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  1. Negative blood oxygen level dependent signals during speech comprehension.

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    Rodriguez Moreno, Diana; Schiff, Nicholas D; Hirsch, Joy

    2015-05-01

    Speech comprehension studies have generally focused on the isolation and function of regions with positive blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals with respect to a resting baseline. Although regions with negative BOLD signals in comparison to a resting baseline have been reported in language-related tasks, their relationship to regions of positive signals is not fully appreciated. Based on the emerging notion that the negative signals may represent an active function in language tasks, the authors test the hypothesis that negative BOLD signals during receptive language are more associated with comprehension than content-free versions of the same stimuli. Regions associated with comprehension of speech were isolated by comparing responses to passive listening to natural speech to two incomprehensible versions of the same speech: one that was digitally time reversed and one that was muffled by removal of high frequencies. The signal polarity was determined by comparing the BOLD signal during each speech condition to the BOLD signal during a resting baseline. As expected, stimulation-induced positive signals relative to resting baseline were observed in the canonical language areas with varying signal amplitudes for each condition. Negative BOLD responses relative to resting baseline were observed primarily in frontoparietal regions and were specific to the natural speech condition. However, the BOLD signal remained indistinguishable from baseline for the unintelligible speech conditions. Variations in connectivity between brain regions with positive and negative signals were also specifically related to the comprehension of natural speech. These observations of anticorrelated signals related to speech comprehension are consistent with emerging models of cooperative roles represented by BOLD signals of opposite polarity.

  2. Effects of aging on cerebral blood flow, oxygen metabolism, and blood oxygenation level dependent responses to visual stimulation.

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    Ances, Beau M; Liang, Christine L; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Fleisher, Adam S; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2009-04-01

    Calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) provides a noninvasive technique to assess functional metabolic changes associated with normal aging. We simultaneously measured both the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) and cerebral blood flow (CBF) responses in the visual cortex for separate conditions of mild hypercapnia (5% CO(2)) and a simple checkerboard stimulus in healthy younger (n = 10, mean: 28-years-old) and older (n = 10, mean: 53-years-old) adults. From these data we derived baseline CBF, the BOLD scaling parameter M, the fractional change in the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)) with activation, and the coupling ratio n of the fractional changes in CBF and CMRO(2). For the functional activation paradigm, the magnitude of the BOLD response was significantly lower for the older group (0.57 +/- 0.07%) compared to the younger group (0.95 +/- 0.14%), despite the finding that the fractional CBF and CMRO(2) changes were similar for both groups. The weaker BOLD response for the older group was due to a reduction in the parameter M, which was significantly lower for older (4.6 +/- 0.4%) than younger subjects (6.5 +/- 0.8%), most likely reflecting a reduction in baseline CBF for older (41.7 +/- 4.8 mL/100 mL/min) compared to younger (59.6 +/- 9.1 mL/100 mL/min) subjects. In addition to these primary responses, for both groups the BOLD response exhibited a post-stimulus undershoot with no significant difference in this magnitude. However, the post-undershoot period of the CBF response was significantly greater for older compared to younger subjects. We conclude that when comparing two populations, the BOLD response can provide misleading reflections of underlying physiological changes. A calibrated approach provides a more quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes than the BOLD response alone.

  3. Effects of anesthetic agents on brain blood oxygenation level revealed with ultra-high field MRI.

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    Luisa Ciobanu

    Full Text Available During general anesthesia it is crucial to control systemic hemodynamics and oxygenation levels. However, anesthetic agents can affect cerebral hemodynamics and metabolism in a drug-dependent manner, while systemic hemodynamics is stable. Brain-wide monitoring of this effect remains highly challenging. Because T(2*-weighted imaging at ultra-high magnetic field strengths benefits from a dramatic increase in contrast to noise ratio, we hypothesized that it could monitor anesthesia effects on brain blood oxygenation. We scanned rat brains at 7T and 17.2T under general anesthesia using different anesthetics (isoflurane, ketamine-xylazine, medetomidine. We showed that the brain/vessels contrast in T(2*-weighted images at 17.2T varied directly according to the applied pharmacological anesthetic agent, a phenomenon that was visible, but to a much smaller extent at 7T. This variation is in agreement with the mechanism of action of these agents. These data demonstrate that preclinical ultra-high field MRI can monitor the effects of a given drug on brain blood oxygenation level in the absence of systemic blood oxygenation changes and of any neural stimulation.

  4. EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON BLOOD OXYGEN FREE RADICAL AND NO LEVELS IN TREATMENT OF APOPLECTIC SEQUELAE

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    袁青; 马瑞玲; 靳瑞

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of acupuncture on blood oxygen free radical (OFR) and nitric oxide(NO) levels in the treatment of apoplectic sequelae. Methods: A total of 61 cases of apoplectic patients were subject-ed into this study and randomly divided into "JIN San Zhen" group (n=30) and control group (n=31). Blood lipid per-oxidase (LPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px) and nitric oxide (NO) contents beforeand after acupuncture treatment were determined with radioimmunoassay. In both groups, acupuncture was given oncedaily, six times a week, with 4 weeks being a therapeutic course and with the interval between two weeks being aweek, 3 courses all together. In "JIN San Zhen" group, acupoints of "JIN San Zhen" were used predominately, whilein control group, scalp-point Motor Sensory Area (MS 8) was used as the main point. Results: Self-comparison showedthat after 3 courses of treatment, in both groups, LPO and NO levels decreased significantly ( P < 0.05 - 0.01 ), SODand GST-Px values increased considerably ( P< 0.05 - 0.01 ). Comparison between two groups indicated that the ef-fects of "JIN San Zhen" group are significantly superior to those of control group in raising blood SOD and GST-Px lev-els ( P< 0.05- 0.01 ) and in lowering blood NO content ( P< 0.01 ). Analysis on the correlation between the restora-tion of neural function and the changes of LPO, SOD and GST-Px levels suggested that the effect of acupuncture in im-proving neural function may be related to changes of the aforementioned indexes. Conclusion: Acupuncture therapy cansignificantly lower blood LPO and NO levels and evidently raise blood SOD and GST-Px levels in stroke patients.

  5. Impact of physiological noise correction on detecting blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast in the breast

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    Wallace, Tess E.; Manavaki, Roido; Graves, Martin J.; Patterson, Andrew J.; Gilbert, Fiona J.

    2017-01-01

    Physiological fluctuations are expected to be a dominant source of noise in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) experiments to assess tumour oxygenation and angiogenesis. This work investigates the impact of various physiological noise regressors: retrospective image correction (RETROICOR), heart rate (HR) and respiratory volume per unit time (RVT), on signal variance and the detection of BOLD contrast in the breast in response to a modulated respiratory stimulus. BOLD MRI was performed at 3 T in ten volunteers at rest and during cycles of oxygen and carbogen gas breathing. RETROICOR was optimized using F-tests to determine which cardiac and respiratory phase terms accounted for a significant amount of signal variance. A nested regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of RETROICOR, HR and RVT on the model fit residuals, temporal signal-to-noise ratio, and BOLD activation parameters. The optimized RETROICOR model accounted for the largest amount of signal variance ( Δ R\\text{adj}2   =  3.3  ±  2.1%) and improved the detection of BOLD activation (P  =  0.002). Inclusion of HR and RVT regressors explained additional signal variance, but had a negative impact on activation parameter estimation (P  <  0.001). Fluctuations in HR and RVT appeared to be correlated with the stimulus and may contribute to apparent BOLD signal reactivity.

