WorldWideScience

Sample records for blood physiological phenomena

  1. Blood Flow Multiscale Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; Mijović, Budimir; Nikolić, Tatjana

    2007-01-01

    The cardiovascular disease is one of most frequent cause deaths in modern society. The objective of this work is analyse the effect of dynamic vascular geometry (curvature, torsion,bifurcation) and pulsatile blood nature on secondary flow, wall shear stress and platelet deposition. The problem was examined as multi-scale physical phenomena using perturbation analysis and numerical modelling. The secondary flow determined as influence pulsatile pressure, vascular tube time-dependen...

  2. Biomedical Signals and Sensors I Linking Physiological Phenomena and Biosignals

    CERN Document Server

    Kaniusas, Eugenijus

    2012-01-01

    This two-volume set focuses on the interface between physiologic mechanisms and diagnostic human engineering. Today numerous biomedical sensors are commonplace in clinical practice. The registered biosignals reflect mostly vital physiologic phenomena. In order to adequately apply biomedical sensors and reasonably interpret the corresponding biosignals, a proper understanding of the involved physiologic phenomena, their influence on the registered biosignals, and the technology behind the sensors is necessary. The first volume is devoted to the interface between physiologic mechanisms and arising biosignals, whereas the second volume is focussed on the interface between biosignals and biomedical sensors. The physiologic mechanisms behind the biosignals are described from the basic cellular level up to their advanced mutual coordination level during sleep. The arising biosignals are discussed within the scope of vital physiologic phenomena to foster their understanding and comprehensive analysis.

  3. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II)

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-01-01

    Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model) in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pa...

  4. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Coagulation cascade was untill recently the only model used to explain the physiological and pathological reactions during clot formation. Dr. Maureane Hoffman and her team suggested a cell-based model for coagulation, which takes place (according to this model in three phases: initiation, amplification and propagation. This theory does not deny the coagulation cascade. It only says that the leading role in the whole process is held by the cells and that the „intrinsic” and the „extinsic” pathways operate in parallel on different cell surfaces. Using this model, a better understanding of the reactions in vivo during coagulation is achieved, together with answers related to clinical-based questions like „why haemophiliacs bleed?”.

  5. Cerebral blood flow: Physiologic and clinical aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains 46 chapters divided among nine sections. The section titles are: Historical Perspectives; Cerebrovascular Anatomy; Cerebrovascular Physiology; Methods of Clinical Measurement; Experimental Methods; Imaging of Cerebral Circulation; Cerebrovascular Pathophysiology; Cerebrovascular Pharmacology; and Surgical and Interventional Augmentation

  6. From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: Postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asmolov, A.G.

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of neuroscience and psychology. This work is devoted to the analytical review of the methods, achievements and prospects of contemporary social neuroscience and social psychophysiology studying brain structures that are specifically related to the implementation of social forms of behavior and intercultural communication. Physiological studies of brain activity during social interaction processes, which are simulated using virtual reality environments, are analyzed, and the physiological approach to the study of the brain mechanisms associated with social perception, social cognition and social behavior is used. Along with the analysis of psychophysiological studies of the mechanisms of social perception and social cognition, we discuss the theories of “Brain Reading” and “Theory of Mind” and the underlying data concerning “Gnostic neurons recognition of persons and recognition of emotional facial expressions”, “mirror neurons”, “emotional resonance” and “cognitive resonance”. Particular emphasis is placed on the discussion of a fundamentally new trend in the study of the relationship between the brain and culture (i.e., “cultural neuroscience”. Related to this connection, the following topics are raised: physiological mechanisms protecting the “individual distance” in communication between members of a personified community, psychophysiological approaches to the study of cross-cultural differences, physiological

  7. The role of cystatins in tick physiology and blood feeding

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Schwarz, Alexandra; Valdés, James J.; Kotsyfakis, Michalis

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 3, č. 3 (2012), s. 117-127. ISSN 1877-959X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP502/12/2409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60220518 Keywords : Cystatin * Cysteine proteases * Tick * Immunomodulators * Blood feeding * Midgut * Physiology Subject RIV: EC - Immunology Impact factor: 2.353, year: 2012

  8. Mechanisms and effective control of physiological browning phenomena in plant cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yan-Shan; Fu, Chun-Hua; Su, Peng; Xu, Xiang-Ping; Yuan, Jie; Wang, Sheng; Zhang, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Fang; Yu, Long-Jiang

    2016-01-01

    Browning phenomena are ubiquitous in plant cell cultures that severely hamper scientific research and widespread application of plant cell cultures. Up to now, this problem still has not been well controlled due to the unclear browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures. In this paper, the mechanisms were investigated using two typical materials with severe browning phenomena, Taxus chinensis and Glycyrrhiza inflata cells. Our results illustrated that the browning is attributed to a physiological enzymatic reaction, and phenolic biosynthesis regulated by sugar plays a decisive role in the browning. Furthermore, to confirm the specific compounds which participate in the enzymatic browning reaction, transcriptional profile and metabolites of T. chinensis cells, and UV scanning and high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) profile of the browning compounds extracted from the brown-turned medium were analyzed, flavonoids derived from phenylpropanoid pathway were found to be the main compounds, and myricetin and quercetin were deduced to be the main substrates of the browning reaction. Inhibition of flavonoid biosynthesis can prevent the browning occurrence, and the browning is effectively controlled via blocking flavonoid biosynthesis by gibberellic acid (GA3 ) as an inhibitor, which further confirms that flavonoids mainly contribute to the browning. On the basis above, a model elucidating enzymatic browning mechanisms in plant cell cultures was put forward, and effective control approaches were presented. PMID:26333689

  9. Modeling blood flow in vessels with changeable caliber for physiology and biophysics courses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlova, E K; Badicov, V I; Chemysh, A M; Bogushevich, M S

    1997-06-01

    A model based on elementary principles of hydrodynamics and mathematics is proposed for classroom research on concepts related to blood flow physiology. This is an analog model of the vascular system in which blood flow is represented by electrical current flowing in a resistance circuit. The model permits analysis of the change in hemodynamics with local stenosis of both large and peripheral vessels. PMID:9227648

  10. Blood: Tests Used to Assess the Physiological and Immunological Properties of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. G.; Tansey, E. A.; Johnson, C. D.; Roe, S. M.; Montgomery, L. E. A.

    2016-01-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin…

  11. Effect of thermal stress on physiological and blood parameters in merino sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojtas Krzysztof

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen sheep where placed in climatic chamber and exposed to a high temperature (30°C. Then, the air movement was induced in order to examine its soothing effect on heat stress. The physiological reactions like respiratory and heart rates, as well as the morphologic, biochemical parameters and cortisol levels in blood were examined. It was found that under heat stress conditions, the respiratory rate increased up to 96.43 breaths/min, heart rate up to 107.79 beats/min, and white blood cells count decreased to 9.12 k/μL. The increased level of potassium, chlorine, and calcium was also observed. The increased air movement resulted in thermal stress soothing. A decrease in respiratory rate, heart rate, and cortisol concentration was observed. The study demonstrated that heat stress leads to serious changes in physiological and blood parameters in sheep but this effect can be minimised by air movement.

  12. LES of non-Newtonian physiological blood flow in a model of arterial stenosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molla, M M; Paul, M C

    2012-10-01

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) is performed to study the physiological pulsatile transition-to-turbulent non-Newtonian blood flow through a 3D model of arterial stenosis by using five different blood viscosity models: (i) Power-law, (ii) Carreau, (iii) Quemada, (iv) Cross and (v) modified-Casson. The computational domain has been chosen is a simple channel with a biological type stenosis formed eccentrically on the top wall. The physiological pulsation is generated at the inlet of the model using the first four harmonic series of the physiological pressure pulse (Loudon and Tordesillas [1]). The effects of the various viscosity models are investigated in terms of the global maximum shear rate, post-stenotic re-circulation zone, mean shear stress, mean pressure, and turbulent kinetic energy. We find that the non-Newtonian viscosity models enlarge the length of the post-stenotic re-circulation region by moving the reattachment point of the shear layer separating from the upper wall further downstream. But the turbulent kinetic energy at the immediate post-lip of the stenosis drops due to the effects of the non-Newtonian viscosity. The importance of using LES in modelling the non-Newtonian physiological pulsatile blood flow is also assessed for the different viscosity models in terms of the results of the dynamic subgrid-scale (SGS) stress Smagorinsky model constant, C(s), and the corresponding SGS normalised viscosity. PMID:22153320

  13. Blood: tests used to assess the physiological and immunological properties of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J G; Tansey, E A; Johnson, C D; Roe, S M; Montgomery, L E A

    2016-06-01

    The properties of blood and the relative ease of access to which it can be retrieved make it an ideal source to gauge different aspects of homeostasis within an individual, form an accurate diagnosis, and formulate an appropriate treatment regime. Tests used to determine blood parameters such as the erythrocyte sedimentation rate, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit, bleeding and clotting times, mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration, mean cell volume, and determination of blood groups are routinely used clinically, and deviations outside the normal range can indicate a range of conditions such as anemia, pregnancy, dehydration, overhydration, infectious disease, cancer, thyroid disease, and autoimmune conditions, to mention a few. As these tests can be performed relatively inexpensively and do not require high levels of technical expertise, they are ideally suited for use in the teaching laboratory, enabling undergraduate students to link theory to practice. The practicals described here permit students to examine their own blood and that of their peers and compare these with clinically accepted normal ranges. At the end of the practicals, students are required to answer a number of questions about their findings and to link abnormal values to possible pathological conditions by answering a series of questions based on their findings. PMID:27068991

  14. Regional blood flow with first circulation time-indicator curves: a simplified, physiologic method of interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dynamic computed tomography, digital subtraction angiography, and radionuclide angiography can all be used to evaluate regional blood flow noninvasively. Although regional blood flow cannot be determined uniquely from first circulation time-indicator curves, relative transit time to and through the regions of interest and relative regional blood volume in the regions of interest can be measured and related to relative regional blood flow using a modified Stewart-Hamilton equation. However, for precise mathematical calculation, extrapolation of the first circulation data beyond the point of recirculation is required. Indices of transit time and regional volume that do not require extrapolation were evaluated in an experimental model. The correlation coefficients between the indices of transit time and volume and the more mathematically precise measurements were 0.99 and 0.95, respectively (p < 0.01). It is suggested that these indices, which can also be evaluated visually, are useful in interpreting first circulation time-indicator curves in a physiologic manner

  15. In vivo analysis of physiological 3D blood flow of cerebral veins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schuchardt, Florian; Schroeder, Laure; Baeuerle, Jochen; Harloff, Andreas [University Medical Centre, Department of Neurology, Freiburg (Germany); Anastasopoulos, Constantin [University Medical Center, Department of Neuropaediatrics and Muscle Disorders, Freiburg (Germany); University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany); Markl, Michael [Northwestern University, Department of Radiology, Feinberg School of Medicine and McCormick School of Engineering, Chicago, IL (United States); Hennemuth, Anja; Drexl, Johann [Fraunhofer MEVIS, Bremen (Germany); Valdueza, Jose M. [Neurological Center, Segeberger Kliniken, Bad Segeberg (Germany); Mader, Irina [University Medical Centre, Department of Neuroradiology, Freiburg (Germany)

    2015-08-15

    To visualize and quantify physiological blood flow of intracranial veins in vivo using time-resolved, 3D phase-contrast MRI (4D flow MRI), and to test measurement accuracy. Fifteen healthy volunteers underwent repeated ECG-triggered 4D flow MRI (3 Tesla, 32-channel head coil). Intracranial venous blood flow was analysed using dedicated software allowing for blood flow visualization and quantification in analysis planes at the superior sagittal, straight, and transverse sinuses. MRI was evaluated for intra- and inter-observer agreement and scan-rescan reproducibility. Measurements of the transverse sinuses were compared with transcranial two-dimensional duplex ultrasound. Visualization of 3D blood flow within cerebral sinuses was feasible in 100 % and within at least one deep cerebral vein in 87 % of the volunteers. Blood flow velocity/volume increased along the superior sagittal sinus and was lower in the left compared to the right transverse sinus. Intra- and inter-observer reliability and reproducibility of blood flow velocity (mean difference 0.01/0.02/0.02 m/s) and volume (mean difference 0.0002/-0.0003/0.00003 l/s) were good to excellent. High/low velocities were more pronounced (8 % overestimation/9 % underestimation) in MRI compared to ultrasound. Four-dimensional flow MRI reliably visualizes and quantifies three-dimensional cerebral venous blood flow in vivo and is promising for studies in patients with sinus thrombosis and related diseases. (orig.)

  16. The physiological basis of pulmonary gas exchange: implications for clinical interpretation of arterial blood gases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Peter D

    2015-01-01

    The field of pulmonary gas exchange is mature, with the basic principles developed more than 60 years ago. Arterial blood gas measurements (tensions and concentrations of O₂ and CO₂) constitute a mainstay of clinical care to assess the degree of pulmonary gas exchange abnormality. However, the factors that dictate arterial blood gas values are often multifactorial and complex, with six different causes of hypoxaemia (inspiratory hypoxia, hypoventilation, ventilation/perfusion inequality, diffusion limitation, shunting and reduced mixed venous oxygenation) contributing variably to the arterial O₂ and CO₂ tension in any given patient. Blood gas values are then usually further affected by the body's abilities to compensate for gas exchange disturbances by three tactics (greater O₂ extraction, increasing ventilation and increasing cardiac output). This article explains the basic principles of gas exchange in health, mechanisms of altered gas exchange in disease, how the body compensates for abnormal gas exchange, and based on these principles, the tools available to interpret blood gas data and, quantitatively, to best understand the physiological state of each patient. This understanding is important because therapeutic intervention to improve abnormal gas exchange in any given patient needs to be based on the particular physiological mechanisms affecting gas exchange in that patient. PMID:25323225

  17. Cooperative phenomena in two-pulse, two-color laser photocoagulation of cutaneous blood vessels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J K; Frangineas, G; Pummer, H; Black, J F

    2001-06-01

    A novel laser system has been developed to study the effects of multiple laser pulses of differing wavelengths on cutaneous blood vessels in vivo, using the hamster dorsal skin flap preparation and in vitro, using cuvettes of whole or diluted blood. The system permits sequenced irradiation with well-defined intrapulse spacing at 532 nm, using a long-pulse frequency-doubled Nd:YAG laser, and at 1064 nm, using a long-pulse Nd:YAG laser. Using this system, we have identified a parameter space where two pulses of different wavelengths act in a synergistic manner to effect permanent vessel damage at radiant exposures where the two pulses individually have little or no effect. Using a two-color pump-probe technique in vitro, we have identified a phenomenon we call greenlight-induced infrared absorption, where a pulse of green light causes photochemical and photothermal modifications to the chemical constituents of blood and results in enhanced infrared absorption. We identify a new chemical species, met-hemoglobin, not normally present in healthy human blood but formed during laser photocoagulation which we believe is implicated in the enhanced near-infrared absorption. PMID:11421070

  18. Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, Ian

    2008-01-01

    Underlying recent developments in health care and new treatments for disease are advances in basic medical sciences. This edition of "Webwatch" focuses on sites dealing with basic medical sciences, with particular attention given to physiology. There is a vast amount of information on the web related to physiology. The sites that are included here…

  19. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Hiroko Ochiai; Harumi Ikei; Chorong Song; Maiko Kobayashi; Ako Takamatsu; Takashi Miura; Takahide Kagawa; Qing Li; Shigeyoshi Kumeda; Michiko Imai; Yoshifumi Miyazaki

    2015-01-01

    Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy”) has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest) on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of st...

  20. Elderly bioheat modeling: changes in physiology, thermoregulation, and blood flow circulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rida, Mohamad; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ghali, Kamel; Hoballah, Jamal

    2014-01-01

    A bioheat model for the elderly was developed focusing on blood flow circulatory changes that influence their thermal response in warm and cold environments to predict skin and core temperatures for different segments of the body especially the fingers. The young adult model of Karaki et al. (Int J Therm Sci 67:41-51, 2013) was modified by incorporation of the physiological thermoregulatory and vasomotor changes based on literature observations of physiological changes in the elderly compared to young adults such as lower metabolism and vasoconstriction diminished ability, skin blood flow and its minimum and maximum values, the sweating values, skin fat thickness, as well as the change in threshold parameter related to core or skin temperatures which triggers thermoregulatory action for sweating, maximum dilatation, and maximum constriction. The developed model was validated with published experimental data for elderly exposure to transient and steady hot and cold environments. Predicted finger skin temperature, mean skin temperature, and core temperature were in agreement with published experimental data at a maximum error less than 0.5 °C in the mean skin temperature. The elderly bioheat model showed an increase in finger skin temperature and a decrease in core temperature in cold exposure while it showed a decrease in finger skin temperature and an increase in core temperature in hot exposure.

  1. Oscillometric measurement of systolic and diastolic blood pressures validated in a physiologic mathematical model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babbs Charles F

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The oscillometric method of measuring blood pressure with an automated cuff yields valid estimates of mean pressure but questionable estimates of systolic and diastolic pressures. Existing algorithms are sensitive to differences in pulse pressure and artery stiffness. Some are closely guarded trade secrets. Accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of cuff pressure oscillations remains an open problem in biomedical engineering. Methods A new analysis of relevant anatomy, physiology and physics reveals the mechanisms underlying the production of cuff pressure oscillations as well as a way to extract systolic and diastolic pressures from the envelope of oscillations in any individual subject. Stiffness characteristics of the compressed artery segment can be extracted from the envelope shape to create an individualized mathematical model. The model is tested with a matrix of possible systolic and diastolic pressure values, and the minimum least squares difference between observed and predicted envelope functions indicates the best fit choices of systolic and diastolic pressure within the test matrix. Results The model reproduces realistic cuff pressure oscillations. The regression procedure extracts systolic and diastolic pressures accurately in the face of varying pulse pressure and arterial stiffness. The root mean squared error in extracted systolic and diastolic pressures over a range of challenging test scenarios is 0.3 mmHg. Conclusions A new algorithm based on physics and physiology allows accurate extraction of systolic and diastolic pressures from cuff pressure oscillations in a way that can be validated, criticized, and updated in the public domain.

  2. What water properties are responsible for the physiological temperature interval limits of warm-blooded organisms?

    CERN Document Server

    Bulavin, Leonid A; Malomuzh, Nikolay P

    2013-01-01

    The weighty evidences of specific transformations of the thermal motion in pure water in the physiological temperature interval (PTI) from (30 +(-) 3)o C to (42 +(-) 3)o C for warm-blooded organisms are presented. It is shown that near the right end of the PTI (42 +(-) 3)o C the crystal-like thermal motion in water transforms to argon-like one (i.e. the dynamic phase transition (DPT) occurs). It is show that the similar transformation takes also place in water-Mioglobin solutions. It is proposed that the DPT takes also place in the intracellular water, where it stimulates the denaturation of proteins. The restriction of the PTI on the left of (30 +(-) 3)o C is naturally explained by the clusterization of water molecules, which strongly increases when temperature drops. The middle, ((36 +(-) 1)o C), of the PTI for warm-blooded organisms is disposed at the minimum of the heat capacity at constant pressure, that forwards to the stability of heat-exchange for bio-cells.

  3. Physiologic upper limit of pore size in the blood-tumor barrier of malignant solid tumors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Griffiths Gary L

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The existence of large pores in the blood-tumor barrier (BTB of malignant solid tumor microvasculature makes the blood-tumor barrier more permeable to macromolecules than the endothelial barrier of most normal tissue microvasculature. The BTB of malignant solid tumors growing outside the brain, in peripheral tissues, is more permeable than that of similar tumors growing inside the brain. This has been previously attributed to the larger anatomic sizes of the pores within the BTB of peripheral tumors. Since in the physiological state in vivo a fibrous glycocalyx layer coats the pores of the BTB, it is possible that the effective physiologic pore size in the BTB of brain tumors and peripheral tumors is similar. If this were the case, then the higher permeability of the BTB of peripheral tumor would be attributable to the presence of a greater number of pores in the BTB of peripheral tumors. In this study, we probed in vivo the upper limit of pore size in the BTB of rodent malignant gliomas grown inside the brain, the orthotopic site, as well as outside the brain in temporalis skeletal muscle, the ectopic site. Methods Generation 5 (G5 through generation 8 (G8 polyamidoamine dendrimers were labeled with gadolinium (Gd-diethyltriaminepentaacetic acid, an anionic MRI contrast agent. The respective Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vitro by scanning transmission electron microscopy. Following intravenous infusion of the respective Gd-dendrimer generations (Gd-G5, N = 6; Gd-G6, N = 6; Gd-G7, N = 5; Gd-G8, N = 5 the blood and tumor tissue pharmacokinetics of the Gd-dendrimer generations were visualized in vivo over 600 to 700 minutes by dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI. One additional animal was imaged in each Gd-dendrimer generation group for 175 minutes under continuous anesthesia for the creation of voxel-by-voxel Gd concentration maps. Results The estimated diameters of Gd-G7 dendrimers were 11 ± 1 nm and those of Gd-G8

  4. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagan, Jonathan, E-mail: jdpagan@uams.edu; Przybyla, Beata; Jamshidi-Parsian, Azemat [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States); Gupta, Kalpna [Vascular Biology Center and Division of Hematology-Oncology Transplantation, Department of Medicine, University of Minnesota Medical School, MN 72223 (United States); Griffin, Robert J. [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Arkansas for Medical Sciences, 4301 West Markham Street, Little Rock, AR 72205 (United States)

    2013-02-18

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm{sup 3}) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the

  5. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalpna Gupta

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm3 grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve

  6. Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells Increase Tumor Growth Rates and Modify Tumor Physiology: Relevance for Therapeutic Targeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Endothelial cell precursors from human peripheral blood have been shown to home to areas of neovascularization and may assist tumor growth by increasing or fortifying blood vessel growth. In the present study, the influence of these cells on tumor growth and physiology was investigated and the role of these cells as a therapeutic target or in determining treatment sensitivity was tested. After isolation from human blood and expansion in vitro, actively growing cells with verified endothelial phenotype (Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cell, BOEC) were injected i.v. into tumor bearing mice for three consecutive days. The growth rate was significantly enhanced in relatively small RERF human lung tumors (i.e., less than 150 mm3) grown in immunocompromised mice by an average of 1.5-fold while it had no effect when injections were given to animals bearing larger tumors. There were no signs of toxicity or unwanted systemic effects. We also observed evidence of increased perfusion, vessel number, response to 15 Gy radiation and oxygenation in RERF tumors of animals injected with BOECs compared to control tumors. In addition, FSaII murine fibrosarcoma tumors were found to grow faster upon injection of BOECs. When FSaII tumors were subjected to a partial thermal ablation treatment using high intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) there was consistently elevated detection of fluorescently labeled and i.v. injected endothelial precursors in the tumor when analyzed with optical imaging and/or histological preparations. Importantly, we also observed that BOECs treated with the novel anti-angiogenic peptide anginex in-vitro, show decreased proliferation and increased sensitivity to radiation. In vivo, the normal increase in FSaII tumor growth induced by injected BOECs was blunted by the addition of anginex treatment. It appears that endothelial precursors may significantly contribute to tumor vessel growth, tumor progression and/or repair of tumor damage and may improve the oxygenation

  7. Physiological factors in childhood epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeWinn, E B

    1980-08-01

    The identification and correction of adverse physiological changes that lead to seizures in children can improve the effectiveness of current therapeutic practices in epilepsy. It is proposed that various circadian rhythms (respiration, hormones, water balance, electrolytes, intracranial pressure, blood pressure), meteorological phenomena (barometric presure, ambient environmental temperature, relative humidity), and developmental processes can profoundly influence the precipitation or prevention of seizures through their physiological effects. PMID:7190490

  8. Physiological Responses, Growth Rate and Blood Metabolites Under Feed Restriction and Thermal Exposure in Kids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.K. Hooda

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the cumulative effect of thermal stress and feed restriction in kids. Twelve kids of Alpine x Beetle cross were divided into two groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 was put on restricted feeding and exposed at 40, 42 and 44oC. Body weights of both groups were similar before thermal exposure and feed restriction. Body weight of group 1 increased significantly and were higher than group 2 throughout the experiment. Body weight gain, average daily gain and feed conversion efficiency were comparable in both groups after removal of thermal stress and switching over to ad libitum feeding (42-63 days. Body weights of group 2 remained lower than group 1, the losses in body weights of group 2 could not be compensated and there was approximately 25% loss in body weight at the end of experiment. Physiological responses of group 2 were significantly lower before exposure to high temperature but increased significantly after exposure at temperature 40, 42 and 44oC and the increase was in commensurate with the increase in exposure temperature. Blood glucose, total protein, albumin and serum enzymes decreased significantly on exposure at higher temperature and differences were higher in feed restricted group. T3, T4 and cortisol concentration were similar in both groups before feed restriction and thermal stress. T3, T4 concentration decreased while cortisol concentration increased significantly after exposure to high temperature. Variations in plasma enzymes, acid phosphatase, alkaline phosphatase, SGOT and SGPT were not significant before feed restriction and thermal stress. The activities of acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase decreased whereas that of SGOT and SGPT increased significantly on exposure at temperature 40oC and subsequent changes at temperature 42 and 44oC were not significant. The study indicated that animals of group 2 experienced more stress as observed by significant alteration in body

  9. Biomechanics of red blood cells in human spleen and consequences for physiology and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivkin, Igor V; Peng, Zhangli; Karniadakis, George E; Buffet, Pierre A; Dao, Ming; Suresh, Subra

    2016-07-12

    Red blood cells (RBCs) can be cleared from circulation when alterations in their size, shape, and deformability are detected. This function is modulated by the spleen-specific structure of the interendothelial slit (IES). Here, we present a unique physiological framework for development of prognostic markers in RBC diseases by quantifying biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, using computational simulations based on dissipative particle dynamics. The results show that the spleen selects RBCs for continued circulation based on their geometry, consistent with prior in vivo observations. A companion analysis provides critical bounds relating surface area and volume for healthy RBCs beyond which the RBCs fail the "physical fitness test" to pass through the IES, supporting independent experiments. Our results suggest that the spleen plays an important role in determining distributions of size and shape of healthy RBCs. Because mechanical retention of infected RBC impacts malaria pathogenesis, we studied key biophysical parameters for RBCs infected with Plasmodium falciparum as they cross the IES. In agreement with experimental results, surface area loss of an infected RBC is found to be a more important determinant of splenic retention than its membrane stiffness. The simulations provide insights into the effects of pressure gradient across the IES on RBC retention. By providing quantitative biophysical limits for RBCs to pass through the IES, the narrowest circulatory bottleneck in the spleen, our results offer a broad approach for developing quantitative markers for diseases such as hereditary spherocytosis, thalassemia, and malaria. PMID:27354532

  10. Flow phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Few aspects of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging are as potentially confusing as the effect of motion on the MR image. While the MR image is anatomically similar to the image produced by CT, the MR appearance of flowing blood has no correlate in CT. Flowing blood can appear bright or dark, depending on the velocity and direction of flow. To a first approximation, rapidly flowing blood appears dark ('flow void') and slowly flowing blood appears bright. This phenomenon is illustrated. This appearance is markedly influenced by factors related to the imaging sequence and to the MR imager itself. The signal from flowing blood depends on the position of the slice relative to the rest of the multislice imaging volume. It depends on the repetition time TR, the echo-delay time TE, the echo number, and the slice thickness. In fast scanning techniques with short repetition times, gradient echoes, and flip angles less than 90 degrees, flow has a different appearance than on standard 90 degrees/180 degrees spin-echo images. The principles which affect the appearance of flowing blood also affect the appearance of flowing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Examples of CSF flow phenomena are given

  11. Cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility studied with MRI: measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, Anders

    2012-07-01

    During each cardiac cycle pulsatile arterial blood inflates the vascular bed of the brain, forcing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and venous blood out of the cranium. Excessive arterial pulsatility may be part of a harmful mechanism causing cognitive decline among elderly. Additionally, restricted venous flow from the brain is suggested as the cause of multiple sclerosis. Addressing hypotheses derived from these observations requires accurate and reliable investigational methods. This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects.Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. The repeatability was assessed in healthy young subjects. The 2D PCMRI measurements of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF pulsatility were generally repeatable but the pulsatility decreased systematically during the investigation. A method combining 2D PCMRI measurements with invasive CSF infusion tests to determine the magnitude and distribution of compliance within the craniospinal system was developed and applied in a group of healthy elderly. The intracranial space contained approximately two thirds of the total craniospinal compliance. The magnitude of craniospinal compliance was less than suggested in previous studies. The vascular hypothesis for multiple sclerosis was tested. Venous drainage in the internal jugular veins was compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients using 2D PCMRI. For both groups, a great variability in the internal jugular flow was observed but no pattern specific to multiple sclerosis could be found. Relationships between regional brain volumes and potential biomarkers of intracranial cardiac-related pulsatile

  12. Cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility studied with MRI: measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During each cardiac cycle pulsatile arterial blood inflates the vascular bed of the brain, forcing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and venous blood out of the cranium. Excessive arterial pulsatility may be part of a harmful mechanism causing cognitive decline among elderly. Additionally, restricted venous flow from the brain is suggested as the cause of multiple sclerosis. Addressing hypotheses derived from these observations requires accurate and reliable investigational methods. This work focused on assessing the pulsatile waveform of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flows. The overall aim of this dissertation was to explore cerebral blood flow and intracranial pulsatility using MRI, with respect to measurement, physiological and pathophysiological aspects.Two-dimensional phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (2D PCMRI) was used to assess the pulsatile waveforms of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF flow. The repeatability was assessed in healthy young subjects. The 2D PCMRI measurements of cerebral arterial, venous and CSF pulsatility were generally repeatable but the pulsatility decreased systematically during the investigation. A method combining 2D PCMRI measurements with invasive CSF infusion tests to determine the magnitude and distribution of compliance within the craniospinal system was developed and applied in a group of healthy elderly. The intracranial space contained approximately two thirds of the total craniospinal compliance. The magnitude of craniospinal compliance was less than suggested in previous studies. The vascular hypothesis for multiple sclerosis was tested. Venous drainage in the internal jugular veins was compared between healthy controls and multiple sclerosis patients using 2D PCMRI. For both groups, a great variability in the internal jugular flow was observed but no pattern specific to multiple sclerosis could be found. Relationships between regional brain volumes and potential biomarkers of intracranial cardiac-related pulsatile

  13. Physiological Parameters in the Blood of a Murine Stress-Induced Depression Model before and after Repeated Passive Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Tae-Kyung; Park, Jin-Young; Han, Pyung-Lim

    2015-01-01

    Background Animal models are necessary to study the mechanism underlying the effects of exercise on depression but an effective procedure for exercise treatment and exercise effects on physiological parameters in a specific depression model need to be characterized. Methods Physiological parameters including lactate, partial pressue of O2 (pO2) and CO2 (pCO2) saturated O2 (sO2), pH, HCO3, total CO2 (TCO2), and base excess extracellular fluid (BEecf) levels in the blood were measured after tre...

  14. Anatomy and Physiology of Left Ventricular Suction Induced by Rotary Blood Pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamonsen, Robert Francis; Lim, Einly; Moloney, John; Lovell, Nigel Hamilton; Rosenfeldt, Franklin L

    2015-08-01

    This study in five large greyhound dogs implanted with a VentrAssist left ventricular assist device focused on identification of the precise site and physiological changes induced by or underlying the complication of left ventricular suction. Pressure sensors were placed in left and right atria, proximal and distal left ventricle, and proximal aorta while dual perivascular and tubing ultrasonic flow meters measured blood flow in the aortic root and pump outlet cannula. When suction occurred, end-systolic pressure gradients between proximal and distal regions of the left ventricle on the order of 40-160 mm Hg indicated an occlusive process of variable intensity in the distal ventricle. A variable negative flow difference between end systole and end diastole (0.5-3.4 L/min) was observed. This was presumably mediated by variable apposition of the free and septal walls of the ventricle at the pump inlet cannula orifice which lasted approximately 100 ms. This apposition, by inducing an end-systolic flow deficit, terminated the suction process by relieving the imbalance between pump requirement and delivery from the right ventricle. Immediately preceding this event, however, unnaturally low end-systolic pressures occurred in the left atrium and proximal left ventricle which in four dogs lasted for 80-120 ms. In one dog, however, this collapse progressed to a new level and remained at approximately -5 mm Hg across four heart beats at which point suction was relieved by manual reduction in pump speed. Because these pressures were associated with a pulmonary capillary wedge pressure of -5 mm Hg as well, they indicate total collapse of the entire pulmonary venous system, left atrium, and left ventricle which persisted until pump flow requirement was relieved by reducing pump speed. We suggest that this collapse caused the whole vascular region from pulmonary capillaries to distal left ventricle to behave as a Starling resistance which further reduced right

  15. In vitro blood flow model with physiological wall shear stress for hemocompatibility testing-An example of coronary stent testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engels, Gerwin Erik; Blok, Sjoerd Leendert Johannes; van Oeveren, Willem

    2016-01-01

    Hemocompatibility of blood contacting medical devices has to be evaluated before their intended application. To assess hemocompatibility, blood flow models are often used and can either consist of in vivo animal models or in vitro blood flow models. Given the disadvantages of animal models, in vitro blood flow models are an attractive alternative. The in vitro blood flow models available nowadays mostly focus on generating continuous flow instead of generating a pulsatile flow with certain wall shear stress, which has shown to be more relevant in maintaining hemostasis. To address this issue, the authors introduce a blood flow model that is able to generate a pulsatile flow and wall shear stress resembling the physiological situation, which the authors have coined the "Haemobile." The authors have validated the model by performing Doppler flow measurements to calculate velocity profiles and (wall) shear stress profiles. As an example, the authors evaluated the thrombogenicity of two drug eluting stents, one that was already on the market and one that was still under development. After identifying proper conditions resembling the wall shear stress in coronary arteries, the authors compared the stents with each other and often used reference materials. These experiments resulted in high contrast between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, showing the exceptional testing capabilities of the Haemobile. In conclusion, the authors have developed an in vitro blood flow model which is capable of mimicking physiological conditions of blood flow as close as possible. The model is convenient in use and is able to clearly discriminate between hemocompatible and incompatible materials, making it suitable for evaluating the hemocompatible properties of medical devices. PMID:27435456

  16. 'Blood doping' from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients

    OpenAIRE

    Plumb, James O.M.; Otto, James M.; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin is the blood’s oxygen carrying pigment and is encapsulated in red blood corpuscles. The concentration of haemoglobin in blood is dependent on both its total mass in the circulation (tHb-mass) and the total plasma volume in which it is suspended. Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the body per unit time and is one measure of physical fitness. Observations in athletes who have undergone blood doping or manipulation have revealed a clo...

  17. Physiological and Psychological Effects of Forest Therapy on Middle-Aged Males with High-Normal Blood Pressure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroko Ochiai

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Time spent walking and relaxing in a forest environment (“forest bathing” or “forest therapy” has well demonstrated anti-stress effects in healthy adults, but benefits for ill or at-risk populations have not been reported. The present study assessed the physiological and psychological effects of forest therapy (relaxation and stress management activity in the forest on middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure. Blood pressure and several physiological and psychological indices of stress were measured the day before and approximately 2 h following forest therapy. Both pre- and post-treatment measures were conducted at the same time of day to avoid circadian influences. Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP, urinary adrenaline, and serum cortisol were all significantly lower than baseline following forest therapy (p < 0.05. Subjects reported feeling significantly more “relaxed” and “natural” according to the Semantic Differential (SD method. Profile of Mood State (POMS negative mood subscale scores for “tension-anxiety,” “confusion,” and “anger-hostility,” as well as the Total Mood Disturbance (TMD score were significantly lower following forest therapy. These results highlight that forest is a promising treatment strategy to reduce blood pressure into the optimal range and possibly prevent progression to clinical hypertension in middle-aged males with high-normal blood pressure.

  18. 'Blood doping' from Armstrong to prehabilitation: manipulation of blood to improve performance in athletes and physiological reserve in patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plumb, James O M; Otto, James M; Grocott, Michael P W

    2016-01-01

    Haemoglobin is the blood's oxygen carrying pigment and is encapsulated in red blood corpuscles. The concentration of haemoglobin in blood is dependent on both its total mass in the circulation (tHb-mass) and the total plasma volume in which it is suspended. Aerobic capacity is defined as the maximum amount of oxygen that can be consumed by the body per unit time and is one measure of physical fitness. Observations in athletes who have undergone blood doping or manipulation have revealed a closer relationship between physical fitness (aerobic capacity) and total haemoglobin mass (tHb-mass) than with haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]). Anaemia is defined by the World Health Organisation (WHO) as a haemoglobin concentration of oxygen carrying capacity? Which measure has the most utility for targeting therapies to manipulate haemoglobin levels? Do the newer agents being used for blood manipulation (to increase tHb-mass) in elite sport have utility in the clinical environment? This review explores the literature relating to blood manipulation in elite sport as well as the relationship between perioperative anaemia, physical fitness and outcome following surgery, and suggests some avenues for exploring this area further. PMID:26929820

  19. Association of haematocrit and red blood cell transfusion with outcomes in infants with shunt-dependent pulmonary blood flow and univentricular physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Rahul; Parsons, Andrew; McClelland, Sarenthia; Morgan, Elizabeth; Robertson, Michael J.; Noel, Tommy R.; Schmitz, Michael L.; Rettiganti, Mallikarjuna; Gupta, Punkaj

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the association between red blood cell (RBC) transfusion and haematocrit values with outcomes in infants with univentricular physiology undergoing surgery for a modified Blalock-Taussig shunt. Material and methods This study included infants ≤ 2 months of age who underwent modified Blalock-Taussig shunt surgery at the Arkansas Children’s Hospital (2006–2012). Infants undergoing a Norwood operation or Damus-Kaye-Stansel operation with modified Blalock-Taussig shunt were excluded. Demographics, pre-operative, operative, daily laboratory data, and post-operative variables were collected. We studied the association between haematocrit and blood transfusion with a composite clinical outcome. Multivariable logistic regression models were fitted to study the probability of study outcomes as a function of haematocrit values and RBC transfusions after operation. Results Seventy-three patients qualified for inclusion. All study patients received blood transfusion within the first 48 hours after heart surgery. The median haematocrit was 44.3 (interquartile range [IQR] 42.5–46.2), and the median volume of RBC transfused was 28 mL/kg (IQR, 10–125) in the first 14 days after surgery. The overall in-hospital mortality rate was 13.6% (10 patients). A multivariable analysis adjusted for risk factors, including weight, prematurity, cardiopulmonary bypass and postoperative need for nitric oxide and dialysis, revealed no association between haematocrit values and RBC transfusion with the composite clinical outcome. Discussion We did not find an association between higher haematocrit values and increasing RBC transfusions with improved outcomes in infants with shunt-dependent pulmonary blood flow and univentricular physiology. The power of our study was small, which prevents any strong statement on this lack of association. Future multi-centre, randomised controlled trials are needed to investigate this topic in further

  20. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P group of Murrah buffaloes.

  1. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P < 0.05) lower in group 2, with the provision of cooling. Skin surface temperature at thorax was significantly lower in cooled group relative to noncooled group. Blood pH and pO2 were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in heat stressed group as compared to the cooled group. pCO2, TCO2, HCO3, SBC, base excess in extracellular fluid (BEecf), base excess in blood (BEb), PCV and Hb were significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled group as compared to noncooled group. DMI was significantly ( P < 0.05) higher in cooled relative to noncooled animals. Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  2. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C15O (CO), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [11C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[18F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H215O (H2O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter β. Tracer-specific mean values of β were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ''true'' K1true, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. The rank order of the means of β was CO 2O, reflecting their different splanchnic mean transit times. Estimated K1est was not significantly different from ''true'' K1true. The hepatic dual tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. (orig.)

  3. Physiological responses to salinity increase in blood parrotfish (Cichlasoma synspilum ♀ × Cichlasoma citrinellum ♂).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, Yanming; Huang, Xizhi; Kong, Hui; Lu, Weiqun; Wang, Youji

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to evaluate the effects of adding salt to water on the physiological parameters of the blood parrot cichlid (Cichlasoma synspilum ♀ × Cichlasoma citrinellum ♂). The blood parrot cichlid is a popular species in the aquarium trade because of its behaviour and beauty. Salt is usually added to water during the culture or transportation of this fish. However, the manner by which the fish adjusts its physiological responses to salinity change is unclear. The effects of salinity on serum osmolality, immune-related enzyme activities, Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activities in the gill, skin carotenoid content and oxygen consumption were analysed. Blood parrotfish individuals were transferred from freshwater to water with four salinity levels (0.16, 2.5, 5 and 7.5 ‰) for 168 h, and physiological responses were evaluated at 0, 6, 12, 24 and 168 h. Results showed no significant differences in serum acid phosphatase and alkaline phosphatase activities, skin carotenoid content and oxygen consumption rate among the different groups. However, the serum osmolality at 6 h was significantly elevated. Moreover, salinity increase stimulated superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity from 0 to 6 h. SOD activity increased from 6 to 24 h but significantly reduced at 168 h when the fish were exposed to salt water. The SOD activity in the salinity 2.5 ‰ group recovered the initial level, whereas those in the salinity 5 and 7.5 ‰ groups decreased to levels lower than the initial level. The gill Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase activity significantly declined with time and salinity increase. Thus, adding an appropriate amount of salt can save energy consumption during osmoregulation and temporarily enhance the antioxidant activity of blood parrotfish. However, this strategy is insufficient for long-term culture. Therefore, adding salt to water only provides short-term benefit to blood parrot cichlid during transportation. PMID:27536529

  4. BioWatch - a wrist watch based signal acquisition system for physiological signals including blood pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simi Susan; Nathan, Viswam; Chengzhi Zong; Akinbola, Ebunoluwa; Aroul, Antoine Lourdes Praveen; Philipose, Lijoy; Soundarapandian, Karthikeyan; Xiangrong Shi; Jafari, Roozbeh

    2014-01-01

    A wrist watch based system, which can measure electrocardiogram (ECG) and photoplethysmogram (PPG), is presented in this work. By using both ECG and PPG we also measure pulse transit time (PTT), which studies show to correlate well with blood pressure (BP). The system is also capable of monitoring heart rate using either ECG or PPG and can monitor blood oxygenation by easily replacing the PPG sensors with a different set. In this work, we investigate methods to train a fitting function to convert a PTT measurement to its corresponding systolic BP. We also validate measurements on different postures and show the value of calibrating the device for each posture. This system, called BioWatch, can potentially facilitate continuous and ubiquitous monitoring of ECG, PPG, heart rate, blood oxygenation and BP. PMID:25570444

  5. Collateral blood vessels in acute ischemic stroke: a physiological window to predict future outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heitor Castelo Branco Rodrigues Alves

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Collateral circulation is a physiologic pathway that protects the brain against ischemic injury and can potentially bypass the effect of a blocked artery, thereby influencing ischemic lesion size and growth. Several recent stroke trials have provided information about the role of collaterals in stroke pathophysiology, and collateral perfusion has been recognized to influence arterial recanalization, reperfusion, hemorrhagic transformation, and neurological outcomes after stroke. Our current aim is to summarize the anatomy and physiology of the collateral circulation and to present and discuss a comprehensible review of the related knowledge, particularly the effects of collateral circulation on the time course of ischemic injury and stroke severity, as well as imaging findings and therapeutic implications.

  6. Tracer input for kinetic modelling of liver physiology determined without sampling portal venous blood in pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winterdahl, Michael; Alstrup, Aage Kristian Olsen; Munk, Ole Lajord [Aarhus University Hospital, PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Keiding, Susanne; Soerensen, Michael [Aarhus University Hospital, PET Centre, Aarhus C (Denmark); Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Hepato-Gastroenterology V, Aarhus C (Denmark); Mortensen, Frank Viborg [Aarhus University Hospital, Department of Surgery L, Aarhus C (Denmark)

    2011-02-15

    Quantification of hepatic tracer kinetics by PET requires measurement of tracer input from the hepatic artery (HA) and portal vein (PV). We wished to develop a method for estimating dual tracer input without the necessity to sample PV blood. Pigs weighing 40 kg were given bolus doses of C{sup 15}O (CO), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG), [{sup 11}C]-methylglucose (MG), 2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-2-deoxy-D-galactose (FDGal) or H{sub 2} {sup 15}O (H{sub 2}O). Tracer concentration 3-min time courses were measured in the femoral artery and PV by blood sampling. Blood flow was measured in the HA and PV using flow-meters. A model for transfer of tracer through the splanchnic circulation was used to estimate values of a tracer-specific model parameter {beta}. Tracer-specific mean values of {beta} were used to estimate tracer concentration time courses in the PV from the measured arterial concentration. A model-derived dual-input was calculated using the mean HA flow fraction (0.25) and validated by comparison of the use of the measured dual-input and a kinetic model with a fixed ''true'' K{sub 1} {sup true}, i.e. clearance of tracer from blood to liver cells. The rank order of the means of {beta} was CO < FDG {approx} MG < FDGal < H{sub 2}O, reflecting their different splanchnic mean transit times. Estimated K{sub 1} {sup est} was not significantly different from ''true'' K{sub 1} {sup true}. The hepatic dual tracer input, which is of great importance for the assessment of processes such as transfer across the plasma-hepatocyte membrane or hepatic blood perfusion, can be well approximated in pigs without the necessity to sample PV blood and measure hepatic blood flow; only arterial blood sampling is needed. (orig.)

  7. Analysis of physiological (pao/sub 2/, pulse and blood pressure) changes during modified ect under general anaesthesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To study the changes in physiological parameters i e PAO2, pulse and blood pressure changes during ECT under GA. Study Design: Quasi-experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Psychiatry and Department of Anaesthesiology, Combined Military Hospital Abbottabad from Sep 2009 to Feb 2010. Patients and Methods: A total of 50 patients with depression were given four separate ECT sessions each. All patients were anaesthetized using propofol 180-200 mg I/V and suxamethonium 50 mg i e 0.75-1 mg per kg I/V without atropine. They were stratified according to physiological changes including PAO2, pulse and blood pressure at 1, 2 and 5 min after ECT. Oxygen saturation was measured using a pulse oximeter, which measures saturations in the range of 65-100%. Results: Age range was 19-65 years; mean 46 years (SD+-13). Mean diastolic BP before ECT was 84.72 that decreased post ECT ie 78.02 and 77.46 and 74.44 at interval of 1, 2 and 5 minute respectively. Post-ECT pulse and PAO2 behaved similarly. Post ECT systolic BP decreased at 1 and 5 minutes. Pulse rate decreased after ECT. Conclusion: ECT under propofol is one of the most effective and safe modality of treatment for psychiatric patients under the supervision of qualified psychiatrists and anaesthesiologists and it gives more stable hemodynamic changes. (author)

  8. Effect of sesame seeds on blood physiological and biochemmical parameters in broiler breeder hens

    OpenAIRE

    S.Y. Abdul-Rahman; A.F. Abdulmajeed; M. M. Alkatan

    2009-01-01

    The study was carried out to investigate the effect of employing sesame seeds in broiler breeder diet on some physiological parameters. 30 Cobb breeder hens (36 week age) were divided into 3 groups (10 hens each). The 1st group was reared on standard ration (control), the 2nd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (250 mg /kg) and the 3rd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (500 mg/kg). The treatment contin...

