemical corrosion model is proposed. - Abstract: The effects of corrosion products on corrosion behaviors of AZ31 magnesium alloy with a plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) coating were investigated under the salt spray corrosion test (SSCT). The surface morphology, cross-sectional microstructure, chemical and phase compositions of the PEO coating were determined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) equipped with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), respectively. Further, the corrosion process of the samples under the SSCT was examined in a non-aqueous electrolyte (methanol) using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) coupled with equivalent circuit. The results show that the inner layer of the coating was destroyed firstly and the corrosion products have significant effects on the corrosion behaviors of the coating. The results above are discussed and an electrochemical corrosion model is proposed in the paper.

  14. Method development for the determination of calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese, iron, potassium, phosphorus and zinc in different types of breads by microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozbek, Nil; Akman, Suleyman

    2016-06-01

    A novel method was developed for the determination of calcium, magnesium, potassium, iron, copper, zinc, and manganese and phosphorous in various kinds of breads samples sold in Turkey by microwave plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (MIP-AES). Breads were dried at 100 °C for one day, ground thoroughly and then digested using nitric acid/hydrogen per oxide (3:1). The analytes in certified reference wheat flour and maize flour samples were determined in the uncertainty limits of the certified values as well as the analytes added to the mixture of ground bread and acid mixture prior to digestion were recovered quantitatively (>90%). Therefore, all determinations were made by linear calibration technique using aqueous standards. The LOD values for Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, P and Zn were 13.1, 0.28, 4.47, 118, 1.10, 0.41, 7550 and 3.00 ng mL(-1), respectively. No spectral interference was detected at the working wavelengths of the analytes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy for non-invasive and continuous monitoring of extracellular component of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakota, Daisuke; Takatani, Setsuo

    2012-04-01

    To achieve the quantitative optical non-invasive diagnosis of blood during extracorporeal circulation therapies, the instrumental technique to extract extracellular spectra from whole blood was developed. In the circuit, the continuous blood flow was generated by a centrifugal blood pump. The oxygen saturation was maintained 100% by an oxygenator. The developed glass optical flow cell was attached to the outlet tubing of the oxygenator. The halogen lamp including the light from 400 to 900 nm wavelength was used for the light source. The light was guided into an optical fiber. The light emitted by the fiber was collimated and emitted to the flow cell flat surface at the incident angle of 45 degrees. The light just reflected on the boundary between inner surface of the flow cell and plasma at 45 degrees was detected by the detection fiber. The detected light was analyzed by a spectral photometer. The obtained spectrum from 400 to 600nm wavelength was not changed with respect to the hematocrit. In contrast, the signal in the spectral range was changed when the plasma free hemoglobin increased. By using two spectral range, 505+/-5 nm and 542.5+/-2.5 nm, the differential spectrum was correlated with the free hemoglobin at R2=0.99. On the other hand, as for the hematocrit, the differential spectrum was not correlated at R2=0.01. Finally, the plasma free hemoglobin was quantified with the accuracy of 22+/-19mg/dL. The result shows that the developed plasma surface reflectance spectroscopy (PSRS) can extract the plasma spectrum from flowing whole blood.

  16. Silenced uses and moral ideals in the exchange of Danish blood and plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Deleuran, Ida; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    This article explores the interplay between cultural discourses, moral reasoning and silenced uses in the international exchange of Danish blood plasma. Campaigns, policymakers, health professionals working in the blood banks – and even donors – consistently refer to ideals portraying blood....... However, we find that available cultural discourses poorly capture the moral reasoning among many donors. In fact, when informed about the existing forms of tender, plasma trade sounds like a good idea to most of them. Furthermore, they are not particularly interested in information. We argue...... that the silencing of trade is infusing the system with an unnecessary vulnerability that could easily be avoided with a different communication strategy towards donors. To arrive at new and better strategies, however, one must move beyond the immediate words and reactions of donors contemplating trade and seek...

  17. Inhibitors of serotonin reuptake and specific imipramine binding in human blood plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brusov, O.S.; Fomenko, A.M.; Katasonov, A.B.; Lidemann, R.R.

    1985-01-01

    This paper describes a method of extraction of endogenous inhibitors of specific IMI binding and of 5-HT reuptake, from human blood plasma and the heterogeneity of these compounds is demonstrated. Specific binding was determined as the difference between binding of 3 H-IMI in the absence and in the presence of 50 microM IMI. Under these conditions, specific binding amounted to 70-80% of total binding of 3 H-IMI. It is shown that extract obtained from human blood contains a material which inhibits dose-dependently both 5-HT reuptake and specific binding of 3 H-IMI. Gel-chromatography of extracts of human blood plasma on Biogel P-2 is also shown

  18. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  19. Information content of the space-frequency filtering of blood plasma layers laser images in the diagnosis of pathological changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ushenko, A. G.; Boychuk, T. M.; Mincer, O. P.; Bodnar, G. B.; Kushnerick, L. Ya.; Savich, V. O.

    2013-12-01

    The bases of method of the space-frequency of the filtering phase allocation of blood plasma pellicle are given here. The model of the optical-anisotropic properties of the albumen chain of blood plasma pellicle with regard to linear and circular double refraction of albumen and globulin crystals is proposed. Comparative researches of the effectiveness of methods of the direct polarized mapping of the azimuth images of blood plasma pcllicle layers and space-frequency polarimetry of the laser radiation transformed by divaricate and holelikc optical-anisotropic chains of blood plasma pellicles were held. On the basis of the complex statistic, correlative and fracta.1 analysis of the filtered frcquencydimensional polarizing azimuth maps of the blood plasma pellicles structure a set of criteria of the change of the double refraction of the albumen chains caused by the prostate cancer was traced and proved.

  20. Development of bio/blood compatible polypropylene through low pressure nitrogen plasma surface modification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gomathi, N.; Rajasekar, R.; Babu, R. Rajesh; Mishra, Debasish; Neogi, S.

    2012-01-01

    Surface modification of polypropylene by nitrogen containing plasma was performed in this work in order to improve the wettability which resulted in enhanced biocompatibility and blood compatibility. Various nitrogen containing functional groups as well as oxygen containing functional groups were found to be incorporated to the polymer surface during plasma treatment and post plasma reaction respectively. Wettability of the polymers was evaluated by static contact angle measurement to show the improvement in hydrophilicity of plasma treated polypropylene. Cross linking and surface modification were reported to be dominating in the case of nitrogen plasma treatment compared to degradation. The effect of various process variables namely power, pressure, flow rate and treatment time on surface energy and weight loss was studied at various levels according to the central composite design of response surface methodology (RSM). Except pressure the other variables resulted in increased weight loss due to etching whereas with increasing pressure weight loss was found to increase and then decrease. The effect of process variables on surface morphology of polymers was evaluated by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). Well spread fibroblast cells on nitrogen plasma treated polypropylene due to the presence of CO, NH 2+ and NH + was observed. Reduced platelet adhesion and increased partial thromboplastin time evidenced the increased blood compatibility. - Highlights: ► Improved biocompatibility and blood compatibility of polypropylene. ► Nitrogen plasma surface modification. ► Maintaining a balance between polar group incorporation and weight loss due to etching. ► Optimization of process conditions by response surface methodology.

  1. In vitro studies on magnesium uptake by rumen epithelium using magnesium-28

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martens, H.; Harmeyer, J.; Breves, G.

    1976-01-01

    Magnesium-28 transfer across the rumen epithelium has been studied using surviving epithelia in an in vitro system. Net absorption of magnesium in the direction from lumen to blood could be observed as the result of two opposite unidirectional fluxes of different magnitude. Net uptake of magnesium occurred against an electrical potential difference, and was associated with the presence of an unaltered transmural potential difference in the mucosal tissue. Both the net transfer of magnesium and the transmural potential difference decreased during two hours of incubation. Unidirectional fluxes of magnesium and net efflux from the lumen were markedly reduced although not completely inhibited by the addition of ouabain (10 -4 mol/l). The findings suggest that the mechanism of magnesium absorption by the rumen epithelium can be considered as an active transport process, and that the rumen is the main area of magnesium absorption in the living animal. (author)

  2. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Sabine; Willand, L; Reinhard, B; Offergeld, R; Hamouda, O

    2008-08-01

    According to Article 22 of the Transfusion Act, the Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the prevalence and incidence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Due to revision of the Transfusion Act in 2005 not only the number of donations but also the number of donors has become available for analysis. Here we give a detailed account on the demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2006. Overall, 4 % of the German population eligible to donate were active as repeat whole blood donors in 2006; 0.3 % repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Irrespective of the type of donation, the percentage of donors among the general population was highest among the youngest age group (18 to 24 years). While the age distribution of whole blood repeat donors roughly resembled that of the general population, with the greatest number among those aged 35 to 44, younger age groups were overrepresented among repeat plasma donors. Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 11.9 for plasmapheresis and 4.0 for plateletpheresis. With the exception of the latter, men donated more frequently than women. For both sexes, donation frequency increased with age. Detailed knowledge of the demographic profile and changes in the composition of donor populations are essential for planning adequate blood supply. The data presented may serve as reference for assessing the consequences of measures that affect the number of donors and/or donations (for example changing deferral criteria) in Germany.

  3. Measurement of Epstein-Barr virus DNA loads in whole blood and plasma by TaqMan PCR and in peripheral blood lymphocytes by competitive PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, Robert M; Laus, Stella; Green, Michael; Webber, Steven A; Rowe, David

    2003-11-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) DNA load values were measured in samples of whole blood (n = 60) and plasma (n = 59) by TaqMan PCR and in samples of peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBLs) (n = 60) by competitive PCR (cPCR). The samples were obtained from 44 transplant recipients. The whole-blood and PBL loads correlated highly (r(2) > 0.900), whereas the plasma and PBL loads correlated poorly (r(2) = 0.512). Testing of whole blood by TaqMan PCR is an acceptable alternative to testing of PBLs by cPCR for quantifying EBV DNA load.

  4. Blood compatibility of gas plasma-treated diamond-like carbon surface-Effect of physicochemical properties of DLC surface on blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mochizuki, Akira; Ogawa, Tatsuhisa; Okamoto, Keishi; Nakatani, Tatsuyuki; Nitta, Yuki

    2011-01-01

    From the knowledge that zwitterion-type polymers show good blood compatibility, the introduction of both cationic and anionic functional groups onto diamond-like carbon (DLC) surface is expected to improve blood compatibility. Thus, DLC films were treated with oxygen and ammonia gas plasmas. The surfaces were characterized in terms of chemical composition by XPS, contact angle, and zeta potential. XPS analysis showed the introductions of a carboxyl group by oxygen plasma treatment and nitrogen atoms by ammonia plasma treatment. The evaluation of blood compatibility for the DLC surfaces was carried out in terms of platelets and the coagulation system. Excellent improvement of platelet compatibility was observed by the treatment with the gas plasmas, regardless of the plasma species. As for the compatibility with the coagulation system, DLC surfaces with a high concentration of carboxyl groups (COOH) markedly activated the system via the intrinsic pathway. However, the surfaces treated with ammonia plasma did not activate the system even though they had high COOH concentration. Measurement of the zeta potential revealed that the ammonia plasma treatment raised the potential from a negative value to a positive one. Though the introduction of amino groups to the surface was not detected directly, the treatment of ammonia plasma changed the electrical state of the DLC surface having COOH group, causing a difference in blood compatibility among the DLCs obtained by various plasma conditions.

  5. Plasma selenium levels in healthy blood bank donors in the central-eastern part of Belgium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Cauwenbergh, Rudy; Robberecht, Harry; Van Vlaslaer, Veerle; De Smet, Annie; Emonds, Marie-Paule; Hermans, Nina

    2007-01-01

    Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry, with Zeeman background correction and after improved matrix modification, was used to measure the plasma selenium content of healthy blood bank donors in the central part of Belgium. The mean plasma selenium concentration of 80 men and 80 women was 79.7+/-4.4ng/mL with a range of 55.0-117.4ng/mL. There was no gender difference observed. Plasma selenium level was significantly highest for the adult group, aged 45-64 years, compared to the others, except the young adults (18-24 years). The mean plasma selenium concentration measured corresponded well with literature data for Belgium. The obtained values were found to be in the medium range, compared with recent literature values for the European countries.

  6. Measurement of apolipoprotein B radioactivity in whole blood plasma by precipitation with isopropanol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, N.; Havel, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A method to measure apolipoprotein B radioactivity in whole blood plasma is described that is suitable for routine use in kinetic experiments in vivo. Radiolabeled apolipoprotein B is precipitated from plasma diluted 15- to 30-fold in the presence of carrier low density lipoproteins by 50% isopropanol. The amount of radioiodine in apoB is estimated from the difference between total radioiodine concentration in whole plasma and the fraction soluble in 50% isopropanol. Addition of up to 100 microliters of plasma to radioiodinated lipoproteins did not alter the percent of radioiodine precipitated in 1500 microliters of 50% isopropanol. The percent of radioiodine precipitated by isopropanol 3 min after intravenous injection of homologous radioiodinated very low density lipoproteins, intermediate density lipoproteins, and low density lipoproteins into rabbits was almost identical to that in the injected lipoproteins (y = 1.009 X +/- 0.462; r = 0.997)

  7. Discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood during experimental endotoxemia in healthy volunteers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sisse R Ostrowski

    Full Text Available Sepsis induces early activation of coagulation and fibrinolysis followed by late fibrinolytic shutdown and progressive endothelial damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate and compare the functional hemostatic response in whole blood and plasma during experimental human endotoxemia by the platelet function analyzer, Multiplate and by standard and modified thrombelastography (TEG.Prospective physiologic study of nine healthy male volunteers undergoing endotoxemia by means of a 4-hour infusion of E. coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 0.5 ng/kg/hour, with blood sampled at baseline and at 4 h and 6 h. Physiological and standard biochemical data and coagulation tests, TEG (whole blood: TEG, heparinase-TEG, Functional Fibrinogen; plasma: TEG±tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA and Multiplate (TRAPtest, ADPtest, ASPItest, COLtest were recorded. Mixed models with Tukey post hoc tests and correlations were applied.Endotoxemia induced acute SIRS with increased HR, temperature, WBC, CRP and procalcitonin and decreased blood pressure. It also induced a hemostatic response with platelet consumption and reduced APTT while INR increased (all p<0.05. Platelet aggregation decreased (all tests, p<0.05, whereas TEG whole blood clot firmness increased (G, p = 0.05. Furthermore, during endotoxemia (4 h, whole blood fibrinolysis increased (clot lysis time (CLT, p<0.001 and Functional Fibrinogen clot strength decreased (p = 0.049. After endotoxemia (6 h, whole blood fibrinolysis was reduced (CLT, p<0.05. In contrast to findings in whole blood, the plasma fibrin clot became progressively more resistant towards tPA-induced fibrinolysis at both 4 h and 6 h (p<0.001.Endotoxemia induced a hemostatic response with reduced primary but enhanced secondary hemostasis, enhanced early fibrinolysis and fibrinogen consumption followed by downregulation of fibrinolysis, with a discrepant fibrinolytic response in plasma and whole blood. The finding that blood cells are

  8. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ó Broin, Pilib; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Saha, Subhrajit; Hartil, Kirsten; Chen, Emily I.; Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv; Kurland, Irwin J.; Guha, Chandan; Golden, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma

  9. Intestinal Microbiota-Derived Metabolomic Blood Plasma Markers for Prior Radiation Injury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ó Broin, Pilib [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States); Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Saha, Subhrajit [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Hartil, Kirsten [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Chen, Emily I. [Department of Pharmacology, Proteomics Shared Resource, Herbert Irving Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (United States); Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv [Department of Medicine, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, Oregon (United States); Kurland, Irwin J. [Department of Medicine, Diabetes Center, Stable Isotope and Metabolomics Core Facility, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Guha, Chandan, E-mail: cguha@montefiore.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Golden, Aaron, E-mail: aaron.golden@einstein.yu.edu [Department of Genetics, Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University, Bronx, New York (United States); Department of Mathematical Sciences, Yeshiva University, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Purpose: Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Methods and Materials: Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. Results: We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Conclusions: Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma.

  10. Intestinal microbiota-derived metabolomic blood plasma markers for prior radiation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ó Broin, Pilib; Vaitheesvaran, Bhavapriya; Saha, Subhrajit; Hartil, Kirsten; Chen, Emily I; Goldman, Devorah; Fleming, William Harv; Kurland, Irwin J; Guha, Chandan; Golden, Aaron

    2015-02-01

    Assessing whole-body radiation injury and absorbed dose is essential for remediation efforts following accidental or deliberate exposure in medical, industrial, military, or terrorist incidents. We hypothesize that variations in specific metabolite concentrations extracted from blood plasma would correlate with whole-body radiation injury and dose. Groups of C57BL/6 mice (n=12 per group) were exposed to 0, 2, 4, 8, and 10.4 Gy of whole-body gamma radiation. At 24 hours after treatment, all animals were euthanized, and both plasma and liver biopsy samples were obtained, the latter being used to identify a distinct hepatic radiation injury response within plasma. A semiquantitative, untargeted metabolite/lipid profile was developed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, which identified 354 biochemical compounds. A second set of C57BL/6 mice (n=6 per group) were used to assess a subset of identified plasma markers beyond 24 hours. We identified a cohort of 37 biochemical compounds in plasma that yielded the optimal separation of the irradiated sample groups, with the most correlated metabolites associated with pyrimidine (positively correlated) and tryptophan (negatively correlated) metabolism. The latter were predominantly associated with indole compounds, and there was evidence that these were also correlated between liver and plasma. No evidence of saturation as a function of dose was observed, as has been noted for studies involving metabolite analysis of urine. Plasma profiling of specific metabolites related to pyrimidine and tryptophan pathways can be used to differentiate whole-body radiation injury and dose response. As the tryptophan-associated indole compounds have their origin in the intestinal microbiome and subsequently the liver, these metabolites particularly represent an attractive marker for radiation injury within blood plasma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Calcium and magnesium concentrations in uterine fluid and blood serum during the estrous cycle in the bovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed Mortaza Alavi-Shoushtari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available To investigate uterine and serum Ca++ and Mg++ variations during the estrous cycle in the bovine, 66 genital tracts and blood samples were collected from Urmia abattoir, Urmia, Iran. The phase of the estrous cycle was determined by examination of the structures present on ovaries and uterine tonicity. Of the collected samples, 17 were pro-estrus, 12 estrus, 14 metestrus and 23 diestrus. The uterine fluid was collected by gentle scraping of the uterine mucosa with a curette. The mean ± SEM concentration of serum Ca++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 5.77 ± 0.69, 8.87 ± 1.83, 10.95 ± 1.52, 11.09 ± 1.08 mg dL-1, and the mean concentration of uterine fluid Ca++ was 4.40 ± 0.72, 3.15 ± 0.67, 5.89 ± 0.88, 8.63 ± 0.97 mg dL-1, respectively. The mean concentration of serum Mg++ in pro-estrus, estrus, metestrus and diestrus was 3.53 ± 0.30, 4.20 ± 0.52, 3.49 ± 0.38, 3.39 ± 0.29 mg dL-1, and mean concentration of uterine fluid Mg++ was 5.27 ± 0.42, 4.92 ± 0.60, 5.56 ± 0.30, 5.88 ± 0.36 mg dL-1, respectively. The serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in pro-estrus were significantly different from those of the metestrus and diestrus. In all stages of estrous cycle the mean concentration of serum Ca++ was higher than that in the uterine fluid. The difference between serum and uterine fluid Ca++ in estrus, metestrus and diestrus was significant. There was no significant difference between serum Mg++ content nor was it different from uterine fluid Mg++ content at any stages of estrous cycle. In all stages of estrous cycle the uterine fluid Mg++ was higher than that of the serum. These results suggest that during the estrous cycle in the cow, Ca++ is passively secreted in uterine fluids and is mostly dependent on blood serum Ca++ variations but Mg++ is secreted independently and does not follow variations in the serum concentrations.

  12. Blood plasma proteins and protein fractions in roe deer Capreolus capreolus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota CYGAN-SZCZEGIELNIAK

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research was to investigate some selected biochemical blood parameters in roe deer (Capreolus capreolus L.. The experiment covered 15 from 2 to 3-year-old bucks from Kuyavian-Pomeranian Voivodeship. The animals were shot by individual hunters on the shooting grounds during the hunting season of 2008/2009 (in the accordance with the Journal of Laws No 48. The material for the research was blood plasma obtained after centrifuging full, nonhemolyzed blood. The blood was collected from the zygomatic vein directly to the test tubes with EDTA and transported in cooling conditions to the laboratory. After transporting the samples of blood to a certified analytical laboratory, the following elements of the obtained blood plasma were examined: ceruloplasmin . using turbidimetric method; transferrin . using immunoturbimetric method; troponin- using a third generation assay on an Elecsys; total protein, albumin, globulin . using spectrophotometric method and total iron . using colorimetric method. The results were statistically analyzed, i.e. the correlation between the parameters was measured by means of Pearsonfs correlation coefficient. The analysis of the results revealed a number of statistically significant relations between the parameters under the investigation, especially among the compounds directly responsible for metabolism of iron and copper. A statistically important positive correlation was observed between ceruloplasmin and ferritin (r = 0.563; P.0.05 and a negative one between transferrin and troponin (r = -0.609; P.0.05. Moreover, the content of transferrin . an iron-binding protein . was 0.17 g/l, while the concentration of iron was 58 ƒĘmol/l. The content of ceruloplasmin . a protein responsible for metabolism of copper . was very low (0.036 g/l. The level of proteins in the blood plasma of the animals under the research was approximately 72 g/l, with the share of albumins about 46%. The albumin-globulin ratio was 0.86.

  13. Basic characteristics of plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF): blood cell components and biological effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishiyama, Kazuhiko; Okudera, Toshimitsu; Watanabe, Taisuke; Isobe, Kazushige; Suzuki, Masashi; Masuki, Hideo; Okudera, Hajime; Uematsu, Kohya; Nakata, Koh; Kawase, Tomoyuki

    2016-11-01

    Platelet-rich plasma (PRP) is widely used in regenerative medicine because of its high concentrations of various growth factors and platelets. However, the distribution of blood cell components has not been investigated in either PRP or other PRP derivatives. In this study, we focused on plasma rich in growth factors (PRGF), a PRP derivative, and analyzed the distributions of platelets and white blood cells (WBCs). Peripheral blood samples were collected from healthy volunteers ( N  = 14) and centrifuged to prepare PRGF and PRP. Blood cells were counted using an automated hematology analyzer. The effects of PRP and PRGF preparations on cell proliferation were determined using human periosteal cells. In the PRGF preparations, both red blood cells and WBCs were almost completely eliminated, and platelets were concentrated by 2.84-fold, whereas in the PRP preparations, both platelets and WBCs were similarly concentrated by 8.79- and 5.51-fold, respectively. Platelet counts in the PRGF preparations were positively correlated with platelet counts in the whole blood samples, while the platelet concentration rate was negatively correlated with red blood cell counts in the whole blood samples. In contrast, platelet counts and concentration rates in the PRP preparations were significantly influenced by WBC counts in whole blood samples. The PRP preparations, but not the PRGF preparations, significantly suppressed cell growth at higher doses in vitro. Therefore, these results suggest that PRGF preparations can clearly be distinguished from PRP preparations by both inclusion of WBCs and dose-dependent stimulation of periosteal cell proliferation in vitro.

  14. The feed gas composition determines the degree of physical plasma-induced platelet activation for blood coagulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekeschus, Sander; Brüggemeier, Janik; Hackbarth, Christine; Weltmann, Klaus-Dieter; von Woedtke, Thomas; Partecke, Lars-Ivo; van der Linde, Julia

    2018-03-01

    Cold atmospheric (physical) plasma has long been suggested to be a useful tool for blood coagulation. However, the clinical applicability of this approach has not been addressed sufficiently. We have previously demonstrated the ability of a clinically accepted atmospheric pressure argon plasma jet (kINPen® MED) to coagulate liver incisions in mice with similar performance compared to the gold standard electrocauterization. We could show that plasma-mediated blood coagulation was dependent on platelet activation. In the present work, we extended on this by investigating kINPen®-mediated platelet activation in anticoagulated human donor blood ex vivo. With focus on establishing high-throughput, multi-parametric platelet activation assays and performing argon feed gas parameter studies we achieved the following results: (i) plasma activated platelets in heparinized but not in EDTA-anticoagulated blood; (ii) plasma decreased total platelet counts but increased numbers of microparticles; (iii) plasma elevated the expression of several surface activation markers on platelets (CD62P, CD63, CD69, and CD41/61); (iv) in platelet activation, wet and dry argon plasma outperformed feed gas admixtures with oxygen and/or nitrogen; (v) plasma-mediated platelet activation was accompanied by platelet aggregation. Platelet aggregation is a necessary requirement for blood clot formation. These findings are important to further elucidate molecular details and clinical feasibility of cold physical plasma-mediated blood coagulation.

  15. Disturbance of binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins during acute radiation sickness of different experimental animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moroz, B.B.; Omel'chuk, N.N.

    1979-01-01

    In experiments on different animals a study was made of the effect of total-body γ-irradiation on binding of corticosteroids with blood plasma proteins. It was demonstrated that the increase in the number of physiologically active corticosteroids at the peak of radiation sickness is due to diminution of linking ability of corticosteroid-binding globulin of blood plasma and independent ot the total concentration of hormones in blood which is, evidently, a general radiobiological law

  16. HEMOFILTRATION AND COUPLED PLASMA FILTRATION ADSORPTION IMPACT ON TACROLIMUS BLOOD CONCENTRATION IN RENAL TRANSPLANT RECIPIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.V. Vatazin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To study the effect of hemofi ltration and coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption on tacrolimus blood concentration in renal transplant recipients.Methods and results. The study included 8 renal transplant recipients. In these patients immediately after the operation was performed the coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption with hemofiltration using a cartridge Mediasorb to reduce the severity of reperfusion injury. We have found that during this extracorporeal blood correction procedure there was statistically not signifi cant decrease of tacrolimus blood concentration. However, concentration of tacrolimus remained in the therapeutic range even after the procedure and it was not signifi cantly different from the control point С0.Conclusion. Coupled plasma fi ltration adsorption is safe in renal transplant recipients and has no signifi cant impact on tacrolimus blood concentration. However, the downward trend in the concentration of tacrolimus in the course of these procedures, especially in continuous or semicontinuous mode, as well as in patients with low hematocrit and hypoalbuminemia, requires individual monitoring.

  17. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma, for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma and, 3. Separation by SPE with manual pressured, 4. Elution to SPE followed by the measurement on a spectrophotometer in the ultra violet region. The critical value of  │t │at the 5% confidence level indicates that there is no systematic error in the linearity proposed method. Recoveries for this research were obtained at ranging 93.460 to 95.598%. The coefficient variation precision of this procedure was clearly good at smallest than 2%. The analytical procedure can be carried out in one working operation as a monitored therapeutic activity.

  18. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation on Some Biochemical Indicators in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Simpraga, M.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.

    2001-01-01

    Full text: An attempt was made to determine the effect of irradiation of eggs by low dose ionising radiation before incubation on concentration of total protein, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens were irradiated by dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation ( 60 Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was the control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for the both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of all three parameters was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The concentration of total protein was significantly decreased in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3, 7 and 30 and increased only on day 5. The concentration of glucose in the blood plasma was increased in the same chickens on days 1 and 30. The concentration of the cholesterol was decreased in the same chickens on day 7, and increased on day 10. Obtained results indicate that low-dose of gamma radiation has effects on some metabolic processes in the chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. (author)

  19. Blood plasma lipidomic signature of epicardial fat in healthy obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scherer, Max; Montoliu, Ivan; Qanadli, Salah D; Collino, Sebastiano; Rezzi, Serge; Kussmann, Martin; Giusti, Vittorio; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2015-01-01

    A lipidomic approach was employed in a clinically well-defined cohort of healthy obese women to explore blood lipidome phenotype ascribed to body fat deposition, with emphasis on epicardial adipose tissue (EAT). The present investigation delivered a lipidomics signature of epicardial adiposity under healthy clinical conditions using a cohort of 40 obese females (age: 25-45 years, BMI: 28-40 kg/m(2) ) not showing any metabolic disease traits. Lipidomics analysis of blood plasma was employed in combination with in vivo quantitation of mediastinal fat depots by computerized tomography. All cardiac fat depots correlated to indicators of hepatic dysfunctions (ALAT and ASAT), which describe physiological connections between hepatic and cardiac steatosis. Plasma lipidomics encompassed overall levels of lipid classes, fatty acid profiles, and individual lipid species. EAT and visceral fat associated with diacylglycerols (DAG), triglycerides, and distinct phospholipid and sphingolipid species. A pattern of DAG and phosphoglycerols was specific to EAT. Human blood plasma lipidomics appears to be a promising clinical and potentially diagnostic readout for patient stratification and monitoring. Association of blood lipidomics signature to regio-specific mediastinal and visceral adiposity under healthy clinical conditions may help provide more biological insights into obese patient stratification for cardiovascular disease risks. © 2014 The Obesity Society.

  20. Stability of magnetite nanoparticles with different coatings in a simulated blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Favela-Camacho, Sarai E.; Pérez-Robles, J. Francisco [Center for Research and Advanced Studies of National Polytechnic Institute, CINVESTAV-Querétaro Unit (Mexico); García-Casillas, Perla E. [Autonomous University of Juarez, Department of Materials Science, Institute of Engineering and Technology (Mexico); Godinez-Garcia, Andrés, E-mail: andgodinez@xanum.uam.mx [Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Departamento de Ingeniería de Procesos e Hidráulica (Mexico)

    2016-07-15

    Magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) have demonstrated to be a potential platform for simultaneous anticancer drug delivery and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, magnetite is unstable at the blood plasma conditions. Therefore, to study their stability in a broad range of particle size, the MNPs were synthesized using two methods, the fast injection co-precipitation method (FIC) and the reflux co-precipitation method (RC). The MNPs obtained by the RC and the FIC methods have an average size of agglomerates of 200 and 45 nm respectively. They were dispersed using sodium citrate as surfactant and were coated with silica and chitosan. A total of four kind of coated MNPs were synthesized: magnetite/sodium citrate, magnetite/silica, magnetite/sodium citrate/silica and magnetite/sodium citrate/silica/chitosan. Different samples of the coated MNPs were immersed in a simulated blood plasma solution (Phosphate-Buffered Saline, PBS, Gibco{sup ®}), for periods of 24, 48 and 72 h. Inductively coupled plasma (ICP) technique was used to analyze the composition of the simulated plasma after those periods of time. The obtained results suggest that the uncoated samples showed an appreciable weight loss, and the iron composition in the simulated plasma increased. This last means that the used coatings avoid iron dissolution from the MNPs.Graphical abstract.

  1. Fish oil affects blood pressure and the plasma lipid profile in healthy Danish infants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damsgaard, C.T.; Schack-Nielsen, L.; Michaelsen, K.F.

    2006-01-01

    with an oscillometric device, and blood was sampled for analysis of erythrocyte fatty acid composition and the plasma lipid profile. This paper examines the effects of the fish oil supplement, with adjustment for the effects of the milk intervention when relevant. The fish oil intervention increased erythrocyte (n-3......Animal and epidemiologic studies indicate that early nutrition has lasting effects on metabolism and cardiovascular disease risk. In adults, (n-3) long-chain PUFA (LCPUFA) from fish oils improve blood pressure, the lipid profile, and possibly cardiovascular disease mortality. This randomized trial...... is the first to investigate the effects of fish oil on blood pressure and the lipid profile in infancy. Healthy term 9-mo old infants In 83) were randomly assigned to 5 mL fish oil daily or no fish oil for 3 mo and to 2 different milk types. Before and after the intervention, blood pressure was measured...

  2. Calcium, Magnesium and Total Antioxidant Capacity (TAC in Seminal Plasma of Water Buffalo (Bubalus Bubalis Bulls and their Relationships with Semen Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Hassan Khadem Ansari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg content and total antioxidant capacity (TAC of seminal plasma in buffalo and to study their associations with the semen characteristics, 54 semen samples were collected from 10 buffalo bulls; semen quality was evaluated, seminal plasma was then harvested by centrifugation and its Ca and Mg content were estimated and its TAC determined. The Ca and Mg content of the seminal plasma (Mean ± SEM were recorded as 22.36 ± 0.52 mg dl-1 and 11.94 ± 0.36 mg dl-1 respectively, while, its mean TAC value was 1.50 ± 0.02 mmol L-1. The mean Ca value was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility, viability (P = 0.000 for all, negatively with semen volume (P = 0.01, and with Mg and TAC values (P = 0.000 for both. The mean Mg values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and TAC (P = 0.000 for all and negatively associated with semen volume (P = 0.014. The mean TAC values was highly associated with sperm progressive motility, gross motility and viability and seminal plasma Ca and Mg (P = 0.000 for all. For further clarification of these associations, the data was categorized in three groups of excellent (Ex, >90% motile, n = 33, good (Go, 80-89% motile, n = 15 and moderate (Mo, <79% motile, n = 6 according to their percentage of sperm motility. The mean progressive motility in Ex group was 92.24 ± 0.51%, in Go group it was 81.66 ± 0.62 %, and in Mo group it was 71.66 ± 1.05 %. The mean Ca, Mg and TAC values were respectively recorded as 25.12 ± 0.29 mg dl-1, 13.78 ± 0.20 mg dl-1, and 1.57 ± 0.009 mmol L-1 in Ex, 18.74 ± 0.63 mg dl-1, 9.14 ± 0.33mg dl-1, and 1.42 ± 0.044 mmol L-1 in Go, and 17.34 ± 0.18 mg dl-1, 8.06 ± 0.25 mg dl-1, and 1.23± 0.05 mmol L-1 in Mo groups. The associations in groups are discussed. These results show that seminal plasma Ca and Mg content and TAC are associated with semen

  3. Computational Fluid Dynamics Analysis of Cold Plasma Plume Mixing with Blood Using Level Set Method Coupled with Heat Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Shahmohammadi Beni

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Cold plasmas were proposed for treatment of leukemia. In the present work, conceptual designs of mixing chambers that increased the contact between the two fluids (plasma and blood through addition of obstacles within rectangular-block-shaped chambers were proposed and the dynamic mixing between the plasma and blood were studied using the level set method coupled with heat transfer. Enhancement of mixing between blood and plasma in the presence of obstacles was demonstrated. Continuous tracking of fluid mixing with determination of temperature distributions was enabled by the present model, which would be a useful tool for future development of cold plasma devices for treatment of blood-related diseases such as leukemia.

  4. [Effectiveness of different methods of blood separation in performing plasma- and cytapheresis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryzhko, V V; Gorodetskiĭ, V M; Rogova, E M

    1988-01-01

    Obtaining of a therapeutic dose of platelets from donors, necessary to stop spontaneous hemorrhage and sufficient enough to correct hemostasis in surgical interventions in patients with amegakaryocytic thrombocytopenia, therapeutic plasmapheresis with the removal of 1.5-2.01 of plasma, effective erythrocytapheresis can be done with the help of refrigerator centrifuges and plastic containers. This method can be also employed for effective leukocytapheresis in patients with the leukocyte level exceeding 100.10(9)/l. It is simple, economical, reliable; several donors (patients) can be involved in the procedure at a time. Blood cell separators can be most effectively used for therapeutic lymphocytoplasmapheresis, massive plasmapheresis with the removal of over 2.51 of plasma, for obtaining a large number of platelets and granulocytes. The CS-3000 blood cell separator ensures automatic control over blood separation and possible complications during a procedure; a constant temperature regimen of blood separation; one-time use of equipment in direct contact with patient's (donor's) blood; a high efficacy and safety of the procedure.