  6. Global brain blood-oxygen level responses to autonomic challenges in obstructive sleep apnea.

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    Paul M Macey

    Full Text Available Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA is accompanied by brain injury, perhaps resulting from apnea-related hypoxia or periods of impaired cerebral perfusion. Perfusion changes can be determined indirectly by evaluation of cerebral blood volume and oxygenation alterations, which can be measured rapidly and non-invasively with the global blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signal, a magnetic resonance imaging procedure. We assessed acute BOLD responses in OSA subjects to pressor challenges that elicit cerebral blood flow changes, using a two-group comparative design with healthy subjects as a reference. We separately assessed female and male patterns, since OSA characteristics and brain injury differ between sexes. We studied 94 subjects, 37 with newly-diagnosed, untreated OSA (6 female (age mean ± std: 52.1±8.1 yrs; apnea/hypopnea index [AHI]: 27.7±15.6 events/hr and 31 male 54.3±8.4 yrs; AHI: 37.4±19.6 events/hr, and 20 female (age 50.5±8.1 yrs and 37 male (age 45.6±9.2 yrs healthy control subjects. We measured brain BOLD responses every 2 s while subjects underwent cold pressor, hand grip, and Valsalva maneuver challenges. The global BOLD signal rapidly changed after the first 2 s of each challenge, and differed in magnitude between groups to two challenges (cold pressor, hand grip, but not to the Valsalva maneuver (repeated measures ANOVA, p<0.05. OSA females showed greater differences from males in response magnitude and pattern, relative to healthy counterparts. Cold pressor BOLD signal increases (mean ± adjusted standard error at the 8 s peak were: OSA 0.14±0.08% vs. Control 0.31±0.06%, and hand grip at 6 s were: OSA 0.08±0.03% vs. Control at 0.30±0.02%. These findings, indicative of reduced cerebral blood flow changes to autonomic challenges in OSA, complement earlier reports of altered resting blood flow and reduced cerebral artery responsiveness. Females are more affected than males, an outcome which may contribute to the sex

  7. Deciphering phonemes from syllables in blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in human superior temporal gyrus.

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    Zhang, Qingtian; Hu, Xiaolin; Luo, Huan; Li, Jianmin; Zhang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Linguistic units such as phonemes and syllables are important for speech perception. How the brain encodes these units is not well understood. Many neuroimaging studies have found distinct representations of consonant-vowel syllables that shared one phoneme and differed in the other phoneme (e.g. /ba/ and /da/), but it is unclear whether this discrimination ability is due to the neural coding of phonemes or syllables. We combined functional magnetic resonance imaging with multivariate pattern analysis to explore this question. Subjects listened to nine Mandarin syllables in a consonant-vowel form. We successfully decoded phonemes from the syllables based on the blood oxygenation level-dependent signals in the superior temporal gyrus (STG). Specifically, a classifier trained on the cortical patterns elicited by a set of syllables, which contained two phonemes, could distinguish the cortical patterns elicited by other syllables that contained the two phonemes. The results indicated that phonemes have unique representations in the STG. In addition, there was a categorical effect, i.e. the cortical patterns of consonants were similar, and so were the cortical patterns of vowels. Further analysis showed that phonemes exhibited stronger encoding specificity in the mid-STG than in the anterior STG.

  8. Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Activation of the Primary Visual Cortex Predicts Size Adaptation Illusion

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    Pooresmaeili, Arezoo; Arrighi, Roberto; Biagi, Laura; Morrone, Maria Concetta

    2016-01-01

    In natural scenes, objects rarely occur in isolation but appear within a spatiotemporal context. Here, we show that the perceived size of a stimulus is significantly affected by the context of the scene: brief previous presentation of larger or smaller adapting stimuli at the same region of space changes the perceived size of a test stimulus, with larger adapting stimuli causing the test to appear smaller than veridical and vice versa. In a human fMRI study, we measured the blood oxygen level-dependent activation (BOLD) responses of the primary visual cortex (V1) to the contours of large-diameter stimuli and found that activation closely matched the perceptual rather than the retinal stimulus size: the activated area of V1 increased or decreased, depending on the size of the preceding stimulus. A model based on local inhibitory V1 mechanisms simulated the inward or outward shifts of the stimulus contours and hence the perceptual effects. Our findings suggest that area V1 is actively involved in reshaping our perception to match the short-term statistics of the visual scene. PMID:24089504

  9. Functional neuroanatomy in depressed patients with sexual dysfunction: blood oxygenation level dependent functional MR imaging

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    Yang, Jong Chul [Chonnam National Univ. Hospital, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-15

    To demonstrate the functional neuroanatomy associated with sexual arousal visually evoked in depressed males who have underlying sexual dysfunction using Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent-based fMRI. Ten healthy volunteers (age range 21-55: mean 32.5 years), and 10 depressed subjects (age range 23-51: mean 34.4 years, mean Beck Depression Inventory score of 39.6 {+-} 5.9, mean Hamilton Rating Scale Depression (HAMD)-17 score of 33.5 {+-} 6.0) with sexual arousal dysfunction viewed erotic and neutral video films during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with 1.5 T MR scanner (GE Signa Horizon). The fMRI data were obtained from 7 oblique planes using gradient-echo EPI (flip angle/TR/TE=90 .deg. /6000 ms/50 ms). The visual stimulation paradigm began with 60 sec of black screen, 150 sec of neutral stimulation with a documentary video film, 30 sec of black screen, 150 sec of sexual stimulation with an erotic video film followed by 30 sec of black screen. The brain activation maps and their quantification were analyzed by SPM99 program. There was a significant difference of brain activation between two groups during visual sexual stimulation. In depressed subjects, the level of activation during the visually evoked sexual arousal was significantly less than that of healthy volunteers, especially in the cerebrocortical areas of the hypothalamus, thalamus, caudate nucleus, and inferior and superior temporal gyri. On the other hand, the cerebral activation patterns during the neutral condition in both groups showed no significant differences ({rho} < 0.01). This study is the first demonstration of the functional neuroanatomy of the brain associated with sexual dysfunction in depressed patients using fMRI. In order to validate our physiological neuroscience results, further studies that would include patients with other disorders and sexual dysfunction, and depressed patients without sexual dysfunction and their treatment response are needed.

  10. Reduction of blood oxygen levels enhances postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in Burmese python (Python bivittatus).

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    Slay, Christopher E; Enok, Sanne; Hicks, James W; Wang, Tobias

    2014-05-15

    Physiological cardiac hypertrophy is characterized by reversible enlargement of cardiomyocytes and changes in chamber architecture, which increase stroke volume and via augmented convective oxygen transport. Cardiac hypertrophy is known to occur in response to repeated elevations of O2 demand and/or reduced O2 supply in several species of vertebrate ectotherms, including postprandial Burmese pythons (Python bivittatus). Recent data suggest postprandial cardiac hypertrophy in P. bivittatus is a facultative rather than obligatory response to digestion, though the triggers of this response are unknown. Here, we hypothesized that an O2 supply-demand mismatch stimulates postprandial cardiac enlargement in Burmese pythons. To test this hypothesis, we rendered animals anemic prior to feeding, essentially halving blood oxygen content during the postprandial period. Fed anemic animals had heart rates 126% higher than those of fasted controls, which, coupled with a 71% increase in mean arterial pressure, suggests fed anemic animals were experiencing significantly elevated cardiac work. We found significant cardiac hypertrophy in fed anemic animals, which exhibited ventricles 39% larger than those of fasted controls and 28% larger than in fed controls. These findings support our hypothesis that those animals with a greater magnitude of O2 supply-demand mismatch exhibit the largest hearts. The 'low O2 signal' stimulating postprandial cardiac hypertrophy is likely mediated by elevated ventricular wall stress associated with postprandial hemodynamics.

  11. Vascular Steal Explains Early Paradoxical Blood Oxygen Level-Dependent Cerebrovascular Response in Brain Regions with Delayed Arterial Transit Times

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    Julien Poublanc

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD magnetic resonance imaging (MRI during manipulation of inhaled carbon dioxide (CO2 can be used to measure cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR and map regions of exhausted cerebrovascular reserve. These regions exhibit a reduced or negative BOLD response to inhaled CO2. In this study, we sought to clarify the mechanism behind the negative BOLD response by investigating its time delay (TD. Dynamic susceptibility contrast (DSC MRI with the injection of a contrast agent was used as the gold standard in order to provide measurement of the blood arrival time to which CVR TD could be compared. We hypothesize that if negative BOLD responses are the result of a steal phenomenon, they should be synchronized with positive BOLD responses from healthy brain tissue, even though the blood arrival time would be delayed. Methods: On a 3-tesla MRI system, BOLD CVR and DSC images were collected in a group of 19 patients with steno-occlusive cerebrovascular disease. For each patient, we generated a CVR magnitude map by regressing the BOLD signal with the end-tidal partial pressure of CO2 (PETCO2, and a CVR TD map by extracting the time of maximum cross-correlation between the BOLD signal and PETCO2. In addition, a blood arrival time map was generated by fitting the DSC signal with a gamma variate function. ROI masks corresponding to varying degrees of reactivity were constructed. Within these masks, the mean CVR magnitude, CVR TD and DSC blood arrival time were extracted and averaged over the 19 patients. CVR magnitude and CVR TD were then plotted against DSC blood arrival time. Results: The results show that CVR magnitude is highly correlated to DSC blood arrival time. As expected, the most compromised tissues with the longest blood arrival time have the lowest (most negative CVR magnitude. However, CVR TD shows a noncontinuous relationship with DSC blood arrival time. CVR TD is well correlated to DSC blood arrival time

  12. Effect of acute and delayed hyperbaric oxygen therapy on cyanide whole blood levels during acute cyanide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, P; Jansen, E C; Hilsted, Linda Maria

    2011-01-01

    causing depletion of adenosine triphosphate. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended for treating carbon monoxide poisoning. The therapeutic effect is due to a high oxygen pressure removing carbon monoxide from the cells. We hypothesise that HBO2 induces changes in whole-blood-cyanide by a competitive...