  9. Red blood cell pH, the Bohr effect, and other oxygenation-linked phenomena in blood O2 and CO2 transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, F B

    2004-11-01

    The discovery of the S-shaped O2 equilibrium curve and the Bohr effect in 1904 stimulated a fertile and continued research into respiratory functions of blood and allosteric mechanisms in haemoglobin (Hb). The Bohr effect (influence of pH/CO2 on Hb O2 affinity) and the reciprocal Haldane effect (influence of HbO2 saturation on H+/CO2 binding) originate in the Hb oxy-deoxy conformational change and allosteric interactions between O2 and H+/CO2 binding sites. In steady state, H+ is passively distributed across the vertebrate red blood cell (RBC) membrane, and intracellular pH (pHi) changes are related to changes in extracellular pH, Hb-O2 saturation and RBC organic phosphate content. As the Hb molecule shifts between the oxy and deoxy conformation in arterial-venous gas transport, it delivers O2 and takes up CO2 and H+ in tissue capillaries (elegantly aided by the Bohr effect). Concomitantly, the RBC may sense local O2 demand via the degree of Hb deoxygenation and release vasodilatory agents to match local blood flow with requirements. Three recent hypotheses suggest (1) release of NO from S-nitroso-Hb upon deoxygenation, (2) reduction of nitrite to vasoactive NO by deoxy haems, and (3) release of ATP. Inside RBCs, carbonic anhydrase (CA) provides fast hydration of metabolic CO2 and ensures that the Bohr shift occurs during capillary transit. The formed H+ is bound to Hb (Haldane effect) while HCO3- is shifted to plasma via the anion exchanger (AE1). The magnitude of the oxylabile H+ binding shows characteristic differences among vertebrates. Alternative strategies for CO2 transport include direct HCO3- binding to deoxyHb in crocodilians, and high intracellular free [HCO3-] (due to high pHi) in lampreys. At the RBC membrane, CA, AE1 and other proteins may associate into what appears to be an integrated gas exchange metabolon. Oxygenation-linked binding of Hb to the membrane may regulate glycolysis in mammals and perhaps also oxygen-sensitive ion transport involved in

  10. Absorption and blood/cellular transport of folate and cobalamin: Pharmacokinetic and physiological considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, David H

    2016-07-01

    The systems involving folate and cobalamin have several features in common: 1) their dietary forms require luminal digestion for absorption; 2) intestinal bacteria in the upper intestine synthesize and utilize both vitamins, creating possible competition for the nutrients; 3) there is one major intestinal brush border protein essential for absorption; 4) both are subject to extensive entero-hepatic circulation. Finally, human mutations have confirmed the role of specific transporters and receptors in these processes. There are other features, however, that distinguish the metabolism of these vitamins: 1) upper intestinal bacteria tend to produce folate, while cobalamin (cbl) utilization is more common; 2) cbl absorption requires a luminal binding protein, but folate does not; 3) folate absorption can occur throughout the small bowel, but the cbl receptor, cubilin, is restricted to the distal half of the small bowel; 4) movement into cells uses transporters, exchangers, and symporters, whereas cbl is transferred by receptor-mediated endocytosis; 5) folate is carried in the blood mostly in red blood cells, whereas cbl is carried on specific binding-proteins; 6) folate can enter cells via multiple systems, but cbl uptake into all tissues use the transcobalamin receptor (TC-R), with the asialoglycoprotein receptor (ASGP-R) present in hepatocytes for uptake of haptocorrin-cbl (HC-cbl) complexes. In summary, the systems for absorption and distribution of folate and cobalamin are complex. These complexities help to explain the variable clinical responses after oral administration of the vitamins, especially when provided as supplements. PMID:26586110

  11. Augmented blood pressure measurement through the noninvasive estimation of physiological arterial pressure variability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Current noninvasive blood pressure (BP) measurement methods, such as the oscillometric method, estimate the systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP) at two random instants in time and do not take into account the natural variability in BP. The standard for automated BP devices sets a maximum allowable system error of ±5 mmHg, even though natural BP variability often exceeds these limits. This paper proposes a new approach using simultaneous recordings of the oscillometric and continuous arterial pulse waveforms to augment the conventional noninvasive measurement by providing (1) the mean SBP and DBP over the measurement interval and the associated confidence intervals of the mean, (2) the standard deviation of SBP and DBP over the measurement interval, which indicates the degree of fluctuation in BP and (3) an indicator as to whether or not the oscillometric reading is an outlier. Recordings with healthy subjects demonstrate the potential utility of this approach to characterize BP, to detect outlier measurements, and that it does not suffer from bias relative to the conventional oscillometric method. (paper)

  12. Tight junctions at the blood brain barrier: physiological architecture and disease-associated dysregulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luissint Anny-Claude

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Blood–brain barrier (BBB, present at the level of the endothelium of cerebral blood vessels, selectively restricts the blood-to-brain paracellular diffusion of compounds; it is mandatory for cerebral homeostasis and proper neuronal function. The barrier properties of these specialized endothelial cells notably depend on tight junctions (TJs between adjacent cells: TJs are dynamic structures consisting of a number of transmembrane and membrane-associated cytoplasmic proteins, which are assembled in a multimolecular complex and acting as a platform for intracellular signaling. Although the structural composition of these complexes has been well described in the recent years, our knowledge about their functional regulation still remains fragmentary. Importantly, pericytes, embedded in the vascular basement membrane, and perivascular microglial cells, astrocytes and neurons contribute to the regulation of endothelial TJs and BBB function, altogether constituting the so-called neurovascular unit. The present review summarizes our current understanding of the structure and functional regulation of endothelial TJs at the BBB. Accumulating evidence points to a correlation between BBB dysfunction, alteration of TJ complexes and progression of a variety of CNS diseases, such as stroke, multiple sclerosis and brain tumors, as well as neurodegenerative diseases like Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases. Understanding how TJ integrity is controlled may thus help improve drug delivery across the BBB and the design of therapeutic strategies for neurological disorders.

  13. Short- and long-term physiologic and pharmacologic control of blood pressure in pediatric patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trachtman H

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Howard TrachtmanDivision of Nephrology, Cohen Children's Medical Center of New York, Long Island Campus for the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New Hyde Park, NY, USAAbstract: The incidence of hypertension is rising in the general population. A parallel trend is present in children and adolescents. This reflects more intensive treatment and improved patient survival after a wide range of serious systemic illnesses that can lead to hypertension. In addition, primary or essential hypertension is more prevalent because of the epidemic of obesity and metabolic syndrome in pediatric and adult patients of both genders and in all ethnic groups. As a consequence of the changing demographic pattern of hypertension, more patients are requiring therapy for elevated blood pressure. This review summarizes key aspects of the treatment for hypertension in pediatric patients and the long-term management of this problem, including nonpharmacologic strategies and drug treatment.Keywords: hypertension, pediatric, pharmacologic, renoprotection

  14. Correlations between blood lead levels and some physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in some Nigerian women

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lead is one of the common toxic materials widely occurring in the Nigerian environment. Even with the change to unleaded petrol, other significant sources still remain to be addressed. The deleterious impact of lead on human health, is well documented. The effects range from attention-grabbing mass mortality - as happened in Zamfara State recently, to no less serious but grossly neglected neurocognitive and neurodevelopmental effects, including lowered intelligence quotient scores. All these impacts are most serious in children, especially fetuses who receive their burden from their mothers. Ninety percent of lead in most adults resides in the bones with a half-life measured in decades. Therefore, fetuses and breast-fed children in this generation will remain seriously at risk of exposure to damaging lead levels no matter the efforts to rid our external environment of lead in the years to come. In this work, we have investigated the correlation between Blood Lead Levels (BLL) and up to 35 physiological and biochemical parameters of nutritional importance in 62 women of child-bearing age from lIe-lfe, Nigeria. BLL was determined in venous blood using Inductively- coupled plasma Mass Spectrometry. Our results show that BLL significantly correlates with Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Creatine Clearance, and the ratio of Low-density Lipids to High density Lipids in these women. When the subjects were stratified into different Nutritional Status group based on their Body Mass Index, significant correlation was found between BLL and Age but only in Obese subjects.

  15. Advances in regional cerebral blood flow measurement and patho-physiological analysis by SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently, two kinds of radiopharmaceuticals have been developed to represent the biodistribution of regional blood flow, which are N-isopropyl-p-[123I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and 99mTc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime (HMPAO). In this paper, I mentioned the charachteristics, clinical usage and imitation of these two radiolabeled agents. The advantage of 123I-IMP is that it has high first-pass extraction and long retention in brain tissue, hence it can be used to measure the absolute values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). When the kinetics of 123I-IMP is assumed to be freely diffusible in the brain, its behavior is considered by 2-compartment model, especially which is assumed by the microsphere model in the early period after the i.v. injection of 123I-IMP. Comparing the rCBF measured by 123I-IMP with that by 133Xe inhalation SPECT method, we have to consider PaCO2 when both SPECT studies are performed, because PaCO2 is one of the big factors which make effects on the alteration of rCBF. 123I-IMP has an interesting character of the redistribution phenomenon which represrent the degree of ischemia in the cerebrovascular diseases. Distribution volume is one of the important information obtained by the SPECT study with 123I-IMP, which represent the degree of retention, i.e. binding potential of 123I-IMP in the brain tissue. I introduced the usage of the distribution volume of 123I-IMP, which was constructed in the rate constant square method, in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The clinical usage of 99m Tc-HMPAT was mentioned, the advantage of which is the rapid fixation in the brain tissue and the distribution does not change for long time after the i.v. injection. Hence 99mTc-HMPAO is used for the diagnosis of epileptic foci and certain loading tests such as balloon occlusion test, postural test and acetazolamide loading test. (author)

  16. Advances in regional cerebral blood flow measurement and patho-physiological analysis by SPECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Odano, Ikuo (Niigata Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine)

    1994-04-01

    Recently, two kinds of radiopharmaceuticals have been developed to represent the biodistribution of regional blood flow, which are N-isopropyl-p-[[sup 123]I]iodoamphetamine (IMP) and [sup 99m]Tc-hexamethylpropylene-amine-oxime (HMPAO). The charachteristics, clinical usage and imitation of these two radiolabeled agents are discussed. The advantage of [sup 123]I-IMP is that it has high first-pass extraction and long retention in brain tissue, hence it can be used to measure the absolute values of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF). When the kinetics of [sup 123]I-IMP is assumed to be freely diffusible in the brain, its behavior is considered by 2-compartment model, especially which is assumed by the microsphere model in the early period after the i.v. injection of [sup 123]I-IMP. Comparing the rCBF measured by [sup 123]I-IMP with that by [sup 133]Xe inhalation SPECT method, we have to consider PaCO[sub 2] when both SPECT studies are performed, because PaCO[sub 2] is one of the big factors which make effects on the alteration of rCBF. [sup 123]I-IMP has an interesting character of the redistribution phenomenon which represrent the degree of ischemia in the cerebrovascular diseases. Distribution volume an important datum obtained by the SPECT study with [sup 123]I-IMP, which represent the degree of retention, i.e. binding potential of [sup 123]I-IMP in the brain tissue. I introduced the usage of the distribution volume of [sup 123]I-IMP, which was constructed in the rate constant square method, in the differential diagnosis of Parkinson's disease and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The clinical usage of [sup 99m] Tc-HMPAT was mentioned, the advantage of which is the rapid fixation in the brain tissue and the distribution does not change for long time after the i.v. injection. Hence [sup 99m]Tc-HMPAO is used for the diagnosis of epileptic foci and certain loading tests such as balloon occlusion test, postural test and acetazolamide loading test. (author).

  17. Effect of sesame seeds on blood physiological and biochemmical parameters in broiler breeder hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Y. Abdul-Rahman

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to investigate the effect of employing sesame seeds in broiler breeder diet on some physiological parameters. 30 Cobb breeder hens (36 week age were divided into 3 groups (10 hens each. The 1st group was reared on standard ration (control, the 2nd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (250 mg /kg and the 3rd group was reared on standard ration and given orally Sesame seeds capsules daily (500 mg/kg. The treatment continues for 4 weeks period. Results showed a significant increase in the RBCs, Hb and PCV in the 2nd and 3rd group compared with the control group. This was accompanied by a significant decrease in MCV and MCH. Significant increase in the MCHC in the 3rd group compared with other groups after 2 and 4 weeks of treatment was noticed. Sesame seeds treatments for 4 weeks also caused a significant increase in the WBC count in the 2nd and 3rd group as compared with control. Hormonal Assay revealed that sesame seeds treatment with tow doses has no effects on plasma levels of LH hormone (4.94 and 4.48 miu/ml compared with control (3.93 miu / ml, but the sesame seeds treatment (500 mg/kg causes a significant increase in plasma levels of FSH (0.88 miu / ml compared with the control (0.64 miu/ ml. Sesame seeds treatment, also, increased the egg weight, shell weight and yolk weight and it reached the levels of significantly in the 3rd group (66.15, 7.33 and 20.65 g respectively as compared with control (61.48, 6.86 and 18.66 g, respectively. It is concluded that, sesame seeds treatment enhanced erythropoiesis, FSH activity and some productive parameters.

  18. PHYSIOLOGY OF BLOOD COAGULATION

    OpenAIRE

    B. Ţuţuianu

    2007-01-01

    Untill the XIXth century we knew very little about coagulation and haemostasis, most of our knowledge being based on observations. The discovery of thrombin, platelets, fibrinogen and calcium led to one of the most important theories (Paul Moravitz, 1890), which gave a scientific explanation of the haemostasis, describing the main steps of coagulation. Further on, the discovery of coagulation factors, of vitamin K, of heparin and of coagulation tests offered the ground for a new theory, namel...

  19. Fluctuation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluctuation phenomena are the ''tip of the iceberg'' revealing the existence, behind even the most quiescent appearing macroscopic states, of an underlying world of agitated, ever-changing microscopic processes. While the presence of these fluctuations can be ignored in some cases, e.g. if one is satisfied with purely thermostatic description of systems in equilibrium, they are central to the understanding of other phenomena, e.g. the nucleation of a new phase following the quenching of a system into the co-existence region. This volume contains a collection of review articles, written by experts in the field, on the subject of fluctuation phenomena. Some of the articles are of a very general nature discussing the modern mathematical formulation of the problems involved, while other articles deal with specific topics such as kinetics of phase transitions and conductivity in solids. The juxtaposition of the variety of physical situations in which fluctuation phenomena play an important role is novel and should give the reader an insight into this subject

  20. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora

    OpenAIRE

    Kalliopi Georgakouli; Anastasios Mpesios; Demetrios Kouretas; Konstantinos Petrotos; Chrysanthi Mitsagga; Ioannis Giavasis; Athanasios Z. Jamurtas

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition—EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt...

  1. The Effects of an Olive Fruit Polyphenol-Enriched Yogurt on Body Composition, Blood Redox Status, Physiological and Metabolic Parameters and Yogurt Microflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgakouli, Kalliopi; Mpesios, Anastasios; Kouretas, Demetrios; Petrotos, Konstantinos; Mitsagga, Chrysanthi; Giavasis, Ioannis; Jamurtas, Athanasios Z

    2016-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the effects of an olive polyphenol-enriched yogurt on yogurt microflora, as well as hematological, physiological and metabolic parameters, blood redox status and body composition. In a randomized double-blind, crossover design, 16 (6 men, 10 women) nonsmoking volunteers with non-declared pathology consumed either 400 g of olive fruit polyphenol-enriched yogurt with 50 mg of encapsulated olive polyphenols (experimental condition-EC) or 400 g of plain yogurt (control condition-CC) every day for two weeks. Physiological measurements and blood collection were performed before and after two weeks of each condition. The results showed that body weight, body mass index, hip circumference and systolic blood pressure decreased significantly (p < 0.05) following the two-week consumption of yogurt regardless of condition. A tendency towards significance for decreased levels of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (p = 0.06) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (p < 0.05) following two weeks of polyphenol-enriched yogurt consumption was observed. The population of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and production of lactate in yogurt were significantly enhanced after addition of olive polyphenols, contrary to the population of yeasts and molds. The results indicate that consumption of the polyphenol-enriched yogurt may help individuals with non-declared pathology reduce body weight, blood pressure, LDL cholesterol levels and lipid peroxidation, and promote growth of beneficial LAB. PMID:27271664

  2. Data on how several physiological parameters of stored red blood cells are similar in glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient and sufficient donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzounakas, Vassilis L; Kriebardis, Anastasios G; Georgatzakou, Hara T; Foudoulaki-Paparizos, Leontini E; Dzieciatkowska, Monika; Wither, Matthew J; Nemkov, Travis; Hansen, Kirk C; Papassideri, Issidora S; D'Alessandro, Angelo; Antonelou, Marianna H

    2016-09-01

    This article contains data on the variation in several physiological parameters of red blood cells (RBCs) donated by eligible glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficient donors during storage in standard blood bank conditions compared to control, G6PD sufficient (G6PD(+)) cells. Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, cell fragility and membrane exovesiculation were measured in RBCs throughout the storage period, with or without stimulation by oxidants, supplementation of N-acetylcysteine and energy depletion, following incubation of stored cells for 24 h at 37 °C. Apart from cell characteristics, the total or uric acid-dependent antioxidant capacity of the supernatant in addition to extracellular potassium concentration was determined in RBC units. Finally, procoagulant activity and protein carbonylation levels were measured in the microparticles population. Further information can be found in "Glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficient subjects may be better "storers" than donors of red blood cells" [1]. PMID:27437434

  3. Mathematical Model of Extrinsic Blood Coagulation Cascade Dynamic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    The blood coagulation system is very important to life. This paper presents a mathematical blood coagulation model for the extrinsic pathway. This model simulates clotting factor VIII, which plays an important role in the coagulation mechanism. The mathematical model is used to study the equilibrium stability, orbit structure, attractors and global stability behavior, with conclusions in accordance with the physiological phenomena. Moreover, the results provide information about blood related illnesses, which can be used for further study of the coagulation mechanism.

  4. Mathematical physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Sneyd, James

    2009-01-01

    There has been a long history of interaction between mathematics and physiology. This book looks in detail at a wide selection of mathematical models in physiology, showing how physiological problems can be formulated and studied mathematically, and how such models give rise to interesting and challenging mathematical questions. With its coverage of many recent models it gives an overview of the field, while many older models are also discussed, to put the modern work in context. In this second edition the coverage of basic principles has been expanded to include such topics as stochastic differential equations, Markov models and Gibbs free energy, and the selection of models has also been expanded to include some of the basic models of fluid transport, respiration/perfusion, blood diseases, molecular motors, smooth muscle, neuroendrocine cells, the baroreceptor loop, turboglomerular oscillations, blood clotting and the retina. Owing to this extensive coverage, the second edition is published in two volumes. ...

  5. A basic study on molecular hydrogen (H2 inhalation in acute cerebral ischemia patients for safety check with physiological parameters and measurement of blood H2 level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Hirohisa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In animal experiments, use of molecular hydrogen ( H2 has been regarded as quite safe and effective, showing benefits in multiple pathological conditions such as ischemia-reperfusion injury of the brain, heart, kidney and transplanted tissues, traumatic and surgical injury of the brain and spinal cord, inflammation of intestine and lung , degenerative striatonigral tissue and also in many other situations. However, since cerebral ischemia patients are in old age group, the safety information needs to be confirmed. For the feasibility of H2 treatment in these patients, delivery of H2 by inhalation method needs to be checked for consistency. Methods Hydrogen concentration (HC in the arterial and venous blood was measured by gas chromatography on 3 patients, before, during and after 4% (case 1 and 3% (case2,3 H2 gas inhalation with simultaneous monitoring of physiological parameters. For a consistency study, HC in the venous blood of 10 patients were obtained on multiple occasions at the end of 30-min H2 inhalation treatment. Results The HC gradually reached a plateau level in 20 min after H2 inhalation in the blood, which was equivalent to the level reported by animal experiments. The HC rapidly decreased to 10% of the plateau level in about 6 min and 18 min in arterial and venous blood, respectively after H2 inhalation was discontinued. Physiological parameters on these 3 patients were essentially unchanged by use of hydrogen. The consistency study of 10 patients showed the HC at the end of 30-min inhalation treatment was quite variable but the inconsistency improved with more attention and encouragement. Conclusion H2 inhalation of at least 3% concentration for 30 min delivered enough HC, equivalent to the animal experiment levels, in the blood without compromising the safety. However, the consistency of H2 delivery by inhalation needs to be improved.

  6. CAVERNOUS TRANSFORMATION OF PORTAL VEIN : A RARE ANATOMIC DEVELOPMENT WITH EMPHASIS ON ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY OF PORTAL BLOOD FLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashfaq Ul Hassan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Portal vein contributes to more than 70 % blood flow to the liver the significant increases in portal venous blood pressure is associated with major systemic manifestations. Having a knowledge about Portal Blood supply is important tio any clinician, gastroenterologist or any Hepatic Surgeon. The Article outlines the rare development of Portal Cavernoma in a patient who had Portal Hypertension. Portal cavernoma is a consequence of portal vein thrombosis. We Present a case of a lady with mild Right hypochondriac pain who on evaluation was found to have Cavernomatous transformation of Portal vein without any other abnormality.

  7. Physiological and Pathological Impact of Blood Sampling by Retro-Bulbar Sinus Puncture and Facial Vein Phlebotomy in Laboratory Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, Anne Charlotte; Nygaard Madsen, Andreas; Holst, Birgitte; Hau, Jann; Rozell, Björn; Abelson, Klas Stig Peter

    2014-01-01

    time points, and the samples were analyzed for plasma corticosterone. Body weights were measured at the day of blood sampling and the day after blood sampling, and the food consumption was recorded automatically during the 24 hours post-procedure. At the end of study, cheeks and orbital regions were...... weight following blood sampling, but the body weight loss was higher in mice subjected to facial vein phlebotomy. The food consumption was not significantly different between the two groups. At gross necropsy, subcutaneous hematomas were found in both groups and the histopathological analyses revealed...

  8. Physiology and physiopathology at CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Although CT is essentially a morphological technique, it should theoretically enable investigation of certain physiological and physiopathological phenomena to be made, for example by the study of (i) CT numbers and (ii) the nature and evolution of enhancements. Intravenous injection of iodine contrast agent increases the attenuation coefficients of cerebral parenchyma, which is theoretically due only to the enhancement of the vascular compartment and in direct correlation with the cerebral blood volume (CBV). The authors have measured the attenuation coefficients of the blood and the parenchyma at varying times after contrast injection. Two contrast agents with differing osmolarities were studied. Two scanners were used - an ACTA scanner and an ND 8000. Twenty CTs were performed on five patients after a bolus injection of a solution of 38% iodine: sodium ioxithalamate 25.69 g; methylglucamine oxithalamate 51.3 osmolarity 1800 mosmol/12 ml/kg were injected. Leakage of the iodine contrast agent, however, considerably increases the density coefficient of cerebral parenchyma and rules out any accurate measurement of the CBV. CT study of cerebral physiopathology is also discussed. This is dependent on two techniques - measurement of attenuation coefficients and observation of enhancements - neither of which are shown to give results characteristic of any one physiopathology. The application of CT in physiological and physiopathological cerebral phenomena is currently extremely limited. (Auth.)

  9. Radioimmunological methods of determining hormones in the blood in physiological pregnancy and in abortions and premature delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Significant changes are shown to occur in the level of sex hormones in blood at the risk of spontaneous abortion, missed abortion, or the mole. Determining the levels of estradiol, progesterone, chorial gonadotropin and testosterone in the blood serum using RIA yields immediate information on the hormonal function of the fetoplacental unit. This has diagnostic significance and can be used as a criterion for the application of complementary hormonal therapy when there is a risk of abortion or premature delivery. (author)

  10. Physiology and pathophysiology of Na+/H+ exchange and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransport in the heart, brain, and blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S. F.; O´Donnell, M. E.; Anderson, S. E.;

    2006-01-01

    . The aim is to provide a comprehensive overview of the mechanisms and consequences of stress-induced stimulation of these transporters with focus on the heart, brain, and blood. The physiological stressors reviewed are metabolic/exercise stress, osmotic stress, and mechanical stress, conditions in which......Maintenance of a stable cell volume and intracellular pH is critical for normal cell function. Arguably, two of the most important ion transporters involved in these processes are the Na+/H+ exchanger isoform 1 (NHE1) and Na+-K+-2Cl- cotransporter isoform 1 (NKCC1). Both NHE1 and NKCC1...

  11. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    OpenAIRE

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow pot...

  12. A physiological model of the interaction between tissue bubbles and the formation of blood-borne bubbles under decompression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Under decompression, bubbles can form in the human body, and these can be found both within the body tissues and the bloodstream. Mathematical models for the growth of both types of bubbles have previously been presented, but they have not been coupled together. This work thus explores the interaction between the growth of tissue and blood-borne bubbles under decompression, specifically looking at the extent to which they compete for the common resource of inert gas held in solution in the tissues. The influence of tissue bubbles is found to be significant for densities as low as 10 ml-1 for tissues which are poorly perfused. However, the effects of formation of bubbles in the blood are not found until the density of bubble production sites reaches 106 ml-1. From comparison of the model predictions with experimental evidence for bubbles produced in animals and man under decompression, it is concluded that the density of tissue bubbles is likely to have a significant effect on the number of bubbles produced in the blood. However, the density of nucleation sites in the blood is unlikely to be sufficiently high in humans for the formation of bubbles in the blood to have a significant impact on the growth of the bubbles in the tissue

  13. A mathematical/physiological model of parathyroid hormone secretion in response to blood-ionized calcium lowering in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Momsen, G; Schwarz, P

    1997-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to test a mathematical model of the biochemical processes in the parathyroid glands responsible for the secretion of parathyroid hormone resulting from extracellular calcium reduction. A double exponential curve described the parathyroid hormone secretion induced by...... rapid lowering of blood-ionized calcium in humans with normal as well as abnormal parathyroid tissue. Our data show that it was possible to establish a simple mathematical model of the parathyroid hormone response to blood-ionized calcium lowering, sufficient to fit experimental data obtained from...

  14. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and Their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, A.; Kousba, A.; Timchalk, C.

    2004-01-01

    Chlorpyrifos (CPF)(O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioate, CAS 2921-88-2), and diazinon (DZN)(O,O-diethyl-O-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl thiophosphate, CAS 333-41-5) are commonly encountered organophosphorus insecticides whose oxon metabolites (CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon) have the ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Chlorpyrifos-oxon and DZN-oxon are highly unstable compounds that degrade via hepatic, peripheral blood, and intestinal metabolism to the more stable metabolites, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, CAS not assigned) and IMHP (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, CAS 2814-20-2), respectively. Studies have been performed to understand and model the chronic and acute toxic effects of CPF and DZN individually but little is known about their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) computational models by quantifying concentrations of CPF and DZN and their metabolites TCP and IMHP in whole rat blood, following exposure to the chemicals individually or as a mixture. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 60 mg/kg of CPF, DZN, or a mixture of these two pesticides. When administered individually DZN and CPF were seen to reach their maximum concentration at ~3 hours post-dosing. When given as a mixture, both DZN and CPF peak blood concentrations were not achieved until ~6 hours post-dosing and the calculated blood area under the curve (AUC) for both chemicals exceeded those calculated following the single dose. Blood concentrations of IMHP and TCP correlated with these findings. It is proposed that the higher AUC obtained for both CPF and DZN as a mixture resulted from competition for the same metabolic enzyme systems.

  15. A review of the effect of the psychosocial working environment on physiological changes in blood and urine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Åse Marie; Larsen, Ann Dyreborg; Rugulies, Reiner;

    2009-01-01

    -based studies. The studied exposures in work place/population-based studies included: job demands (26/8 studies), job control (24/10 studies), social support and/or leadership behaviour (12/3 studies), effort-reward imbalance (three/one studies), occupational changes (four studies), shift work (eight studies......), traumatic events (one study) and other (five studies). The physiological responses were catecholamines (adrenaline, noradrenaline) (14 studies), cortisol (28 studies), cholesterol (23 studies), glycated haemoglobinA(1c) (six studies), testosterone (nine studies), oestrogens (three studies...

  16. MAINTAINING PHYSIOLOGICAL STATE FOR EXCEPTIONAL SURVIVAL: WHAT IS THE NORMAL LEVEL OF BLOOD GLUCOSE AND DOES IT CHANGE WITH AGE?

    OpenAIRE

    Yashin, Anatoli I.; Ukraintseva, Svetlana V.; Arbeev, Konstantin G.; Akushevich, Igor; Arbeeva, Liubov S.; Kulminski, Alexander M.

    2009-01-01

    The levels of blood glucose (BG) in humans tend to increase with age deviating from the norm specified for the young adults. Such elevation is often considered as a factor contributing to an increase in risks of disease and death. The proper use of intervention strategies coping with or preventing consequences of BG elevation requires understanding the roles of external forces and intrinsic senescence in this process. To address these issues, we performed analyses of longitudinal data on BG c...

  17. Physiological effects in aromatherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapanee Hongratanaworakit

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of aromas on humans are divided into physiological and psychological effects. The physiological effect acts directly on the physical organism, the psychological effect acts via the sense of smell or olfactory system, which in turn may cause a physiological effect. This paper reviews on the physiological effects which are used for the evaluation of the effects of aromas. Physiological parameters, i.e. heart rate blood pressure, electrodermal activity, electroencephalogram, slow potential brain waves (contingent negativevariation, and eye blink rate or pupil functions, are used as indices for the measurement of the aroma effects

  18. Synchronization Phenomena and Epoch Filter of Electroencephalogram

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matani, Ayumu

    Nonlinear electrophysiological synchronization phenomena in the brain, such as event-related (de)synchronization, long distance synchronization, and phase-reset, have received much attention in neuroscience over the last decade. These phenomena contain more electrical than physiological keywords and actually require electrical techniques to capture with electroencephalography (EEG). For instance, epoch filters, which have just recently been proposed, allow us to investigate such phenomena. Moreover, epoch filters are still developing and would hopefully generate a new paradigm in neuroscience from an electrical engineering viewpoint. Consequently, electrical engineers could be interested in EEG once again or from now on.

  19. Sex and proximity to reproductive maturity influence the survival, final maturation, and blood physiology of Pacific salmon when exposed to high temperature during a simulated migration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffries, Ken M; Hinch, Scott G; Martins, Eduardo G; Clark, Timothy D; Lotto, Andrew G; Patterson, David A; Cooke, Steven J; Farrell, Anthony P; Miller, Kristina M

    2012-01-01

    Some Pacific salmon populations have been experiencing increasingly warmer river temperatures during their once-in-a-lifetime spawning migration, which has been associated with en route and prespawn mortality. The mechanisms underlying such temperature-mediated mortality are poorly understood. Wild adult pink (Oncorhynchus gorbuscha) and sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) salmon were used in this study. The objectives were to investigate the effects of elevated water temperature on mortality, final maturation, and blood properties under controlled conditions that simulated a "cool" (13°C) and "warm" (19°C) freshwater spawning migration. After 10 d at 13°C, observed mortality was 50%-80% in all groups, which suggested that there was likely some mortality associated with handling and confinement. Observed mortality after 10 d at 19°C was higher, reaching ≥98% in male pink salmon and female pink and sockeye salmon. Thus, male sockeye salmon were the most thermally tolerant (54% observed mortality). Model selection supported the temperature- and sex-specific mortality patterns. The pink salmon were closer to reproductive maturation and farther along the senescence trajectory than sockeye salmon, which likely influenced their survival and physiological responses throughout the experiment. Females of both species held at 19°C had reduced plasma sex steroids compared with those held at 13°C, and female pink salmon were less likely to become fully mature at 19° than at 13°C. Male and female sockeye salmon held at 19°C had higher plasma chloride and osmolality than those held at 13°C, indicative of a thermally related stress response. These findings suggest that sex differences and proximity to reproductive maturity must be considered when predicting thermal tolerance and the magnitude of en route and prespawn mortality for Pacific salmon. PMID:22237290

  20. Classification & Structure of Blood Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid & Parathyroid Glands Adrenal Gland Pancreas Gonads Other Endocrine Glands Review Quiz Cardiovascular System Heart Structure of the Heart Physiology of the Heart Blood Classification & Structure of Blood ...

  1. Anatomy & Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surveillance Modules » Anatomy & Physiology Cancer Registration & Surveillance Modules Anatomy & Physiology Intro to the Human Body Body Functions & Life Process Anatomical Terminology Review ...

  2. Early changes in physiological variables after stroke

    OpenAIRE

    Wong Andrew; Read Stephen

    2008-01-01

    Several aspects of physiology, notably blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, and blood oxygen saturation, may be altered after an ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. Generally, blood pressure and temperature rise acutely after a stroke, before returning to normal. Blood glucose and oxygen levels may be abnormal in individuals, but they do not follow a set pattern. Several aspects of these physiological alterations remain unclear, including their principal determinants - w...

  3. Nonlinear surface electromagnetic phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Ponath, H-E

    1991-01-01

    In recent years the physics of electromagnetic surface phenomena has developed rapidly, evolving into technologies for communications and industry, such as fiber and integrated optics. The variety of phenomena based on electromagnetism at surfaces is rich and this book was written with the aim of summarizing the available knowledge in selected areas of the field. The book contains reviews written by solid state and optical physicists on the nonlinear interaction of electromagnetic waves at and with surfaces and films. Both the physical phenomena and some potential applications are

  4. Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Søgaard; Kornbeck, Kasper Pihl; Kristensen, Rune;

    Dropout from university studies comprises a number of complex phenomena with serious complex consequences and profound political attention. Further analysis of the field is, therefore, warranted. Such an analysis is offered here as a systematic review which gives answers based on the best possible...... evidence found in the research field comprised by the three review questions to be addressed. The aims of this systematic review can, thus, be summarized like this: Which answers can be offered from research in relation to the following questions: What is dropout from university studies? Why do such...... dropout phenomena occur at universities? What can be done by the universities to prevent or reduce such dropout phenomena?...

  5. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale

  6. Introduction to wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In these lectures the field of wetting phenomena is introduced from the point of view of statistical physics. The phase transition from partial to complete wetting is discussed and examples of relevant experiments in binary liquid mixtures are given. Cahn's concept of critical-point wetting is examined in detail. Finally, a connection is drawn between wetting near bulk criticality and the universality classes of surface critical phenomena. (author)

  7. Complex fission phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Poenaru, D N; Greiner, W

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena can be studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle-point) nuclear shapes, may be obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in cold fission phenomena can be explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are outlined. Predictions of two alpha accompanied fission are experimentally confirmed.

  8. Severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severe accidents are nuclear reactor accidents in which the reactor core is substantially damaged. The report describes severe reactor accident phenomena and their significance for the safety of nuclear power plants. A comprehensive set of phenomena ranging from accident initiation to containment behaviour and containment integrity questions are covered. The report is based on expertise gained in the severe accident assessment projects conducted at the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT). (49 refs., 32 figs., 12 tabs.)

  9. Physiology of Breastfeeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    This powerpoint presentation summaries physiology of lactation and the impact of a variety of clinical practices on lactation from delivery through weaning. Factors that inhibit lactogenesis stage II are explained, including retained placenta, excess blood loss during delivery, and hypoplastic brea...

  10. Physiology for engineers applying engineering methods to physiological systems

    CERN Document Server

    Chappell, Michael

    2016-01-01

    This book provides an introduction to qualitative and quantitative aspects of human physiology. It looks at biological and physiological processes and phenomena, including a selection of mathematical models, showing how physiological problems can be mathematically formulated and studied. It also illustrates how a wide range of engineering and physics topics, including electronics, fluid dynamics, solid mechanics and control theory can be used to describe and understand physiological processes and systems. Throughout the text there are introductions to measuring and quantifying physiological processes using both signal and imaging technologies. Physiology for Engineers describes the basic structure and models of cellular systems, the structure and function of the cardiovascular system, the electrical and mechanical activity of the heart and provides an overview of the structure and function of the respiratory and nervous systems. It also includes an introduction to the basic concepts and applications of reacti...

  11. Harnessing the Power of Integrated Mitochondrial Biology and Physiology: A Special Report on the NHLBI Mitochondria in Heart Diseases Initiative

    OpenAIRE

    Ping, P.; Gustafsson, ÅB; Bers, DM; Blatter, LA; Cai, H; Jahangir, A; Kelly, D; Muoio, D; O'Rourke, B; Rabinovitch, P; Trayanova, N; van Eyk, J.; Weiss, JN; Wong, R; Longacre, LS

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc. Mitochondrial biology is the sum of diverse phenomena from molecular profiles to physiological functions. A mechanistic understanding of mitochondria in disease development, and hence the future prospect of clinical translations, relies on a systems-level integration of expertise from multiple fields of investigation. Upon the successful conclusion of a recent National Institutes of Health, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute initiative on integra...

  12. Ion exchange phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourg, I.C.; Sposito, G.

    2011-05-01

    Ion exchange phenomena involve the population of readily exchangeable ions, the subset of adsorbed solutes that balance the intrinsic surface charge and can be readily replaced by major background electrolyte ions (Sposito, 2008). These phenomena have occupied a central place in soil chemistry research since Way (1850) first showed that potassium uptake by soils resulted in the release of an equal quantity of moles of charge of calcium and magnesium. Ion exchange phenomena are now routinely modeled in studies of soil formation (White et al., 2005), soil reclamation (Kopittke et al., 2006), soil fertilitization (Agbenin and Yakubu, 2006), colloidal dispersion/flocculation (Charlet and Tournassat, 2005), the mechanics of argillaceous media (Gajo and Loret, 2007), aquitard pore water chemistry (Tournassat et al., 2008), and groundwater (Timms and Hendry, 2007; McNab et al., 2009) and contaminant hydrology (Chatterjee et al., 2008; van Oploo et al., 2008; Serrano et al., 2009).

  13. The effect of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochemistry: A case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio (Cyprinidae)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šimková, A.; Vojtek, L.; Halačka, Karel; Hyršl, P.; Vetešník, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 435, č. 1 (2015), s. 381-389. ISSN 0044-8486 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Hybridization * Cyprinids * Blood biochemistry * Hematology * Immunity Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 1.878, year: 2014

  14. Rheological phenomena in focus

    CERN Document Server

    Boger, DV

    1993-01-01

    More than possibly any other scientific discipline, rheology is easily visualized and the relevant literature contains many excellent photographs of unusual and often bizarre phenomena. The present book brings together these photographs for the first time. They are supported by a full explanatory text. Rheological Phenomena in Focus will be an indispensable support manual to all those who teach rheology or have to convince colleagues of the practical relevance of the subject within an industrial setting. For those who teach fluid mechanics, the book clearly illustrates the difference be

  15. Sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of experimental and theoretical investigaions of sawtooth phenomena in tokamaks is presented. Different types of sawtooth oscillations, scaling laws and methods of interanl disruption stabilization are described. Theoretical models of the sawtooth instability are discussed. 122 refs.; 4 tabs

  16. Bioelectrochemistry II membrane phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Blank, M

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the lectures of the second course devoted to bioelectro­ chemistry, held within the framework of the International School of Biophysics. In this course another very large field of bioelectrochemistry, i. e. the field of Membrane Phenomena, was considered, which itself consists of several different, but yet related subfields. Here again, it can be easily stated that it is impossible to give a complete and detailed picture of all membrane phenomena of biological interest in a short course of about one and half week. Therefore the same philosophy, as the one of the first course, was followed, to select a series of lectures at postgraduate level, giving a synthesis of several membrane phenomena chosen among the most'important ones. These lectures should show the large variety of membrane-regulated events occurring in living bodies, and serve as sound interdisciplinary basis to start a special­ ized study of biological phenomena, for which the investigation using the dual approach, physico-che...

  17. PHYSIOLOGY AND PATHOPHYSIOLOGY OF THE BLOOD BRAIN BARRIER: P-glycoprotein and occludin trafficking as therapeutic targets to optimize CNS drug delivery

    OpenAIRE

    McCaffrey, Gwen; Davis, Thomas P.

    2012-01-01

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) is a physical and metabolic barrier that separates the CNS from the peripheral circulation. CNS drug delivery across the BBB is challenging, primarily due to the physical restriction of paracellular diffusion between the endothelial cells that comprise the microvessels of the BBB and the activity of efflux transporters that quickly expel back into the capillary lumen a wide variety of xenobiotics. Therapeutic manipulation of protein trafficking is emerging as a n...

  18. The effect of hybridization on fish physiology, immunity and blood biochemistry: a case study in hybridizing Cyprinus carpio and Carassius gibelio

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vetešník, Lukáš; Halačka, Karel; Vojtek, L.; Hyršl, P.; Šimková, A.

    Prešov: Vydavateľstvo Prešovskej univerzity, 2014 - (Manko, P.; Baranová, B.). s. 227 ISBN 978-80-555-1140-5. [Zoológia 2014, Feriancove dni /19./. 20.11.2014-22.11.2014, Prešov] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP505/12/0375 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : cyprinids * hybridization * haematology * blood chemistry * immunity and metazoan parasites Subject RIV: EG - Zoology

  19. Neutralization of glucagon by antiserum as a tool in glucagon physiology. Lack of depression of basal blood glucose after antiserum treatment in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holst, J J; Galbo, H; Richter, Erik

    1978-01-01

    The method of producing experimental glucagon deficiency by administration of glucagon antiserum was evaluated in rats. A pool of antisera was prepared, the affinity of which exceeded that of the glucagon receptors of liver cell membranes, whereas the binding capacity of the volume used amounted ...... lowered beyond detection limit. The data indicate that the absolute concentration of glucagon in plasma is of minor importance for the maintenance of basal blood glucose in the rat....... exogenous glucagon was abolished. Antiserum treatment, however, had no effect on blood glucose in rats fasted for 3 and 10 h, in chemically sympathectomized and adrenomedullectomized rats, and in 48-h-fasted, acutely adrenalectomized rats. The antiserum was found to contain 460 nmol/liter of antibody......-bound glucagon, originating in the rabbit in which the antiserum was raised. However, antibody preparations from which the bound glucagon had been effectively removed were equally ineffective in lowering the basal blood glucose in rats, although in three-fourths of the rats the concentration of free glucagon was...

  20. Physiological And Blood Biochemical Responses To Dried Live Yeast Plus Vitamin E As A Dietary Supplement To Bovine Baladi Calves Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiment was designed to study the effect of supplemented dried live yeast (DLY) + vitamin E to the diet of growing calves under hot summer conditions in Egypt. Six bovine Baladi calves with 115 kg initial body weight and 8-10 months old were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the concentrated basal diet only for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g dried live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) + 600 IU vitamin E (alpha- tocopherol) per calf daily for one month and considered as a treated period. Body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of each period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the end of each period to determine some blood biochemical parameters and T3 and T4 concentrations as well as some immunological indices.The results showed that supplementation of DLY + 600 IU vitamin E to the diet of calves reduced significantly (P3 and T4 levels and improved feed efficiency and daily gain. It is concluded that supplementation of growing calves with 15 g DLY + 600 IU vitamin E / calf / day under Egyptian hot summer conditions reduced the effect of heat stress as shown by a decline in RT and modified most blood constituents and thyroid function which leads to an improvement in growing calves

  1. Rowing Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spinks, W. L.

    This review of the literature discusses and examines the methods used in physiological assessment of rowers, results of such assessments, and future directions emanating from research in the physiology of rowing. The first section discusses the energy demands of rowing, including the contribution of the energy system, anaerobic metabolism, and the…

  2. Management of Young Blood Donors

    OpenAIRE

    Newman, Bruce H.

    2014-01-01

    The emphasis on high-school blood drives and acceptance of 16-year-old blood donors led to more research on physiologic and psychological ways to decrease vasovagal reaction rates in young blood donors and to increase donor retention. Research on how to accomplish this has been advantageous for the blood collection industry and blood donors. This review discussed the current situation and what can be done psychologically, physiologically, and via process improvements to decrease vasovagal rea...

  3. Epigenetics: new concepts of old phenomena in vascular physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Bernardo; Sobrevia, Luis; Casanello, Paola

    2009-10-01

    The hypothesis of 'Developmental Origins of Health and Disease' (DOHaD) relies on the presence of mechanisms sensing and signalling a diversity of stimuli during fetal development. The mechanisms that have been broadly suggested to be involved in these processes are the epigenetic modifications that could 'record' perinatal stimuli. Since the definition of epigenetic and the associated mechanisms are conflictive, in this review epigenetic was defined as 'chromosome-based mechanisms that can change the phenotypic plasticity in a cell or organism'. The most understood epigenetic mechanisms (i.e. DNA methylation, histone post-translational modifications (PTM), ATP-dependent chromatin modifications and non-coding RNAs) and reported evidence for their role in fetal programming were briefly reviewed. The development of the vascular system is strongly influenced by epigenetic mechanisms. For that reason vascular cells are good candidates to be explored regarding epigenetic programming since its proved susceptibility to be imprinted. This has been described in pregnancy diseases such as intra-uterine growth restriction, gestational diabetes and pre-eclampsia, where changes in vascular function are preserved in vitro. PMID:19485890

  4. Influence of temporal noise on the skin blood flow measurements performed by cooled thermal imaging camera: limit possibilities within each physiological frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagaidachnyi, A. A.; Volkov, I. U.; Fomin, A. V.