  5. A Systematic Evaluation of Blood Serum and Plasma Pre-Analytics for Metabolomics Cohort Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elodie Jobard

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The recent thriving development of biobanks and associated high-throughput phenotyping studies requires the elaboration of large-scale approaches for monitoring biological sample quality and compliance with standard protocols. We present a metabolomic investigation of human blood samples that delineates pitfalls and guidelines for the collection, storage and handling procedures for serum and plasma. A series of eight pre-processing technical parameters is systematically investigated along variable ranges commonly encountered across clinical studies. While metabolic fingerprints, as assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, are not significantly affected by altered centrifugation parameters or delays between sample pre-processing (blood centrifugation and storage, our metabolomic investigation highlights that both the delay and storage temperature between blood draw and centrifugation are the primary parameters impacting serum and plasma metabolic profiles. Storing the blood drawn at 4 °C is shown to be a reliable routine to confine variability associated with idle time prior to sample pre-processing. Based on their fine sensitivity to pre-analytical parameters and protocol variations, metabolic fingerprints could be exploited as valuable ways to determine compliance with standard procedures and quality assessment of blood samples within large multi-omic clinical and translational cohort studies.

  6. Self-driven filter-based blood plasma separator microfluidic chip for point-of-care testing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madadi, Hojjat; Casals-Terré, Jasmina; Mohammadi, Mahdi

    2015-01-01

    There is currently a growing need for lab-on-a-chip devices for use in clinical analysis and diagnostics, especially in the area of patient care. The first step in most blood assays is plasma extraction from whole blood. This paper presents a novel, self-driven blood plasma separation microfluidic chip, which can extract more than 0.1 μl plasma from a single droplet of undiluted fresh human blood (∼5 μl). This volume of blood plasma is extracted from whole blood with high purity (more than 98%) in a reasonable time frame (3 to 5 min), and without the need for any external force. This would be the first step towards the realization of a single-use, self-blood test that does not require any external force or power source to deliver and analyze a fresh whole-blood sample, in contrast to the existing time-consuming conventional blood analysis. The prototypes are manufactured in polydimethylsiloxane that has been modified with a strong nonionic surfactant (Silwet L-77) to achieve hydrophilic behavior. The main advantage of this microfluidic chip design is the clogging delay in the filtration area, which results in an increased amount of extracted plasma (0.1 μl). Moreover, the plasma can be collected in one or more 10 μm-deep channels to facilitate the detection and readout of multiple blood assays. This high volume of extracted plasma is achieved thanks to a novel design that combines maximum pumping efficiency without disturbing the red blood cells’ trajectory through the use of different hydrodynamic principles, such as a constriction effect and a symmetrical filtration mode. To demonstrate the microfluidic chip’s functionality, we designed and fabricated a novel hybrid microdevice that exhibits the benefits of both microfluidics and lateral flow immunochromatographic tests. The performance of the presented hybrid microdevice is validated using rapid detection of thyroid stimulating hormone within a single droplet of whole blood. (paper)

  7. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position...

  8. Investigation on the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma Zhongwei

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To explore the correlationship between plasma homocysteine and blood glucose, insulin levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: Plasma homocysteine (with ELISA), blood glucose (with hexokinase method) and insulin (with RIA) levels were measured in 66 patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus as well as in 35 controls. Results: Plasma homocysteine levels in the diabetic patients (n=66) were significantly higher than those in controls (P<0.01), especially in those patients complicated with nephropathy (n=32). The homocysteine levels were positively correlated with those of blood glucose and insulin (r=0.3515, r=0.3486, both P<0.01). Conclusion: Plasma homocysteine is an independent risk factor for vascular diseases. The levels of plasma cysteine are significantly increased in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, especially in those complicated with nephropathy. Therefore, monitoring of plasma homocysteine level changes is clinically useful. (authors)

  9. A continuous flow micro filtration device for plasma/blood separation using submicron vertical pillar gap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Tae Goo; Ji, Hongmiao; Lim, Pei Yi; Chen, Yu; Yoon, Yong-Jin

    2014-01-01

    This work demonstrates a continuous flow plasma/blood separator using a vertical submicron pillar gap structure. The working principle of the proposed separator is based on size exclusion of cells through cross-flow filtration, in which only plasma is allowed to pass through submicron vertical pillars located tangential to the main flow path of the blood sample. The maximum filtration efficiency of 99.9% was recorded with a plasma collection rate of 0.67 µl min −1 for an input blood flow rate of 12.5 µl min −1 . The hemolysis phenomenon was observed for an input blood flow rate above 30 µl min −1 . Based on the experimental results, we can conclude that the proposed device shows potential for the application of on-chip plasma/blood separation as a part of integrated point-of-care (POC) diagnostics systems. (technical note)

  10. Phase transitions during compression and decompression of clots from platelet-poor plasma, platelet-rich plasma and whole blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Xiaojun; Chernysh, Irina; Purohit, Prashant K; Weisel, John W

    2017-09-15

    Blood clots are required to stem bleeding and are subject to a variety of stresses, but they can also block blood vessels and cause heart attacks and ischemic strokes. We measured the compressive response of human platelet-poor plasma (PPP) clots, platelet-rich plasma (PRP) clots and whole blood clots and correlated these measurements with confocal and scanning electron microscopy to track changes in clot structure. Stress-strain curves revealed four characteristic regions, for compression-decompression: (1) linear elastic region; (2) upper plateau or softening region; (3) non-linear elastic region or re-stretching of the network; (4) lower plateau in which dissociation of some newly made connections occurs. Our experiments revealed that compression proceeds by the passage of a phase boundary through the clot separating rarefied and densified phases. This observation motivates a model of fibrin mechanics based on the continuum theory of phase transitions, which accounts for the pre-stress caused by platelets, the adhesion of fibrin fibers in the densified phase, the compression of red blood cells (RBCs), and the pumping of liquids through the clot during compression/decompression. Our experiments and theory provide insights into the mechanical behavior of blood clots that could have implications clinically and in the design of fibrin-based biomaterials. The objective of this paper is to measure and mathematically model the compression behavior of various human blood clots. We show by a combination of confocal and scanning electron microscopy that compression proceeds by the passage of a front through the sample that separates a densified region of the clot from a rarefied region, and that the compression/decompression response is reversible with hysteresis. These observations form the basis of a model for the compression response of clots based on the continuum theory of phase transitions. Our studies may reveal how clot rheology under large compression in vivo due

  11. Use of pooled blood plasmas in the assessment of fouling resistance

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar; Surman, František; Riedel, Tomáš; Bologna Alles, A.; Brynda, Eduard

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 4, č. 5 (2014), s. 2318-2321 ISSN 2046-2069 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.30.0029; GA ČR GAP106/12/1451; GA ČR GAP205/12/1702; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : blood plasma * fouling * biomaterials Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 3.840, year: 2014

  12. A simple method to quantitate IP-10 in dried blood and plasma spots.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martine G Aabye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Antigen specific release of IP-10 is an established marker for infection with M.tuberculosis. Compared to IFN-γ, IP-10 is released in 100-fold higher concentrations enabling the development of novel assays for detection. Dried blood spots are a convenient sample for high throughput newborn screening. AIM: To develop a robust and sensitive ELISA-based assay for IP-10 detection in plasma, dried blood spots (DBS and dried plasma spots (DPS; to validate the ELISA in clinically relevant samples; and to assess the performance of the assay for detection of Cytomegalovirus (CMV and M.tuberculosis specific immune responses. METHOD: We raised mice and rat monoclonal antibodies against human IP-10 and developed an ELISA. The assay was validated and applied to the detection of CMV and M.tuberculosis specific responses in 18 patients with immune reactivity towards M.tuberculosis and 32 healthy controls of which 22 had immune reactivity towards CMV and none towards M.tuberculosis. We compared the performance of this new assay to IFN-γ. RESULTS: The ELISA was reliable for IP-10 detection in both plasma and filter paper samples. The linear range of the ELISA was 2.5-600 pg/ml. IFN-γ was not readily detectable in DPS samples. IP-10 was stabile in filter paper samples for at least 4 weeks at 37 °C. The correlation between IP-10 detected in plasma, DPS and DBS samples was excellent (r(2>0.97. CONCLUSIONS: This newly developed assay is reliable for IP-10 quantification in plasma, DBS and DPS samples from antigen stimulated and non-stimulated whole blood. The filter paper assays enable easy sample acquisition and transport at ambient temperature e.g. via the postal system. The system can potentially simplify diagnostic assays for M.tuberculosis and CMV infection.

  13. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koehler, Niklas K U; Stransky, Elke; Meyer, Mirjam; Gaertner, Susanne; Shing, Mona; Schnaidt, Martina; Celej, Maria S; Jovin, Thomas M; Leyhe, Thomas; Laske, Christoph; Batra, Anil; Buchkremer, Gerhard; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Wernet, Dorothee; Richartz-Salzburger, Elke

    2015-01-01

    There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years) compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years) individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (phealthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  14. Diode laser irradiation of rat blood and its effect on hemoglobin and plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saad-El-Din, A.A.; El-Ahdaal, M.A.; Omran, M.F.

    2002-01-01

    Blood was exposed to diode laser irradiation of wavelength 830 nm and maximum powe of 31.4 MW, with exposure times 15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes. Hemoglobin IR spectra and X-ray crystallography, plasma Na + , K + , Ca + +. cholesterol concentrations and viscosity were measured. There were changes in hemoglobin amide groups as well as changes in the X-ray in hemoglobin structure. Decreases in both Na concentration and plasma viscosity occurred at 15 and 30 minutes of laser exposure. On increasing time to 45 and 60 minutes, the Na concentration and viscosity were increased. K, Ca and cholesterol concentration were decreased linearly with time. Na / K ratio was increased also with time of exposure. The results have been indicated that the diode laser affect the secondary structure of hemoglobin, membranes structures and plasma

  15. Effect of PTA on blood pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous renin activity in renovascular hypertension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arlart, I.P.; Dewitz, H. von; Rosenthal, J.

    1983-01-01

    Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) is more and more accepted for interventional management of renal artery stenosis in hypertensive patients. This study was carried out to assess the behaviour of arterial blood-pressure, renal plasma flow and renal venous rening activity in renovascular hypertension following catheter dilatation. Using the data the possibility is calculated to predict the effect of PTA on blood pressure preinterventionally. The results demonstrate that a successful employment of PTA depends on a normal contralateral renal plasma flow and a normalization of plasma flow of the poststenotic kidney. Determination of plasma renin activity is only of restricted value. (orig.)

  16. Diagnosing impaired glucose tolerance using direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petr G Lokhov

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to evaluate the capacity for mass spectrometry of blood plasma to diagnose impaired glucose tolerance (IGT. For this study, blood plasma samples from control subjects (n = 30 and patients with IGT (n = 20 were treated with methanol and low molecular weight fraction were then analyzed by direct infusion mass spectrometry. A total of 51 metabolite ions strongly associated with IGT were detected. The area under a receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve (AUC for diagnosing IGT that was based on an analysis of all these metabolites was 0.93 (accuracy 90%, specificity 90%, and sensitivity 90%. The associated reproducibility was 85%. The metabolites identified were also consistent with risk factors previously associated with the development of diabetes. Thus, direct infusion mass spectrometry of blood plasma metabolites represents a rapid, single-step, and reproducible method for the analysis of metabolites. Moreover, this method has the potential to serve as a prototype for clinical analyses that could replace the currently used glucose tolerance test with a more patient-friendly assay.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in maternal and cord blood plasma of several northern Canadian populations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryan, J.J. [Bureau Chemical Safety, Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Oostdam, J. van [Management Toxic Substances Div., Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada)

    2004-09-15

    The Northern Contaminants Program (NCP) funded by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada has carried out a number of baseline studies in Nunavut and the North West Territories of northern Canada (figure 1) to assess the exposure of indigenous peoples to a variety of chemical classes including POPs and metals. These studies, summarized by Walker et al, have used both maternal and cord human blood plasma as the media from sampling which took place in four phases over the years 1994-1999. Small amounts of individual blood plasma have remained from these investigations. We combined these individual samples into 23 composite samples of maternal and cord blood based mainly on the region and ethnicity of the donors. These composites have been used to study the exposure of northern peoples to PBDEs and to estimate, where possible, the influence of ethnicity, region of collection, and time on such exposure. Comparison is also made between the levels in plasma from northern populations and in human milk from those inhabiting the more numerous south.

  18. Automated processing of whole blood samples into microliter aliquots of plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burtis, C A; Johnson, W W; Walker, W A

    1988-01-01

    A rotor that accepts and automatically processes a bulk aliquot of a single blood sample into multiple aliquots of plasma has been designed and built. The rotor consists of a central processing unit, which includes a disk containing eight precision-bore capillaries. By varying the internal diameters of the capillaries, aliquot volumes ranging 1 to 10 mul can be prepared. In practice, an unmeasured volume of blood is placed in a centre well, and, as the rotor begins to spin, is moved radially into a central annular ring where it is distributed into a series of processing chambers. The rotor is then spun at 3000 rpm for 10 min. When the centrifugal field is removed by slowly decreasing the rotor speed, an aliquot of plasma is withdrawn by capillary action into each of the capillary tubes. The disk containing the eight measured aliquots of plasma is subsequently removed and placed in a modifed rotor for conventional centrifugal analysis. Initial evaluation of the new rotor indicates that it is capable of producing discrete, microliter volumes of plasma with a degree of accuracy and precision approaching that of mechanical pipettes.

  19. ASSESSMENT OF MACRO-MINERALS STATUS IN SOIL, WATER, FEED RESOURCES AND ITS INFLUENCE ON BLOOD PLASMA OF SHEEP AND GOATS IN CENTRAL MIX CROPPING ZONE OF PUNJAB, PAKISTAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talat Naseer Pasha

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to assess the effects of season, soil, water and feedstuffs on macro-mineral status of blood plasma of sheep and goats in the central mix cropping zone of Punjab, Pakistan. Five sub-locations were selected randomly from the study area. From each sub-location, blood samples were collected from adult sheep and goats as well as from kids and lambs, both in winter and summer season. Lower sodium (Na and potassium (K levels were found in soil and feedstuffs of the area. However, in different sources of water, Na values were nearly within the range but K was slightly higher. This was followed by lower plasma Na concentration both in sheep (114.23 + 10.21 mEq / L and goats (121.78 + 12.35 mEq / L. However, concentration of K was within the critical limit in sheep (4.05 + 0.40 mEq / L and goats (5.10 + 12.4 mEq / L. Plasma Na and K in both species showed effects of season, animal class and interaction of season and animal class (P≤0.05. Lower calcium (Ca concentrations were found in soil, feedstuffs and water. A similar trend was observed in plasma Ca concentration of sheep (3.2 + 0.98 mg / 100ml and goats (3.4 + 1.26 mg / 100ml during winter. In contrast, phosphorous (P was marginally deficient in soil, water and feedstuffs as well as in blood plasma of sheep (3.12 + 2.25 mg / 100ml and goat (3.60 + 2.25 mg / 100ml during winter and summer. The levels of Ca and P were marginally deficient in summer season in adult animals. Soil magnesium (Mg values were slightly higher, whereas, water and feedstuffs were deficient. Blood plasma concentration of Mg was higher many fold both in sheep (5.25 + 1.85 mg / 100ml and goats (4.76 + 1.23 mg / 100ml. However, plasma Mg was affected by season and animal class (P≤0.05.The data were all analyzed using one way ANOVA test and significant differences between means were tested using Duncan’s multiple range test. From these blood analyses, we concluded that macro

  20. Plasma free hemoglobin and microcirculatory response to fresh or old blood transfusions in sepsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Damiani

    Full Text Available Free hemoglobin (fHb may induce vasoconstriction by scavenging nitric oxide. It may increase in older blood units due to storage lesions. This study evaluated whether old red blood cell transfusion increases plasma fHb in sepsis and how the microvascular response may be affected.This is a secondary analysis of a randomized study. Twenty adult septic patients received either fresh or old (15 days storage, respectively RBC transfusions. fHb was measured in RBC units and in the plasma before and 1 hour after transfusion. Simultaneously, the sublingual microcirculation was assessed with sidestream-dark field imaging. The perfused boundary region was calculated as an index of glycocalyx damage. Tissue oxygen saturation (StO2 and Hb index (THI were measured with near-infrared spectroscopy and a vascular occlusion test was performed.Similar fHb levels were found in the supernatant of fresh and old RBC units. Despite this, plasma fHb increased in the old RBC group after transfusion (from 0.125 [0.098-0.219] mg/mL to 0.238 [0.163-0.369] mg/mL, p = 0.006. The sublingual microcirculation was unaltered in both groups, while THI increased. The change in plasma fHb was inversely correlated with the changes in total vessel density (r = -0.57 [95% confidence interval -0.82, -0.16], p = 0.008, De Backer score (r = -0.63 [95% confidence interval -0.84, -0.25], p = 0.003 and THI (r = -0.72 [95% confidence interval -0.88, -0.39], p = 0.0003.Old RBC transfusion was associated with an increase in plasma fHb in septic patients. Increasing plasma fHb levels were associated with decreased microvascular density.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01584999.

  1. Hypergravity-induced increase in plasma catecholamine and corticosterone levels in telemetrically collected blood of rats during centrifugation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrak, Juraj; Mravec, Boris; Jurani, Marian; Baranovska, Magda; Tillinger, Andrej; Hapala, Ivan; Frollo, Ivan; Kvetnanský, Richard

    2008-12-01

    Rats subjected to various accelerations (+G) exhibited increased levels of plasma epinephrine (EPI), norepinephrine (NE), and corticosterone. However, the collection of blood was performed after a centrifugation finished, and therefore the levels could be affected by the process of deceleration. The aim of this study was to evaluate plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels in blood collected directly during centrifugation after reaching different G (2-6), using newly developed remote-controlled equipment. Animals placed into the centrifuge cabins had inserted polyethylene tubing in the tail artery, which was connected with a preprogrammed device for blood withdrawals. Plasma EPI, NE, and corticosterone levels were measured at different time intervals of hypergravity of 2-6G. Plasma EPI levels showed a huge, hypergravity-level-dependent increase. After the last blood collection was completed during hypergravity, the centrifuge was turned off and another blood sampling was performed immediately after the centrifuge stopped (10 min). In these samples, plasma EPI showed significantly lower levels compared to centrifugation intervals. Plasma NE levels were significantly increased after 6G only. The increase in plasma corticosterone was dependent on level of G, however after the centrifuge stopped, corticosterone levels remained elevated. Thus, our data show that hypergravity highly activates the adrenomedullary and hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical systems, whereas the sympathoneural system is activated only at high hypergravity. Immediately after centrifugation is over, EPI levels quickly return to control values. Our technique of blood collection during centrifugation allows assessment of the real hormonal levels at the particular hypergravity value.

  2. Blood and Plasma Biochemistry Reference Intervals for Wild Juvenile American Alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Matthew T; Kupar, Caitlin A; Kelley, Meghan D; Finger, John W; Tuberville, Tracey D

    2016-07-01

    : American alligators ( Alligator mississippiensis ) are one of the most studied crocodilian species in the world, yet blood and plasma biochemistry information is limited for juvenile alligators in their northern range, where individuals may be exposed to extreme abiotic and biotic stressors. We collected blood samples over a 2-yr period from 37 juvenile alligators in May, June, and July to establish reference intervals for 22 blood and plasma analytes. We observed no effect of either sex or blood collection time on any analyte investigated. However, our results indicate a significant correlation between a calculated body condition index and aspartate aminotransferase and creatine kinase. Glucose, total protein, and potassium varied significantly between sampling sessions. In addition, glucose and potassium were highly correlated between the two point-of-care devices used, although they were significantly lower with the i-STAT 1 CG8+ cartridge than with the Vetscan VS2 Avian/Reptile Rotor. The reference intervals presented herein should provide baseline data for evaluating wild juvenile alligators in the northern portion of their range.

  3. Effects of imipramine of the orthostatic changes in blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J R; Johansen, Torben; Arentoft, A

    1983-01-01

    The effect of imipramine on the orthostatic changes in heart rate, blood pressure and plasma catecholamines were examined in six healthy male subjects on two occasions on high sodium balance (Na+ excretion greater than 120 mmol per day) and on low sodium balance (Na+ excretion less than 110 mmol...... per day), respectively. Orthostatic tests were carried out before and 2 h after ingestion of 150 mg imipramine hydrochloride. Imipramine caused a moderate increase in supine systolic blood pressure, and a pronounced increase in the rise in heart rate, when the subjects assumed erect position....... The orthostatic drop in systolic blood pressure was in most cases only moderately increased after ingestion of imipramine, but in three subjects pronounced orthostatic hypotension developed when the sodium balance was low, whereas no clinical symptoms were seen in the same subjects when tested after imipramine...

  4. Pulsed cold plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in stanching bleeding during rat hepatectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keping, YAN; Qikang, JIN; Chao, ZHENG; Guanlei, DENG; Shengyong, YIN; Zhen, LIU

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents plasma-induced blood coagulation and its pilot application in rat hepatectomy by using a home-made pulsed cold plasma jet. Experiments were conducted on blood coagulation in vitro, the influence of plasma on tissue in vivo, and the pilot application of rat hepatectomy. Experimental results show that the cold plasma can lead to rapid blood coagulation. Compared with the control sample, the plasma-induced agglomerated layer of blood is thicker and denser, and is mostly composed of broken platelets. When the surface of the liver was treated by plasma, the influence of the plasma can penetrate into the liver to a depth of about 500 μm. During the rat hepatectomy, cold plasma was proved to be effective for stanching bleeding on incision. No obvious bleeding was found in the abdominal cavities of all six rats 48 h after the hepatectomy. This implies that cold plasma can be an effective modality to control bleeding during surgical operation.

  5. Quantitative, multiplexed workflow for deep analysis of human blood plasma and biomarker discovery by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, Hasmik; Burgess, Michael W; Specht, Harrison; Wallace, Luke; Clauser, Karl R; Gillette, Michael A; Carr, Steven A

    2017-08-01

    Proteomic characterization of blood plasma is of central importance to clinical proteomics and particularly to biomarker discovery studies. The vast dynamic range and high complexity of the plasma proteome have, however, proven to be serious challenges and have often led to unacceptable tradeoffs between depth of coverage and sample throughput. We present an optimized sample-processing pipeline for analysis of the human plasma proteome that provides greatly increased depth of detection, improved quantitative precision and much higher sample analysis throughput as compared with prior methods. The process includes abundant protein depletion, isobaric labeling at the peptide level for multiplexed relative quantification and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to accurate-mass, high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry analysis of peptides fractionated off-line by basic pH reversed-phase (bRP) chromatography. The overall reproducibility of the process, including immunoaffinity depletion, is high, with a process replicate coefficient of variation (CV) of 4,500 proteins are detected and quantified per patient sample on average, with two or more peptides per protein and starting from as little as 200 μl of plasma. The approach can be multiplexed up to 10-plex using tandem mass tags (TMT) reagents, further increasing throughput, albeit with some decrease in the number of proteins quantified. In addition, we provide a rapid protocol for analysis of nonfractionated depleted plasma samples analyzed in 10-plex. This provides ∼600 quantified proteins for each of the ten samples in ∼5 h of instrument time.

  6. Magnesium sulfate reduces formalin-induced orofacial pain in rats with normal magnesium serum levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srebro, Dragana P; Vučković, Sonja M; Dožić, Ivan S; Dožić, Branko S; Savić Vujović, Katarina R; Milovanović, Aleksandar P; Karadžić, Branislav V; Prostran, Milica Š

    2018-02-01

    In humans, orofacial pain has a high prevalence and is often difficult to treat. Magnesium is an essential element in biological a system which controls the activity of many ion channels, neurotransmitters and enzymes. Magnesium produces an antinociceptive effect in neuropathic pain, while in inflammatory pain results are not consistent. We examined the effects of magnesium sulfate using the rat orofacial formalin test, a model of trigeminal pain. Male Wistar rats were injected with 1.5% formalin into the perinasal area, and the total time spent in pain-related behavior (face rubbing) was quantified. We also spectrophotometrically determined the concentration of magnesium and creatine kinase activity in blood serum. Magnesium sulfate administered subcutaneously (0.005-45mg/kg) produced significant antinociception in the second phase of the orofacial formalin test in rats at physiological serum concentration of magnesium. The effect was not dose-dependent. The maximum antinociceptive effect of magnesium sulfate was about 50% and was achieved at doses of 15 and 45mg/kg. Magnesium did not affect increase the levels of serum creatine kinase activity. Preemptive systemic administration of magnesium sulfate as the only drug can be used to prevent inflammatory pain in the orofacial region. Its analgesic effect is not associated with magnesium deficiency. Copyright © 2017 Institute of Pharmacology, Polish Academy of Sciences. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. The effect of quercetin on plasma oxidative status, C-reactive protein and blood pressure in women with rheumatoid arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Javadi

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: In this study, quercetin had no effect on oxidative and inflammatory status of plasma and blood pressure in patients with RA. Further studies are needed to ensure the effect of quercetin on oxidative stress and inflammation in human.

  8. Relationships between organohalogen contaminants and blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters in chicks of three raptor species from Northern Norway

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan Ove; Herzke, Dorte

    2010-01-01

    :creatinine were significantly positively correlated to various OHCs (all: praptor chicks of Northern Scandinavia may impact blood plasma biochemistry in a way that indicates impacts on liver, kidney, bone...

  9. Effects of spontaneously hypertensive rat plasma on blood pressure and tail artery calcium uptake in normotensive rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewanczuk, R.Z.; Wang, J.; Zhang, Z.R.; Pang, P.K.

    1989-01-01

    Previous studies have described the presence of humoral hypertensive factors in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Other studies have described factors that increase calcium uptake in vascular tissue. In this study, we attempted to confirm, and thereby correlate, the presence of both types of factors in SHR plasma. Intravenous infusion or bolus administration of dialyzed SHR plasma consistently induced an increase in blood pressure in normotensive rats. This hypertensive response was somewhat delayed, with peak blood pressures occurring 45 minutes after bolus administration and 90 minutes after infusion of SHR plasma. Spontaneously hypertensive rat plasma also increased 45 Ca uptake in isolated normotensive rat tail arteries in a dose-dependent manner, with a time course similar to that for the hypertensive response to bolus administration. These findings suggest, therefore, that a substance exists in SHR plasma that can increase intracellular calcium in vascular tissues and thereby increase blood pressure

  10. Plasma and White Blood Cells Show Different miRNA Expression Profiles in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwienbacher, Christine; Foco, Luisa; Picard, Anne; Corradi, Eloina; Serafin, Alice; Panzer, Jörg; Zanigni, Stefano; Blankenburg, Hagen; Facheris, Maurizio F; Giannini, Giulia; Falla, Marika; Cortelli, Pietro; Pramstaller, Peter P; Hicks, Andrew A

    2017-06-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) diagnosis is based on the assessment of motor symptoms, which manifest when more than 50% of dopaminergic neurons are degenerated. To date, no validated biomarkers are available for the diagnosis of PD. The aims of the present study are to evaluate whether plasma and white blood cells (WBCs) are interchangeable biomarker sources and to identify circulating plasma-based microRNA (miRNA) biomarkers for an early detection of PD. We profiled plasma miRNA levels in 99 L-dopa-treated PD patients from two independent data collections, in ten drug-naïve PD patients, and in unaffected controls matched by sex and age. We evaluated expression levels by reverse transcription and quantitative real-time PCR (RT-qPCR) and combined the results from treated PD patients using a fixed effect inverse-variance weighted meta-analysis. We revealed different expression profiles comparing plasma and WBCs and drug-naïve and L-dopa-treated PD patients. We observed an upregulation trend for miR-30a-5p in L-dopa-treated PD patients and investigated candidate target genes by integrated in silico analyses. We could not analyse miR-29b-3p, normally expressed in WBCs, due to the very low expression in plasma. We observed different expression profiles in WBCs and plasma, suggesting that they are both suitable but not interchangeable peripheral sources for biomarkers. We revealed miR-30a-5p as a potential biomarker for PD in plasma. In silico analyses suggest that miR-30a-5p might have a regulatory role in mitochondrial dynamics and autophagy. Further investigations are needed to confirm miR-30a-5p deregulation and targets and to investigate the influence of L-dopa treatment on miRNA expression levels.

  11. Hemocompatible control of sulfobetaine-grafted polypropylene fibrous membranes in human whole blood via plasma-induced surface zwitterionization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sheng-Han; Chang, Yung; Lee, Kueir-Rarn; Wei, Ta-Chin; Higuchi, Akon; Ho, Feng-Ming; Tsou, Chia-Chun; Ho, Hsin-Tsung; Lai, Juin-Yih

    2012-12-21

    In this work, the hemocompatibility of zwitterionic polypropylene (PP) fibrous membranes with varying grafting coverage of poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA) via plasma-induced surface polymerization was studied. Charge neutrality of PSBMA-grafted layers on PP membrane surfaces was controlled by the low-pressure and atmospheric plasma treatment in this study. The effects of grafting composition, surface hydrophilicity, and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Protein adsorption onto the different PSBMA-grafted PP membranes from human fibrinogen solutions was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with monoclonal antibodies. Blood platelet adhesion and plasma clotting time measurements from a recalcified platelet-rich plasma solution were used to determine if platelet activation depends on the charge bias of the grafted PSBMA layer. The charge bias of PSBMA layer deviated from the electrical balance of positively and negatively charged moieties can be well-controlled via atmospheric plasma-induced interfacial zwitterionization and was further tested with human whole blood. The optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and keeps its original blood-inert property of antifouling, anticoagulant, and antithrmbogenic activities when it comes into contact with human blood. This work suggests that the hemocompatible nature of grafted PSBMA polymers by controlling grafting quality via atmospheric plasma treatment gives a great potential in the surface zwitterionization of hydrophobic membranes for use in human whole blood.

  12. Improving Blood Plasma Glycoproteome Coverage by Coupling Ultracentrifugation Fractionation to Electrostatic Repulsion-Hydrophilic Interaction Chromatography Enrichment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adav, Sunil S.; Hwa, Ho Hee; De Kleijn, Dominique; Sze, Siu Kwan

    2015-01-01

    Blood plasma is considered to be an excellent source of disease biomarkers because it contains proteins, lipids, metabolites, cell, and cell-derived extracellular vesicles from different cellular origins including diseased tissues. Most secretory and membranous proteins that can be found in plasma

  13. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunusova, N. V., E-mail: Bochkarevanv@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tamkovich, S. N., E-mail: s.tamk@niboch.nsc.ru [Institute of Chemical Biology and Fundamental Medicine SB RAS, Lavrentiev Avenue 8, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Novosibirsk State University, Pirogov Street 2, Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Stakheeva, M. N., E-mail: StakheyevaM@oncology.tomsk.ru; Afanas’ev, S. G., E-mail: Afanasievsg@oncology.tomsk.ru; Kondakova, I. V., E-mail: Kondakova@oncology.tomsk.ru [Tomsk Cancer Research Institute, Kooperativny Street 5, Tomsk, 634009 (Russian Federation); Frolova, A. Y., E-mail: Frolovalenya@mail.ru [Siberian State Medical University, Moskovsky Trakt 2, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2016-08-02

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of “International Society for Extracellular Vesicles”. The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  14. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas’ev, S. G.; Kondakova, I. V.; Frolova, A. Y.

    2016-01-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of “International Society for Extracellular Vesicles”. The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  15. The characterization of exosome from blood plasma of patients with colorectal cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yunusova, N. V.; Tamkovich, S. N.; Stakheeva, M. N.; Afanas'ev, S. G.; Frolova, A. Y.; Kondakova, I. V.

    2016-08-01

    Exosomes are extracellular membrane structures involved in many physiological and pathological processes including cancerogenesis and metastasis. The clarification of the criteria for exosome isolating and identifying is the purpose of this study. Exosome samples from the plasma of patients with colorectal cancer and healthy donors were examined using transmission electron microscopy and flow cytometry in accordance with the minimum requirements of "International Society for Extracellular Vesicles". The choice of the method for isolation of exosomes from the blood plasma by ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation allowed obtaining highly purified samples of exosomes, in which all the structural components were clearly seen. The results obtained with flow cytometry suggest that exosomes of blood plasma from patients with colorectal cancer can be produced by epithelial cells. Moreover, cells produce different types of exosomes, which correspond to different mechanisms in sorting macromolecules in the membrane of multivesicular bodies. Determination of significant differences in the expression of specific exosomal proteins from colorectal cancer patients compared to healthy donors suggests a high diagnostic potential significance of circulating exosomes.

  16. Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Min; Cai, Jing; Liu, Shujuan; Huang, Mingwei; Chen, Yao; Lai, Xiaolan; Chen, Yuyu; Zhao, Zhongwen; Wu, Fangzhen; Wu, Dongmei; Miu, Haiyan; Lai, Shenghan; Chen, Gang

    2014-09-01

    Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women. For 1058 pregnant women enrolled in our hospital at pregnancy weeks 22-30, fasting plasma glucose, neonatal birth weight and prenatal blood pressure, as well as dystocia conditions, were examined. We analysed the correlations between the following: gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight; prenatal blood pressure and gestational fasting plasma glucose as well as dystocia rate and gestational fasting plasma glucose group. A modest correlation was observed between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight (r = 0.093, p = 0.003). The macrosomia rate was smallest when the gestational fasting plasma glucose was in the range 3.51-5.5 mmol/L. Prenatal blood pressure increased linearly with increasing gestational fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.000). There was a significant difference between the dystocia rates in different fasting plasma glucose groups (chi-squared = 13.015, p = 0.043). The results showed that the dystocia rate significantly increased when gestational fasting plasma glucose was >4.9 mmol/L; p = 0.03, OR = 2.156 (95% CI, 1.077-4.318). We suggest that the optimal range of gestational fasting plasma glucose for pregnant Chinese women is in the range 3.5-4.9 mmol/L. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 minutes by direct PCR from plasma or serum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz Friedrich; Flegel, Willy Albert; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2016-01-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fya, Fyb, Jka and Jkb antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. PMID:27991657

  18. Impact of Ficoll density gradient centrifugation on major and trace element concentrations in erythrocytes and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Ying; Ahmed, Sultan; Harari, Florencia; Vahter, Marie

    2015-01-01

    Ficoll density gradient centrifugation is widely used to separate cellular components of human blood. We evaluated the suitability to use erythrocytes and blood plasma obtained from Ficoll centrifugation for assessment of elemental concentrations. We determined 22 elements (from Li to U) in erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct or Ficoll density gradient centrifugation, using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Compared with erythrocytes and blood plasma separated by direct centrifugation, those separated by Ficoll had highly elevated iodine and Ba concentration, due to the contamination from the Ficoll-Paque medium, and about twice as high concentrations of Sr and Mo in erythrocytes. On the other hand, the concentrations of Ca in erythrocytes and plasma were markedly reduced by the Ficoll separation, to some extent also Li, Co, Cu, and U. The reduced concentrations were probably due to EDTA, a chelator present in the Ficoll medium. Arsenic concentrations seemed to be lowered by Ficoll, probably in a species-specific manner. The concentrations of Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb, and Cs were not affected in the erythrocytes, but decreased in plasma. Concentrations of Mn, Cd, and Pb were not affected in erythrocytes, but in plasma affected by EDTA and/or pre-analytical contamination. Ficoll separation changed the concentrations of Li, Ca, Co, Cu, As, Mo, I, Ba, and U in erythrocytes and blood plasma, Sr in erythrocytes, and Mg, P, S, K, Fe, Zn, Se, Rb and Cs in blood plasma, to an extent that will invalidate evaluation of deficiencies or excess intakes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  19. Oxide films on magnesium and magnesium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shih, T.-S.; Liu, J.-B.; Wei, P.-S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys are very active and readily ignite during heating and melting. In this study, we discuss the combustion of magnesium and magnesium alloys and propose prospective anti-ignition mechanisms for magnesium alloys during the heating process. When magnesium and magnesium alloys were heated in air, the sample surfaces produced layers of thermally formed oxides. These thermally formed oxides played an important role in affecting the combustion of the magnesium and magnesium alloys. When magnesium was heated in air, brucite that formed in the early stage was then transformed into periclase by dehydroxylation. By extending the heating time, more periclase formed and increased in thickness which was associated with microcracks formation. When magnesium was heated in a protective atmosphere (SF 6 ), a film of MgF 2 formed at the interface between the oxide layer and the Mg substrate. This film generated an anti-ignition behavior which protected the substrate from oxidation. When solution-treated AZ80 alloy was heated, spinel developed at the interface between the thermally formed oxide layer and the Mg substrate, improving the anti-ignition properties of the substrate. In addition, we also explain the effects of beryllium in an AZB91 alloy on the ignition-proofing behavior

  20. Relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters in infertile subjects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ali, H.; Ahmed, M.; Baig, M.; Ali, M.