  13. Renal Blood Oxygenation Level-dependent Imaging in Longitudinal Follow-up of Donated and Remaining Kidneys.

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    Seif, Maryam; Eisenberger, Ute; Binser, Tobias; Thoeny, Harriet C; Krauer, Fabienne; Rusch, Aurelia; Boesch, Chris; Vogt, Bruno; Vermathen, Peter

    2016-06-01

    Purpose To determine renal oxygenation changes associated with uninephrectomy and transplantation in both native donor kidneys and transplanted kidneys by using blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MR imaging. Materials and Methods The study protocol was approved by the local ethics committee. Thirteen healthy kidney donors and their corresponding recipients underwent kidney BOLD MR imaging with a 3-T imager. Written informed consent was obtained from each subject. BOLD MR imaging was performed in donors before uninephrectomy and in donors and recipients 8 days, 3 months, and 12 months after transplantation. R2* values, which are inversely related to tissue partial pressure of oxygen, were determined in the cortex and medulla. Longitudinal R2* changes were statistically analyzed by using repeated measures one-way analysis of variance with post hoc pair-wise comparisons. Results R2* values in the remaining kidneys significantly decreased early after uninephrectomy in both the medulla and cortex (P kidneys, R2* remained stable during the first year after transplantation, with no significant change. Among donors, cortical R2* was found to be negatively correlated with estimated glomerular filtration rate (R = -0.47, P kidneys. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  14. Relationship between level of forage intake, blood flow and oxygen consumption by splanchnic tissues of sheep fed a tropical grass forage.

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    Hentz, F; Kozloski, G V; Zeni, D; Brun, M V; Stefanello, S

    2017-02-01

    Four Polwarth castrated male sheep (42 ± 4.4 kg live weight (LW) surgically implanted with chronic indwelling catheters into the mesenteric, portal and hepatic veins, housed in metabolism cages and offered Cynodon sp. hay at rates (g of dry matter (DM)/kg LW) of 7, 14, 21 or ad libitum, were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square experiment to evaluate the effect of the level of forage intake on blood flow and oxygen consumption by the portal-drained viscera (PDV), liver and total splanchnic tissues (ST). The portal blood flow and the oxygen consumption by PDV linearly increased at increased organic matter (OM) intake. No effect of level of OM intake was obtained for the hepatic artery blood flow and oxygen consumption by liver. As a consequence, the level of OM intake only tended to directly affect hepatic blood flow and oxygen consumption by total ST. Oxygen consumption was linearly and positively related to blood flow across PDV, liver and total ST. The heat production by PDV and total ST, as proportion of metabolizable energy (ME) intake, decreased curvilinearly at increased ME intake. In conclusion, the oxygen consumption by PDV, but not by liver, was directly related to the level of forage intake by sheep. Moreover, when ingested at levels below maintenance, most of ME was spent as heat produced by ST.

  15. Mapping of cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen using dynamic susceptibility contrast and blood oxygen level dependent MR imaging in acute ischemic stroke

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    Gersing, Alexandra S.; Schwaiger, Benedikt J. [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); University of California, Department of Radiology and Biomedical Imaging, San Francisco, CA (United States); Ankenbrank, Monika; Toth, Vivien; Bauer, Jan S.; Zimmer, Claus [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Janssen, Insa [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurosurgery, Munich (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Healthcare, Hamburg (Germany); Wunderlich, Silke [Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany); Preibisch, Christine [Technical University Munich, Klinikum rechts der Isar, Department of Neuroradiology, Munich (Germany); Technical University Munich, Department of Neurology, Munich (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    MR-derived cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen utilization (CMRO{sub 2}) has been suggested to be analogous to PET-derived CMRO{sub 2} and therefore may be used for detection of viable tissue at risk for infarction. The purpose of this study was to evaluate MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} mapping in acute ischemic stroke in relation to established diffusion- and perfusion-weighted imaging. In 23 patients (mean age 63 ± 18.7 years, 11 women) with imaging findings for acute ischemic stroke, relative oxygen extraction fraction was calculated from quantitative transverse relaxation times (T2, T2*) and relative cerebral blood volume using a quantitative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) approach in order to detect a local increase of deoxyhemoglobin. Relative CMRO{sub 2} (rCMRO{sub 2}) maps were calculated by multiplying relative oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) by cerebral blood flow, derived from PWI. After co-registration, rCMRO{sub 2} maps were evaluated in comparison with apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and time-to-peak (TTP) maps. Mean rCMRO{sub 2} values in areas with diffusion-restriction or TTP/ADC mismatch were compared with rCMRO{sub 2} values in the contralateral tissue. In tissue with diffusion restriction, mean rCMRO{sub 2} values were significantly decreased compared to perfusion-impaired (17.9 [95 % confidence interval 10.3, 25.0] vs. 58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3]; P < 0.001) and tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (68.2 [95 % confidence interval 61.4, 75.0]; P < 0.001). rCMRO{sub 2} in perfusion-impaired tissue showed no significant change compared to tissue in the contralateral hemisphere (58.1 [95 % confidence interval 50.1, 70.3] vs. 66.7 [95 % confidence interval 53.4, 73.4]; P = 0.34). MR-derived CMRO{sub 2} was decreased within diffusion-restricted tissue and stable within perfusion-impaired tissue, suggesting that this technique may be adequate to reveal different pathophysiological stages in acute stroke. (orig.)

  16. Cerebral misery perfusion diagnosed using hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging: a case report

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    D'Souza Olympio

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Cerebral misery perfusion represents a failure of cerebral autoregulation. It is an important differential diagnosis in post-stroke patients presenting with collapses in the presence of haemodynamically significant cerebrovascular stenosis. This is particularly the case when cortical or internal watershed infarcts are present. When this condition occurs, further investigation should be done immediately. Case presentation A 50-year-old Caucasian man presented with a stroke secondary to complete occlusion of his left internal carotid artery. He went on to suffer recurrent seizures. Neuroimaging demonstrated numerous new watershed-territory cerebral infarcts. No source of arterial thromboembolism was demonstrable. Hypercapnic blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging was used to measure his cerebrovascular reserve capacity. The findings were suggestive of cerebral misery perfusion. Conclusions Blood-oxygenation-level-dependent-contrast functional magnetic resonance imaging allows the inference of cerebral misery perfusion. This procedure is cheaper and more readily available than positron emission tomography imaging, which is the current gold standard diagnostic test. The most evaluated treatment for cerebral misery perfusion is extracranial-intracranial bypass. Although previous trials of this have been unfavourable, the results of new studies involving extracranial-intracranial bypass in high-risk patients identified during cerebral perfusion imaging are awaited. Cerebral misery perfusion is an important and under-recognized condition in which emerging imaging and treatment modalities present the possibility of practical and evidence-based management in the near future. Physicians should thus be aware of this disorder and of recent developments in diagnostic tests that allow its detection.

  17. Acrolein-Induced Increases in Blood Pressure and Heart Rate Are Coupled with Decreased Blood Oxygen Levels During Exposure in Hypertensive Rats

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    Exposure to air pollution increases the risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, especially in individuals with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Recent studies link exposure to air pollution with reduced blood oxygen saturation suggesting that hypoxia is a potential me...

  18. Negative blood oxygenation level dependent homunculus and somatotopic information in primary motor cortex and supplementary motor area.