    2016-04-01

    This paper describes limit possibilities of modern cooled thermal imaging cameras as a tool for estimation of blood flow oscillations at the surface of living body. Skin temperature oscillations, as we assumed, are a consequence of the blood flow oscillations. We considered the temperature sensitivity 0.01-0.02 °C as a typical for the most of modern cooled long wave thermal imaging cameras. Fourier filter used to investigate the temperature signal separately within endothelial, neurogenic, myogenic, respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges. The level of temporal noise has been estimated during measurements of no living body with stabilized temperature ~ 24°C. The level of temperature oscillations has been calculated for the group of healthy subjects within each frequency range. Thus, we were able to determine signal-to-noise ratio within frequency band [0.001, 1] Hz. As a result, we determine that skin temperature oscillations measured by thermal imaging camera with sensitivity 0.02°C have the upper frequency limit ~ 0.2 Hz. In other words, within the respiratory and cardiac frequency ranges of blood flow oscillations the noise level exceeds signal one, and temperature measurements at the skin surface are practically useless. The endothelial, neurogenic and myogenic components of the temperature oscillations contain ~98% of the total spectral power of the signal. We have plot the empirical extrapolated curve of sensitivity of thermal imaging camera vs. frequency of the temperature oscillations. The data analysis shows that measurements of skin temperature oscillations within respiratory and cardiac ranges require the temperature sensitivity at least ~ 0.01°C and 0.001°C, respectively.

  5. Physiological Studies On The Efficacy Of Silymarin As Antioxidant Against The Disorders In Some Blood Constituents Induced By Irradiation In Female Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed S. El-Gabry*, Hekmat M. Abou-Safi **, Nabil A. El-Yamany

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available This work was directed to evaluate the possible role of silymarin (a flavonoid used as antihepatoxic agent as a prophylactic agent confronting radiation hazard. Eighty female albino rats were selected at the estrous stage and divided into four groups (G1 - G4: 1- Control. 2- Whole body -irradiated group with two doses 1 Gy and 6 Gy. 3- Silymarin orally administered group (10 mg / 100 g b. wt., twice daily for one week with the last dose 2 hours before blood sampling. 4- Silymarin administered as G3 then rats were irradiated after 2 hours. Blood samples were taken at 2 hours, 2 days and 2 weeks after the last silymarin dose (G3 or irradiation (G2 and G4. Irradiation induced significant declines in RBCs and WBCs count, Hg content and Hct % denoting a deleterious effect in a dose and time dependent manner. Yet, it produced high levels of plasma malondialdehyde, as the end product of lipid peroxidation, concomitant with reduced levels of blood glutathione indicating a depression in the antioxidant system. Dramatic increments in the plasma indices of liver (ALT, AST and alkaline phosphatase and kidney (urea, uric acid and creatinine functions were also recorded depicting a liver and kidney impairment state. Silymarin manifested good amelioration in the radiation-induced changes in the studied parameters. Hence, it could be concluded that silymarin plays a beneficial radioprotective role against radiation hazard in female rats which serves a great sector of women working in radiation application fields or those undergoing radiotherapy.

  6. Fundamentals of Fire Phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintiere, James

    discipline. It covers thermo chemistry including mixtures and chemical reactions; Introduces combustion to the fire protection student; Discusses premixed flames and spontaneous ignition; Presents conservation laws for control volumes, including the effects of fire; Describes the theoretical bases for......Understanding fire dynamics and combustion is essential in fire safety engineering and in fire science curricula. Engineers and students involved in fire protection, safety and investigation need to know and predict how fire behaves to be able to implement adequate safety measures and hazard...... analyses. Fire phenomena encompass everything about the scientific principles behind fire behaviour. Combining the principles of chemistry, physics, heat and mass transfer, and fluid dynamics necessary to understand the fundamentals of fire phenomena, this book integrates the subject into a clear...

  7. Membrane Transport Phenomena (MTP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1997-01-01

    The third semi-annual period of the MTP project has been involved with performing experiments using the Membrane Transport Apparatus (MTA), development of analysis techniques for the experiment results, analytical modeling of the osmotic transport phenomena, and completion of a DC-9 microgravity flight to test candidate fluid cell geometries. Preparations were also made for the MTP Science Concept Review (SCR), held on 13 June 1997 at Lockheed Martin Astronautics in Denver. These activities are detailed in the report.

  8. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  9. Complex fission phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Poenaru, Dorin N.; Gherghescu, Radu A.; Greiner, Walter

    2005-01-01

    Complex fission phenomena are studied in a unified way. Very general reflection asymmetrical equilibrium (saddle point) nuclear shapes are obtained by solving an integro-differential equation without being necessary to specify a certain parametrization. The mass asymmetry in binary cold fission of Th and U isotopes is explained as the result of adding a phenomenological shell correction to the liquid drop model deformation energy. Applications to binary, ternary, and quaternary fission are ou...

  10. Effect of some Physiological Parameters in Female Local Sheep on some Blood Biochemical Components and Hormonal Levels During Pregnancy and Lactation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study was carried out to determine effect of breed, days of estimation within breed, parity number of ewes, sex and type of embryo and regression on age and weight of ewes, gestation length and some blood biochemical and hormones levels during pregnancy or post - partum period. A total number of 60 ewes, 2 - 4 years of age with body weight ranged between 48 to 58 kg from breeding flock in Research Farm of Nuclear Research Centre, Atomic Energy Authority were used in this study. And they were divided into two equal groups according to their breed (Ossimi and Rahmani breed ewes). Blood samples of approximately 7 ml were collected during pregnancy at 10, 20, 30, 50, 100, 120, 140, and 145 days up to parturitions. After parturitions blood samples were taken at 30 and 60 days. Serum total protein, albumin and globulin were determined. In addition, plasma triiodothyronine (T3) and thyroxin (T4) were determined. The results showed that Ossimi ewes had higher pregnancy duration (150.94 days) than Rahmani ewes (149.49 days), the shorter length was observed in ewes of the first parity while the higher of gestation length was found in ewes of the second parity, ewes having female fetus had a longest gestation length while the shortest gestation length was found in ewes having both male and female twins. It was found that during pregnancy period Rahmani ewes had higher T3 and T4 means than Ossimi ones T3 and T4 plasma triiodothyronine (T3) level decreased up to 50 th day of the pregnancy period in Ossimi and Rahmani ewes then it sharply increased at the 145 th day of pregnancy period. In addition, plasma T3 level decreased significantly with increasing ewes parity. The highest level of plasma T3 level (73.50 ng/dl) was found in ewes having twins (male and female) fetus while those having female and having male were found to be 66.50 and 63.15 ng/dl, respectively. Ewes having single had higher values of T3 level compared with twins while the T4 levels concentration

  11. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  12. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tormoen, Garth W.; Khader, Ayesha; Gruber, András; McCarty, Owen J. T.

    2013-06-01

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis.

  13. Physiological levels of blood coagulation factors IX and X control coagulation kinetics in an in vitro model of circulating tissue factor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thrombosis significantly contributes to cancer morbidity and mortality. The mechanism behind thrombosis in cancer may be circulating tissue factor (TF), as levels of circulating TF are associated with thrombosis. However, circulating TF antigen level alone has failed to predict thrombosis in patients with cancer. We hypothesize that coagulation factor levels regulate the kinetics of circulating TF-induced thrombosis. Coagulation kinetics were measured as a function of individual coagulation factor levels and TF particle concentration. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 4:6 with PBS. Clotting times increased when pooled plasma was mixed at or above a ratio of 8:2 with factor VII-depleted plasma, 7:3 with factor IX- or factor X-depleted plasmas, or 2:8 with factor II-, V- or VIII-depleted plasmas. Addition of coagulation factors VII, X, IX, V and II to depleted plasmas shortened clotting and enzyme initiation times, and increased enzyme generation rates in a concentration-dependent manner. Only additions of factors IX and X from low-normal to high-normal levels shortened clotting times and increased enzyme generation rates. Our results demonstrate that coagulation kinetics for TF particles are controlled by factor IX and X levels within the normal physiological range. We hypothesize that individual patient factor IX and X levels may be prognostic for susceptibility to circulating TF-induced thrombosis. (paper)

  14. Quantification of natural phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The science is like a great spider's web in which unexpected connections appear and therefore it is frequently difficult to already know the consequences of new theories on those existent. The physics is a clear example of this. The Newton mechanics laws describe the physical phenomena observable accurately by means of our organs of the senses or by means of observation teams not very sophisticated. After their formulation at the beginning of the XVIII Century, these laws were recognized in the scientific world as a mathematical model of the nature. Together with the electrodynamics law, developed in the XIX century, and the thermodynamic one constitutes what we call the classic physics. The state of maturity of the classic physics at the end of last century it was such that some scientists believed that the physics was arriving to its end obtaining a complete description of the physical phenomena. The spider's web of the knowledge was supposed finished, or at least very near its termination. It ended up saying, in arrogant form, that if the initial conditions of the universe were known, we could determine the state of the same one in any future moment. Two phenomena related with the light would prove in firm form that mistaken that they were, creating unexpected connections in the great spider's web of the knowledge and knocking down part of her. The thermal radiation of the bodies and the fact that the light spreads to constant speed in the hole, without having an absolute system of reference with regard to which this speed is measured, they constituted the decisive factors in the construction of a new physics. The development of sophisticated of measure teams gave access to more precise information and it opened the microscopic world to the observation and confirmation of existent theories

  15. Phylogeny of Aging and Related Phenoptotic Phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Libertini, G

    2015-12-01

    The interpretation of aging as adaptive, i.e. as a phenomenon genetically determined and modulated, and with an evolutionary advantage, implies that aging, as any physiologic mechanism, must have phylogenetic connections with similar phenomena. This review tries to find the phylogenetic connections between vertebrate aging and some related phenomena in other species, especially within those phenomena defined as phenoptotic, i.e. involving the death of one or more individuals for the benefit of other individuals. In particular, the aim of the work is to highlight and analyze similarities and connections, in the mechanisms and in the evolutionary causes, between: (i) proapoptosis in prokaryotes and apoptosis in unicellular eukaryotes; (ii) apoptosis in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes; (iii) aging in yeast and in vertebrates; and (iv) the critical importance of the DNA subtelomeric segment in unicellular and multicellular eukaryotes. In short, there is strong evidence that vertebrate aging has clear similarities and connections with phenomena present in organisms with simpler organization. These phylogenetic connections are a necessary element for the sustainability of the thesis of aging explained as an adaptive phenomenon, and, on the contrary, are incompatible with the opposite view of aging as being due to the accumulation of random damages of various kinds. PMID:26638678

  16. Birefringence phenomena revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Pereira, Dante D; Gonçalves, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    The propagation of electromagnetic waves is investigated in the context of the isotropic and nonlinear dielectric media at rest in the eikonal limit of the geometrical optics. Taking into account the functional dependence $\\varepsilon=\\varepsilon(E,B)$ and $\\mu=\\mu(E,B)$ for the dielectric coefficients, a set of phenomena related to the birefringence of the electromagnetic waves induced by external fields are derived and discussed. Our results contemplate the known cases already reported in the literature: Kerr, Cotton-Mouton, Jones and magnetoelectric effects. Moreover, new effects are presented here as well as the perspectives of its experimental confirmations.

  17. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  18. Thermal Wave Phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-01-01

    This map from the MGS Horizon Sensor Assembly (HORSE) shows middle atmospheric temperatures near the 1 mbar level of Mars between Ls 170 to 175 (approx. July 14 - 23, 1999). Local Mars times between 1:30 and 4:30 AM are included. Infrared radiation measured by the Mars Horizon Sensor Assembly was used to make the map. That device continuously views the 'limb' of Mars in four directions, to help orient the spacecraft instruments to the nadir: straight down. The map shows thermal wave phenomena that are caused by the large topographic variety of Mars' surface, as well the latitudinally symmetric behavior expected at this time of year near the equinox.

  19. Solid state phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Lawrance, R

    1972-01-01

    Solid State Phenomena explores the fundamentals of the structure and their influence on the properties of solids. This book is composed of five chapters that focus on the electrical and thermal conductivities of crystalline solids. Chapter 1 describes the nature of solids, particularly metals and crystalline materials. This chapter also presents a model to evaluate crystal structure, the forces between atom pairs, and the mechanism of plastic and elastic deformation. Chapter 2 demonstrates random vibrations of atoms in a solid using a one-dimensional array, while Chapter 3 examines the resista

  20. MULTISCALE PHENOMENA IN MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A. BISHOP

    2000-09-01

    This project developed and supported a technology base in nonequilibrium phenomena underpinning fundamental issues in condensed matter and materials science, and applied this technology to selected problems. In this way the increasingly sophisticated synthesis and characterization available for classes of complex electronic and structural materials provided a testbed for nonlinear science, while nonlinear and nonequilibrium techniques helped advance our understanding of the scientific principles underlying the control of material microstructure, their evolution, fundamental to macroscopic functionalities. The project focused on overlapping areas of emerging thrusts and programs in the Los Alamos materials community for which nonlinear and nonequilibrium approaches will have decisive roles and where productive teamwork among elements of modeling, simulations, synthesis, characterization and applications could be anticipated--particularly multiscale and nonequilibrium phenomena, and complex matter in and between fields of soft, hard and biomimetic materials. Principal topics were: (i) Complex organic and inorganic electronic materials, including hard, soft and biomimetic materials, self-assembly processes and photophysics; (ii) Microstructure and evolution in multiscale and hierarchical materials, including dynamic fracture and friction, dislocation and large-scale deformation, metastability, and inhomogeneity; and (iii) Equilibrium and nonequilibrium phases and phase transformations, emphasizing competing interactions, frustration, landscapes, glassy and stochastic dynamics, and energy focusing.

  1. Phenomena Associated With EIT Waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, B. J.; Biesecker, D. A.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2003-01-01

    We discuss phenomena associated with "EIT Wave" transients. These phenomena include coronal mass ejections, flares, EUV/SXR dimmings, chromospheric waves, Moreton waves, solar energetic particle events, energetic electron events, and radio signatures. Although the occurrence of many phenomena correlate with the appearance of EIT waves, it is difficult to mfer which associations are causal. The presentation will include a discussion of correlation surveys of these phenomena.

  2. Physiological breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Matthew; Langridge, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Physiological breeding crosses parents with different complex but complementary traits to achieve cumulative gene action for yield, while selecting progeny using remote sensing, possibly in combination with genomic selection. Physiological approaches have already demonstrated significant genetic gains in Australia and several developing countries of the International Wheat Improvement Network. The techniques involved (see Graphical Abstract) also provide platforms for research and refinement of breeding methodologies. Recent examples of these include screening genetic resources for novel expression of Calvin cycle enzymes, identification of common genetic bases for heat and drought adaptation, and genetic dissection of trade-offs among yield components. Such information, combined with results from physiological crosses designed to test novel trait combinations, lead to more precise breeding strategies, and feed models of genotype-by-environment interaction to help build new plant types and experimental environments for future climates. PMID:27161822

  3. Regulatory Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, Helen W.; Whitson, Peggy A.; Putcha, Lakshmi; Baker, Ellen; Smith, Scott M.; Stewart, Karen; Gretebeck, Randall; Nimmagudda, R. R.; Schoeller, Dale A.; Davis-Street, Janis

    1999-01-01

    As noted elsewhere in this report, a central goal of the Extended Duration Orbiter Medical Project (EDOMP) was to ensure that cardiovascular and muscle function were adequate to perform an emergency egress after 16 days of spaceflight. The goals of the Regulatory Physiology component of the EDOMP were to identify and subsequently ameliorate those biochemical and nutritional factors that deplete physiological reserves or increase risk for disease, and to facilitate the development of effective muscle, exercise, and cardiovascular countermeasures. The component investigations designed to meet these goals focused on biochemical and physiological aspects of nutrition and metabolism, the risk of renal (kidney) stone formation, gastrointestinal function, and sleep in space. Investigations involved both ground-based protocols to validate proposed methods and flight studies to test those methods. Two hardware tests were also completed.

  4. Plant physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Duca, Maria

    2015-01-01

    This book covers all aspects of plant physiology: plant cell physiology, water regime of plants, photosynthesis, mineral nutrition, plant respiration, plant growth and development, movements in plants, signal perception and transduction etc. It focuses on the fundamental principles of plant physiology and biochemistry from the molecular level to whole plants, on the mechanisms of plant-environment interactions. The book is intended for students (biologists, physiologists, biochemists, biophysicists, ecologists, geneticists), teachers and researchers. Particular emphasis is given to recent research advances made on national and international levels, as well as to personal experimental results of the author that are relevant for a deeper understanding of processes and for practical implementation of gained knowledge. An essential amount of illustrative material (graphics, images, schemes, illustrations) completes the text and supplies additional information in an accessible manner. At the end of each chapter...

  5. Crystallization phenomena in slags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrling, Carl Folke

    2000-09-01

    The crystallization of the mold slag affects both the heat transfer and the lubrication between the mold and the strand in continuous casting of steel. In order for mold slag design to become an engineering science rather than an empirical exercise, a fundamental understanding of the melting and solidification behavior of a slag must be developed. Thus it is necessary to be able to quantify the phenomena that occur under the thermal conditions that are found in the mold of a continuous caster. The double hot thermocouple technique (DHTT) and the Confocal Laser Scanning Microscope used in this study are two novel techniques for investigating melting and solidification phenomena of transparent slags. Results from these techniques are useful in defining the phenomena that occur when the slag film infiltrates between the mold and the shell of the casting. TTT diagrams were obtained for various slags and indicated that the onset of crystallization is a function of cooling rate and slag chemistry. Crystal morphology was found to be dependent upon the experimental temperature and four different morphologies were classified based upon the degree of melt undercooling. Continuous cooling experiments were carried out to develop CCT diagrams and it was found that the amount and appearance of the crystalline fraction greatly depends on the cooling conditions. The DHTT can also be used to mimic the cooling profile encountered by the slag in the mold of a continuous caster. In this differential cooling mode (DCT), it was found that the details of the cooling rate determine the actual response of the slag to a thermal gradient and small changes can lead to significantly different results. Crystal growth rates were measured and found to be in the range between 0.11 mum/s to 11.73 mum/s depending on temperature and slag chemistry. Alumina particles were found to be effective innoculants in oxide melts reducing the incubation time for the onset of crystallization and also extending

  6. Deriving stress from peripheral physiology

    OpenAIRE

    De Vries, J.J.G.; van Dooren, M.; Van Beek, W.H.M.; Dijk, E.O.; Ouwerkerk, M; Westerink, J.H.D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives We set up an experiment to explore whether peripheral physiological parameters are capable of reflecting human (short term) stress. Methods For 30 participants, we measured peripheral physiology (SCR, ECG, RSP, TEMP, EMG) during several tasks (3 relaxing, 3 physically stressful, 3 mentally stressful). After each task, we measured their blood pressure, asked them to complete the Stress ArousalChecklist, and took a saliva swab to measure the cortisol concentration. For each participa...

  7. Nasal Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Q&A Complications of Sinusitis Epistaxis (Nosebleeds) Allergic Rhinitis (Hay Fever) Headaches and Sinus Disease Disorders of ... of the autonomic, i.e. automatic, nervous system) controls blood flow to the nasal cavity and nasal ...

  8. The XIIIth International Physiological Congress in Boston in 1929: American Physiology Comes of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jack A.

    2016-01-01

    In the 19th century, the concept of experimental physiology originated in France with Claude Bernard, evolved in Germany stimulated by the teaching of Carl Ludwig, and later spread to Britain and then to the United States. The goal was to develop a physicochemical understanding of physiological phenomena. The first International Physiological…

  9. Workshop on Interface Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kreuzer, Hans

    1987-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the first Workshop on Interface Phenomena, organized jointly by the surface science groups at Dalhousie University and the University of Maine. It was our intention to concentrate on just three topics related to the kinetics of interface reactions which, in our opinion, were frequently obscured unnecessarily in the literature and whose fundamental nature warranted an extensive discussion to help clarify the issues, very much in the spirit of the Discussions of the Faraday Society. Each session (day) saw two principal speakers expounding the different views; the session chairmen were asked to summarize the ensuing discussions. To understand the complexity of interface reactions, paradigms must be formulated to provide a framework for the interpretation of experimen­ tal data and for the construction of theoretical models. Phenomenological approaches have been based on a small number of rate equations for the concentrations or mole numbers of the various species involved i...

  10. Fast fission phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental studies of fast fission phenomena are presented. The paper is divided into three parts. In the first part, problems associated with fast fission processes are examined in terms of interaction potentials and a dynamic model is presented in which highly elastic collisions, the formation of compound nuclei and fast fission appear naturally. In the second part, a description is given of the experimental methods employed, the observations made and the preliminary interpretation of measurements suggesting the occurence of fast fission processes. In the third part, our dynamic model is incorporated in a general theory of the dissipative processes studied. This theory enables fluctuations associated with collective variables to be calculated. It is applied to highly inelastic collisions, to fast fission and to the fission dynamics of compound nuclei (for which a schematic representation is given). It is with these calculations that the main results of the second part can be interpreted

  11. Vacuum arc anode phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A brief review of anode phenomena in vacuum arcs is presented. Discussed in succession are: the transition of the arc into the anode spot mode; the temperature of the anode before, during and after the anode spot forms; and anode ions. Characteristically the anode spot has a temperature of the order of the atmospheric boiling point of the anode material and is a copious source of vapor and energetic ions. The dominant mechanism controlling the transition of the vacuum arc into the anode spot mode appears to depend upon the electrode geometry, the electrode material, and the current waveform of the particular vacuum arc being considered. Either magnetic constriction in the gap plasma or gross anode melting can trigger the transition; indeed, a combination of the two is a common cause of anode spot formation

  12. Physiological system integrations with emphasis on the respiratory-cardiovascular system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, R. R.

    1975-01-01

    The integration of two types of physiological system simulations is presented. The long term model is a circulatory system model which simulates long term blood flow variations and compartmental fluid shifts. The short term models simulate transient phenomena of the respiratory, thermoregulatory, and pulsatile cardiovascular systems as they respond to stimuli such as LBNP, exercise, and environmental gaseous variations. An overview of the interfacing approach is described. Descriptions of the variable interface for long term to short term and between the three short term models are given.

  13. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    SunaoUchida; NorikoTakeda

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CN...

  14. Renal physiology of pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Katharine L; Lafayette, Richard A

    2013-05-01

    Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The threshold for thirst and antidiuretic hormone secretion are depressed, resulting in lower osmolality and serum sodium levels. Blood pressure drops approximately 10 mmHg by the second trimester despite a gain in intravascular volume of 30% to 50%. The drop in systemic vascular resistance is multifactorial, attributed in part to insensitivity to vasoactive hormones, and leads to activation of the renin-aldosterone-angiostensin system. A rise in serum aldosterone results in a net gain of approximately 1000 mg of sodium. A parallel rise in progesterone protects the pregnant woman from hypokalemia. The kidneys increase in length and volume, and physiologic hydronephrosis occurs in up to 80% of women. This review will provide an understanding of these important changes in kidney physiology during pregnancy, which is fundamental in caring for the pregnant patient. PMID:23928384

  15. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Summaries of research projects conducted during 1978 and 1979 are presented. Subject areas include: the effects of environmental pollutants on homeostasis of the hematopoietic system; pollutant effects on steroid metabolism; pollutant effects on pulmonary macrophages; effects of toxic gases on lung cells; the development of immunological methods for assessing lung damage at the cellular level; the response of erythropoietin concentration to various physiological changes; and the study of actinide metabolism in monkey skeletons

  16. Nuclear fuel deformation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear fuel encounters severe thermomechanical environments. Its mechanical response is profoundly influenced by an underlying heterogeneous microstructure but also inherently dependent on the temperature and stress level histories. The ability to adequately simulate the response of such microstructures, to elucidate the associated macroscopic response in such extreme environments is crucial for predicting both performance and transient fuel mechanical responses. This chapter discusses key physical phenomena and the status of current modelling techniques to evaluate and predict fuel deformations: creep, swelling, cracking and pellet-clad interaction. This chapter only deals with nuclear fuel; deformations of cladding materials are discussed elsewhere. An obvious need for a multi-physics and multi-scale approach to develop a fundamental understanding of properties of complex nuclear fuel materials is presented. The development of such advanced multi-scale mechanistic frameworks should include either an explicit (domain decomposition, homogenisation, etc.) or implicit (scaling laws, hand-shaking,...) linkage between the different time and length scales involved, in order to accurately predict the fuel thermomechanical response for a wide range of operating conditions and fuel types (including Gen-IV and TRU). (authors)

  17. Acid Deposition Phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acid deposition, commonly known as acid rain, occurs when emissions from the combustion of fossil fuels and other industrial processes undergo complex chemical reactions in the atmosphere and fall to the earth as wet deposition (rain, snow, cloud, fog) or dry deposition (dry particles, gas). Rain and snow are already naturally acidic, but are only considered problematic when less than a ph of 5.0 The main chemical precursors leading to acidic conditions are atmospheric concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx). When these two compounds react with water, oxygen, and sunlight in the atmosphere, the result is sulfuric (H2SO4) and nitric acids (HNO3), the primary agents of acid deposition which mainly produced from the combustion of fossil fuel and from petroleum refinery. Airborne chemicals can travel long distances from their sources and can therefore affect ecosystems over broad regional scales and in locations far from the sources of emissions. According to the concern of petroleum ministry with the environment and occupational health, in this paper we will discussed the acid deposition phenomena through the following: Types of acidic deposition and its components in the atmosphere Natural and man-made sources of compounds causing the acidic deposition. Chemical reactions causing the acidic deposition phenomenon in the atmosphere. Factors affecting level of acidic deposition in the atmosphere. Impact of acid deposition. Procedures for acidic deposition control in petroleum industry

  18. Corrsin Award Talk - Collide and conquer: flow-induced segregation in blood and other multicomponent suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Michael

    2015-11-01

    Blood is a suspension of objects of various shapes, sizes and mechanical properties, whose distribution during flow is important in many contexts. Red blood cells tend to migrate toward the center of a blood vessel, leaving a cell-free layer at the vessel wall, while white blood cells and platelets are preferentially found near the walls, a phenomenon called margination that is critical for the physiological responses of inflammation and hemostasis. Additionally, drug delivery particles in the bloodstream will also undergo segregation - the influence of these phenomena on the efficacy of such particles is unknown. This talk describes efforts to gain a systematic understanding of flow-induced segregation phenomena in blood and other complex mixtures, using a combination of theory and direct simulations. Contrasts in size, deformability and shape can all lead to segregation. A kinetic theory model based on pair collisions and wall-induced hydrodynamic migration can capture the key effects observed in direct simulations, including a ``drainage transition'' in which one component is completely depleted from the bulk of the flow. Experiments performed in the laboratory of Wilbur Lam indicate the physiological and clinical importance of these observations. This talk is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants No. CBET- 1132579 and No. CBET-1436082.

  19. Impact of two anticoagulants EDTA-3K and heparin lithium on blood physiological parameters of miniature pigs%两种抗凝剂对实验用小型猪血液生理指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪; 魏杰; 王吉星; 李芳芳; 岳秉飞

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较分析两种抗凝剂对实验用小型猪血液生理指标的影响。方法将22只成年的实验用小型猪,分别用EDTA三钾和肝素锂抗凝采血后,用日本光电MEK-7222K血球分析仪测定血液生理指标。结果使用不同的抗凝剂,同一批样本的血液生理指标中单核细胞绝对值(MON)有差异(P<0.05),平均红细胞体积(MCV)、平均红细胞血红蛋白浓度(MCHC)、血小板比积(PLT)、血小板平均体积(PCT)、血小板平均体积(MPV)、淋巴细胞绝对值(LYM)、嗜酸性粒细胞绝对值(EOS)、嗜碱性粒细胞绝对值(BAS)、淋巴细胞绝对值(LYM)%、单核细胞绝对值(MON)%、嗜酸性粒细胞百分率(EOS)%和嗜碱性粒细胞百分率(BAS)%这12个指标有显著差异(P<0.01);EDTA三钾抗凝的血液生理指标中血小板比积(PLT)、中性粒细胞绝对值(NEUT)和中性粒细胞百分率(NEUT)%有性别差异(P<0.05), MON、EOS、MON%和EOS%性别差异有显著性(P<0.01);肝素锂抗凝的血液生理指标中血小板体积分布宽度(PDW)、中性粒细胞绝对值(NEUT)和 LYM%有性别差异(P<0.05),MON、EOS、MON%、NEUT%和EOS%性别差异有显著性( P<0.01)。结论不同的抗凝剂对实验用小型猪血小板和白细胞分类计数参数影响显著,进行相关实验时应妥善选择血液抗凝方式。%Objective To compare the impact of two anticoagulants ( EDTA-3K and heparin lithium ) on blood physiological parameters in miniature pigs .Methods Blood samples from 22 adult miniature pigs were collected and tested for physiological values using a MEK-7222K hematology analyzer .Differences in the values determined by using the two anticoagulants were analyzed .Results There were significant differences in values of some blood physiological parameters determined by the two anticoagulant groups , such as

  20. From physiological psychology to psychological physiology: postnonclassical approach to ethnocultural phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    CHERNORIZOV ALEKSANDR M.; ASMOLOV ALEKSANDR G.; SCHECHTER EUGENIYA D.

    2015-01-01

    In modern science, along with the “classic” and “non-classical” approach to solving fundamental and applied problems, there is an actively developing “postnonclassical” research paradigm. This renovation of general scientific methodology has been accompanied by the emergence of new experimental technologies and new scientific research directions based on them. “Social psychophysiology” is one such direction. It is formed within the frame of postnonclassical methodology at the intersection of ...

  1. 圈养南非海狮血液生理生化指标初探%A Preliminary Survey of Main Physiological and Biochemical Indice of Blood in Captive South African Sea Lions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄淑芳; 胡新波; 江志

    2012-01-01

    南非海狮是目前国内外动物园、水族馆中饲养比较普遍的动物,但经常出现一些细菌性、病毒性和寄生虫等疾病,在海狮健康状况监测和疾病诊断中需要有生理生化指标正常值作为参考。但目前南非海狮的正常生理生化指标报道较少。杭州动物园先后对6只成年南非海狮进行采血,共收集20个(12雄8雌)血液常规样本测定了15项主要生理指标和6个(4雄2雌)血清生化标本对18项主要生化指标进行检测。在测定项目中WBC、RBC、MCH、MCV、RDW、HCT、MPV、PCT、ALT、TP、ALB、TBIL、GLU、Ca2+、Pi、Mg2+、K+、Na+测定值个体间差异不大,而HGB、MCHC、PLT、GGT、ALP、Cr、UA测定值个体间差异较大。在血液常规指标中只有HGB和Lymph(%)雌雄间的差异显著(P〈0.05)。WBC、HGB、PIJT的测定值与斑海豹报道的参考值比较接近,红细胞大小、MCV与人的参考值较接近。这些指标的测定对于海狮的健康状况监测和疾病诊断等工作都将有一定的参考价值。%South African sea lion (Arctocephalus pusillus) is commonly raised in zoos and aquariums around the world. Captive sea lions are often infected by bacterial, viral and parasitic pathogens. Health monitoring and diagnoses are re- quired to reference normal blood physiological and biochemical indexes. However, such indexes are rarely reported. We took 20 blood samples from 6 adult African sea lions in Hangzhou Zoo, 12 from males and 8 from females. We quantified 15 main physiological indexes and 6 (4 male and 2 female) serum biochemical samples using 18 main biochemical indicators. WBC, RBC, MCH, MCV, RDW, HCT, MPV, PCT, ALT, TP, ALB, TBIL, GLU, Ca2+ , Pi, Mg2+ , K+ and Na+ showed very slight variation between individuals, while HGB, MCHC, PLT, GGT, ALP, Cr, UA varied greatly between individuals. HGB and Lymph ( % ) showed significant differences ( P 〈 0. 05 ) between male and female. The

  2. Exercise physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiens, Bente; Richter, Erik; Wojtaszewski, Jørgen

    2014-01-01

    The passing of Professor Bengt Saltin on September 12, 2014 truly marks the end of an era. As editor of the Journal of Applied Physiology and one of Bengt’s many collaborators and colleagues, I wanted the Journal to celebrate his many seminal contributions by means of an Editorial. Professor Bent...... Kiens, who is both a colleague of Bengt’s and a Consulting Editor for the Journal, was asked to write it. Thanks to Bente and her colleagues for the impossible task of distilling an enormous body of work into about 1,000 words. Peter Wagner, Editor...

  3. Occupational physiology

    CERN Document Server

    Toomingas, Allan; Tornqvist, Ewa Wigaeus

    2011-01-01

    In a clear and accessible presentation, Occupational Physiology focuses on important issues in the modern working world. Exploring major public health problems-such as musculoskeletal disorders and stress-this book explains connections between work, well-being, and health based on up-to-date research in the field. It provides useful methods for risk assessment and guidelines on arranging a good working life from the perspective of the working individual, the company, and society as a whole.The book focuses on common, stressful situations in different professions. Reviewing bodily demands and r

  4. Lung physiology and anatomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the factors influencing respiration and presents the physiological principles that provide the basis for pulmonary function measurements and for the procedures used in pulmonary nuclear medicine. Respiration is defined as the consumption of O/sub 2/ and the production of CO/sub 2/ at the cellular level, and by extension in common usage the term refers to the entire process leading to gas exchange between the body and the environment. Gas exchange in man can be divided into three principal, but interdependent, functional components: (1) that concerned with the volume and and distribution of air flow within the lungs; (2) that concerned with the volume and distribution of blood flow through the pulmonary circulation; and (3) that concerned with the diffusion of O/sub 2/ and CO/sub 2/ across the air-blood barrier. The air-blood barrier in the terminal respiratory units is the site at which inspired fresh air (ventilation) is brought into contact with the film of blood flowing through the pulmonary capillaries (perfusion)

  5. Relaxation phenomena in disordered systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciortino, F.; Tartaglia, P.

    1997-02-01

    In this article we discuss how the assumptions of self-similarity imposed on the distribution of independently relaxing modes, as well as on their amplitude and characteristic times, manifest in the global relaxation phenomena. We also review recent applications of such approach to the description of relaxation phenomena in microemulsions and molecular glasses.

  6. Teaching Optical Phenomena with Tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, M.; Carvalho, P. Simeão

    2014-01-01

    Since the invention and dissemination of domestic laser pointers, observing optical phenomena is a relatively easy task. Any student can buy a laser and experience at home, in a qualitative way, the reflection, refraction and even diffraction phenomena of light. However, quantitative experiments need instruments of high precision that have a…

  7. Blood Clots

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Index A-Z Blood Clots Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood that can be stationary (thrombosis) ... treated? What are blood clots? Blood clots are semi-solid masses of blood. Normally, blood flows freely through ...

  8. Wave phenomena in sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löhner-Böttcher, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    Context: The dynamic atmosphere of the Sun exhibits a wealth of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) waves. In the presence of strong magnetic fields, most spectacular and powerful waves evolve in the sunspot atmosphere. Allover the sunspot area, continuously propagating waves generate strong oscillations in spectral intensity and velocity. The most prominent and fascinating phenomena are the 'umbral flashes' and 'running penumbral waves' as seen in the sunspot chromosphere. Their nature and relation have been under intense discussion in the last decades. Aims: Waves are suggested to propagate upward along the magnetic field lines of sunspots. An observational study is performed to prove or disprove the field-guided nature and coupling of the prevalent umbral and penumbral waves. Comprehensive spectroscopic observations at high resolution shall provide new insights into the wave characteristics and distribution across the sunspot atmosphere. Methods: Two prime sunspot observations were carried out with the Dunn Solar Telescope at the National Solar Observatory in New Mexico and with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at the Teide Observatory on Tenerife. The two-dimensional spectroscopic observations were performed with the interferometric spectrometers IBIS and TESOS. Multiple spectral lines are scanned co-temporally to sample the dynamics at the photospheric and chromospheric layers. The time series (1 – 2.5 h) taken at high spatial and temporal resolution are analyzed according to their evolution in spectral intensities and Doppler velocities. A wavelet analysis was used to obtain the wave power and dominating wave periods. A reconstruction of the magnetic field inclination based on sunspot oscillations was developed. Results and conclusions: Sunspot oscillations occur continuously in spectral intensity and velocity. The obtained wave characteristics of umbral flashes and running penumbral waves strongly support the scenario of slow-mode magnetoacoustic wave propagation along

  9. Environmental physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Section 3 of this annual report the Environmental Physiology Group reports progress in several areas of research: a study of erythropoietin biogenesis and regulation of hematopoesis; the in vitro production of erythropoietin by cloned lines of erythroleukemic cells; endocrine interactions with lung tissue, and hormonal changes in response to ozone exposure; an in vitro cell culture technique for the detection and enumeration of thymic lymphocyte progenitors in the bone marrow of experimental animals; the study of magnetic field bioeffects; the study of actinide element distribution and retention in primates; and a comparison of the efficiencies of various chelating agents in facilitating the removal of Pu-238 from the skeleton, the liver, and the whole body

  10. Physiological Acoustics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Eric D.

    The analysis of physiological sound in the peripheral auditory system solves three important problems. First, sound energy impinging on the head must be captured and presented to the transduction apparatus in the ear as a suitable mechanical signal; second, this mechanical signal needs to be transduced into a neural representation that can be used by the brain; third, the resulting neural representation needs to be analyzed by central neurons to extract information useful to the animal. This chapter provides an overview of some aspects of the first two of these processes. The description is entirely focused on the mammalian auditory system, primarily on human hearing and on the hearing of a few commonly used laboratory animals (mainly rodents and carnivores). Useful summaries of non-mammalian hearing are available [1]. Because of the large size of the literature, review papers are referenced wherever possible.

  11. Thermo-fluidic devices and materials inspired from mass and energy transport phenomena in biological system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian XIAO; Jing LIU

    2009-01-01

    Mass and energy transport consists of one of the most significant physiological processes in nature, which guarantees many amazing biological phenomena and activ-ities. Borrowing such idea, many state-of-the-art thermo-fluidic devices and materials such as artificial kidneys, carrier erythrocyte, blood substitutes and so on have been successfully invented. Besides, new emerging technologies are still being developed. This paper is dedicated to present-ing a relatively complete review of the typical devices and materials in clinical use inspired by biological mass and energy transport mechanisms. Particularly, these artificial thermo-fluidic devices and materials will be categorized into organ transplantation, drug delivery, nutrient transport, micro operation, and power supply. Potential approaches for innovating conventional technologies were discussed, corresponding biological phenomena and physical mechan-isms were interpreted, future promising mass-and-energy-transport-based bionic devices were suggested, and prospects along this direction were pointed out. It is expected that many artificial devices based on biological mass and energy transport principle will appear to better improve vari-ous fields related to human life in the near future.

  12. Advanced diffusion processes and phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Öchsner, Andreas; Belova, Irina

    2014-01-01

    This topical volume on Advanced Diffusion Processes and Phenomena addresses diffusion in a wider sense of not only mass diffusion but also heat diffusion in fluids and solids. Both diffusion phenomena play an important role in the characterization of engineering materials and corresponding structures. Understanding these different transport phenomena at many levels, from atomistic to macro, has therefore long attracted the attention of many researchers in materials science and engineering and related disciplines. The present topical volume captures a representative cross-section of some of the

  13. Space Physiology within an Exercise Physiology Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Jason R.; West, John B.

    2013-01-01

    Compare and contrast strategies remain common pedagogical practices within physiological education. With the support of an American Physiological Society Teaching Career Enhancement Award, we have developed a junior- or senior-level undergraduate curriculum for exercise physiology that compares and contrasts the physiological adaptations of…

  14. The phenomena of social reality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tina Kumelj

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Social reality originates from social interaction in a social group. It is consolidated with social consensus. It is transcendent and relatively stable. Social reality is maintained in relatively isolated, balanced social environment. Majority of members in a social group spontaneously reacts to deviations. These are characteristics which many authors contribute to social reality. If social reality is to be understood as a collection of social-psychological phenomena, of which the important factor is structuring of environment, then these phenomena have to have similar characteristics as social reality itself. In this article various definitions of selected phenomena are presented, such as social norms, group values, stereotypes, prejudice, social representations, etc. The article contends that despite of lack of clear definitions, we can find views that connect the aforementioned characteristics to social-psychological phenomena.

  15. Resonant phenomena in colloidal crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Palberg, Thomas; Würth, Mathias; König, Peter; Simnacher, Erwin; Leiderer, Paul

    1992-01-01

    Colloidal crystals of completely deionized suspensions of latex speres are subjected to oscillatory and steady shear, as well as to homogeneous and inhomogeneous electric fields. Various resonant phenomena observed in such experiments are reported.

  16. Autoregressive description of biological phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Morariu, Vasile V; Pop, Alexadru; Soltuz, Stefan M; Buimaga-Iarinca, Luiza; Zainea, Oana

    2008-01-01

    Many natural phenomena can be described by power-laws. A closer look at various experimental data reveals more or less significant deviations from a 1/f spectrum. We exemplify such cases with phenomena offered by molecular biology, cell biophysics, and cognitive psychology. Some of these cases can be described by first order autoregressive (AR) models or by higher order AR models which are short range correlation models. The calculations are checked against astrophysical data which were fitted to a an AR model by a different method. We found that our fitting method of the data give similar results for the astrhophysical data and therefore applied the method for examples mentioned above. Our results show that such phenomena can be described by first or higher order of AR models. Therefore such examples are described by short range correlation properties while they can be easily confounded with long range correlation phenomena.

  17. Bifurcation phenomena in control flows

    OpenAIRE

    Colonius, Fritz; Fabbri, Roberta; Johnson, Russell; Spadini, Marco

    2007-01-01

    We study bifurcation phenomena in control flows and the bifurcation of control sets. A Mel'nikov method and the Conley index together with exponential dichotomy theory and integral manifold theory are used.

  18. Electroosmotic Phenomena in Organic Soils

    OpenAIRE

    Afshin Asadi; Bujang B.K. Huat; M. M. Hassim; Mohamed, Thamer A.; Hanafi, M. M.; Nader Shariatmadari

    2009-01-01

    Organic soils or peat represent an accumulation of disintegrated plant remains which have been preserved under condition of incomplete aeration and high water content. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of electroosmotic phenomena in peat, initially microelectrophoresis studies were carried out to conceptualize the electrokinetic phenomena. Then electroosmosis experiments were conducted on rigid cube samples containing 0.0001 M NaCl-water saturated peat. The open-anode and open-c...

  19. Nonequilibrium Phenomena in Liquid Crystals

    OpenAIRE

    Bechhoefer, John

    1993-01-01

    This paper summarizes a talk presented at the April NATO ASI on Spatiotemporal Chaos in Complex Fluids, in Santa Fe, NM. The paper gives reasons that make complex fluids good material systems for conducting experiments on pattern formation and other nonequilibrium phenomena. Much of the discussion focuses on the different phenomena observed in solidification and how the increasing complexity of fluid systems decreases the velocity scale for achieving "rapid" solidification. Five systems are c...

  20. Early changes in physiological variables after stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wong Andrew

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Several aspects of physiology, notably blood pressure, body temperature, blood glucose, and blood oxygen saturation, may be altered after an ischemic stroke and intracerebral hemorrhage. Generally, blood pressure and temperature rise acutely after a stroke, before returning to normal. Blood glucose and oxygen levels may be abnormal in individuals, but they do not follow a set pattern. Several aspects of these physiological alterations remain unclear, including their principal determinants - whether they genuinely affect prognosis (as opposed to merely representing underlying processes such as inflammation or a stress response, whether these effects are adaptive or maladaptive, whether the effects are specific to certain subgroups (e.g. lacunar stroke and whether modifying physiology also modifies its prognostic effect. Hypertension and hyperglycemia may be helpful or harmful, depending on the perfusion status after an ischemic stroke; the therapeutic response to their lowering may be correspondingly variable. Hypothermia may provide benefits, in addition to preventing harm through protection from hyperthermia. Hypoxia is harmful, but normobaric hyperoxia is unhelpful or even harmful in normoxic patients. Hyperbaric hyperoxia, however, may be beneficial, though this remains unproven. The above-mentioned uncertainties necessitate generally conservative measures for physiology management, although there are notably specific recommendations for thrombolysis-eligible patients. Stroke unit care is associated with better outcome, possibly through better management of poststroke physiology. Stroke units can also facilitate research to clarify the relationship between physiology and prognosis, and to subsequently clarify management guidelines.

  1. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum

  2. Ultrashort Phenomena in Biochemistry and Biological Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, Robert

    2014-11-01

    In biological phenomena there are indications that within the long pulse-length of the action potential on millisecond scale, there is additional ultrashort perturbation encoding that provides the brain with detailed information about the origin (location) and physiological characteristics. The objective is to identify the mechanism-of-action providing the potential for encoding in biological signal propagation. The actual molecular processes involved in the initiation of the action potential have been identified to be in the femtosecond and pico-second scale. The depolarization process of the cellular membrane itself, leading to the onset of the actionpotential that is transmitted to the brain, however is in the millisecond timeframe. One example of the femtosecond chemical interaction is the photoresponse of bacteriorhodopsin. No clear indication for the spatial encoding has so far been verified. Further research will be required on a cellular signal analysis level to confirm or deny the spatial and physiological encoding in the signal wave-trains of intercellular communications and sensory stimuli. The pathological encoding process for cardiac depolarization is however very pronounced and validated, however this electro-chemical process is in the millisecond amplitude and frequency modulation spectrum.

  3. Outflow boundary conditions for 3D simulations of non-periodic blood flow and pressure fields in deformable arteries

    CERN Document Server

    Vignon-Clementel, Irene; Jansen, K E; Taylor, C A; 10.1080/10255840903413565

    2010-01-01

    The simulation of blood flow and pressure in arteries requires outflow boundary conditions that incorporate models of downstream domains. We previously described a coupled multidomain method to couple analytical models of the downstream domains with 3D numerical models of the upstream vasculature. This prior work either included pure resistance boundary conditions or impedance boundary conditions based on assumed periodicity of the solution. However, flow and pressure in arteries are not necessarily periodic in time due to heart rate variability, respiration, complex transitional flow or acute physiological changes. We present herein an approach for prescribing lumped parameter outflow boundary conditions that accommodate transient phenomena. We have applied this method to compute haemodynamic quantities in different physiologically relevant cardiovascular models, including patient-specific examples, to study non-periodic flow phenomena often observed in normal subjects and in patients with acquired or congen...