    2007-01-01

    To find out relationship of zinc concentrations in blood and seminal plasma with various semen parameters between fertile and infertile men. (JPMC), Karachi and Department of Biochemistry. Basic Medical Sciences Institute, JPMC, Karachi. Fifty eight primary infertile male subjects, without any treatment, who had regular unprotected intercourse for at least 12 months without conception with their partners, aged 20-40 years, were selected from Infertility Clinic Jinnah Postgraduate Medical Center, Karachi. After semen analyses they were grouped as, oligospermic (30), and azoospermic (28). Twenty five known fertile male selected from general population and after semen analysis were taken as normospermic control group. Semen analyzed according to WHO criteria. Serum and seminal plasma zinc were estimated by 5Br. PAPS Colorimetric method. This study showed significant difference in serum and seminal zinc levels in normospermic, oligospermic (p<0.05) and azoospermic (p<0.005). Seminal plasma zinc showed a positive correlation with sperm count and negative with sperm motility in normospermic and oligospermic and negative correlation with volume, pH, WBC concentration in all three groups. There was no correlation found with sperm morphology. On the basis of the findings of this study and those of other reports, zinc may contribute to fertility through its significant effects on various semen parameters. It seems that the estimation of seminal plasma zinc may help in investigation and treatment of infertile males. (author)

  1. Using NMR metabolomics to identify responses of an environmental estrogen in blood plasma of fish

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samuelsson, Linda M.; Foerlin, Lars; Karlsson, Goeran; Adolfsson-Erici, Margaretha; Larsson, D.G. Joakim

    2006-01-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomics in combination with multivariate data analysis may become valuable tools to study environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other chemicals in aquatic organisms. To explore the usefulness of this approach in fish, we have used 1 H NMR metabolomics to compare blood plasma and plasma lipid extracts from rainbow trout exposed to the synthetic contraceptive estrogen ethinylestradiol (EE 2 ) with plasma from control fish. The plasma metabolite profile was affected in fish exposed to 10 ng/L but not 0.87 ng/L of EE 2 , which was in agreement with an induced vitellogenin synthesis in the high dose group only, as measured by ELISA. The main affected metabolites were vitellogenin, alanine, phospholipids and cholesterol. The responses identified by this discovery-driven method could be put in context with previous knowledge of the effects of estrogens on fish. This adds confidence to the approach of using NMR metabolomics to identify environmental effects of pharmaceuticals and other contaminants

  2. Long-term lead elimination from plasma and whole blood after poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rentschler, Gerda; Broberg, K; Lundh, T; Skerfving, S

    2012-04-01

    Blood lead (B-Pb), one of the most used toxicological biomarker all kind, has serious limitations. Thus, the objective is to evaluate whether plasma lead (P-Pb) is more adequate. A long-term follow-up study of five cases of lead poisoning. P-Pb was analysed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Kinetics after end of exposure was modelled. P-Pb at severe poisoning was about 20 μg/L; haematological effects at about 5 μg/L. Biological half-time of P-Pb was about 1 month; B-Pb decay was much slower. P-Pb is a valuable biomarker of exposure to and risk, particularly at high exposure.

  3. Alkaline saponification results in decomposition of tocopherols in milk and ovine blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czauderna, M; Kowalczyk, J

    2007-10-15

    Alkaline saponification of entire sample matrixes for quantification of alpha-, gamma-, delta-tocopherols (alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T) and alpha-tocopherol acetate (alpha-TAc) was examined. High-performance liquid chromatography was used to measure alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in tocopherol standard solutions, milk and ovine blood plasma. Saponification in the presence of vitamin C decreases the concentration of tocopherols, especially alpha-T and gamma-T. The poor recovery of tocopherols is due to the decomposition of tocopherols in saponified standard solutions, milk or plasma. Saponification of samples in the presence of 2,[6]-ditertbutyl-p-cresol or flushed only with a stream of Ar resulted in a major decrease in the concentrations of alpha-T, gamma-T, delta-T and alpha-TAc in comparison with saponification in the presence of vitamin C.

  4. Microcantilever based disposable viscosity sensor for serum and blood plasma measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cakmak, Onur; Elbuken, Caglar; Ermek, Erhan; Mostafazadeh, Aref; Baris, Ibrahim; Erdem Alaca, B; Kavakli, Ibrahim Halil; Urey, Hakan

    2013-10-01

    This paper proposes a novel method for measuring blood plasma and serum viscosity with a microcantilever-based MEMS sensor. MEMS cantilevers are made of electroplated nickel and actuated remotely with magnetic field using an electro-coil. Real-time monitoring of cantilever resonant frequency is performed remotely using diffraction gratings fabricated at the tip of the dynamic cantilevers. Only few nanometer cantilever deflection is sufficient due to interferometric sensitivity of the readout. The resonant frequency of the cantilever is tracked with a phase lock loop (PLL) control circuit. The viscosities of liquid samples are obtained through the measurement of the cantilever's frequency change with respect to a reference measurement taken within a liquid of known viscosity. We performed measurements with glycerol solutions at different temperatures and validated the repeatability of the system by comparing with a reference commercial viscometer. Experimental results are compared with the theoretical predictions based on Sader's theory and agreed reasonably well. Afterwards viscosities of different Fetal Bovine Serum and Bovine Serum Albumin mixtures are measured both at 23°C and 37°C, body temperature. Finally the viscosities of human blood plasma samples taken from healthy donors are measured. The proposed method is capable of measuring viscosities from 0.86 cP to 3.02 cP, which covers human blood plasma viscosity range, with a resolution better than 0.04 cP. The sample volume requirement is less than 150 μl and can be reduced significantly with optimized cartridge design. Both the actuation and sensing are carried out remotely, which allows for disposable sensor cartridges. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl_2 reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO_4 layer formation. • MgSO_4 influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO_3 induced the formation of MgCO_3 as a degradation product

  6. Renal blood flow, early distal sodium, and plasma renin concentrations during osmotic diuresis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leyssac, P P; Holstein-Rathlou, N H; Skøtt, O

    2000-01-01

    .6 mmHg. Urine flow increased 10-fold, and sodium excretion increased by 177%. Plasma renin concentration (PRC) increased by 58%. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate decreased, however end-proximal flow remained unchanged. After a similar volume of hypotonic glucose (152 mM), ED......(NaCl) increased by 3.6 mM, (P renal hemodynamics, urine flow, sodium excretion rate, or PRC. Infusion of 300 micromol NaCl in a smaller volume caused ED(NaCl) to increase by 6.4 mM without significant changes in PRC. Urine flow and sodium excretion increased significantly...

  7. Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction of new psychoactive substances in plasma and whole blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vårdal, Linda; Askildsen, Hilde-Merete; Gjelstad, Astrid

    2017-01-01

    Parallel artificial liquid membrane extraction (PALME) was combined with ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC–MS) and the potential for screening of new psychoactive substances (NPS) was investigated for the first time. PALME was performed in 96-well format...... comprising a donor plate, a supported liquid membrane (SLM), and an acceptor plate. Uncharged NPS were extracted from plasma or whole blood, across an organic SLM, and into an aqueous acceptor solution, facilitated by a pH gradient. MDAI (5,6-methylenedioxy-2-aminoindane), methylone, PFA (para...

  8. Evaluating the optimum rest period prior to blood collection for fractionated plasma free metanephrines analysis

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Griffin, T.P.

    2016-05-01

    The high diagnostic accuracy of plasma metanephrines (PMets) in the di-agnosis of Phaeochromocytoma\\/Paraganglioma (PPGL) is well established. Considerable controversy exists regarding optimum sampling conditions for PMets. The use of reference intervals that do not compromise diagnostic sensitivity is recommended. However, the optimum rest period prior to sampling has yet to be clearly established. The aim of this study was to evaluate PMets concentrations in paired blood samples collected following 30 and 40 min seated-rest prior to sampling, in patients in whom it was clinically rea-sonable to suspect that PPGL may be present.

  9. Magnesium stearine production via direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pratiwi, M.; Ylitervo, P.; Pettersson, A.; Prakoso, T.; Soerawidjaja, T. H.

    2017-06-01

    The fossil oil production could not compensate with the increase of its consumption, because of this reason the renewable alternative energy source is needed to meet this requirement of this fuel. One of the methods to produce hydrocarbon is by decarboxylation of fatty acids. Vegetable oil and fats are the greatest source of fatty acids, so these can be used as raw material for biohydrocarbon production. From other researchers on their past researchs, by heating base soap from divalent metal, those metal salts will decarboxylate and produce hydrocarbon. This study investigate the process and characterization of magnesium soaps from palm stearine by Blachford method. The metal soaps are synthesized by direct reaction of palm stearine and magnesium hydroxide to produce magnesium stearine and magnesium stearine base soaps at 140-180°C and 6-10 bar for 3-6 hours. The operation process which succeed to gain metal soaps is 180°C, 10 bar, for 3-6 hours. These metal soaps are then compared with commercial magnesium stearate. Based on Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA) results, the decomposition temperature of all the metal soaps were 250°C. Scanning Electron Microscope with Energy Dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analysis have shown the traces of sodium sulphate for magnesium stearate commercial and magnesium hydroxide for both type of magnesium stearine soaps. The analysis results from Microwave Plasma-Atomic Emission Spectrometry (MP-AES) have shown that the magnesium content of magnesium stearine approximate with magnesium stearate commercial and lower compare with magnesium stearine base soaps. These experiments suggest that the presented saponification process method could produced metal soaps comparable with the commercial metal soaps.

  10. Determination of the sodium, aluminium, potassium, manganese, magnesium, bromine, cadmium and chlorine concentration values in the whole blood samples of human cancer using neutron activation analysis facility of the second Egyptian research reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. F. Soliman

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Neutron activation analysis (NAA using the Second Egyptian Research Reactor (ETRR-2 has been utilized to analyze whole blood samples. The National Cancer Institute of Egypt provided us with 18 blood samples (11 breast, 2 prostate, 2 colon, 1 pancreatic, 1 ovarian and a random sample of normal person to estimate the concentration values of Sodium, Aluminium, Potassium, Manganese, Magnesium, Bromine, Chlorine. The pneumatic irradiation rabbit system (PIRS built in the vertical thermal column of the ETRR-2 reactor is used for short time irradiation at constant power. Elemental concentrations were estimated from measurements of the gamma-ray spectra of the product short lived isotopes in the samples. The calculated thermal to epithermal neutron flux ratio was found to be 196 at irradiation position. The tabulated concentrations were calculated by using k0-neutron activation analysis (k0NAA standardization method.

  11. Quantitation of 5-Methyltetrahydrofolic Acid in Dried Blood Spots and Dried Plasma Spots by Stable Isotope Dilution Assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Kopp

    Full Text Available Because of minimal data available on folate analysis in dried matrix spots (DMSs, we combined the advantages of stable isotope dilution assays followed by LC-MS/MS analysis with DMS sampling to develop a reliable method for the quantitation of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in dried blood spots (DBSs and dried plasma spots (DPSs as well as for the quantitation of whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs. We focused on two diagnostically conclusive parameters exhibited by the plasma and whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid levels that reflect both temporary and long-term folate status. The method is performed using the [2H4]-labeled isotopologue of the vitamin as the internal standard, and three steps are required for the extraction procedure. Elution of the punched out matrix spots was performed using stabilization buffer including Triton X-100 in a standardized ultrasonication treatment followed by enzymatic digestion (whole blood only and solid-phase extraction with SAX cartridges. This method is sensitive enough to quantify 27 nmol/L whole blood 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and 6.3 and 4.4 nmol/L plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs and DPSs, respectively. The unprecedented accurate quantification of plasma 5-methyltetrahydrofolic acid in DBSs was achieved by thermal treatment prior to ultrasonication, inhibiting plasma conjugase activity. Mass screenings are more feasible and easier to facilitate for this method in terms of sample collection and storage compared with conventional clinical sampling for the assessment of folate status.

  12. Culture of normal human blood cells in a diffusion chamber system II. Lymphocyte and plasma cell kinetics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chikkappa, G.; Carsten, A.L.; Chanana, A.D.; Cronkite, E.P.

    1979-01-01

    Normal human blood leukocytes were cultured in Millipore diffusion chambers implanted into the peritoneal cavities of irradiated mice. The evaluation of survival and proliferation kinetics of cells in lymphyocytic series suggested that the lymphoid cells are formed from transition of small and/or large lymphocytes, and the lymphoblasts from the lymphoid cells. There was also evidence indicating that some of the cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. The evaluation of plasmacytic series suggested that the plasma cells are formed from plasmacytoid-lymphocytes by transition, and the latter from the transition of lymphocytes. In addition, relatively a small fraction of cells in these two compartments are formed by proliferation. mature plasma cells do not and immature plasma cells do proliferate. Estimation of magnitude of plasma cells formed in the cultures at day 18 indicated that at least one plasma cell is formed for every 6 normal human blood lymphocytes introduced into the culture

  13. COMPARISON OF WHOLE BLOOD AND PLASMA GLUCOSE CONCENTRATIONS IN GREEN TURTLES ( CHELONIA MYDAS) DETERMINED USING A GLUCOMETER AND A DRY CHEMISTRY ANALYZER.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrault, Justin R; Bresette, Michael J; Mott, Cody R; Stacy, Nicole I

    2018-01-01

    :  We compared glucose concentrations in whole blood and plasma from green turtles ( Chelonia mydas) using a glucometer with plasma glucose analyzed by dry chemistry analyzer. Whole blood glucose (glucometer) and plasma glucose (dry chemistry) had the best agreement ( r s =0.85) and a small negative bias (-0.08 mmol/L).

  14. [Demography and donation frequencies of blood and plasma donor populations in Germany. Update 2010 and 5-year comparison].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, S; Hamouda, O; Offergeld, R

    2012-08-01

    The Robert Koch Institute collects and evaluates nationwide data on the incidence and prevalence of transfusion-relevant infections among blood and plasma donors in Germany. Since 2006 data not only on the number of donations tested but also on the number of the respective donors have become available. The demographic profile and donation frequencies of German whole blood, plasma and platelet donors in 2010 and the percentages among the general population are described and compared to data from 2006. Although the general population eligible to donate blood is on the decline since 2003, with a loss of 2% between 2006 and 2010, this has not led to a decrease in the number of blood donors and donations. Instead, the number of new and repeat whole blood donors increased by 8% and 7%, respectively. At the same time, the number of new plasma donors grew by 23%, that of repeat plasma donors by 41%. In 2010 more than 4.3% of the population aged 18-68 years was active as repeat whole blood donors; 0.4% repeatedly donated plasma or platelets. Since 2006 the percentage of donors among the general population increased significantly, especially among the youngest age group (18-24 years). Donation frequency varied depending on donor age and sex, with an average of 1.9 per year for whole blood donations, 12.5 for plasmapheresis and 5.0 for plateletpheresis. While the donation frequency for whole blood remained unchanged since 2006, the frequency of apheresis donations increased, especially among older donors. By recruiting more new donors and retaining and reactivating existing ones more effectively, the number of whole blood and apheresis donations was augmented.

  15. Comparison of human whole blood, plasma, and serum matrices for the determination of perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), perfluorooctanoate (PFOA), and other fluorochemicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehresman, David J.; Froehlich, John W.; Olsen, Geary W.; Chang, Shu-Ching; Butenhoff, John L.

    2007-01-01

    Interest in human exposure to perfluorinated acids, including perfluorobutanesulfonate (PFBS), perfluorohexanesulfonate (PFHS), perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS), and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) has led to their measurement in whole blood, plasma and serum. Comparison of measurements in these different blood-based matrices, however, has not been rigorously investigated to allow for across-matrix comparisons. This research evaluated concentrations of PFBS, PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA in whole blood collected in heparin (lithium) and ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA), plasma samples collected in heparin and EDTA, and serum (from whole blood allowed to clot). Blood samples were collected from 18 voluntary participants employed at 3M Company. Solid phase extraction methods were used for all analytical sample preparations, and analyses were completed using high-pressure liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry methods. Serum concentrations ranged from: limit of quantitation (LOQ, 5 ng/mL) to 25 ng/mL for PFBS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 75 ng/mL for PFHS; LOQ (5 ng/mL) to 880 ng/mL for PFOS; and LOQ (5 or 10 ng/mL) to 7320 ng/mL for PFOA. Values less than the LOQ were not included in the statistical analyses of the mean of the ratios of individual values for the matrices. PFBS was not quantifiable in most samples. Serum to plasma ratios for PFHS, PFOS, and PFOA were 1:1 and this ratio was independent of the level of concentrations measured. Serum or plasma to whole blood ratios, regardless of the anticoagulant used, approximated 2:1. The difference between plasma and serum and whole blood corresponded to volume displacement by red blood cells, suggesting that the fluorochemicals are not found intracellularly or attached to the red blood cells

  16. High wavenumber Raman spectroscopic characterization of normal and oral cancer using blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Suresh Kumar, Murugesan; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Blood plasma possesses the biomolecules released from cells/tissues after metabolism and reflects the pathological conditions of the subjects. The analysis of biofluids for disease diagnosis becomes very attractive in the diagnosis of cancers due to the ease in the collection of samples, easy to transport, multiple sampling for regular screening of the disease and being less invasive to the patients. Hence, the intention of this study was to apply near-infrared (NIR) Raman spectroscopy in the high wavenumber (HW) region (2500-3400 cm-1) for the diagnosis of oral malignancy using blood plasma. From the Raman spectra it is observed that the biomolecules protein and lipid played a major role in the discrimination between groups. The diagnostic algorithms based on principal components analysis coupled with linear discriminant analysis (PCA-LDA) with the leave-one-patient-out cross-validation method on HW Raman spectra yielded a promising results in the identification of oral malignancy. The details of results will be discussed.

  17. Surface modifying of microporous PTFE capillary for bilirubin removing from human plasma and its blood compatibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Gu; Yao Qizhi; Zhang Shanzi; Zhang Lei

    2008-01-01

    In this study, human serum albumin (HSA) was covalently immobilized onto the inner surface of microporous poly(tetrafluoroethylene) (MPTFE) capillaries for direct bilirubin removal from human plasma. To obtain active binding sites for HSA, the MPTFE capillaries were chemically functionalized by using a coating of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)-glycidyl methacrylate (GMA) copolymers. Characterization of grafted MPTFE capillaries was verified by XPS, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). Non-specific adsorption on the PVA-GMA coated capillary remains low (< 0.38 mg bilirubin/g), and higher affinity adsorption capacity, of up to 73.6 mg bilirubin/g polymer was obtained after HSA is immobilized. Blood compatibility of the grafted MPTFE capillary was evaluated by SEM and platelet rich plasma (PRP) contacting experiments. The experimental data on blood compatibility indicated that PVA-coated and PVA-GMA-HSA coated PTFE capillary showed a sharp suppress on platelets adhesion. The proposed method has the potential of serving in bilirubin removal in clinical application

  18. Hippophae rhamnoides L. Fruits Reduce the Oxidative Stress in Human Blood Platelets and Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beata Olas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of the phenolic fraction from Hippophae rhamnoides fruits on the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, a marker of lipid peroxidation and the generation of superoxide anion (O2-∙ in human blood platelets (resting platelets and platelets stimulated by a strong physiological agonist, thrombin were studied in vitro. We also examined antioxidant properties of this fraction against human plasma lipid peroxidation and protein carbonylation induced by a strong biological oxidant, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 or H2O2/Fe (a donor of hydroxyl radicals. The tested fraction of H. rhamnoides (0.5– 50 µg/mL; the incubation time: 15 and 60 min inhibited lipid peroxidation induced by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. The H. rhamnoides phenolic fraction inhibited not only plasma lipid peroxidation, but also plasma protein carbonylation stimulated by H2O2 or H2O2/Fe. Moreover, the level of O2-∙ in platelets significantly decreased. In comparative experiments, the H. rhamnoides fraction was a more effective antioxidant than aronia extract or grape seed extract (at the highest tested concentration, 50 µg/mL. The obtained results suggest that H. rhamnoides fruits may be a new, promising source of natural compounds with antioxidant and antiplatelet activity beneficial not only for healthy people, but also for those with oxidative stress-associated diseases.

  19. Alpha-synuclein levels in blood plasma decline with healthy aging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niklas K U Koehler

    Full Text Available There is unequivocal evidence that alpha-synuclein plays a pivotal pathophysiological role in neurodegenerative diseases, and in particular in synucleinopathies. These disorders present with a variable extent of cognitive impairment and alpha-synuclein is being explored as a biomarker in CSF, blood serum and plasma. Considering key events of aging that include proteostasis, alpha-synuclein may not only be useful as a marker for differential diagnosis but also for aging per se. To explore this hypothesis, we developed a highly specific ELISA to measure alpha-synuclein. In healthy males plasma alpha-synuclein levels correlated strongly with age, revealing much lower concentrations in older (avg. 58.1 years compared to younger (avg. 27.6 years individuals. This difference between the age groups was enhanced after acidification of the plasmas (p<0.0001, possibly reflecting a decrease of alpha-synuclein-antibody complexes or chaperone activity in older individuals. Our results support the concept that alpha-synuclein homeostasis may be impaired early on, possibly due to disturbance of the proteostasis network, a key component of healthy aging. Thus, alpha-synuclein may be a novel biomarker of aging, a factor that should be considered when analyzing its presence in biological specimens.

  20. [Clinical use of virally inactived plasma. The experience of Blood Transfusion Unit in Mantova, Italy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepri, Debora; Capuzzo, Enrico; Mattioli, Anna Vittoria; Dall'Oglio, Daniela; Sgarioto, Vincenzo; Terenziani, Isabella; Caramaschi, Giacomo; Manzato, Franco; Franchini, Massimo

    2013-03-01

    Fresh Frozen Plasma (FFP) is a blood component whose clinical use is widespread worldwide. Transfusion safety of this product is ensured by legally obligatory tests. Although these tests are carried out on each plasma donation, safety levels can be further improved by using some technical procedures, such as, among others, methylene blue (MB) and solvent-detergent (SD) viral inactivation methods. The DMTE (Blood Transfusion Unit) in Mantova has used the pharmaceutical-like SD virally inactivated plasma since 2007 (Plasmasafe, Kedrion) as replacement of the PFC by each single donor. Guidelines for the usage of both products are the same. With the main aim of assessing the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of Plasmasafe, we decided to clinically monitor transfusions performed with this product on patients of the Intensive Care Unit at the city hospital in Mantova. In addition, we controlled some coagulation parameters (PT, aPTT, ATIII, Fibrinogen, PC, PS, FV, FVII, FVIII) before and 24 hours after the Plasmasafe infusion. From a clinical point of view, the use of Plasmasafe always led to a significant reduction, or complete stop, of the bleeding. No transfusion-related adverse events were recorded. As regards, the most relevant laboratory results, a marked increase in the above mentioned hemostatic parameters was detected. Furthermore, patients transfused with this product received a mean volume significantly lower than an historical cohort of patients treated with FFP (503 mL with Plasmasafe versus 1549 mL with FFP, Pcost-effective treatment, able to rapidly correct hemostatic abnormalities, for critical patients.

  1. The Effect of Rast Exercise on Plasma Levels of Apelin and Blood Pressure in Elite Women Runner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaibani Sh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Intense exercise increases heart susceptibility to the disorder in this physiological factor.The purpose of this study is to study the effect of sprint interval training on plasma levels of apelin, blood pressure and heart rate in elite female runner. Methods: Plasma levels of apelin, Heart rate (HR & blood pressure (BP, analyzed before, after and 24 hours after exercise. 15 elite female runner, whom were playing in Shiraz track & field league, selected for this study. They all were homogenized according to any kind of disease.Results: Rast exercise made plasma level of Apelin decrease after exercise compared with plasma level before exercise and this decrease was significant (p=0.001. Also, plasma level of apelin increased significantly 24 hrs after finishing exercise (p=0.001, but there were no significant differences before exercise (p=0.375. Systolic blood pressure and heart rate increased immediately after exercise and decreased significantly after 24 hrs (p=0.001. However, significant difference was not observed in diastolic pressure before and after exercise (p=0.338.Conclusion: The finding of this study shows that sprint interval training decreases plasma levels of apelin, so we can say that apelin and blood pressure must be in balance in natural position. With knowing the role of apelin, changes in this peptide during exercise can be an alarm to cardiovascular risk factor, during or after exercise in elite athletes.

  2. Knowledge, attitude and practice of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awotidebe, Taofeek O; Adedoyin, Rufus A; Afolabi, Mubaraq A; Opiyo, Rose

    2016-01-01

    Exercise plays significant role in the health outcomes of patients with diabetes, however, little is known about patients' knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with type-2 diabetes (T2D). This study investigated knowledge, attitude and practice (KAP) of exercise for plasma blood glucose control among patients with T2D. This cross-sectional study recruited 299 patients with T2D (male=105; female=194) from selected government hospitals in Osun State, Nigeria using purposive sampling technique. Validated questionnaires were used to assess of exercise for plasma blood glucose control and socioeconomic status (SES) of the patients. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Alpha level was set at exercise whilst 269(90.0%) had negative attitude to exercise practice. Less than a third, 82(27.4%) engaged in exercise practice for plasma blood glucose control. There was significant association between knowledge and practice of exercise ((2)=12.535; p=0.002). Furthermore, significant associations were found between knowledge and gender ((2)=11.453; p=0.003), and socioeconomic status ((2)=29.127, p=0.001) but not associated with attitude towards exercise (p>0.05). Patients with demonstrated good knowledge of exercise for plasma blood glucose control but reported negative attitude and poor practice of exercise. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Magnesium oxychloride cement concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    TECS

    exposure to water and salt attack by replacing 10% magnesium chloride solution by magnesium sulphate solution ... Having tremendous load bearing capacity, it can withstand .... retention coefficients for similar concrete compositions.

  4. Calcium and magnesium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharya, S.K.

    1982-01-01

    The roles of calcium and magnesium in human health and disease have been extensively studied. Calcium and magnesium have been determined in biological specimens by atomic absorption spectroscopy using stiochiometric nitrous oxide-acetylene flame

  5. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  6. Antioxidant efficacy of Kalanchoe daigremontiana bufadienolide-rich fraction in blood plasma in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Wachowicz, Barbara; Piechocka, Justyna; Głowacki, Rafał; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The main source of bufadienolides is toad venom; however, plants such as members of Kalanchoe Adans. (Crassulaceae) genus may also synthesize these bioactive substances. This is the first study on antioxidant effects and cytotoxicity of bufadienolide-rich fraction isolated from Kalanchoe daigremontiana Raym.-Hamet & H. Perrier. The methanolic fraction was extracted from the plant roots and contained 0.48 mg bufadienolides/mg of dry mass (11α,19-dihydroksytelocinobufagin, bersaldegenin-1-acetate, bersaldegenin-1,3,5-orthoacetate, 19-(acetyloxy)-3β,5β,11α,14-tetrahydroxyl-12-oxo-bufa-20,22-dienolide and 19-(acetyloxy)-1β,3β,5β,14-tetrahydroxyl-bufa-20,22-dienolide, mainly). The cytotoxicity of K. daigremontiana fraction was evaluated in an in vitro experimental model of blood platelets. The viability of blood platelets was determined on the basis of a release of lactate dehydrogenase. The fraction scavenged DPPH • radicals, with EC 50 of 21.80 μg/mL. Studies on an experimental model of blood plasma under peroxynitrite-induced oxidative stress revealed that the plant preparation had moderate antioxidant properties. Levels of 3-nitrotyrosine and thiol groups indicated that the protective effect of K. daigremontiana was significant mainly for its concentration of 50 μg/mL. No effect was found in prevention of oxidation of low-molecular plasma thiols (glutathione, cysteine and cysteinylglycine). Simultaneously, measurements of lipid hydroperoxides and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) indicated that the examined fraction might be effective antioxidant at broader concentration range, that is 1-5 and 25-50 μg/mL for hydroperoxides and TBARS generation, respectively. No cytotoxicity was observed at the concentration range of 1-50 μg/mL. Based on the obtained results, we suggest that antioxidant activity may additionally contribute to beneficial properties of K. daigremontiana-derived extracts.

  7. Study on changes of the plasma cytokines in 60Co γ-ray irradiated blood and leukocyte reduction of whole blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhiqiang; Le Jiayi; Qu Yihua; Xu Wenhao

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To study the changes of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α in 60 Co γ-ray irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood, and to understand the fever phenomenon in patients received blood transfusion. Methods: ELISA method was used to measure changes of the cytokines. Results: The plasma levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ and TNF-α did not change significantly with extending the conservation period both in 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. The frequency of fever decreaed obviously with transfusion of 60 Co-irradiated and leukocyte reduction of whole blood. Conclusion: 60 Co-irradiated blood can not only prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease (TA-GVHD), but also decrease non-hemolytic febrile transfusion reactions (NHFTR) effectively. (authors)

  8. Clinical value of indicators of cationic proteins, leukocytes myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma in viral meningitis in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. G. Kimirilova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: was to establish clinical and diagnostic value of cytochemical indices of peripheral blood leukocytes (cationic protein and myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma to assess the severity, predict the course and outcome of viral meningitis in children.Subjects and methods. In 450 patients with viral meningitis (enterovirus, arbovirus, parotitic, herpesviral, adenovirus etiology at the age of 14 years, the parameters of the microbicidal system of leukocytes (cation proteins, myeloperoxidase and fibronectin blood plasma were determined. Etiological diagnosis of meningitis was confirmed by release of viral RNA from blood and cerebrospinal fluid by the polymerase chain reaction, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA.The results and conclusion. Found that severe, prolonged duration, lethal outcome of viral meningitis in children are accompanied by sugnificant suppression of cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma, maximally expressed in lethal outcomes, compared with the severe form, but with a favorable outcome and control. Settings imbalance cationic proteins, myeloperoxidase, fibronectin blood plasma are objective criteria of the adaptation syndrome that reflects the state of the phagocytosis system in viral meningitis in children and can be considered as additional criteria for predicting the course and outcome of disease.

  9. Extracellular Calcium and Magnesium in Preeclampsia and Eclampsia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The cause of preeclampsia remains unknown and calcium and magnesium supplement are being suggested as means of prevention. The objective of this study was to assess magnesium and calcium in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of Nigerian women with preeclampsia and eclampsia. Setting was University of ...

  10. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott M. Smith

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female, 35 ± 7 years old. We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions.

  11. Magnesium and Space Flight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  12. Distinct kinetics of memory B-cell and plasma-cell responses in peripheral blood following a blood-stage Plasmodium chabaudi infection in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eunice W Nduati

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available B cell and plasma cell responses take place in lymphoid organs, but because of the inaccessibility of these organs, analyses of human responses are largely performed using peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC. To determine whether PBMC are a useful source of memory B cells and plasma cells in malaria, and whether they reflect Plasmodium-specific B cell responses in spleen or bone marrow, we have investigated these components of the humoral response in PBMC using a model of Plasmodium chabaudi blood-stage infections in C57BL/6 mice. We detected memory B cells, defined as isotype-switched IgD(- IgM(- CD19(+ B cells, and low numbers of Plasmodium chabaudi Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1-specific memory B cells, in PBMC at all time points sampled for up to 90 days following primary or secondary infection. By contrast, we only detected CD138(+ plasma cells and MSP1-specific antibody-secreting cells within a narrow time frame following primary (days 10 to 25 or secondary (day 10 infection. CD138(+ plasma cells in PBMC at these times expressed CD19, B220 and MHC class II, suggesting that they were not dislodged bone-marrow long-lived plasma cells, but newly differentiated migratory plasmablasts migrating to the bone marrow; thus reflective of an ongoing or developing immune response. Our data indicates that PBMC can be a useful source for malaria-specific memory B cells and plasma cells, but extrapolation of the results to human malaria infections suggests that timing of sampling, particularly for plasma cells, may be critical. Studies should therefore include multiple sampling points, and at times of infection/immunisation when the B-cell phenotypes of interest are likely to be found in peripheral blood.

  13. Ammonia concentrations in canine whole blood, EDTA-anticoagulated whole blood, and plasma measured by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunayo, Adesola; Tobias, Karen M; Okafor, Chika C; Flatland, Bente

    2017-11-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the use of canine whole blood (WB) for measurement of ammonia concentration by use of a point-of-care ammonia meter and to compare results of measuring ammonia concentrations in WB, EDTA-anticoagulated WB, and plasma. ANIMALS 40 client-owned dogs. PROCEDURES A blood sample (2 mL) was obtained from each dog. One drop of WB was immediately applied to a test strip for evaluation with an ammonia meter. The remainder of the blood sample was placed in an EDTA-containing tube, and 1 drop of EDTA-anticoagulated WB was applied to a test strip. The remaining EDTA-anticoagulated WB sample was centrifuged, and the plasma was harvested and placed on ice. One drop of plasma was applied to a test strip; the remainder of the plasma sample was transported on ice and used for ammonia measurement with a reference laboratory instrument. All samples were tested within 1 hour after sample collection. Results were evaluated to detect significant differences in ammonia concentration. RESULTS Ammonia concentrations did not differ significantly between WB and EDTA-anticoagulated WB and between plasma samples measured with the meter and reference laboratory instrument. However, median ammonia concentration was significantly higher in plasma than in WB or EDTA-anti-coagulated WB. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Anticoagulant-free WB was a valid sample for measurement by use of the ammonia meter. Plasma samples had higher ammonia concentrations than did WB samples. Results for each sample type should be interpreted by use of specimen- and method-specific reference intervals.

  14. Effect of ionic and non-ionic contrast media on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit in vitro

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aspelin, P.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the ionic contrast media diatrizoate, iocarmate and metrizoate and the non-ionic metrizamide on whole blood viscosity, plasma viscosity and hematocrit was investigated. All the contrast media increased whole blood and plasma viscosity and reduced the hematocrit. The whole blood viscosity increased with increasing osmolality of the contrast medium solutions, whereas the plasma viscosity increased with increasing viscosity of the contrast medium solutions. The higher the osmolality of the contrast media, the lower the hematocrit became. The normal shear-thinning (decreasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) property of blood was reduced when contrast medium was added to the blood. At 50 per cent volume ratio (contrast medium to blood), the ionic contrast media converted the blood into a shear-thickening (increasing viscosity with increasing shear rate) suspension, indicating a marked rigidification of the single red cell, while the non-ionic contrast medium still produced shear-thinning, indicating less rigidification of the red cell (p<0.01). (Auth.)