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    Zeharia, Noa; Hertz, Uri; Flash, Tamar; Amedi, Amir

    2012-11-06

    A crucial attribute in movement encoding is an adequate balance between suppression of unwanted muscles and activation of required ones. We studied movement encoding across the primary motor cortex (M1) and supplementary motor area (SMA) by inspecting the positive and negative blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in these regions. Using periodic and event-related experiments incorporating the bilateral/axial movements of 20 body parts, we report detailed mototopic imaging maps in M1 and SMA. These maps were obtained using phase-locked analysis. In addition to the positive BOLD, significant negative BOLD was detected in M1 but not in the SMA. The negative BOLD spatial pattern was neither located at the ipsilateral somatotopic location nor randomly distributed. Rather, it was organized somatotopically across the entire homunculus and inversely to the positive BOLD, creating a negative BOLD homunculus. The neuronal source of negative BOLD is unclear. M1 provides a unique system to test whether the origin of negative BOLD is neuronal, because different arteries supply blood to different regions in the homunculus, ruling out blood-stealing explanations. Finally, multivoxel pattern analysis showed that positive BOLD in M1 and SMA and negative BOLD in M1 contain somatotopic information, enabling prediction of the moving body part from inside and outside its somatotopic location. We suggest that the neuronal processes underlying negative BOLD participate in somatotopic encoding in M1 but not in the SMA. This dissociation may emerge because of differences in the activity of these motor areas associated with movement suppression.

  19. Lead levels - blood

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    Blood lead levels ... A blood sample is needed. Most of the time blood is drawn from a vein located on the inside ... may be used to puncture the skin. The blood collects in a small glass tube called a ...

  20. Preoperative 3T high field blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging for glioma involving sensory cortical areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Shao-wu; WANG Jiang-fei; JIANG Tao; LI Shou-wei; ZHANG Wen-bo; LI Zi-xiao; ZHANG Zhong; DAI Jian-ping; WANG Zhong-cheng

    2010-01-01

    Background Localization of sensory cortical areas during the operation is essential to preserve the sensory function.Intraoperative direct electrostimulation under awake anesthesia is the golden standard but time-consuming. We applied 3T high field blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify the relationship between glioma and cortical sensory areas preoperatively and to guide intraoperative direct electrostimulation for quick and precise localization.Methods Five glioma patients with sensory cortex involvement by or next to the lesion had preoperative BOLD fMRI to determine the spatial relationship of cortical sensory areas to the tumours. Bilateral hand opposite movement was performed by these patients for fMRI. Precentral and postcentral gyri were identified by electrical stimulation during the operation. Karnofsky Performance Status scores of the patients' pre- and postoperative and the role of BOLD fMRI were evaluated.Results The cortical sensory areas were all activated in five glioma patients involving postcentral gyrus areas by BOLDf MRI with bilateral hand opposite movement. The detected activation areas corresponded with the results from cortical electrical stimulation.Conclusions The relationship between cortical sensory areas and tumour can be accurately shown by BOLD fMRI before operation. And the information used to make the tumour resection could obtain good clinical results.

  1. Multi-regional investigation of the relationship between functional MRI blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD activation and GABA concentration.

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    Ashley D Harris

    Full Text Available Several recent studies have reported an inter-individual correlation between regional GABA concentration, as measured by MRS, and the amplitude of the functional blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD response in the same region. In this study, we set out to investigate whether this coupling generalizes across cortex. In 18 healthy participants, we performed edited MRS measurements of GABA and BOLD-fMRI experiments using regionally related activation paradigms. Regions and tasks were the: occipital cortex with a visual grating stimulus; auditory cortex with a white noise stimulus; sensorimotor cortex with a finger-tapping task; frontal eye field with a saccade task; and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex with a working memory task. In contrast to the prior literature, no correlation between GABA concentration and BOLD activation was detected in any region. The origin of this discrepancy is not clear. Subtle differences in study design or insufficient power may cause differing results; these and other potential reasons for the discrepant results are discussed. This negative result, although it should be interpreted with caution, has a larger sample size than prior positive results, and suggests that the relationship between GABA and the BOLD response may be more complex than previously thought.

  2. Assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction with blood oxygenation level-dependent MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging

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    Park, Sung Yoon [Department of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiological Science, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Kyo, E-mail: chankyokim@skku.edu [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Byung Kwan [Department of Radiology and Center for Imaging Science, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sung Ju; Lee, Sanghoon [Department of Surgery, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Huh, Wooseong [Department of Nephrology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-12-15

    Highlights: • R2* and ADC in renal allografts are moderately correlated with eGFR. • R2* and ADC are lower in early allograft dysfunction than normal allograft function. • No significant difference between AR and ATN was found in both R2* and ADC. - Abstract: Purpose: To investigate blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) MRI and diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) at 3 T for assessment of early renal allograft dysfunction. Materials and methods: 34 patients with a renal allograft (early dysfunction, 24; normal, 10) were prospectively enrolled. BOLD MRI and DWI were performed at 3 T. R2* and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values were measured in cortex and medulla of the allografts. Correlation between R2* or ADC values and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was investigated. R2* or ADC values were compared among acute rejection (AR), acute tubular necrosis (ATN) and normal function. Results: In all renal allografts, cortical or medullary R2* and ADC values were moderately correlated with eGFR (P < 0.05). Early dysfunction group showed lower R2* and ADC values than normal function group (P < 0.05). AR or ATN had lower R2* values than normal allografts (P < 0.05), and ARs had lower cortical ADC values than normal allografts (P < 0.05). No significant difference of R2* or ADC values was found between AR and ATN (P > 0.05). Conclusion: BOLD MRI and DWI at 3 T may demonstrate early functional state of renal allografts, but may be limited in characterizing a cause of early renal allograft dysfunction. Further studies are needed.

  3. Fractal Analysis of Brain Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) Signals from Children with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dona, Olga; DeMatteo, Carol; Connolly, John F.

    2017-01-01

    Background Conventional imaging techniques are unable to detect abnormalities in the brain following mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI). Yet patients with mTBI typically show delayed response on neuropsychological evaluation. Because fractal geometry represents complexity, we explored its utility in measuring temporal fluctuations of brain resting state blood oxygen level dependent (rs-BOLD) signal. We hypothesized that there could be a detectable difference in rs-BOLD signal complexity between healthy subjects and mTBI patients based on previous studies that associated reduction in signal complexity with disease. Methods Fifteen subjects (13.4 ± 2.3 y/o) and 56 age-matched (13.5 ± 2.34 y/o) healthy controls were scanned using a GE Discovery MR750 3T MRI and 32-channel RF-coil. Axial FSPGR-3D images were used to prescribe rs-BOLD (TE/TR = 35/2000ms), acquired over 6 minutes. Motion correction was performed and anatomical and functional images were aligned and spatially warped to the N27 standard atlas. Fractal analysis, performed on grey matter, was done by estimating the Hurst exponent using de-trended fluctuation analysis and signal summation conversion methods. Results and Conclusions Voxel-wise fractal dimension (FD) was calculated for every subject in the control group to generate mean and standard deviation maps for regional Z-score analysis. Voxel-wise validation of FD normality across controls was confirmed, and non-Gaussian voxels (3.05% over the brain) were eliminated from subsequent analysis. For each mTBI patient, regions where Z-score values were at least 2 standard deviations away from the mean (i.e. where |Z| > 2.0) were identified. In individual patients the frequently affected regions were amygdala (p = 0.02), vermis(p = 0.03), caudate head (p = 0.04), hippocampus(p = 0.03), and hypothalamus(p = 0.04), all previously reported as dysfunctional after mTBI, but based on group analysis. It is well known that the brain is best modeled as a complex

  4. Altered blood oxygen level-dependent signal variability in chronic post-traumatic stress disorder during symptom provocation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke J