  4. Containment severe accident thermohydraulic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This report describes and discusses the containment accident progression and the important severe accident containment thermohydraulic phenomena. The overall objective of the report is to provide a rather detailed presentation of the present status of phenomenological knowledge, including an account of relevant experimental investigations and to discuss, to some extent, the modelling approach used in the MAAP 3.0 computer code. The MAAP code has been used in Sweden as the main tool in the analysis of severe accidents. The dependence of the containment accident progression and containment phenomena on the initial conditions, which in turn are heavily dependent on the in-vessel accident progression and phenomena as well as associated uncertainties, is emphasized. The report is in three parts dealing with: * Swedish reactor containments, the severe accident mitigation programme in Sweden and containment accident progression in Swedish PWRs and BWRs as predicted by the MAAP 3.0 code. * Key non-energetic ex-vessel phenomena (melt fragmentation in water, melt quenching and coolability, core-concrete interaction and high temperature in containment). * Early containment threats due to energetic events (hydrogen combustion, high pressure melt ejection and direct containment heating, and ex-vessel steam explosions). The report concludes that our understanding of the containment severe accident progression and phenomena has improved very significantly over the parts ten years and, thereby, our ability to assess containment threats, to quantify uncertainties, and to interpret the results of experiments and computer code calculations have also increased. (au)

  5. [The physiology of erection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hora, M; Vozeh, F

    1997-06-12

    The majority of contemporary knowledge on the physiology of erection was assembled during the past thirty years. Today we consider erection as a multifactorial process. Mechanically it can be compared to an electromechanically controlled hydraulic system. Its function is conditioned by a number of mutually coordinated processes. As to nervous processes they include autonomous (parasympathetic and sympathetic) innervation, as well as somatic innervation (sensory and motor pathways). The control function is exerted by spinal as well as cerebral centres. As to mediators, in particular acetylcholine, nitrous oxide (NO) released from the endothelium are involved, noradrenaline, VIP (vasoactive intestinal polypeptide), CGRP (calcitonin gene-related peptide) and prostaglandins. The most important roles in the phase of erection are played by nitrous oxide and VIP. Erection can be either reflex erection, psychogenic or nocturnal or morning. It usually takes place in six stages (at rest, latent, the tumescence stage, complete erection, rigid erection and subsequently the stage of detumescence). Except for neurohumoral mechanisms an essential prerequisite for the development of erection are the arterial supply of the genital and the so-called venoocclusive mechanism. Erection takes the following course (simplified): erotogenic stimuli lead to the stimulation of the parasympathetic nerve-->vasodilating substances are released-->the s inusoids are filled with blood (tumescence stage)-->the venoocclusive mechanism starts to work: thus complete erection occurs. Then the contractions of the musculature of the perineum compress the proximal portions of the corpora cavernosa: this leads to rigid erection. Detumescence which occurs as a rule after ejaculation) is due to released noradrenaline (active stage) and the reduced tonus of the smooth muscles of the blood vessels (released endothelin and neuropeptide Y). Knowledge of the physiological mechanisms of erection made clinical

  6. Critical Phenomena in Gravitational Collapse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gundlach Carsten

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available As first discovered by Choptuik, the black hole threshold in the space of initial data for general relativity shows both surprising structure and surprising simplicity. Universality, power-law scaling of the black hole mass, and scale echoing have given rise to the term 'critical phenomena'. They are explained by the existence of exact solutions which are attractors within the black hole threshold, that is, attractors of codimension one in phase space, and which are typically self-similar. This review gives an introduction to the phenomena, tries to summarize the essential features of what is happening, and then presents extensions and applications of this basic scenario. Critical phenomena are of interest particularly for creating surprising structure from simple equations, and for the light they throw on cosmic censorship and the generic dynamics of general relativity.

  7. The Monitoring of Some Blood Physiological and Biochemical Index of Cows During Perinatal Period%围产期奶牛几种血液生理生化指标监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊杰; 申国新; 汪恩强; 安锡忠; 陨祺

    2014-01-01

    为了监测和诊断围产期奶牛常见营养代谢病,分别对产前15d、产前7d、产前1d、产后1d、产后7d、产后15d各10头共计60头围产期奶牛进行血液生理生化指标检测。结果显示,在整个围产期内奶牛血液中白细胞数、红细胞数、血红蛋白含量和红细胞压积差异不显著,不能作为围产期奶牛营养代谢病的监测依据。产前1d奶牛血清游离脂肪酸含量最低,为460.76±268.34μmol/L,与产前15d、产后7d、产后15d比较差异极显著(P<0.01)。产后7d奶牛血清葡萄糖含量最低,为2.12±0.35mmol/L,与其他时间测定值比较差异极显著(P<0.01)。产后1d奶牛血清中门冬氨酸氨基转移酶的含量最高,为15.33±3.24U/L,与产前15d、产前7d比较差异极显著(P<0.01)。产后15d奶牛血清中谷丙转氨酶活性和甘油三酯含量升高,分别为14.10±4.40 U/L和0.90±0.14mmol/L,与产前不同时期比较差异极显著(P<0.01)。产后1d血清Ca含量降至最低值,为1.76±0.32mmol/L,血清羟脯氨酸含量和碱性磷酸酶活性升高,分别为25.50±7.90μmol/L和85.13±7.57IU/L,与产前不同时期比较差异极显著(P<0.01)。结果表明,利用血清游离脂肪酸、血清葡萄糖含量和血清门冬氨酸氨基转移酶活性,按公式计算Y值可作为诊断奶牛脂肪肝的依据。奶牛血清钙含量降低,血清羟脯氨酸含量和血清碱性磷酸酶活性升高可作为奶牛骨营养不良的诊断依据。尿酮体监测可作为奶牛酮病的诊断依据。%In order to monitor and diagnose common perinatal cow nutrition and metabolic diseases,totally 60 perinatal cows (10 cows respectively in prenatal 15d, prenatal 7d, prenatal 1d, postpartum 1d, postpartum 7d, postpartum 15d) were selected for physiological and biochemical blood testing. The experimental results showed that:all transition cows white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and hematocrit of blood were

  8. Vasogenic shock physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sotiria Gkisioti

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can understand its utmost importance, not only because of its association with sepsis but also because it can be the common final pathway for long-lasting, severe shock of any cause, even postresuscitation states. The effective management of any patient in shock requires the understanding of its underlying physiology and pathophysiology. Recent studies have provided new insights into vascular physiology by revealing the interaction of rather complicated and multifactorial mechanisms, which have not been fully elucidated yet. Some of these mechanisms, such as the induction of nitric oxide synthases, the activation of adenosine triphosphate-sensitive potassium channels, and vasopressin deficiency, have gained general acceptance and are considered to play an important role in the pathogenesis of vasodilatory shock. The purpose of this review is to provide an update on the pathogenesis of vasogenic shock.Keywords: nitric oxide synthases, KATP channels, vasopressin, H2S, vasoplegic syndrome

  9. Whistlers and related ionospheric phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Helliwell, Robert A

    2006-01-01

    The investigation of whistlers and related phenomena is a key element in studies of very-low-frequency propagation, satellite communication, the outer ionosphere, and solar-terrestrial relationships. This comprehensive text presents a history of the study of the phenomena and includes all the elements necessary for the calculation of the characteristics of whistlers and whistler-mode signals.An introduction and brief history are followed by a summary of the theory of whistlers and a detailed explanation of the calculation of their characteristics. Succeeding chapters offer a complete atlas of

  10. Complex Phenomena in Nanoscale Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Casati, Giulio

    2009-01-01

    Nanoscale physics has become one of the rapidly developing areas of contemporary physics because of its direct relevance to newly emerging area, nanotechnologies. Nanoscale devices and quantum functional materials are usually constructed based on the results of fundamental studies on nanoscale physics. Therefore studying physical phenomena in nanosized systems is of importance for progressive development of nanotechnologies. In this context study of complex phenomena in such systems and using them for controlling purposes is of great practical importance. Namely, such studies are brought together in this book, which contains 27 papers on various aspects of nanoscale physics and nonlinear dynamics.

  11. Exercise Effects on Sleep Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunao eUchida

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. Thus, research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960’s, with a focus primarily on sleep EEG (CNS sleep changes. Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. More recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. As physical exercise mostly affects somatic functions, endocrine and autonomic nervous system (ANS changes that occur during sleep should be affected by daytime exercise. Since endocrinological, metabolic and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, building from standard polysomnographic (PSG techniques. Incorporating measures of somatic physiology in the quantitative assessment of sleep could further our understanding of sleep's function as an auto-regulatory, global phenomenon.

  12. Exercise effects on sleep physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Sunao; Shioda, Kohei; Morita, Yuko; Kubota, Chie; Ganeko, Masashi; Takeda, Noriko

    2012-01-01

    This mini-review focuses on the effects of exercise on sleep. In its early days, sleep research largely focused on central nervous system (CNS) physiology using standardized tabulations of several sleep-specific landmark electroencephalogram (EEG) waveforms. Though coarse, this method has enabled the observation and inspection of numerous uninterrupted sleep phenomena. The research on the effects of exercise on sleep began, in the 1960s, with a focus primarily on sleep related EEG changes (CNS sleep). Those early studies found only small effects of exercise on sleep. However, more recent sleep research has explored not only CNS functioning, but somatic physiology as well. Sleep should be affected by daytime exercise, as physical activity alters endocrine, autonomic nervous system (ANS), and somatic functions. Since endocrinological, metabolic, and autonomic changes can be measured during sleep, it should be possible to assess exercise effects on somatic physiology in addition to CNS sleep quality, evaluated by standard polysomnographic (PSG) techniques. Additional measures of somatic physiology have provided enough evidences to conclude that the auto-regulatory, global regulation of sleep is not the exclusive domain of the CNS, but it is heavily influenced by inputs from the rest of the body. PMID:22485106

  13. Integrated Blood Barcode Chips

    OpenAIRE

    Fan, Rong; Vermesh, Ophir; Srivastava, Alok; Yen, Brian K.H.; Qin, Lidong; Ahmad, Habib; Kwong, Gabriel A.; Liu, Chao-Chao; Gould, Juliane; Hood, Leroy; Heath, James R.

    2008-01-01

    Blood comprises the largest version of the human proteome1. Changes of plasma protein profiles can reflect physiological or pathological conditions associated with many human diseases, making blood the most important fluid for clinical diagnostics2-4. Nevertheless, only a handful of plasma proteins are utilized in routine clinical tests. This is due to a host of reasons, including the intrinsic complexity of the plasma proteome1, the heterogeneity of human diseases and the fast kinetics assoc...

  14. Transport phenomena in particulate systems

    CERN Document Server

    Freire, José Teixeira; Ferreira, Maria do Carmo

    2012-01-01

    This volume spans 10 chapters covering different aspects of transport phenomena including fixed and fluidized systems, spouted beds, electrochemical and wastewater treatment reactors. This e-book will be valuable for students, engineers and researchers aiming to keep updated on the latest developments on particulate systems.

  15. Nursing phenomena in inpatient psychiatry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frauenfelder, F.; Muller-Staub, M.; Needham, I.; Achterberg, T. van

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about the question if the nursing diagnosis classification of North American Nursing Association-International (NANDA-I) describes the adult inpatient psychiatric nursing care. The present study aimed to identify nursing phenomena mentioned in journal articles about the psychiatric i

  16. Collective Phenomena in Kidney Autoregulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mosekilde, Erik; Sosnovtseva, Olga; Holstein-Rathlou, N.-H.

    2004-01-01

    nephron. However, a variety of cooperative phenomena arising through interactions between the nephrons may also be important. We prescut experimental evidence for a coupling between nephrons that are connected via a common piece of afferent arteriole. We also develop a mathematical model that call account...

  17. Strings, fields and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The connection between field theory and critical phenomena is reviewed. Emphasis is put on the use of Monte Carlo methods in the study of non-perturbative aspects of field theory. String theory is then described as a statistical theory of random surfaces and the critical behaviour is analyzed both by analytical and numerical methods. (orig.)

  18. Graphene tests of Klein phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    De Leo, Stefano

    2012-01-01

    Graphene is characterized by chiral electronic excitations. As such it provides a perfect testing ground for the production of Klein pairs (electron/holes). If confirmed, the standard results for barrier phenomena must be reconsidered with, as a byproduct, the accumulation within the barrier of holes.

  19. Manual versus automated blood sampling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teilmann, A C; Kalliokoski, Otto; Sørensen, Dorte B;

    2014-01-01

    corticosterone metabolites, and expressed more anxious behavior than did the mice of the other groups. Plasma corticosterone levels of mice subjected to tail blood sampling were also elevated, although less significantly. Mice subjected to automated blood sampling were less affected with regard to the parameters......Facial vein (cheek blood) and caudal vein (tail blood) phlebotomy are two commonly used techniques for obtaining blood samples from laboratory mice, while automated blood sampling through a permanent catheter is a relatively new technique in mice. The present study compared physiological parameters......, glucocorticoid dynamics as well as the behavior of mice sampled repeatedly for 24 h by cheek blood, tail blood or automated blood sampling from the carotid artery. Mice subjected to cheek blood sampling lost significantly more body weight, had elevated levels of plasma corticosterone, excreted more fecal...

  20. Efficacy of a family practice-based lifestyle intervention program to increase physical activity and reduce clinical and physiological markers of vascular health in patients with high normal blood pressure and/or high normal blood glucose (SNAC: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overend Tom

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous interventions to increase physical activity and reduce cardiovascular risk factors have been targeted at individuals with established disease; less attention has been given to intervention among individuals with high risk for disease nor has there been determination of the influence of setting in which the intervention is provided. In particular, family practice represents an ideal setting for the provision and long-term maintenance of lifestyle interventions for patients at risk (ie high-normal blood pressure or impaired glucose tolerance. Methods/design The Staged Nutrition and Activity Counseling (SNAC study is a randomized clustered design clinical trial that will investigate the effectiveness and efficacy of a multi-component lifestyle intervention on cardiovascular disease risk factors and vascular function in patients at risk in primary care. Patients will be randomized by practice to either a standard of care lifestyle intervention or a behaviourally-based, matched prescriptive physical activity and diet change program. The primary goal is to increase physical activity and improve dietary intake according to Canada's Guides to Physical Activity Healthy Eating over 24 months. The primary intention to treat analysis will compare behavioral, physiological and metabolic outcomes at 6, 12 and 24 months post-randomization including estimation of incident hypertension and/or diabetes. Discussion The design features of our trial, and the practical problems (and solutions associated with implementing these design features, particularly those that result in potential delay between recruitment, baseline data collection, randomization, intervention, and assessment will be discussed. Results of the SNAC trial will provide scientific rationale for the implementation of this lifestyle intervention in primary care. Trial registration ISRCTN: ISRCTN:42921300

  1. Nanosized blood microparticles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yuana, Yuana

    2011-01-01

    Microparticles (MPs) have important physiological and pathological roles in blood coagulation, inflammation and tumor progression. In recent years MPs also have been recognized to participate in important biological processes, such as in signaling and in the horizontal transfer of their specific pro

  2. Statistical phenomena in particle beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle beams are subject to a variety of apparently distinct statistical phenomena such as intrabeam scattering, stochastic cooling, electron cooling, coherent instabilities, and radiofrequency noise diffusion. In fact, both the physics and mathematical description of these mechanisms are quite similar, with the notion of correlation as a powerful unifying principle. In this presentation we will attempt to provide both a physical and a mathematical basis for understanding the wide range of statistical phenomena that have been discussed. In the course of this study the tools of the trade will be introduced, e.g., the Vlasov and Fokker-Planck equations, noise theory, correlation functions, and beam transfer functions. Although a major concern will be to provide equations for analyzing machine design, the primary goal is to introduce a basic set of physical concepts having a very broad range of applicability

  3. Transport phenomena in multiphase flows

    CERN Document Server

    Mauri, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This textbook provides a thorough presentation of the phenomena related to the transport of mass, momentum and energy.  It lays all the basic physical principles, then for the more advanced readers, it offers an in-depth treatment with advanced mathematical derivations and ends with some useful applications of the models and equations in specific settings. The important idea behind the book is to unify all types of transport phenomena, describing them within a common framework in terms of cause and effect, respectively represented by the driving force and the flux of the transported quantity. The approach and presentation are original in that the book starts with a general description of transport processes, providing the macroscopic balance relations of fluid dynamics and heat and mass transfer, before diving into the mathematical realm of continuum mechanics to derive the microscopic governing equations at the microscopic level. The book is a modular teaching tool and can be used either for an introductory...

  4. New phenomena searches at CDF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soha, Aron; /UC, Davis

    2006-04-01

    The authors report on recent results from the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF) experiment, which is accumulating data from proton-antiproton collisions with {radical}s = 1.96 TeV at Run II of the Fermilab Tevatron. The new phenomena being explored include Higgs, Supersymmetry, and large extra dimensions. They also present the latest results of searches for heavy objects, which would indicate physics beyond the Standard Model.

  5. Critical phenomena in complex networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dorogovtsev, S. N.; Goltsev, A. V.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2007-01-01

    The combination of the compactness of networks, featuring small diameters, and their complex architectures results in a variety of critical effects dramatically different from those in cooperative systems on lattices. In the last few years, researchers have made important steps toward understanding the qualitatively new critical phenomena in complex networks. We review the results, concepts, and methods of this rapidly developing field. Here we mostly consider two closely related classes of t...

  6. Wetting phenomena in electrolyte solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Ibagon, Ingrid

    2014-01-01

    The present study analyzes wetting phenomena in electrolyte solutions. They are investigated by means of classical density functional theory. First, the wetting of a charged substrate by an electrolyte solution is studied with emphasis on the influence of the substrate charge density and of the ionic strength on the wetting transition temperature and on the order of the wetting transition. The corresponding models consist of solvent particles, anions, and cations. Two mean field approaches ar...

  7. Gravitational anomaly and transport phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Landsteiner, Karl; Megías Fernández, Eugenio; Pena-Benítez, Francisco

    2011-01-01

    Quantum anomalies give rise to new transport phenomena. In particular, a magnetic field can induce an anomalous current via the chiral magnetic effect and a vortex in the relativistic fluid can also induce a current via the chiral vortical effect. The related transport coefficients can be calculated via Kubo formulas. We evaluate the Kubo formula for the anomalous vortical conductivity at weak coupling and show that it receives contributions proportional to the gravitational anomaly coefficie...

  8. Foot Anthropometry and Morphology Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; NIKOLIĆ, VASILIJE; Mijović, Budimir

    2006-01-01

    Foot structure description is important for many reasons. The foot anthropometric morphology phenomena are analyzed together with hidden biomechanical functionality in order to fully characterize foot structure and function. For younger Croatian population the scatter data of the individual foot variables were interpolated by multivariate statistics. Foot structure descriptors are influenced by many factors, as a style of life, race, climate, and things of the great importance in ...

  9. Blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the walls of the arteries is called blood pressure. Blood pressure is measured both as the heart contracts, which ... as it relaxes, which is called diastole. Normal blood pressure is considered to be a systolic blood pressure ...

  10. Blood transfusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000431.htm Blood transfusions To use the sharing features on this ... several sources of blood which are described below. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  11. Blood Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Group Links Advocacy Toolkit Home For Patients Blood Basics Blood is a specialized body fluid. It ... about 9 pints. Jump To: The Components of Blood and Their Importance Many people have undergone blood ...

  12. Blood Thinners

    Science.gov (United States)

    If you have some kinds of heart or blood vessel disease, or if you have poor blood flow to your brain, your doctor may recommend that you take a blood thinner. Blood thinners reduce the risk of heart ...

  13. Blood culture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culture - blood ... A blood sample is needed . The site where blood will be drawn is first cleaned with an antiseptic such ... organism from the skin getting into (contaminating) the blood sample and causing a false-positive result (see ...

  14. Physiologic and Pharmacokinetic Changes in Pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maged eCostantine

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic changes in pregnancy induce profound alterations to the pharmacokinetic properties of many medications. These changes affect distribution, absorption, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, and thus may impact their pharmacodynamic properties during pregnancy. Pregnant women undergo several adaptations in many organ systems. Some adaptations are secondary to hormonal changes in pregnancy, while others occur to support the gravid woman and her developing fetus. Some of the changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy include, for example, increased maternal fat and total body water, decreased plasma protein concentrations, especially albumin, increased maternal blood volume, cardiac output and blood flow to the kidneys and uteroplacental unit, and decreased blood pressure. The maternal blood volume expansion occurs at a larger proportion than the increase in red blood cell mass, which results in physiologic anemia and hemodilution. Other physiologic changes include increased tidal volume, partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility, and altered activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Understating these changes and their profound impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in pregnancy is essential to optimize maternal and fetal health.

  15. Physiologic and pharmacokinetic changes in pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costantine, Maged M

    2014-01-01

    Physiologic changes in pregnancy induce profound alterations to the pharmacokinetic properties of many medications. These changes affect distribution, absorption, metabolism, and excretion of drugs, and thus may impact their pharmacodynamic properties during pregnancy. Pregnant women undergo several adaptations in many organ systems. Some adaptations are secondary to hormonal changes in pregnancy, while others occur to support the gravid woman and her developing fetus. Some of the changes in maternal physiology during pregnancy include, for example, increased maternal fat and total body water, decreased plasma protein concentrations, especially albumin, increased maternal blood volume, cardiac output, and blood flow to the kidneys and uteroplacental unit, and decreased blood pressure. The maternal blood volume expansion occurs at a larger proportion than the increase in red blood cell mass, which results in physiologic anemia and hemodilution. Other physiologic changes include increased tidal volume, partially compensated respiratory alkalosis, delayed gastric emptying and gastrointestinal motility, and altered activity of hepatic drug metabolizing enzymes. Understating these changes and their profound impact on the pharmacokinetic properties of drugs in pregnancy is essential to optimize maternal and fetal health. PMID:24772083

  16. Model 1: Blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because most radiopharmaceuticals are introduced into the body via the vascular system and may remain in the circulation for prolonged periods of time, it is useful to have a model of the blood as an aid in the estimation of radiation dose. It is extremely difficult to devise a precise blood model; the geometry is complex and distribution of blood may vary with position, physiological state and disease process. Estimates of blood volume distribution vary among investigators. Furthermore, the regional hematocrit varies throughout the body, thus affecting distribution of the labeled material according to whether it is attached to cellular elements or in the plasma. The size of the blood pool volumes range from the heart to the capillaries. Variable amounts of non-penetrating radiation contributions to organs depend on the volume of blood in the various sized vessels and the energy of the electrons which may penetrate into tissue from the blood vessel. The present model represents an advance in that it takes into account to some extent the distribution of significant blood pools in the body. Further refinement of the macro-geometry is possible with data which can now be obtained from modern radionuclide imaging equipment. A more difficult problem is definging the micro-geometry relative to the distribution of blood in capillaries and sinusoids, and their relationship to one another

  17. Correlated randomness and switching phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanley, H. E.; Buldyrev, S. V.; Franzese, G.; Havlin, S.; Mallamace, F.; Kumar, P.; Plerou, V.; Preis, T.

    2010-08-01

    One challenge of biology, medicine, and economics is that the systems treated by these serious scientific disciplines have no perfect metronome in time and no perfect spatial architecture-crystalline or otherwise. Nonetheless, as if by magic, out of nothing but randomness one finds remarkably fine-tuned processes in time and remarkably fine-tuned structures in space. Further, many of these processes and structures have the remarkable feature of “switching” from one behavior to another as if by magic. The past century has, philosophically, been concerned with placing aside the human tendency to see the universe as a fine-tuned machine. Here we will address the challenge of uncovering how, through randomness (albeit, as we shall see, strongly correlated randomness), one can arrive at some of the many spatial and temporal patterns in biology, medicine, and economics and even begin to characterize the switching phenomena that enables a system to pass from one state to another. Inspired by principles developed by A. Nihat Berker and scores of other statistical physicists in recent years, we discuss some applications of correlated randomness to understand switching phenomena in various fields. Specifically, we present evidence from experiments and from computer simulations supporting the hypothesis that water’s anomalies are related to a switching point (which is not unlike the “tipping point” immortalized by Malcolm Gladwell), and that the bubbles in economic phenomena that occur on all scales are not “outliers” (another Gladwell immortalization). Though more speculative, we support the idea of disease as arising from some kind of yet-to-be-understood complex switching phenomenon, by discussing data on selected examples, including heart disease and Alzheimer disease.

  18. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies

  19. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura [Department of Mathematics, Aston University, Birmingham, B4 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2009-04-24

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  20. Measurements design and phenomena discrimination

    CERN Document Server

    Rebollo-Neira, Laura

    2009-01-01

    The construction of measurements suitable for discriminating signal components produced by phenomena of different types is considered. The required measurements should be capable of cancelling out those signal components which are to be ignored when focusing on a phenomenon of interest. Under the hypothesis that the subspaces hosting the signal components produced by each phenomenon are complementary, their discrimination is accomplished by measurements giving rise to the appropriate oblique projector operator. The subspace onto which the operator should project is selected by nonlinear techniques in line with adaptive pursuit strategies.

  1. Flooding phenomena in inclined pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The flooding phenomena for air-water counter-current two-phase flow in inclined pipes were investigated experimentally. The inner diameter was 16 mm. The examined pipe inclination were 30deg, 45deg and 60deg from horizontal and the pipe length ranged from 0.5 to 5.5 m respectively. The present results indicate that the pipe length affects the flooding mechanism and the onset of flooding velocity. Finally, a simple correlation to predict the void fraction at the onset of flooding is proposed. (author)

  2. Quantum theory of collective phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Sewell, G L

    2014-01-01

    ""An excellent and competent introduction to the field … [and] … a source of information for the expert."" - Physics Today""This a book of major importance…. I trust that this book will be used as a basis for the teaching of a balanced, modern and rigorous course on statistical mechanics in all universities."" - Bulletin of the London Mathematical Society""This is one of the best introductions to the subject, and it is strongly recommended to anyone interested in collective phenomena."" - Physics Bulletin ""The book may be recommended for students as a well-balanced introduction to this rich s

  3. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. No longer an area of specialist interest, it has acquired a central focus in condensed matter studies. The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable information on important recent developments.The two review articles in this volume complement each other in a remarkable way. Both deal with what m

  4. Precursor films in wetting phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Popescu, M. N.; Oshanin, G.; Dietrich, S.; Cazabat, A. -M.

    2012-01-01

    The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in t...

  5. Phase transitions and critical phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Domb, Cyril

    2000-01-01

    The field of phase transitions and critical phenomena continues to be active in research, producing a steady stream of interesting and fruitful results. It has moved into a central place in condensed matter studies.Statistical physics, and more specifically, the theory of transitions between states of matter, more or less defines what we know about 'everyday' matter and its transformations.The major aim of this serial is to provide review articles that can serve as standard references for research workers in the field, and for graduate students and others wishing to obtain reliable in

  6. Strange phenomena in Cuban sands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Several unusual phenomena that occur in certain Cuban sands flows (and some other parts of the world) are presented . First, the phenomenon occurs revolving rivers, explained by a phenomenological model. Several open questions were discussed on the 'microscopic' causes of the phenomenon. Uphill lonely waves are shown in second, in streams of the same type of sand that occur in a cell in Hele-Shaw. The 'microscopic' necessary conditions are explored for these waves emerge as solution of Saint-Venant equations modified hydrodynamic type. (author)

  7. Violent phenomena in the Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Narlikar, Jayant V

    2007-01-01

    The serenity of a clear night sky belies the evidence-gathered by balloons, rockets, satellites, and telescopes-that the universe contains centers of furious activity that pour out vast amounts of energy, some in regular cycles and some in gigantic bursts. This reader-friendly book, acclaimed by Nature as ""excellent and uncompromising,"" traces the development of modern astrophysics and its explanations of these startling celestial fireworks.This lively narrative ranges from the gravitational theories of Newton and Einstein to recent exciting discoveries of such violent phenomena as supernova

  8. Nonlinear Dynamic Phenomena in Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Warminski, Jerzy; Cartmell, Matthew P

    2012-01-01

    Nonlinear phenomena should play a crucial role in the design and control of engineering systems and structures as they can drastically change the prevailing dynamical responses. This book covers theoretical and applications-based problems of nonlinear dynamics concerned with both discrete and continuous systems of interest in civil and mechanical engineering. They include pendulum-like systems, slender footbridges, shape memory alloys, sagged elastic cables and non-smooth problems. Pendulums can be used as a dynamic absorber mounted in high buildings, bridges or chimneys. Geometrical nonlinear

  9. Electroosmotic Phenomena in Organic Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Asadi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Organic soils or peat represent an accumulation of disintegrated plant remains which have been preserved under condition of incomplete aeration and high water content. In order to develop a fundamental understanding of electroosmotic phenomena in peat, initially microelectrophoresis studies were carried out to conceptualize the electrokinetic phenomena. Then electroosmosis experiments were conducted on rigid cube samples containing 0.0001 M NaCl-water saturated peat. The open-anode and open-cathode systems were employed to the soil samples. Distilled Water (DW were used as anolyte and catholyte. The experiments were carried out via applications of diffrent DC electrical potentials. The results of microelectrophoresis study showed changes of zeta potential due to the effect of HCl and NaOH. The correlations between zeta potential and pH were found. The negative charge of peat is high pH dependent and the surface charge was dropped to zero at pH around 3. The high degree of decomposition resulted in the higher zeta potential in peat. It was also experimentally found that the electroosmotic flow in peat is feasible. The direction of electroosmotic flows were from the anode to cathode.

  10. Nonstationary Phenomena in the Heliosheath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pogorelov, N. V.; Borovikov, S. N.; Ebert, R. W.; Heerikhuisen, J.; Kim, T. K.; Kryukov, I.; Richardson, J. D.; Suess, S. T.; Zank, G. P.

    2012-12-01

    As Voyagers (V1 and V2) are approaching the heliopause (HP), they keep delivering important information about the solar wind (SW) behavior which sometimes appears to be substantially different at V1 and V2 locations. We argue that the observed differences may be attributed to SW variations. In particular, negative values of the radial velocity component derived from V1 observations may be due to the presence of time-dependent magnetic barriers formed due to the slow/fast wind interactions in the vicinity of solar cycle minima. The inner heliosheath is the venue of wave interaction, MHD instabilities, and turbulence. We further investigate these phenomena in the HP vicinity using a new, based on the Ulysses observations, solar cycle model. We show that some puzzling observational data, such as the difference in the heliocentric distances at which V1 and V2 crossed the termination shock, may be attributed to time-dependent effects. We also use other time-dependent sets of observational boundary conditions, e.g., interplanetary scintillation and OMNI data. Phenomena affecting the stability and shape of the HP are also discussed in the context of our time-dependent simulations. The satisfaction of the 2-3 kHz radio emission criteria beyond the HP is analyzed. Numerical results are validated by their comparison with observational data.

  11. Natural phenomena hazards, Hanford Site, Washington

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents the natural phenomena hazard loads for use in implementing DOE Order 5480.28, Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation, and supports development of double-shell tank systems specifications at the Hanford Site in south-central Washington State. The natural phenomena covered are seismic, flood, wind, volcanic ash, lightning, snow, temperature, solar radiation, suspended sediment, and relative humidity

  12. 应激对猪生产性能、行为及血液理化指标影响的研究进展%Research Progress on Effects of Stress on Production Performance,Behaviour and Blood Physiological-biochemical Indexes in Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨培歌; 顾宪红

    2013-01-01

    Significant changes of production performance,behaviour and blood physiological-biochemical indexes were found under stress conditions, and stress could damage animals. Thus,it was suggested that every efforts should be made to prevent stress,especially severe stress in livestock production,so as not to affect the orderly production,damage animals welfare and reduce economic benefits. The influence of weaning,cold,heat,transportation and slaughter stress on production performance,behaviour and blood physiological-biochemical indexes in pigs were mainly reviewed in this paper.%应激条件下会影响猪的生产性能、行为及血液生理生化指标,对动物机体造成危害.因此,在畜牧生产实践中应尽一切努力防止应激特别是严重应激的发生,以免影响生产的有序进行,损害动物福利,降低经济效益.作者主要综述了断奶、冷、热、运输、屠宰等常见应激因素对猪的生产性能、行为及血液生理生化指标的影响.

  13. Emergent Phenomena at Oxide Interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, H.Y.

    2012-02-16

    Transition metal oxides (TMOs) are an ideal arena for the study of electronic correlations because the s-electrons of the transition metal ions are removed and transferred to oxygen ions, and hence the strongly correlated d-electrons determine their physical properties such as electrical transport, magnetism, optical response, thermal conductivity, and superconductivity. These electron correlations prohibit the double occupancy of metal sites and induce a local entanglement of charge, spin, and orbital degrees of freedom. This gives rise to a variety of phenomena, e.g., Mott insulators, various charge/spin/orbital orderings, metal-insulator transitions, multiferroics, and superconductivity. In recent years, there has been a burst of activity to manipulate these phenomena, as well as create new ones, using oxide heterostructures. Most fundamental to understanding the physical properties of TMOs is the concept of symmetry of the order parameter. As Landau recognized, the essence of phase transitions is the change of the symmetry. For example, ferromagnetic ordering breaks the rotational symmetry in spin space, i.e., the ordered phase has lower symmetry than the Hamiltonian of the system. There are three most important symmetries to be considered here. (i) Spatial inversion (I), defined as r {yields} -r. In the case of an insulator, breaking this symmetry can lead to spontaneous electric polarization, i.e. ferroelectricity, or pyroelectricity once the point group belongs to polar group symmetry. (ii) Time-reversal symmetry (T) defined as t {yields} -t. In quantum mechanics, the time-evolution of the wave-function {Psi} is given by the phase factor e{sup -iEt/{h_bar}} with E being the energy, and hence time-reversal basically corresponds to taking the complex conjugate of the wave-function. Also the spin, which is induced by the 'spinning' of the particle, is reversed by time-reversal. Broken T-symmetry is most naturally associated with magnetism, since the

  14. Critical phenomena in magnetic nanowires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamalakar, M Venkata; Raychaudhuri, A K

    2009-09-01

    In this paper we report the first experimental study of critical phenomena in case of magnetic nanowires of nickel near the ferromagnetic-paramagnetic transition from the electrical transport properties. Nickel nanowire arrays, prepared by potentiostatic electrodeposition of nickel inside pores of nanoporous anodic alumina template were well characterized by X-ray Diffraction, Transmission electron microscopy and Energy dispersive Spectroscopy. Precise electrical resistance measurement of the nanowire arrays of wire diameter 20 nm have been done in the temperature range between 300 K to 700 K. We see a drop in the Curie temperature as observed from the resistivity anomaly. We analyzed the resistance data near the critical region and extracted the critical exponent alpha directly from the resistance. We observed a decrease in the critical part of the resistivity including a decrease in the magnitude of the critical exponent alpha and severe modification in the correction to scaling. PMID:19928208

  15. Underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamegai, M.

    1979-08-28

    Some aspects of underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena have been studied by using a thermodynamic equation of state for water and a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. The study showed that surface cavitation is caused by the main blast wave and a bubble pulse from rebound of a release wave moving toward the center of the exploding bubble. Gravity has little effect on the surface cavitation. In nuclear explosions the bubble is bounded by a two-phase region rather than a gas-water interface. The two-phase region cavitates as the bubble expands, changing the optical absorption coefficient by many orders of magnitude and significantly affecting the optical signature. In assessing cavitation damage, it is concluded that a water jet of unstable bubble collapse erodes solid walls. The study leads to suggestions for future research.

  16. Underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some aspects of underwater explosions and cavitation phenomena have been studied by using a thermodynamic equation of state for water and a one-dimensional Lagrangian hydrocode. The study showed that surface cavitation is caused by the main blast wave and a bubble pulse from rebound of a release wave moving toward the center of the exploding bubble. Gravity has little effect on the surface cavitation. In nuclear explosions the bubble is bounded by a two-phase region rather than a gas-water interface. The two-phase region cavitates as the bubble expands, changing the optical absorption coefficient by many orders of magnitude and significantly affecting the optical signature. In assessing cavitation damage, it is concluded that a water jet of unstable bubble collapse erodes solid walls. The study leads to suggestions for future research

  17. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary

  18. Earthquake prediction with electromagnetic phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayakawa, Masashi, E-mail: hayakawa@hi-seismo-em.jp [Hayakawa Institute of Seismo Electomagnetics, Co. Ltd., University of Electro-Communications (UEC) Incubation Center, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); Advanced Wireless & Communications Research Center, UEC, Chofu Tokyo (Japan); Earthquake Analysis Laboratory, Information Systems Inc., 4-8-15, Minami-aoyama, Minato-ku, Tokyo, 107-0062 (Japan); Fuji Security Systems. Co. Ltd., Iwato-cho 1, Shinjyuku-ku, Tokyo (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    Short-term earthquake (EQ) prediction is defined as prospective prediction with the time scale of about one week, which is considered to be one of the most important and urgent topics for the human beings. If this short-term prediction is realized, casualty will be drastically reduced. Unlike the conventional seismic measurement, we proposed the use of electromagnetic phenomena as precursors to EQs in the prediction, and an extensive amount of progress has been achieved in the field of seismo-electromagnetics during the last two decades. This paper deals with the review on this short-term EQ prediction, including the impossibility myth of EQs prediction by seismometers, the reason why we are interested in electromagnetics, the history of seismo-electromagnetics, the ionospheric perturbation as the most promising candidate of EQ prediction, then the future of EQ predictology from two standpoints of a practical science and a pure science, and finally a brief summary.

  19. Phenomena of flooding with condensation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The penetration of ECC water in the downcomer region of PWRs has recently been the subject of considerable research due to its importance in the safety analysis of a hypothetical LOCA. The difficulties in such analysis lie in the lack of understanding of the basic phenomena of counter-current two-phase flow, complicated also by the condensation effect and the geometry effect of a PWR. This thesis is aimed at developing an understanding of the basic phenomena of counter-current steam-water flow in a simple vertical tube geometry and the effect of condensation on the flow behavior. An experimental system with a transparent test section was designed to study the behavior of steam-water counter-current flow. Steam is injected at the bottom. Saturated or subcooled water is then injected through a weir type device at the midheight of a 3.8 cm I.D. vertical pyrex glass tube of 241 cm total height. Flow patterns of steam and water in the tube below and above the water injection level are observed visually and photographically to identify flow regimes. Analyses and correlations have been developed for predicting flow regime transitions. Water penetration rates are measured and correlated. When the steam flow is lower than the Wallis flooding limit, i.e., the lowest flow which will cause initiation of liquid upflow when the liquid is saturated, the injected liquid falls as a smooth film to the lower plenum whether the injected liquid is subcooled or not. If the injected water subcooling is more than sufficient to condense the steam completely, a liquid oscillating plug forms. Motion of the plug is analyzed and solved numerically

  20. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Types KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Types Print A A ... or straight hair instead of curly. ...Make Eight Blood Types The different markers that can be found in ...

  1. Blood Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... confidence to respond in emergency situations with the skills that can help to save a life. Learn more » Red Cross Information Donating Blood Learn About Blood Hosting a Blood Drive For Hospitals Engage with Us About Us Media ...

  2. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  3. Remote sensing of natural phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miodrag D. Regodić

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available There has always been a need to directly perceive and study the events whose extent is beyond people's possibilities. In order to get new data and to make observations and studying much more objective in comparison with past syntheses - a new method of examination called remote sensing has been adopted. The paper deals with the principles and elements of remote sensing, as well as with the basic aspects of using remote research in examining meteorological (weather parameters and the conditions of the atmosphere. The usage of satellite images is possible in all phases of the global and systematic research of different natural phenomena when airplane and satellite images of different characteristics are used and their analysis and interpretation is carried out by viewing and computer added procedures. Introduction Remote sensing of the Earth enables observing and studying global and local events that occur on it. Satellite images are nowadays used in geology, agriculture, forestry, geodesy, meteorology, spatial and urbanism planning, designing of infrastructure and other objects, protection from natural and technological catastrophes, etc. It it possible to use satellite images in all phases of global and systematic research of different natural phenomena. Basics of remote sensing Remote sensing is a method of the acquisition and interpretation of information about remote objects without making a physical contact with them. The term Daljinska detekcija is a literal translation of the English term Remote Sensing. In French it isTeledetection, in German - Fernerkundung, in Russian - дистанционие иследования. We also use terms such as: remote survailance, remote research, teledetection, remote methods, and distance research. The basic elements included in Remote Sensing are: object, electromagnetic energy, sensor, platform, image, analysis, interpretation and the information (data, fact. Usage of satellite remote research in

  4. Physiology of vitreous surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefánsson, Einar

    2009-02-01

    Vitreous surgery has various physiological and clinical consequences, both beneficial and harmful. Vitrectomy reduces the risk of retinal neovascularization, while increasing the risk of iris neovascularization, reduces macular edema and stimulates cataract formation. These clinical consequences may be understood with the help of classical laws of physics and physiology. The laws of Fick, Stokes-Einstein and Hagen-Poiseuille state that molecular transport by diffusion or convection is inversely related to the viscosity of the medium. When the vitreous gel is replaced with less viscous saline, the transport of all molecules, including oxygen and cytokines, is facilitated. Oxygen transport to ischemic retinal areas is improved, as is clearance of VEGF and other cytokines from these areas, thus reducing edema and neovascularization. At the same time, oxygen is transported faster down a concentration gradient from the anterior to the posterior segment, while VEGF moves in the opposite direction, making the anterior segment less oxygenated and with more VEGF, stimulating iris neovascularization. Silicone oil is the exception that proves the rule: it is more viscous than vitreous humour, re-establishes the transport barrier to oxygen and VEGF, and reduces the risk for iris neovascularization in the vitrectomized-lentectomized eye. Modern vitreous surgery involves a variety of treatment options in addition to vitrectomy itself, such as photocoagulation, anti-VEGF drugs, intravitreal steroids and release of vitreoretinal traction. A full understanding of these treatment modalities allows sensible combination of treatment options. Retinal photocoagulation has repeatedly been shown to improve retinal oxygenation, as does vitrectomy. Oxygen naturally reduces VEGF production and improves retinal hemodynamics. The VEGF-lowering effect of photocoagulation and vitrectomy can be augmented with anti-VEGF drugs and the permeability effect of VEGF reduced with corticosteroids

  5. Immunoelectrophoresis - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    IEP - serum; Immunoglobulin electrophoresis - blood; Gamma globulin electrophoresis; Serum immunoglobulin electrophoresis ... A blood sample is needed. For information on how this is done, see: Venipuncture

  6. Physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, Ippei; Minamino, Tohru

    2016-08-01

    The heart must continuously pump blood to supply the body with oxygen and nutrients. To maintain the high energy consumption required by this role, the heart is equipped with multiple complex biological systems that allow adaptation to changes of systemic demand. The processes of growth (hypertrophy), angiogenesis, and metabolic plasticity are critically involved in maintenance of cardiac homeostasis. Cardiac hypertrophy is classified as physiological when it is associated with normal cardiac function or as pathological when associated with cardiac dysfunction. Physiological hypertrophy of the heart occurs in response to normal growth of children or during pregnancy, as well as in athletes. In contrast, pathological hypertrophy is induced by factors such as prolonged and abnormal hemodynamic stress, due to hypertension, myocardial infarction etc. Pathological hypertrophy is associated with fibrosis, capillary rarefaction, increased production of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and cellular dysfunction (impairment of signaling, suppression of autophagy, and abnormal cardiomyocyte/non-cardiomyocyte interactions), as well as undesirable epigenetic changes, with these complex responses leading to maladaptive cardiac remodeling and heart failure. This review describes the key molecules and cellular responses involved in physiological/pathological cardiac hypertrophy. PMID:27262674

  7. Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductor nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lew Yan Voon, L. C.; Willatzen, M.

    2011-02-01

    Electromechanical phenomena in semiconductors are still poorly studied from a fundamental and an applied science perspective, even though significant strides have been made in the last decade or so. Indeed, most current electromechanical devices are based on ferroelectric oxides. Yet, the importance of the effect in certain semiconductors is being increasingly recognized. For instance, the magnitude of the electric field in an AlN/GaN nanostructure can reach 1-10 MV/cm. In fact, the basic functioning of an (0001) AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistor is due to the two-dimensional electron gas formed at the material interface by the polarization fields. The goal of this review is to inform the reader of some of the recent developments in the field for nanostructures and to point out still open questions. Examples of recent work that involves the piezoelectric and pyroelectric effects in semiconductors include: the study of the optoelectronic properties of III-nitrides quantum wells and dots, the current controversy regarding the importance of the nonlinear piezoelectric effect, energy harvesting using ZnO nanowires as a piezoelectric nanogenerator, the use of piezoelectric materials in surface acoustic wave devices, and the appropriateness of various models for analyzing electromechanical effects. Piezoelectric materials such as GaN and ZnO are gaining more and more importance for energy-related applications; examples include high-brightness light-emitting diodes for white lighting, high-electron mobility transistors, and nanogenerators. Indeed, it remains to be demonstrated whether these materials could be the ideal multifunctional materials. The solutions to these and other related problems will not only lead to a better understanding of the basic physics of these materials, but will validate new characterization tools, and advance the development of new and better devices. We will restrict ourselves to nanostructures in the current article even though the

  8. Blood rheology and aging

    OpenAIRE

    Başkurt, Oğuz K.; Simmonds, Michael J. ; Meiselman, Herbert J.

    2013-01-01

    Journal of Geriatric Cardiology (2013) 10: 291301 ©2013 JGC All rights reserved; www.jgc301.com http://www.jgc301.com; | Journal of Geriatric Cardiology Review  Open Access  Blood rheology and aging Michael J. Simmonds1, Herbert J. Meiselman2, Oguz K. Baskurt3 1Heart Foundation Research Centre, Griffith Health Institute, Griffith University, Gold Coast, QLD 4222, Australia 2Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Keck School of Medicine, University of S...

  9. Human blood glucose dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Rahaghi, Farbod N.

    2007-01-01

    The control of blood glucose concentration has become central to the prevention of morbidity in diabetes. Currently sensors are becoming available to make available near continuous measurements of tissue glucose concentrations. Frequently measured values provide an opportunity to analyze the dynamics of these measurements in addition to statistical analysis. The dynamics can be used to verify sensor validity, to provide a physiologic control target, and serve as a tool to diagnose and monitor...