  15. Contribution of a portable air plasma torch to rapid blood coagulation as a method of preventing bleeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuo, S P; Chen, C Y; Fan, H W; Tarasenko, O; Scott, A; Lahiani, M; Alusta, P; Chang, J; Popovic, S; Drake, J D; Nikolic, M

    2009-01-01

    The effectiveness and mechanism of a low temperature air plasma torch in clotting blood are explored. Both blood droplets and smeared blood samples were used in the tests. The treated droplet samples reveal how blood clotting depends on the distance at which the torch operated, and for how long the droplets have been exposed to the torch. Microscopy and cell count of smeared blood samples shed light on dependencies of erythrocyte and platelet counts on torch distance and exposure time. With an increase of torch distance, the platelet count of treated blood samples increases but is less than that of the control. The flux of reactive atomic oxygen (RAO) and the degree of blood clotting decreased. With an increase of exposure time, platelet count of treated samples decreased, while the degree of clot increased. The correlation among these dependencies and published data support a blood clotting mechanism that RAO as well as other likely reactive oxygen species generated by the plasma torch activate erythrocyte-platelets interactions and induces blood coagulation.

  16. Isotopic analysis of calcium in blood plasma and bone from mouse samples by multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirata, Takafumi; Tanoshima, Mina; Suga, Akinobu; Tanaka, Yu-ki; Nagata, Yuichi; Shinohara, Atsuko; Chiba, Momoko

    2008-01-01

    The biological processing of Ca produces significant stable isotope fractionation. The level of isotopic fractionation can provide key information about the variation in dietary consumption or Ca metabolism. To investigate this, we measured the 43 Ca/ 42 Ca and 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for bone and blood plasma samples collected from mice of various ages using multiple collector-ICP-mass spectrometry (MC-ICP-MS). The 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratio in bones was significantly (0.44 - 0.84 per mille) lower than the corresponding ratios in the diet, suggesting that Ca was isotopically fractionated during Ca metabolism for bone formation. The resulting 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios for blood plasma showed almost identical, or slightly higher, values (0.03 - 0.2 per mille) than found in a corresponding diet. This indicates that a significant amount of Ca in the blood plasma was from dietary sources. Unlike that discovered for Fe, there were not significant differences in the measured 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios between female and male specimens (for either bone or blood plasma samples). Similarity, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios suggests that there were no significant differences in Ca dietary consumption or Ca metabolism between female and male specimens. In contrast, the 44 Ca/ 42 Ca ratios of blood plasma from mother mice during the lactation period were significantly higher than those for all other adult specimens. This suggests that Ca supplied to infants through lactation was isotopically lighter, and the preferential supply of isotropically lighter Ca resulted in isotopically heavier Ca in blood plasma of mother mice during the lactation period. The data obtained here clearly demonstrate that the Ca isotopic ratio has a potential to become a new tool for evaluating changes in dietary consumption, or Ca metabolism of animals. (author)

  17. Stable-isotope dilution GC-MS approach for nitrite quantification in human whole blood, erythrocytes, and plasma using pentafluorobenzyl bromide derivatization: nitrite distribution in human blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Modun, Darko; Heusser, Karsten; Tank, Jens; Gutzki, Frank-Mathias; Mitschke, Anja; Jordan, Jens; Tsikas, Dimitrios

    2011-05-15

    Previously, we reported on the usefulness of pentafluorobenzyl bromide (PFB-Br) for the simultaneous derivatization and quantitative determination of nitrite and nitrate in various biological fluids by GC-MS using their (15)N-labelled analogues as internal standards. As nitrite may be distributed unevenly in plasma and blood cells, its quantification in whole blood rather than in plasma or serum may be the most appropriate approach to determine nitrite concentration in the circulation. So far, GC-MS methods based on PFB-Br derivatization failed to measure nitrite in whole blood and erythrocytes because of rapid nitrite loss by oxidation and other unknown reactions during derivatization. The present article reports optimized and validated procedures for sample preparation and nitrite derivatization which allow for reliable quantification of nitrite in human whole blood and erythrocytes. Essential measures for stabilizing nitrite in these samples include sample cooling (0-4°C), hemoglobin (Hb) removal by precipitation with acetone and short derivatization of the Hb-free supernatant (5 min, 50°C). Potassium ferricyanide (K(3)Fe(CN)(6)) is useful in preventing Hb-caused nitrite loss, however, this chemical is not absolutely required in the present method. Our results show that accurate GC-MS quantification of nitrite as PFB derivative is feasible virtually in every biological matrix with similar accuracy and precision. In EDTA-anticoagulated venous blood of 10 healthy young volunteers, endogenous nitrite concentration was measured to be 486±280 nM in whole blood, 672±496 nM in plasma (C(P)), and 620±350 nM in erythrocytes (C(E)). The C(E)-to-C(P) ratio was 0.993±0.188 indicating almost even distribution of endogenous nitrite between plasma and erythrocytes. By contrast, the major fraction of nitrite added to whole blood remained in plasma. The present GC-MS method is useful to investigate distribution and metabolism of endogenous and exogenous nitrite in blood

  18. Fibrinogen measurements in plasma and whole blood: a performance evaluation study of the dry-hematology system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Satoru; Tanaka, Kenichi A; Nakajima, Yasufumi; Nakayama, Yoshinobu; Takeshita, Jun; Arai, Masatoshi; Mizobe, Toshiki

    2015-01-01

    An accurate and rapid determination of fibrinogen level is important during hemorrhage to establish a timely hemostatic intervention. The accuracy of fibrinogen measurements may be affected by the specific methodology for its determination, fluid therapies, and anticoagulant agents. The dry-hematology method (DRIHEMATO®) is a novel approach to determine fibrinogen levels in plasma and whole blood based on thrombin-activated coagulation time. We hypothesized that plasma or whole blood fibrinogen level using the dry-hematology method would be similar to those measured with conventional plasma fibrinogen assays. Acquired hypofibrinogenemia was modeled by serial dilutions of blood samples obtained from 12 healthy volunteers. Citrated whole blood samples were diluted with either normal saline, 5% human albumin, or 6% hydroxyethyl starch to achieve 25%, 50%, and 75% volume replacement. The dry-hematology method, the Clauss method, the prothrombin time (PT)-derived method, determination of antigen levels, and thromboelastometric fibrin formation were compared in plasma or whole blood samples. The effect of heparin on each assay was examined (0 to 6 IU/mL). Comparisons of dry-hematology and other methods were also conducted using ex vivo samples obtained from cardiac surgical patients (n = 60). In plasma samples, there were no significant differences between dry-hematology and the Clauss method, while dry-hematology showed lower fibrinogen levels compared with PT-derived and antigen level methods. The dry-hematology method yielded acceptable concordance correlation coefficients (Pc) with the Clauss method, the PT-derived method, and fibrinogen antigen levels (Pc = 0.91-0.99). The type of diluents and heparin affected the results of the PT-derived method and thromboelastometric assay, but not the dry-hematology method. In cardiac surgical patients, the overall correlation in fibrinogen levels between dry-hematology and the other methods was comparable to the results from

  19. Predictive Value of Whole Blood and Plasma Coagulation Tests for Intra- and Postoperative Bleeding Risk: A Systematic Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Julie Brogaard; Hvas, Anne-Mette

    2017-01-01

    review of the existing literature assessing the ability of whole blood coagulation (thromboelastography [TEG]/thromboelastometry [ROTEM]/Sonoclot), platelet function tests, and standard plasma-based coagulation tests to predict bleeding in the perioperative setting. We searched PubMed and Embase...... value of testing in patients receiving antithrombotic medication. In general, studies reported low positive predictive values for perioperative testing, whereas negative predictive values were high. The studies yielded moderate areas under receiver operator characteristics (ROC) curve (for the majority...... recommend that both whole blood and plasma-based coagulation tests are primarily used in case of bleeding and not for screening in unselected patients prior to surgery....

  20. Application and biocompatibility of a new absorbable magnesium alloy stent in blood vessels%新型可吸收镁合金支架在血管内应用及生物相容性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵辉; 雷民

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In vivo animal experiments have found that magnesium al oy stents can be completely degraded in a slow, orderly and non-toxic manner fol owing the vascular remodeling. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the applied effect and biocompatibility of a new type of magnesium al oy stent in blood vessels. METHODS: Forty-two crossbreed dogs were implanted with absorbable magnesium al oy stents via the coronary artery or left femoral artery. At days 1, 3, 5 and weeks 1, 2, 3, 4 after implantation, coronary or femoral artery angiography, inflammatory factor detection and morphological analysis targeting intimal hyperplasia were performed. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: At 1 day after implantation, the stents had the complete shape and were ful y extended; at 3 days after implantation, the stents were degraded partial y; at 1 week after implantation, the stents were degraded completely. Within 1-3 weeks after implantation, the levels of tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 continued to decrease. At 2 and 3 weeks after implantation, the target vessels presented with mild intimal hyperplasia. As time went on, the hyperplasia area increased gradual y, and the percentage of intimal hyperplasia increased gradual y. Blood magnesium concentration remained unchanged before and after stent implantation. The results show that the new absorbable magnesium al oy stent can be completely degraded within 1 week after stent implantation and has good biocompatibility.%背景:动物体内实验发现,可吸收镁合金支架随着血管结构重塑的完成,可通过缓慢、有序、无毒害降解方式在体内完全降解。目的:探讨新型血管内可吸收镁合金支架在血管内的应用效果及生物相容性。方法:取42只防疫杂种犬,均于冠状动脉或者左侧股动脉置入可吸收镁合金支架,置入后1 d、3 d、5 d、1周、2周、3周、4周,进行冠状动脉或股动脉造影、炎性因子检测及靶血管内膜增生面

  1. Analysis of protein profiles in diabetic rat blood plasma that induced by alloxan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidayati, Dewi; Abdulgani, Nurlita; Setiyawan, Hengki; Trisnawati, Indah; Ashuri, Nova Maulidina; Sa'adah, Noor Nailis

    2017-06-01

    Proteomics is the study to identify the proteins involved in physiological metabolic pathway. The protein profiles of blood plasma from alloxan-induced diabetic rats has investigated using Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). Data were analyzed descriptively based on variations of the type and intensity of the protein. There were identified the similarity of protein variant between diabetic and control rats included ankyrin (200kDa), IgG (150kDa), nephrin (136 kDa), IDE (112 kDA), albumin (66 kDa), prealbumin (55 kDA), CICP (43 kDa), ApoA-V (39 kDa), GAPDH (35 kDa), C-RP (27,1 kDa), leptin (16 kDa) and apelin (13 kDa). However, the apelin profile at diabetic rats shows the higher intensity than control.

  2. Fabrication of All Glass Bifurcation Microfluidic Chip for Blood Plasma Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyungjun Jang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available An all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip for blood plasma separation was fabricated by a cost-effective glass molding process using an amorphous carbon (AC mold, which in turn was fabricated by the carbonization of a replicated furan precursor. To compensate for the shrinkage during AC mold fabrication, an enlarged photoresist pattern master was designed, and an AC mold with a dimensional error of 2.9% was achieved; the dimensional error of the master pattern was 1.6%. In the glass molding process, a glass microchannel plate with negligible shape errors (~1.5% compared to AC mold was replicated. Finally, an all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip was realized by micro drilling and thermal fusion bonding processes. A separation efficiency of 74% was obtained using the fabricated all-glass bifurcation microfluidic chip.

  3. Effects of competitive red blood cell binding and reduced hematocrit on the blood and plasma levels of [14C]Indapamide in the rat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettieri, J.T.; Portelli, S.T.

    1983-01-01

    The effects of chlorthalidone and acetazolamide on the red blood cell binding of indapamide were investigated. Both drugs caused a substantial decrease in the amount of indapamide bound to the erythrocytes in vitro. This effect was demonstrated by a change in the indapamide blood/plasma ratio from approximately 6 in control samples, to a value of 1 when either of the displacing agents was added. Coadministration of acetazolamide with 14 C-labeled indapamide to rats, resulted in a 5-fold drop in the blood levels of total radioactivity, relative to rats dosed with [ 14 C]indapamide alone. Concomitantly, there was a 2-fold increase in the plasma levels of total radioactivity after acetazolamide coadministration. In rats whose hematocrits had been reduced by extensive bleeding, there were only minor alterations in the blood/plasma partitioning of [ 14 C]indapamide. Thus, chlorthalidone and acetazolamide were able to displace indapamide from erythrocytes in vitro and in vivo, possibly by competition at a carbonic anhydrase binding site. The pharmacokinetics of drugs which are extensively bound to erythrocytes may be significantly altered by the presence of other agents capable of competitive binding

  4. Influence of green tea consumption on cigarette smoking-induced biochemical changes in plasma and blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marthadu Shakeela Begum

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoking causes numerous adverse biochemical changes in plasma and blood leading to ill health effects for which therapeutic approaches are sought. The present study investigates the effect of green tea consumption on confirmed cigarette smokers. Blood samples were collected from 120 selected human male volunteers categorized in to four groups viz., controls, smokers, control volunteers consuming green tea with no habit of smoking and smokers consuming green tea were analysed. Results showed that altered plasma glucose, HbA1c, hemoglobin, hematocrit, total cholesterol, lipoprotein patterns (HDL, LDL, VLDL and lipid peroxidation along with vitamins (vitamin-D, vitamin-B12, vitamin-C and minerals (iron, total iron binding capacity, calcium, sodium, potassium, phosphorous, chloride followed by the activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT, aspartate aminotransferase (AST, gamma glutamyl transferase (γGT and alkaline phosphatase (ALP. Furthermore, phytochemical analysis of green tea confirmed the presence of phenols, flavonoids and tannins. Antioxidants and free radical scavenging effects of green tea were assessed using 2, 2′-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid (ABTS+ and 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH+. Results of this study clearly demonstrated that the adverse changes observed in the above biochemical parameters in smokers were reversed upon green tea supplementation which can be attributed to the phytoconstituents present in green tea. In conclusion, both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that phytocompounds present in green tea are able to scavenge free radicals and by there offers protection against smoking induced biochemical alterations.

  5. Hyperammonaemia, plasma aminoacid imbalance, and blood-brain aminoacid transport: a unified theory of portal-systemic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J H; Ziparo, V; Jeppsson, B; Fischer, J E

    1979-10-13

    It is proposed that hyperammonaemia in liver cirrhosis or after portacaval shunt contributes to plasma neutral aminoacid imbalance and to increased activity of the blood-brain neutral amino-acid transport system. Plasma neutral aminoacid concentrations are deranged, partly, but not completely, because ammonia stimulates glucagon secretion; a high rate of gluconeogenesis and hyperinsulinaemia follow. Brain uptake of neutral aminoacids rises because ammonia stimulates brain-glutamine synthesis, which results in rapid exchange of brain glutamine for plasma neutral aminoacids. Hyperammonaemia therefore contributes to encephalopathy indirectly, by raising the brain concentration of neutral aminoacids which after neurotransmitter metabolism, rather than directly, by toxic effects on neuronal metabolism.

  6. Dielectric parameters of blood plasma of rats treated with cerium-144 and external irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadzhidekova, E.; Kiradzhiev, G.; Paskalev, Z.; Miloslavov, V.

    1988-01-01

    Investigation was carried out of the dielectric parameters of blood plasma of male Wistar rats treated with cerium 144 in doses of 370 kBq/animal and external gamma irradiation in doses of 200 cGy and 400 cGy. The radioactive cerium was introduced intraperitoneally 1 h after the external irradiation with dose rate of 1,6 cGy/sec. The permittivity ε, the time of relaxation τ and the coefficient of Debaye κ of plasma protein molecules were determined at the 1st, 3rd, 10th, 15th, and 30th days after treatement for frequence ranges of 1,4, 2,2, 3,6 and 6 MHz. At the same terms the content of cerium 144 was measured in the organs of predilectional accumulation of cerium. It was established that the treatment only with cerium lead to most essential changes of dielectric parameters at frequence of 3,6 MHz. The external irradiation didn't influence essentially the kinetics of absorbed cerium. In combination of both radiation factors the action of cerium was predominant

  7. Blood plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones of rabbits after apricot seed exposure in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína MICHALCOVÁ

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes possible changes in plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones induced by bitter apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. seeds in young female rabbits in vivo. Prunus armeniaca L. is an important medicinal edible plant species commonly known as “apricot”. The apricot is a member of the Rosaceae and subfamily Prunoideae. It is one of the most delicious and commercially traded fruits in the world. Apricot kernel is the inner part of the seed of the apricot fruit. The kernel is used to produce oil and other chemicals used for medicinal purposes. The seeds are potentially useful in human nutrition and for treatment several diseases especially cancer. In the present study apricot seeds were mixed with feed at different doses 0, 60, 300, 420 mg*kg-1 of body weight. ELISA was used to determine the levels of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and prolactin (PRL. 58-days application of apricot seeds did not affect the concentration (P≥0.05 of PRL, LH in blood plasma. Significant (P≤0.01 inhibition of FSH levels induced by the seeds was found at the dose of 420 mg*kg-1 but not at 60 and 300 mg*kg-1 of body weight. These results are suggesting that the natural substances present in apricot seeds may be involved in mechanisms of ovarian folliculogenesis.

  8. Comparison of p53 levels in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of nuclear power plant workers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roessner, Pavel; Chvatalova, Irena; Schmuczerova, Jana; Milcova, Alena; Roessner, Pavel; Sram, Radim J.

    2004-01-01

    p53 levels were assessed in lymphocytes and in blood plasma of workers from two Czech nuclear power plants (NPP): 114 subjects working in Temelin and 108 subjects working in Dukovany. Ionizing radiation (IR) exposure data were available for 64 and 59 subjects working in the monitored zones from the NPP in Temelin and Dukovany, respectively. The short-term doses of IR for these subjects were 0.01 and 0.12 mSv, and the long-term doses were 0.46 and 5.68 mSv, in the Temelin and Dukovany NPP, respectively. As a control group, 46 subjects living in Ceske Budejovice, a city nearby the Temelin NPP, were analyzed. The concentration of p53 in lymphocytes was significantly higher in workers from the monitored zone in the Dukovany NPP (median value 6.4 pg/μg protein, P < 0.001) than in workers from the Temelin NPP (3.2 pg/μg) as well as in the control group (3.5 pg/μg). In contrast, plasma levels of p53 were comparable in the control group (median value 116 pg/ml plasma) and workers from the monitored zone of Dukovany NPP (102 pg/ml), but lower in workers from Temelin NPP (5 pg/ml). Other factors affecting p53 levels were studied. Smoking resulted in increased p53 lymphocyte levels. The effect of polymorphisms in metabolic and DNA repair genes on p53 levels was analyzed. The correlation was found between p53 levels in lymphocytes and p53 codon 72 polymorphism in subjects working in NPPs, but not in the control group. The results of measurement p53 levels in lymphocytes suggest that this biomarker could reflect the short-term as well as long-term effects of low doses IR. Its impact on human health should be further explored

  9. Blood pressure and plasma catecholamine responses to various challenges during exercise-recovery in man.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Péronnet, F; Massicotte, D; Paquet, J E; Brisson, G; de Champlain, J

    1989-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of a 2 h cycle exercise (50% VO2max) on heart rate (HR) and blood pressure (BP), and on plasma epinephrine (E) and norepinephrine (NE) concentrations, during the recovery period in seven normotensive subjects. Measurements were made at rest in supine (20 min) and standing (10 min) positions, during isometric exercise (hand-grip, 3 min, 25% maximal voluntary, contraction), in response to a mild psychosocial challenge (Stroop conflicting color word task) and during a 5-min period of light exercise (42 +/- 3% VO2max). Data were compared to measurements taken on another occasion under similar experimental conditions, without a previous exercise bout (control). The results showed HR to be slightly elevated in all conditions following the exercise bout. However, diastolic and systolic BP during the recovery period following exercise were not significantly different from the values observed in the control situation. Plasma NE concentrations in supine position and in response to the various physiological and/or psychosocial challenges were similar in the control situation and during the recovery period following exercise. On the other hand plasma E (nmol.1-1) was about 50% lower at rest (0.11 +/- 0.03 vs 0.23 +/- 0.04) as well as in response to hand-grip (0.21 +/- 0.04 vs 0.41 +/- 0.20) and the Stroop-test (0.21 +/- 0.05 vs 0.41 +/- 0.15) following the exercise bout.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Effect of an extract of Artemisia vulgaris L. (Mugwort) on the in vitro labeling of red blood cells and plasma proteins with technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terra, Danielle Amorim; Brandao-Neto, Jose; Medeiros, Aldo da Cunha; Amorim, Lucia de Fatima; Catanho, Maria Tereza Jansen de Almeida; Fonseca, Adenilson de Souza da; Santos-Filho, Sebastiao David; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of an extract of the Artemisia vulgaris L. (mugwort) on the labeling of blood constituents with technetium-99m (99mTc). Blood samples from Wistar rats were incubated with a mugwort extract and the radiolabeling of blood constituents was carried out. Plasma and blood cells were separated by centrifugation. Aliquots of plasma and blood cells were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged to isolate soluble and insoluble fractions of plasma and blood cells. Radioactivity in each fraction was counted and the percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) was calculated. Mugwort extract decreased significantly (p<0.05) the %ATI on the blood compartments and on the blood cells proteins (insoluble fraction). The analysis of the results indicates that the extract could have substances that could interfere on the transport of stannous through the erythrocyte membrane altering the labeling of blood cells with 99mTc. (author)

  11. Effect of Low Dose Gamma Radiation Upon the Concentration of Calcium and Inorganic Phosphorus in the Blood Plasma of Chickens

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2003-01-01

    In our previous paper it has been showed that the irradiation of chickens eggs before incubation by low dose gamma irradiation effects upon growth of the chickens hatched from irradiated eggs as well as upon activity of ALT and AST, and on the concentration of total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in the blood plasma of those chickens. Therefore in this paper an attempt was made to determine the effects of irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the 19th day of incubation upon the concentration of calcium (Ca) and inorganic phosphorus (P) in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Gent, line COBB 500) were irradiated by a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (6 0C o source) on the 19th day of incubation. Along with the chickens, which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken on day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of Ca was determined calorimetrically using Randox optimized kits, while the concentration of P was determined by Herbos dijagnostika Sisak (Croatia) optimized kits. The concentration of Ca in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly increased on the first day, while it was decreased on the day 42. The concentration of P was decreased on the first day in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The fact that the concentration of both minerals in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs was significantly changed on the first day proves that the irradiation of eggs by low dose of ionizing radiation on the nineteenth day of incubation had an effect on metabolism of both minerals in those chickens. (author)

  12. Concentration of Proteins and Protein Fractions in Blood Plasma of Chickens Hatched from Eggs Irradiated with Low Level Gamma Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Simpraga, M.; Matisic, D.; Miljanic, S.

    2011-01-01

    In literature there are many results which have shown that low dose radiation can stimulate many physiological processes of living organism. In our earlier paper it was shown that low dose of gamma radiation has a stimulative effect upon metabolic process in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. This was proved by increase of body weight gain and body weight, as well as by increase of two enzymes activities in blood plasma (aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase) which play an important role in protein metabolism. Therefore, an attempt was made to determine the effect of eggs irradiation by low dose gamma rays upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. The eggs of heavy breed chickens were irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy gamma radiation (60Co) before incubation. Along with the chickens which were hatched from irradiated eggs, there was a control group of chickens hatched from nonirradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups of chickens. Blood samples were taken from the right jugular vein on the 1 s t and 3 r d day, or from the wing vein on days 5 and 7 after hatching. The total proteins concentration in the blood plasma was determined by the biuret method using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimized kits. The protein fractions (albumin, α 1 -globulin, α 2 -globulin, β- and γ-globulins) were estimated electrophoretically on Cellogel strips. The total proteins concentration was significantly decreased in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs on days 3 (P t h day (P 2 -globulin was decreased on days 1 (P t h day of life. Obtained results indicate that low dose of gamma radiation has mostly inhibitory effect upon concentration of total proteins and protein fractions in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs before incubation. (author)

  13. Free Amino Acids in the Blood Plasma of Pigs during Total Starvation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cuperlovic, M.; Jovanovic, M.; Stosic, D. [Institute for the Application of Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, Veterinary Medicine and Forestry, Belgrade, Yugoslavia (Serbia)

    1968-07-01

    From the nutritional point of view it is interesting to establish whether the level of free amino acids in the blood plasma can be used as an indicator of protein anabolism and catabolism. Investigations to date have given no answer to this question. It is known that numerous exogenous and endogenous factors affect protein metabolism. These effects also vary with the level of protein intake and make the relationship between the quantitative and qualitative composition of the free amino acids pool and the total protein metabolism even more complicated. To reduce some of these factors, these investigations were done under the conditions of complete exclusion of exogenous nutrition. Piglets, aged 8-10 weeks, were subjected to total starvation in the course of 28 d. During this period, the body weight, serum protein content, plasma amino acid concentration and plasma urea concentration were followed. During the whole experimental period the body weight decreased, rapidly at the beginning and more slowly towards the end. The mean total body weight loss was 44.6 % of the first day's weight. The serum protein content increased slightly at the beginning of starvation and then, towards the end of the experiment, decreased, reaching a value that was only a little lower than the protein content determined before the onset of starvation. Changes of the quantitative composition.of the free amino acid pool did not follow the changes of the serum protein content. At the beginning of starvation, concentrations of a great number of amino acids increased in accordance with some earlier results. After long periods of starvation, however, differences between individual amino acids become more clear. Concentrations of some amino acids, e.g. lysine, increased continually during the whole period, while concentrations of most of the other amino acids remained for some time at high levels and only in the last week of starvation decreased to the values similar to those observed at the

  14. Magnesium and Osteoporosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferda Özdemir

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Osteoporosis (OP is a condition of bone fragility resulting from micro-architectural deterioration and decreased bone mass. OP depends on the interaction of genetic, hormonal, environmental and nutritional factors. Chronic low intakes of vitamin D and possibly magnesium, zinc, fluoride and vitamins K, B12, B6 and folic acid may predispose to osteoporosis. Magnesium is a mineral needed by every cell of your body. It helps maintain normal muscle and nerve function, keeps heart rhythm steady, and bones strong. Mg serves as co-factors for enzymes that help build bone matrix. Magnesium deficiency occurs due to excessive loss of magnesium in urine, gastrointestinal system disorders that cause a loss of magnesium or limit magnesium absorption, or a chronic low intake of magnesium. Signs of magnesium deficiency include confusion, disorientation, loss of appetite, depression, muscle contractions and cramps, tingling, numbness, abnormal heart rhythms, coronary spasm, and seizures. Magnesium deficiency alters calcium metabolism and the hormones that regulates calcium. Several studies have suggested that magnesium supplementation may improve bone mineral density and prevent fractures.

  15. Influence of milk urea concentration on fractional urea disappearance rate from milk to blood plasma in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Spek, J.W.; Dijkstra, J.; Bannink, A.

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between milk urea nitrogen (MUN; mg of N/dL) and urinary N excretion is affected, among others, by diurnal dynamics in MUN, which in turn is largely influenced by feed intake pattern and characteristics of urea transfer from blood plasma to milk and vice versa. This study aimed

  16. Quantification of Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load in lung transplant recipients : A comparison of plasma versus whole blood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, Nicolaas A.; Verschuuren, Erik A.; Veeger, Nic J.; van der Bij, Wim; van Imhoff, Gustaaf W.; Kallenberg, Cees G.; Hepkema, Bouke G.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Monitoring of the Epstein-Barr virus-DNA load is frequently used to identify patients at risk for post-transplant lymphoproliferative disease (PTLD). Epstein-Barr virus DNA can be measured in the plasma and whole blood serum compartments. Methods: We compared levels of Epstein-Barr virus

  17. Blood plasma sample preparation method to determine thyroid hormone-disrupting compounds in Effect-Directed Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Simon, E.; Bytingsvik, J.; Jonker, W.; Leonards, P.E.G.; de Boer, J.; Jenssen, B.M.; Lie, E.; Aars, J.; Hamers, T.H.M.; Lamoree, M.H.

    2011-01-01

    A sample preparation method combining solid-phase extraction (SPE) and liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) was developed to be used in Effect-Directed Analysis (EDA) of blood plasma. Until now such a method was not available. It can be used for extraction of a broad range of thyroid hormone

  18. [Classification of results of studying blood plasma with laser correlation spectroscopy based on semiotics of preclinical and clinical states].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ternovoĭ, K S; Kryzhanovskiĭ, G N; Musiĭchuk, Iu I; Noskin, L A; Klopov, N V; Noskin, V A; Starodub, N F

    1998-01-01

    The usage of laser correlation spectroscopy for verification of preclinical and clinical states is substantiated. Developed "semiotic" classifier for solving the problems of preclinical and clinical states is presented. The substantiation of biological algorithms as well as the mathematical support and software for the proposed classifier for the data of laser correlation spectroscopy of blood plasma are presented.

  19. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Østerås O

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  20. Plasma Vitamin E and Blood Selenium Concentrations in Norwegian Dairy Cows: Regional Differences and Relations to Feeding and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sivertsen T

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Plasma α-tocopherol (vit E and blood selenium (Se concentrations in February were determined in samples from 314 dairy cows in Norway, selected to provide a representative subset of the Norwegian dairy cow population. Each sample was followed by a questionnaire with information about feeding of the cow at the time of sampling. The results were correlated to herd data and to calving and health data for each cow from the Norwegian Dairy Herd Recording System and the Norwegian Cattle Health Recording System. The mean concentrations were 6.9 μg vit E per ml plasma and 0.16 μg Se per g blood. Both levels were highest in mid lactation. Plasma vit E varied with the amount of silage fed to the cow, while blood Se varied with the amount of concentrates and mineral supplements, and with geographical region. No differences in vit E or Se levels were found between cows with recorded treatments for mastitis, parturient paresis or reproductive disorders in the lactation during or immediately prior to sampling, and those without such treatments. For ketosis, a small difference in blood Se was found between the groups with or without recorded treatments. It is concluded that winter-fed lactating cows in Norway had an adequate plasma level of vit E and a marginal-to-adequate level of Se.

  1. Polymer brushes showing non-fouling in blood plasma challenge the currently accepted design of protein resistant surfaces

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Rodriguez-Emmenegger, Cesar Adolfo; Brynda, Eduard; Riedel, Tomáš; Houska, Milan; Šubr, Vladimír; Bologna Alles, A.; Hasan, E.; Gautrot, J. E.; Huck, W. T. S.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 13 (2011), s. 952-957 ISSN 1022-1336 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN200670701; GA AV ČR IAAX00500803 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : biosensors * blood plasma * HPMA Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.596, year: 2011

  2. IFCC reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total carbon dioxide in blood, plasma or serum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burnett, RW; Covington, AK; Fogh-Andersen, N; Kulpmann, WR; Lewenstam, A; Mas, AHJ; VanKessel, AL; Zijlstra, WG

    A reference measurement procedure for substance concentration determination of total CO, in blood, plasma (the anticoagulant is usually heparin) or serum is described. The document covers the principle of the method, the materials and equipment needed and essential aspects of the procedure. The

  3. Generation of representative primary virus isolates from blood plasma after isolation of HIV-1 with CD44 MicroBeads

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cornelissen, M; Heeregrave, E.J.; Zorgdrager, F.; Pollakis, G.; Paxton, W.A.; van der Kuyl, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    Infection of cell cultures with cell-free virus isolated from HIV-infected patients is notoriously difficult and results in a loss of viral variation. Here, we describe viral sequences from PBMC, U87.CD4.CCR5 and U87.CD4.CXCR4 cell cultures and compare them to those from blood plasma from 12

  4. Simultaneous determination of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in whole blood and plasma by high-performance liquid chromatography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemnge, M M; Rønn, A; Flachs, H

    1993-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and rapid reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of dapsone, monoacetyldapsone and pyrimethamine in human whole blood and plasma. The procedure involved extraction of the compounds and the internal standard...

  5. Analytical sample preparation strategies for the determination of antimalarial drugs in human whole blood, plasma and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Monica Escolà; Hansen, Martin; Krogh, Kristine A

    2014-01-01

    the available sample preparation strategies combined with liquid chromatographic (LC) analysis to determine antimalarials in whole blood, plasma and urine published over the last decade. Sample preparation can be done by protein precipitation, solid-phase extraction, liquid-liquid extraction or dilution. After...

  6. Gadolinium-based magnetic resonance contrast agents at 7 Tesla: in vitro T1 relaxivities in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noebauer-Huhmann, Iris M; Szomolanyi, Pavol; Juras, Vladimír; Kraff, Oliver; Ladd, Mark E; Trattnig, Siegfried

    2010-09-01

    PURPOSE/INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine the T1 relaxivities (r1) of 8 gadolinium (Gd)-based MR contrast agents in human blood plasma at 7 Tesla, compared with 3 Tesla. Eight commercially available Gd-based MR contrast agents were diluted in human blood plasma to concentrations of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1, and 2 mmol/L. In vitro measurements were performed at 37 degrees C, on a 7 Tesla and on a 3 Tesla whole-body magnetic resonance imaging scanner. For the determination of T1 relaxation times, Inversion Recovery Sequences with inversion times from 0 to 3500 ms were used. The relaxivities were calculated. The r1 relaxivities of all agents, diluted in human blood plasma at body temperature, were lower at 7 Tesla than at 3 Tesla. The values at 3 Tesla were comparable to those published earlier. Notably, in some agents, a minor negative correlation of r1 with a concentration of up to 2 mmol/L could be observed. This was most pronounced in the agents with the highest protein-binding capacity. At 7 Tesla, the in vitro r1 relaxivities of Gd-based contrast agents in human blood plasma are lower than those at 3 Tesla. This work may serve as a basis for the application of Gd-based MR contrast agents at 7 Tesla. Further studies are required to optimize the contrast agent dose in vivo.

  7. Plasma concentrations of endothelial vasoactive substances in clinically healthy subjects. associations with urinary albumin excretion and ambulatory blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, P; Jensen, J S; Jensent, G

    2000-01-01

    controls with normoalbuminuria. Plasma concentration of ET-1 was measured using an ELISA method and plasma concentration of nitrate/nitrite using a photometric method. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured using a portable recorder (TM-2421). No significant differences in the concentrations...... of nitrate/nitrite and ET-1 were found between the groups, e.g. 21 (10-105) vs. 18 (11 -152) (p=0.33) and 0.98 (0.58 1.95) vs. 1.10 (0.54 -1.50) (p = 0.27), respectively. However, plasma nitrate/nitrite was significantly positively correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in subjects...... in clinically healthy subjects. However, nitrate/nitrite is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with normoalbuminuria, and ET-1 is positively correlated to BP only in subjects with elevated UAE....