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jun Ke,1,* Li Zhang,2,* Rongfeng Qi,1,* Qiang Xu,1 Weihui Li,2 Cailan Hou,3 Yuan Zhong,1 Zhiqiang Zhang,1 Zhong He,4 Lingjiang Li,2,5 Guangming Lu11Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Medical School of Nanjing University, Nanjing, 2Mental Health Institute, the Second Xiangya Hospital, National Technology Institute of Psychiatry, Key Laboratory of Psychiatry and Mental Health of Hunan Province, Central South University, Changsha, 3Guangdong Academy of Medical Science, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Mental Health Center, Guangzhou, 4Department of Radiology of the Second Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, 5Shenzhen Kangning Hospital of Guangdong Province, Shenzhen, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Recent research suggests that variability in brain signal provides important information about brain function in health and disease. However, it is unknown whether blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD signal variability is altered in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD. We aimed to identify the BOLD signal variability changes of PTSD patients during symptom provocation and compare the brain patterns of BOLD signal variability with those of brain activation.Methods: Twelve PTSD patients and 14 age-matched controls, who all experienced a mining accident, underwent clinical assessment as well as fMRI scanning while viewing trauma-related and neutral pictures. BOLD signal variability and brain activation were respectively examined with standard deviation (SD and general linear model analysis, and compared between the PTSD and control groups. Multiple regression analyses were conducted to explore the association between PTSD symptom severity and these two brain measures across all subjects as well as in the PTSD group.Results: PTSD patients showed increased activation in the middle occipital gyrus compared with controls, and an inverse correlation was found between PTSD

  5. Increased blood glycohemoglobin A1c levels lead to overestimation of arterial oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry in patients with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu Li

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Non-enzymatic glycation increases hemoglobin-oxygen affinity and reduces oxygen delivery to tissues by altering the structure and function of hemoglobin. Objectives We investigated whether an elevated blood concentration of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c could induce falsely high pulse oximeter oxygen saturation (SpO2 in type 2 diabetic patients during mechanical ventilation or oxygen therapy. Methods Arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2 and partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 were determined with simultaneous monitoring of SpO2 in 261 type 2 diabetic patients during ventilation or oxygen inhalation. Results Blood concentration of HbA1c was >7% in 114 patients and ≤ 7% in 147 patients. Both SaO2 (96.2 ± 2.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 95.7-96.7% vs. 95.1 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.7-95.6% and SpO2 (98.0 ± 2.6%, 95% CI 97.6-98.5% vs. 95.3 ± 2.8%, 95% CI 94.9-95.8% were significantly higher in patients with HbA1c >7% than in those with HbA1c ≤ 7% (Data are mean ± SD, all p 2 did not significantly differ between the two groups. Bland-Altman analysis demonstrated a significant bias between SpO2 and SaO2 (1.83 ±0.55%, 95% CI 1.73% -1.94% and limits of agreement (0.76% and 2.92% in patients with HbA1c >7%. The differences between SpO2 and SaO2 correlated closely with blood HbA1c levels (Pearson’s r = 0.307, p  Conclusions Elevated blood HbA1c levels lead to an overestimation of SaO2 by SpO2, suggesting that arterial blood gas analysis may be needed for type 2 diabetic patients with poor glycemic control during the treatment of hypoxemia.

  6. High blood cholesterol levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000403.htm High blood cholesterol levels To use the sharing features ... stroke, and other problems. The medical term for high blood cholesterol is lipid disorder, hyperlipidemia, or hypercholesterolemia. ...

  7. Angioplasty and stenting for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis:effects on cerebellar function remodeling veriifed by blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo Liu; Zhiwei Li; Peng Xie

    2014-01-01

    Vertebral artery oriifce stenting may improve blood supply of the posterior circulation of the brain to regions such as the cerebellum and brainstem. However, previous studies have mainly focused on recovery of cerebral blood lfow and perfusion in the posterior circulation after inter-ventional therapy. This study examined the effects of functional recovery of local brain tissue on cerebellar function remodeling using blood oxygen level-dependent functional magnetic reso-nance imaging before and after interventional therapy. A total of 40 Chinese patients with severe unilateral vertebral artery oriifce stenosis were enrolled in this study. Patients were equally and randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. The control group received drug treat-ment only. The intervention group received vertebral artery oriifce angioplasty and stenting+identical drug treatment to the control group. At 13 days after treatment, the Dizziness Handicap Inventory score was compared between the intervention and control groups. Cerebellar function remodeling was observed between the two groups using blood oxygen level-dependent function-al magnetic resonance imaging. The improvement in dizziness handicap and cerebellar function was more obvious in the intervention group than in the control group. Interventional therapy for severe vertebral artery oriifce stenosis may effectively promote cerebellar function remodeling and exert neuroprotective effects.

  8. Blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD)-based techniques for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties - theoretical models and experimental approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A; Sukstanskii, Alexander L; He, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    The quantitative evaluation of brain hemodynamics and metabolism, particularly the relationship between brain function and oxygen utilization, is important for the understanding of normal human brain operation, as well as the pathophysiology of neurological disorders. It can also be of great importance for the evaluation of hypoxia within tumors of the brain and other organs. A fundamental discovery by Ogawa and coworkers of the blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) contrast opened up the possibility to use this effect to study brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties by means of MRI measurements. Such measurements require the development of theoretical models connecting the MRI signal to brain structure and function, and the design of experimental techniques allowing MR measurements to be made of the salient features of theoretical models. In this review, we discuss several such theoretical models and experimental methods for the quantification of brain hemodynamic and metabolic properties. The review's main focus is on methods for the evaluation of the oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) based on the measurement of the blood oxygenation level. A combination of the measurement of OEF and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) allows an evaluation to be made of the cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO2 ). We first consider in detail the magnetic properties of blood - magnetic susceptibility, MR relaxation and theoretical models of the intravascular contribution to the MR signal under different experimental conditions. We then describe a 'through-space' effect - the influence of inhomogeneous magnetic fields, created in the extravascular space by intravascular deoxygenated blood, on the formation of the MR signal. Further, we describe several experimental techniques taking advantage of these theoretical models. Some of these techniques - MR susceptometry and T2 -based quantification of OEF - utilize the intravascular MR signal. Another technique

  9. Single-cell measurement of red blood cell oxygen affinity

    CERN Document Server

    Caprio, Di; Higgins, John M; Schonbrun, Ethan

    2015-01-01

    Oxygen is transported throughout the body by hemoglobin in red blood cells. While the oxygen affinity of blood is well understood and is routinely assessed in patients by pulse oximetry, variability at the single-cell level has not been previously measured. In contrast, single-cell measurements of red blood cell volume and hemoglobin concentration are taken millions of times per day by clinical hematology analyzers and are important factors in determining the health of the hematologic system. To better understand the variability and determinants of oxygen affinity on a cellular level, we have developed a system that quantifies the oxygen saturation, cell volume and hemoglobin concentration for individual red blood cells in high-throughput. We find that the variability in single-cell saturation peaks at an oxygen partial pressure of 2.5%, which corresponds to the maximum slope of the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve. In addition, single-cell oxygen affinity is positively correlated with hemoglobin concentr...

  10. Correlation between single-trial visual evoked potentials and the blood oxygenation level dependent response in simultaneously recorded electroencephalography-functional magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fuglø, Dan; Pedersen, Henrik; Rostrup, Egill;

    2012-01-01

    To compare different electroencephalography (EEG)-based regressors and their ability to predict the simultaneously recorded blood oxygenation level dependent response during blocked visual stimulation, simultaneous EEG-functional magnetic resonance imaging in 10 healthy volunteers was performed...... in different occipital and extraoccipital cortical areas not explained by the boxcar regressor. The results suggest that the P1-N2 regressor is the best EEG-based regressor to model the visual paradigm, but when looking for additional effects like habituation or attention modulation that cannot be modeled...

  11. Measuring blood oxygenation of pulsatile arteries using photoacoustic microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Yu, Tianhao; Li, Lin; Chai, Xinyu; Zhou, Chuanqing

    2016-10-01

    Heart pumps blood through the blood vessels to provide body with oxygen and nutrients. As the result, the blood flow, volume and oxygenation in arteries has a pulsatile nature. Measuring these pulsatile parameters enables more precise monitoring of oxygen metabolic rate and is thus valuable for researches and clinical applications. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a proven label-free method for in vivo measuring blood oxygenation at single blood vessel level. However, studies using PAM to observe the pulsatile nature of blood oxygenation in arteries were not reported. In this paper, we use optical-resolution PAM (OR-PAM) technology to study the blood oxygenation dynamics of pulsatile arteries. First, the ability of our OR-PAM system to accurately reflect the change of optical absorption in imaged objects is demonstrated in a phantom study. Then the system is used to image exposed cortical blood vessels of cat. The pulsatile nature of blood volume and oxygenation in arteries is clearly reflected in photoacoustic (PA) signals, whereas it's not observable in veins. By using a multi-wavelength laser, the dynamics of the blood oxygenation of pulsatile arteries in cardiac cycles can be measured, based on the spectroscopic method.