  10. EDITORIAL: Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology Quantum phenomena in Nanotechnology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loss, Daniel

    2009-10-01

    Twenty years ago the Institute of Physics launched the journal Nanotechnology from its publishing house based in the home town of Paul Dirac, a legendary figure in the development of quantum mechanics at the turn of the last century. At the beginning of the 20th century, the adoption of quantum mechanical descriptions of events transformed the existing deterministic world view. But in many ways it also revolutionised the progress of research itself. For the first time since the 17th century when Francis Bacon established inductive reasoning as the means of advancing science from fact to axiom to law, theory was progressing ahead of experiments instead of providing explanations for observations that had already been made. Dirac's postulation of antimatter through purely theoretical investigation before its observation is the archetypal example of theory leading the way for experiment. The progress of nanotechnology and the development of tools and techniques that enabled the investigation of systems at the nanoscale brought with them many fascinating observations of phenomena that could only be explained through quantum mechanics, first theoretically deduced decades previously. At the nanoscale, quantum confinement effects dominate the electrical and optical properties of systems. They also render new opportunities for manipulating the response of systems. For example, a better understanding of these systems has enabled the rapid development of quantum dots with precisely determined properties, which can be exploited in a range of applications from medical imaging and photovoltaic solar cells to quantum computation, a radically new information technology being currently developed in many labs worldwide. As the first ever academic journal in nanotechnology, {\\it Nanotechnology} has been the forum for papers detailing progress of the science through extremely exciting times. In the early years of the journal, the investigation of electron spin led to the formulation

  11. Electrostatic phenomena in volcanic eruptions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrostatic phenomena have long been associated with the explosive eruption of volcanoes. Lightning generated in volcanic plumes is a spectacular atmospheric electrical event that requires development of large potential gradients over distances of up to kilometres. This process begins as hydrated liquid rock (magma) ascends towards Earth's surface. Pressure reduction causes water supersaturation in the magma and the development of bubbles of supercritical water, where deeper than c. 1000 m, and water vapour at shallower depths that drives flow expansion. The generation of high strain rates in the expanding bubbly magma can cause it to fracture in a brittle manner, as deformation relaxation timescales are exceeded. The brittle fracture provides the initial charge separation mechanism, known as fractoemission. The resulting mixture of charged silicate particles and ions evolves over time, generating macro-scale potential gradients in the atmosphere and driving processes such as particle aggregation. For the silicate particles, aggregation driven by electrostatic effects is most significant for particles smaller than c. 100 μm. Aggregation acts to change the effective aerodynamic behaviour of silicate particles, thus altering the sedimentation rates of particles from volcanic plumes from the atmosphere. The presence of liquid phases also promotes aggregation processes and lightning.

  12. High Field Phenomena of Qubits

    CERN Document Server

    van Tol, J; Takahashi, S; McCamey, D R; Boehme, C; Zvanut, M E

    2009-01-01

    Electron and nuclear spins are very promising candidates to serve as quantum bits (qubits) for proposed quantum computers, as the spin degrees of freedom are relatively isolated from their surroundings, and can be coherently manipulated e.g. through pulsed EPR and NMR. For solid state spin systems, impurities in crystals based on carbon and silicon in various forms have been suggested as qubits, and very long relaxation rates have been observed in such systems. We have investigated a variety of these systems at high magnetic fields in our multi-frequency pulsed EPR/ENDOR spectrometer. A high magnetic field leads to large electron spin polarizations at helium temperatures giving rise to various phenomena that are of interest with respect to quantum computing. For example, it allows the initialization of the both the electron spin as well as hyperfine-coupled nuclear spins in a well defined state by combining millimeter and RF radiation; it can increase the T2 relaxation times by eliminating decoherence due to ...

  13. Precursor films in wetting phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are fairly well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e. molecularly thin, films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed. (topical review)

  14. Precursor films in wetting phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popescu, M N; Oshanin, G; Dietrich, S; Cazabat, A-M

    2012-06-20

    The spontaneous spreading of non-volatile liquid droplets on solid substrates poses a classic problem in the context of wetting phenomena. It is well known that the spreading of a macroscopic droplet is in many cases accompanied by a thin film of macroscopic lateral extent, the so-called precursor film, which emanates from the three-phase contact line region and spreads ahead of the latter with a much higher speed. Such films have been usually associated with liquid-on-solid systems, but in the last decade similar films have been reported to occur in solid-on-solid systems. While the situations in which the thickness of such films is of mesoscopic size are fairly well understood, an intriguing and yet to be fully understood aspect is the spreading of microscopic, i.e. molecularly thin, films. Here we review the available experimental observations of such films in various liquid-on-solid and solid-on-solid systems, as well as the corresponding theoretical models and studies aimed at understanding their formation and spreading dynamics. Recent developments and perspectives for future research are discussed. PMID:22627067

  15. WESF natural phenomena hazards survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wagenblast, G.R., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-07-01

    A team of engineers conducted a systematic natural hazards phenomena (NPH) survey for the 225-B Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). The survey is an assessment of the existing design documentation to serve as the structural design basis for WESF, and the Interim Safety Basis (ISB). The lateral force resisting systems for the 225-B building structures, and the anchorages for the WESF safety related systems were evaluated. The original seismic and other design analyses were technically reviewed. Engineering judgment assessments were made of the probability of NPH survival, including seismic, for the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems. The method for the survey is based on the experience of the investigating engineers,and documented earthquake experience (expected response) data.The survey uses knowledge on NPH performance and engineering experience to determine the WESF strengths for NPH resistance, and uncover possible weak links. The survey, in general, concludes that the 225-B structures and WESF safety systems are designed and constructed commensurate with the current Hanford Site design criteria.

  16. Chewing over physiology integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdulkader, Fernando; Azevedo-Martins, Anna Karenina; Miranda, Manoel de Arcisio; Brunaldi, Kellen

    2005-03-01

    An important challenge for both students and teachers of physiology is to integrate the different areas in which physiological knowledge is didactically divided. In developing countries, such an issue is even more demanding, because budget restrictions often affect the physiology program with laboratory classes being the first on the list when it comes to cuts in expenses. With the aim of addressing this kind of problem, the graduate students of our department organized a physiology summer course offered to undergraduate students. The objective was to present the different physiological systems in an integrated fashion. The strategy pursued was to plan laboratory classes whose experimental results were the basis for the relevant theoretical discussions. The subject we developed to illustrate physiology integration was the study of factors influencing salivary secretion. PMID:15718383

  17. Directional Multivariate Extremes in Environmental Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Torres, Raúl; De Michele, Carlo; Laniado, Henry; Lillo, Rosa E.

    2016-01-01

    Several environmental phenomena can be described by different correlated variables that must be considered jointly in order to be more representative of the nature of these phenomena. For such events, identification of extremes is inappropriate if it is based on marginal analysis. Extremes have usually been linked to the notion of quantile, which is an important tool to analyze risk in the univariate setting. We propose to identify multivariate extremes and analyze environmental phenomena in ...

  18. Black hole critical phenomena without black holes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Steven L Liebling

    2000-10-01

    Studying the threshold of black hole formation via numerical evolution has led to the discovery of fascinating nonlinear phenomena. Power-law mass scaling, aspects of universality, and self-similarity have now been found for a large variety of models. However, questions remain. Here I briefly review critical phenomena, discuss some recent results, and describe a model which demonstrates similar phenomena without gravity.

  19. Observation of Celestial Phenomena in Ancient China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochun

    Because of the need for calendar-making and portent astrology, the Chinese were diligent and meticulous observers of celestial phenomena. China has maintained the longest continuous historical records of celestial phenomena in the world. Extraordinary or abnormal celestial events were particularly noted because of their astrological significance. The historical records cover various types of celestial phenomena, which include solar and lunar eclipses, sunspots, "guest stars" (novae or supernovae as we understand today), comets and meteors, and all kinds of planetary phenomena. These records provide valuable historical data for astronomical studies today.

  20. The use of suspension models and comparison with true weightlessness. [Animal Model Workshop on Gravitational Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Ellis, S.

    1985-01-01

    A resume is presented of various papers concerning the effect of weightlessness on particular physiological and biochemical phenomena in animal model systems. Findings from weightlessness experiments on earth using suspension models are compared with results of experiments in orbit. The biological phenomena considered include muscle atrophy, changes in the endocrine system, reduction in bone formation, and changes in the cardiovascular system.

  1. Artificial blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkar Suman

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Artificial blood is a product made to act as a substitute for red blood cells. While true blood serves many different functions, artificial blood is designed for the sole purpose of transporting oxygen and carbon dioxide throughout the body. Depending on the type of artificial blood, it can be produced in different ways using synthetic production, chemical isolation, or recombinant biochemical technology. Development of the first blood substitutes dates back to the early 1600s, and the search for the ideal blood substitute continues. Various manufacturers have products in clinical trials; however, no truly safe and effective artificial blood product is currently marketed. It is anticipated that when an artificial blood product is available, it will have annual sales of over $7.6 billion in the United States alone.

  2. Advances in physiological computing

    CERN Document Server

    Fairclough, Stephen H

    2014-01-01

    This edited collection will provide an overview of the field of physiological computing, i.e. the use of physiological signals as input for computer control. It will cover a breadth of current research, from brain-computer interfaces to telemedicine.

  3. Phun Week: Understanding Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Limson, Mel; Matyas, Marsha Lakes

    2009-01-01

    Topics such as sports, exercise, health, and nutrition can make the science of physiology relevant and engaging for students. In addition, many lessons on these topics, such as those on the cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive systems, align with national and state life science education standards. Physiology Understanding Week (PhUn…

  4. Reproduction, Physiology and Biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter focuses on the reproduction, physiology, and biochemistry of the root-knot nematodes. The extensive amount of information on the reproduction and cytogenetics of species of Meloidogyne contrasts with the limited information on physiology, biochemistry, and biochemical pathways. In commo...

  5. Application of Computational Physics: Blood Vessel Constrictions and Medical Infuses

    CERN Document Server

    Suprijadi,; Subekti, Petrus; Viridi, Sparisoma

    2013-01-01

    Application of computation in many fields are growing fast in last two decades. Increasing on computation performance helps researchers to understand natural phenomena in many fields of science and technology including in life sciences. Computational fluid dynamic is one of numerical methods which is very popular used to describe those phenomena. In this paper we propose moving particle semi-implicit (MPS) and molecular dynamics (MD) to describe different phenomena in blood vessel. The effect of increasing the blood pressure on vessel wall will be calculate using MD methods, while the two fluid blending dynamics will be discussed using MPS. Result from the first phenomenon shows that around 80% of constriction on blood vessel make blood vessel increase and will start to leak on vessel wall, while from the second phenomenon the result shows the visualization of two fluids mixture (drugs and blood) influenced by ratio of drugs debit to blood debit. Keywords: molecular dynamic, blood vessel, fluid dynamic, movin...

  6. Nonlinear dynamical phenomena in liquid crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Because of the existence of the orientational order and anisotropy in liquid crystals, strong nonlinear phenomena and singular behaviors, such as solitary wave, transient periodic structure, chaos, fractal and viscous fingering, can be excited by a very small disturbance. These phenomena and behaviors are in connection with physics, biology and mathematics. 12 refs, 6 figs

  7. Fluctuation theory of critical phenomena in fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martynov, G. A.

    2016-07-01

    It is assumed that critical phenomena are generated by density wave fluctuations carrying a certain kinetic energy. It is noted that all coupling equations for critical indices are obtained within the context of this hypothesis. Critical indices are evaluated for 15 liquids more accurately than when using the current theory of critical phenomena.

  8. Ketamine: effect of literacy on emergence phenomena.

    OpenAIRE

    Currie, M. A.; Currie, A. L.

    1984-01-01

    A prospective study of the relationship between literacy rate and emergence phenomena with ketamine anaesthesia was carried out among Pathans on Pakistan's Afghan frontier. Findings support both a strong link between the literacy of the patient and the occurrence of emergence phenomena, and the acceptability and value of ketamine in this type of population.

  9. PREFACE Integrability and nonlinear phenomena Integrability and nonlinear phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Ullate, David; Lombardo, Sara; Mañas, Manuel; Mazzocco, Marta; Nijhoff, Frank; Sommacal, Matteo

    2010-10-01

    Back in 1967, Clifford Gardner, John Greene, Martin Kruskal and Robert Miura published a seminal paper in Physical Review Letters which was to become a cornerstone in the theory of integrable systems. In 2006, the authors of this paper received the AMS Steele Prize. In this award the AMS pointed out that `In applications of mathematics, solitons and their descendants (kinks, anti-kinks, instantons, and breathers) have entered and changed such diverse fields as nonlinear optics, plasma physics, and ocean, atmospheric, and planetary sciences. Nonlinearity has undergone a revolution: from a nuisance to be eliminated, to a new tool to be exploited.' From this discovery the modern theory of integrability bloomed, leading scientists to a deep understanding of many nonlinear phenomena which is by no means reachable by perturbation methods or other previous tools from linear theories. Nonlinear phenomena appear everywhere in nature, their description and understanding is therefore of great interest both from the theoretical and applicative point of view. If a nonlinear phenomenon can be represented by an integrable system then we have at our disposal a variety of tools to achieve a better mathematical description of the phenomenon. This special issue is largely dedicated to investigations of nonlinear phenomena which are related to the concept of integrability, either involving integrable systems themselves or because they use techniques from the theory of integrability. The idea of this special issue originated during the 18th edition of the Nonlinear Evolution Equations and Dynamical Systems (NEEDS) workshop, held at Isola Rossa, Sardinia, Italy, 16-23 May 2009 (http://needs-conferences.net/2009/). The issue benefits from the occasion offered by the meeting, in particular by its mini-workshops programme, and contains invited review papers and contributed papers. It is worth pointing out that there was an open call for papers and all contributions were peer reviewed

  10. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... osmotic fragility ) Deficiency of an enzyme called lecithin cholesterol acyl transferase Abnormalities of hemoglobin , the protein in ... sickle and Pappenheimer Red blood cells, target cells Formed elements of blood References Bain BJ. The peripheral ...

  11. A PC-based graphical simulator for physiological pharmacokinetic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, D R; Stanski, D R; Ebling, W F

    1995-04-01

    Since many intravenous anesthetic drugs alter blood flows, physiologically-based pharmacokinetic models describing drug disposition may be time-varying. Using the commercially available programming software MATLAB, a platform to simulate time-varying physiological pharmacokinetic models was developed. The platform is based upon a library of pharmacokinetic blocks which mimic physiological structure. The blocks can be linked together flexibly to form models for different drugs. Because of MATLAB's additional numerical capabilities (e.g. non-linear optimization), the platform provides a complete graphical microcomputer-based tool for physiologic pharmacokinetic modeling. PMID:7656558

  12. A statistical approach to strange diffusion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of particle (and heat) transport in fusion plasmas has revealed the existence of what might be called 'unusual' transport phenomena. Such phenomena are: unexpected scaling of the confinement time with system size, power degradation (i.e. sub-linear scaling of energy content with power input), profile stiffness (also known as profile consistency), rapid transient transport phenomena such as cold and heat pulses (travelling much faster than the diffusive timescale would allow), non-local behaviour and central profile peaking during off-axis heating, associated with unexplained inward pinches. The standard modelling framework, essentially equal to Fick's Law plus extensions, has great difficulty in providing an all-encompassing and satisfactory explanation of all these phenomena. This difficulty has motivated us to reconsider the basics of the modelling of diffusive phenomena. Diffusion is based on the well-known random walk. The random walk is captured in all its generality in the Continuous Time Random Walk (CTRW) formalism. The CTRW formalism is directly related to the well-known Generalized Master Equation, which describes the behaviour of tracer particle diffusion on a very fundamental level, and from which the phenomenological Fick's Law can be derived under some specific assumptions. We show that these assumptions are not necessarily satisfied under fusion plasma conditions, in which case other equations (such as the Fokker-Planck diffusion law or the Master Equation itself) provide a better description of the phenomena. This fact may explain part of the observed 'strange' phenomena (namely, the inward pinch). To show how the remaining phenomena mentioned above may perhaps find an explanation in the proposed alternative modelling framework, we have designed a toy model that incorporates a critical gradient mechanism, switching between rapid (super-diffusive) and normal diffusive transport as a function of the local gradient. It is then demonstrated

  13. Diagnostic tests in Raynaud's phenomena in workers exposed to vibration: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, N

    1988-01-01

    Four objective tests to evaluate Raynaud's phenomena (RP) in workers exposed to handarm vibrations were applied on 23 exposed men with RP (vibration induced white finger 18, primary Raynaud's phenomenon 5), 56 exposed men without RP, and 15 male controls. Finger systolic blood pressure was measured...

  14. Functional neuroimaging: a physiological perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ai-Ling Lin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Metabolic physiology and functional neuroimaging have played important and complementary roles over the past two decades. In particular, investigations of the mechanisms underlying functional neuroimaging signals have produced fundamental new insights into hemodynamic and metabolic regulation. However, controversies were also raised as regards the metabolic pathways (oxidative vs. non-oxidative for meeting the energy demand and driving the increases in cerebral blood flow (CBF during brain activation. In a recent study, with the concurrent fMRI-MRS measurements, we found that task-evoked energy demand was predominately met through oxidative metabolism (~ 98%, despite a small increase in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2; 12-17%. In addition, the task-induced increases in CBF were most likely mediated by anaerobic glycolysis rather than oxygen demand. These observations and others from functional neuroimaging support the activation-induced neuron-astrocyte interactions portrayed by the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle (ANLS model. The concurrent developments of neuroimaging methods and metabolic physiology will also pave the way for the future investigation of cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in disease states.

  15. PHYSIOLOGICAL ROLES OF AQUAPORIN-4 IN BRAIN

    OpenAIRE

    Nagelhus, Erlend A.; Ottersen, Ole P.

    2013-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is one of the most abundant molecules in the brain and is particularly prevalent in astrocytic membranes at the blood-brain and brain-liquor interfaces. While AQP4 has been implicated in a number of pathophysiological processes, its role in brain physiology has remained elusive. Only recently has evidence accumulated to suggest that AQP4 is involved in such diverse functions as regulation of extracellular space volume, potassium buffering, cerebrospinal fluid circulation, i...

  16. Fourteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi; Kobayashi, Tetsuro; Nelson, Keith A; Silvestri, Sandro; Ultrafast Phenomena XIV

    2005-01-01

    Ultrafast Phenomena XIV presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including ultrafast laser and measurement technology as well as studies of ultrafast phenomena. Pico-, femto-, and atosecond processes relevant in physics, chemistry, biology and engineering are presented. Ultrafast technology is now having a profound impact within a wide range of applications, among them imaging, material diagnostics, and transformation and high-speed optoelectronics. This book summarizes results presented at the 14th Ultrafast Phenomena Conference and reviews the state of the art in this important and rapidly advancing field.

  17. Sixteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Corkum, Paul; Nelson, Keith A; Riedle, Eberhard; Schoenlein, Robert W; Ultrafast Phenomena XVI

    2009-01-01

    Ultrafast Phenomena XVI presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including both ultrafast optical technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It covers picosecond, femtosecond and attosecond processes relevant to applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Ultrafast technology has a profound impact in a wide range of applications, amongst them biomedical imaging, chemical dynamics, frequency standards, material processing, and ultrahigh speed communications. This book summarizes the results presented at the 16th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena and provides an up-to-date view of this important and rapidly advancing field.

  18. Computational transport phenomena for engineering analyses

    CERN Document Server

    Farmer, Richard C; Cheng, Gary C; Chen, Yen-Sen

    2009-01-01

    Computational Transport PhenomenaOverviewTransport PhenomenaAnalyzing Transport PhenomenaA Computational Tool: The CTP CodeVerification, Validation, and GeneralizationSummaryNomenclatureReferencesThe Equations of ChangeIntroductionDerivation of The Continuity EquationDerivation of The Species Continuity EquationDerivation of The Equation Of MotionDerivation of The General Energy EquationNon-Newtonian FluidsGeneral Property BalanceAnalytical and Approximate Solutions for the Equations of ChangeSummaryNomenclatureReferencesPhysical PropertiesOverviewReal-Fluid ThermodynamicsChemical Equilibrium

  19. Transient phenomena in electrical power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Venikov, V A; Higinbotham, W

    1964-01-01

    Electronics and Instrumentation, Volume 24: Transient Phenomena in Electrical Power Systems presents the methods for calculating the stability and the transient behavior of systems with forced excitation control. This book provides information pertinent to the analysis of transient phenomena in electro-mechanical systems.Organized into five chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the principal requirements in an excitation system. This text then explains the electromagnetic and electro-mechanical phenomena, taking into account the mutual action between the components of the system. Ot

  20. Fifteenth International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Corkum, Paul; Miller, R. J. Dwayne; Weiner, Andrew M; Ultrafast Phenomena XV

    2007-01-01

    Ultrafast Phenomena XV presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including both ultrafast optical technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It covers picosecond, femtosecond, and attosecond processes relevant to applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Ultrafast technology has a profound impact in a wide range of applications, among them biomedical imaging, chemical dynamics, frequency standards, materials processing, and ultrahigh-speed communications. This book summarizes the results presented at the 15th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena and provides an up-to-date view of this important and rapidly advancing field.

  1. Cord Blood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Abroun

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available   Stem cells are naïve or master cells. This means they can transform into special 200 cell types as needed by body, and each of these cells has just one function. Stem cells are found in many parts of the human body, although some sources have richer concentrations than others. Some excellent sources of stem cells, such as bone marrow, peripheral blood, cord blood, other tissue stem cells and human embryos, which last one are controversial and their use can be illegal in some countries. Cord blood is a sample of blood taken from a newborn baby's umbilical cord. It is a rich source of stem cells, umbilical cord blood and tissue are collected from material that normally has no use following a child’s birth. Umbilical cord blood and tissue cells are rich sources of stem cells, which have been used in the treatment of over 80 diseases including leukemia, lymphoma and anemia as bone marrow stem cell potency.  The most common disease category has been leukemia. The next largest group is inherited diseases. Patients with lymphoma, myelodysplasia and severe aplastic anemia have also been successfully transplanted with cord blood. Cord blood is obtained by syringing out the placenta through the umbilical cord at the time of childbirth, after the cord has been detached from the newborn. Collecting stem cells from umbilical blood and tissue is ethical, pain-free, safe and simple. When they are needed to treat your child later in life, there will be no rejection or incompatibility issues, as the procedure will be using their own cells. In contrast, stem cells from donors do have these potential problems. By consider about cord blood potency, cord blood banks (familial or public were established. In IRAN, four cord blood banks has activity, Shariati BMT center cord blood bank, Royan familial cord blood banks, Royan public cord blood banks and Iranian Blood Transfusion Organ cord blood banks. Despite 50,000 sample which storage in these banks, but the

  2. The Physiologically Difficult Airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrod M. Mosier

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Airway management in critically ill patients involves the identification and management of the potentially difficult airway in order to avoid untoward complications. This focus on difficult airway management has traditionally referred to identifying anatomic characteristics of the patient that make either visualizing the glottic opening or placement of the tracheal tube through the vocal cords difficult. This paper will describe the physiologically difficult airway, in which physiologic derangements of the patient increase the risk of cardiovascular collapse from airway management. The four physiologically difficult airways described include hypoxemia, hypotension, severe metabolic acidosis, and right ventricular failure. The emergency physician should account for these physiologic derangements with airway management in critically ill patients regardless of the predicted anatomic difficulty of the intubation.

  3. Reproduction, physiology and biochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter summarizes fundamental knowledge and recent discoveries about the reproduction, physiology and biochemistry of plant-parasitic nematodes. Various types of reproduction are reviewed, including sexual reproduction and mitotic and meiotic parthenogenesis. Although much is known about the p...

  4. Renal Physiology of Pregnancy

    OpenAIRE

    Cheung, Katharine L.; Lafayette, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy involves remarkable orchestration of physiologic changes. The kidneys are central players in the evolving hormonal milieu of pregnancy, responding and contributing to the changes in the environment for the pregnant woman and fetus. The functional impact of pregnancy on kidney physiology is widespread, involving practically all aspects of kidney function. The glomerular filtration rate increases 50% with subsequent decrease in serum creatinine, urea, and uric acid values. The thresho...

  5. Conditioning and breakdown phenomena in accelerator tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Important breakdown mechanisms in accelerator tubes are reviewed, and discharge phenomena in NEC tubes are deduced from the surface appearance of the electrodes and insulators of a used tube. Microphotos of these surfaces are shown

  6. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, Yuri [Department of Applied Physics and Geballe Laboratory for Advanced Materials, Stanford University, Stanford, California 94305 (United States)

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics.

  7. Canister storage building natural phenomena design loads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This document presents natural phenomena hazard (NPH) loads for use in the design and construction of the Canister Storage Building (CSB), which will be located in the 200 East Area of the Hanford Site

  8. CISM Course on Rolling Contact Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kalker, Joost

    2000-01-01

    Preface.- Rolling Contact Phenomena - Linear Elasticity.- Finite Element Methods for Rolling Contact.- Plastic Deformation in Rolling Contact.- Non-Steady State Rolling Contact and Corrugations.- Modelling of Tyre Force and Moment Generation.- Rolling Noise.- Lubrication

  9. Perspective: Emergent magnetic phenomena at interfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The discovery of emergent magnetic phenomena is of fundamental and technological interest. This perspective highlights recent promising examples of emergent ferromagnetism at complex oxide interfaces in the context of spin based electronics

  10. Didactic demonstrations of superfluidity and superconductivity phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to demonstrate to students phenomena of superfluidity and superconductivity a special helium cryostat has been constructed. The demonstrated effects, construction of the cryostat and the method of demonstration are described. (author)

  11. Sorption phenomena of PCBs in environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The relationship between the properties of PCBs and the behavior of soil and sediment is reviewed. The sorption phenomena of PCBs in the environment are described with different models. The research progress on the sorption mechanisms is also discussed.

  12. The resonance phenomena and state of health

    OpenAIRE

    Sikura A.Y.

    2010-01-01

    The question of dependence of the state of health is examined from the resonance phenomena in the liquid environments of organism, roles herein physical loadings. It is rotined that resonance waves can compensate structural violations on a tissue, system levels. The oppressive operating is the same compensated on the organism of man. The physical loading in a complex with other external resonance phenomena causes substantial resonance vibrations in all systems of organism. It is necessary to ...

  13. Evidence on Dropout Phenomena at Universities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Malene Rode; Sommersel, Hanna Bjørnøy; Larsen, Michael Søgaard

    This publication is an excerpt from the full technical report ‘Dropout Phenomena at Universities: What is Dropout? Why does Dropout Occur? What Can be Done by the Universities to Prevent or Reduce it? A systematic review’, which was completed in April 2013. The purpose of this excerpt is to present...... the knowledge we have on dropout phenomena at European universities in a short, precise and comprehensible form to allow readers to orient themselves on the subject in a more readable manner....

  14. Noise Induced Phenomena in Population Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Valenti, D.; Giuffrida, A; Denaro, G.; Pizzolato, N; Curcio, L; Spagnolo, B.; Mazzola, S.; Basilone, G.; Bonanno, A.

    2015-01-01

    Noise through its interaction with the nonlinearity of the living systems can give rise to counter-intuitive phenomena. In this paper we shortly review the noise induced effects in different ecosystems. The transient dynamics of these ecosystems are analyzed through generalized Lotka-Volterra equations in the presence of multiplicative noise, which models the interaction between the species and the environment. We find noise induced phenomena such as quasi-deterministic oscillations, stochast...

  15. The Casimir effect and critical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the present review we focus our attention on the theory and experimental confirmations of the Casimir effect in critical phenomena. Since the effect is related to the boundary conditions imposed on a system undergoing a phase transition and its consequences, the theory of critical phenomena in finite-size systems is an indispensable part of the theoretical description. Experiments with liquid films near a critical point are of particular experimental relevance to the studied phenomenon

  16. Local phenomena associated with natural circulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this lecture is to impart to the participants an adequate knowledge of various phenomena encountered in the natural circulation systems of a nuclear reactor. All the components of the primary system of a nuclear reactor are described and phenomena occurring in each of them are explained. A comprehensive coverage of related thermohydraulic relationships is provided which will enable the participants to carryout the process design of a natural circulation system. (author)

  17. High Energy Phenomena in Clusters of Galaxies

    OpenAIRE

    P. Blasi(INAF Arcetri); Colafrancesco, S.

    1998-01-01

    Several phenomena in high energy astrophysics have been recently related to clusters of galaxies and to cosmic ray interactions occurring inside these structures. In many of these phenomena the observable effects depend on the energy density of cosmic rays confined in the Intra Cluster (IC) medium, which is a poorly known quantity. We propose here that useful indications about this quantity can be obtained from present and future observations of galaxy clusters in the radio and hard X-ray fre...

  18. Second DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference has been organized into ten presentation sessions which include an overview of the DOE Natural Phenomena Guidelines, Seismic Analysis, Seismic Design, Modifying Existing Facilities, DOE Orders, Codes, and Standards (2 sessions), Seismic Hazard (2 sessions), and Probabilistic Risk Assessment (2 sessions). Two poster sessions were also included in the program to provide a different forum for communication of ideas. Over the past fourteen years, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Nuclear Systems Safety Program, has been working with the US Department of Energy, Office of Safety Appraisals and their predecessors in the area of natural phenomena hazards. During this time we have developed seismic, extreme wind/tornado, and flood hazard models for DOE sites in the United States. Guidelines for designing and evaluating DOE facilities for natural phenomena have been developed and are in interim use throughout the DOE community. A series of state-of-the practice manuals have also been developed to aid the designers. All of this material is listed in the Natural Phenomena Hazards Bibliography included in these proceedings. This conference provides a mechanism to disseminate current information on natural phenomena hazards and their mitigation. It provides an opportunity to bring together members of the DOE community to discuss current projects, to share information, and to hear practicing members of the structural engineering community discuss their experiences from past natural phenomena, future trends, and any changes to building codes. Each paper or poster presented is included in these proceedings. We have also included material related to the luncheon and dinner talks

  19. The XIIIth International Physiological Congress in Boston in 1929: American physiology comes of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jack A

    2016-03-01

    In the 19th century, the concept of experimental physiology originated in France with Claude Bernard, evolved in Germany stimulated by the teaching of Carl Ludwig, and later spread to Britain and then to the United States. The goal was to develop a physicochemical understanding of physiological phenomena. The first International Physiological Congress occurred in 1889 in Switzerland with an emphasis on experimental demonstrations. The XIIIth Congress, the first to be held outside of Europe, took place in Boston, MA, in 1929. It was a watershed meeting and indicated that American physiology had come of age. Meticulously organized, it was the largest congress to date, with over 1,200 participants from more than 40 countries. Getting to the congress was a cultural adventure, especially for the 400 scientists and their families from over 20 European countries, who sailed for 10 days on the S.S. Minnekahda. Many of the great physiologists of the world were in attendance, including 22 scientists who were either or would become Nobel Laureates. There were hundreds of platform presentations and many experimental demonstrations. The meeting was not without controversy as a conflict, still not completely settled, arose over the discovery of ATP. After the meeting, hundreds of participants made a memorable trip to the Marine Biological Laboratory at Woods Hole, MA, which culminated in a "good old fashioned Cape Cod Clambake." Although not as spectacular as the 1929 congress, the physiological congresses have continued with goals similar to those established more than a century ago. PMID:26847252

  20. Blood / Money

    OpenAIRE

    Strong, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Marilyn Strathern has argued that "nature" in Euro-American culture has appeared as constraint; it has figured the givens of existence on which human artifice is seen to construct "society" or "culture."(5) Among those givens is the notion that human beings are naturally individuals. And blood, too, images individuality: "The very thought of blood, individual blood, touches the deepest feelings in man about life and death" ([RIchard Titmuss] 16.) Transfusion medicine, then, draws on a series ...

  1. Physiological responses to daily light exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yefeng; Yu, Yonghua; Yang, Bo; Zhou, Hong; Pan, Jinming

    2016-04-01

    Long daylength artificial light exposure associates with disorders, and a potential physiological mechanism has been proposed. However, previous studies have examined no more than three artificial light treatments and limited metabolic parameters, which have been insufficient to demonstrate mechanical responses. Here, comprehensive physiological response curves were established and the physiological mechanism was strengthened. Chicks were illuminated for 12, 14, 16, 18, 20, or 22 h periods each day. A quadratic relationship between abdominal adipose weight (AAW) and light period suggested that long-term or short-term light exposure could decrease the amount of AAW. Quantitative relationships between physiological parameters and daily light period were also established in this study. The relationships between triglycerides (TG), cholesterol (TC), glucose (GLU), phosphorus (P) levels and daily light period could be described by quadratic regression models. TG levels, AAW, and BW positively correlated with each other, suggesting long-term light exposure significantly increased AAW by increasing TG thus resulting in greater BW. A positive correlation between blood triiodothyronine (T3) levels and BW suggested that daily long-term light exposure increased BW by thyroid hormone secretion. Though the molecular pathway remains unknown, these results suggest a comprehensive physiological mechanism through which light exposure affects growth.

  2. Comparing the Effects of Isoflurane and Alpha Chloralose upon Mouse Physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Low, Lucie A.; Bauer, Lucy C.; Klaunberg, Brenda A.

    2016-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging of mice requires that the physiology of the mouse (body temperature, respiration and heart rates, blood pH level) be maintained in order to prevent changes affecting the outcomes of functional scanning, namely blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) measures and cerebral blood flow (CBF). The anesthetic used to sedate mice for scanning can have major effects on physiology. While alpha chloralose has been commonly used for functional imaging of rats, its ...

  3. Understanding Blood Counts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lab and Imaging Tests Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts Understanding Blood Counts SHARE: Print Glossary Blood cell counts give ... your blood that's occupied by red cells. Normal Blood Counts Normal blood counts fall within a range ...

  4. Plant Physiology and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taiz, Lincoln; Zeiger, Eduardo; Møller, Ian Max;

    widely used upper-division plant biology textbook. In the Sixth Edition, the Growth and Development section (Unit III) has been reorganized and expanded to present the complete life cycle of seed plants from germination to senescence. In recognition of this enhancement, the text has been renamed Plant......Throughout its twenty-two year history, the authors of Plant Physiology have continually updated the book to incorporate the latest advances in plant biology and implement pedagogical improvements requested by adopters. This has made Plant Physiology the most authoritative, comprehensive, and...... Physiology and Development. As before, Unit III begins with updated chapters on Cell Walls and Signals and Signal Transduction. The latter chapter has been expanded to include a discussion of major signaling molecules, such as calcium ions and plant hormones. A new, unified chapter entitled Signals from...

  5. Human physiology in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernikos, J.

    1996-01-01

    The universality of gravity (1 g) in our daily lives makes it difficult to appreciate its importance in morphology and physiology. Bone and muscle support systems were created, cellular pumps developed, neurons organised and receptors and transducers of gravitational force to biologically relevant signals evolved under 1g gravity. Spaceflight provides the only microgravity environment where systematic experimentation can expand our basic understanding of gravitational physiology and perhaps provide new insights into normal physiology and disease processes. These include the surprising extent of our body's dependence on perceptual information, and understanding the effect and importance of forces generated within the body's weightbearing structures such as muscle and bones. Beyond this exciting prospect is the importance of this work towards opening the solar system for human exploration. Although both appear promising, we are only just beginning to taste what lies ahead.

  6. Exploratory research on bioactive natural products with a focus on biological phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Uemura, Daisuke

    2010-01-01

    The discovery of new basic compounds holds the key for advancing material sciences. We have focused on the identification and characterization of natural key compounds that control biologically and physiologically intriguing phenomena. The discovery of new bioactive molecules, facilitated by a deeper understanding of nature, should advance our knowledge of biological processes and lead to new strategies to treat disease. The structure and function of natural compounds are sometimes unexpected...

  7. Blood donation

    CERN Multimedia

    GS Department

    2009-01-01

    A blood donation is organised by the Cantonal Hospital of Geneva On Thursday 19 March 2009 from 9 a.m. to 5 p.m. CERN RESTAURANT 2 Number of donations during the last blood donations :135 donors in July 2008 122 donors in November 2008 Let’s do better in 2009 !!! Give 30 minutes of your time to save lives...

  8. BLOOD DONATION

    CERN Multimedia

    SC Unit

    2008-01-01

    A blood donation, organized by EFS (Etablissement Français du Sang) of Annemasse will take place On Wednesday 12 November 2008, from 8:30 to 16:00, at CERN Restaurant 2 If possible, please, bring your blood group Card.

  9. Tainted blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deleuran, Ida; Sheikh, Zainab Afshan; Hoeyer, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    study of the historical rise and current workings of safety practices in the Danish blood system. Here, we identify a strong focus on contamination in order to avoid 'tainted blood', at the expense of working with risks that could be avoided through enhanced blood monitoring practices. Of further...... significance to this focus are the social dynamics found at the heart of safety practices aimed at avoiding contamination. We argue that such dynamics need more attention, in order to achieve good health outcomes in transfusion medicine. Thus, we conclude that, to ensure continuously safe blood systems, we...... need to move beyond the bifurcation of the social and medical aspects of blood supply as two separate issues and approach social dynamics as key medical safety questions....

  10. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BruceJWest

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. We review the allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series as a way of determining the fractal character of the underlying phenomena. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. Fractional operators acting on fractal functions yield fractal functions, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a fractal statistical process. Control of physiologic complexity is one of the goals of medicine. Allometric control incorporates long-time memory, inverse power-law (IPL correlations, and long-range interactions in complex phenomena as manifest by IPL distributions. We hypothesize that allometric control, rather than homeostatic control, maintains the fractal character of erratic physiologic time series to enhance the robustness of physiological networks. Moreover, allometric control can be described using the fractional calculus to capture the dynamics of complex physiologic networks. This hypothesis is supported by a number of physiologic time series data.

  11. Investigating the students' understanding of surface phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamed, Kastro Mohamad

    1999-11-01

    This study investigated students' understanding of surface phenomena. The main purpose for conducting this research endeavor was to understand how students think about a complex topic about which they have little direct or formal instruction. The motivation for focusing on surface phenomena stemmed from an interest in integrating research and education. Despite the importance of surfaces and interfaces in research laboratories, in technological applications, and in everyday experiences, no previous systematic effort was done on pedagogy related to surface phenomena. The design of this research project was qualitative, exploratory, based on a Piagetian semi-structured clinical piloted interview, focused on obtaining a longitudinal view of the intended sample. The sampling was purposeful and the sample consisted of forty-four undergraduate students at Kansas State University. The student participants were enrolled in physics classes that spanned a wide academic spectrum. The data were analyzed qualitatively. The main themes that emerged from the analysis were: (a) students used analogies when confronted with novel situations, (b) students mixed descriptions and explanations, (c) students used the same explanation for several phenomena, (d) students manifested difficulties transferring the meaning of vocabulary across discipline boundaries, (e) in addition to the introductory chemistry classes, students used everyday experiences and job-related experiences as sources of knowledge, and (f) students' inquisitiveness and eagerness to investigate and discuss novel phenomena seemed to peak about the time students were enrolled in second year physics classes.

  12. Real time reconstruction of quasiperiodic multi parameter physiological signals

    OpenAIRE

    Ganeshapillai, Gartheeban; Guttag, John V.

    2011-01-01

    A modern intensive care unit (ICU) has automated analysis systems that depend on continuous uninterrupted real time monitoring of physiological signals such as electrocardiogram (ECG), arterial blood pressure (ABP), and photo-plethysmogram (PPG). These signals are often corrupted by noise, artifacts, and missing data. We present an automated learning framework for real time reconstruction of corrupted multi-parameter nonstationary quasiperiodic physiological signals. The key idea is to learn ...

  13. Sodium balance-an integrated physiological model and novel approach

    OpenAIRE

    Patel Santosh

    2009-01-01

    Various physiological mechanisms regulate sodium and water balance in the human body. These processes achieve acute and chronic sodium regulation and the simultaneous or se-quential changes can be explained using a single physiological model. Steady intracellular water and osmolality is necessary for cell membrane integrity and cellular processes. Body fluids protect circulatory blood volume by altering Na + and water balance. This is the most vital homeostatic function of the body. C...

  14. Molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and pathology

    OpenAIRE

    Bonny, Olivier; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Gumz, Michelle L.; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-01-01

    The physiological processes that maintain body homeostasis oscillate during the day. Diurnal changes characterize kidney functions, comprising regulation of hydro-electrolytic and acid-base balance, reabsorption of small solutes and hormone production. Renal physiology is characterized by 24-h periodicity and contributes to circadian variability of blood pressure levels, related as well to nychthemeral changes of sodium sensitivity, physical activity, vascular tone, autonomic function and neu...

  15. Fractal physiology and the fractional calculus: a perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Bruce J

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a restricted overview of Fractal Physiology focusing on the complexity of the human body and the characterization of that complexity through fractal measures and their dynamics, with fractal dynamics being described by the fractional calculus. Not only are anatomical structures (Grizzi and Chiriva-Internati, 2005), such as the convoluted surface of the brain, the lining of the bowel, neural networks and placenta, fractal, but the output of dynamical physiologic networks are fractal as well (Bassingthwaighte et al., 1994). The time series for the inter-beat intervals of the heart, inter-breath intervals and inter-stride intervals have all been shown to be fractal and/or multifractal statistical phenomena. Consequently, the fractal dimension turns out to be a significantly better indicator of organismic functions in health and disease than the traditional average measures, such as heart rate, breathing rate, and stride rate. The observation that human physiology is primarily fractal was first made in the 1980s, based on the analysis of a limited number of datasets. We review some of these phenomena herein by applying an allometric aggregation approach to the processing of physiologic time series. This straight forward method establishes the scaling behavior of complex physiologic networks and some dynamic models capable of generating such scaling are reviewed. These models include simple and fractional random walks, which describe how the scaling of correlation functions and probability densities are related to time series data. Subsequently, it is suggested that a proper methodology for describing the dynamics of fractal time series may well be the fractional calculus, either through the fractional Langevin equation or the fractional diffusion equation. A fractional operator (derivative or integral) acting on a fractal function, yields another fractal function, allowing us to construct a fractional Langevin equation to describe the evolution of a

  16. NOD/SCID 小鼠主要脏器重量、血生理生化指标和免疫细胞的测定%The study on organ weights, blood physiological and biochemical parameters and immune cells in NOD/SCID mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王怀远; 吴旭颖; 张文明; 田玉书; 吴金峰; 王宇; 张亚静; 杨志伟

    2014-01-01

    目的:测定NOD/SCID小鼠的主要脏器重量、血生理生化指标和免疫细胞比例。方法选取5周龄和10周龄的NOD/SCID小鼠,测定主要脏器重量和血液生理生化指标;选取6周龄的NOD/SCID小鼠,利用流式细胞仪检测其T细胞及其亚群( T细胞-CD3+、T细胞亚群-CD4+T细胞、CD8+T细胞)、B细胞( CD19+或B220+)、NK细胞(NK1.1+)和粒细胞(CD11b+)。结果同性别NOD/SCID小鼠,不同周龄的双肾、肝脏、心脏和肺脏重量,血生理指标RBC、HGB、HCT、MCV、MCH和RDW,血生化指标TP、ALB、ALP、CHO和TBIL具有显著差异;同周龄的雌雄相比,血生理指标HCT,血生化指标GLOB、A/G、CHO、TG、TBIL和UN有显著差异。 NOD/SCID小鼠无T细胞(0.37±0.26)%、CD4+T细胞(0.35±0.13)%、CD8+T细胞(0.47±0.10)%、CD19+B细胞(0.13±0.05)%、B220+B细胞(1.20±0.44)%),有低水平NK细胞(6.90±0.82)%,粒细胞比例为(47.88±15.54)%。结论 NOD/SCID小鼠表现为为T、B、NK细胞联合免疫功能缺陷,周龄和性别对其脏器重量、血生理生化指标有一定影响。本研究的NOD/SCID小鼠品系的生理生化指标与国外生产的相同品系基本一致。%Objective To measure the organ weights , physiological and biochemical parameters and immune cells of NOD/SCID mice.Methods Mice at five and ten weeks of age were selected .The organ weights, blood physiological and biochemical parameters were observed .The percentages of CD 3+, CD4+, CD8+, CD19+, B220+, NK1.1+, and CD11b+were checked by FCM in NOD/SCID mice at six week of age in terms of its T , B lymphocyte function and NK cell activity.Results Among the same sex group of NOD/SCID mice, the weights of kidney, liver, heart and lung, and the blood physiological indexes of RBC , HGB, HCT, MCV, MCH, RDW, and the blood biochemical indexes of TP , ALB, ALP, CHO, TBIL show significant difference between 5 and 10

  17. Stability and Restoration phenomena in Competitive Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Uechi, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A conservation law and stability, recovering phenomena and characteristic patterns of a nonlinear dynamical system have been studied and applied to biological and ecological systems. In our previous study, we proposed a system of symmetric 2n-dimensional conserved nonlinear differential equations with external perturbations. In this paper, competitive systems described by 2-dimensional nonlinear dynamical (ND) model with external perturbations are applied to population cycles and recovering phenomena of systems from microbes to mammals. The famous 10-year cycle of population density of Canadian lynx and snowshoe hare is numerically analyzed. We find that a nonlinear dynamical system with a conservation law is stable and generates a characteristic rhythm (cycle) of population density, which we call the {\\it standard rhythm} of a nonlinear dynamical system. The stability and restoration phenomena are strongly related to a conservation law and balance of a system. The {\\it standard rhythm} of population density ...

  18. Quantum phenomena in magnetic nano clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C Raghu; Indranil Rudra; Diptiman Sen; S Ramasesha

    2001-10-01

    One of the fascinating fields of study in magnetism in recent years has been the study of quantum phenomena in nanosystems. While semiconductor structures have provided paradigms of nanosystems from the stand point of electronic phenomena, the synthesis of high nuclearity transition metal complexes have provided examples of nano magnets. The range and diversity of the properties exhibited by these systems rivals its electronic counterparts. Qualitative understanding of these phenomena requires only a knowledge of basic physics, but quantitative study throws up many challenges that are similar to those encountered in the study of correlated electronic systems. In this article, a brief overview of the current trends in this area are highlighted and some of the efforts of our group in developing a quantitative understanding of this field are outlined.

  19. Active Cyber Defense Dynamics Exhibiting Rich Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Zheng, Ren; Xu, Shouhuai

    2016-01-01

    The Internet is a man-made complex system under constant attacks (e.g., Advanced Persistent Threats and malwares). It is therefore important to understand the phenomena that can be induced by the interaction between cyber attacks and cyber defenses. In this paper, we explore the rich phenomena that can be exhibited when the defender employs active defense to combat cyber attacks. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that shows that {\\em active cyber defense dynamics} (or more generally, {\\em cybersecurity dynamics}) can exhibit the bifurcation and chaos phenomena. This has profound implications for cyber security measurement and prediction: (i) it is infeasible (or even impossible) to accurately measure and predict cyber security under certain circumstances; (ii) the defender must manipulate the dynamics to avoid such {\\em unmanageable situations} in real-life defense operations.