  8. Assessment of the effect of phytic acid on the labeling of blood cells and plasma proteins with Technetium-99m

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima-Filho, Guilherme L.; Freitas, Rosimeire S.; Moreno, Silvana R.F.; Boasquevisque, Edson M.; Bernardo-Filho, Mario; Lima, Glaydes M.T.; Catanho, Maria T.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Blood elements labeled with technetium-99m ( 99m Tc) have been used in various procedures in nuclear medicine. We have investigated if phytic acid (PHY) could alter the labeling of blood elements with 99m Tc. Blood was incubated with different concentrations of PHY. Stannous chloride and 99m Tc, as sodium pertechnetate, were added. Blood was centrifuged and plasma (P) and blood cell (BC) were isolated. Samples of P and BC were also precipitated with trichloroacetic acid and centrifuged, and insoluble (IF) and soluble (SF) fractions were separated. The percentages of radioactivity (%ATI) in BC, IF-P and IF-BC were calculated. The %ATI decreased significantly (p 99m Tc with possible undesirable effects, it is relevant to verify the necessity to repeat the examination and to evaluate the increase of the radiation dose to the patient. (author)

  9. High-intensity interval training lowers blood pressure and improves apelin and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izadi, Mohammad Reza; Ghardashi Afousi, Alireza; Asvadi Fard, Maryam; Babaee Bigi, Mohammad Ali

    2018-02-01

    Hypertension is the major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases and is one of the primary causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Apelin levels and NO bioavailability are impaired in older hypertensive patients. Exercise is an effective intervention for treating hypertension. Our purpose was to evaluate the effect of high-intensity interval training on blood pressure, apelin, and NOx plasma levels in older treated hypertensive individuals. Thirty treated hypertensive subjects (61.70 ± 5.78 years, 17 males, 13 females) were randomly divided into 6 weeks of high-intensity interval training (n = 15) and control (n = 15). The exercise training was conducted for three 35-min sessions a week (1.5-min interval at 85-90% of heart rate reserve [HRR] and 2 min active phase at 50-55% of HRR). Assessment of plasma apelin, nitrite/nitrate (NOx), and endothelin-1 (ET-1) was performed before and after the intervention. At the end of the study, apelin, and NOx plasma levels increased significantly in the high-intensity interval training (HIIT) group (P = 0.021, P = 0.003, respectively). Conversely, ET-1 plasma levels significantly decreased in the training group after the intervention (P = 0.015). Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the change of plasma apelin and change of plasma NOx (r = 0. 771, P = 0.0008). In addition, there was a negative correlation between the change of plasma ET-1, change of plasma apelin (r = - 0.595, P = 0.019), and variation of NOx (r = - 0.572, P = 0.025). This study indicates that, by increasing of apelin and NOx plasma levels, HIIT may be effective in reducing blood pressure.

  10. Comparison of glucose concentration and glucose absorption from the GI-tract in pigs in whole blood and in plasma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theil, Peter Kappel; Jørgensen, Henry; Larsen, Torben

    2010-01-01

    using a biosensitive electrode (Exp. 1) or a standard colourimetric method (Exp. 2). In general, glucose measured in whole blood was 7-11% lower than in plasma at low glucose levels (3.5-5 mM), whereas the methods agreed well at high glucose levels (10-14 mM). Evaluation of the regression lines between......The present investigation was undertaken to compare glucose absorption from the gastro-intestinal tract quantified in either whole blood or plasma using the arterio-venous differences and portal blood flow measurements. Pigs were surgically modified with catheters in the portal vein...... three different diets with similar contents of starch (470-506 g/kg DM). The diets in both studies differed regarding amount and solubility of fibre. Blood samples were collected repeatedly 0-10 h after morning feeding. Glucose was measured in whole blood using a glucometer (Accu-Chek®) and in plasma...

  11. Effect of Ichthyophonus on blood plasma chemistry of spawning Chinook salmon and their resulting offspring in a Yukon River tributary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floyd-Rump, T P; Horstmann-Dehn, L A; Atkinson, S; Skaugstad, C

    2017-01-24

    Ichthyophonus is a protozoan parasite of Alaska Chinook salmon Oncorhynchus tshawytscha. In this study, we determined whether spawning Chinook salmon in the Yukon River drainage exhibited a measurable stress response (i.e. elevated plasma cortisol concentrations) and detectable changes in selected blood plasma chemistry parameters when infected with Ichthyophonus. The resulting alevin were also analyzed for any differences in blood plasma chemistry caused by parental infection with Ichthyophonus. In 2010, 2011, and 2012, spawning adult Chinook salmon were collected from the Salcha River, Alaska, USA, and the prevalence of Ichthyophonus in these fish was 7.8, 6.3, and 8.3%, respectively. Fish with no clinical signs of Ichthyophonus and Ichthyophonus-positive parents were cross-fertilized to investigate potential second-generation effects as a result of Ichthyophonus infection. We found no significant difference in cortisol concentrations in blood plasma between Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative adults or between alevin from Ichthyophonus-positive and -negative parents. There were no significant differences in blood plasma parameters (e.g. alanine aminotransferase, creatine kinase, glucose) of Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive adults, with the exception of aspartate aminotransferase, which was significantly higher in plasma of Ichthyophonus-negative adults. All clinical chemistry parameters for alevin resulting from both Ichthyophonus-negative and -positive parents were not significantly different. Based on this study, which has a limited sample size and low prevalence of Ichthyophonus, offspring of Chinook salmon appear to suffer no disadvantage as a result of Ichthyophonus infection in their parents on the Salcha River.

  12. Influence of weaning regimen on intake, growth characteristics and plasma blood metabolites in male buffalo calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, M A; Pasha, T N; Jabbar, M A; Ijaz, A; Rehman, H; Yousaf, M S

    2013-09-01

    Experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of weaning age on growth performance, feed intake, feed efficiency (FE) and blood metabolites in Nili-Ravi male buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) calves. Twenty-four male buffalo calves were assigned to one of the three treatment groups: continuous milk feeding (CMF), limited milk feeding (LMF) and early weaning (EW), and weaned off milk at 12, 10 and 8 weeks of age, respectively. For the first 3 days after birth, calves in all three treatments were fed colostrum, and were then moved to individual milk feeding at 10% of BW for the next 6 weeks. Thereafter, the provision of milk to the CMF group was gradually tapered to zero through week 12, using week 6 intakes as a base. The LMF calves were fed milk at 7.5%, 5.0%, 3.5%, and 1.5% of BW during weeks 7 to 10, respectively. Lastly, calves in the EW group were fed milk at 5.0% and 2.5% of BW at weeks 7 and 8, respectively. Calf starter (CS) feed was also provided ad libitum from weeks 2 to 12 and individual intakes were recorded on a daily basis. Blood samples were taken from weeks 6 to 12, on a weekly basis; whereas, the BW, heart girth, withers height and hip width were measured at the start of experiment and later on a weekly basis. Weight gain, average daily gain, and body measurements were the same across all three groups. Milk intake was lower (P intake was greater (P calves compared with the other treatment groups. Dry matter intake was greater (P calves compared with the CMF calves. The FE was greater (P calves compared with the LMF and EW treatment groups. Blood glucose concentration was similar among the treatments; however, blood urea nitrogen was greater (P calves compared with the CMF and LMF groups. Plasma concentration of non-esterified fatty acids was higher (P calves compared with the CMF calves. In light of these results, it is evident that buffalo calves can be successfully weaned as early as 8 weeks of age without negatively affecting their growth performance.

  13. Magnesium motorcycle applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jianyong Cao; Zonghe Zhang; Dongxia Xiang; Jun Wang

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, the lightest engineering structural metal, has been comprehensively used in castings of aviation and aerospace, communication and transportation, and IT components. This paper introduced the history, advantages and difficulties of magnesium castings for motorcycle application as well as its application state in China. It also indicated the production situation of magnesium motorcycle components in CQMST and difficulties need to overcome for further development. (orig.)

  14. Measurements of the K-shell opacity of a solid-density magnesium plasma heated by an x-ray free-electron laser

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preston, T.R.; Vinko, S.M.; Ciricosta, O.; Hollebon, P.; Chung, H.-K.; Dakovski, G.L.; Krzywinski, J.; Minitti, M.; Burian, Tomáš; Chalupský, Jaromír; Hájková, Věra; Juha, Libor; Vozda, Vojtěch; Zastrau, U.; Lee, R. W.; Wark, J. S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 119, č. 8 (2017), s. 1-5, č. článku 085001. ISSN 0031-9007 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LG15013 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : aluminum plasma * radiation * simulations Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics OBOR OECD: Fluids and plasma physics (including surface physics) Impact factor: 8.462, year: 2016

  15. Assessment of serum magnesium levels and its outcome in neonates of eclamptic mothers treated with low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Monalisa; Chaudhuri, Patralekha Ray; Mondal, Badal C.; Mitra, Sukumar; Bandyopadhyay, Debasmita; Pramanik, Sushobhan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Magnesium historically has been used for treatment and/or prevention of eclampsia. Considering the low body mass index of Indian women, a low-dose magnesium sulfate regime has been introduced by some authors. Increased blood levels of magnesium in neonates is associated with increased still birth, early neonatal death, birth asphyxia, bradycardia, hypotonia, gastrointestinal hypomotility. The objective of this study was to assess safety of low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen in neonates of eclamptic mothers treated with this regimen. Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional observational study of 100 eclampsia patients and their neonates. Loading dose and maintenance doses of magnesium sulfate were administered to patients by combination of intravenous and intramuscular routes. Maternal serum and cord blood magnesium levels were estimated. Neonatal outcome was assessed. Results: Bradycardia was observed in 18 (19.15%) of the neonates, 16 (17.02%) of the neonates were diagnosed with hypotonia. Pearson Correlation Coefficient showed Apgar scores decreased with increase in cord blood magnesium levels. Unpaired t-test showed lower Apgar scores with increasing dose of magnesium sulfate. The Chi-square/Fisher's exact test showed significant increase in hypotonia, birth asphyxia, intubation in delivery room, Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) care requirement, with increasing dose of magnesium sulfate. (P ≤ 0.05). Conclusion: Several neonatal complications are significantly related to increasing serum magnesium levels. Overall, the low-dose magnesium sulfate regimen was safe in the management of eclamptic mothers, without toxicity to their neonates. PMID:26600638

  16. Magnesium in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Lynne M; Ní Fhloinn, Deirdre M; Gaydadzhieva, Gergana T; Mazurkiewicz, Ola M; Leeson, Heather; Wright, Ciara P

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women. Thus far, limited studies have suggested links between magnesium inadequacy and certain conditions in pregnancy associated with high mortality and morbidity, such as gestational diabetes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction. This review provides recommendations for further study and improved testing using measurement of red cell magnesium. Pregnant women should be counseled to increase their intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy greens and/or to supplement with magnesium at a safe level. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the International Life Sciences Institute. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  17. Small for Gestational Age and Magnesium: Intrauterine magnesium deficiency may induce metabolic syndrome in later life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junji Takaya

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy as a result of insufficient or low intake of magnesium is common in developing and developed countries. Previous reports have shown that intracellular magnesium of cord blood platelets is lower among small for gestational age (SGA groups than that of appropriate for gestational age (AGA groups, suggesting that intrauterine magnesium deficiency may result in SGA. Additionally, the risk of adult-onset diseases such as insulin resistance syndrome is greater among children whose mothers were malnourished during pregnancy, and who consequently had a low birth weight. In a number of animal models, poor nutrition during pregnancy leads to offspring that exhibit pathophysiological changes similar to human diseases. The offspring of pregnant rats fed a magensium restricted diet have developed hypermethylation in the hepatic 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase-2 promoter. These findings indicate that maternal magnesium deficiencies during pregnancy influence regulation of non-imprinted genes by altering the epigenetic regulation of gene expression, thereby inducing different metabolic phenotypes. Magnesium deficiency during pregnancy may be responsible for not only maternal and fetal nutritional problems, but also lifelong consequences that affect the offspring throughout their life. Epidemiological, clinical, and basic research on the effects of magnesium deficiency now indicates underlying mechanisms, especially epigenetic processes.

  18. Mesoporous silica particles modified with graphitic carbon: interaction with human red blood cells and plasma proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Diego Stefani Teodoro; Franqui, Lidiane Silva; Bettini, Jefferson; Strauss, Mathias, E-mail: diego.martinez@lnnano.cnpem.br [Centro Nacional de Pesquisa em Energia e Materiais (CNPEM), Campinas, SP (Brazil); Damasceno, Joao Paulo Vita; Mazali, Italo Odone [Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), SP (Brazil)

    2016-07-01

    Full text: In this work the interaction of the mesoporous silica particles (SBA-15, ∼700 nm) modified with graphitic carbon (SBA-15/C) on human red blood cells (hemolysis) and plasma proteins (protein corona formation) is studied. XPS and CHN analysis showed that the carbon content on the SBA-15/C samples varied from 2 to 10% and was tuned by the functionalization step. The formed carbon structures where associated to graphitic nanodomains coating the pores surface as verified by Raman spectroscopy and {sup 13}C NMR. Advanced TEM/EELS analysis showed that the carbon structures are distributed along the SBA-15 mesopores. SAXS and textural analyses were used to confirm that the porous structure of the silica support is kept after the modification procedure and to calculate the number of graphitic carbon stacked layers coating the mesopores. After incubation of SBA-15 with human red blood cells (RBCs), it was observed a dose-dependent hemolytic effect, probably, due to binding of the material silanol-rich surface to the phosphatidylcholine molecules from the RBC membrane. The graphitic carbon modifications have mitigated this effect, indicating that the graphitic carbon coating protected the silanol groups of the particle surface hindering the hemolysis. Considering the protein corona formation, selective biomolecular interaction of proteins was observed for the different materials using gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) analysis. Besides, graphitic carbon modification decreased the amount of proteins on the corona. Together, the in vitro hemolysis and protein corona assays are promising biological models to understand the influence of silica surface functionalization on their bionano-interactions. Finally, our work contributes to the development of fundamental research on such nanomaterials chemistry in the emerging field of nanobioscience and nanotoxicology. (author)

  19. Effect of anionic salts in concentrate mixture and magnesium intake on some blood and urine minerals and acid-base balance of dry pregnant cows on grass silage based feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. TAURIAINEN

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Friesian cows were randomly assigned to one of four prepartum diets in a 2 x 2 factorially designed experiment to determine the effect of anionic salts contained in a concentrate mixture and magnesium (Mg intake on some blood and urine minerals in cows fed a grass silage based diet. Four diets provided either 16 g or 33 g total dietary Mg/day, and had either a low or high cation-anion difference. Dietary cation-anion balance (DCAB of the diets, calculated as milliequivalents [(Na+ + K+ - (Cl- + S2-], was +31 mEq/kg dry matter (DM in the low DCAB group and +340 mEq/kg DM in the high DCAB group. DCAB was formulated using NH4Cl, (NH42SO4 and MgCl2 as anionic salts. Cows received grass silage (5.2 kg DM, hay (1.0 kg DM and concentrate mixture (1.5 kg DM until calving. Blood and urine samples were collected 4, 3, 2 and 1 week before the expected calving date, at calving, the day after calving and 1 week following calving. Cows fed the low DCAB diet had a lower urinary pH (P

  20. Effect of disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and antihistamines on postirradiation cerebral blood flow and plasma levels of histamine and neurotensin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cockerham, L.G.; Pautler, E.L.; Carraway, R.E.; Cochrane, D.E.; Hampton, J.D.

    1988-01-01

    In an attempt to elucidate mechanisms underlying the irradiation-induced decrease in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in primates, hippocampal and visual cortical blood flows of rhesus monkeys were measured by hydrogen clearance, before and after exposure to 100 Gy, whole-body, gamma irradiation. Systemic blood pressures were monitored simultaneously. Systemic arterial plasma histamine and neurotensin levels were determined preirradiation and postirradiation. Compared to control animals, the irradiated monkeys exhibited an abrupt decline in systemic blood pressure to 23% of the preirradiation level within 10 min postirradiation, falling to 12% by 60 min. A decrease in hippocampal blood flow to 32% of the preirradiation level was noted at 10 min postirradiation, followed by a slight recovery to 43% at 30 min and a decline to 23% by 60 min. The cortical blood flow for the same animals showed a steady decrease to 29% of the preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Animals given the mast cell stabilizer disodium cromoglycate and the antihistamines mepyramine and cimetidine before irradiation did not exhibit an abrupt decline in blood pressure but displayed a gradual decrease to a level 33% below preirradiation levels by 60 min postirradiation. Also, the treated, irradiated monkeys displayed rCBF values that were not significantly different from the nonirradiated controls. The plasma neurotensin levels in the irradiated animals, treated and untreated, indicated a nonsignificant postirradiation increase above control levels. However, the postirradiation plasma histamine levels in both irradiated groups showed an increase of approximately 1600% above the preirradiation levels and the postirradiation control levels

  1. [Blood plasma protein adsorption capacity of perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by proxanol 268 (in vitro and in vivo studies)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklifas, A N; Zhalimov, V K; Temnov, A A; Kukushkin, N I

    2012-01-01

    The adsorption abilities of the perfluorocarbon emulsion stabilized by Proxanol 268 were investigated in vitro and in vivo. In vitro, the saturation point for the blood plasma proteins was nearly reached after five minutes of incubation of the emulsion with human/rabbit blood plasma and was stable for all incubation periods studied. The decrease in volume ratio (emulsion/plasma) was accompanied by the increase in the adsorptive capacity of the emulsion with maximal values at 1/10 (3.2 and 1.5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion, for human and rabbit blood plasma, respectively) that was unchanged at lower ratios. In vivo, in rabbits, intravenously injected with the emulsion, the proteins with molecular masses of 12, 25, 32, 44, 55, 70, and 200 kDa were adsorbed by the emulsion (as in vitro) if it was used 6 hours or less before testing. More delayed testing (6 h) revealed elimination of proteins with molecular masses of 25 and 44 kDa and an additional pool of adsorpted new ones of 27, 50, and 150 kDa. Specific adsorptive capacity of the emulsion enhanced gradually after emulsion injection and reached its maximum (3.5-5 mg of proteins per 1 ml of the emulsion) after 24 hours.

  2. Clovamide-rich extract from Trifolium pallidum reduces oxidative stress-induced damage to blood platelets and plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk, Joanna; Olas, Beata; Wachowicz, Barbara; Szajwaj, Barbara; Stochmal, Anna; Oleszek, Wieslaw

    2011-09-01

    Numerous plants (including clovers) have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of different disorders. This in vitro study was designed to examine the antioxidative effects of the clovamide-rich fraction, obtained from aerial parts of Trifolium pallidum, in the protection of blood platelets and plasma against the nitrative and oxidative damage, caused by peroxynitrite (ONOO(-)). Carbonyl groups and 3-nitrotyrosine in blood platelet and plasma proteins were determined by ELISA tests. Thiol groups level was estimated by using 5,5'-dithio-bis(2-nitro-benzoic acid, DTNB). Plasma lipid peroxidation was measured spectrophotometrically as the production of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. The results from our work indicate that clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract may reveal the protective properties in the prevention against oxidative stress. The presence of clovamide-rich T. pallidum extract (12.5-100 μg/ml) partly inhibited ONOO(-)-mediated protein carbonylation and nitration. All the used concentrations of T. pallidum extract reduced lipid peroxidation in plasma. The antioxidative action of the tested extract in the protection of blood platelet lipids was less effective; the extract at the lowest final concentration (12.5 μg/ml) had no protective effect against lipid peroxidation. The present results indicate that the extract from T. pallidum is likely to be a source of compounds with the antioxidative properties, useful in the prevention against the oxidative stress-related diseases.

  3. The associations of a marine diet with plasma lipids, blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity among the inuit in Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerregaard, P; Pedersen, H S; Mulvad, G

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To analyse the associations between the intake of fish and marine mammals and risk factors for cardiovascular disease, ie lipid profile, fasting blood glucose, blood pressure and obesity, in a population whose average consumption of n-3 fatty acids is high compared with Western countries...... and not statistically significant. The pattern was similar within groups with low, medium and high consumption of marine food. CONCLUSIONS: There are statistically significant associations between the consumption of marine food and certain lipid fractions in the blood also in this population with a very high average...... intake of marine food. The observation that blood glucose is positively associated with marine diet in a population survey is new and should be repeated. There was good agreement between the results for the reported consumption of seal and those for the biomarkers. SPONSORSHIP: The study was financially...

  4. Comparison of EBV DNA viral load in whole blood, plasma, B-cells and B-cell culture supernatant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouedraogo, David Eric; Bollore, Karine; Viljoen, Johannes; Foulongne, Vincent; Reynes, Jacques; Cartron, Guillaume; Vendrell, Jean-Pierre; Van de Perre, Philippe; Tuaillon, Edouard

    2014-05-01

    Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) genome quantitation in whole blood is used widely for therapeutic monitoring of EBV-associated disorders in immunosuppressed individuals and in patients with EBV-associated lymphoma. However, the most appropriate biological material to be used for EBV DNA quantitation remains a subject of debate. This study compare the detection rate and levels of EBV DNA from whole blood, plasma, enriched B-cells, and B-cell short-term culture supernatant using quantitative real-time PCR. Samples were collected from 33 subjects with either HIV infection or B-cell lymphoma. Overall, EBV DNA was detected in 100% of enriched B-cell samples, in 82% of B-cell culture supernatants, in 57% of plasma, and 42% of whole blood samples. A significant correlation for EBV viral load was found between enriched B-cell and B-cell culture supernatant material (ρ = 0.92; P cells (ρ = -0.02; P = 0.89), whole blood and plasma (ρ = 0.24; P = 0.24), or enriched B-cells and plasma (ρ = 0.08; P = 0.77). Testing of enriched B-cells appeared to be the most sensitive method for detection of EBV DNA as well as for exploration of the cellular reservoir. Quantitation of EBV DNA in plasma and B-cell culture supernatant may be of interest to assess EBV reactivation dynamics and response to treatment as well as to decipher EBV host-pathogen interactions in various clinical scenarios. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Does sugar content matter? Blood plasma glucose levels in an occasional and a specialist avian nectarivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witteveen, Minke; Brown, Mark; Downs, Colleen T

    2014-01-01

    Nectar composition within a plant pollinator group can be variable, and bird pollinated plants can be segregated into two groups based on their adaptations to either a specialist or an occasional bird pollination system. Specialist nectarivores rely primarily on nectar for their energy requirements, while occasional nectarivores meet their energy requirements from nectar as well as from seeds, fruit and insects. Avian blood plasma glucose concentration (PGlu) is generally high compared with mammals. It is also affected by a range of factors including species, gender, age, ambient temperature, feeding pattern, reproductive status, circadian rhythm and moult status, among others. We examined whether sugar content affected PGlu of two avian nectarivores, a specialist nectarivore the Amethyst Sunbird Chalcomitra amethystina, and an occasional nectarivore the Cape White-eye Zosterops virens, when fed sucrose-hexose sugar solution diets of varying concentrations (5%-35%). Both species regulated PGlu within a range which was affected by sampling time (fed or fasted) and not dietary sugar concentration. The range in mean PGlu was broader in Amethyst Sunbirds (11.52-16.51mmol/L) compared with Cape White-eyes (14.33-15.85mmol/L). This suggests that these birds are not constrained by dietary sugar concentration with regard to PGlu regulation, and consequently selective pressure on plants for their nectar characteristics is due to reasons other than glucose regulation. © 2013.

  6. Detection of Antibodies in Blood Plasma Using Bioluminescent Sensor Proteins and a Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arts, Remco; den Hartog, Ilona; Zijlema, Stefan E; Thijssen, Vito; van der Beelen, Stan H E; Merkx, Maarten

    2016-04-19

    Antibody detection is of fundamental importance in many diagnostic and bioanalytical assays, yet current detection techniques tend to be laborious and/or expensive. We present a new sensor platform (LUMABS) based on bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET) that allows detection of antibodies directly in solution using a smartphone as the sole piece of equipment. LUMABS are single-protein sensors that consist of the blue-light emitting luciferase NanoLuc connected via a semiflexible linker to the green fluorescent acceptor protein mNeonGreen, which are kept close together using helper domains. Binding of an antibody to epitope sequences flanking the linker disrupts the interaction between the helper domains, resulting in a large decrease in BRET efficiency. The resulting change in color of the emitted light from green-blue to blue can be detected directly in blood plasma, even at picomolar concentrations of antibody. Moreover, the modular architecture of LUMABS allows changing of target specificity by simple exchange of epitope sequences, as demonstrated here for antibodies against HIV1-p17, hemagglutinin (HA), and dengue virus type I. The combination of sensitive ratiometric bioluminescent detection and the intrinsic modularity of the LUMABS design provides an attractive generic platform for point-of-care antibody detection that avoids the complex liquid handling steps associated with conventional immunoassays.

  7. Progesterone and estradiol-17β concentrations in blood plasma of buffaloes during different reproductive disorders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaur, Harjit; Arora, S.P.; Sawhney, Ajay

    1982-01-01

    Six Murrah buffaloes in group I were fed as per NRC requirements and the same number in group II were kept at low level of nutrition. Blood samples were collected from all the buffaloes during estrus, anoestrus or even pregnancy, for estimation of progesterone and estradiol-17β. Progesterone levels were consistently low during anoestrus period (<1.0 ng/ml), but, peak occurred on day minus 10 of the next following estrus indicating that luteal activity preceded the first estrus after a prolonged anoestrum. The estradiol-17β levels did not show any distinct trend during anoestrus and subsequent estrous cycles. Underfed buffaloes required more services per conception. The mean progesterone concentrations during early pregnancy were 6.12 +- 0.21 and 5.31 +- 0.29 ng/ml in groups I and II, respectively, which were persistent. Plasma progesterone drop was recorded in buffaloes which aborted or showed foetal resorption, abrupt in the former case and at a slow rate in the latter case. (author)

  8. Persistent organic pollutants in maternal blood plasma and breast milk from Russian arctic populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klopov, V; Odland, J O; Burkow, I C

    1998-10-01

    Under the auspices of Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), a Russian-Norwegian co-operation project was established to assess the exposure of delivering women to persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in Arctic areas of Russia. In the period 1993-95 blood and breast milk samples were collected from 94 delivering women in Yamal and Tajmyr Autonomous Regions of Siberia. Concentrations of chlorinated pesticides and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were determined by high resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The POP levels in maternal plasma among the non-indigenous women were higher than the native population, especially in total PCB, HCHs (hexachlorocyclohexanes) and the DDT-group. The dietary questionnaires showed that the non-indigenous populations consumed considerably less local food items like reindeer meat and fresh water fish. There was no correlation between local food consumption and elevated levels of pollutants. Even if the indigenous groups had lower concentrations of the most important pollutants than the non-indigenous population, they were still higher than the levels measured in the Scandinavian countries of the AMAP-study and up to levels of medical concern. The most important sources of organic pollutants for the Russian Arctic populations of Yamal and Tajmyr seems to be imported food from other areas of Russia and local use of pesticides. It must be a high priority concern to further elucidate these trends and initiate prophylactic measures for the exposed population groups.

  9. Concentration of total proteins in blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs with low dose gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vilic, M.; Kraljevic, P.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    It is known that low-dose ionising radiation may have stimulating effects on chickens. Low doses may also cause changes in the concentration of blood plasma total proteins, glucose and cholesterol in chickens. This study investigates the effects of low dose gamma-radiation on the concentration of total proteins in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with a dose of 0.15 Gy on incubation days 7 and 19. Results were compared with the control group (chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs). After hatching, all other conditions were the same for both groups. Blood samples were drawn from the heart, and later from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7,10, 20, 30 and 42. The concentration of total proteins was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 7 showed a statistically significant decrease on the sampling day 3 (P less than 0.05) and 7 (P less than 0.01). The concentration of total proteins in blood plasma in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy on incubation day 19 showed a statistically significant increase only on sampling day 1 (P less than 0.05). These results suggest that exposure of eggs to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation on the 7th and 19th day of incubation could produce different effects on the protein metabolism in chickens.(author)

  10. Magnesium Technology : Preface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sillekens, W.H.; Agnew, S.R.; Neelameggham, N.R.; Mathaudhu, S.N.

    2011-01-01

    The Magnesium Technology Symposium, which takes place every year at the TMS Annual Meeting & Exhibition, is one of the largest yearly gatherings of magnesium specialists in the world. Papers are presented in all aspects of the field, ranging from primary production to applications to recycling.

  11. Nutrition and magnesium absorption

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true

  12. Successful implementation of a packed red blood cell and fresh frozen plasma transfusion protocol in the surgical intensive care unit.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin E Szpila

    Full Text Available Blood product transfusions are associated with increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of this study was to determine if implementation of a restrictive protocol for packed red blood cell (PRBC and fresh frozen plasma (FFP transfusion safely reduces blood product utilization and costs in a surgical intensive care unit (SICU.We performed a retrospective, historical control analysis comparing before (PRE and after (POST implementation of a restrictive PRBC/FFP transfusion protocol for SICU patients. Univariate analysis was utilized to compare patient demographics and blood product transfusion totals between the PRE and POST cohorts. Multivariate logistic regression models were developed to determine if implementation of the restrictive transfusion protocol is an independent predictor of adverse outcomes after controlling for age, illness severity, and total blood products received.829 total patients were included in the analysis (PRE, n=372; POST, n=457. Despite higher mean age (56 vs. 52 years, p=0.01 and APACHE II scores (12.5 vs. 11.2, p=0.006, mean units transfused per patient were lower for both packed red blood cells (0.7 vs. 1.2, p=0.03 and fresh frozen plasma (0.3 vs. 1.2, p=0.007 in the POST compared to the PRE cohort, respectively. There was no difference in inpatient mortality between the PRE and POST cohorts (7.5% vs. 9.2%, p=0.39. There was a decreased risk of urinary tract infections (OR 0.47, 95%CI 0.28-0.80 in the POST cohort after controlling for age, illness severity and amount of blood products transfused.Implementation of a restrictive transfusion protocol can effectively reduce blood product utilization in critically ill surgical patients with no increase in morbidity or mortality.

  13. Chromatographic profiles of blood plasma free oligosaccharides in patients with cardiovascular disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. U. Pismenetskaya

    2015-03-01

    approaches allowed predicting a range of glycan structures for each of the main peaks of HPLC profiles of plasma free oligosaccharides and managing ways for their future experimental analysis. In the case of cardiovascular disorders, HPLC profiles of FOS revealed a changing pattern of heterogeneity, depending on the severity of the disease. Three main enlarged glycan species in the netral fraction and one peak in the charged fraction distinguished the FOS of the patients from those of the healthy volunteers. It has been revealed that the neutral marker peaks were represented by polimannose glycans with 5–7 mannose residues and 1–2 residues of N-acetylglucosamine, and one of the major peaks of the charged fraction – by two-antennary complex N-glycan with two sialic acid residues. The study of free oligosaccharides of blood plasma is a new field of glycobiology allowing an evaluation of an organism state at the level of the cell organelle functional status and openning up broad prospects for finding early diagnostic and prognostic markers of cardiac insufficiency.

  14. Differential Impact of Plasma Proteins on the Adhesion Efficiency of Vascular-Targeted Carriers (VTCs) in Blood of Common Laboratory Animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namdee, Katawut; Sobczynski, Daniel J; Onyskiw, Peter J; Eniola-Adefeso, Omolola

    2015-12-16

    Vascular-targeted carrier (VTC) interaction with human plasma is known to reduce targeted adhesion efficiency in vitro. However, the role of plasma proteins on the adhesion efficiency of VTCs in laboratory animals remains unknown. Here, in vitro blood flow assays are used to explore the effects of plasma from mouse, rabbit, and porcine on VTC adhesion. Porcine blood exhibited a strong negative plasma effect on VTC adhesion while no significant plasma effect was found with rabbit and mouse blood. A brush density poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) on VTCs was effective at improving adhesion of microsized, but not nanosized, VTCs in porcine blood. Overall, the results suggest that porcine models, as opposed to mouse, can serve as better models in preclinical research for predicting the in vivo functionality of VTCs for use in humans. These considerations hold great importance for the design of various pharmaceutical products and development of reliable drug delivery systems.

  15. A RAPID Method for Blood Processing to Increase the Yield of Plasma Peptide Levels in Human Blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teuffel, Pauline; Goebel-Stengel, Miriam; Hofmann, Tobias; Prinz, Philip; Scharner, Sophie; Körner, Jan L; Grötzinger, Carsten; Rose, Matthias; Klapp, Burghard F; Stengel, Andreas

    2016-04-28

    Research in the field of food intake regulation is gaining importance. This often includes the measurement of peptides regulating food intake. For the correct determination of a peptide's concentration, it should be stable during blood processing. However, this is not the case for several peptides which are quickly degraded by endogenous peptidases. Recently, we developed a blood processing method employing Reduced temperatures, Acidification, Protease inhibition, Isotopic exogenous controls and Dilution (RAPID) for the use in rats. Here, we have established this technique for the use in humans and investigated recovery, molecular form and circulating concentration of food intake regulatory hormones. The RAPID method significantly improved the recovery for (125)I-labeled somatostatin-28 (+39%), glucagon-like peptide-1 (+35%), acyl ghrelin and glucagon (+32%), insulin and kisspeptin (+29%), nesfatin-1 (+28%), leptin (+21%) and peptide YY3-36 (+19%) compared to standard processing (EDTA blood on ice, p processing, while after standard processing 62% of acyl ghrelin were degraded resulting in an earlier peak likely representing desacyl ghrelin. After RAPID processing the acyl/desacyl ghrelin ratio in blood of normal weight subjects was 1:3 compared to 1:23 following standard processing (p = 0.03). Also endogenous kisspeptin levels were higher after RAPID compared to standard processing (+99%, p = 0.02). The RAPID blood processing method can be used in humans, yields higher peptide levels and allows for assessment of the correct molecular form.

  16. Purine Bases in Blood Plasma of Patients with Chronic Pulmonary Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larissa E. Muravluyova

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is focused on the study of purine bases and intermediates of purine catabolism in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive bronchitis and idiopathic interstitial pneumonia. Decrease of adenine and hypoxantine in plasma of patients with idiopathic interstitial pneumonia was registered. Increase of guanine in plasma of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was established.

  17. Clinical symptoms in fibromyalgia are better associated to lipid peroxidation levels in blood mononuclear cells rather than in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, Mario D; Alcocer-Gómez, Elísabet; Cano-García, Francisco J; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A

    2011-01-01

    We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. We conducted a case-control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (PBMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM.

  18. Level of Interleukins IL-6 and IL-15 in Blood Plasma of Mice after Forced Swimming Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapilevich, L V; Kironenko, T A; Zakharova, A N; Kabachkova, A V; Orlov, S N

    2017-05-01

    We measured the concentrations of IL-6 and IL-15 in blood plasma of mice at different terms after forced swimming, taking into account exercise intensity and preliminary training. It was shown that training was an important factor affecting blood plasma level of IL both at rest and after single forced swimming: in trained animals, the concentration of both myokines increased immediately after swimming, while in untrained animals, this increase was observed only after 5 h. Changes in cytokine production against the background of training can be associated with various factors, including neuroendocrine mechanisms, stress, modification of intracellular signaling, as well as reorganization of transcriptional mechanisms in muscle fibers. The most important factor is shift in the ratio of monovalent cations (sodium and potassium) in the cytoplasm.