  12. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production......, and deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) balance in PBMCs. The population was drawn from the Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953. Vitality level was estimated from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale. We found that vitality score had no association with any of the mitochondrial respiration parameters....... However, vitality score was inversely associated with cellular ROS production and cellular deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels and positively associated with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) levels. We conclude that self-reported persistent low vitality is not associated with specific aspects...

  13. Thermoacoustic in vivo determination of blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiser, William L., Jr.; Kruger, Robert A.; Reinecke, Daniel R.; Kruger, Gabe A.; Miller, Kathy D.

    2004-07-01

    We have utilized a prototype Thermoacoustic Computed Tomography Small Animal Imaging System to acquire images of athymic mice with bilateral tumors implanted in the cranial mammary fat pads. The breast tumor cell lines used in the study, which are MCF7, and MCF7 transfected with Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor (VEGF), exhibit distinctly contrasting levels of vascularization. Three dimensional images of the mice, acquired using pulses of NIR stimulating light, demonstrate the ability of the system to generate high resolution images of the vascular system up to one inch deep in tissue, and at the same time, differentiate tissue types based on the infrared absorption properties of the tissue; a property related in part to blood content and oxygenation levels. We have processed images acquired at different stimulating wavelengths to generate images representative of the distribution of oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin throughout the tumors. The images demonstrate the in vivo capabilities of the imaging system and map system structure as well as the total, oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin components of the blood.

  14. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin

    2013-01-01

    . Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  15. Blood Glucose Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Estela

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to establish a mathematical model which can be used to estimate glucose levels in the blood over time. The equations governing this process were manipulated with the use of techniques such as separation of variables and integration of first order differential equations, which resulted in a function that described the glucose concentration in terms of time. This function was then plotted, which allowed us to find when glucose concentration was at its highest. The model was then used to analyze two cases where the maximum glucose level could not exceed a certain level while the amount of carbohydrates and glycemic index were varied, independently.

  16. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin; Desler, Claus; Bendix, Laila; Budtz-Jørgensen, Esben; Molbo, Drude; Croteau, Deborah L; Osler, Merete; Stevnsner, Tinna; Rasmussen, Lene Juel; Dela, Flemming; Avlund, Kirsten; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2013-11-01

    Low vitality (a component of fatigue) in middle-aged and older adults is an important complaint often identified as a symptom of a disease state or side effect of a treatment. No studies to date have investigated the potential link between dysfunctional mitochondrial ATP production and low vitality. Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, and deoxyribonucleotide (dNTP) balance in PBMCs. The population was drawn from the Metropolit cohort of men born in 1953. Vitality level was estimated from the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 36 (SF-36) vitality scale. We found that vitality score had no association with any of the mitochondrial respiration parameters. However, vitality score was inversely associated with cellular ROS production and cellular deoxythymidine triphosphate (dTTP) levels and positively associated with deoxycytidine triphosphate (dCTP) levels. We conclude that self-reported persistent low vitality is not associated with specific aspects of mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation capacity in PBMCs, but may have other underlying cellular dysfunctions that contribute to dNTP imbalance and altered ROS production.

  17. Regional placental blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) changes with gestational age in normally developing pregnancies using long duration R2* mapping in utero

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dighe, Manjiri; Kim, Yun Jung; Seshamani, Sharmishtaa; Blazejewska, Ania I.; Mckown, Susan; Caucutt, Jason; Gatenby, Christopher; Studholme, Colin

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the use of R2* mapping in maternal and fetal sub-regions of the placenta with the aim of providing a reference for blood oxygenation levels during normative development. There have been a number of MR relaxation studies of placental tissues in-utero, but none have reported R2* value changes with age, or examined differences in sub-regions of the placenta. Here specialized long-duration Multi-frame R2* imaging was used to create a stable estimate for R2* values in different placental regions in healthy pregnant volunteers not imaged for clinical reasons. 27 subjects were recruited and scanned up to 3 times during their pregnancy. A multi-slice dual echo EPI based BOLD acquisition was employed and repeated between 90 and 150 times over 3 to 5 minutes to provide a high accuracy estimate of the R2* signal level. Acquisitions were also repeated in 13 cases within a visit to evaluate reproducibility of the method in a given subject. Experimental results showed R2* measurements were highly repeatable within a visit with standard deviation of (0.76). Plots of all visits against gestational age indicated clear correlations showing decreases in R2* with age. This increase was consistent was also consistent over time in multiple visits of the same volunteer during their pregnancy. Maternal and fetal regional changes with gestational age followed the same trend with increase in R2* over the gestational age.

  18. Blood lead levels and chronic blood loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manci, E.A.; Cabaniss, M.L.; Boerth, R.C.; Blackburn, W.R.

    1986-03-01

    Over 90% of lead in blood is bound to the erythrocytes. This high affinity of lead for red cells may mean that chronic blood loss is a significant means for excretion of lead. This study sought correlations between blood lead levels and clinical conditions involving chronic blood loss. During May, June and July, 146 patients with normal hematocrits and red cell indices were identified from the hospital and clinic populations. For each patient, age, race, sex and medical history were noted, and a whole blood sample was analyzed by flameless atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Age-and race-matched pairs showed a significant correlation of chronic blood loss with lead levels. Patients with the longest history of blood loss (menstruating women) had the lowest level (mean 6.13 ..mu..g/dl, range 3.6-10.3 ..mu..g/dl). Post-menopausal women had levels (7.29 ..mu..g/dl, 1.2-14 ..mu..g/dl) comparable to men with peptic ulcer disease, or colon carcinoma (7.31 ..mu..g/dl, 5.3-8.6 ..mu..g/dl). The highest levels were among men who had no history of bleeding problems (12.39 ..mu..g/dl, 2.08-39.35 ..mu..g/dl). Chronic blood loss may be a major factor responsible for sexual differences in blood lead levels. Since tissue deposition of environmental pollutants is implicated in diseases, menstruation may represent a survival advantage for women.

  19. Evidence of cortical reorganization of language networks after stroke with subacute Broca's aphasia: a blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Wei-hong; Wu, Hui-xiang; Yang, Qing-lu; Kang, Zhuang; Chen, Zhao-cong; Li, Kui; Qiu, Guo-rong; Xie, Chun-qing; Wan, Gui-fang; Chen, Shao-qiong

    2017-01-01

    Aphasia is an acquired language disorder that is a common consequence of stroke. The pathogenesis of the disease is not fully understood, and as a result, current treatment options are not satisfactory. Here, we used blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate the activation of bilateral cortices in patients with Broca's aphasia 1 to 3 months after stroke. Our results showed that language expression was associated with multiple brain regions in which the right hemisphere participated in the generation of language. The activation areas in the left hemisphere of aphasia patients were significantly smaller compared with those in healthy adults. The activation frequency, volumes, and intensity in the regions related to language, such as the left inferior frontal gyrus (Broca's area), the left superior temporal gyrus, and the right inferior frontal gyrus (the mirror region of Broca's area), were lower in patients compared with healthy adults. In contrast, activation in the right superior temporal gyrus, the bilateral superior parietal lobule, and the left inferior temporal gyrus was stronger in patients compared with healthy controls. These results suggest that the right inferior frontal gyrus plays a role in the recovery of language function in the subacute stage of stroke-related aphasia by increasing the engagement of related brain areas. PMID:28250756

  20. A neural measure of behavioral engagement: task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent activity in the precuneus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Sheng; Li, Chiang-Shan Ray

    2010-01-15

    Brain imaging has provided a useful tool to examine the neural processes underlying human cognition. A critical question is whether and how task engagement influences the observed regional brain activations. Here we highlighted this issue and derived a neural measure of task engagement from the task-residual low-frequency blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) activity in the precuneus. Using independent component analysis, we identified brain regions in the default circuit - including the precuneus and medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) - showing greater activation during resting as compared to task residuals in 33 individuals. Time series correlations with the posterior cingulate cortex as the seed region showed that connectivity with the precuneus was significantly stronger during resting as compared to task residuals. We hypothesized that if the task-residual BOLD activity in the precuneus reflects engagement, it should account for a certain amount of variance in task-related regional brain activation. In an additional experiment of 59 individuals performing a stop signal task, we observed that the fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (fALFF) of the precuneus but not the mPFC accounted for approximately 10% of the variance in prefrontal activation related to attentional monitoring and response inhibition. Taken together, these results suggest that task-residual fALFF in the precuneus may be a potential indicator of task engagement. This measurement may serve as a useful covariate in identifying motivation-independent neural processes that underlie the pathogenesis of a psychiatric or neurological condition.