  20. Multi-phenomena couplings in argillites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    (author) The objective of this research thesis is to be a contribution to electro-kinetic phenomena at the continuum scale (about the nanometer) in a complex porous structure. After a general overview of equations and problems raised by electro-kinetic phenomena (geological barriers for radioactive wastes, local electrokinetic equations, porous media, parallel computing and numerical simulation), the author addresses the electro-osmosis in porous solids for high zeta potentials (electrokinetic equations and their resolution) and generalizes his approach to universal electro-osmosis formulae for porous media. He reports the study of ionic transports in porous media for high zeta potentials (electrokinetic equations and numerical simulation) and of the influence of the Stern layer on electrokinetic phenomena

  1. Effects of Feed-Used Mannanase Transgenic Corn on Growth Performance, Carcass Performance and Blood Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Broilers%饲用甘露聚糖酶转基因玉米对肉鸡生长性能、屠宰性能及血清生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟昆; 陈桂兰; 刘国华; 杨培龙; 姚斌

    2016-01-01

    本试验旨在研究甘露聚糖酶转基因玉米对肉鸡生长性能、屠宰性能及血清生理生化指标的影响。试验选择1日龄爱拔益加( AA)肉鸡480只,随机分成4个组,每组6个重复,每个重复20只鸡。4个组安排如下:组Ⅰ为非转基因玉米的对照组,不添加甘露聚糖酶;组Ⅱ为非转基因玉米添加低剂量微生物来源甘露聚糖酶组,甘露聚糖酶活力500 U/kg;组Ⅲ为低剂量甘露聚糖酶转基因玉米组,甘露聚糖酶活力500 U/kg;组Ⅳ为高剂量甘露聚糖酶转基因玉米组,甘露聚糖酶活力5000 U/kg。试验期42 d。结果表明:与对照组相比,组Ⅲ和Ⅳ42日龄肉鸡平均日增重有显著提高( P<0.05),组Ⅳ料重比显著降低( P<0.05)。组Ⅳ42日龄肉鸡屠宰率和全净膛率显著高于组Ⅱ和对照组( P<0.05)。组Ⅱ、Ⅲ和Ⅳ21和42日龄肉鸡的血液生理生化指标与对照组均没有显著差异( P>0.05)。由此可见,饲粮中添加甘露聚糖酶转基因玉米能提高受试肉鸡的生长性能和屠宰性能,但对血液生理生化指标没有显著影响。%This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of mannanase transgenic corn on growth performance, carcass performance and blood physiological and biochemical indexes of broilers.A total of 480 one-day-old Arbor Acres ( AA) broilers were randomly allocated to 4 groups, with 6 six replicates per group and 20 broilers per replicate.The four groups showed as follows: group Ⅰ, broilers fed non-transgenic corn without addition of mannanase as the control; group Ⅱ, broilers fed non-transgenic corn with addition of mi-crobial mannanase at low dosage of mannanase activity ( 500 U/kg);groupⅢ, broilers fed mannanase trans-genic corn with low dosage of mannanase activity (500 U/kg); and group Ⅳ, broilers fed mannanase trans-genic corn with high dose of mannase activity ( 5 000 U/kg) .The trial lasted for

  2. Starting Physiology: Bioelectrogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baptista, Vander

    2015-01-01

    From a Cartesian perspective of rational analysis, the electric potential difference across the cell membrane is one of the fundamental concepts for the study of physiology. Unfortunately, undergraduate students often struggle to understand the genesis of this energy gradient, which makes the teaching activity a hard task for the instructor. The…

  3. The Face of Physiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul White

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available This article explores the relationship between the physiology of the emotions and the display of character in Victorian Britain. Charles Bell and others had begun to link certain physiological functions, such as respiration, with the expression of feelings such as fear, regarding the heart and other internal organs as instruments by which the emotions were made visible. But a purely functional account of the emotions, which emerged through the development of reflex physiology during the second half of the century, would dramatically alter the nature of feelings and the means of observing them. At the same time, instinctual or acquired sympathy, which had long underpinned the accurate reading of expressions, became a problem to be surmounted by new 'objectively'. Graphic recording instruments measuring a variety of physiological functions and used with increasing frequency in clinical diagnostics became of fundamental importance for tracing the movement of feelings during the period prior to the development of cinematography. They remained, in the form of devices such as the polygraph, a crucial and controversial means of measuring affective states, beneath the potentially deceptive surface of the body.

  4. Datation methods by natural nuclear phenomena. Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The whole current methods of datation by natural nuclear phenomena, applied to terrestrial phenomena, are described in this book. Examples included in each chapter give a view of problems that these methods allow to solve in geology, geophysics, geochemistry and also although to a less extent, in archeology and cimatology. The chapters on cosmogenic isotopes drop a hint of their importance for knowledge of solar system and of our galaxy, this domain leading on studies of meteorites and lunar samples. In the first chapter, the reader can compare the fields and advantages of the techniques presented. (830 refs)

  5. Third DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This conference on Natural Phenomena Hazards Mitigation has been organized into 15 presentation, panel, and poster sessions. The sessions included an overview of activities at DOE Headquarters; natural phenomena hazards tasks underway for DOE; two sessions on codes, standards, orders, criteria, and guidelines; two sessions on seismic hazards; equipment qualification; wind; PRA and margin assessments; modifications, retrofit, and restart; underground structures with a panel discussion; seismic analysis; seismic evaluation and design; and a poster session. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases

  6. The resonance phenomena and state of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikura A.Y.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The question of dependence of the state of health is examined from the resonance phenomena in the liquid environments of organism, roles herein physical loadings. It is rotined that resonance waves can compensate structural violations on a tissue, system levels. The oppressive operating is the same compensated on the organism of man. The physical loading in a complex with other external resonance phenomena causes substantial resonance vibrations in all systems of organism. It is necessary to take into account it on employments on physical education and to use all necessary rehabilitation facilities.

  7. Current-driven phenomena in nanoelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Seideman, Tamar

    2010-01-01

    Consisting of ten chapters written by some of the world's leaders in the field, this book combines experimental, theoretical and numerical studies of current-driven phenomena in the nanoscale. The topics covered range from single-molecule, site-specific nanochemistry induced by a scanning tunneling microscope, through inelastic tunneling spectroscopy and current-induced heating, to current-triggered molecular machines. The various chapters focus on experimental and numerical method development, the description of specific systems, and new ideas and novel phenomena.

  8. Modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharia, T.; Vitek, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Goldak, J.A. [Carleton Univ., Ottawa, Ontario (Canada); DebRoy, T.A. [Pennsylvania State Univ., University Park, PA (United States); Rappaz, M. [Ecole Polytechnique Federale de Lausanne (Switzerland); Bhadeshia, H.K.D.H. [Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom)

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in the mathematical modeling of fundamental phenomena in welds are summarized. State-of-the-art mathematical models, advances in computational techniques, emerging high-performance computers, and experimental validation techniques have provided significant insight into the fundamental factors that control the development of the weldment. The current status and scientific issues in the areas of heat and fluid flow in welds, heat source metal interaction, solidification microstructure, and phase transformations are assessed. Future research areas of major importance for understanding the fundamental phenomena in weld behavior are identified.

  9. Vector (two-dimensional) magnetic phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, some interesting phenomena were described from the viewpoint of two-dimensional magnetic property, which is reworded with the vector magnetic property. It shows imperfection of conventional magnetic property and some interested phenomena were discovered, too. We found magnetic materials had the strong nonlinearity both magnitude and spatial phase due to the relationship between the magnetic field strength H-vector and the magnetic flux density B-vector. Therefore, magnetic properties should be defined as the vector relationship. Furthermore, the new Barukhausen signal was observed under rotating flux. (Author)

  10. 19th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Cundiff, Steven; Vivie-Riedle, Regina; Kuwata-Gonokami, Makoto; DiMauro, Louis

    2015-01-01

    This book presents the latest advances in ultrafast science, including both ultrafast optical technology and the study of ultrafast phenomena. It covers picosecond, femtosecond, and attosecond processes relevant to applications in physics, chemistry, biology, and engineering. Ultrafast technology has a profound impact in a wide range of applications, amongst them biomedical imaging, chemical dynamics, frequency standards, material processing, and ultrahigh-speed communications. This book summarizes the results presented at the 19th International Conference on Ultrafast Phenomena and provides an up-to-date view of this important and rapidly advancing field.

  11. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included

  12. Dissipative phenomena in condensed matter some applications

    CERN Document Server

    Dattagupta, Sushanta

    2004-01-01

    From the field of nonequilibrium statistical physics, this graduate- and research-level volume treats the modeling and characterization of dissipative phenomena. A variety of examples from diverse disciplines like condensed matter physics, materials science, metallurgy, chemical physics etc. are discussed. Dattagupta employs the broad framework of stochastic processes and master equation techniques to obtain models for a wide range of experimentally relevant phenomena such as classical and quantum Brownian motion, spin dynamics, kinetics of phase ordering, relaxation in glasses, dissipative tunneling. It provides a pedagogical exposition of current research material and will be useful to experimentalists, computational physicists and theorists.

  13. Arcing phenomena in fusion devices workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clausing, R.E.

    1979-01-01

    The workshop on arcing phenomena in fusion devices was organized (1) to review the pesent status of our understanding of arcing as it relates to confinement devices, (2) to determine what informaion is needed to suppress arcing and (3) to define both laboratory and in-situ experiments which can ultimately lead to reduction of impurities in the plasma caused by arcing. The workshop was attended by experts in the area of vacuum arc electrode phenomena and ion source technology, materials scientists, and both theoreticians and experimentalists engaged in assessing the importance of unipolar arcing in today's tokamaks. Abstracts for papers presented at the workshop are included.

  14. Avian reproductive physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gee, G.F.

    1995-01-01

    Knowledge of the many physiological factors associated with egg production , fertility, incubation, and brooding in nondomestic birds is limited. Science knows even less about reproduction in most of the 238 endangered or threatened birds. This discussion uses studies of nondomestic and, when necessary, domestic birds to describe physiological control of reproduction. Studies of the few nondomestic avian species show large variation in physiological control of reproduction. Aviculturists, in order to successfully propagate an endangered bird, must understand the bird's reproductive peculiarities. First, investigators can do studies with carefully chosen surrogate species, but eventually they need to confirm the results in the target endangered bird. Studies of reproduction in nondomestic birds increased in the last decade. Still, scientists need to do more comparative studies to understand the mechanisms that control reproduction in birds. New technologies are making it possible to study reproductive physiology of nondomestic species in less limiting ways. These technologies include telemetry to collect information without inducing stress on captives (Howey et al., 1987; Klugman, 1987), new tests for most of the humoral factors associated with reproduction, and the skill to collect small samples and manipulate birds without disrupting the physiological mechanisms (Bercovitz et al., 1985). Managers are using knowledge from these studies to improve propagation in zoological parks, private and public propagation facilities, and research institutions. Researchers need to study the control of ovulation, egg formation, and oviposition in the species of nondomestic birds that lay very few eggs in a season, hold eggs in the oviduct for longer intervals, or differ in other ways from the more thoroughly studied domestic birds. Other techniques that would enhance propagation for nondomestlc birds include tissue culture of cloned embryonic cells, cryopreservation of embryos

  15. Evaluación del entrenamiento tradicional del caballo criollo chileno de rodeo mediante el análisis de variables fisiológicas y bioquímicas sanguíneas Evaluation of a traditional program of training in chilean rodeo criollo horses through the analysis of physiological and blood biochemical changes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. GARCIA

    1999-01-01

    used to measure packed cell volume, haemoglobin, total proteins, glucose, triglycerides, lactic acid, insulin, cortisol, and electrolites (Na, Cl and Ca. The activity of enzymes, creatin kinase, lactic dehydrogenase and aspartate amino transferase were obtained before and after each training exercise. The physiological and blood biochemical variables were measured on days 0, 15, 30 and 45 of training. According to the results obtained it is concluded that the traditional on farm training exercise for Chilean Criollo horses is a short term and low speed exercise which represent a physical work of moderate intensity, producing small changes on physiological and blood biochemical variables suggesting that the principal aim of the conditioning program is to improve the ability of horses to stop the steers in the rodeo track than to obtain better physical fitness

  16. Effect of different oxygen concentrations on blood oxygen pressure in the system of in vitro physiological environment foster limbs%不同氧体积分数气体对体外模拟体内生理环境寄养断肢系统血氧分压的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王江宁; 尹叶锋; 高磊; 王德成; 左有为; 苏才培

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND:Limb replantation success rate with limb preservation method is directly related to conduct in vitro simulated physiological environment foster limbs, which can extend saved time of the limbs.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of different oxygen concentrations on blood oxygen pressure in the system of in vitrophysiological environment foster limbs.METHODS: Totally nine New Zealand sheep with a total of 36 limbs underwent in vitro limb perfusion experiments with blood andwere randomly divided into six groups according to different concentrations of oxygen gas (100%, 60%, 50%, 40%, 20%, 10%)into the membrane lung.RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Comparison of blood oxygen pressure in each group, the arterial oxygen values in experimentalgroup 6 was in the normal range (80-100 mm Hg), and with the oxygen concentration decreases, arterial oxygen pressure valuesdecreases. It is indicated that in vitro simulation of physiological environment in the foster care system, different concentrations ofoxygen gas into the membrane lung may have an impact on the arterial partial pressure of oxygen; through reducing the oxygenconcentration, the arterial oxygen pressure can be close to the normal range.%背景:断肢再植成功率与断肢的保存方法有直接关系,开展体外模拟体内生理环境寄养断肢的研究,可以延长肢体保存时间.目的:探讨不同氧体积分数对体外模拟体内生理环境寄养断肢系统血氧分压的影响.方法:健康的新西兰绵羊9头,共计36只肢体,行体外断肢同型血液循环灌注实验.36只肢体按照进入膜肺的气体氧体积分数的不同随机数字表均分成氧体积分数100%,60%,50%,40%,20%,10%组进行观察.结果与结论:各组血氧分压数据相比较,氧体积分数10%的动脉血氧分压数值在正常值范围(10.64~13.33 kPa),而且动脉血氧分压的数值随氧体积分数的减小而减小.提示在体外模拟体内生理环境寄养断肢系统中,不同氧体积分

  17. Computational model of cerebral blood flow redistribution during cortical spreading depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verisokin, Andrey Y.; Verveyko, Darya V.; Postnov, Dmitry E.

    2016-04-01

    In recent decades modelling studies on cortical spreading depression (CSD) and migraine waves successfully contributed to formation of modern view on these fundamental phenomena of brain physiology. However, due to the extreme complexity of object under study (brain cortex) and the diversity of involved physiological pathways, the development of new mathematical models of CSD is still a very relevant and challenging research problem. In our study we follow the functional modelling approach aimed to map the action of known physiological pathways to the specific nonlinear mechanisms that govern formation and evolution of CSD wave patterns. Specifically, we address the role of cerebral blood flow (CBF) redistribution that is caused by excessive neuronal activity by means of neurovascular coupling and mediates a spatial pattern of oxygen and glucose delivery. This in turn changes the local metabolic status of neural tissue. To build the model we simplify the web of known cell-to-cell interactions within a neurovascular unit by selecting the most relevant ones, such as local neuron-induced elevation of extracellular potassium concentration and biphasic response of arteriole radius. We propose the lumped description of distance-dependent hemodynamic coupling that fits the most recent experimental findings.

  18. Blood mixtures: impact of puncture site on blood parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, X; El Hassani, M S; Lecq, S; Michel, C L; El Mouden, E H; Michaud, B; Slimani, T

    2016-08-01

    Various puncture routes, veins, arteries, heart, are used to take blood in animals. For anatomical reasons, differences in blood composition are expected among puncture sites. However, this issue has been rarely assessed and contrasted results have been reported: strong effects of puncture site versus a lack of effect. We captured free-ranging freshwater turtles from different locations to compare the mean concentrations of 12 blood parameters (metabolites, hormone, ions, and enzyme) among three puncture sites: (1) a lateral branch of the jugular vein, (2) a dorsal subcarapacial cervical plexus (sometimes incorrectly referred as the 'cervical sinus' in the literature), and (3) a caudal plexus site (sometimes incorrectly referred as the 'caudal sinus'). Because we used very small syringes (27-30G), we were able to separate lymph, blood, or blood-lymph mixtures. Our results show very strong effects of puncture site and of mixture level (mean maximal difference between sites was 250 %). We also found strong sex and geographical effects. Typically, there were differences in concentrations of blood solutes sampled from the lateral jugular vein and subcarapacial plexus, mainly due to sampling a mixture of blood and lymph from the 'blood' at the subcarapacial site and pure blood from the lateral jugular site, and likewise, samples from the caudal site were highly variable due to often sampling a mixture of blood and lymph. These results have technical and fundamental implications, especially when performing comparative analyses. Further, by selecting precise puncture sites, physiological differences between lymph and blood compartments could be investigated. PMID:27146147

  19. Molecular bases of circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonny, Olivier; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Gumz, Michelle L; Mazzoccoli, Gianluigi

    2013-10-01

    The physiological processes that maintain body homeostasis oscillate during the day. Diurnal changes characterize kidney functions, comprising regulation of hydro-electrolytic and acid-base balance, reabsorption of small solutes and hormone production. Renal physiology is characterized by 24-h periodicity and contributes to circadian variability of blood pressure levels, related as well to nychthemeral changes of sodium sensitivity, physical activity, vascular tone, autonomic function and neurotransmitter release from sympathetic innervations. The circadian rhythmicity of body physiology is driven by central and peripheral biological clockworks and entrained by the geophysical light/dark cycle. Chronodisruption, defined as the mismatch between environmental-social cues and physiological-behavioral patterns, causes internal desynchronization of periodic functions, leading to pathophysiological mechanisms underlying degenerative, immune related, metabolic and neoplastic diseases. In this review we will address the genetic, molecular and anatomical elements that hardwire circadian rhythmicity in renal physiology and subtend disarray of time-dependent changes in renal pathology. PMID:23901050

  20. Donating Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... And be sure to drink plenty of water, milk, or other liquids. Before donating, you'll need to answer some questions about your medical history, and have your temperature, pulse, blood pressure, and ...

  1. Blood smear

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of RBCs due to body destroying them ( immune hemolytic anemia ) Low number of RBCs due to some red ... of Heinz bodies may indicate: Alpha thalassemia Congenital hemolytic anemia Disorder in which red blood cells break down ...

  2. Amylase - blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amylase is an enzyme that helps digest carbohydrates. It is made in the pancreas and the glands ... saliva. When the pancreas is diseased or inflamed, amylase releases into the blood. A test can be ...

  3. Moving blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelis, K

    1997-01-01

    Our internationally acclaimed journalist Sanguinia has returned safely from her historic assignment. Travelling from Homeric Greece to British Romanticism, she was witness to blood drinking, letting, bathing, and transfusion. In this report, she explores connections between the symbolic and the sadistic; the mythic and the medical--all in an effort to appreciate the layered meanings our culture has given to the movement of blood between our bodies. PMID:9407636

  4. Physiological changes during fasting in Ramadan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meo, Sultan Ayoub; Hassan, Asim

    2015-05-01

    Fasting during Ramadan is one of the five fundamental pillars of Islam and mandatory for all healthy adult Muslims to fast from sunrise to sunset for a period of a month. During fasting, Muslims are required to refrain from all intakes of food, water, beverages, smoking and from sexual intercourse. Ramadan fasting causes many physiological, biochemical, metabolic and spiritual changes in the body. Ramadan Fasting increases the Red Blood Cells (RBCs), White Blood Cells (WBCs), platelet (PLT) count, High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDL-c), and decreases the blood cholesterol, triglycerides, Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (LDL-c) and Very Low Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (VLDL-c). Moreover, it reduces body weight, waist circumference, body mass index, body fat, blood glucose, systolic and diastolic blood pressure and anxiety levels. Furthermore, Ramadan fasting decreases the inflammation, pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1b, IL-6, tumour necrosis factor a and cancer promotion. Among healthy adults, there are no adverse effects of Ramadan fasting on the brain, heart, lung, liver, kidney, haematologic, endocrine profile and cognitive functions. Ramadan fasting is a healthy non pharmacological means for minimizing the risk factors and improving health. Although Ramadan fasting is safe for all healthy individuals, but those with various illnesses such as diabetes mellitus, coronary artery disease, renal and eye illness should consult their physicians and firmly follow the scientific recommendations. PMID:26013791

  5. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood Clotting and Pregnancy Clots and ... Increased maternal age Other medical illness (e.g., cancer, infection) back to top How are Blood Clots ...

  6. Biology of Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Mail Facebook TwitterTitle Google+ LinkedIn Home Blood Disorders Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Medical Dictionary Also ... Version. DOCTORS: Click here for the Professional Version Biology of Blood Overview of Blood Components of Blood ...

  7. Blood (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Print A A A ... about the mysterious, life-sustaining fluid called blood. Blood Basics Two types of blood vessels carry blood ...

  8. Blood Facts and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About Blood > Blood Facts and Statistics Printable Version Blood Facts and Statistics Facts about blood needs Facts ... about American Red Cross Blood Services Facts about blood needs Every two seconds someone in the U.S. ...

  9. Catecholamine blood test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norepinephrine -- blood; Epinephrine -- blood; Adrenalin -- blood; Dopamine -- blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... the test. This is especially true if both blood and urine catecholamines are to be measured. You ...

  10. Geophysical phenomena classification by artificial neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, M. P.; Bruckner, J. R.

    1995-01-01

    Space science information systems involve accessing vast data bases. There is a need for an automatic process by which properties of the whole data set can be assimilated and presented to the user. Where data are in the form of spectrograms, phenomena can be detected by pattern recognition techniques. Presented are the first results obtained by applying unsupervised Artificial Neural Networks (ANN's) to the classification of magnetospheric wave spectra. The networks used here were a simple unsupervised Hamming network run on a PC and a more sophisticated CALM network run on a Sparc workstation. The ANN's were compared in their geophysical data recognition performance. CALM networks offer such qualities as fast learning, superiority in generalizing, the ability to continuously adapt to changes in the pattern set, and the possibility to modularize the network to allow the inter-relation between phenomena and data sets. This work is the first step toward an information system interface being developed at Sussex, the Whole Information System Expert (WISE). Phenomena in the data are automatically identified and provided to the user in the form of a data occurrence morphology, the Whole Information System Data Occurrence Morphology (WISDOM), along with relationships to other parameters and phenomena.

  11. DOE natural phenomena hazards mitigation conference: proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The conference includes sessions which present an overview of DOE programs, available codes, standards and criteria, examples of designs and upgrades from the DOE complex, lessons learned from past natural phenomena, ground motion, seismic evaluation of equipment, and applications of probabilistic risk assessment techniques to DOE facilities. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers

  12. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instanta

  13. Hyper-random Phenomena: Definition and Description

    OpenAIRE

    Gorban, Igor

    2008-01-01

    The paper is dedicated to the theory which describes physical phenomena in non-constant statistical conditions. The theory is a new direction in probability theory and mathematical statistics that gives new possibilities for presentation of physical world by hyper-random models. These models take into consideration the changing of object’s properties, as well as uncertainty of statistical conditions.

  14. MIXING PHENOMENA IN INDUSTRIAL FUME AFTERBURNER SYSTEMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report reviews the physical-mixing phenomena involved in the reactions that occur in afterburners or fume incinerators. It considers mixing in after-burners from three points of view. It first covers typical designs of afterburner components that are involved in the mixing ph...

  15. Simple classical approach to spin resonance phenomena

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gordon, R A

    1977-01-01

    A simple classical method of describing spin resonance in terms of the average power absorbed by a spin system is discussed. The method has several advantages over more conventional treatments, and a number of important spin resonance phenomena, not normally considered at the introductory level...

  16. Emergent Phenomena, Morphomatics and Theory of Complexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bíla, J.; Krist, Pavel

    Brno: VUT Press, 2011, s. 528-533. ISBN 978-80-214-4302-0. ISSN 1803-3814. [17th International Conference on Soft Computing. Brno (CZ), 15.06.2011-17.06.2011] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10480505 Keywords : emergent phenomena * sign model * semantic space * macrostructure * microstructure * matroids Subject RIV: BC - Control Systems Theory

  17. Hyperchaotic phenomena in dynamic decision making

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jesper Skovhus; Mosekilde, Erik; Sterman, John David

    1992-01-01

    article is to show how the decision making behavior of real people in simulated corporate environments can lead to chaotic, hyperchaotic and higher-order hyperchaotic phenomena. Characteristics features of these complicated forms of behavior are analyzed with particular emphasis on an interesting form of...

  18. Observation of DNB phenomena by neutron radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the design of LWRs, the forecast of critical heat flux (CHF) is important. The existing CHF correlation equations include the arbitrary constants based on experimental data, therefore, their range of application is limited. For advancing the research and development of high conversion LWRs or passive safety reactors, the development of more general CHF forecasting technique has been demanded. In order to elucidate the mechanism of CHF occurrence and construct the general forecasting model based on physical phenomena, the detailed observation of flow phenomena near a heat generation surface is indispensable. The experiment of observing boiling two-phase flow and CHF phenomena by applying neutron radiography technique was carried out. The utilization of neutron radiography in the field of heat-transferring flow is explained. The experimental setup and the experimental method, the experimental conditions, and the results of the observations of boiling two-phase flow and CHF are reported. By applying real time neutron radiography technique, the observation of the flow mode of boiling two-phase flow and CHF phenomena has become feasible. The measurement of void fraction distribution near a heating surface at the time of DNB occurrence and the study on the state of mechanism shift between low quality DNB and high quality dry-out are carried out hereafter. (K.I.)

  19. Resonance Phenomena in the Macroscopic Quantum Tunnelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper we present a theoretical approach to describe the quantum behaviour of a macroscopic system interacting with an external field at frequencies close to resonant condition. Moreover we apply our results to simulate resonant phenomena in rf SQUIDs, whose parameters lie in the range typically used in the experiments

  20. CP violating phenomena and theoretical results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An introduction to CP violating phenomena is given and the standard model and its most popular low energy extensions in this context are reviewed. The discussion comprises the minimal supersymmetric extension of the standard model, left-right symmetry, the standard model with more than one Higgs doublet and gauged horizontal symmetries. (Author)

  1. Comparing potato tuberization and sprouting: opposite phenomena

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreugdenhil, D.

    2004-01-01

    The regulation of tuber formation and tuber sprouting are compared. As a starting point it is hypothesized that these two phenomena are opposite to each other. This idea is tested from three points of view: hormonal regulation, gene expression, and carbohydrate metabolism. It is concluded that there

  2. Possible new wave phenomena in the brain

    OpenAIRE

    Szwed, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    We propose to search for new wave phenomena in the brain by using interference effects in analogy to the well-known double slit (Young) experiment. This method is able to extend the range of oscillation frequencies to much higher values than currently accessible. It is argued that such experiments may test the hypothesis of the wave nature of information coding.

  3. Solar Phenomena Associated with "EIT Waves"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Myers, D. C.; Thompson, B. J.; Hammer, D. M.; Vourlidas, A.

    2002-01-01

    In an effort to understand what an 'EIT wave' is and what its causes are, we have looked for correlations between the initiation of EIT waves and the occurrence of other solar phenomena. An EIT wave is a coronal disturbance, typically appearing as a diffuse brightening propagating across the Sun. A catalog of EIT waves, covering the period from 1997 March through 1998 June, was used in this study. For each EIT wave, the catalog gives the heliographic location and a rating for each wave, where the rating is determined by the reliability of the observations. Since EIT waves are transient, coronal phenomena, we have looked for correlations with other transient, coronal phenomena: X-ray flares, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and metric type II radio bursts. An unambiguous correlation between EIT waves and CMEs has been found. The correlation of EIT waves with flares is significantly weaker, and EIT waves frequently are not accompanied by radio bursts. To search for trends in the data, proxies for each of these transient phenomena are examined. We also use the accumulated data to show the robustness of the catalog and to reveal biases that must be accounted for in this study.

  4. Wave Phenomena in an Acoustic Resonant Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Mary E.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the design and operation of a high Q acoustical resonant chamber which can be used to demonstrate wave phenomena such as three-dimensional normal modes, Q values, densities of states, changes in the speed of sound, Fourier decomposition, damped harmonic oscillations, sound-absorbing properties, and perturbation and scattering problems.…

  5. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kontani, Hiroshi [Nagoya Univ., Aichi (Japan). Dept. of Physics

    2013-03-01

    Comprehensive overview. Written by an expert of this topic. Provides the reader with current developments in the field. In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, {tau}, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical point using a uniform approach. We also discuss spin related transport phenomena in strongly correlated systems. In many d- and f-electron systems, the spin current induced by the spin Hall effect is considerably greater because of the orbital degrees of freedom. This fact attracts much attention due to its potential application in spintronics. We discuss various novel charge, spin and heat transport phenomena in strongly correlated metals.

  6. Ordering phenomena in ABA triblock copolymer gels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reynders, K.; Mischenko, N.; Kleppinger, R.; Reynaers, H.; Koch, M.H.J.; Mortensen, K.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature and concentration dependencies of the degree of order in ABA triblock copolymer gels are discussed. Two factors can influence the ordering phenomena: the conformation of the midblocks (links of the network) and the polydispersity of the endblock domains (nodes of the network). The...

  7. Possible new wave phenomena in the brain

    CERN Document Server

    Szwed, Jerzy

    2009-01-01

    We propose to search for new wave phenomena in the brain by using interference effects in analogy to the well known double slit (Young) experiment. This method is able to extend the range of oscillation frequencies to much higher values than presently accessible. It is argued that such experiments may test the hypothesis of wave nature of information coding.

  8. Possible New Wave Phenomena in the Brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We propose to search for new wave phenomena in the brain by using interference effects in analogy to the well-known double slit (Young) experiment. This method is able to extend the range of oscillation frequencies to much higher values than currently accessible. It is argued that such experiments may test the hypothesis of the wave nature of information coding. (author)

  9. Transient phenomena in the Vivitron (Part 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The knowledge of transient phenomena in the Vivitron on the occasion of a breakdown is a first importance for appreciating the good or bad running of the Vivitron and for judging the reasons of eventual damages and for giving remedies. This report presents the studies made on this subject until june 1992

  10. Chapter IX: Stress phenomena in landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter consist of next sub-chapters: (1) Sources of stress phenomena and their reflection in landscape; (2) Impact of stress phenomena on natural resources and human hea; (3) Impact of stress phenomena on landscape. The different types of human activities and natural phenomena affect the environment. They are referred to by the general term of stress phenomena. There are the stress phenomena of natural character (the radon risk, landslides, avalanches, etc.) and anthropogenic phenomena determined or directly provoked by man (air and water pollution, emissions, etc.). They cause different environmental problems: they threaten the ecological and cultural priorities, but above all they threaten human health. National legislation and international conventions concerning the air protection lay down the regular inventory of emission of pollutants to atmosphere. Slovak Hydrometeorological Institute (SHMU) is responsible for such inventory. It is carried out in co-operation with several specialised institutions under the methodological guidance of the SHMU. The Register of Emissions and Pollution Sources (REZZO) was in operation at SHMU since 1985. It contains the data on emissions of the basic pollutants from stationary sources. This system was replaced by the National Emission Inventory System (NEIS) harmonised with the internationally accepted methodology (CORINAIR, EMEP, IPCC/FCCC). Sources of pollutants emitted to atmosphere are above all energetic and industrial productions, transport, fuel mining and transport, waste disposal and agriculture. Emissions in Slovakia reached their highest level by the end of the 1980's. Their consistent decrease is recorded since the 1990's. The cause of such developments is the overall recession connected with the decline of industrial production and consequently lower demand of the amount of produced energy. Simultaneously, the effects of legal instruments (Act No. 309/1991 of Coll. on protection of air against pollutants (The

  11. Impact of human emotions on physiological characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partila, P.; Voznak, M.; Peterek, T.; Penhaker, M.; Novak, V.; Tovarek, J.; Mehic, Miralem; Vojtech, L.

    2014-05-01

    Emotional states of humans and their impact on physiological and neurological characteristics are discussed in this paper. This problem is the goal of many teams who have dealt with this topic. Nowadays, it is necessary to increase the accuracy of methods for obtaining information about correlations between emotional state and physiological changes. To be able to record these changes, we focused on two majority emotional states. Studied subjects were psychologically stimulated to neutral - calm and then to the stress state. Electrocardiography, Electroencephalography and blood pressure represented neurological and physiological samples that were collected during patient's stimulated conditions. Speech activity was recording during the patient was reading selected text. Feature extraction was calculated by speech processing operations. Classifier based on Gaussian Mixture Model was trained and tested using Mel-Frequency Cepstral Coefficients extracted from the patient's speech. All measurements were performed in a chamber with electromagnetic compatibility. The article discusses a method for determining the influence of stress emotional state on the human and his physiological and neurological changes.

  12. Selected geodynamic phenomena; 1 : 500 000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On this map the selected geodynamic phenomena on the territory of the Slovak Republic are shown. Geodynamic phenomena cause the changes of structure of rock environment, soils, relief, and hydrogeological situation, as well as the overall change of environmental quality. They threaten, limit, and even actually or potentially hinder the land use. Many of them may be provoked or activated by human activities. Depending on the type their activity, intensity or developmental stages are evaluated. Selected phenomena or territories threatened by these phenomena are represented on the maps. Landslides (slope deformations) including numerous slope failures caused by gravitational movements, such as block deformations, landslides, debris flows, and other were evaluated. They are classified according to their appurtenance to the main geological forms of the Western Carpathians; gully erosion - the territory with the density of gullies higher than 1 km.km-2; wind erosion (agricultural soils threatened by wind erosion), expected loss of agricultural soils expressed by unit of area in determinate time taking into consideration the soil texture, climatic factors (occurrence, direction and strength of winds, precipitations, air temperature and humidity), relief (inclination and orientation in terms of air currents); collapsing of sediments (collapsibility), territory with occurrence of soils prone to collapsing, above all the loess and loess-like earth and other earth with the collapsibility index (Imp > 1 %), it is the case of sudden reduction of the earth volume caused by increased humidity or loading; karstic phenomena (karstification of rocks), territories with partial or total development of exo- and endo-karst with allogenous to autogenous development; seismicity of territory (the territory threatened by earthquake) expressed by isoseists 5 grad - 6 grad EMS-98; snow avalanches (territory threatened by snow avalanches); potential of their occurrence exists in the high

  13. Tissue physiology and the response to heat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Horsman, Michael Robert

    2006-01-01

    heating is terminated, perfusion and oxygenation commonly recover, although how quickly this occurs appears to be tumour-specific. While these effects are unlikely to have any anti-tumour activity they can be exploited to improve the combination of heat with other therapies. However, since similar...... physiological effects should occur in normal tissues, such combination therapies must be carefully applied. Heating tumours to higher temperatures typically causes a transient increase in perfusion during heating, followed by vascular collapse which if sufficient will increase tumour necrosis. The speed and...... can also be exploited to improve the response to heat. Decreasing blood flow, using transient physiological modifiers or longer acting vascular disrupting agents prior to the initiation of heating, can both increase the accumulation of physical heat in the tumour, as well as increase heat sensitivity...

  14. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for acetone.

    OpenAIRE

    Kumagai, S.; Matsunaga, I

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--This study aimed to develop a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model for acetone and to predict the kinetic behaviour of acetone in the human body with that model. METHODS--The model consists of eight tissue groups in which acetone can be distributed: the mucous layer of the inhaled air tract, the mucous layer of the exhaled air tract, a compartment for gas exchange (alveolus of the lung), a group of blood vessel rich tissues including the brain and heart, a group of tissues i...

  15. Rhythmical Phenomena in Dermal Perfusion - Proved Assesment Strategies and new Discoveries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimir Blazek

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The phenomena of rhythm fluctuation of arterial blood pressure were discovered already in the first continuous recordings in the 18th century. However the formation of such rhythms hasn’t been explained until now. This work presents two concepts which could aid in bringing new insights into the understanding of these rhythms. One development is a multisensor system capable to acquire multiple PPG channels, ECG and additionally breathing signals to correlate local and central driven oscillations. The second new development is Photoplethysmography Imaging which allows contactless measurements of cutaneous perfusion with spatial resolution. Together with the necessary mathematical analysis tools like the Wavelet Transform a sound basis for assessment and evaluation of rhythm fluctuations in human hemodynamics is provided. Using the presented framework new, previously unreported phenomena of distributed blood volume movements in dermal perfusion could be observed.

  16. Effect of Rice Peptide on Production Performance and Blood Physiological and Biochemical Indexes of Laying Hens%大米蛋白肽对热应激时蛋鸡生产性能和相关生理生化指标的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘卫东; 宋素芳; 程璞; 王章存

    2012-01-01

    Research the effect of rice peptide on the production performance and blood of physiological and biochemical indexes of laying hen during heat stress. 320 laying hens were randomly divided into 4 groups with 4 replications and fed with different diets. No. 1 Group was fed with basal diet; the No. 2 ~ 4 groups were fed with rice peptide of 1%, 1.5% and 2% to replace soybean protein in basal diet. Result showed that: under the heat stress, adding 1.5%~2% rice peptide can evidently increase lay rate,feed intake,the level of serum fatty,total protein and thyrox-ine(P<0.05) ; can evidently decrease Feed conversion ratio,blood sugar,and the level of aldosterone and cortisol (P<0.05).The mortality rate was also decreased. It indicated that the use of rice peptide of 1. 5%~2% exhibits good effect on the production performance and indexes of physiological and biochemical of laying hens.%研究在热应激的情况下,大米蛋白肽对蛋鸡生产性能和血液生理生化指标的影响.选择健康无病,体重相近的罗曼蛋鸡320只,随机分为4组,每组80只,下设4个重复,每个重复20只鸡.1组为对照组,2组、3组、4组为试验组,1组喂基础日粮,2、3、4组分别饲喂含1%、1.5%和2%的试验日粮.结果:在热应激条件下,添加1.5%~2%的大米蛋白肽能明显提高鸡的产蛋率、采食量、血液中的总蛋白、总脂和甲状腺素浓度(P<0.05),显著降低产蛋鸡的料蛋比、血液中的血糖、醛固酮和皮质醇(P<0.05),还能一定程度地降低鸡的死亡率.表明:在夏季,使用1.5%~2%的大米蛋白肽有利于提高蛋鸡的生产性能及改善相关的生理生化指标.

  17. PHYSIOLOGIC PATTERNS OF SLEEP ON EEG, MASKING OF EPILEPTIFORM ACTIVITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Yu. Glukhova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Physiologic patterns of sleep on EEG can sometimes be similar to epileptiform activity and even to the EEG pattern of epileptic seizures, but they have no connection to epilepsy and their incorrect interpretation may lead to overdiagnosis of epilepsy. These sleep patterns include vertex transients, K-complexes, hypnagogic hypersynchrony, 14 and 6 Hz positive bursts, wicket-potentials, etc. The main distinctive features of acute physiological phenomena of sleep unlike epileptiform activity are stereotyped, monomorphic morphology of waves, which frequently has rhythmic, arcuate pattern, often with change of lateralization, mainly dominated in the first stages of sleep (N1-N2, with their reduction in the deeper stages and transition to delta sleep (N3. The correct interpretation of physiological sharp-wave phenomena of sleep on EEG requires considerable training and experience of the physician. Our review includes a variety of physiological sleep patterns, which can mimic epileptiform activity on EEG, their criteria of diagnostic with demonstration of own illustrations of EEG.

  18. Oxide interfaces: pathways to novel phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Yu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Novel phenomena and functionalities at artificial heterointerfaces have been attracting extensive scientific attention in both materials science and fundamental condensed matter physics. The interplay between degrees of freedom at interfaces of complex oxides could lead to exotic and unexpected states of matter. In this article, using the model system of BiFeO3 and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3, we review recent progress on our understanding of the novel states formed at this heterointerface. Furthermore, we discuss how emergent interfacial phenomena can be employed to influence the bulk properties of these materials. We summarize by highlighting several possible and promising directions for future study.

  19. Diffractive phenomena in high energy processes

    CERN Document Server

    Frankfurt, Leonid

    2013-01-01

    We review the evolution of the studies of diffractive processes in the strong interaction over the last 60 years. First, we briefly outline the early developments of the theory based on analyticity and unitarity of the S-matrix, including the derivation and exploration of the Regge trajectories and related moving cuts. Special attention is paid to the concept of the Pomeron trajectory introduced for description of total, elastic and diffractive cross sections at high energies and to the emergence of the dynamics of multi-Pomeron interactions.The role of large longitudinal distances and color coherent phenomena for the understanding of inelastic diffraction in hadron-hadron scattering and deep inelastic scattering is emphasized. The connection of these phenomena to the cancellation of the contribution of the Glauber approximation in hadron-nucleus collisions and to the understanding of the Gribov-Glauber approximation is explained. The presence of different scales in perturbative QCD due to masses of heavy qua...

  20. Exotic Phenomena Searches at Hadron Colliders

    CERN Document Server

    Santanastasio, Francesco

    2013-01-01

    This review presents a selection of the final results of searches for various exotic physics phenomena in proton-proton collisions at $\\sqrt{s}=7$ and 8~TeV delivered by the LHC and collected with the ATLAS and CMS detectors in 2011 (5 $fb^{-1}$) and in the first part of 2012 (4 $fb^{-1}$). Searches for large extra dimensions, gravitons, microscopic black holes, long-lived particles, dark matter, and leptoquarks are presented in this report. No sign of new physics beyond the standard model has been observed so far. In the majority of the cases these searches set the most stringent limits to date on the aforementioned new physics phenomena.

  1. Transport phenomena in strongly correlated Fermi liquids

    CERN Document Server

    Kontani, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In conventional metals, various transport coefficients are scaled according to the quasiparticle relaxation time, \\tau, which implies that the relaxation time approximation (RTA) holds well. However, such a simple scaling does not hold in many strongly correlated electron systems, reflecting their unique electronic states. The most famous example would be cuprate high-Tc superconductors (HTSCs), where almost all the transport coefficients exhibit a significant deviation from the RTA results. To better understand the origin of this discrepancy, we develop a method for calculating various transport coefficients beyond the RTA by employing field theoretical techniques. Near the magnetic quantum critical point, the current vertex correction (CVC), which describes the electron-electron scattering beyond the relaxation time approximation, gives rise to various anomalous transport phenomena. We explain anomalous transport phenomena in cuprate HTSCs and other metals near their magnetic or orbital quantum critical poi...

  2. Probabilistic Dynamic Logic of Phenomena and Cognition

    CERN Document Server

    Vityaev, Evgenii; Perlovsky, Leonid; Smerdov, Stanislav

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to develop further the main concepts of Phenomena Dynamic Logic (P-DL) and Cognitive Dynamic Logic (C-DL), presented in the previous paper. The specific character of these logics is in matching vagueness or fuzziness of similarity measures to the uncertainty of models. These logics are based on the following fundamental notions: generality relation, uncertainty relation, simplicity relation, similarity maximization problem with empirical content and enhancement (learning) operator. We develop these notions in terms of logic and probability and developed a Probabilistic Dynamic Logic of Phenomena and Cognition (P-DL-PC) that relates to the scope of probabilistic models of brain. In our research the effectiveness of suggested formalization is demonstrated by approximation of the expert model of breast cancer diagnostic decisions. The P-DL-PC logic was previously successfully applied to solving many practical tasks and also for modelling of some cognitive processes.

  3. Basic transport phenomena in materials engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Iguchi, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    This book presents the basic theory and experimental techniques of transport phenomena in materials processing operations. Such fundamental knowledge is highly useful for researchers and engineers in the field to improve the efficiency of conventional processes or develop novel technology. Divided into four parts, the book comprises 11 chapters describing the principles of momentum transfer, heat transfer, and mass transfer in single phase and multiphase systems. Each chapter includes examples with solutions and exercises to facilitate students’ learning. Diagnostic problems are also provided at the end of each part to assess students’ comprehension of the material.  The book is aimed primarily at students in materials science and engineering. However, it can also serve as a useful reference text in chemical engineering as well as an introductory transport phenomena text in mechanical engineering. In addition, researchers and engineers engaged in materials processing operations will find the material use...

  4. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force.......A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long...

  5. Optimizing Laboratory Experiments for Dynamic Astrophysical Phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryutov, D; Remington, B

    2005-09-13

    To make a laboratory experiment an efficient tool for the studying the dynamical astrophysical phenomena, it is desirable to perform them in such a way as to observe the scaling invariance with respect to the astrophysical system under study. Several examples are presented of such scalings in the area of magnetohydrodynamic phenomena, where a number of scaled experiments have been performed. A difficult issue of the effect of fine-scale dissipative structures on the global scale dissipation-free flow is discussed. The second part of the paper is concerned with much less developed area of the scalings relevant to the interaction of an ultra-intense laser pulse with a pre-formed plasma. The use of the symmetry arguments in such experiments is also considered.

  6. Tunable caustic phenomena in electron wavefields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavabi, Amir Hossein, E-mail: a.tavabi@fz-juelich.de [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Migunov, Vadim; Dwyer, Christian; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E. [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Pozzi, Giulio [Ernst Ruska-Centre for Microscopy and Spectroscopy with Electrons (ER-C) and Peter Grünberg Institute (PGI), Forschungszentrum Jülich, D-52425 Jülich (Germany); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Bologna, Viale B. Pichat 6/2, 40127 Bologna (Italy)

    2015-10-15

    Novel caustic phenomena, which contain fold, butterfly and elliptic umbilic catastrophes, are observed in defocused images of two approximately collinear oppositely biased metallic tips in a transmission electron microscope. The observed patterns depend sensitively on defocus, on the applied voltage between the tips and on their separation and lateral offset. Their main features are interpreted on the basis of a projected electrostatic potential model for the electron-optical phase shift. - Highlights: • Electron-optical caustics are observed in defocused images of biased metallic tips. • The caustics depend on defocus, on the bias between the tips and on their separation. • The setup offers the flexibility to study a wide variety of caustic phenomena.

  7. Conservation physiology of marine fishes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Christian; Peck, Myron A.; Antognarelli, Fabio;

    2012-01-01

    At the end of May, 17 scientists involved in an EU COST Action on Conservation Physiology of Marine Fishes met in Oristano, Sardinia, to discuss how physiology can be better used in modelling tools to aid in management of marine ecosystems. Current modelling approaches incorporate physiology to...