  19. Data from the analytical performance of the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress point of care analyzer in whole blood, serum, and plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazunori Murata

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the analytical performance of 14 comprehensive metabolic panel analytes on the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress® Point of Care analyzer in serum, plasma, and whole blood. A method comparison was performed on all three specimen types intended for use on the Piccolo Xpress®: serum, heparinized plasma, and whole blood. This data is also presented in Murata et al. (2015 [1]. This article includes the actual Bland-Altman bias plots of the difference in results obtained for analytes in the comprehensive metabolic panel from the Abaxis Piccolo Xpress and the comparison instrument, the Ortho Vitros. Keywords: Clinical chemistry, Point-of care testing

  20. Nitrate-Rich Vegetables Increase Plasma Nitrate and Nitrite Concentrations and Lower Blood Pressure in Healthy Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonvik, Kristin L; Nyakayiru, Jean; Pinckaers, Philippe Jm; Senden, Joan Mg; van Loon, Luc Jc; Verdijk, Lex B

    2016-05-01

    Dietary nitrate is receiving increased attention due to its reported ergogenic and cardioprotective properties. The extent to which ingestion of various nitrate-rich vegetables increases postprandial plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure is currently unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of ingesting different nitrate-rich vegetables on subsequent plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and resting blood pressure in healthy normotensive individuals. With the use of a semirandomized crossover design, 11 men and 7 women [mean ± SEM age: 28 ± 1 y; mean ± SEM body mass index (BMI, in kg/m(2)): 23 ± 1; exercise: 1-10 h/wk] ingested 4 different beverages, each containing 800 mg (∼12.9 mmol) nitrate: sodium nitrate (NaNO3), concentrated beetroot juice, a rocket salad beverage, and a spinach beverage. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and blood pressure were determined before and up to 300 min after beverage ingestion. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures ANOVA. Plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations increased after ingestion of all 4 beverages (P nitrate concentrations were similar for all treatments (all values presented as means ± SEMs: NaNO3: 583 ± 29 μmol/L; beetroot juice: 597 ± 23 μmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 584 ± 24 μmol/L; spinach beverage: 584 ± 23 μmol/L). Peak plasma nitrite concentrations were different between treatments (NaNO3: 580 ± 58 nmol/L; beetroot juice: 557 ± 57 nmol/L; rocket salad beverage: 643 ± 63 nmol/L; spinach beverage: 980 ± 160 nmol/L; P = 0.016). When compared with baseline, systolic blood pressure declined 150 min after ingestion of beetroot juice (from 118 ± 2 to 113 ± 2 mm Hg; P nitrate-rich beetroot juice, rocket salad beverage, and spinach beverage effectively increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and lowers blood pressure to a greater extent than sodium nitrate. These findings show that nitrate-rich vegetables can be used as dietary nitrate

  1. Transferases activity in blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation by low dose gamma rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kraljevic, P.; Vilic, M.; Miljanic, S.; Simpraga, M.

    2005-01-01

    In our earlier studies chickens hatched from eggs irradiated with 0.15 Gy gamma rays before incubation showed a significantly higher growth than controls during the fattening period (1-42 days). The activity of aspartate-aminotransferase (AST), alanine-aminotransferase (ALT) and plasma glucose in the same chickens were also significantly higher. These results suggested that low-dose gamma-radiation stimulated certain metabolic processes in chickens hatched from eggs irradiated before incubation. The goal of this study was to determine the effects of low-dose ionising radiation on AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from eggs irradiated during incubation. The eggs of heavy breeding chickens (Avian, line 34) were exposed to 0.15 Gy of gamma-radiation (6 0C o) on the seventh day of incubation, i.e. at the time when the organogenesis in chickens is completed. The control group of chickens hatched from non-irradiated eggs. All other conditions were the same for both groups. After hatching, blood samples were taken from the wing vein on days 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 20, 32 and 42. The activity of both enzymes was determined spectrophotometrically using Boehringer Mannheim GmbH optimised kits. On day 10, AST and ALT activity were significantly higher in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs, but it significantly dropped for both enzymes on day 20. Our results indicate that exposure of eggs to low-dose gamma-radiation on the seventh day of incubation affects AST and ALT activity in the blood plasma of chickens hatched from irradiated eggs. However, this effect is somewhat different from the effects of egg exposure to low-dose gamma radiation before incubation.(author)

  2. Blood plasma clinical-chemical parameters as biomarker endpoints for organohalogen contaminant exposure in Norwegian raptor nestlings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Christian; Bustnes, Jan O.; Herzke, Dorte

    2012-01-01

    Raptors are exposed to biomagnifying and toxic organohalogenated compounds (OHCs) such as organochlorines, brominated flame retardants and perfluorinated compounds. To investigate how OHC exposure may affect biochemical pathways we collected blood plasma from Norwegian northern goshawk (n=56...... it is uncertain if such changes have any health effects. The OHC concentrations were below concentrations causing reproductive toxicity in adults of other raptor species but similar to those of concern for endocrine disruption of thyroid hormones in e.g., bald eagles....

  3. Stability of Routine Biochemical Analytes in Whole Blood and Plasma From Lithium Heparin Gel Tubes During 6-hr Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monneret, Denis; Godmer, Alexandre; Le Guen, Ronan; Bravetti, Clotilde; Emeraud, Cecile; Marteau, Anthony; Alkouri, Rana; Mestari, Fouzi; Dever, Sylvie; Imbert-Bismut, Françoise; Bonnefont-Rousselot, Dominique

    2016-09-01

    The stability of biochemical analytes has already been investigated, but results strongly differ depending on parameters, methodologies, and sample storage times. We investigated the stability for many biochemical parameters after different storage times of both whole blood and plasma, in order to define acceptable pre- and postcentrifugation delays in hospital laboratories. Twenty-four analytes were measured (Modular® Roche analyzer) in plasma obtained from blood collected into lithium heparin gel tubes, after 2-6 hr of storage at room temperature either before (n = 28: stability in whole blood) or after (n = 21: stability in plasma) centrifugation. Variations in concentrations were expressed as mean bias from baseline, using the analytical change limit (ACL%) or the reference change value (RCV%) as acceptance limit. In tubes stored before centrifugation, mean plasma concentrations significantly decreased after 3 hr for phosphorus (-6.1% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.7%]; ACL 4.62%) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH; -5.7% [95% CI: -7.4 to -4.1%]; ACL 5.17%), and slightly decreased after 6 hr for potassium (-2.9% [95% CI: -5.3 to -0.5%]; ACL 4.13%). In plasma stored after centrifugation, mean concentrations decreased after 6 hr for bicarbonates (-19.7% [95% CI: -22.9 to -16.5%]; ACL 15.4%), and moderately increased after 4 hr for LDH (+6.0% [95% CI: +4.3 to +7.6%]; ACL 5.17%). Based on RCV, all the analytes can be considered stable up to 6 hr, whether before or after centrifugation. This study proposes acceptable delays for most biochemical tests on lithium heparin gel tubes arriving at the laboratory or needing to be reanalyzed. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Development and validation of a sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for blood plasma cortisol in female cattle, buffaloes, and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, R; Mohan, K; Kumar, V; Sarkar, M; Nitu, K; Meyer, H H D; Prakash, B S

    2013-08-01

    A highly sensitive enzyme immunoassay (EIA) that used the second antibody coating technique and the cortisol-horseradish peroxidase conjugate as a label for determination of free and total cortisol in blood plasma of dairy animals (cows, buffaloes, and goats) was developed. For biological validation of the EIA, blood samples were collected from the animals at 48 and 24 h before and 0, 12, 24, 36, 48, 60, 72, 84, 96, 108, 120, and 132 h after dexamethasone administration. The EIA was performed directly with 20 μL of fresh plasma (for free cortisol) and also with 20 μL of heat-treated plasma (for total cortisol) after 1:5 dilutions with PBS. Cortisol standards ranging from 0.39 to 200 pg/well/20 μL were used, and the sensitivity of the EIA procedure was found to be 0.39 pg/well/20 μL, which corresponded to 0.02 ng/mL. In comparison with RIA the EIA was at least 4 times more sensitive and required 5 times less cortisol antiserum. In female cattle, buffaloes, and goats, the total, free, and bound plasma cortisol before dexamethasone administration was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than the total, free, and bound cortisol after dexamethasone administration. It can be concluded from these studies that the direct, sensitive EIA validated for estimating the free and total cortisol concentrations was sufficiently reliable and quick for studying the dynamics of cortisol distribution in blood plasma of dairy animals. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Direct speciation analysis of arsenic in whole blood and blood plasma at low exposure levels by hydride generation-cryotrapping-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Wang, Z.; Douillet, Ch.; Musil, Stanislav; Stýblo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 18 (2017), s. 9633-9637 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15174 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : speciation analysis * arsenic * blood Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry , Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  6. Direct speciation analysis of arsenic in whole blood and blood plasma at low exposure levels by hydride generation-cryotrapping-inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matoušek, Tomáš; Wang, Z.; Douillet, Ch.; Musil, Stanislav; Stýblo, M.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 89, č. 18 (2017), s. 9633-9637 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) LH15174 Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : speciation analysis * arsenic * blood Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation OBOR OECD: Analytical chemistry Impact factor: 6.320, year: 2016

  7. Effect of the stage of lactation in humans on carotenoid levels in milk, blood plasma and plasma lipoprotein fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schweigert, Florian J; Bathe, Katharina; Chen, Frank; Büscher, Ulrich; Dudenhausen, Joachim W

    2004-02-01

    In mammals the composition of milk changes during early lactation, with a rapid decline of fat-soluble vitamins and a continuous increase in total lipids. The mechanisms underlying this phenomenon are not well understood, but might involve selective mechanisms related to mammary uptake or secretion into the milk. Since carotenoids are specifically distributed among the lipoprotein fractions in plasma, the simultaneous determination of carotenoids in plasma, lipoprotein fractions and milk might offer an opportunity to gain insight into this phenomenon. In 21 healthy mothers carotenoids in plasma and lipoprotein fractions were investigated at day 2 and 19 and milk on day 4 and 19 after delivery. Plasma levels of alpha-tocopherol and cholesterol as well as lutein, zeaxanthin and cryptoxanthin were significantly lower later in lactation (day 19) than shortly after birth (P milk, triacylglycerol increased (P milk it was similar to the pattern found in the high density lipoprotein fraction. Based on these observations a selective mechanism might be responsible for the transfer of these components in milk involving different lipoprotein fractions at specific times of lactation.

  8. Attenuated Total Reflection Fourier Transform Infrared (ATR-FTIR) in the discrimination of normal and oral cancer blood plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pachaiappan, Rekha; Prakasarao, Aruna; Singaravelu, Ganesan

    2017-02-01

    Oral cancer is the most frequent type of cancer that occurs with 75000 to 80000 new cases reported every year in India. The carcinogens from tobacco and related products are the main cause for the oral cancer. ATR-FTIR method is label free, fast and cost-effective diagnostic method would allow for rapid diagnostic results in earlier stages by the minimal chemical changes occur in the biological metabolites available in the blood plasma. The present study reports the use of ATR-FTIR data with advanced statistical model (LDA-ANN) in the diagnosis of oral cancer from normal with better accuracy. The infrared spectra were acquired on ATR-FTIR Jasco spectrophotometer at 4 cm-1 resolution, 30 scans, in the 1800-900 cm-1 spectral range. Each sample had 5 spectra recorded from each blood plasma sample. The spectral data were routed through the multilayer perception of artificial neural network to evaluate for the statistical efficacy. Among the spectral data it was found that amide II (1486 cm-1) and lipid (1526 cm-1) affords about 90 % in the discrimination between groups using LDA. These preliminary results indicate that ATR-FTIR is useful to differentiate normal subject from oral cancer patients using blood plasma.

  9. Prediction and optimization of process variables to maximize the Young's modulus of plasma sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Like other manufacturing techniques, plasma spraying has also a non-linear behavior because of the contribution of many coating variables. This characteristic results in finding optimal factor combination difficult. Subsequently, the issue can be solved through effective and strategic statistical procedures integrated with systematic experimental data. Plasma spray parameters such as power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate have significant influence on coating characteristics like Young's modulus. This paper presents the use of statistical techniques in specifically response surface methodology (RSM, analysis of variance, and regression analysis to develop empirical relationship to predict Young's modulus of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings. The developed empirical relationships can be effectively used to predict Young's modulus of plasma-sprayed alumina coatings at 95% confidence level. Response graphs and contour plots were constructed to identify the optimum plasma spray parameters to attain maximum Young's modulus in alumina coatings. A linear regression relationship was established between porosity and Young's modulus of the alumina coatings.

  10. Centrifugation: an important pre-analytic procedure that influences plasma microRNA quantification during blood processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Xiao-Hui; Cui, Cui; Zhou, Xin-Xi; Zeng, Yi-Xin; Jia, Wei-Hua

    2013-12-01

    Circulating microRNAs are robustly present in plasma or serum and have become a research focus as biomarkers for tumor diagnosis and prognosis. Centrifugation is a necessary procedure for obtaining high-quality blood supernatant. Herein, we investigated one-step and two-step centrifugations, two centrifugal methods routinely used in microRNA study, to explore their effects on plasma microRNA quantification. The microRNAs obtained from one-step and two-step centrifugations were quantified by microarray and TaqMan-based real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (Q-PCR). Dynamic light scattering was performed to explore the difference underlying the two centrifugal methods. The results from the microarray containing 1,347 microRNAs showed that the signal detection rate was greatly decreased in the plasma sample prepared by two-step centrifugation. More importantly, the microRNAs missing in this plasma sample could be recovered and detected in the precipitate generated from the second centrifugation. Consistent with the results from microarray, a marked decrease of three representative microRNAs in two-step centrifugal plasma was validated by Q-PCR. According to the size distribution of all nanoparticles in plasma, there were fewer nanoparticles with size >1,000 nm in two-step centrifugal plasma. Our experiments directly demonstrated that different centrifugation methods produced distinct quantities of plasma microRNAs. Thus, exosomes or protein complexes containing microRNAs may be involved in large nanoparticle formation and may be precipitated after two-step centrifugation. Our results remind us that sample processing methods should be first considered in conducting research.

  11. The effect of heat- or ultra violet ozone-treatment of titanium on complement deposition from human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linderbäck, Paula; Harmankaya, Necati; Askendal, Agneta; Areva, Sami; Lausmaa, Jukka; Tengvall, Pentti

    2010-06-01

    Titanium (Ti) is a well known metallic biomaterial extensively used in dental, orthopaedic-, and occasionally also in blood contacting applications. It integrates well to bone and soft tissues, and is shown upon blood plasma contact to activate the intrinsic pathway of coagulation and bind complement factor 3b. The material properties depend largely on those of the nm-thick dense layer of TiO(2) that becomes rapidly formed upon contact with air and water. The spontaneously formed amorphous Ti-oxide has a pzc approximately 5-6 and its water solubility is at the order of 1-2 micromolar. It is often subjected to chemical- and heat treatments in order to increase the anatase- and rutile crystallinity, to modify the surface topography and to decrease the water solubility. In this work, we prepared sol-gel derived titanium and smooth PVD titanium surfaces, and analysed their oxide and protein deposition properties in human blood plasma before and after annealing at 100-500 degrees C or upon UVO-treatment for up to 96 hours. The blood plasma results show that complement deposition vanished irreversibly after heat treatment at 250-300 degrees C for 30 minutes or after UVO exposure for 24 hours or longer. XPS and infrared spectroscopy indicated change of surface water/hydroxyl binding upon the heat- and UVO treatments, and increased Ti oxidation. XRD analysis confirmed an increased crystallinity and both control (untreated) and annealed smooth titanium displayed low XRD-signals indicating some nanocrystallinity, with predominantly anatase phase. The current results show that the behaviour of titanium dioxide in blood contact can be controlled through relatively simple means, such as mild heating and illumination in UV-light, which both likely irreversibly change the stoichiometry and structure of the outmost layers of titanium dioxide and its OH/H(2)O binding characteristics. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of high levels of organic selenium on glutation-peroxidase (GSH-Px activity in blood plasma of broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joksimović-Todorović Mirjana

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment lasting 45 days was performed on 125 Hybro broilers divided into five groups. All compounds for broiler feed mixes used in the experiment contained 0.15 mg Se/kg, in the form of sodium selenite. The control group (K-group of broilers was fed mixes without added organic selenium, and the experimental groups with mixes to which selenium, in the form of selenized-yeast, was added in quantities of 2, 5, 10, or 15 mg/kg. Selenized yeast (ICN - Gaienika was obtained from beer yeast and contained 1.51, or 1.45 mg/g total, or organically bound selenium. At the beginning of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the K-group ranged around 16.55 μkat/L, while GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of experimental groups was statistically significantly higher, but without any major differences among the individual groups (on the average 25.53fjkat/L. In the blood plasma of K-group, GSH-Px activity dropped already in the second week of life and was maintained at a relatively constant level (about 10 μkat/L until the end of the experiment. The same phenomenon was observed in the experimental groups, but the trend of declining GSH-Px activity in blood plasma was more expressed, and, contrary to the control group, was expressed also in the later phases of the experiment. In the 3rd week of the fattening period, GSH-Px plasma activity in broilers of the control and experimental groups was relatively equal, and then the plasma activity of GSH-Px in broilers of the experimental groups decreased, but there were no major differences among the individual groups.

  13. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Division of Metallic Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich [University of Hamburg, Department of Earth Sciences, Grindelallee 48, 20146 Hamburg (Germany); Willumeit-Römer, Regine [Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Institute of Material Research, Division of Metallic Biomaterials, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany)

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). - Highlights: • Influence of blood buffering salts on magnesium degradation was studied. • CaCl{sub 2} reduced the degradation rate by Ca–PO{sub 4} layer formation. • MgSO{sub 4} influenced the morphology of the degradation interface. • NaHCO{sub 3} induced the formation of MgCO{sub 3} as a degradation product.

  14. Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Optical emission from laser-produced chromium and magnesium plasma under the effect of two sequential laser pulses ... Laser Plasma Division, Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore 452 013, India; Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory, Mississippi State University, 205 Research Boulevard, Starkville, ...

  15. Effects of oral magnesium supplementation on inflammatory markers in middle-aged overweight women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nazanin Moslehi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to investigate whether magnesium supplementation might affect serum magnesium, high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, plasma fibrinogen, and interleukin 6 (IL-6 levels in healthy middle-aged overweight women. The relationships, if any, between serum magnesium and the inflammatory markers were also examined cross-sectionally in the entire participants at the beginning of the study. Materials and Methods: This double-blinded, placebo-controlled, randomized trial included 74 middle-aged overweight women. Participants were randomly assigned to receive either 250 mg magnesium as magnesium oxide or placebo daily for 8 weeks. Serum magnesium, hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 concentrations were measured before and after the intervention. Results: Serum magnesium was found to be inversely correlated with hs-CRP (r s =−0.22, P=0.05 in the entire participants at baseline. Serum hs-CRP declined significantly in both groups as compared with baseline values (median change=0.8 mg/L; P Magnesium= 0.03, P Placebo 0.001. Plasma fibrinogen decreased significantly, by 9%, in the magnesium group at the end of week 8 compared to baseline (P=0.001. Mean concentration of IL-6 was significantly increased in the magnesium group comparing the baseline value(P=0.001. However hs-CRP, fibrinogen and IL-6 levels at week 8 or any changes during the study were not statistically different between the two groups. Serum magnesium showed no significant changes in any groups. Conclusions: Serum magnesium had a significant inverse correlation with hs-CRP. In the present study, magnesium as magnesium oxide, 250 mg/day, for 8 weeks did not significantly attenuate inflammatory markers in the magnesium group as compared to the placebo.

  16. Correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer and serum glucose concentration measured by an automated biochemical analyzer for canine and feline blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tauk, Barbara S; Drobatz, Kenneth J; Wallace, Koranda A; Hess, Rebecka S

    2015-06-15

    To investigate the correlation between glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a point-of-care glucometer (POCG) and serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer. Prospective clinical study. 96 blood samples from 80 dogs and 90 blood samples from 65 cats. Serum, plasma, and whole blood were obtained from each blood sample. The glucose concentrations in serum, plasma, and whole blood measured by a POCG were compared with the serum glucose concentration measured by a biochemical analyzer by use of the Lin concordance correlation coefficient (ρc) and Bland-Altman plots. For both canine and feline samples, glucose concentrations in serum and plasma measured by the POCG were more strongly correlated with the serum glucose concentration measured by the biochemical analyzer (ρc, 0.98 for both canine serum and plasma; ρc, 0.99 for both feline serum and plasma) than was that in whole blood (ρc, 0.62 for canine samples; ρc, 0.90 for feline samples). The mean difference between the glucose concentrations determined by the biochemical analyzer and the POCG in serum, plasma, and whole blood was 0.4, 0.3, and 31 mg/dL, respectively, for canine samples and 7, 6, and 32 mg/dL, respectively, for feline samples. Results indicated that use of a POCG to measure glucose concentrations in serum or plasma may increase the accuracy and reliability of diagnostic and treatment decisions associated with glucose homeostasis disorders in dogs and cats.

  17. Surface Charge at the Oxide/Electrolyte Interface: Toward Optimization of Electrolyte Composition for Treatment of Aluminum and Magnesium by Plasma Electrolytic Oxidation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nominé, A.; Martin, J.; Noël, C.; Henrion, G.; Belmonte, T.; Bardin, I.V.; Lukeš, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 32, č. 5 (2016), s. 1405-1409 ISSN 0743-7463 Institutional support: RVO:61389021 Keywords : corrosion-resistance * Mg-alloy * cotings * layers * microstructure * porosity * points Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.833, year: 2016

  18. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Marzoki JM

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Jasim M Al-Marzoki1, Zainab W Al-Maaroof2, Ali H Kadhum31Department of Pediatrics, 2Department of Pathology, Babylon Medical College, 3Babylon Gynecology and Pediatric Teaching Hospital, Hilla, IraqBackground: The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq.Methods: A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually.Results: Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3 g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6 × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472 × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count.Conclusion: Most results

  19. Content of non-esterified fatty acids in the blood plasma of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Rivis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the content of non-esterified fatty acids in plasma and liver of rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis and its correction by linseed oil. The experiment was carried out on male rabbits breed gray giant with live weight 3.8–4.0 kg. The material for the study was sampled from blood and liver. Lipids from plasma and liver were extracted with a mixture of chloroform and methanol. After that the non-esterified fatty acids were isolated and methylated. Methyl esters of fatty acids were studied by the gas-liquid chromatography with the chromatograph ''Chrom 5'' (Prague,CzechRepublic. We have found that the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases in the blood plasma and liver of rabbits with the acute arginine pancreatitis. It takes place at the expense of a reduce of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain, monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 and polyunsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-3 and ω-6. That may indicate a greater use of non-esterified fatty acids for energy metabolism and esterification of lipids. We suppose that this is a consequence of the probable increase in content of non-esterified and esterified cholesterol in the rabbits’ blood plasma. Those processes provoke the cholesterol deposits in blood vessels and therefore cardiovascular diseases. We tried to influence on the processes by addition of linseed oil to the rabbits diet. We have found that in the linseed oil-fed rabbits the content of non-esterified fatty acids decreases at the expense of saturated fatty acids with odd and even number of carbon atoms in a chain and monounsaturated fatty acids of the families ω-7 and ω-9 inblood plasma and liver of the rabbits with acute arginine pancreatitis. Furthermore the levels of non-esterified polyunsaturated fatty acids of ω-3 family increase in the rabbits’ plasma and liver. As this takes place the ratio of non

  20. Serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakiewicz, Beata; Kozielec, Tadeusz; Brodowski, Jacek; Chlubek, Dariusz; Noceń, Iwona; Starczewski, Andrzej; Brodowska, Agnieszka; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2007-03-01

    Drug addiction is a complex problem which leads to many somatic, psychic and social diseases. It is accompanied by the disturbed metabolism of various macro and micronutrients. The aim of this study was to assess serum magnesium concentration in drug-addicted patients and analyze whether Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and methadone treatment affect the level of serum magnesium in these patients. The examination was conducted in a group of 83 people - patients of Szczecin-Zdroje Psychiatric Hospital (Poland). They were 21 to 49 years old, and the mean age was 32 +/- 7 years. The control group consisted of 81 healthy individuals. Flame atomic-absorption spectrometry method was used to determine the magnesium concentration. The total serum magnesium concentration was calculated for the whole patient group, subgroups of women and men, a subgroup of people infected with HIV, and a subgroup receiving methadone substitution treatment. How magnesium behaves depending on age and addiction period, was checked. The mean concentration of magnesium in blood serum of the patients examined was 0.57 mmol/L, which was significantly lower than in the control group. In the subgroup of men it was 0.57 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of women - 0.55 mmol/L; the differences were not statistically significant. In the patient group nobody had the appropriate magnesium concentration in blood serum. No significant correlation was found between the magnesium concentration, age of the patients and addiction period. In the subgroup of seropositive people the mean concentration of magnesium was 0.55 mmol/L, and in the subgroup of non-infected patients - 0.58 mmol/L; the difference was not statistically significant. The mean concentration of magnesium in the subgroup treated with methadone was 0.59 mmol/L, and in the subgroup not involved in this type of therapy - 0.55 mmol/L; it was not a statistically significant difference.

  1. A multidisciplinary study on magnesium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radić-Perić Jelena

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During plasma electrolytic oxidation of a magnesium alloy (96% Mg, 3% Al, 1% Zn we obtained a luminescence spectrum in the wave number range between 19 950 and 20 400 cm-1. The broad peak with clearly pronounced structure was assigned to the v’-v” = 0 sequence of the B 1Σ+ → X 1Σ+ electronic transition of MgO. Quantum-mechanical perturbative approach was applied to extract the form of the potential energy curves for the electronic states involved in the observed spectrum, from the positions of spectral bands. These potential curves, combined with the results of quantum-chemical calculations of the electric transition moment, were employed in subsequent variational calculations to obtain the Franck-Condon factors and transition moments for the vibrational transitions observed. Comparing the results of these calculations with the measured intensity distribution within the spectrum we derived relative population of the upper electronic state vibration levels. This enabled us to estimate the plasma temperature. Additionally, the temperature was determined by analysis of the recorded A 2Σ+ (v’ = 0 - X 2П (v” = 0 emission spectrum of OH. The composition of plasma containing magnesium, oxygen, and hydrogen under assumption of local thermal equilibrium was calculated in the temperature range up to 12 000 K and for pressures of 105, 106, 107, and 108 Pa, in order to explain the appearance of the observed spectral features and to contribute to elucidation of processes taking place during the electrolytic oxidation of Mg. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172040

  2. [Efficacy of high versus low plasma: red blood cell ratio resuscitation in patients with severe trauma requiring massive blood transfusion: a meta-analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Fang; Zhong, Tao; Wu, Gang

    2017-01-20

    To evaluate the efficacy of high (≥1:2) and low (ratio resuscitation in patients with severe trauma requiring massive blood transfusion. The databases including the Cochrane Library, Pubmed, Web of Science, and EMBASE were systemically searched for relevant studies published between January, 2009 and April, 2016. The selection of studies, assessment of methodological quality and data extraction were performed by two researchers independently according to the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The main endpoint was 24-h mortality, 30-day mortality and 24-h survival rate. Five observational studies reporting outcomes of 1024 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Four studies documented civilian cases and one study had a military setting. No significant differences were found in the Injury Severity Score (ISS) between patient groups receiving high and low plasma: RBC ratio resuscitation. Compared with the low-ratio group, the patients with high-ratio resuscitation showed a significant reduction in the 24-h mortality rate (OR=0.35, 95%CI [0.25, 0.48], Pratio resuscitation within the initial 24 h following the trauma (HR=2.34, 95%CI [1.46, 3.73], P=0.00001). Raising the plasma: RBC ratio to 0.5 or higher may decrease the mortality rate of the patients with severe trauma who need massive blood transfusion.

  3. GRAVIMETRIC-DETERMINATION OF THE WATER CONCENTRATION IN WHOLE-BLOOD, PLASMA AND ERYTHROCYTES AND CORRELATIONS WITH HEMATOLOGICAL AND CLINICOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LIJNEMA, TH; HUIZENGA, [No Value; JAGER, J; MACKOR, AJ; GIPS, CH

    1993-01-01

    We have assessed gravimetric methods for determination of intravascular water, established whole blood-, plasma- and erythrocyte water reference values in a healthy volunteer group (n = 97, 48 females) and correlated these variables with 30 simultaneous hematological, clinicochemical and body

  4. Clinical Symptoms in Fibromyalgia Are Better Associated to Lipid Peroxidation Levels in Blood Mononuclear Cells Rather than in Plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-García, Francisco J.; De Miguel, Manuel; Carrión, Angel M.; Navas, Plácido; Sánchez Alcázar, José A.

    2011-01-01

    Background We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO) in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs) and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM) patients. Methods We conducted a case–control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), visual analogues scales (VAS), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. Results We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001). A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI). We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI). Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores). Discussion The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM. PMID:22046409

  5. Clinical symptoms in fibromyalgia are better associated to lipid peroxidation levels in blood mononuclear cells rather than in plasma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario D Cordero

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We examined lipid peroxidation (LPO in blood mononuclear cells (BMCs and plasma, as a marker of oxidative damage, and its association to clinical symptoms in Fibromyalgia (FM patients. METHODS: We conducted a case-control and correlational study comparing 65 patients and 45 healthy controls. Clinical parameters were evaluated using the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ, visual analogues scales (VAS, and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI. Oxidative stress was determined by measuring LPO in BMCs and plasma. RESULTS: We found increased LPO levels in BMCs and plasma from FM patients as compared to normal control (P<0.001. A significant correlation between LPO in BMCs and clinical parameters was observed (r = 0.584, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.823, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.875, P<0.01 for depression in the BDI. We also found a positive correlation between LPO in plasma and clinical symptoms (r = 0.452, P<0.001 for VAS; r = 0.578, P<0.001 for FIQ total score; and r = 0.579, P<0.001 for depression in the BDI. Partial correlation analysis controlling for age and BMI, and sex, showed that both LPO in cells and plasma were independently associated to clinical symptoms. However, LPO in cells, but not LPO in plasma, was independently associated to clinical symptoms when controlling for depression (BDI scores. DISCUSSION: The results of this study suggest a role for oxidative stress in the pathophysiology of fibromyalgia and that LPO in BMCs rather than LPO in plasma is better associated to clinical symptoms in FM.

  6. Metabolomics as a Tool for Discovery of Biomarkers of Autism Spectrum Disorder in the Blood Plasma of Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Paul R.; Amaral, David G.; Bais, Preeti; Smith, Alan M.; Egnash, Laura A.; Ross, Mark E.; Palmer, Jessica A.; Fontaine, Burr R.; Conard, Kevin R.; Corbett, Blythe A.; Cezar, Gabriela G.; Donley, Elizabeth L. R.; Burrier, Robert E.

    2014-01-01

    Background The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) at the earliest age possible is important for initiating optimally effective intervention. In the United States the average age of diagnosis is 4 years. Identifying metabolic biomarker signatures of ASD from blood samples offers an opportunity for development of diagnostic tests for detection of ASD at an early age. Objectives To discover metabolic features present in plasma samples that can discriminate children with ASD from typically developing (TD) children. The ultimate goal is to identify and develop blood-based ASD biomarkers that can be validated in larger clinical trials and deployed to guide individualized therapy and treatment. Methods Blood plasma was obtained from children aged 4 to 6, 52 with ASD and 30 age-matched TD children. Samples were analyzed using 5 mass spectrometry-based methods designed to orthogonally measure a broad range of metabolites. Univariate, multivariate and machine learning methods were used to develop models to rank the importance of features that could distinguish ASD from TD. Results A set of 179 statistically significant features resulting from univariate analysis were used for multivariate modeling. Subsets of these features properly classified the ASD and TD samples in the 61-sample training set with average accuracies of 84% and 86%, and with a maximum accuracy of 81% in an independent 21-sample validation set. Conclusions This analysis of blood plasma metabolites resulted in the discovery of biomarkers that may be valuable in the diagnosis of young children with ASD. The results will form the basis for additional discovery and validation research for 1) determining biomarkers to develop diagnostic tests to detect ASD earlier and improve patient outcomes, 2) gaining new insight into the biochemical mechanisms of various subtypes of ASD 3) identifying biomolecular targets for new modes of therapy, and 4) providing the basis for individualized treatment

  7. Metabolomics as a tool for discovery of biomarkers of autism spectrum disorder in the blood plasma of children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul R West

    Full Text Available The diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD at the earliest age possible is important for initiating optimally effective intervention. In the United States the average age of diagnosis is 4 years. Identifying metabolic biomarker signatures of ASD from blood samples offers an opportunity for development of diagnostic tests for detection of ASD at an early age.To discover metabolic features present in plasma samples that can discriminate children with ASD from typically developing (TD children. The ultimate goal is to identify and develop blood-based ASD biomarkers that can be validated in larger clinical trials and deployed to guide individualized therapy and treatment.Blood plasma was obtained from children aged 4 to 6, 52 with ASD and 30 age-matched TD children. Samples were analyzed using 5 mass spectrometry-based methods designed to orthogonally measure a broad range of metabolites. Univariate, multivariate and machine learning methods were used to develop models to rank the importance of features that could distinguish ASD from TD.A set of 179 statistically significant features resulting from univariate analysis were used for multivariate modeling. Subsets of these features properly classified the ASD and TD samples in the 61-sample training set with average accuracies of 84% and 86%, and with a maximum accuracy of 81% in an independent 21-sample validation set.This analysis of blood plasma metabolites resulted in the discovery of biomarkers that may be valuable in the diagnosis of young children with ASD. The results will form the basis for additional discovery and validation research for 1 determining biomarkers to develop diagnostic tests to detect ASD earlier and improve patient outcomes, 2 gaining new insight into the biochemical mechanisms of various subtypes of ASD 3 identifying biomolecular targets for new modes of therapy, and 4 providing the basis for individualized treatment recommendations.

  8. Analysis of Proteolytic and Fibrinolytic Activity of the Blood Plasma in Patients with Bronchial Asthma Combined with Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fediv A.I. Fediv A.I.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study — to conduct the analysis of the performance of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma in patients with bronchial asthma (BA combined with obesity. Materials and methods. The study included 40 patients divided into groups. The basic group consisted of 20 patients with BA associated with obesity (ІI group, two comparison groups — of 10 patients with BA and normal body weight (I group and 10 patients with obesity and without pathology of the bronchopulmonary system (ІІІ group. Control group included 10 apparently healthy persons. In patients with BA, there were investigated the indexes of proteolytic and fibrinolytic activity of the blood plasma. Results. Analysis of the obtained data in patients with BA showed an increase of activity of plasma coagulation factors: total fibrinolytic activity increased in comparison to the control group, and in patients with BA it was 1.46 ± 0.13 Е440/ml/h, while in apparently healthy persons — 1.23 ± 0.16 Е440/ml/h (р < 0.05. In addition, an increase was marked and in the group of patients with the isolated obesity (by 38.5 % as compared to the group of apparently healthy persons, that can be explained by the growth of activity of inflammatory process due to the immune changes related to biological activity of fatty tissue as an additional source of proinflammatory cytokines. Conclusions. In combination of bronchial asthma and obesity, there is an activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic systems of the blood that leads to microcirculatory and hemostatic disorders, enhancement of inflammatory process. In obesity as the state of systemic inflammatory response, the activation of fibrinolytic and proteolytic blood systems is more significant, than in bronchial asthma.

  9. Magnesium degradation influenced by buffering salts in concentrations typical of in vitro and in vivo models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Nezha Ahmad; Feyerabend, Frank; Mihailova, Boriana; Heidrich, Stefanie; Bismayer, Ulrich; Willumeit-Römer, Regine

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium and its alloys have considerable potential for orthopedic applications. During the degradation process the interface between material and tissue is continuously changing. Moreover, too fast or uncontrolled degradation is detrimental for the outcome in vivo. Therefore in vitro setups utilizing physiological conditions are promising for the material/degradation analysis prior to animal experiments. The aim of this study is to elucidate the influence of inorganic salts contributing to the blood buffering capacity on degradation. Extruded pure magnesium samples were immersed under cell culture conditions for 3 and 10 days. Hank's balanced salt solution without calcium and magnesium (HBSS) plus 10% of fetal bovine serum (FBS) was used as the basic immersion medium. Additionally, different inorganic salts were added with respect to concentration in Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium (DMEM, in vitro model) and human plasma (in vivo model) to form 12 different immersion media. Influences on the surrounding environment were observed by measuring pH and osmolality. The degradation interface was analyzed by electron-induced X-ray emission (EIXE) spectroscopy, including chemical-element mappings and electron microprobe analysis, as well as Fourier transform infrared reflection micro-spectroscopy (FTIR). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Stress at birth: plasma noradrenaline concentrations of women in labour and in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messow-Zahn, K; Sarafoff, M; Riegel, K P

    1978-03-15

    Radioenzymatically measured plasma noradrenaline concentrations, present at birth in umbilical veins of 19 healthy, 17 acutely asphyxiated, and 9 chronically distressed newborn infants were found to be elevated above maternal values proportional to the degree of distress and to plasma H ion concentrations.