  1. Design and Development of Anti-Spoofing based measurement of Heart Rate, Temperature and Blood Oxygen level using Low Cost Microcontroller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vipin Gupta

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The instrument which is used in home or in clinics should be cost effective and provide quality of health services. The medical industry is growing in terms of integration. Individual instruments are very costly so the need arises of making a device which has low cost and it measures some of physiological parameters of the body in a single device. This paper describes the design and development of a device which combines three physiological parameters of body i.e. heart rate, arterial blood oxygen concentration and body temperature. The output is displayed on LCD using low cost microcontroller.

  2. Relationships between human vitality and mitochondrial respiratory parameters, reactive oxygen species production and dNTP levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maynard, Scott; Keijzers, Guido; Gram, Martin;

    2013-01-01

    Low vitality (a component of fatigue) in middle-aged and older adults is an important complaint often identified as a symptom of a disease state or side effect of a treatment. No studies to date have investigated the potential link between dysfunctional mitochondrial ATP production and low vitality....... Therefore, we measured a number of cellular parameters related to mitochondrial activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) isolated from middle-aged men, and tested for association with vitality. These parameters estimate mitochondrial respiration, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production...

  3. Temporally shifted hemodynamic response model helps to extract acupuncture-induced functional magnetic resonance imaging blood oxygenation-level dependent activities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tsung-Jung Ho; Jeng-Ren Duann; Chun-Ming Chen; Jeon-Hor Chen; Wu-Chung Shen; Tung-Wu Lu; Jan-Ray Liao; Zen-Pin Lin; Kuo-Ning Shaw; Jaung-Geng Lin

    2009-01-01

    Background The onsets of needling sensation introduced by acupuncture stimulus can vary widely from subject to subject.This should be explicitly accounted for by the model blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) time course used in general linear model (GLM) analysis to obtain more consistent across-subject group results.However,in standard GLM analysis,the model BOLD time course obtained by convolving a canonical hemodynamic response function with an experimental paradigm time course is assumed identical across subjects.Although some added-on properties to the model BOLD time course,such as temporal and dispersion derivatives,may be used to account for different BOLD response onsets,they can only account for the BOLD onset deviations to the extent of less than one repetition time (TR).Methods In this study,we explicitly manipulated the onsets of model BOLD time course by shifting it with-2,-1,or 1 TR and used these temporally shifted BOLD model to analyze the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data obtained from three acupuncture fMRI experiments with GLM analysis.One involved acupuncture stimulus on left ST42acupoint and the other two on left GB40 and left BL64 acupoints.Results The model BOLD time course with temporal shifts,in addition to temporal and dispersion derivatives,could result in better statistical power of the data analysis in terms of the average correlation coefficients between the used BOLD models and extracted BOLD responses from individual subject data and the T-values of the activation clusters in the grouped random effects.Conclusions The GLM analysis with ordinary BOLD model failed to catch the large variability of the onsets of the BOLD responses associated with the acupuncture needling sensation.Shifts in time with more than a TR on model BOLD time course might be required to better extract the acupuncture stimulus-induced BOLD activities from individual fMRI data.

  4. Blood oxygenation-level dependent functional MRI in evaluating the selective activation of motor cortexes associated with recovery of motor function in hemiplegic patients with ischemic stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuechun Li; Xiaoyan Liu; Guorong Liu; Ying He; Baojun Wang; Furu Liang; Li Wang; Hui Zhang; Jingfen Zhang; Ruiming Li

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies about blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) functional MRI (fMRI) have indicated that the poststroke recovery of motor function is accompanied by the selective activation of motor cor texes with high correlation.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the short-term outcomes after rehabilitative interventions with BOLD fMRI in hemi plegic patients with acute stroke, and analyze the correlation of the excitement of brain function in the passive and active movements of the affected limb with the recovery of motor function. DESIGN : A case observation. SETTING: Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Thirty hemiplegic inpatients with ischemic stroke were selected from the Department of Neurology, Baotou Central Hospital from January to December in 2005, including 16 males and 14 females, aging 44-71 years with an average age of (56±5) years, and the disease course ranged from 12 to 72 hours. Inclusive criteria: In accordance with the diagnostic standard of ischemic stroke revised by the Fourth National Academic Meeting for Cerebrovascular Disease; Confirmed by cranial CT or MRI. They were all informed agreed with the detected items.METHODS: ① The Bobath technique was adopted in the rehabilitative interventions of the 30 patients, 30 minutes for each time, twice a day for three weeks continuously. ② The hand motor recovery of the stroke patients was graded by the Brunnstrom,stages ( Ⅰ -Ⅵ), and be able to grasp various objects and extend for the whole range was taken as grade Ⅵ. ③ The patients were examined with fMRI BOLD before rehabilitation and 3 weeks after rehabilitation. All the patients were trained with finger movements, the distracting thoughts should be eliminated as much as possible especially during the movement phase, the patients should highly concentrate on the hand movements. The range for the finger movements should be as large as possible with moderate frequency. The hand movements should be 10 s with

  5. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar Print A ... Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar levels ( ...

  6. Optoacoustic measurements of human placenta and umbilical blood oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nanovskaya, T. N.; Petrov, I. Y.; Petrov, Y.; Patrikeeva, S. L.; Ahmed, M. S.; Hankins, G. D. V.; Prough, D. S.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2016-03-01

    Adequate oxygenation is essential for normal embryogenesis and fetal growth. Perturbations in the intrauterine oxidative environment during pregnancy are associated with several pathophysiological disorders such as pregnancy loss, preeclampsia, and intrauterine growth restriction. We proposed to use optoacoustic technology for monitoring placental and fetal umbilical blood oxygenation. In this work, we studied optoacoustic monitoring of oxygenation in placenta and umbilical cord blood ex vivo using technique of placenta perfusion. We used a medical grade, nearinfrared, tunable, optoacoustic system developed and built for oxygenation monitoring in blood vessels and in tissues. First, we calibrated the system for cord blood oxygenation measurements by using a CO-Oximeter (gold standard). Then we performed validation in cord blood circulating through the catheters localized on the fetal side of an isolated placental lobule. Finally, the oxygenation measurements were performed in the perfused placental tissue. To increase or decrease blood oxygenation, we used infusion of a gas mixture of 95% O2 + 5% CO2 and 95% N2 + 5% CO2, respectively. In placental tissue, up to four cycles of changes in oxygenation were performed. The optoacoustically measured oxygenation in circulating cord blood and in placental lobule closely correlated with the actual oxygenation data measured by CO-Oximeter. We plan to further test the placental and cord blood oxygenation monitoring with optoacoustics in animal and clinical studies.

  7. Monitoring Blood Sugar: The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Monitoring Blood Sugar KidsHealth > For Parents > Monitoring Blood Sugar A ... Other Tests Record Keeping The Importance of Checking Blood Sugar Levels Besides helping to keep blood sugar ...

  8. Blood oxygen content in microliter samples using an easy-to-build galvanic oxygen cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubb, B R; Mills, C D

    1981-02-01

    We have designed a simple, inexpensive, easy-to-build and operate apparatus for measuring blood oxygen content. The galvanic oxygen cell (fuel cell) requires as little as 1 microliter of blood and has a measuring time of 1-3 min. It is well suited for measuring oxygen content in fluids low in oxygen inasmuch as the sensitivity of the instrument is variable. Either air or water (at a known temperature and oxygen tension) can be used for calibration. No significant differences in blood oxygen content measured with our cell or the Van Slyke manometric method were found.