  8. Vasopressin in cirrhosis and sepsis: physiology and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagener, G; Bakker, J

    2015-12-01

    Arginine-vasopressin (AVP) is an important hormone in the regulation of plasma osmolality and blood volume/pressure. In clinical practice it is frequently used in the treatment of septic shock and decompensated cirrhosis. In this review the physiology of AVP and its analogues is presented. In addition the use of AVP in cirrhosis and sepsis is reviewed. PMID:25384691

  9. Particle precipitation : effects on selected ionospheric phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Lunde, June

    2009-01-01

    The motivation behind this thesis has been to study particle precipitation from the Sun into the Earth’s upper atmosphere and its effects on selected ionospheric phenomena. Particles from the solar wind can enter the Earth's magnetosphere through magnetic merging, either at the sub-solar point, or at higher latitudes, depending on the configuration of the interplanetary magnetic field. This interaction can be studied from the ground at Svalbard, due to its fortuitous location beneath the magn...

  10. Emergent Phenomena at Complex Oxide Interfaces

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Pu

    2011-01-01

    Novel phenomena and functionalities at epitaxial complex oxide heterostructures have been attracting huge scientific attention because of the intriguing fundamental physics as well as potential for technological applications that they embody. Essentially, charge and spin reconstruction at the interface can lead to exotic properties, which are completely different from those inherent to the individual materials, for example, a conductive interface between two insulating materials and interfac...

  11. Numerical Modeling and Investigation of Boiling Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Kunkelmann, Christian

    2011-01-01

    The subject of the present thesis is the numerical modeling and investigation of boiling phenomena. The heat transfer during boiling is highly efficient and therefore used for many applications in power generation, process engineering and cooling of high performance electronics. The precise knowledge of particular boiling processes, their relevant parameters and limitations is of utmost importance for an optimized application. Therefore, the fundamentals of boiling heat transfer have been...

  12. Mirage phenomena in superconducting quantum corrals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We investigate the local density of states and the order parameter structure inside an elliptic quantum corral on surfaces of isotropic and anisotropic superconductors. The Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations are solved in the presence of non-magnetic and magnetic impurities. We observe and discuss a variety of mirage and anti-mirage phenomena, which specifically reflect the nature of the superconducting pairing state. (Abstract Copyright [2005], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  13. Mirage phenomena in superconducting quantum corrals

    OpenAIRE

    Schmid, Markus; Kampf, Arno P.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate the local density of states and the order parameter structure inside an elliptic quantum corral on surfaces of isotropic and anisotropic superconductors. The Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations are solved in the presence of non-magnetic and magnetic impurities. We observe and discuss a variety of mirage and anti-mirage phenomena, which specifically reflect the nature of the superconducting pairing state.

  14. CONTAGION PHENOMENA: OCCURENCE AND TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS

    OpenAIRE

    MARGINEAN Silvia; ORASTEAN Ramona

    2012-01-01

    Contagion phenomena are a real challenge for economists and economic theory, and in the same time they induce important policy issues at national and international level. Despite significant progress has been made in recent years, there is still no consensus on their definition. This paper aims to contribute to the contagion literature on two levels: (1) a synthesis of theoretical and empirical contributions to contagion - definition, contagion channels, classes of contagion and transmission ...

  15. Colossal magnetoresistance oxides: phenomena and questions

    OpenAIRE

    Ramakrishnan, TV

    1998-01-01

    Some unusual electronic properties of doped manganites are described. The low temperature resistivity of the metallic ferromagnet has a large $T^2$ term. The residual resistivity can be much larger than the Mott maximum, and depends exponentially on spontaneous magnetization. There is much evidence for strong spatial and temporal fluctuation effects. The available theories are discussed in the light of these phenomena, and it is suggested that a novel localizing mechanism is at work, leading ...

  16. Saturation and Critical Phenomena in DIS

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkovszky, L. L.; Troshin, S. M.; Tyurin, N. E.

    2009-01-01

    It is argued that the expected turn-down in $x- Q^2$ of the cross sections (structure functions $F_2(x,Q^2)$), assumed to result from the saturation of parton densities in the nucleon, is related to a phase transition from the (almost) ideal partonic gas, obeying Bjorken scaling, to a partonic "liquid". This can be quantified in the framework of statistical models, percolation and other approaches to collective phenomena of the strongly interacting matter. Similarities and differences between...

  17. From critical phenomena to gauge gields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this book the author gives an introduction to the following questions: critical phenomena (Landau theory, renormalization group, two dimensional models); Perturbation theory and renormalization, scalar euclidian field (Feynman diagrams, Callan-Symanzik equations); Quantum theory of scalar fields (path integrals in quantum mechanics and statistical mechanics, green functions and S matrix, quantization of Klein-Gordon field); Gauge theories (quantization of Dirac field and electromagnetic field, quantum electrodynamics, non-abelian gauge theories)

  18. Transition phenomena in unstably stratified turbulent flows

    OpenAIRE

    Bukai, M.; Eidelman, A.; Elperin, T.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Sapir-Katiraie, I.

    2009-01-01

    We study experimentally and theoretically transition phenomena caused by the external forcing from Rayleigh-Benard convection with the large-scale circulation (LSC) to the limiting regime of unstably stratified turbulent flow without LSC whereby the temperature field behaves like a passive scalar. In the experiments we use the Rayleigh-B\\'enard apparatus with an additional source of turbulence produced by two oscillating grids located nearby the side walls of the chamber. When the frequency o...

  19. Topological phenomena in ultracold atomic gases

    OpenAIRE

    Price, Hannah

    2013-01-01

    Topological phenomena arise in a wide range of systems, with fascinating physical consequences. There is great interest in finding new ways to measure such consequences in ultracold atomic gas experiments. These experiments have significant advantages over the solid-state as ultracold atoms are controllable, tuneable and clean. They can also be used to investigate properties which are inaccessible in other quantum systems. We explore some of the novel features of topological energy bands ...

  20. Interface-Induced Phenomena in Magnetism

    OpenAIRE

    Hellman, Frances; Hoffmann, Axel; Tserkovnyak, Yaroslav; Beach, Geoffrey; Fullerton, Eric; Leighton, Chris; MacDonald, Allan; Ralph, Dan; Arena, Dario; Durr, Hermann; Fischer, Peter; GROLLIER, Julie; Heremans, Joseph; Jungwirth, Tomas; Kimmel, Alexey

    2016-01-01

    This article reviews static and dynamic interfacial effects in magnetism, focusing on interfacially-driven magnetic effects and phenomena associated with spin-orbit coupling and intrinsic symmetry breaking at interfaces. It provides a historical background and literature survey, but focuses on recent progress, identifying the most exciting new scientific results and pointing to promising future research directions. It starts with an introduction and overview of how basic magnetic properties a...

  1. First-passage phenomena and their applications

    CERN Document Server

    Metzler, Ralf; Redner, Sidney

    2014-01-01

    The book contains review articles on recent advances in first-passage phenomena and applications contributed by leading international experts. It is intended for graduate students and researchers who are interested in learning about this intriguing and important topic. Sample Chapter(s)Chapter 1: Arrival Statistics and Exploration Properties of Mortal Walkers (290 KB) Contents:Arrival Statistics and Exploration Properties of Mortal Walkers (S B Yuste et al.)First-Passage of a Randomly Accelerated Particle (T Burkhardt)First-Pa

  2. Transport Phenomena in Textile Finishing Equipment

    OpenAIRE

    Groot Wassink, J.

    1985-01-01

    The application of transport phenomena to textile finishing processes is emphasised. By combination of the predominant transfer processes (momentum, mass and heat/mass transfer) and the engineering objective (operation, design and innovation), three cases are selected dealing with (a) momentum transfer and operation of a rotating washing machine, (b) mass transfer and design of an open-width washing machine and (c) heat/mass transfer in connection with the innovation of porous roller dryers.

  3. Modeling electrical dispersion phenomena in Earth materials

    OpenAIRE

    D. Patella

    2008-01-01

    It is illustrated that IP phenomena in rocks can be described using conductivity dispersion models deduced as solutions to a 2nd-order linear differential equation describing the motion of a charged particle immersed in an external electrical field. Five dispersion laws are discussed, namely: the non-resonant positive IP model, which leads to the classical Debye-type dispersion law and by extension to the Cole-Cole model, largely used in current practice; the non-resonant negative...

  4. Gender Disparity Phenomena in Riskesdas 2007

    OpenAIRE

    Siti Isfandari; Lamria Pangaribuan; Dina Bisara Lolong

    2014-01-01

    Background: The contradictory evidence of greater life expectancy among Indonesian female while our 2007 National Health Report, Riskesdas 2007 showed that female leads male almost in all morbidity needs explanation. Differences in health and illness patterns of men and women are attributable both to sex, or biology, and to gender, that is social factors such as powerlessness, access to resources, and constrained roles. Methods:The paper use gender perspective to analyse phenomena from the Ri...

  5. Directed Polymer Blends and Quantum Critical Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Kamien, Randall D.; Nelson, David R

    1992-01-01

    The statistical mechanics of directed line-like objects, such as directed polymers in an external field, strands of dipoles in both ferro- and electrorheological fluids, and flux lines in high-$T_{\\tiny C}$ superconductors bears a close resemblance to the quantum mechanics of bosons in $2+1$ dimensions. We show that single component and binary mixture critical phenomena in these systems are in the universality class of three dimensional uniaxial dipolar ferromagnets and ferroelectrics. Our re...

  6. Coherent topological phenomena in protein folding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bohr, Henrik; Brunak, Søren; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    A theory is presented for coherent topological phenomena in protein dynamics with implications for protein folding and stability. We discuss the relationship to the writhing number used in knot diagrams of DNA. The winding state defines a long-range order along the backbone of a protein with long......-range excitations, `wring' modes, that play an important role in protein denaturation and stability. Energy can be pumped into these excitations, either thermally or by an external force....

  7. Nonequilibrium phenomena in adjacent electrically isolated nanostructures

    OpenAIRE

    Khrapai, V. S.; Ludwig, S.; Kotthaus, J. P.; Tranitz, H. P.; Wegscheider, W.

    2008-01-01

    We report on nonequilibrium interaction phenomena between adjacent but electrostatically separated nanostructures in GaAs. A current flowing in one externally biased nanostructure causes an excitation of electrons in a circuit of a second nanostructure. As a result we observe a dc current generated in the unbiased second nanostructure. The results can be qualitatively explained in terms of acoustic phonon based energy transfer between the two mutually isolated circuits.

  8. Modelling of flow phenomena during DC casting

    OpenAIRE

    Zuidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of Flow Phenomena during DC Casting Jan Zuidema The production of aluminium ingots, by semi-continuous casting, is a complex process. DC Casting stands for direct chill casting. During this process liquid aluminium transforms to solid aluminium while cooling down. This is not an instantaneous transformation, but occurs in temperature interval. In the casting process the latent heat is moved away by convection and conduction. A number of problems may occur during solidification, beca...

  9. Computer Aided Series Expansions for Critical Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer-Ortmanns, H; Meyer-Ortmanns, Hildegard; Reisz, Thomas

    1996-01-01

    Under quite general conditions critical phenomena can be described with high order linked cluster expansions. The coefficients of the series admit a graphical expansion that is generated with the aid of computers. Our generalization of linked cluster expansions from an infinite to a finite volume allows to perform a finite size scaling analysis. We also indicate a generalization to Dynamical Linked Cluster Expansions with possible applications to spin glasses and neural networks with coupled spin and interaction dynamics.

  10. Tunable caustic phenomena in electron wavefields.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavabi, Amir Hossein; Migunov, Vadim; Dwyer, Christian; Dunin-Borkowski, Rafal E; Pozzi, Giulio

    2015-10-01

    Novel caustic phenomena, which contain fold, butterfly and elliptic umbilic catastrophes, are observed in defocused images of two approximately collinear oppositely biased metallic tips in a transmission electron microscope. The observed patterns depend sensitively on defocus, on the applied voltage between the tips and on their separation and lateral offset. Their main features are interpreted on the basis of a projected electrostatic potential model for the electron-optical phase shift. PMID:26069930

  11. Corporate Strategy And The Social Networking Phenomena

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Robert L.

    2011-01-01

    The Social Networking (SN) phenomena has developed relatively overnight and is continuing to develop at an exponential pace. It allows for innovative new methods of disseminating and collecting information in ways never before dreamed possible by corporate executives. The rise of Social Networking is becoming a disruptive technology for traditional marketing and advertising medium such as radio, television, web page, and print media, creating new business opportunities for the entrepreneur w...

  12. Multiscale Phenomena Related to Diabetic Foot

    OpenAIRE

    Agić, Ante; Nikolić, Tatjana; Mijović, Budimir

    2011-01-01

    Diabetes is a group of metabolic diseases causing a system disorder, i.e.; it cannot be explained or understood by phenomena on single material scale. The diabetic foot is studied as flexible multibody structure by nonlinear finite element method. The physical and geometrical multiscale heterogeneity is solved by multilevel finite element approach. The diabetic tissue is described by internal coordinate’s formalism, as complex multiscale process in tissue. The accompanying problem...

  13. MEASURING SYSTEM OF ADVERSE WEATHER PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ćurić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. The adverse weather phenomena in nowadays are becoming an extraordinary problem in human life and human activity. Therefore, it seems very important to know the thresholds of adverse weather phenomena. These thresholds can be calculated in different ways, but some experience has shown that for weather elements which departures from normal follow the normal distribution suits to use the Gaussian curve of frequency distribution (temperature and pressure. For such weather elements the normal curve of frequency distribution may be used for classification of thresholds. For weather elements which departures do not depend on such a frequency distribution configuration (precipitation amounts may be used a decile method. For wind speed thresholds, the Beaufort scale units can be used for calculation. In this paper the threshold scales for four basic weather elemnts are presented. All these scales contain four steps each. They are defined: normal, above normal, much above normal and extraordinary above normal or normal, below normal, much below normal and extraordinary below normal. The examples by observations of Meteorological Observatory in Belgrade are presented.

  14. Physical phenomena as sense determinate occurrences

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the view of El Naschie's E Infinity theory [Chaos, Solitons and Fractals 22 (2004) 495], our physical laws emerge from a chaotic underground, a 'Dirac-sea'. But we have no direct access from our observations to this chaotic world and this implies that the meaning of the correspondence between the phenomena we obtain by our cognition and their causal structures remains hidden to us. The fundamental process which produces our cognition is the 'constitution of sense'. A formal description of this process will be presented. We use Dempster Shafer's belief calculus to define 'belief' and motivate an Anticipation Principle: 'Put the measurements obtained from the world in such an order that the credibility of your forecasts will be maximized.' From this specification of the basic idea of what physical science ideally strives for, we are able to deduce a frame of reference for the formation of phenomena out of arbitrary sets of measurements. Reality is formed by these 'observable phenomena'. In this emerging reality, we recognize characteristic effects and principles of modern physics: Einstein's Postulate of Relativity, Entanglement, and the Quantum Zeno Effect. The presented view of reality is closely related to the ideas that had been presented hundred years ago by Ernst Mach and which recently J. Anandan generalized in his concept of a 'Relational Reality'

  15. Detection of black holes from optical phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The way by which the bending of light rays around black holes could give rise to optical phenomena, other than the lens effect, leading to the detection of them, is examined. One such phenomenon is the fact that we will see a ring of brightness around the black hole when we flash light on it. Another phenomenon is the appearance of a nebulosity around the black hole coming from the scattering of light from all discrete sources of the sky when it passes near the black hole. We examine the surface brightness of the phenomena seen and calculate the maximum distance of the black hole in order for the associated phenomena to appear on photographs. We find that primordial black holes of mass M ≅ 1016 Msolarmasses would be detectable by the first phenomenon if they existed within 5 Mpc distance from us, while they would be detectable by the second phenomenon if they existed within 200-300 Mpc distance from us. (author)

  16. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference

  17. An interpretation of passive containment cooling phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Bum-Jin [Ministry of Science & Technology, Kyunggi-Do (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of); Kang, Chang-Sun, [Seoul National Univ. (Korea, Democratic People`s Republic of)

    1995-09-01

    A simplified interpretation model for the cooling capability of the Westinghouse type PCCS is proposed in this paper. The PCCS domain was phenomenologically divided into 3 regions; water entrance effect region, asymptotic region, and air entrance effect region. The phenomena in the asymptotic region is focused in this paper. Due to the very large height to thickness ratio of the water film, the length of the asymptotic region is estimated to be over 90% of the whole domain. Using the analogy between heat and mass transfer phenomena in a turbulent situation, a new dependent variable combining temperature and vapor mass fraction was defined. The similarity between the PCCS phenomena, which contains the sensible and latent heat transfer, and the buoyant air flow on a vertical heated plate is derived. The modified buoyant coefficient and thermal conductivity were defined. Using these newly defined variable and coefficients, the modified correlation for the interfacial heat fluxes and the ratios of latent heat transfer to sensible heat transfer is established. To verify the accuracy of the correlation, the results of this study were compared with the results of other numerical analyses performed for the same configuration and they are well within the range of 15% difference.

  18. Prediction of sodium leakage and combustion phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prediction of sodium leakage and combustion phenomena is important for the safety of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. In particular, small leakage is sensitive to obstacles and air flows. Falling liquid sodium is strongly deformed by separation and dispersion as well as various phenomena, such as combustion and accumulation, are combined. Since the existing finite difference methods need computational grids, it is so difficult to calculate separation and dispersion that small leakage of liquid sodium cannot be analyzed. MPS (Moving Particle Semi-implicit) method is a new numerical method, which is being developed in Univ of Tokyo. In the MPS method fluids are represented by macroscopic particles and governing equations are converted to equivalent particle interactions. Since computational grids are not necessary, separation and dispersion of fluids are easily calculated. Addition of combustion and accumulation will be easy as well because the fluid motion is just simulated by the particle motion. Thus, the objective of the present study is development of a numerical method to predict small size sodium leakage and combustion phenomena. In this paper, a model experiment using water and numerical calculations for this experiment are presented. (J.P.N.)

  19. Systems physiology of the airways in health and obstructive pulmonary disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bates, Jason H T

    2016-09-01

    Fresh air entering the mouth and nose is brought to the blood-gas barrier in the lungs by a repetitively branching network of airways. Provided the individual airway branches remain patent, this airway tree achieves an enormous amplification in cross-sectional area from the trachea to the terminal bronchioles. Obstructive lung diseases such as asthma occur when airway patency becomes compromised. Understanding the pathophysiology of these obstructive diseases thus begins with a consideration of the factors that determine the caliber of an individual airway, which include the force balance between the inward elastic recoil of the airway wall, the outward tethering forces of its parenchymal attachments, and any additional forces due to contraction of airway smooth muscle. Other factors may also contribute significantly to airway narrowing, such as thickening of the airway wall and accumulation of secretions in the lumen. Airway obstruction becomes particularly severe when these various factors occur in concert. However, the effect of airway abnormalities on lung function cannot be fully understood only in terms of what happens to a single airway because narrowing throughout the airway tree is invariably heterogeneous and interdependent. Obstructive lung pathologies thus manifest as emergent phenomena arising from the way in which the airway tree behaves a system. These emergent phenomena are studied with clinical measurements of lung function made by spirometry and by mechanical impedance measured with the forced oscillation technique. Anatomically based computational models are linking these measurements to underlying anatomic structure in systems physiology terms. WIREs Syst Biol Med 2016, 8:423-437. doi: 10.1002/wsbm.1347 For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:27340818

  20. The emergence of Applied Physiology within the discipline of Physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipton, Charles M

    2016-08-01

    Despite the availability and utilization of the physiology textbooks authored by Albrecht von Haller during the 18th century that heralded the modern age of physiology, not all physicians or physiologists were satisfied with its presentation, contents, or application to medicine. Initial reasons were fundamental disagreements between the "mechanists," represented by Boerhaave, Robinson, and von Haller, and the "vitalists," represented by the faculty and graduates of the Montpellier School of Medicine in France, notably, Bordeu and Barthez. Subsequently, objections originated from Europe, United Kingdom, and the United States in publications that focused not only on the teaching of physiology to medical and secondary students, but on the specific applications of the content of physiology to medicine, health, hygiene, pathology, and chronic diseases. At the turn of the 20th century, texts began to appear with applied physiology in their titles and in 1926, physician Samson Wright published a textbook entitled Applied Physiology that was intended for both medical students and the medical profession. Eleven years later, physicians Best and Taylor published The Physiological Basis of Medical Practice: A University of Toronto Texbook in Applied Physiology Although both sets of authors defined the connection between applied physiology and physiology, they failed to define the areas of physiology that were included within applied physiology. This was accomplished by the American Physiological Society (APS) Publications Committee in 1948 with the publication of the Journal of Appplied Physiology, that stated the word "applied" would broadly denote human physiology whereas the terms stress and environment would broadly include work, exercise, plus industrial, climatic and social factors. NIH established a study section (SS) devoted to applied physiology in 1964 which remained active until 2001 when it became amalgamated into other SSs. Before the end of the 20th century when

  1. Psycho-physiological response of soldiers in urban combat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicente J. Clemente-Suárez

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Current armed conflicts are asymmetrical and are developed m urban areas. These new requirements have not been studied for current literature. The aim of this study was to analyse changes in cortical arousal, blood lactate, muscle strength, autonomic modulation and rate of perceived exertion in a simulated urban combat. We analyzed 20 soldiers before and after an urban combat simulation. The results showed how urban combat produced high sympathetic nervous system activation, increasing the muscle strength, heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the soldiers. Despite this effort, rate of perceived exertion were not consistent with the physiological response that soldiers presented, the rate of perceived exertion was lower than the physiological response evaluated. Furthermore, the information processing and cortical arousal decreased after the urban combat simulation. These results have showed the psycho-physiological response of soldiers in combat, helping to better understanding and enabling an improvement of current training methods of soldiers.

  2. Blood Transfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... to infections including those we develop from our vaccinations (such as poliovirus antibodies, which are made by ... the Transfusion Medicine Unit, Blood Bank, and Stem Cell Storage Facility University of Rochester Medical ... and health educators who are available by phone Monday through Friday, 9 am to 9 pm ( ...

  3. Physiological Responses to Thermal Stress and Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyota, Hiroyuki; Ohya, Akira; Yamagata, Junko; Suzuki, Takashi; Miyagawa, Toshiaki; Kawabata, Takashi

    The simple and noninvasive measuring methods of bioinstrumentation in humans is required for optimization of air conditioning and management of thermal environments, taking into consideration the individual specificity of the human body as well as the stress conditions affecting each. Changes in human blood circulation were induced with environmental factors such as heat, cold, exercise, mental stress, and so on. In this study, the physiological responses of human body to heat stress and exercise were investigated in the initial phase of the developmental research. We measured the body core and skin temperatures, skin blood flow, and pulse wave as the indices of the adaptation of the cardiovascular system. A laser Doppler skin blood flowmetry using an optical-sensor with a small portable data logger was employed for the measurement. These results reveal the heat-stress and exercise-induced circulatory responses, which are under the control of the sympathetic nerve system. Furthermore, it was suggested that the activity of the sympathetic nervous system could be evaluated from the signals of the pulse wave included in the signals derived from skin blood flow by means of heart rate variability assessments and detecting peak heights of velocity-plethysmogram.

  4. Relationship between blood groups and male infertility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Blood is man's complete and unchangeable identity. The ABO and Rh groups are recognised as major and clinically significant blood groups. Blood group antigens are not only important in relation to blood transfusion and organ transplantation, but also have been utilised in genetic research, anthropology and tracing ancestral relation of humans. The objective the present study is to examine the blood group antigens in infertile men for assessing the relationship to male infertility and to know the frequency of various blood groups among infertile males in our population. Method: A total of 1,521 patients along with 460 proven fathers as controls were recruited for the present study from both rural and urban areas of Pakistan and referred to Department of Reproductive Physiology/Health, Public Health Divisions, NIH, Islamabad, during 2002 to 2006. Blood grouping (ABO) and Rhesus factors (Rh) was done by the antigen antibody agglutination test. Results: Overall distribution of blood groups in the studied population of 1,521 subjects was 35.50%, 28.27%, 26.89% and 9.34% for blood groups O, B, A and AB respectively. The ratio of control to patient was 1:3.3. Conclusions: The present preliminary study revealed that in our population the prevalence of male infertility in blood group O is invariably higher than in all other ABO blood groups, showing a strong relationship between blood group O and male infertility. (author)

  5. Vasogenic shock physiology

    OpenAIRE

    Sotiria Gkisioti; Spyros D Mentzelopoulos

    2011-01-01

    Sotiria Gkisioti, Spyros D MentzelopoulosDepartment of Intensive Care Medicine, University of Athens Medical School, Evaggelismos General Hospital, Athens, GreeceAbstract: Shock means inadequate tissue perfusion by oxygen-carrying blood. In vasogenic shock, this circulatory failure results from vasodilation and/or vasoplegia. There is vascular hyporeactivity with reduced vascular smooth muscle contraction in response to α1 adrenergic agonists. Considering vasogenic shock, one can un...

  6. Blood Culture (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Upsetting News Reports? What to Say Vaccines: Which ... BMP) Blood Test: Complete Blood Count Basic Blood Chemistry Tests Getting a Blood Test (Video) Blood Test: ...

  7. High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... your doctor prescribes it, medicine. What Is Blood Pressure? Blood pressure is the force of blood flow inside ... Will I Know if I Have High Blood Pressure? High blood pressure is a silent problem — you won't ...

  8. Blood Pressure Quiz

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page please turn Javascript on. Feature: High Blood Pressure Blood Pressure Quiz Past Issues / Fall 2011 Table of Contents ... About High Blood Pressure / Treatment: Types of Blood Pressure Medications / Blood Pressure Quiz Fall 2011 Issue: Volume 6 Number ...

  9. Hypertension (High Blood Pressure)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... right away. continue How Do Doctors Measure Blood Pressure? Blood pressure readings are fast and painless. Blood pressure ... same age, height, and gender have lower blood pressure. Blood pressure between 90% and 95% of the normal ...

  10. Blood pressure measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diastolic blood pressure; Systolic blood pressure; Blood pressure reading; Measuring blood pressure ... or your health care provider will wrap the blood pressure cuff snugly around your upper arm. The ...

  11. Blood Transfusions (For Teens)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... How Can I Help a Friend Who Cuts? Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Teens > Blood Transfusions Print A ... United States get blood transfusions. A Bit About Blood As blood moves throughout the body, it carries ...

  12. Blood Count Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your blood contains red blood cells (RBC), white blood cells (WBC), and platelets. Blood count tests measure the number and types of cells in your blood. This helps doctors check on your overall health. ...

  13. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... About Awards Membership ASH Foundation Global Programs Newsroom facebook twitter youtube linkedin Research In This Section Agenda ... View all publications For Patients Blood Basics Blood Disorders Anemia Bleeding Disorders Blood Cancers Blood Clots Blood ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... For Patients Blood Disorders Blood Clots Blood Clotting & Pregnancy If you are pregnant, or you have just ... The risk of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots ...

  15. Ecstasy from a physiological point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaj Björkqvist

    1982-01-01

    Full Text Available The biological study of man is one of today's most rapidly advancing sciences. There is no reason for not utilizing these methodologies of research and the knowledge already gained when studying ecstasy and other similar religious phenomena. Drugs have been used in all parts of the world as an ecstasy technique. Since mental states and physiological correlates always accompany each other, it is obvious that the human mind can be affected by external means, for instance by drugs. But the opposite is also true; mental changes affect the body, as they do in the case of psychosomatic diseases. Ecstasy is often described as an extremely joyful experience; this pleasure must necessarily also have a physiological basis. It is of course too early to say anything for certain, but the discovery of pleasure centres in the brain might offer an explanation. It is not far-fetched to suggest that when a person experiences euphoric ecstasy, it might, in some way or other, be connected with a cerebral pleasure center. Can it be, for example, that religious ecstasy is attained only by some mechanism triggering off changes in the balance of the transmitter substances? Or is it reached only via a change in the hormonal balance, or only by a slowing down of the brain waves, or is a pleasure centre activated? When a person is using an ecstasy technique, he usually does so within a religious tradition. When he reaches an experience, a traditional interpretation of it already exists.

  16. Laparoscopic colectomy in an adult with single ventricle physiology: Anesthetic implications and management

    OpenAIRE

    Kelly J Zach; Harish Ramakrishna; Krishnashwamy Chandrasekaran; Ricardo A. Weis

    2015-01-01

    Increasing numbers of adult patients with complex congenital heart conditions are presenting for noncardiac surgery later in life. These disorders can present challenges for surgical and anesthesia providers. Specifically, single ventricle lesions offer anatomic and physiologic concerns during the perioperative period. Single ventricle physiology represents a delicate balance between systemic and pulmonary blood flow. Any alterations in blood flow through these systems can produce undesirable...

  17. Investigation of the physiological basis of the BOLD effect

    CERN Document Server

    Pears, J A

    2001-01-01

    The work described in this thesis is that undertaken by the carried out in the Magnetic Resonance Centre, School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of Nottingham, between October 1997 and September 2001. This thesis describes work performed with the aim of yielding further understanding of the physiological basis behind the BOLD effect. Chapter 1 introduces techniques for monitoring brain function and describes the physiology behind the BOLD effect. Chapter 2 then describes NMR, imaging and the hardware used in the experiments performed in this thesis. A method of measuring cerebral blood volume changes during a visual activation paradigm with high temporal resolution is described in Chapter 3, and the timecourse compared to that of the BOLD response. The slow return to baseline of CBV is discussed. Chapter 4 shows a method of simultaneously measuring blood oxygenation measurements and blood volume changes. The results are shown to be in agreement with published data. The controversial phenomenon know...

  18. A comparitive study on concepts of circulation of blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, V N; Pandey, A

    1990-04-01

    This study traces the progressively evolving concepts of blood circulation. Evidences from medical and non-medical Sanskrit literature have been presented to high the fact that the Ayurvedic concepts of physiology are time tested. PMID:22557695

  19. A COMPARITIVE STUDY ON CONCEPTS OF CIRCULATION OF BLOOD

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, V. N.; Pandey, Ayodhya

    1990-01-01

    This study traces the progressively evolving concepts of blood circulation. Evidences from medical and non-medical Sanskrit literature have been presented to high the fact that the Ayurvedic concepts of physiology are time tested.

  20. Galen and the beginnings of Western physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, John B

    2014-07-15

    Galen (129-c. 216 AD) was a key figure in the early development of Western physiology. His teachings incorporated much of the ancient Greek traditions including the work of Hippocrates and Aristotle. Galen himself was a well-educated Greco-Roman physician and physiologist who at one time was a physician to the gladiators in Pergamon. Later he moved to Rome, where he was associated with the Roman emperors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus. The Galenical school was responsible for voluminous writings, many of which are still extant. One emphasis was on the humors of the body, which were believed to be important in disease. Another was the cardiopulmonary system, including the belief that part of the blood from the right ventricle could enter the left through the interventricular septum. An extraordinary feature of these teachings is that they dominated thinking for some 1,300 years and became accepted as dogma by both the State and Church. One of the first anatomists to challenge the Galenical teachings was Andreas Vesalius, who produced a magnificent atlas of human anatomy in 1543. At about the same time Michael Servetus described the pulmonary transit of blood, but he was burned at the stake for heresy. Finally, with William Harvey and others in the first part of the 17th century, the beginnings of modern physiology emerged with an emphasis on hypotheses and experimental data. Nevertheless, vestiges of Galen's teaching survived into the 19th century. PMID:24879053

  1. SPECT of brain blood flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morphological observation of the brain became possible by CT and various informations on vascularity and damages in brain blood barrier (BBB) became obtainable by the combined use of contrast medium. Then the appearance of MRI had enabled to discriminate the cortex and the medula of the brain and to perform MR angiography. However, it was still difficult to observe the cerebral tissue in detail. Recently, nuclear medical procedures have been developed and applied to diagnosis. SPECT images attributable to the distribution of γ-ray from a tracer, which monitors the blood flow and various metabolisms. Thus, investigations of cerebral functions including blood flow metabolism and neural transmission etc. became possible by the technique. Here, SPECT by Xe-133 clearance and 99mTc HMPAO methods were reviewed. For Xe-133 method, subjects positioned in SPECT instrument underwent bolus inhalation of Xe-133, 1850 Mbq followed by washout respiration of room air. During these treatment, cerebral projection and determination of the concentration of Xe-133 CO2 in the expired air were continuously carried out. And the blood flow level per pixel was estimated from SPECT images and the end-tidal Xe-133 concentration curve. This method was thought to be the most excellent method for the determination of local blood flow in respect of accuracy and reproducibility. The tracer distribution expressed the functional level of the stagnant state of blood flow. SPECT provides useful informations to investigate the physiological functions and pathology in the brain. (M.N.)

  2. Bone blood flow and metabolism in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heinonen, Ilkka; Kemppainen, Jukka; Kaskinoro, Kimmo;

    2012-01-01

    femoral bone at rest and during one leg intermittent isometric exercise with increasing exercise intensities. In nine men, blood flow in femur was determined at rest and during dynamic one leg exercise, and two other physiological perturbations: moderate systemic hypoxia (14 O(2) ) at rest and during...... contralateral leg. In conclusion, resting femoral bone blood flow increases by physical exercise, but appears to level off with increasing exercise intensities. Moreover, while moderate systemic hypoxia does not change bone blood flow at rest or during exercise, intra-arterially administered adenosine during......Human bone blood flow and metabolism during physical exercise remains poorly characterised. In the present study we measured femoral bone blood flow and glucose uptake in young healthy subjects by positron emission tomography in three separate protocols. In six women, blood flow was measured in...

  3. A study in blood at pinch

    CERN Document Server

    Kar, Shantimoy; Chaudhury, Kaustav; Maiti, Tapas Kumar; Chakraborty, Suman

    2016-01-01

    The complex fluidic nature of blood, though necessary to serve different physiological purposes, gives rise to daunting challenges in developing unified conceptual paradigm describing the underlying physics of blood at pinch, which may otherwise be essential for understanding various bio-technological processes demanding precise and efficient handling of blood samples. Intuitively, a blood-drop may be formed simply by dripping. However, the pinch-off dynamics leading to blood-drop-breakup is elusively more complex than what may be portrayed by any unique model depicting the underlying morpho-dynamics, as our study reveals. With blood samples, here we observe two distinctive modes of the breakup process. One mode corresponds to incessant collapsing of a liquid-neck, while in other mode formation and thinning of an extended long thread leads to the breakup and drop formation. We further show that these modes are respectively described by power law and exponential law based universal scaling dynamics, depicting ...

  4. Network Physiology reveals relations between network topology and physiological function

    CERN Document Server

    Bashan, Amir; Kantelhardt, Jan W; Havlin, Shlomo; Ivanov, Plamen Ch; 10.1038/ncomms1705

    2012-01-01

    The human organism is an integrated network where complex physiologic systems, each with its own regulatory mechanisms, continuously interact, and where failure of one system can trigger a breakdown of the entire network. Identifying and quantifying dynamical networks of diverse systems with different types of interactions is a challenge. Here, we develop a framework to probe interactions among diverse systems, and we identify a physiologic network. We find that each physiologic state is characterized by a specific network structure, demonstrating a robust interplay between network topology and function. Across physiologic states the network undergoes topological transitions associated with fast reorganization of physiologic interactions on time scales of a few minutes, indicating high network flexibility in response to perturbations. The proposed system-wide integrative approach may facilitate the development of a new field, Network Physiology.

  5. Using Stimulation of the Diving Reflex in Humans to Teach Integrative Physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choate, Julia K.; Denton, Kate M.; Evans, Roger G.; Hodgson, Yvonne

    2014-01-01

    During underwater submersion, the body responds by conserving O[subscript 2] and prioritizing blood flow to the brain and heart. These physiological adjustments, which involve the nervous, cardiovascular, and respiratory systems, are known as the diving response and provide an ideal example of integrative physiology. The diving reflex can be…

  6. ON OBSERVATIONAL PHENOMENA RELATED TO KERR SUPERSPINARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdenek Stuchlik

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate possible signatures of a Kerr naked singularity (superspinar in various observational phenomena. It has been shown that Kerr naked singularities (superspinars have to be efficiently converted to a black hole due to accretion from Keplerian discs. In the final stages of the conversion process the near-extreme Kerr naked singularities (superspinars provide a variety of extraordinary physical phenomena. Such superspinning Kerr geometries can serve as an efficient accelerator for extremely high-energy collisions, enabling a direct and clear demonstration of the outcomes of the collision processes. We shall discuss the efficiency and the visibility of the ultra-highenergy collisions in the deepest parts of the gravitational well of superspinning near-extreme Kerr geometries for the whole variety of particles freely falling from infinity. We demonstrate that ultrahigh-energy processes can be obtained with no fine tuning of the motion constants and the products ofthe collision can escape to infinity with efficiency substantially higher than in the case of near-extreme black holes. Such phenomena influence the radiative processes taking place in the accretion disc, and together with the particular generated geometry they influence the observed radiation field. Here weassume the “geometrical” influence of a Kerr naked singularity on the spectral line profiles of radiation emitted by monochromatically and isotropically radiating point sources forming a Keplerian ring or disc around such a compact object. We have found that the profiled spectral line of the radiatingKeplerian ring can be split into two parts because there is no event horizon in the naked singularity spacetimes. The profiled lines generated by Keplerian discs are qualitatively different for a Kerr naked singularity and black hole spacetimes broadened near the inner edge of a Keplerian disc.

  7. Simulating physical phenomena with a quantum computer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Gerardo

    2003-03-01

    In a keynote speech at MIT in 1981 Richard Feynman raised some provocative questions in connection to the exact simulation of physical systems using a special device named a ``quantum computer'' (QC). At the time it was known that deterministic simulations of quantum phenomena in classical computers required a number of resources that scaled exponentially with the number of degrees of freedom, and also that the probabilistic simulation of certain quantum problems were limited by the so-called sign or phase problem, a problem believed to be of exponential complexity. Such a QC was intended to mimick physical processes exactly the same as Nature. Certainly, remarks coming from such an influential figure generated widespread interest in these ideas, and today after 21 years there are still some open questions. What kind of physical phenomena can be simulated with a QC?, How?, and What are its limitations? Addressing and attempting to answer these questions is what this talk is about. Definitively, the goal of physics simulation using controllable quantum systems (``physics imitation'') is to exploit quantum laws to advantage, and thus accomplish efficient imitation. Fundamental is the connection between a quantum computational model and a physical system by transformations of operator algebras. This concept is a necessary one because in Quantum Mechanics each physical system is naturally associated with a language of operators and thus can be considered as a possible model of quantum computation. The remarkable result is that an arbitrary physical system is naturally simulatable by another physical system (or QC) whenever a ``dictionary'' between the two operator algebras exists. I will explain these concepts and address some of Feynman's concerns regarding the simulation of fermionic systems. Finally, I will illustrate the main ideas by imitating simple physical phenomena borrowed from condensed matter physics using quantum algorithms, and present experimental

  8. [Physiological behavior of Cantilever].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feeldman, I; Frugone, R; Vládilo, N T

    1990-11-01

    The prosthetic rehabilitation is common of the integral treatment of patients that integral treatment of patients that have lost one or several dental pieces as a consequence of periodontal diseases. It has been demonstrated that plural fixed prothesis to extention, plovide a distribution pattern and magnitude of favourable forces to the periodontal during the different functions of the stomathologic apparatus, that justify rehabilitation based to it patients periodontically affected. The physiological behaviour of cantilever was basically analized on report on different investigation studies performed on patients periodontically diminis hed treated with plural fixed prothesis of crossed are with two unit or bilateral vear cantilever units, dento supported or fixed in place on implants. It is important to emphasize that favourable results previously analized in base to this type of rehabilitation in its different varieties have been obtained through record done on patients in which considerations of indications, design and occlusion stability have been optimized. PMID:2075270

  9. Home geriatric physiological measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In an ageing society, the elderly can be monitored with numerous physiological, physical and passive devices. Sensors can be installed in the home for continuous mobility assistance and unobtrusive disease prevention. This review presents several modern sensors, which improve the quality of life and assist the elderly, disabled people and their caregivers. The main concept of geriatric sensors is that they are capable of providing assistance without limiting or disturbing the subject's daily routine, giving him or her greater comfort, pleasure and well-being. Furthermore, this review includes associated technologies of wearable/implantable monitoring systems and the ‘smart-house’ project. This review concludes by discussing future challenges of the future aged society. (topical review)

  10. Interfacial Phenomena and Natural Local Time

    CERN Document Server

    Appuhamillage, Thilanka; Thomann, Enrique; Waymire, Edward; Wood, Brian

    2012-01-01

    This article addresses a modification of local time for stochastic processes, to be referred to as `natural local time'. It is prompted by theoretical developments arising in mathematical treatments of recent experiments and observations of phenomena in the geophysical and biological sciences pertaining to dispersion in the presence of an interface of discontinuity in dispersion coefficients. The results illustrate new ways in which to use the theory of stochastic processes to infer macro scale parameters and behavior from micro scale observations in particular heterogeneous environments.

  11. Modeling in transport phenomena a conceptual approach

    CERN Document Server

    Tosun, Ismail

    2007-01-01

    Modeling in Transport Phenomena, Second Edition presents and clearly explains with example problems the basic concepts and their applications to fluid flow, heat transfer, mass transfer, chemical reaction engineering and thermodynamics. A balanced approach is presented between analysis and synthesis, students will understand how to use the solution in engineering analysis. Systematic derivations of the equations and the physical significance of each term are given in detail, for students to easily understand and follow up the material. There is a strong incentive in science and engineering to

  12. Nanoscale and microscale phenomena fundamentals and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Khandekar, Sameer

    2015-01-01

    The book is an outcome of research work in the areas of nanotechnology, interfacial science, nano- and micro-fluidics and manufacturing, soft matter, and transport phenomena at nano- and micro-scales. The contributing authors represent prominent research groups from Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Indian Institute of Technology Kanpur and Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore. The book has 13 chapters and the entire work presented in the chapters is based on research carried out over past three years. The chapters are designed with number of coloured illustrations, figures and tables. The book will be highly beneficial to academicians as well as industrial professionals working in the mentioned areas.

  13. Phenomena and Parameters Important to Burnup Credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water-reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the US and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given

  14. Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental investigations of the appearance of ordered spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma have revealed the existence of a self-organization scenario able to suggest and answer the central problem of the Science of Complexity; why matter spontaneously undergoes transitions from a disordered to an ordered state? In this paper we present new arguments justifying the opinion that such a scenario offers a new insight into phenomena long ago studied by gas discharge physicists. Their understanding requires a paradigmatic shift in plasma physics, and very probably, also in other branches of physics as well as in chemistry and biology. (authors)

  15. Current position on severe accident phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The phenomena addressed in this lecture are: in-vessel and ex-vessel hydrogen generation; in-vessel and in-containment natural circulation, steam explosions, direct containment heating, core-concrete interaction; debris coolability, containment strength/failure. The following events were modeled: axial and radial power distribution, two-phase level in the core, steam generation in covered section, decay heat generation, convection to gas, cladding oxidation, cold ballooning and rupture, natural circulation between the core and upper plenum, hydrogen generation, core meltdown, reflooding. Differences between PWR and BWR type reactors

  16. Integer quantum Hall effect and related phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental and theoretical research on the integer quantum Hall effect is reviewed, together with other transport phenomena in a two-dimensional electron gas in a quantizing magnetic field. Particular emphasis is placed on primary experimental data, on the comparison of experimental and theoretical results, and on the analysis of theoretical predictions from the point of view of their experimental verification. Among experiments conducted in recent years, those that have raised questions to be resolved are highlighted. Possible directions of further research are suggested. (reviews of topical problems)

  17. Quenching phenomena in natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Umekawa, Hisashi; Ozawa, Mamoru [Kansai Univ., Osaka (Japan); Ishida, Naoki [Daihatsu Motor Company, Osaka (Japan)

    1995-09-01

    Quenching phenomena has been investigated experimentally using circulation loop of liquid nitrogen. During the quenching under natural circulation, the heat transfer mode changes from film boiling to nucleate boiling, and at the same time flux changes with time depending on the vapor generation rate and related two-phase flow characteristics. Moreover, density wave oscillations occur under a certain operating condition, which is closely related to the dynamic behavior of the cooling curve. The experimental results indicates that the occurrence of the density wave oscillation induces the deterioration of effective cooling of the heat surface in the film and the transition boiling regions, which results in the decrease in the quenching velocity.

  18. Cooperative phenomena in flows; Poster abstracts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loekseth, Trine (ed.)

    2011-05-15

    The objective of this 'Geilo School' was to bring together researchers with various interests and background including theoretical experimental physicists, material scientists and molecular biologists to identify and discuss areas where synergism between these disciplines may be most fruitfully applied to the study of various aspects of 'Cooperative phenomena in flows'. There were altogether 21 lecturers at the School with about 80 participants from 19 countries. This was the 21. Geilo School held biannually since the first one in I971. Reference to the earlier Geilo Schools 1971-2009 may be found here: http://www.ife.no/departments/physics/projects/geilo (Author)

  19. Micro- and nanoscale phenomena in tribology

    CERN Document Server

    Chung, Yip-Wah

    2011-01-01

    Drawn from presentations at a recent National Science Foundation Summer Institute on Nanomechanics, Nanomaterials, and Micro/Nanomanufacturing, Micro- and Nanoscale Phenomena in Tribology explores the convergence of the multiple science and engineering disciplines involved in tribology and the connection from the macro to nano world. Written by specialists from computation, materials science, mechanical engineering, surface physics, and chemistry, each chapter provides up-to-date coverage of both basic and advanced topics and includes extensive references for further study.After discussing the

  20. Observations of cometary plasma wave phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarf, F. L.; Coroniti, F. V.; Kennel, C. F.; Gurnett, D. A.; Ip, W.-H.; Smith, E. J.

    1986-01-01

    The ICE plasma wave investigation utilized very long electric antennas (100 m tip-to-tip) and a very high sensitivity magnetic search coil to obtain significant local information on plasma physics phenomena occurring in the distant pickup regions of Comet Giacobini-Zinner and Comet Halley; and information on the processes that developed in the coma and tail of Giacobini-Zinner. The ICE plasma wave measurements associated with both comet encounters are summarized, and high sensitivity ICE observations are related to corresponding measurements from the other Halley spacecraft.