  11. UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS and multivariate data analysis for blood plasma and serum metabolomics: effect of experimental artefacts and anticoagulant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barri, Thaer; Dragsted, Lars Ove

    2013-01-01

    agents, e.g. heparin, EDTA and citrate. In the present study, we looked into metabolite and other differences in matched serum and plasma samples and different plasma preparations by using untargeted UPLC-ESI-QTOF/MS profiling and multivariate data analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA). Metabolite differences......Clotting and anticoagulation of blood samples may give rise to different metabolic profiles of serum and plasma samples, respectively. The anticoagulant used for blood plasma preparation may affect the resulting metabolic profile due to different mechanisms involved in anticoagulation by various...... between serum and plasma samples were mainly related to small peptides reflecting presence or absence of coagulation. Only subtle metabolite differences between the different plasma preparations were noticed, which were primarily related to ion suppression or enhancement caused by citrate and EDTA...

  12. Corrosion of lanthanum magnesium hexaaluminate as plasma-sprayed coating and as bulk material when exposed to molten V2O5-containing salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xiaolong; Cao, Xueqiang; Zou, Binglin; Gong, Jun; Sun, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Corrosion behavior of LaMgAl 11 O 19 bulk and plasma sprayed coating has been compared. • Degradation mechanism is investigated based on LaMgAl 11 O 19 ’s crystal chemistry. • LaMgAl 11 O 19 coating displays inferior corrosion resistance to well crystallized bulk. - Abstract: Corrosion of LaMgAl 11 O 19 (LaMA) bulk and plasma sprayed coating was studied in molten V 2 O 5 -containing salt at 710–1050 °C in air. Results indicate that the well crystallized LaMA bulk exhibited prior corrosion resistance to the plasma sprayed LaMA coating with amorphous phase and reduced chemical bond strength in its crystal structure. La–O chemical bonds with the lowest bond energies were the easiest bonds in the LaMA crystal to be broken by molten V 2 O 5 -containing salt attack to form LaVO 4 at each temperature level for both LaMA bulk and coating. Corrosion products of the LaMA coating were much different at temperature below 900 °C

  13. Association of Blood and Seminal Plasma Cadmium and Lead Levels With Semen Quality in Non-Occupationally Exposed Infertile Men in Abakaliki, South East Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ademola C Famurewa

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate association of blood and seminal plasma lead and cadmium with sperm quality of non-occupationally exposed male partners of couples with infertility.Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 75 men aged 20-45 years (mean = 37.1 ± 7.0 yrs. with infertility recruited from the Fertility Clinic of a hospital in Abakaliki. Sperm count done in accordance with the WHO guidelines was used to classify the participants as normospamia, oligospermia and azospermia. Atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to determine lead and cadmium levels in plasma from blood and semen.Results: There were 15 azospermics, 22 oligospermics and 36 normospermics. Seminal and blood plasma cadmium as well as blood plasma lead were significantly (p < 0.01 higher in azospermic and oligospermic men compared to normospermic men. However, while seminal plasma lead was significantly (p < 0.05 higher in oligospermic and normospernic men than in azospermic men, the seminal plasma lead was comparable between oligospermic and normospermic men. Significant inverse associations (p < 0.01 were found between blood and seminal cadmium levels and sperm count, motility and morphology; blood lead was inversely correlated with sperm count only.Conclusion: The study suggests that environmental exposure to cadmium and lead may contribute to development of poor sperm quality and infertility in men of reproductive age in Nigeria.

  14. Onlay bone augmentation on mouse calvarial bone using a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with total blood or platelet-rich plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohba, Seigo; Sumita, Yoshinori; Umebayashi, Mayumi; Yoshimura, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Hisato; Matsuda, Shinpei; Kimura, Hideki; Asahina, Izumi; Sano, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess newly formed onlay bone on mouse calvarial bone using a new artificial bone material, a hydroxyapatite/collagen composite, with total blood or platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material with normal saline, total blood or platelet-rich plasma was transplanted on mouse calvarial bone. The mice were sacrificed and the specimens were harvested four weeks after surgery. The newly formed bone area was measured on hematoxylin and eosin stained specimens using Image J software. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma induced a significantly greater amount of newly formed bone than that with normal saline. Moreover, bone marrow was observed four weeks after surgery in the transplanted materials with total blood or platelet-rich plasma but not with normal saline. However, there were no significant differences in the amount of newly formed bone between materials used with total blood versus platelet-rich plasma. The hydroxyapatite/collagen composite material was valid for onlay bone augmentation and this material should be soaked in total blood or platelet-rich plasma prior to transplantation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The effects of venous cannulation technique and cardioplegia type on plasma potassium concentration and arterial blood pressure during cardiopulmonary bypass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Coleman, E T

    2012-02-03

    The cannulation method and cardioplegia solution used during cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) may both influence plasma potassium concentrations ([K+]) and mean arterial blood pressure (MAP). Bi-caval or right atrial cannulation methods are routinely used in conjunction with crystalloid or blood cardioplegia. We investigated the influence of cannulation method and cardioplegia solutions on plasma [K+] and MAP during cardiopulmonary bypass. Sixty consecutive patients undergoing elective coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) using CPB were studied. They were randomly divided into three groups of 20 patients. Patients in Group A underwent bi-caval venous cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group B patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received crystalloid cardioplegia. Group C patients underwent right atrial cannulation and received blood cardioplegia. In each case. cardioplegia was administered antegrade via the aortic root. Plasma [K+], MAP. and hemoglobin concentration (Hb) were measured over an 8-min period following cardioplegia administration (pilot studies indicated pressure changes occuring post cardioplegia administration up to this time). The combination of bi-caval cannulation and crystalloid cardioplegia (Group A) was associated with the least increase in plasma [K+] and no decrease in MAP. The maximum [K+] for this Group was 4.2 mmol\\/L (4.6% increase). The minimum mean pressure was 57 mmHg (13.6% increase). Both right atrial cannulation groups (B and C) showed a large rise in plasma [K+] and a decrease in MAP. Group B maximum [K+] was 5.2 mmol\\/L (27.5% increase). Group C was also 5.2 mmol\\/L (26.0% increase). Group C showed the largest pressure decrease, the minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (21.3% decrease). The Group B minimum mean pressure was 45 mmHg (8.7% decrease). Our results show that patients undergoing CPB operations who are deemed to be at increased risk of suffering adverse effects from hypotensive episodes may

  16. Long-term magnesium supplementation improves arterial stiffness in overweight and obese adults : results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled intervention trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joris, Peter J.; Plat, Jogchum; Bakker, Stephan J. L.; Mensink, Ronald P.

    Background: Epidemiologic studies have suggested a protective effect of magnesium intake on cardiovascular disease risk. However, intervention trials of magnesium supplementation on blood pressure and conventional cardiometabolic risk markers are inconsistent. Effects on vascular function markers

  17. The remarkable stability of chimeric, sialic acid-derived alpha/delta-peptides in human blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saludes, Jonel P; Natarajan, Arutselvan; DeNardo, Sally J; Gervay-Hague, Jacquelyn

    2010-05-01

    Peptides are labile toward proteolytic enzymes, and structural modifications are often required to prolong their metabolic half-life and increase resistance. One modification is the incorporation of non-alpha-amino acids into the peptide to deter recognition by hydrolytic enzymes. We previously reported the synthesis of chimeric alpha/delta-peptides from glutamic acids (Glu) and the sialic acid derivative Neu2en. Conformational analyses revealed these constructs adopt secondary structures in water and may serve as conformational surrogates of polysialic acid. Polysialic acid is a tumor-associated polysaccharide and is correlated with cancer metastasis. Soluble polysialic acid is rapidly cleared from the blood limiting its potential for vaccine development. One motivation in developing structural surrogates of polysialic acid was to create constructs with increased bioavailability. Here, we report plasma stability profiles of Glu/Neu2en alpha/delta-peptides. DOTA was conjugated at the peptide N-termini by solid phase peptide synthesis, radiolabeled with (111)In, incubated in human blood plasma at 37 degrees C, and their degradation patterns monitored by cellulose acetate electrophoresis and radioactivity counting. Results indicate that these peptides exhibit a long half-life that is two- to three-orders of magnitude higher than natural alpha-peptides. These findings provide a viable platform for the synthesis of plasma stable, sialic acid-derived peptides that may find pharmaceutical application.

  18. Influence of apricot kernels on blood plasma levels of selected anterior pituitary hormones in male and female rabbits in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Michalcová

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Amygdalin is represented in the family Rosacea more precisely in an apricot kernels and an almonds. There are a lot of components such as trace elements, vitamins, carbohydrates, organic acids, esters, phenols, terpenoids, except cyanogenic glycoside in the seeds. It is known that bioregulators can modulate the activity of specific enzymes and hormones very exactly at low levels and in a short time. The aim of our study was examine the effects of selected doses (0, 60, 300, 420 mg/kg b.w. of apricot kernels in feed on the plasma levels of anterior pituitary hormones in young male and female rabbits in vivo. A sensitive, biochemical method, ELISA was used to determine the hormones prolactin (PRL, luteinizing hormone (LH and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH. 28-day application of apricot kernels did not affect the concentration of PRL, LH, FSH in blood plasma of males. No significant (P≤0.05 differences in case of PRL and LH levels in the blood plasma of females were found. On the other hand a significant (P≤0.05 inhibition of FSH release induced by kernels at the doses 300, 420 mg/kg was found. Our results indicate that apricot kernels could affect secretion of anterior pituitary hormone FSH in female rabbits.

  19. Effects of extracellular magnesium on the differentiation and function of human osteoclasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lili; Luthringer, Bérengère J C; Feyerabend, Frank; Schilling, Arndt F; Willumeit, Regine

    2014-06-01

    Magnesium-based implants have been shown to influence the surrounding bone structure. In an attempt to partially reveal the cellular mechanisms involved in the remodelling of magnesium-based implants, the influence of increased extracellular magnesium content on human osteoclasts was studied. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were driven towards an osteoclastogenesis pathway via stimulation with receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand and macrophage colony-stimulating factor for 28 days. Concomitantly, the cultures were exposed to variable magnesium concentrations (from either magnesium chloride or magnesium extracts). Osteoclast proliferation and differentiation were evaluated based on cell metabolic activity, total protein content, tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase activity, cathepsin K and calcitonin receptor immunocytochemistry, and cellular ability to form resorption pits. While magnesium chloride first enhanced and then opposed cell proliferation and differentiation in a concentration-dependent manner (peaking between 10 and 15mM magnesium chloride), magnesium extracts (with lower magnesium contents) appeared to decrease cell metabolic activity (≈50% decrease at day 28) while increasing osteoclast activity at a lower concentration (twofold higher). Together, the results indicated that (i) variations in the in vitro extracellular magnesium concentration affect osteoclast metabolism and (ii) magnesium extracts should be used preferentially in vitro to more closely mimic the in vivo environment. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Study on the correlative analysis between the changes of immunofunction status of peripheral blood red blood cells and plasma thromboxane B2 (TXB2) level in patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ailing; Zhou Dongxia; Wang Yuanyuan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationship between changes of immunofuction status of peripheral blood red blood cells and plasma thromboxane B 2 (TXB 2 ) level in patients with PIH. Methods: RBC immunofunction status was studied with immunologic methods and plasma TXB 2 Level was measured with RIA in 33 patients with PIH and 35 normal controls.Results Level of RBC-C3bRR was significantly lower and level of plasma TXB 2 was markedly higher in the patients than those in controls (P 2 (r=0.4084, P 2 levels in patients with PIH. (authors)

  1. Molecular typing for blood group antigens within 40 min by direct polymerase chain reaction from plasma or serum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Franz F; Flegel, Willy A; Bittner, Rita; Döscher, Andrea

    2017-03-01

    Determining blood group antigens by serological methods may be unreliable in certain situations, such as in patients after chronic or massive transfusion. Red cell genotyping offers a complementary approach, but current methods may take much longer than conventional serological typing, limiting their utility in urgent situations. To narrow this gap, we devised a rapid method using direct polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification while avoiding the DNA extraction step. DNA was amplified by PCR directly from plasma or serum of blood donors followed by a melting curve analysis in a capillary rapid-cycle PCR assay. We evaluated the single nucleotide polymorphisms underlying the clinically relevant Fy a , Fy b , Jk a and Jk b antigens, with our analysis being completed within 40 min of receiving a plasma or serum sample. The positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value at least 84%. Direct PCR with melting point analysis allowed faster red cell genotyping to predict blood group antigens than any previous molecular method. Our assay may be used as a screening tool with subsequent confirmatory testing, within the limitations of the false-negative rate. With fast turnaround times, the rapid-cycle PCR assay may eventually be developed and applied to red cell genotyping in the hospital setting. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garbett, Nichola C; Merchant, Michael L; Helm, C William; Jenson, Alfred B; Klein, Jon B; Chaires, Jonathan B

    2014-01-01

    Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC) are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms) were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS) analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate cervical cancer

  3. Detection of cervical cancer biomarker patterns in blood plasma and urine by differential scanning calorimetry and mass spectrometry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nichola C Garbett

    Full Text Available Improved methods for the accurate identification of both the presence and severity of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN and extent of spread of invasive carcinomas of the cervix (IC are needed. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC has recently been shown to detect specific changes in the thermal behavior of blood plasma proteins in several diseases. This methodology is being explored to provide a complementary approach for screening of cervical disease. The present study evaluated the utility of DSC in differentiating between healthy controls, increasing severity of CIN and early and advanced IC. Significant discrimination was apparent relative to the extent of disease with no clear effect of demographic factors such as age, ethnicity, smoking status and parity. Of most clinical relevance, there was strong differentiation of CIN from healthy controls and IC, and amongst patients with IC between FIGO Stage I and advanced cancer. The observed disease-specific changes in DSC profiles (thermograms were hypothesized to reflect differential expression of disease biomarkers that subsequently bound to and affected the thermal behavior of the most abundant plasma proteins. The effect of interacting biomarkers can be inferred from the modulation of thermograms but cannot be directly identified by DSC. To investigate the nature of the proposed interactions, mass spectrometry (MS analyses were employed. Quantitative assessment of the low molecular weight protein fragments of plasma and urine samples revealed a small list of peptides whose abundance was correlated with the extent of cervical disease, with the most striking plasma peptidome data supporting the interactome theory of peptide portioning to abundant plasma proteins. The combined DSC and MS approach in this study was successful in identifying unique biomarker signatures for cervical cancer and demonstrated the utility of DSC plasma profiles as a complementary diagnostic tool to evaluate

  4. Mapping of lead, magnesium and copper accumulation in plant tissues by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy and laser-ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic)], E-mail: kaiser@fme.vutbr.cz; Galiova, M.; Novotny, K.; Cervenka, R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Reale, L. [Faculty of Sciences, University of L' Aquila, Via Vetoio (Coppito 1), 67010 L' Aquila (Italy); Novotny, J.; Liska, M.; Samek, O. [Institute of Physical Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Brno University of Technology, Technicka 2896/2, 616 69 Brno (Czech Republic); Kanicky, V.; Hrdlicka, A. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 611 37 Brno (Czech Republic); Stejskal, K.; Adam, V.; Kizek, R. [Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Agronomy, Mendel University of Agriculture and Forestry, Zemedelska 1, 613 00 Brno (Czech Republic)

    2009-01-15

    Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and Laser Ablation Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) were utilized for mapping the accumulation of Pb, Mg and Cu with a resolution up to 200 {mu}m in a up to cm x cm area of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) leaves. The results obtained by LIBS and LA-ICP-MS are compared with the outcomes from Atomic Absorption Spectrometry (AAS) and Thin-Layer Chromatography (TLC). It is shown that laser-ablation based analytical methods can substitute or supplement these techniques mainly in the cases when a fast multi-elemental mapping of a large sample area is needed.

  5. No evidence for involvement of plasma proteins or blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. An immunohistoperoxidase study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eikelenboom, P.; Scott, J. R.; McBride, P. A.; Rozemuller, J. M.; Bruce, M. E.; Fraser, H.

    1987-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate blood-brain permeability and the possible involvement of plasma proteins and blood-borne cells in amyloid plaque formation in scrapie-affected mice. No abnormal extravasation of intravenously injected horseradish peroxidase (HRP) was found and with

  6. High-nitrate vegetable diet increases plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduces blood pressure in healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Ann; Mitchell, Klaus; Blackwell, Jamie R; Vanhatalo, Anni; Jones, Andrew M

    2015-10-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that green leafy vegetables, which are high in dietary nitrate, are protective against CVD such as stroke. High blood pressure (BP) is a major risk factor for stroke and inorganic nitrate has been shown to reduce BP. The objective of the present study was to test the hypothesis that diets containing high-nitrate (HN) vegetables would increase plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduce BP in healthy women. A randomized, crossover trial, where participants received HN vegetables (HN diet) or avoided HN vegetables (Control diet) for 1 week. Before and after each intervention, resting BP and plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations were measured. University of Exeter, UK. Nineteen healthy women (mean age 20 (sd 2) years; mean BMI 22·5 (sd 3·8) kg/m2). The HN diet significantly increased plasma nitrate concentration (before HN diet: mean 24·4 (sd 5·6) µmol/l; after HN diet: mean 61·0 (sd 44·1) µmol/l, Pdiet: mean 98 (sd 91) nmol/l; after HN diet: mean 185 (sd 34) nmol/l, Pdiet. The HN diet significantly reduced resting systolic BP (before HN diet: mean 107 (sd 9) mmHg; after HN diet: mean 103 (sd 6) mmHg, Pdiet (before Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg; after Control diet: mean 106 (sd 8) mmHg). Consumption of HN vegetables significantly increased plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations and reduced BP in normotensive women.

  7. Measurement of concentrations of whole blood levels of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine and their relations to plasma levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awwad, Hussain Mohamad; Kirsch, Susanne H; Geisel, Juergen; Obeid, Rima

    2014-04-15

    We aimed at developing a method for the measurement of choline and its metabolites in whole blood (WB). After an extraction step, quantification of choline, betaine, and dimethylglycine (DMG) was performed using ultra performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Plasma and WB metabolites were evaluated in a group of 61 elderly people. The calibration curves were linear (r(2)>0.997) for all compounds. The inter- and intra-assay coefficients of variation for all analytes were 90% and the relative matrix effect were ≤4.0%. The median concentrations of choline, betaine, and DMG were 11.3, 27.8, and 5.9μmol/L in plasma and 66.6, 165, and 13.7μmol/L in WB, respectively. There were positive correlations between WB and plasma markers; for choline (r=0.42), betaine (r=0.61), and DMG (r=0.56) (all p≤0.001). The concentrations of betaine in WB and plasma were significantly higher in men than in women. The concentrations of WB choline and DMG did not differ significantly according to sex. In conclusion, we have established a reliable method for measuring choline metabolites in WB. The concentrations of WB choline, betaine, and DMG seem to reflect intracellular concentrations of these metabolites. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a reduced production of red blood cells, including: Iron deficiency anemia. Iron deficiency anemia is the most common type of anemia and ... inflammatory bowel disease are especially likely to have iron deficiency anemia. Anemia due to chronic disease. People with chronic ...

  9. Association of plasma uric acid with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Tom M; Nordestgaard, Børge G; Benn, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index.......To assess the associations between both uric acid levels and hyperuricaemia, with ischaemic heart disease and blood pressure, and to explore the potentially confounding role of body mass index....

  10. Irisin Maternal Plasma and Cord Blood Levels in Mothers with Spontaneous Preterm and Term Delivery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tereza Pavlova

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Irisin, an adipomyokine identified in 2012, has been investigated in association with common pregnancy complications, including gestational diabetes mellitus, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. The objective of this study is to examine the potential role of irisin in preterm birth (PTB by comparing its level between mothers with term and preterm labor. Maternal peripheral blood and cord blood samples were collected from 30 mothers who delivered prematurely and from 35 mothers who delivered at term. Irisin concentrations were measured in all samples using ELISA, and four common single nucleotide polymorphisms in the irisin gene were determined (rs16835198, rs726344, rs3480, and rs1746661. Univariable and multivariable regression modeling was applied to evaluate maternal and cord blood irisin concentrations in relation to preterm/term labor. Irisin concentration in umbilical cord blood was found to be associated with PTB in the univariable model (p=0.046. On the other hand, no differences in maternal blood irisin levels between mothers with preterm and term deliveries were established. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study determining irisin levels in term and preterm deliveries in maternal peripheral blood and umbilical cord blood. Our study shows a possible association between cord blood irisin concentration and PTB occurrence.

  11. Free radical scavenging actions of three Trifolium species in the protection of blood plasma antioxidant capacity in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolodziejczyk-Czepas, Joanna; Nowak, Pawel; Moniuszko-Szajwaj, Barbara; Kowalska, Iwona; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Three clover [Trifolium L. (Leguminosae)] species were selected on the basis of data from traditional medicine, phytochemical profiles, and agricultural significance. The in vitro evaluations of free radical scavenging properties, ferric reducing abilities, and antioxidant effects of extracts from T. pratense L. (crude extract and phenolic fraction), T. pallidum L., and T. scabrum L. (phenolic fractions) were performed. Activities of the Trifolium extracts were determined at their final concentrations of 1.5-50 µg/ml. Free radical scavenging properties of methanol extract solutions were estimated by the reduction of DPPH(•) and ABTS(•) radicals. Measurements of the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were carried out to assess the antioxidant activities of the extracts in human blood plasma under conditions of oxidative stress, induced by 200 μM peroxynitrite. The phenolic fraction of T. pratense displayed the strongest ABTS(•) and DPPH(•) radical scavenging effects (EC50 value of 21.69 and 12.27 µg/ml, respectively). The EC50 value for T. pallidum extract attained 29.77 and 30.06 µg/ml. The two remaining extracts were less potent scavengers (EC50 value higher than 50 µg/ml). Similar differences were obtained during evaluation of the ferric reducing abilities. Analysis of antioxidant properties of the extracts in blood plasma did not provide such evident differences in their actions, however, it indicated that the T. pratense phenolic fraction displayed the strongest effect. The examined Trifolium extracts partly protected blood plasma and enhanced its non-enzymatic antioxidant defense against harmful action of peroxynitrite in vitro.

  12. Quantitation of pregabalin in dried blood spots and dried plasma spots by validated LC-MS/MS methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostić, Nađa; Dotsikas, Yannis; Jović, Nebojša; Stevanović, Galina; Malenović, Anđelija; Medenica, Mirjana

    2015-05-10

    In this paper, novel LC-MS/MS methods for the determination of antiepileptic drug pregabalin in dried matrix spots (DMS) are presented. This attractive technique of sample collection in micro amount was utilized in the form of dried blood spots (DBS) and dried plasma spots (DPS). Following a pre-column derivatization procedure, using n-propyl chloroformate in the presence of n-propanol, and consecutive liquid-liquid extraction, derivatized pregabalin and its internal standard, 4-aminocyclohexanecarboxylic acid, were detected in positive ion mode by applying two SRM transitions per analyte. A YMC-Pack Octyl column (50mm×4.0mm, 3μm particle size) maintained at 30°C, was utilized with running mobile phase composed of acetonitrile: 0.15% formic acid (85:15, v/v). Flow rate was 550μL/min and total run time 2min. Established methods were fully validated over the concentration range of 0.200-20.0μg/mL for DBS and 0.400-40.0μg/mL for DPS, respectively, while specificity, accuracy, precision, recovery, matrix-effect, stability, dilution integrity and spot homogeneity were found within acceptance criteria. Validated methods were applied for the determination of pregabalin levels in dried blood and plasma samples obtained from patients with epilepsy, after per os administration of commercial capsules. Comparison of drug level in blood and plasma, as well as correction steps undertaken in order to overcome hematocrit issue, when analyzing DBS, are also given. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Establishing empirical relationships to predict porosity level and corrosion rate of atmospheric plasma-sprayed alumina coatings on AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Thirumalaikumarasamy

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma sprayed ceramic coatings are successfully used in many industrial applications, where high wear and corrosion resistance with thermal insulation are required. In this work, empirical relationships were developed to predict the porosity and corrosion rate of alumina coatings by incorporating independently controllable atmospheric plasma spray operational parameters (input power, stand-off distance and powder feed rate using response surface methodology (RSM. A central composite rotatable design with three factors and five levels was chosen to minimize the number of experimental conditions. Within the scope of the design space, the input power and the stand-off distance appeared to be the most significant two parameters affecting the responses among the three investigated process parameters. A linear regression relationship was also established between porosity and corrosion rate of the alumina coatings. Further, sensitivity analysis was carried out and compared with the relative impact of three process parameters on porosity level and corrosion rate to verify the measurement errors on the values of the uncertainty in estimated parameters.

  14. HPLC-HG-AFS determination of arsenic species in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) plasma and blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Meihua; Wang, Wenjing; Hai, Xin; Zhou, Jin

    2017-10-25

    Arsenic trioxide (ATO) has been successfully used in the treatment of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). To clarify the arsenic species in APL patients, high performance liquid chromatography-hydride generation-atomic fluorescence spectrometry (HPLC-HG-AFS) and HG-AFS methods were developed and validated to quantify the plasma concentrations of inorganic arsenic (As(III) and As(V)) and methylated metabolites (MMA and DMA), and the total amounts of arsenic in blood cells and plasma. Blood cells and plasma were digested with mixtures of HNO 3 H 2 O 2 and analyzed by HG-AFS. For arsenic speciation, plasma samples were prepared with perchloric acid to precipitate protein. The supernatant was separated on an anion-exchange column within 6min with isocratic elution using 13mM CH 3 COONa, 3mM NaH 2 PO 4 , 4mM KNO 3 and 0.2mM EDTA-2Na. The methods provided linearity range of 0.2-20ng/mL for total arsenic and 2.0-50ng/mL for four arsenic species. The developed methods for total arsenic and arsenic species determination were precise and accurate. The spiked recoveries ranged from 81.2%-108.6% and the coefficients of variation for intra- and inter-batch precision were less than 9.3% and 12.5%, respectively. The developed methods were applied successfully for the assay of total arsenic and arsenic species in 5 APL patients. The HPLC-HG-AFS may be a good alternative for arsenic species determination in APL patients with its simplicity and low-cost in comparison with HPLC-ICP-MS. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. NH3/O2 mixed gas plasmas alter the interaction of blood components with stainless steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Meng; Zamora, Paul O; Peña, Louis; Som, Prantika; Osaki, Shigemasa

    2003-12-01

    Stainless steel treated with a mixed gas plasma of NH(3) plus O(2) had chemical and biologic characteristics distinct from untreated stainless steel or stainless steel treated with NH(3) or O(2) plasmas used separately. NH(3)/O(2) plasmas deposited nitrogen as both -CN (organic) and -NO (nitrate, nitrite)--materials not found on untreated stainless steel--and the contact angle changed from 44 degrees to 23 degrees. Treatment of stainless steel (and titanium) resulted in surfaces with enhanced resistance to platelet and leukocyte attachment. A gas plasma of N(2)O/O(2) also was found to reduce platelet and leukocyte attachment, suggesting that these properties may be common to surfaces coated with oxynitrites (nitrides). Upon subcutaneous implantation, no inflammation, hemolysis, or untoward thrombosis was noted in the tissue surrounding the wafers treated with the NH(3)/O(2) plasmas, although the cellular density was considerably reduced by 2 weeks after implant. Collectively, the results suggest that NH(3)/O(2) plasmas impart a unique character to stainless steel that may be useful in the construction of medical devices. Copyright 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res 67A: 994-1000, 2003

  16. Vitamin E and vitamin E-quinone levels in red blood cells and plasma of newborn infants and their mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, S K; Wise, R; Bocchini, J J

    1996-02-01

    Vitamin E is a physiological antioxidant and protects cell membranes from oxidative damage. This study has determined whether vitamin E level in RBC of newborns has any relationship with its level in their mothers. We have also examined levels of vitamin E and vitamin E-quinone, an oxidized product of vitamin E, in paired samples of red blood cells (RBC) and plasma of newborns and their mothers. Blood was collected from 26 mothers and their full-term placental cords at delivery. Vitamin E and vitamin E-quinone levels were determined in RBC and plasma by HPLC. Newborn-plasma had significantly lower vitamin E levels compared with maternal-plasma both when expressed as nmole/ml (5.5+/-0.4 vs 26.1+/-1.1, p = 0.0001) or nmole/mumole total lipids (1.9+/-0.1 vs 2.6+/-0.1, p = 0.0001). Vitamin E level in the newborn-RBC was similar to that of maternal-RBC when expressed as nmole/ml packed cells (2.77+/-0.14 vs 2.95+/-0.13), but was significantly lower when expressed as nmole/mumole total lipids (0.56+/-0.03 vs 0.64+/-0.04, p = 0.03) from that of maternal-RBC. Vitamin E-quinone levels are significantly elevated in newborns compared with their mothers both in RBC (29.4+/-2.1 vs 24.1+/-1.2, p = 0.04) and plasma (39.9+/-5.3 vs 25.3+/-4.2, p = 0.006) when expressed as nmole/mmole total lipids but not when expressed as nmole/ml. There was a significant correlation of vitamin E between newborn-plasma and newborn-RBC (r = 0.65, p = 0.0002 for nmole per ml packed RBC;r = 0.63, p = 0.0007 for nmole per mumole total lipids). The relationship between maternal plasma and newborn plasma was significant when vitamin E was normalized with nmole/mumole total lipid (r = 0.54, p = 0.007 but not when expressed as nmole/ml (r = 0.09, p = 0.64). However, vitamin E in the RBC of maternal and newborn had significant correlation when expressed as per ml packed cells (r = 0.61, p = 0.001) and per total lipid (r = 0.46, p = 0.02). There was no relationship of vitamin E-quinone levels between RBC and

  17. Prognostic value of determination of carcinoembryonic antigen and α-fetoprotein level in blood plasma in patients with cancer stomach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smyslova, V.N.; Vygonnyj, I.I.

    1986-01-01

    60 donors and 129 patients with cancer stomach were examined. Tumor antigens were determined in blood plasma by the method of radioimmunoassay. The upper boundary of the norm of alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) and carcino-embryonic antigen (CEA) is 12 ng/ml. Increased concentration of antigens studied is detected in most patients. It is established that the level of antigens increases depending on generalization of the process, cancer stage, tumor propagation in the stomach wall, patient's age. High volumes of AFP and CEA after operation give evidence about non-radicality of operation and bad prognosis

  18. Catalyst-free „click” functionalization of polymer brushes preserves antifouling properties enabling detection in blood plasma

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Parrillo, Viviana; de los Santos Pereira, Andres; Riedel, Tomáš; Rodriguez-Emmenegger, C.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 971, 8 June (2017), s. 78-87 ISSN 0003-2670 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GJ15-09368Y; GA MŠk(CZ) LQ1604; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0109 Grant - others:OPPK(XE) CZ.2.16/3.1.00/21545 Program:OPPK Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : affinity optical biosensors * blood plasma * fouling Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry OBOR OECD: Polymer science Impact factor: 4.950, year: 2016

  19. Radiation response of plasma protein and albumin of peripheral blood and its modification by MPG (2-mercaptopropionylglycine) in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nandchahal, K.K.; Routh, J.; Mathur, S.; Bhartiya, H.C.

    1990-01-01

    Changes in the total protein and albumin level in the blood of six week and three week old Swiss albino mice exposed to a sublethal dose of 2.2 Gy of gamma rays after an intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/kg body weight of the radioprotector drug MPG (2-Mercaptopropionylglycine) were studied. The results were compared with those obtained from animals irradiated with the same dose of gamma rays in the absence of the drug. Animals were sacrificed at one, three, five, seven and 14 days after irradiation. The drug has been found to modify the levels of plasma protein and albumin in the blood of the irradiated animals. The depletion observed was less marked in the drug treated animals than their respective controls. The observations have been discussed in light of relevant literature. (orig.) [de

  20. Blood Volume, Plasma Volume and Circulation Time in a High-Energy-Demand Teleost, the Yellowfin Tuna (Thunnus Albacares)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brill, R.W.; Cousins, K.L.; Jones, D.R.

    1998-01-01

    We measured red cell space with 51Cr-labeled red blood cells, and dextran space with 500 kDa fluorescein-isothiocyanate-labeled dextran (FITC-dextran), in two groups of yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares). Red cell space was 13.8+/-0.7 ml kg-1 (mean +/- s.e.m.) Assuming a whole- body hematocrit...... for albacore (Thunnus alalunga, 82-197 ml kg-1). Plasma volume within the primary circulatory system (calculated from the 51Cr-labeled red blood cell data) was 32.9+/-2.3 ml kg-1. Dextran space was 37.0+/-3.7 ml kg-1. Because 500 kDa FITC-dextran appeared to remain within the vascular space, these data imply...

  1. Determination of Cd and Pb in human blood by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry : International comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chang Joon; Suh, Jeong Ki; Lee, Sang Hwa

    1996-01-01

    Inorganic analytical laboratory of Korea Research Institute of Standards and Science participated in an interlaboratory comparison program operated by Quebec Toxicology Centre of Canada in 1994 and again in 1995. The objective of this program is to enable participating laboratories to assess reproducibility and accuracy of their analytical results for trace toxic elements in human biological fluids. This laboratory determined Cd and Pb concentrations in 3 levels of human blood samples by isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. 0.5 mL of blood sample is added to the digestion bomb together with 2 mL of nitric acid and enriched spike isotopes and then decomposed in the microwave digestion system. The decomposed sample is diluted to 10 mL and nebulized into ICP-MS. The Cd and Pb values reported by all participating laboratories are presented and compared. The values reported by this laboratory are within the acceptable range of target values. (author)

  2. Magnesium Borohydride: From Hydrogen Storage to Magnesium Battery**

    OpenAIRE

    Mohtadi, Rana; Matsui, Masaki; Arthur, Timothy S; Hwang, Son-Jong

    2012-01-01

    Beyond hydrogen storage: The first example of reversible magnesium deposition/stripping onto/from an inorganic salt was seen for a magnesium borohydride electrolyte. High coulombic efficiency of up to 94 % was achieved in dimethoxyethane solvent. This Mg(BH_4)_2 electrolyte was utilized in a rechargeable magnesium battery.

  3. Determination of reference ranges for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Marzoki, Jasim M; Al-Maaroof, Zainab W; Kadhum, Ali H

    2012-01-01

    Background The health of an individual is known to vary in different countries, in the same country at different times, and in the same individuals at different ages. This means that the condition of individuals must be related to or compared with reference data. Determination of a reference range for the healthy term newborn is clinically important in terms of various complete blood count parameters. The purpose of this study was to establish a local reference range for full blood count parameters in neonatal cord plasma in Hilla, Babil, Iraq. Methods A total of 220 mothers and their neonates were enrolled in this cross-sectional study from February 2011 to January 2012. Maternal inclusion criteria were age 15–45 years, an uneventful pregnancy, and hemoglobin ≥ 10 g. Neonatal inclusion criteria were full term (37–42 weeks) and normal birth weight. The umbilical cord was immediately clamped after delivery of the baby; 3 mL of cord blood was then taken from the umbilical vein and collected in a tube containing ethylenediamine tetra-acetic acid, its plasma was analyzed for full blood count parameters by standard Coulter gram, and the differential leukocyte count was done manually. Results Mean neonatal hemoglobin was 13.88 ± 1.34 (range 11–17.3) g/dL and mean white cell count was 10.12 ± 2.8 (range 3.1–21.6) × 109/L. Mean platelet count was 267.63 ± 60.62 (range 152–472) × 109/L. No significant differences in red cell, white cell, or platelet counts were found between males and females, except for neutrophil count. The current study shows lower levels of hemoglobin, white cells, and red cells compared with other studies, and there is agreement with some studies and disagreement with others concerning platelet count. Conclusion Most results in the current study were within the reference range. The hematological reference values for Iraqi neonatal cord plasma need to be confirmed by larger numbers of blood samples and by collecting samples from

  4. Plasma brain-derived neurotrophic factor and reverse dipping pattern of nocturnal blood pressure in patients with cardiovascular risk factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Kadoya

    Full Text Available Basic studies have shown that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF has critical roles in the survival, growth, maintenance, and death of central and peripheral neurons, while it is also involved in regulation of the autonomic nervous system. Furthermore, recent clinical studies have suggested potential role of plasma BDNF in the circulatory system.We investigated the mutual relationships among plasma BDNF, patterns of nocturnal blood pressure changes (dippers, non-dippers, extra-dippers, and reverse-dippers, and cardiac autonomic function as determined by heart rate variability (HRV.This was a cross-sectional study of patients registered in the Hyogo Sleep Cardio-Autonomic Atherosclerosis (HSCAA Study from October 2010 to November 2012.Two-hundred fifty patients with 1 or more cardiovascular risk factor(s (obesity, smoking, presence of cardiovascular event history, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, chronic kidney disease were enrolled.Plasma BDNF levels (natural logarithm transformed were significantly (p = 0.001 lower in reverse-dipper patients (7.18±0.69 pg/ml, mean ± SD, n = 36 as compared to dippers (7.86±0.86 pg/ml, n = 100. Multiple logistic regression analysis showed that BDNF (odds ratios: 0.417, 95% confidence interval: 0.228-0.762, P = 0.004 was the sole factor significantly and independently associated with the reverse-dippers as compared with dippers. Furthermore, plasma BDNF level was significantly and positively correlated with the time-domain (SDNN, SDANN5, CVRR and frequency-domain (LF of HRV parameters. Finally, multiple logistic regression analyses showed that the relationship between plasma BDNF and the reverse-dippers was weakened, yet remained significant or borderline significant even after adjusting for HRV parameters.Low plasma BDNF was independently associated with patients showing a reverse-dipper pattern of nocturnal blood pressure, in which an imbalance of cardiac autonomic function

  5. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, G.A.; Moraes, V.M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R.L.; Macari, M.

    1991-01-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T 4 and T 3 concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T 4 level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs

  6. Effects of previous protein intake on rectal temperature, blood glucose, plasma thyroid hormone and minerals by laying hens during a forced molt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigues, G A; Moraes, V M.B.; Cherici, I; Furlan, R L; Macari, M [UNESP, Jaboticabal, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Agrarias e Veterinarias

    1991-12-01

    The effects of forced molting on blood glucose, rectal temperature, plasma T4, T3 and minerals were studied in hens previously fed rations with different protein contents (14, 17 and 20% crude protein). Blood samples were obtained from brachial veins for blood glucose, T4 and T3 were measured by radioimmunoassay, and plasma minerals were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Blood glucose and rectal temperature were reduced during fasting regardless of previous protein intake. Pre molting T4 plasma level was higher in laying hens fed higher protein ration, but feed deprivation reduced T{sub 4} and T{sub 3} concentrations irrespective of protein intake, except T{sub 4} level for 14% crude protein fed birds that increased during fasting. The data obtained in this experiment suggest that previous protein intake does not interfere with the metabolic changes during forced molt. (author). 19 refs, 1 fig, 4 tabs.

  7. [Determination of sodium, magnesium, calcium, lithium and strontium in natural mineral drinking water by microwave plasma torch spectrometer with nebulization sample introduction system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Wei; Xiong, Hai-long; Feng, Guo-dong; Yu, Ai-min; Chen, Huan-wen

    2014-06-01

    The microwave plasma torch (MPT) was used as the emission light source. Aqueous samples were introduced with a nebulizer and a desolvation system. A method for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in natural mineral drinking water by argon microwave plasma torch spectrometer (ArMPT spectrometer) was established. The effects of microwave power, flow rate of carrier gas and support gas were investigated in detail and these parameters were optimized. Under the optimized condition, the experiments for the determination of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr in 11 kinds of bottled mineral drinking water were carried out by ArMPT spectrometer. The limit-of-detection (LOD) of Na, Mg, Ca, Li and Sr was found to be 4.4, 21, 56, 11 and 84 μg x mL(-1), respectively. Relative standard deviation (n = 6) was in the range of 1.30%-5.45% and standard addition recoveries were in the range of 84.6%-98.5%. MPT spectrometer was simpler, more convenient and of lower cost as compared to ICP unit. MPT spectrometer demonstrated its rapid analysis speed, accuracy, sensitivity and simultaneous multi element analysis ability during the analysis process. The results showed that MPT spectrometer was suitable for metal elements detection for natural mineral drinking water. This approach provides not only one way for resisting the illegal dealings, but also a security for the quality of drinking water. Moreover, the usability of MPT spectrometer in the field of food security; drug safety; clinical diagnostic is promised.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF MAGNESIUM ALLOYS MACHINABILITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berat Barıs BULDUM

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Magnesium is the lightest structural metal. Magnesium alloys have a hexagonal lattice structure, which affects the fundamental properties of these alloys. Plastic deformation of the hexagonal lattice is more complicated than in cubic latticed metals like aluminum, copper and steel. Magnesium alloy developments have traditionally been driven by industry requirements for lightweight materials to operate under increasingly demanding conditions. Magnesium alloys have always been attractive to designers due to their low density, only two thirds that of aluminium and its alloys [1]. The element and its alloys take a big part of modern industry needs. Especially nowadays magnesium alloys are used in automotive and mechanical (trains and wagons manufacture, because of its lightness and other features. Magnesium and magnesium alloys are the easiest of all metals to machine, allowing machining operations at extremely high speed. All standard machining operations such as turning, drilling, milling, are commonly performed on magnesium parts.

  9. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  10. Induction of hepatic protein synthesis by a peptide in blood plasma of patients with sepsis and trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loda, M; Clowes, G H; Dinarello, C A; George, B C; Lane, B; Richardson, W

    1984-08-01

    Accelerated release of amino acids from muscle and their uptake for protein synthesis by liver and other visceral tissues are characteristic of trauma or sepsis. Experimentally, this response is induced by interleukin-1 (IL-1) generated by activated macrophages in vitro. However, IL-1 has not been demonstrated in human blood. A small 4000-dalton peptide recently isolated from plasma of patients with sepsis and trauma induces muscle proteolysis and is called "proteolysis-inducing factor" (PIF). To test whether this agent has the ability also to induce hepatic protein synthesis, a series of animal experiments and clinical observations were undertaken. The structural and secretory (acute-phase reactants) in vitro protein synthesis in livers of normal rats injected intraperitoneally with IL-1 or PIF was significantly greater than that of normal rats or those injected with Ringer's lactate (p less than 0.01). In patients with sepsis and trauma the central plasma clearance rate of amino acids, a measure of visceral (principally hepatic) amino acid uptake, was elevated and correlated with the rates of protein synthesis in incubated liver slices obtained by biopsy at operation from the same patients (p less than 0.05). Both in vivo measured central plasma clearance rate of amino acids and in vitro measured hepatic protein synthesis correlated with plasma levels of PIF in the same patients (p less than 0.01 and p less than 0.05, respectively). We conclude that since PIF, and not IL-1, is present in human plasma and both are produced by activated macrophages, PIF seems to be the stable circulating cleavage product of IL-1, which induces not only muscle proteolysis but also hepatic protein synthesis, principally in the form of acute-phase reactants during infection and other states in which inflammation is present.

  11. The effect of a plasma needle on bacteria in planktonic samples and on peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lazovic, Sasa; Puac, Nevena; Maletic, Dejan; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran; Miletic, Maja; Pavlica, Dusan; Jovanovic, Milena; Milenkovic, Pavle; Bugarski, Diana; Mojsilovic, Slavko

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study the application of a plasma needle to induce necrosis in planktonic samples containing a single breed of bacteria. Two different types of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), were covered in this study. In all experiments with bacteria, the samples were liquid suspensions of several different concentrations of bacteria prepared according to the McFarland standard. The second system studied in this paper was human peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (hPB-MSC). In the case of hPB-MSC, two sets of experiments were performed: when cells were covered with a certain amount of liquid (indirect) and when the cell sample was in direct contact with the plasma. Most importantly, the study is made with the aim to see the effects when the living cells are in a liquid medium, which normally acts as protection against the many agents that may be released by plasmas. It was found that a good effect may be expected for a wide range of initial cell densities and operating conditions causing destruction of several orders of magnitude even under the protection of a liquid. It was established independently that a temperature increase could not affect the cells under the conditions of our experiment, so the effect could originate only from the active species produced by the plasma. In the case of those hPB-MSC that were not protected by a liquid, gas flow proved to produce a considerable effect, presumably due to poor adhesion of the cells, but in a liquid the effect was only due to the plasma. Further optimization of the operation may be attempted, opening up the possibility of localized in vivo sterilization.

  12. The effect of a plasma needle on bacteria in planktonic samples and on peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lazovic, Sasa; Puac, Nevena; Maletic, Dejan; Malovic, Gordana; Petrovic, Zoran [Institute of Physics, Pregrevica 118, 11080 Belgrade (Serbia); Miletic, Maja; Pavlica, Dusan; Jovanovic, Milena; Milenkovic, Pavle [Faculty of Stomatology, Dr Subotica 8, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Bugarski, Diana; Mojsilovic, Slavko, E-mail: lazovic@ipb.ac.r [Institute for Medical Research, Dr Subotica-starijeg 4, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2010-08-15

    In this paper, we study the application of a plasma needle to induce necrosis in planktonic samples containing a single breed of bacteria. Two different types of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), were covered in this study. In all experiments with bacteria, the samples were liquid suspensions of several different concentrations of bacteria prepared according to the McFarland standard. The second system studied in this paper was human peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (hPB-MSC). In the case of hPB-MSC, two sets of experiments were performed: when cells were covered with a certain amount of liquid (indirect) and when the cell sample was in direct contact with the plasma. Most importantly, the study is made with the aim to see the effects when the living cells are in a liquid medium, which normally acts as protection against the many agents that may be released by plasmas. It was found that a good effect may be expected for a wide range of initial cell densities and operating conditions causing destruction of several orders of magnitude even under the protection of a liquid. It was established independently that a temperature increase could not affect the cells under the conditions of our experiment, so the effect could originate only from the active species produced by the plasma. In the case of those hPB-MSC that were not protected by a liquid, gas flow proved to produce a considerable effect, presumably due to poor adhesion of the cells, but in a liquid the effect was only due to the plasma. Further optimization of the operation may be attempted, opening up the possibility of localized in vivo sterilization.

  13. The effect of a plasma needle on bacteria in planktonic samples and on peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazović, Saša; Puač, Nevena; Miletić, Maja; Pavlica, Dušan; Jovanović, Milena; Bugarski, Diana; Mojsilović, Slavko; Maletić, Dejan; Malović, Gordana; Milenković, Pavle; Petrović, Zoran

    2010-08-01

    In this paper, we study the application of a plasma needle to induce necrosis in planktonic samples containing a single breed of bacteria. Two different types of bacteria, Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) and Escherichia coli (ATCC 25922), were covered in this study. In all experiments with bacteria, the samples were liquid suspensions of several different concentrations of bacteria prepared according to the McFarland standard. The second system studied in this paper was human peripheral blood mesenchymal stem cells (hPB-MSC). In the case of hPB-MSC, two sets of experiments were performed: when cells were covered with a certain amount of liquid (indirect) and when the cell sample was in direct contact with the plasma. Most importantly, the study is made with the aim to see the effects when the living cells are in a liquid medium, which normally acts as protection against the many agents that may be released by plasmas. It was found that a good effect may be expected for a wide range of initial cell densities and operating conditions causing destruction of several orders of magnitude even under the protection of a liquid. It was established independently that a temperature increase could not affect the cells under the conditions of our experiment, so the effect could originate only from the active species produced by the plasma. In the case of those hPB-MSC that were not protected by a liquid, gas flow proved to produce a considerable effect, presumably due to poor adhesion of the cells, but in a liquid the effect was only due to the plasma. Further optimization of the operation may be attempted, opening up the possibility of localized in vivo sterilization.

  14. Magnesium Tube Hydroforming

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liewald, M.; Pop, R.; Wagner, S.

    2007-01-01

    Magnesium alloys can be considered as alternative materials towards achieving light weight structures with high material stiffness. The formability of two magnesium alloys, viz. AZ31 and ZM21 has been experimentally tested using the IHP forming process. A new die set up for hot IHP forming has been designed and the process experimentally investigated for temperatures up to 400 deg. C. Both alloys exhibit an increase in formability with increasing forming temperature. The effect of annealing time on materials forming properties shows a fine grained structure for sufficient annealing times as well as deterioration with a large increase at the same time. The IHP process has also been used to demonstrate practicability and feasibility for real parts from manufacture a technology demonstrator part using the magnesium alloy ZM21

  15. Presence of medication taken by blood donors in plasma for transfusion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Tilborgh, A.J.W.; Touw, D.J.; Wiersum-Osselton, J.C.; Zijlker-Jansen, P.Y.; Hudig, F.; Schipperus, M.R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: The TRIP national hemovigilance and biovigilance office receives reports on side effects and incidents associated with the transfusion of labile blood products. The findings are publicly reported in annual hemovigilance reports. The category of anaphylactic reaction, defined as allergic

  16. Metabolomic Analysis of Blood Plasma after Oral Administration of N-acetyl-d-Glucosamine in Dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomohiro Osaki

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available N-acetyl-d-glucosamine (GlcNAc is a monosaccharide that polymerizes linearly through (1,4-β-linkages. GlcNAc is the monomeric unit of the polymer chitin. GlcNAc is a basic component of hyaluronic acid and keratin sulfate found on the cell surface. The aim of this study was to examine amino acid metabolism after oral GlcNAc administration in dogs. Results showed that plasma levels of ectoine were significantly higher after oral administration of GlcNAc than prior to administration (p < 0.001. To our knowledge, there have been no reports of increased ectoine concentrations in the plasma. The mechanism by which GlcNAc administration leads to increased ectoine plasma concentration remains unclear; future studies are required to clarify this mechanism.

  17. Analysis of human blood plasma proteome from ten healthy volunteers from Indian population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Gautam

    Full Text Available Analysis of any mammalian plasma proteome is a challenge, particularly by mass spectrometry, due to the presence of albumin and other abundant proteins which can mask the detection of low abundant proteins. As detection of human plasma proteins is valuable in diagnostics, exploring various workflows with minimal fractionation prior to mass spectral analysis, is required in order to study population diversity involving analysis in a large cohort of samples. Here, we used 'reference plasma sample', a pool of plasma from 10 healthy individuals from Indian population in the age group of 25-60 yrs including 5 males and 5 females. The 14 abundant proteins were immunodepleted from plasma and then evaluated by three different workflows for proteome analysis using a nanoflow reverse phase liquid chromatography system coupled to a LTQ Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. The analysis of reference plasma sample a without prefractionation, b after prefractionation at peptide level by strong cation exchange chromatography and c after prefractionation at protein level by sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, led to the identification of 194, 251 and 342 proteins respectively. Together, a comprehensive dataset of 517 unique proteins was achieved from all the three workflows, including 271 proteins with high confidence identified by ≥ 2 unique peptides in any of the workflows or identified by single peptide in any of the two workflows. A total of 70 proteins were common in all the three workflows. Some of the proteins were unique to our study and could be specific to Indian population. The high-confidence dataset obtained from our study may be useful for studying the population diversity, in discovery and validation process for biomarker identification.

  18. Magnesium for Hydrogen Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vigeholm, B.; Kjøller, John; Larsen, Bent

    1980-01-01

    The reaction of hydrogen with commercially pure magnesium powder (above 99.7%) was investigated in the temperature range 250–400 °C. Hydrogen is readily sorbed above the dissociation pressure. During the initial exposure the magnesium powder sorbs hydrogen slowly below 400 °C but during the second...... that the particles do not disintegrate is explained by a sintering process at the working temperatures. Exposure to air does not impair the sorption ability; on the contrary, it appears that surface oxidation plays an important role in the reaction. Some handling problems, e.g. the reaction of the hydride with water...

  19. ACTH, corticosterone, and beta-endorphin in rat blood plasma after prolonged immobilization stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiyatkin, E.A.; Amiragova, M.G.; Kushlinskii, N.E.; Polyntsev, Yu. V.

    1986-01-01

    To assess functional relations between changes in ACTH, beta-endorphin (BE), and corticosterone (CS) levels, plasma concentrations of these hormones were studied in rats during the development of prolonged immobilization stress. Plasma hormone concentrations were determined by radioimmunoassay. The results were analyzed by standard statistical methods on a microcomputer. A particular feature about the kit used to determine BE was the presence of 50% cross-reactivity of the antiserum against beta-lipotrophin. To determine CS a highly specific antiserum produced by a laboratory was used.

  20. Pathogen inactivation efficacy of Mirasol PRT System and Intercept Blood System for non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, S Y; Kim, I S; Bae, J E; Kang, J W; Cho, Y J; Cho, N S; Lee, S W

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of pathogen inactivation (PI) in non-leucoreduced platelet-rich plasma-derived platelets suspended in plasma using the Mirasol PRT System and the Intercept Blood System. Platelets were pooled using the Acrodose PL system and separated into two aliquots for Mirasol and Intercept treatment. Four replicates of each viral strain were used for the evaluation. For bacteria, both low-titre (45-152 CFU/unit) inoculation and high-titre (7·34-10·18 log CFU/unit) inoculation with two replicates for each bacterial strain were used. Platelets with non-detectable bacterial growth and platelets inoculated with a low titre were stored for 5 days, and culture was performed with the BacT/ALERT system. The inactivation efficacy expressed as log reduction for Mirasol and Intercept systems for viruses was as follows: human immunodeficiency virus 1, ≥4·19 vs. ≥4·23; bovine viral diarrhoea virus, 1·83 vs. ≥6·03; pseudorabies virus, 2·73 vs. ≥5·20; hepatitis A virus, 0·62 vs. 0·76; and porcine parvovirus, 0·28 vs. 0·38. The inactivation efficacy for bacteria was as follows: Escherichia coli, 5·45 vs. ≥9·22; Staphylococcus aureus, 4·26 vs. ≥10·11; and Bacillus subtilis, 5·09 vs. ≥7·74. Postinactivation bacterial growth in platelets inoculated with a low titre of S. aureus or B. subtilis was detected only with Mirasol. Pathogen inactivation efficacy of Intercept for enveloped viruses was found to be satisfactory. Mirasol showed satisfactory inactivation efficacy for HIV-1 only. The two selected non-enveloped viruses were not inactivated by both systems. Inactivation efficacy of Intercept was more robust for all bacteria tested at high or low titres. © 2014 International Society of Blood Transfusion.

  1. Deep-Dive Targeted Quantification for Ultrasensitive Analysis of Proteins in Nondepleted Human Blood Plasma/Serum and Tissues

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nie, Song [Biological Sciences Division; Shi, Tujin [Biological Sciences Division; Fillmore, Thomas L. [Biological Sciences Division; Schepmoes, Athena A. [Biological Sciences Division; Brewer, Heather [Biological Sciences Division; Gao, Yuqian [Biological Sciences Division; Song, Ehwang [Biological Sciences Division; Wang, Hui [Biological Sciences Division; Rodland, Karin D. [Biological Sciences Division; Qian, Wei-Jun [Biological Sciences Division; Smith, Richard D. [Biological Sciences Division; Liu, Tao [Biological Sciences Division

    2017-08-11

    Mass spectrometry-based targeted proteomics (e.g., selected reaction monitoring, SRM) is emerging as an attractive alternative to immunoassays for protein quantification. Recently we have made significant progress in SRM sensitivity for enabling quantification of low ng/mL to sub-ng/mL level proteins in nondepleted human blood plasma/serum without affinity enrichment. However, precise quantification of extremely low abundant but biologically important proteins (e.g., ≤100 pg/mL in blood plasma/serum) using targeted proteomics approaches still remains challenging. To address this need, we have developed an antibody-independent Deep-Dive SRM (DD-SRM) approach that capitalizes on multidimensional high-resolution reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) separation for target peptide enrichment combined with precise selection of target peptide fractions of interest, significantly improving SRM sensitivity by ~5 orders of magnitude when compared to conventional LC-SRM. Application of DD-SRM to human serum and tissue has been demonstrated to enable precise quantification of endogenous proteins at ~10 pg/mL level in nondepleted serum and at <10 copies per cell level in tissue. Thus, DD-SRM holds great promise for precisely measuring extremely low abundance proteins or protein modifications, especially when high-quality antibody is not available.

  2. Hypomethylation of serum blood clot DNA, but not plasma EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA, from vitamin B12-deficient subjects.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eoin P Quinlivan

    Full Text Available Vitamin B12, a co-factor in methyl-group transfer, is important in maintaining DNA (deoxycytidine methylation. Using two independent assays we examined the effect of vitamin B12-deficiency (plasma vitamin B12<148 pmol/L on DNA methylation in women of childbearing age. Coagulated blood clot DNA from vitamin B12-deficient women had significantly (p<0.001 lower percentage deoxycytidine methylation (3.23±0.66%; n = 248 and greater [3 H]methyl-acceptance (42,859±9,699 cpm; n = 17 than DNA from B12-replete women (4.44±0.18%; n = 128 and 26,049±2,814 cpm; n = 11 [correlation between assays: r = -0.8538; p<0.001; n = 28]. In contrast, uncoagulated EDTA-blood cell pellet DNA from vitamin B12-deficient and B12-replete women exhibited similar percentage methylation (4.45±0.15%; n = 77 vs. 4.47±0.15%; n = 47 and [3 H]methyl-acceptance (27,378±4,094 cpm; n = 17 vs. 26,610±2,292 cpm; n = 11. Therefore, in simultaneously collected paired blood samples, vitamin B12-deficiency was associated with decreased DNA methylation only in coagulated samples. These findings highlight the importance of sample collection methods in epigenetic studies, and the potential impact biological processes can have on DNA methylation during collection.

  3. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... positive or Rh-negative blood may be given to Rh-positive patients. The rules for plasma are the reverse: ... ethnic and racial groups have different frequency of the main blood types in their populations. Approximately ...

  4. Surface modification of blood-contacting biomaterials by plasma-polymerized superhydrophobic films using hexamethyldisiloxane and tetrafluoromethane as precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsiao, Chaio-Ru [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China); Lin, Cheng-Wei [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); Chou, Chia-Man, E-mail: cmchou@vghtc.gov.tw [Department of Surgery, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, No. 1650, Sec. 4, Taiwan Boulevard, Seatwen District, Taichung City 40705, Taiwan (China); Department of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, No. 155, Sec. 2, Linong Street, Beitou District, Taipei City 11221, Taiwan (China); Chung, Chi-Jen, E-mail: cjchung@seed.net.tw [Department of Dental Technology and Materials Science, Central Taiwan University of Science and Technology, No. 666, Buzih Rd., Beitun District, Taichung City 40601, Taiwan (China); He, Ju-Liang [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Feng Chia University, No. 100, Wenhwa Rd., Seatwen District, Taichung City 40724, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-15

    Highlights: • Biomaterials modified by nanoparticle-containing plasma polymerized films. • A superhydrophoic film was obtained, and the properties of the coating were examined. • In vitro blood compatibility tests revealed neither platelet adhesion nor fibrinogen adsorption. • Surface modification technology of medical devices: non-cytotoxic and no blood clot formation. - Abstract: This paper proposes a plasma polymerization system that can be used to modify the surface of the widely used biomaterial, polyurethane (PU), by employing low-cost hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDSO) and tetrafluoromethane (CF{sub 4}) as precursors; this system features a pulsed-dc power supply. Plasma-polymerized HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (pp-HC) with coexisting micro- and nanoscale morphology was obtained as a superhydrophobic coating material by controlling the HMDSO/CF{sub 4} (f{sub H}) monomer flow ratio. The developed surface modification technology can be applied to medical devices, because it is non-cytotoxic and has favorable hemocompatibility, and no blood clots form when the device surface direct contacts. Experimental results reveal that the obtained pp-HC films contained SiO{sub x} nanoparticles randomly dispersed on the micron-scale three-dimensional network film surface. The −CF functional group, −CF{sub 2} bonding, and SiO{sub x} were detected on the film surface. The maximal water contact angle of the pp-HC coating was 161.2°, apparently attributable to the synergistic effect of the coexisting micro- and nanoscale surface morphology featuring a low surface-energy layer. The superhydrophobic and antifouling characteristics of the coating were retained even after it was rubbed 20 times with a steel wool tester. Results of in vitro cytotoxicity, fibrinogen adsorption, and platelet adhesion tests revealed favorable myoblast cell proliferation and the virtual absence of fibrinogen adsorption and platelet adhesion on the pp-HC coated specimens. These quantitative findings imply

  5. [Cholinesterases in total blood measured with a semiquantitative technique, and plasma or erythrocyte cholinesterases measured with quantitative techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmona-Fonseca, Jaime

    2007-06-01

    An equivalence model which allows comparison of blood cholinesterase values, measured by Lovibond (semiquantitative technique), and Michel, EQM, Monotest (erythrocyte and plasma cholinesterases) values measured by quantitative techniques is required. The performance of Lovibond (Edson tintometric and Limperos & Ranta techniques) were compared with quantitative techniques. The experimental design was descriptive, cross-sectional, and prospective. From a working population (18-59 years) in Valle de Aburrá and Near East of Antioquia. 827 representative samples were chosen for their lack of exposure to cholinesterase-inhibiting plaguicides and affiliated to the Social Security System. (1) 827 workers were classified by Lovibond in four categories: 821 values with 75% of cholinesterase activity or greater (categories 75, 87.5 and 100%) and 6 with cholinesterase activity smaller than 75%. (2) With each quantitative method, the mean values of erythrocyte and plasmatic cholinesterase corresponding to the four values obtained with Lovibond were statistically different to each other. (3) The mean values of each quantitative technique increased when increased the tintometric method value. (4) Lovibond classified the low enzymatic erythrocyte activity very poorly (61-73%), but the classification of the low enzymatic plasma activity was almost completely in error (94-96%). The values of erythrocyte or plasma cholinesterase were adequately estimated by both the quantitative techniques of Michel and EQM and by Lovibond, but only when the enzymatic activity is normal. Lovibond, however, had a poor capacity to designate as "low" the values that were low according to the quantitative tests.

  6. The effect of polycarboxylate shell of magnetite nanoparticles on protein corona formation in blood plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szekeres, Márta, E-mail: szekeres@chem.u-szeged.hu [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Sciences, University of Szeged, Hungary, 1 Aradi vt, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Tóth, Ildikó Y. [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Sciences, University of Szeged, Hungary, 1 Aradi vt, 6720 Szeged (Hungary); Turcu, R. [National Institute R& D for Isotopic and Molecular Technology, Cluj-Napoca 400293 (Romania); Tombácz, Etelka [Department of Physical Chemistry and Materials Sciences, University of Szeged, Hungary, 1 Aradi vt, 6720 Szeged (Hungary)

    2017-04-01

    The development of protein corona around nanoparticles upon administration to the human body is responsible in a large part for their biodistribution, cell-internalization and toxicity or biocompatibility. We studied the influence of the chemical composition of polyelectrolyte shells (citric acid (CA) and poly(acrylic-co-maleic acid) (PAM)) of core-shell magnetite nanoparticles (MNPs) on the evolution of protein corona in human plasma (HP). The aggregation state and zeta potential of the particles were measured in the range of HP concentration between 1 and 80 (v/v)% 3 min and 20 h after dispersing the particles in HP diluted with Tris buffered saline. Naked MNPs aggregated in HP solution, but the carboxylated MNPs became stabilized colloidally at higher plasma concentrations. Significant differences were observed at low plasma concentration. CA@MNPs aggregated instantly while the hydrodynamic diameter of PAM@MNP increased only slightly at 1–3 v/v % HP concentrations. The observed differences in protein corona formation can be explained by the differences in the steric effects of the polycarboxylate shells. It is interesting that relatively small but systematic changes in zeta potential alter the aggregation state significantly. - Highlights: • Human plasma protein corona cannot stabilize naked and citrate-coated magnetite nanoparticles. • Polycarboxylic acid (PAM) coated MNPs are well stabilized with HP protein corona. • Stability pattern of naked, CA and PAM-coated MNPs is not predicted by zeta potential.

  7. Morphologic and cytochemical characteristics of blood cells and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges in green iguanas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harr, K E; Alleman, A R; Dennis, P M; Maxwell, L K; Lock, B A; Bennett, R A; Jacobson, E R

    2001-03-15

    To determine blood cell morphologic characteristics and hematologic and plasma biochemical reference ranges for iguanas housed in a warm indoor and outdoor environment with regular exposure to direct sunlight. Original study. 51 clinically normal iguanas (18 males, 25 females, and 8 juveniles) housed in 3 Florida locations. Blood was collected from the coccygeal or ventral abdominal vein. Any samples that had obvious hemolysis or clot formation were not used. Leukocyte counts were determined manually; other hematologic values were obtained by use of a commercially available cell counter. Plasma biochemical values were determined by use of a spectrophotometric chemistry analyzer. Blood smears were stained with Wright-Giemsa and cytochemical stains for morphologic and cytochemical evaluation. Hematologic ranges were generally higher in this study than previously reported. Thrombocytes were variable in appearance between individuals and sometimes difficult to distinguish from lymphocytes on a Wright-Giemsa preparation. Concentrations of calcium, phosphorus, total protein, globulins, and cholesterol were significantly higher, and the albumin:globulin ratio was significantly lower, in healthy gravid females than in male or nongravid female iguanas. Nongravid females had significantly higher calcium and cholesterol concentrations, compared with males. The calcium:phosphorus ratio was > 1 in all iguanas. Gravid females had a calcium phosphorus product ranging between 210 and 800. Intracytoplasmic inclusions were identified within the erythrocytes of some iguanas. Hematologic ranges for iguanas in this study are higher than those reported for iguanas. Sex and age of the iguana should be considered when evaluating biochemical values. Healthy ovulating and gravid females may have significantly increased electrolyte and protein concentrations, but maintain a calcium:phosphorus ratio > 1.

  8. Serum magnesium levels in patients with pre-eclampsia and eclampsia with different regimens of magnesium sulphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arpita Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background Pre-eclampsia and the subsequent eclampsia account for a common cause of maternal mortality worldwide and efforts aimed at reducing its menace are vital. Objective To estimate the serum magnesium levels in pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and to study the effect of using different regimens of magnesium sulphate. Methods 70 cases of pre-eclampsia and eclampsia and 35 normal pregnant women as controls were studied. Serum magnesium levels were estimated using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (Model AAS-4139 at baseline and at frequent intervals during gestation and the overall parameters were meticulously observed. Results Majority(60%ofstudiedcaseswasnulliparawithgestationageof36-40 weeks. Statistically significant reduction of mean diastolic blood pressure and protein-urea was observed after using both intramuscular and intravenous regimens of magnesium sulphate. Mean initial serum magnesium level (mg/dl±SD was 1.81±0.58 in group A,1.55±0.41 in group B and 1.49±0.41 in group C. Mean serum magnesium levels during first 4 hours after therapy were statistically significant between intramuscular and intravenous regimen groups while same were statistically insignificant at 8,12,16,24 and 32 hours. Besides, few minor side effects including headache, vomiting, reduced tendon reflexes and thrombocytopenia, no severe side effects and no maternal mortality were seen. Conclusion Hypomagnesemia occurs during states of preeclampsia and eclampsia, and, administration of magnesium sulphate is effective and safe in preventing maternal mortality.

  9. Zwitterionic sulfobetaine-grafted poly(vinylidene fluoride) membrane with highly effective blood compatibility via atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yung; Chang, Wan-Ju; Shih, Yu-Ju; Wei, Ta-Chin; Hsiue, Ging-Ho

    2011-04-01

    Development of nonfouling membranes to prevent nonspecific protein adsorption and platelet adhesion is critical for many biomedical applications. It is always a challenge to control the surface graft copolymerization of a highly polar monomer from the highly hydrophobic surface of a fluoropolymer membrane. In this work, the blood compatibility of poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) membranes with surface-grafted electrically neutral zwitterionic poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate) (PSBMA), from atmospheric plasma-induced surface copolymerization, was studied. The effect of surface composition and graft morphology, electrical neutrality, hydrophilicity and hydration capability on blood compatibility of the membranes were determined. Blood compatibility of the zwitterionic PVDF membranes was systematically evaluated by plasma protein adsorption, platelet adhesion, plasma-clotting time, and blood cell hemolysis. It was found that the nonfouling nature and hydration capability of grafted PSBMA polymers can be effectively controlled by regulating the grafting coverage and charge balance of the PSBMA layer on the PVDF membrane surface. Even a slight charge bias in the grafted zwitterionic PSBMA layer can induce electrostatic interactions between proteins and the membrane surfaces, leading to surface protein adsorption, platelet activation, plasma clotting and blood cell hemolysis. Thus, the optimized PSBMA surface graft layer in overall charge neutrality has a high hydration capability and the best antifouling, anticoagulant, and antihemolytic activities when comes into contact with human blood. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  10. Association of blood eosinophils and plasma periostin with FEV1 response after 3-month inhaled corticosteroid and long-acting beta2-agonist treatment in stable COPD patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hye Yun; Lee, Hyun; Koh, Won-Jung; Kim, Seonwoo; Jeong, Ina; Koo, Hyeon-Kyoung; Kim, Tae-Hyung; Kim, Jin Woo; Kim, Woo Jin; Oh, Yeon-Mok; Sin, Don D; Lim, Seong Yong; Lee, Sang-Do

    2016-01-01

    COPD patients with increased airway eosinophilic inflammation show a favorable response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in combination with a long-acting bronchodilator. Recent studies have demonstrated a significant correlation of sputum eosinophilia with blood eosinophils and periostin. We investigated whether high blood eosinophils and plasma periostin were associated with an improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) after 3-month treatment with ICS/long-acting beta2-agonist (LABA) in stable COPD patients. Blood eosinophils and plasma periostin levels were measured in 130 stable COPD subjects selected from the Korean Obstructive Lung Disease cohort. Subjects began a 3-month ICS/LABA treatment after washout period. High blood eosinophils (>260/µL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.009) and high plasma periostin (>23 ng/mL, adjusted odds ratio =3.52, P=0.013) were significantly associated with FEV1 responders (>12% and 200 mL increase in FEV1 from baseline after treatment). Moreover, the addition of high blood eosinophils to age, baseline positive bronchodilator response, and FEV1 eosinophils and high plasma periostin were associated with improved lung function after 3-month ICS/LABA treatment. In particular, high blood eosinophils, in combination with age and baseline lung function parameters, might be a possible biomarker for identification of COPD patients with favorable FEV1 improvement in response to ICS/LABA treatment.

  11. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; McKenzie, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag formed in the production of metallic uranium by the reduction of depleted uranium tetrafluoride with metallic magnesium in a retort wherein the slag contains the free metals magnesium and uranium and also oxides and fluorides of the metals. The slag having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 rhoCi/gm. The method comprises the steps of: grinding the slag to a median particle size of about 200 microns; contacting the ground slag in a r