  1. Transport phenomena in the flash smelting furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahokainen, T.; Teppo, O.; Yang, Y.; Jokilaakso, A. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1994-12-31

    Fluid flow and some basic heat transfer phenomena taking place in an industrial scale Outokumpu type flash smelting furnace were simulated with Phoenics. For now, only the standard features of the software(k-{epsilon} model of turbulence, six flux radiation model) has been used. Both Lagrangian and Eulerian treatment were used in two phase flow calculation to describe the particle phase. All the two-phase simulations presented in this article are isothermal, where the particles exchange only momentum with the gas phase. As a first attempt, combustion of gaseous sulphur with oxygen was used to represent the heat release from the copper concentrate oxidation reactions. (author)

  2. Phenomena and parameters important to burnup credit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the mid-1980s, a significant number of studies have been directed at understanding the phenomena and parameters important to implementation of burnup credit in out-of-reactor applications involving pressurized-water- reactor (PWR) spent fuel. The efforts directed at burnup credit involving boiling-water-reactor (BWR) spent fuel have been more limited. This paper reviews the knowledge and experience gained from work performed in the United States and other countries in the study of burnup credit. Relevant physics and analysis phenomenon are identified, and an assessment of their importance to burnup credit implementation for transport and dry cask storage is given. (author)

  3. Advances in modelling of condensation phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, W.S.; Zaltsgendler, E. [Ontario Hydro Nuclear, Toronto (Canada); Hanna, B. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Pinawa, Manitoba (Canada)

    1997-07-01

    The physical parameters in the modelling of condensation phenomena in the CANDU reactor system codes are discussed. The experimental programs used for thermal-hydraulic code validation in the Canadian nuclear industry are briefly described. The modelling of vapour generation and in particular condensation plays a key role in modelling of postulated reactor transients. The condensation models adopted in the current state-of-the-art two-fluid CANDU reactor thermal-hydraulic system codes (CATHENA and TUF) are described. As examples of the modelling challenges faced, the simulation of a cold water injection experiment by CATHENA and the simulation of a condensation induced water hammer experiment by TUF are described.

  4. STUDY OF PHYSIOLOGICAL PROFILE OF INDIAN BOXERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulshan Lal Khanna

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to study the morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics of Indian National boxers as well as to assess the cardiovascular adaptation to graded exercise and actual boxing round. Two different studies were conducted. In the first study [N = 60, (junior boxers below-19 yrs, n = 30, (senior boxers-20-25 yrs, n = 30] different morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters were measured. In the second study (N = 21, Light Weight category- <54 kg, n = 7; Medium weight category <64 kg, n = 7 and Medium heavy weight category <75 kg, n = 7 cardiovascular responses were studied during graded exercise protocol and actual boxing bouts. Results showed a significantly higher (p < 0.05 stature, body mass, LBM, body fat and strength of back and grip in senior boxers compared to juniors. Moreover, the senior boxers possessed mesomorphic body conformation where as the juniors' possessed ectomorphic body conformation. Significantly lower (p < 0.05 aerobic capacity and anaerobic power were noted in junior boxers compared to seniors. Further, significantly higher (p < 0.05 maximal heart rates and recovery heart rates were observed in the seniors as compared to the juniors. Significantly higher maximum heart rates were noted during actual boxing compared to graded exercise. Blood lactate concentration was found to increase with the increase of workload during both graded exercise and actual boxing round. The senior boxers showed a significantly elevated (p < 0.05 levels of hemoblobin, blood urea, uric acid and peak lactate as compared to junior boxers. In the senior boxers significantly lower levels of total cholesterol, triglyceride and LDLC were observed as compared to junior boxers. No significant change has been noted in HDLC between the groups. The age and level of training in boxing has significant effect on Aerobic, anaerobic component. The study of physiological responses during graded exercise

  5. Effects of electrostatic correlations on electrokinetic phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storey, Brian D; Bazant, Martin Z

    2012-11-01

    The classical theory of electrokinetic phenomena is based on the mean-field approximation that the electric field acting on an individual ion is self-consistently determined by the local mean charge density. This paper considers situations, such as concentrated electrolytes, multivalent electrolytes, or solvent-free ionic liquids, where the mean-field approximation breaks down. A fourth-order modified Poisson equation is developed that captures the essential features in a simple continuum framework. The model is derived as a gradient approximation for nonlocal electrostatics of interacting effective charges, where the permittivity becomes a differential operator, scaled by a correlation length. The theory is able to capture subtle aspects of molecular simulations and allows for simple calculations of electrokinetic flows in correlated ionic fluids. Charge-density oscillations tend to reduce electro-osmotic flow and streaming current, and overscreening of surface charge can lead to flow reversal. These effects also help to explain the suppression of induced-charge electrokinetic phenomena at high salt concentrations. PMID:23214872

  6. Modelling of thermohydraulic emergency core cooling phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The codes used in the early seventies for safety analysis and licensing were based either on the homogeneous model of two-phase flow or on the so-called separate-flow models, which are mixture models accounting, however, for the difference in average velocity between the two phases. In both cases the behavior of the mixture is prescribed a priori as a function of local parameters such as the mass flux and the quality. The modern best-estimate codes used for analyzing LWR LOCA's and transients are often based on a two-fluid or 6-equation formulation of the conservation equations. In this case the conservation equations are written separately for each phase; the mixture is allowed to evolve on its own, governed by the interfacial exchanges of mass, momentum and energy between the phases. It is generally agreed that such relatively sophisticated 6-equation formulations of two-phase flow are necessary for the correct modelling of a number of phenomena and situations arising in LWR accidental situations. They are in particular indispensible for the analysis of stratified or countercurrent flows and of situations in which large departures from thermal and velocity equilibrium exist. This report will be devoted to a discussion of the need for, the capacity and the limitations of the two-phase flow models (with emphasis on the 6-equation formulations) in modelling these two-phase flow and heat transfer phenomena and/or different core cooling situations. 18 figs., 1 tab., 72 refs

  7. Auroral Phenomena in Brown Dwarf Atmospheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, J. Sebastian; Hallinan, Gregg

    2016-01-01

    Since the unexpected discovery of radio emission from brown dwarfs some 15 years ago, investigations into the nature of this emission have revealed that, despite their cool and neutral atmospheres, brown dwarfs harbor strong kG magnetic fields, but unlike the warmer stellar objects, they generate highly circularly polarized auroral radio emission, like the giant planets of the Solar System. Our recent results from Keck LRIS monitoring of the brown dwarf LSR1835+32 definitively confirm this picture by connecting the auroral radio emission to spectroscopic variability at optical wavelengths as coherent manifestations of strong large-scale magnetospheric auroral current systems. I present some of the results of my dissertation work to understand the nature brown dwarf auroral phenomena. My efforts include a survey of Late L dwarfs and T dwarfs, looking for auroral Hα emission and a concurrent survey looking for the auroral emission of H3+ from brown dwarfs with radio pulse detections. I discuss the potential connection of this auroral activity to brown dwarf weather phenomena and how brown dwarf aurorae may differ from the analogous emission of the magnetized giant planets in the Solar System.

  8. Study of catalytic phenomena in radiation chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two phenomena have been studied: the action of γ rays from radio-cobalt on the adsorption and catalytic properties of ZnO and NiO in. relationship with the heterogeneous oxidation of CO, and the homogeneous catalysis by OsO4 of the oxidation of various aqueous phase solutes by the same radiation. The prior irradiation of ZnO and of NiO does not modify their catalytic activity but generally increases the adsorption energy of -the gases CO and O2. The influence of the radiations appears to be connected with the presence of traces of water on ZnO and of an excess of oxygen on NiO. Osmium tetroxide which is not degraded by irradiation in acid solution, accelerates the radiolytic oxidation of certain compounds (TeIV, Pt11, As111) in the presence of oxygen, as a result of its sensitizing effect on the oxidation by H2O2. In the case of phosphites on the other hand, OsO4 has a protecting action under certain conditions of acidity and may suppress entirely the chain reaction which characterizes the oxidation of this solute byγ rays. A general mechanism is proposed for these phenomena. The rate constant for the OsO4 + HO2 reaction is calculated to be 5.7 x 105 l.mol-1. sec-1. (author)

  9. Exceptional hydrological phenomena in the Gemenea catchment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florentina LIVARCIUC

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Flash floods, accompanied by high waters and regular floods, represent the most dangerous natural hazards in the Gemenea catchment, inducing other risks such as geomorphologic, environmental, social and economical risks. Flash floods occurred during the 1969 to 2014 monitoring interval are characterized by extremely high discharge values, of 68.9 m3/s in 2006 and 95.3 m3/s in 2008 and a magnitude 2.5 times higher than the average discharge recorded until that timeframe. With an area of 77.7 km2, the Gemenea catchment falls into the category of small catchments, where the peak discharge during exceptional hydrological phenomena is caused by torrential rainfall. Flash floods of particularly high intensities caused serious damages through: total destruction or damage of the torrent correction works, clogging of culverts on catchment forest roads, failure of river banks and deterioration of the bridges that affected roads and homes in Gemenea, Slătioara and Stulpicani villages. These floods have also caused damage to the forest/agriculture fund through deep and lateral erosion, failure of river banks and landslides. Within this study we aim to emphasize the magnitude, frequency, duration and area of manifestation of such phenomena in the Gemenea catchment. Furthermore, we aim to advance our knowledge of the genesis and specific mechanisms of flash flood occurrence for reducing their negative impacts on the local environment and communities

  10. Shock Wave Diffraction Phenomena around Slotted Splitters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Gnani

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the field of aerospace engineering, the study of the characteristics of vortical flows and their unsteady phenomena finds numerous engineering applications related to improvements in the design of tip devices, enhancement of combustor performance, and control of noise generation. A large amount of work has been carried out in the analysis of the shock wave diffraction around conventional geometries such as sharp and rounded corners, but the employment of splitters with lateral variation has hardly attracted the attention of researchers. The investigation of this phenomenon around two-dimensional wedges has allowed the understanding of the basic physical principles of the flow features. On the other hand, important aspects that appear in the third dimension due to the turbulent nature of the vortices are omitted. The lack of studies that use three-dimensional geometries has motivated the current work to experimentally investigate the evolution of the shock wave diffraction around two splitters with spike-shaped structures for Mach numbers of 1.31 and 1.59. Schlieren photography was used to obtain an insight into the sequential diffraction processes that take place in different planes. Interacting among them, these phenomena generate a complicated turbulent cloud with a vortical arrangement.

  11. Animal network phenomena: insights from triadic games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesterton-Gibbons, Mike; Sherratt, Tom N.

    Games of animal conflict in networks rely heavily on computer simulation because analysis is difficult, the degree of difficulty increasing sharply with the size of the network. For this reason, virtually the entire analytical literature on evolutionary game theory has assumed either dyadic interaction or a high degree of symmetry, or both. Yet we cannot rely exclusively on computer simulation in the study of any complex system. So the study of triadic interactions has an important role to play, because triads are both the simplest groups in which asymmetric network phenomena can be studied and the groups beyond dyads in which analysis of population games is most likely to be tractable, especially when allowing for intrinsic variation. Here we demonstrate how such analyses can illuminate a variety of behavioral phenomena within networks, including coalition formation, eavesdropping (the strategic observation of contests between neighbors) and victory displays (which are performed by the winners of contests but not by the losers). In particular, we show that eavesdropping acts to lower aggression thresholds compared to games without it, and that victory displays to bystanders will be most intense when there is little difference in payoff between dominating an opponent and not subordinating.

  12. Black Holes Admitting Strong Resonant Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Stuchlik, Zdenek; Torok, Gabriel

    2008-01-01

    High-frequency twin peak quasiperiodic oscillations (QPOs) are observed in four microquasars, i.e., Galactic black hole binary systems, with frequency ratio very close to 3:2. In the microquasar GRS 1915+105, the structure of QPOs exhibits additional frequencies, and more than two frequencies are observed in the Galaxy nuclei Sgr A*, or in some extragalactic sources (NGC 4051, MCG-6-30-15 and NGC 5408 X-1). The observed QPOs can be explained by a variety of the orbital resonance model versions assuming resonance of oscillations with the Keplerian frequency or the vertical epicyclic frequency, and the radial epicyclic frequency, or some combinations of these frequencies. Generally, different resonances could arise at different radii of an accretion disc. However, we have shown that for special values of dimensionless black hole spin strong resonant phenomena could occur when different resonances can be excited at the same radius, as cooperative phenomena between the resonances may work in such situations. The ...

  13. Hyperhomocysteinemia decreases bone blood flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neetu Tyagi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Neetu Tyagi*, Thomas P Vacek*, John T Fleming, Jonathan C Vacek, Suresh C TyagiDepartment of Physiology and Biophysics, School of Medicine, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA *These authors have equal authorshipAbstract: Elevated plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy, known as hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy, are associated with osteoporosis. A decrease in bone blood flow is a potential cause of compromised bone mechanical properties. Therefore, we hypothesized that HHcy decreases bone blood flow and biomechanical properties. To test this hypothesis, male Sprague–Dawley rats were treated with Hcy (0.67 g/L in drinking water for 8 weeks. Age-matched rats served as controls. At the end of the treatment period, the rats were anesthetized. Blood samples were collected from experimental or control rats. Biochemical turnover markers (body weight, Hcy, vitamin B12, and folate were measured. Systolic blood pressure was measured from the right carotid artery. Tibia blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flow probe. The results indicated that Hcy levels were significantly higher in the Hcy-treated group than in control rats, whereas vitamin B12 levels were lower in the Hcy-treated group compared with control rats. There was no significant difference in folate concentration and blood pressure in Hcy-treated versus control rats. The tibial blood flow index of the control group was significantly higher (0.78 ± 0.09 flow unit compared with the Hcy-treated group (0.51 ± 0.09. The tibial mass was 1.1 ± 0.1 g in the control group and 0.9 ± 0.1 in the Hcy-treated group. The tibia bone density was unchanged in Hcy-treated rats. These results suggest that Hcy causes a reduction in bone blood flow, which contributes to compromised bone biomechanical properties.Keywords: homocysteine, tibia, bone density

  14. Physiological water model development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doty, Susan

    1993-01-01

    The water of the human body can be categorized as existing in two main compartments: intracellular water and extracellular water. The intracellular water consists of all the water within the cells and constitutes over half of the total body water. Since red blood cells are surrounded by plasma, and all other cells are surrounded by interstitial fluid, the intracellular compartment has been subdivided to represent these two cell types. The extracellular water, which includes all of the fluid outside of the cells, can be further subdivided into compartments which represent the interstitial fluid, circulating blood plasma, lymph, and transcellular water. The interstitial fluid surrounds cells outside of the vascular system whereas plasma is contained within the blood vessels. Avascular tissues such as dense connective tissue and cartilage contain interstitial water which slowly equilibrates with tracers used to determine extracellular fluid volume. For this reason, additional compartments are sometimes used to represent these avascular tissues. The average size of each compartment, in terms of percent body weight, has been determined for adult males and females. These compartments and the forces which cause flow between them are presented. The kidneys, a main compartment, receive about 25 percent of the cardiac output and filters out a fluid similar to plasma. The composition of this filtered fluid changes as it flows through the kidney tubules since compounds are continually being secreted and reabsorbed. Through this mechanism, the kidneys eliminate wastes while conserving body water, electrolytes, and metabolites. Since sodium accounts for over 90 percent of the cations in the extracellular fluid, and the number of cations is balanced by the number of anions, considering the renal handling sodium and water only should sufficiently describe the relationship between the plasma compartment and kidneys. A kidney function model is presented which has been adapted from a

  15. Managing your blood sugar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyperglycemia - control; Hypoglycemia - control; Diabetes - blood sugar control ... Know how to: Recognize and treat low blood sugar (hypoglycemia) Recognize and treat high blood sugar (hyperglycemia) ...

  16. Detection of essential hypertension with physiological signals from wearable devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Arindam; Torres, Juan Manuel Mayor; Danieli, Morena; Riccardi, Giuseppe

    2015-08-01

    Early detection of essential hypertension can support the prevention of cardiovascular disease, a leading cause of death. The traditional method of identification of hypertension involves periodic blood pressure measurement using brachial cuff-based measurement devices. While these devices are non-invasive, they require manual setup for each measurement and they are not suitable for continuous monitoring. Research has shown that physiological signals such as Heart Rate Variability, which is a measure of the cardiac autonomic activity, is correlated with blood pressure. Wearable devices capable of measuring physiological signals such as Heart Rate, Galvanic Skin Response, Skin Temperature have recently become ubiquitous. However, these signals are not accurate and are prone to noise due to different artifacts. In this paper a) we present a data collection protocol for continuous non-invasive monitoring of physiological signals from wearable devices; b) we implement signal processing techniques for signal estimation; c) we explore how the continuous monitoring of these physiological signals can be used to identify hypertensive patients; d) We conduct a pilot study with a group of normotensive and hypertensive patients to test our techniques. We show that physiological signals extracted from wearable devices can distinguish between these two groups with high accuracy. PMID:26738172

  17. Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Larry W.

    1999-01-01

    The Microgravity Transport Phenomena Experiment (MTPE) is a fluids experiment supported by the Fundamentals in Biotechnology program in association with the Human Exploration and Development of Space (BEDS) initiative. The MTP Experiment will investigate fluid transport phenomena both in ground based experiments and in the microgravity environment. Many fluid transport processes are affected by gravity. Osmotic flux kinetics in planar membrane systems have been shown to be influenced by gravimetric orientation, either through convective mixing caused by unstably stratified fluid layers, or through a stable fluid boundary layer structure that forms in association with the membrane. Coupled transport phenomena also show gravity related effects. Coefficients associated with coupled transport processes are defined in terms of a steady state condition. Buoyancy (gravity) driven convection interferes with the attainment of steady state, and the measurement of coupled processes. The MTP Experiment measures the kinetics of molecular migration that occurs in fluids, in response to the application of various driving potentials. Three separate driving potentials may be applied to the MTP Experiment fluids, either singly or in combination. The driving potentials include chemical potential, thermal potential, and electrical potential. Two separate fluid arrangements are used to study membrane mediated and bulk fluid transport phenomena. Transport processes of interest in membrane mediated systems include diffusion, osmosis, and streaming potential. Bulk fluid processes of interest include coupled phenomena such as the Soret Effect, Dufour Effect, Donnan Effect, and thermal diffusion potential. MTP Experiments are performed in the Microgravity Transport Apparatus (MTA), an instrument that has been developed specifically for precision measurement of transport processes. Experiment fluids are contained within the MTA fluid cells, designed to create a one dimensional flow geometry

  18. Compensatory recombination phenomena of neurological functions in central dysphagia patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-dong Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We speculate that cortical reactions evoked by swallowing activity may be abnormal in patients with central infarction with dysphagia. The present study aimed to detect functional imaging features of cerebral cortex in central dysphagia patients by using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging techniques. The results showed that when normal controls swallowed, primary motor cortex (BA4, insula (BA13, premotor cortex (BA6/8, supramarginal gyrus (BA40, and anterior cingulate cortex (BA24/32 were activated, and that the size of the activated areas were larger in the left hemisphere compared with the right. In recurrent cerebral infarction patients with central dysphagia, BA4, BA13, BA40 and BA6/8 areas were activated, while the degree of activation in BA24/32 was decreased. Additionally, more areas were activated, including posterior cingulate cortex (BA23/31, visual association cortex (BA18/19, primary auditory cortex (BA41 and parahippocampal cortex (BA36. Somatosensory association cortex (BA7 and left cerebellum in patients with recurrent cerebral infarction with central dysphagia were also activated. Experimental findings suggest that the cerebral cortex has obvious hemisphere lateralization in response to swallowing, and patients with recurrent cerebral infarction with central dysphagia show compensatory recombination phenomena of neurological functions. In rehabilitative treatment, using the favorite food of patients can stimulate swallowing through visual, auditory, and other nerve conduction pathways, thus promoting compensatory recombination of the central cortex functions.

  19. DOSHIC PHYSIOLOGY OF SKIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivprasad Chiplunkar

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The balance of dosha  represents the healthy state and imbalance will cause various diseases. In normalcy doshas will be performing their own functions and individual doshas will be having their own specific sites. By telling the various sthana of each dosha, different function that is taken up by individual dosha in different sites has been highlighted.By mentioning ‘sparshanendriyam’ as one of the sthana of vata dosha the sensory functions of skin to vata dosha has been emphasised. By mentioning ‘sparshanam’ as one of the sthana of pittadosha, the function of colouring/pigmentation of skin, which is majorly carried out  by melanocytes by secreting melanin pigment has been highlighted. Meda is one among the sthanas of kapha dosha; this can be considered as the adipose tissue of skin/below skin. Since sweda is mala of meda it can be also considered as the secretions from the eccrine glands.With respect to skin, sensory functions, both tactile and thermal is carried out by vata dosha more specifically vyana vata, pigmentation to the skin carried out by meloncytes by secreting melanin, it is nothing but function of pitta dosha more specifically brajaka pitta with the help of udana vata and finally production of sweat in sweat glands is the function of kapha. So there is the need for further study and research regarding the sthanas of all three doshas in different structures/organs in the body and its physiology.

  20. Polyamines in plant physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galston, A. W.; Sawhney, R. K.

    1990-01-01

    The diamine putrescine, the triamine spermidine, and the tetramine spermine are ubiquitous in plant cells, while other polyamines are of more limited occurrence. Their chemistry and pathways of biosynthesis and metabolism are well characterized. They occur in the free form as cations, but are often conjugated to small molecules like phenolic acids and also to various macromolecules. Their titer varies from approximately micromolar to more than millimolar, and depends greatly on environmental conditions, especially stress. In cereals, the activity of one of the major polyamine biosynthetic enzymes, arginine decarboxylase, is rapidly and dramatically increased by almost every studied external stress, leading to 50-fold or greater increases in putrescine titer within a few hours. The physiological significance of this increase is not yet clear, although most recent work suggests an adaptive, protective role. Polyamines produced through the action of ornithine decarboxylase, by contrast, seem essential for DNA replication and cell division. The application of exogenous polyamines produces effects on patterns of senescence and morphogenesis, suggesting but not proving a regulatory role for polyamines in these processes. The evidence for such a regulatory role is growing.

  1. Physiology in Modelica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Mateják

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Modelica is an object-oriented language, in which models can be created and graphically represented by connecting instances of classes from libraries. These connections are not only assignments of values; they can also represent acausal equality. Even more, they can model Kirchhoff’s laws of circuits. In Modelica it is possible to develop library classes which are an analogy of electrical circuit components. The result of our work in this field is Physiolibrary (www.physiolibrary.org – a free, open-source Modelica library for human physiology. By graphical joining instances of Physiolibrary classes, user can create models of cardiovascular circulation, thermoregulation, metabolic processes, nutrient distribution, gas transport, electrolyte regulation, water distribution, hormonal regulation and pharmacological regulation. After simple setting of the parameters, the models are ready to simulate. After simulation, the user can examine variables as their values change over time. Representing the model as a diagram has also great educational advantages, because students are able to better understand physical principles when they see them modeled graphically.

  2. Physiological considerations in radionuclide imaging of the penis during impotence therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increased use of intracorporeal drugs in the treatment of impotence has advanced our understanding of erectile physiology. Radionuclide imaging of the penis (nuclear penogram) has provided clinicians with a noninvasive, objective measure of blood flow and blood pool changes during erection and with assistance in the quantitative documentation of therapeutic effect. 39 references

  3. 正常肾脏血氧依赖磁共振成像特点及与生理指标相关性研究%Blood Oxygen Level Dependent MRI of Normal Kidney and Its Correlation with Physiological Indexes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石会兰; 郑振峰; 马慧; 李峰坦; 张敬; 张云亭

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨正常肾脏的血氧水平依赖磁共振(BOLD-MRI)成像特点,以及与部分生理指标之间的相关性。方法纳入90例行腹部磁共振检查的非肾脏病患者。使用GE 3.0 T磁共振扫描仪和Torsopa相控阵线圈,行肾脏冠状面T1WI及BOLD成像,BOLD-MRI成像扫描采用T2*自旋梯度回波(T2*SPGR)序列,BOLD影像分析采用R2*map后处理软件,分别从肾脏皮质和髓质区选取感兴趣区(ROI)测量表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*)值。分析R2*值与患者年龄、性别、身高、体质量、体质量指数(BMI)、体表面积(BSA)和估算的肾小球滤过率(eGFR)之间的相关性。结果两侧肾脏皮质区R2*值[左侧(16.56±1.40)Hz和右侧(16.66±1.28)Hz]均低于相应髓质区[左侧(28.82±3.71)Hz和右侧(28.36±3.72)Hz];女性和男性患者皮质R2*值[女性(16.55±1.30)Hz和男性(16.66±1.38Hz)]也低于相应的髓质区[女性(28.46±3.64)Hz和男性(28.70±3.78)Hz]。双侧肾脏髓质区肾脏下极R2*值[(27.29±3.05)]Hz低于中极[(29.32±3.47)Hz]和上极[(29.16±4.21)Hz];差异均有统计学意义。髓质R2*值与年龄呈正相关,与eGFR呈负相关(r分别为0.284、-0.232,均P<0.05)。结论 R2*值可反映肾脏皮髓质氧分压的水平,判断其缺血缺氧程度。BOLD-MRI提供了一种简单、易行且无创性检测肾脏皮髓质氧代谢的方法。%Objective To explore the characteristics of blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in healthy native kidneys. To investigate the relationship between BOLD-MRI and common physiological in-dexes. Methods GE 3.0T MRI scanner and Torsopa phased-array coil were employed to acquire renal coronal T1WI and BOLD image. Ninety patients who were ruled out chronic kidney diseases underwent BOLD-MRI with T2*-spoiled gradient recalled echo (T2*SPGR) sequence. BOLD images were analyzed on R2*map software. Cortical and

  4. Analysing transfer phenomena in osmotic evaporation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Freddy Forero Longas

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Osmotic evaporation is a modification of traditional processes using membranes; by means of a vapour pressure differential, produced by a highly concentrated extraction solution, water is transferred through a hydrophobic membrane as vapour. This technique has many advantages over traditional processes, allowing work at atmospheric pressure and low temperatures, this being ideal for heatsensitive products. This paper presents and synthetically analyses the phenomena of heat and mass transfer which occurs in the process and describes the models used for estimating the parameters of interest, such as flow, temperature, heat transfer rate and the relationships that exist amongst them when hollow fibre modules are used, providing a quick reference tool and specific information about this process.

  5. Social phenomena from data analysis to models

    CERN Document Server

    Perra, Nicola

    2015-01-01

    This book focuses on the new possibilities and approaches to social modeling currently being made possible by an unprecedented variety of datasets generated by our interactions with modern technologies. This area has witnessed a veritable explosion of activity over the last few years, yielding many interesting and useful results. Our aim is to provide an overview of the state of the art in this area of research, merging an extremely heterogeneous array of datasets and models. Social Phenomena: From Data Analysis to Models is divided into two parts. Part I deals with modeling social behavior under normal conditions: How we live, travel, collaborate and interact with each other in our daily lives. Part II deals with societal behavior under exceptional conditions: Protests, armed insurgencies, terrorist attacks, and reactions to infectious diseases. This book offers an overview of one of the most fertile emerging fields bringing together practitioners from scientific communities as diverse as social sciences, p...

  6. Critical and resonance phenomena in neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goltsev, A. V.; Lopes, M. A.; Lee, K.-E.; Mendes, J. F. F.

    2013-01-01

    Brain rhythms contribute to every aspect of brain function. Here, we study critical and resonance phenomena that precede the emergence of brain rhythms. Using an analytical approach and simulations of a cortical circuit model of neural networks with stochastic neurons in the presence of noise, we show that spontaneous appearance of network oscillations occurs as a dynamical (non-equilibrium) phase transition at a critical point determined by the noise level, network structure, the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurons, and other parameters. We find that the relaxation time of neural activity to a steady state, response to periodic stimuli at the frequency of the oscillations, amplitude of damped oscillations, and stochastic fluctuations of neural activity are dramatically increased when approaching the critical point of the transition.

  7. Corporate Strategy And The Social Networking Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert L. Johnson

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The Social Networking (SN phenomena has developed relatively overnight and is continuing to develop at an exponential pace. It allows for innovative new methods of disseminating and collecting information in ways never before dreamed possible by corporate executives. The rise of Social Networking is becoming a disruptive technology for traditional marketing and advertising medium such as radio, television, web page, and print media, creating new business opportunities for the entrepreneur within organizations of any size, and allowing lucrative treasure troves of corporate intelligence about how the customers feel about one’s or a competitor’s products or services. It means new executive leadership skills are now needed to take advantage of these new tools and developing corporate strategies. Those that do this well will be the winners in the market five years from now.

  8. Order-disorder phenomena in complex alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper discusses the applicability of the Generalized Perturbation Method to the study of ordering phenomena in complex alloys for which stability properties are electronically driven. In particular, according to previous work, it is recalled that a 3D-generalized Ising model is appropriate to address the problem of configurational order in A15-based substitutional alloys. A ground state analysis of this model, including 1st, 2nd and weak 3rd and 7th pair interactions, generated two new ordered states at the composition A5B3 and A7B, apart from the well known A3B configuration. The stability of these predicted configurations is examined as a function of temperature and concentration by means of standard statistical techniques. The results are discussed in relation with the experimental situation

  9. Modeling electrical dispersion phenomena in Earth materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Patella

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available It is illustrated that IP phenomena in rocks can be described using conductivity dispersion models deduced as solutions to a 2nd-order linear differential equation describing the motion of a charged particle immersed in an external electrical field. Five dispersion laws are discussed, namely: the non-resonant positive IP model, which leads to the classical Debye-type dispersion law and by extension to the Cole-Cole model, largely used in current practice; the non-resonant negative IP model, which allows negative chargeability values, known in metals at high frequencies, to be explained as an intrinsic physical property of earth materials in specific field cases; the resonant flat, positive or negative IP models, which can explain the presence of peak effects at specific frequencies superimposed on flat, positive or negative dispersion spectra.

  10. Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs

  11. Molecular dynamics simulation of laser shock phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukumoto, Ichirou [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Kansai Research Establishment, Advanced Photon Research Center, Neyagawa, Osaka (Japan).

    2001-10-01

    Recently, ultrashort-pulse lasers with high peak power have been developed, and their application to materials processing is expected as a tool of precision microfabrication. When a high power laser irradiates, a shock wave propagates into the material and dislocations are generated. In this paper, laser shock phenomena of the metal were analyzed using the modified molecular dynamics method, which has been developed by Ohmura and Fukumoto. The main results obtained are summarized as follows: (1) The shock wave induced by the Gaussian beam irradiation propagates radially from the surface to the interior. (2) A lot of dislocations are generated at the solid-liquid interface by the propagation of a shock wave. (3) Some dislocations are moved instantaneously with the velocity of the longitudinal wave when the shock wave passes, and their velocity is not larger than the transverse velocity after the shock wave has passed. (author)

  12. Teaching wave phenomena via biophysical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Daniel; Robbins, Mark; Leheny, Robert; Wonnell, Steven

    2014-03-01

    Over the past several years we have developed a two-semester second-year physics course sequence for students in the biosciences, tailored in part to the needs of undergraduate biophysics majors. One semester, ``Biological Physics,'' is based on the book of that name by P. Nelson. This talk will focus largely on the other semester, ``Wave Phenomena with Biophysical Applications,'' where we provide a novel introduction to the physics of waves, primarily through the study of experimental probes used in the biosciences that depend on the interaction of electromagnetic radiation with matter. Topic covered include: Fourier analysis, sound and hearing, diffraction - culminating in an analysis of x-ray fiber diffraction and its use in the determination of the structure of DNA - geometrical and physical optics, the physics of modern light microscopy, NMR and MRI. Laboratory exercises tailored to this course will also be described.

  13. Experimental study of the natural circulation phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this paper is to study the natural circulation in experimental loops and extend the results to nuclear facilities. New generation of compact nuclear power plants use the natural circulation as cooling and residual heat removal systems in case of accidents or shutdown. Lately the interest in this phenomenon, by scientific community, has increased. The experimental loop, described in this paper, was assembled at Escola Politecnica - USP at the Chemical Engineering Department. It is the goal to generate information to help with the understanding of the one and two phase natural circulation phenomena. Some experiments were performed with different levels of heat power and different flow of the cooling water at the secondary circuit. The data generated from these experiments are going to be used to validate some computational thermal hydraulic codes. Experimental results for one and two phase regimes are presented as well as the proposed model to simulate the flow regimes with the RELAP5 code. (author)

  14. PHENOMENA AND BASIC MACROECONOMIC INDICATORS FOR MEASUREMENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PAULINA CATANA

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Macroeconomics is a separate discipline of the Economy that studies and analyzes the behaviour of economic aggregates and significant average, such as price level, national income, national income potential, the gap GDP, employment and unemployment of labour, investment and export of the whole economy. We can accuse to Macroeconomics that it deals also with the average price of all goods and services, not the prices of certain products. These aggregates result from economic behaviour of certain groups (governments, companies, consumers in the course of their activities on different markets. But why does it need Macroeconomics? Experts say that we need this separate discipline because there are certain forces that affect the broader economy globally, which can not be understood only by analyzing individual economic phenomena, individual products or markets.

  15. Novel nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1987-08-01

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involve processes in nuclear targets at intermediate energies. A range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena-exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction were discussed as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Several areas were also reviewed where there has been significant theoretical progress determining the form of hadron and nuclear wave functions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. A possible interpretation was also discussed of the large spin correlation A/sub NN/ in proton-proton scattering, and how relate this effect to an energy and angular dependence of color transparency in nuclei. 76 refs., 24 figs.

  16. Cheshire cat phenomena and quarks in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The notion of the ''Cheshire Cat'' principle in hadron structure is developed rigorously in (1+1) dimensions and approximately in (3+1) dimensions for up- and down-quark flavor systems. This phenomenon is invoked to address the issue as to whether or not direct quark-gluon signatures can be ''seen'' in low-energy nuclear phenomena. How addition of the third flavor -strangeness- can modify the Cheshire Cat property is discussed. It is proposed that one of the primary objectives of nuclear physics be to probe -and disturb- the ''vacuum'' of the strong interactions (QCD) and that for this purpose the chiral symmetry SU(3)xSU(3) can play a crucial role in normal and extreme conditions. As an illustration, kaon condensation at a density ρ>∼ 3ρ0 is discussed in terms of a toy model and is related to ''cleansing'' of the quark condensates from the vacuum

  17. Ostwald ripening of precipitates and irreversible phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In principle, the manner according to which a phase transformation proceeds should be determinable by irreversible thermodynamics just as well as by appropriate kinetic equations embodying the transport of matter or energy. In practice, however, the former is seldom invoked and the latter approach provides the exclusive description of the transformation leaving one wondering what role the former plays. In this paper, the problem of Ostwald ripening of precipitates is studied to throw light on the underlying irreversible thermodynamics. From a path integral solution, it is shown that the size distribution evolves in such a manner that a Lagrangian is minimized. This Lagrangian is the sum of the dissipation potentials in the flux and force representations minus the rate of entropy production. The coarsening process proceeds in accordance with Onsager's principle of least dissipation. The implications of this study in relation to other irreversible phenomena are also discussed

  18. Transient Phenomena: Opportunities for New Discoveries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazio, T. Joseph W.

    2010-01-01

    Known classes of radio wavelength transients range from the nearby (stellar flares and radio pulsars) to the distant Universe (gamma-ray burst afterglows). Hypothesized classes of radio transients include analogs of known objects, such as extrasolar planets emitting Jovian-like radio bursts and giant-pulse emitting pulsars in other galaxies, to the exotic, such as prompt emission from gamma-ray bursts, evaporating black holes and transmitters from other civilizations. Time domain astronomy has been recognized internationally as a means of addressing key scientific questions in astronomy and physics, and pathfinders and Precursors to the Square Kilometre Array (SKA) are beginning to offer a combination of wider fields of view and more wavelength agility than has been possible in the past. These improvements will continue when the SKA itself becomes operational. I illustrate the range of transient phenomena and discuss how the detection and study of radio transients will improve immensely.

  19. Issues about the nocebo phenomena in clinics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Zhen-yu; LI Kang

    2009-01-01

    @@ During clinical work, some side-effects may occur to patients, part of which are caused by the specific pharmacological effects of drugs and some of which are non-specific. Although these phenomena happen from time to time, burdening the anguish and expenditure of patients, their nature is still less understood. Recently, as the research of the placebo effect become deeper and deeper, clinicians and researchers have gradually realized that mind plays an important role in the occurrence of non-specific side-effects, which is called "nocebo effect" professionally, the evil side of placebo effect. This article would expatiate on nocebo effect in detail from several aspects, such as its mechanism, effect, influencing factors and discuss how to make it known and treated in clinical practice and clinical trials.

  20. Magneto-photonic phenomena at terahertz frequencies

    CERN Document Server

    Shalaby, Mostafa

    2014-01-01

    Magneto-terahertz phenomena are the main focus of the thesis. This work started as supporting research for the science of an X-ray laser (SwissFEL). X-ray lasers have recently drawn great attention as an unprecedented tool for scientific research on the ultrafast scale..... To answer this fundamental question, we performed original numerical simulations using a coupled Landau- Lifshitz-Gilbert Maxwell model. ... Those requirements were the motivations for the experiments performed in the second part of the thesis. To shape the terahertz pulses, .... Regarding the field intensities, we followed two approaches. The first deals with field enhancement in nanoslits arrays. We designed a subwavelength structure characterized by simultaneous high field enhancement and high transmission at terahertz frequencies to suit nonlinear sources. The second approach depended on up-scaling the generation from laser-induced plasma by increasing the pump wavelengths. Numerical calculations have also brought to our attention the ...

  1. Hadronic and nuclear phenomena in quantum chromodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many of the key issues in understanding quantum chromodynamics involves processes at intermediate energies. We discuss a range of hadronic and nuclear phenomena - exclusive processes, color transparency, hidden color degrees of freedom in nuclei, reduced nuclear amplitudes, jet coalescence, formation zone effects, hadron helicity selection rules, spin correlations, higher twist effects, and nuclear diffraction - as tools for probing hadron structure and the propagation of quark and gluon jets in nuclei. Many of these processes can be studied in electroproduction, utilizing internal targets in storage rings. We also review several areas where there has been significant theoretical progress in determining the form of hadron and nuclear wavefunctions, including QCD sum rules, lattice gauge theory, and discretized light-cone quantization. 98 refs., 40 figs., 2 tabs

  2. Noise-driven phenomena in hysteretic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dimian, Mihai

    2014-01-01

    Noise-Driven Phenomena in Hysteretic Systems provides a general approach to nonlinear systems with hysteresis driven by noisy inputs, which leads to a unitary framework for the analysis of various stochastic aspects of hysteresis. This book includes integral, differential and algebraic models that are used to describe scalar and vector hysteretic nonlinearities originating from various areas of science and engineering. The universality of the authors approach is also reflected by the diversity of the models used to portray the input noise, from the classical Gaussian white noise to its impulsive forms, often encountered in economics and biological systems, and pink noise, ubiquitous in multi-stable electronic systems. The book is accompanied by HysterSoft© - a robust simulation environment designed to perform complex hysteresis modeling – that can be used by the reader to reproduce many of the results presented in the book as well as to research both disruptive and constructive effects of noise in hysteret...

  3. Laser Interaction and Related Plasma Phenomena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Osman

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Computations are to be performed using the laser driven inertial fusion energy option based on volume ignition with the natural adiabatic self-similarity compression and expansion hydrodynamics [1]. The numerical work includes the establishing of a multi-branch reaction code to be used for simultaneous fusion reactions of D-D, D-T D-He3 and mutual nuclear reaction products. This will permit the studies of neutron lean reactions as well as tritium-rich cases. The D-T reactions will stress the recent new results on one step laser fusion [2] as an alternative to the two-step fast ignitor scheme whose difficulties with new physics phenomena at petawatt laser interaction are more and more evident [3].

  4. Social interactions affecting caste development through physiological actions in termites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DaiWatanabe

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A colony of social insects is not only an aggregation of individuals but also a functional unit. To achieve adaptive social behavior in fluctuating environmental conditions, in addition to coordination of physiological status in each individual, the whole colony is coordinated by interactions among colony members. The study on the regulation of social-insect colonies is termed “social physiology”. Termites, a major group of social insects, exhibit many interesting phenomena related to social physiology, such as mechanisms of caste regulation in a colony. In their colonies, there are different types of individuals, i.e., castes, which show distinctive phenotypes specialized in specific colony tasks. Termite castes comprise reproductives, soldiers and workers, and the caste composition can be altered depending on circumstances. For the regulation of caste compositions, interactions among individuals, i.e. social interactions, are thought to be important. In this article, we review previous studies on the adaptive meanings and those on the proximate mechanisms of the caste regulation in termites, and try to understand those comprehensively in terms of social physiology. Firstly, we summarize classical studies on the social interactions. Secondly, previous studies on the pheromone substances that mediate the caste regulatory mechanisms are overviewed. Then, we discuss the roles of a physiological factor, juvenile hormone (JH in the regulation of caste differentiation. Finally, we introduce the achievements of molecular studies on the animal sociality (i.e. sociogenomics in terms of social physiology. By comparing the proximate mechanisms of social physiology in termites with those in hymenopterans, we try to get insights into the general principles of social physiology in social animals.

  5. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident

  6. Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P. D.; Aplin, K. L.

    2012-12-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact, but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant, because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for Monet, Constable, and Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies. But to what extent does weather inspire composers? The authors of this presentation, who are atmospheric scientists by day but amateur classical musicians by night, have been contemplating this question. We have built a systematic musical database, which has allowed us to catalogue and analyze the frequencies with which weather is depicted in a sample of classical orchestral music. The depictions vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. We have found that composers are generally influenced by their own environment in the type of weather they choose to represent. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Reference: Aplin KL and Williams PD (2011) Meteorological phenomena in Western classical orchestral music. Weather, 66(11), pp 300-306. doi:10.1002/wea.765

  7. Self-organization phenomena in plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The self-assembling in nature and laboratory of structures in systems away from thermodynamic equilibrium is one of the problems that mostly fascinates the scientists working in all branches of science. In this context a substantial progress has been obtained by investigating the appearance of spatial and spatiotemporal patterns in plasma. These experiments revealed the presence of a scenario of self-organization able to suggest an answer to the central problem of the 'Science of Complexity', why matter transits spontaneously from a disordered into an ordered state? Based on this scenario of self-organization we present arguments proving the possibility to explain the challenging problems of nonequilibrium physics in general. These problems refer to: (i) genuine origin of phase transitions observed in gaseous conductors and semiconductors; (ii) the elucidation of the role played by self-organization in the simulation of oscillations; (iii) the physical basis of anomalous transport of matter and energy with special reference to the possibilities of improving the economical performance of fusion devices; (iv) the possibility to use self-confined gaseous space charged configurations as an alternative to the magnetically confined plasma used at present in fusion devices. In other branches of sciences, as for instance in Biology, the self-organization scenario reveals a new insight into a mechanism able to explain the appearance of the simplest possible space charge configuration able to evolve, under suitable conditions, into prebiotic structures. Referring to phenomena observed in nature, the same self-organization scenario suggests plausible answers to the appearance of ball lightening but also to the origin of the flickering phenomena observed in the light emission of the Sun and stars. For theory the described self-organization scenario offers a new physical basis for many problems of nonlinear science not solved yet and also a new model for the so-called 'self

  8. APRI-6. Accident Phenomena of Risk Importance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garis, Ninos; Ljung, J (eds.) (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Stockholm (Sweden)); Agrenius, Lennart (ed.) (Agrenius Ingenjoersbyraa AB, Stockholm (Sweden))

    2009-06-15

    Since the early 1980s, nuclear power utilities in Sweden and the Swedish Radiation Safety Authority (SSM) collaborate on the research in severe reactor accidents. In the beginning focus was mostly on strengthening protection against environmental impacts after a severe reactor accident, for example by develop systems for the filtered relief of the reactor containment. Since the early 90s, this focus has shifted to the phenomenological issues of risk-dominant significance. During the years 2006-2008, the partnership continued in the research project APRI-6. The aim was to show whether the solutions adopted in the Swedish strategy for incident management provides adequate protection for the environment. This is done by studying important phenomena in the core melt estimating the amount of radioactivity that can be released to the atmosphere in a severe accident. To achieve these objectives the research has included monitoring of international research on severe accidents and evaluation of results and continued support for research of severe accidents at the Royal Inst. of Technology (KTH) and Chalmers University. The follow-up of international research has promoted the exchange of knowledge and experience and has given access to a wealth of information on various phenomena relevant to events in severe accidents. The continued support to KTH has provided increased knowledge about the possibility of cooling the molten core in the reactor tank and the processes associated with coolability in the confinement and about steam explosions. Support for Chalmers has increased knowledge of the accident chemistry, mainly the behavior of iodine and ruthenium in the containment after an accident.

  9. Analyzing the basic principles of tissue microarray data measuring the cooperative phenomena of marker proteins in invasive breast cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Korsching, Eberhard; Buerger, Horst; Boecker, Florian; Packeisen, Jens; Agelopoulos, Konstantin; Poos, Kathrin; Nadler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    Background: The analysis of a protein-expression pattern from tissue microarray (TMA) data will not immediately give an answer on synergistic or antagonistic effects between the observed proteins. But contrary to apparent first impression, it is possible to reveal those cooperative phenomena from TMA data. The data is (1) preserving a lot of the original physiological information content and (2) because of minor variances between the tumor samples, contains several related slightly different ...

  10. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    Science.gov (United States)

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    ... Donor Community > Games > Blood Type Game Printable Version Blood Type Game This feature requires version 6 or later ... many points as possible by matching the appropriate blood type of a donor to the blood type of ...

  13. Understanding Blood Pressure Readings

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    ... What is the AHA recommendation for healthy blood pressure? This blood pressure chart reflects categories defined by the American ... unusually low blood pressure readings. How is high blood pressure diagnosed? Your healthcare providers will want to get ...

  14. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

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    ... Connected Home » High Blood Pressure Heath and Aging High Blood Pressure What Is Blood Pressure? Do ... high blood pressure increases as you get older. Gender. Before age 55, men have a greater chance ...

  16. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000367.htm Blood donation before surgery To use the sharing features ... vessels. Several sources of blood are described here. Blood From the Public (Volunteer Blood Donation) The most ...

  17. Blood Transfusion (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Blood Transfusions KidsHealth > For Parents > Blood Transfusions Print A ... and help put your child at ease. About Blood Transfusions Blood is like the body's transportation system. ...

  18. Blood donation before surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... choose to use a method called autologous blood donation. Autologous blood is blood donated by you, which you later receive if you need a transfusion during or after surgery. You can have blood ...

  19. High blood pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you are at risk for: Bleeding from the aorta, the large blood vessel that supplies blood to ... tests Blood pressure check Blood pressure References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes-2015 ...

  20. Blood Clotting and Pregnancy

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... raise public awareness of these blood conditions and increase research on the causes, prevention, and treatment. Blood ... of developing a blood clot during pregnancy is increased by the following: Previous blood clots A genetic ...