  9. Simulation of blood oxygenation in capillary membrane oxygenators using modified sulfite solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabesh, Hadi; Amoabediny, Ghasem; Rasouli, Ali; Ramedani, Arash; Poorkhalil, Ali; Kashefi, Ali; Mottaghy, Khosrow

    2014-12-01

    Blood oxygenation is the main performance characteristic of capillary membrane oxygenators (CMOs). Handling of natural blood in in vitro investigations of CMOs is quite complex and time-consuming. Since the conventional blood analog fluids (e.g. water/glycerol) lack a substance with an affinity to capture oxygen comparable to hemoglobin's affinity, in this study a novel approach using modified sulfite solution is proposed to address this challenge. The solution comprises sodium sulfite as a component, simulating the role of hemoglobin in blood oxygenation. This approach is validated by OTR (oxygen transfer rate) measured using native porcine blood, in two types of commercially available CMOs. Consequently, the number of complicated natural blood investigations in the evolution procedure of newly developed oxygenators would considerably decrease. Moreover, the reassessing of failed devices, in clinics, would be performed more precisely using a modified sulfite solution than simple water/glycerol testing.

  10. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morinet, Frédéric; Casetti, Luana; François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude; Pillet, Sylvie

    2013-09-01

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition.

  11. Modeling of cerebral oxygen transport based on in vivo microscopic imaging of microvascular network structure, blood flow and oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louis Gagnon

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is delivered to brain tissue by a dense network of microvessels, which actively control cerebral blood flow (CBF through vasodilation and contraction in response to changing levels of neural activity. Understanding these network-level processes is immediately relevant for (1 interpretation of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI signals, and (2 investigation of neurological diseases in which a deterioration of neurovascular and neuro-metabolic physiology contributes to motor and cognitive decline. Experimental data on the structure, flow and oxygen levels of microvascular networks are needed, together with theoretical methods to integrate this information and predict physiologically relevant properties that are not directly measurable. Recent progress in optical imaging technologies for high-resolution in vivo measurement of the cerebral microvascular architecture, blood flow, and oxygenation enables construction of detailed computational models of cerebral hemodynamics and oxygen transport based on realistic three-dimensional microvascular networks. In this article, we review state-of-the-art optical microscopy technologies for quantitative in vivo imaging of cerebral microvascular structure, blood flow and oxygenation, and theoretical methods that utilize such data to generate spatially resolved models for blood flow and oxygen transport. These bottom-up models are essential for the understanding of the processes governing brain oxygenation in normal and disease states and for eventual translation of the lessons learned from animal studies to humans.

  12. Oxygen tension level and human viral infections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morinet, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.morinet@sls.aphp.fr [Centre des Innovations Thérapeutiques en Oncologie et Hématologie (CITOH), CHU Saint-Louis, Paris (France); Université Denis Diderot, Sorbonne Paris Cité Paris, Paris (France); Casetti, Luana [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); François, Jean-Hugues; Capron, Claude [Institut Cochin INSERM U1016, Paris (France); Laboratoire d' Hématologie, Hôpital Ambroise Paré, Boulogne (France); Université de Versailles Saint-Quentin en Yvelynes, Versailles (France); Pillet, Sylvie [Laboratoire de Bactériologie-Virologie-Hygiène, CHU de Saint-Etienne, Saint-Etienne (France); Université de Lyon et Université de Saint-Etienne, Jean Monnet, GIMAP EA3064, F-42023 Saint-Etienne, Lyon (France)

    2013-09-15

    The role of oxygen tension level is a well-known phenomenon that has been studied in oncology and radiotherapy since about 60 years. Oxygen tension may inhibit or stimulate propagation of viruses in vitro as well as in vivo. In turn modulating oxygen metabolism may constitute a novel approach to treat viral infections as an adjuvant therapy. The major transcription factor which regulates oxygen tension level is hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1α). Down-regulating the expression of HIF-1α is a possible method in the treatment of chronic viral infection such as human immunodeficiency virus infection, chronic hepatitis B and C viral infections and Kaposi sarcoma in addition to classic chemotherapy. The aim of this review is to supply an updating concerning the influence of oxygen tension level in human viral infections and to evoke possible new therapeutic strategies regarding this environmental condition. - Highlights: • Oxygen tension level regulates viral replication in vitro and possibly in vivo. • Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1α) is the principal factor involved in Oxygen tension level. • HIF-1α upregulates gene expression for example of HIV, JC and Kaposi sarcoma viruses. • In addition to classical chemotherapy inhibition of HIF-1α may constitute a new track to treat human viral infections.

  13. Impact of red blood cell transfusion on global and regional measures of oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberson, Russell S; Bennett-Guerrero, Elliott

    2012-01-01

    Anemia is common in critically ill patients. Although the goal of transfusion of red blood cells is to increase oxygen-carrying capacity, there are contradictory results about whether red blood cell transfusion to treat moderate anemia (e.g., hemoglobin 7-10 g/dL) improves tissue oxygenation or changes outcomes. Whereas increasing levels of anemia eventually lead to a level of critical oxygen delivery, increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction are homeostatic mechanisms the body uses to prevent a state of dysoxia in the setting of diminished oxygen delivery due to anemia. In order for cardiac output to increase in the face of anemia, normovolemia must be maintained. Transfusion of red blood cells increases blood viscosity, which may actually decrease cardiac output (barring a state of hypovolemia prior to transfusion). Studies have generally shown that transfusion of red blood cells fails to increase oxygen uptake unless oxygen uptake/oxygen delivery dependency exists (e.g., severe anemia or strenuous exercise). Recently, near-infrared spectroscopy, which approximates the hemoglobin saturation of venous blood, has been used to investigate whether transfusion of red blood cells increases tissue oxygenation in regional tissue beds (e.g., brain, peripheral skeletal muscle). These studies have generally shown increases in near-infrared spectroscopy derived measurements of tissue oxygenation following transfusion. Studies evaluating the effect of transfusion on the microcirculation have shown that transfusion increases the functional capillary density. This article will review fundamental aspects of oxygen delivery and extraction, and the effects of red blood cell transfusion on tissue oxygenation as well as the microcirculation.

  14. T2DM 患者夜间低氧与血糖的关系及无创通气治疗对 OWD 患者昼夜血糖的影响%The relationship between nocturnal oxygen desaturation and blood sugar level and noninvasive ventilation therapy effect on the blood sugar level of OWD patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何忠明; 陈龙; 石娟; 阿力旦毛达汗; 雷清生; 韩芳

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨2型糖尿病(T2DM)患者夜间低氧与血糖的关系及无创通气治疗对2型糖尿病合并睡眠呼吸暂停低通气综合征(OWD)患者昼夜血糖的影响。方法对750例 T2DM 打鼾患者进行夜间脉搏-氧饱和度监测,根据夜间出现低氧情况分为夜间低氧组(484例)与无夜间低氧组(266例),对两组患者年龄、体质指数(BMI)、颈围、腹围、空腹血糖(FBG)进行分析,并对7例 OWD 患者进行睡眠监测、脉搏血氧监测及96 h 动态血糖监测(CGMS),呼吸机无创通气治疗48 h 前后,比较 OWD 患者昼夜血糖变化。结果夜间低氧组和夜间无低氧组 BMI 分别为(27.2±4.8)、(25.5±3.0)kg/m2,颈围分别为(36.7±3.8)、(35.7±3.0)cm,腰围分别为(94.3±11.5)、(89.1±11.1)cm,空腹血糖分别为(6.9±2.4)、(6.5±2.0)mol/L,组间差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05)。7例 OWD 患者无创通气治疗前后,昼夜动态动态血糖水平差异有统计学意义(P <0.05)。结论T2DM 患者空腹血糖与夜间低氧相关,无创通气治疗可以降低 OWD 患者昼夜血糖水平。%Objective To study the relationship of nocturnal oxygen desaturation and blood sugar level,and the effects noninvasive ventilation(NIV)therapy on the blood sugar level of OWD.Methods 750 snoring patients were received the nocturnal oxygen desaturation test.According the test results,the 750 patients were divided into:the normal and the low nocturnal oxygen desaturation group,to compare the BMI,neck circumference,abdominal circumference and the blood sugar.The blood sugar level were measured and compared before and after the nocturnal NIV therapy.Results The results showed:(1)There were sig-nificant differences between the normal and the low nocturnal oxygen desaturation group on the body mass [(27.2±4.8)kg/m2 vs.(25.5±3.9)kg/m2 ],neck circumference [(36.7

  15. Why control blood glucose levels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossini, A A

    1976-03-01

    The controversy as to the relationship between the degree of control of diabetes and the progression of the complications of the disease has not been solved. However, in this review, various studies suggesting a relationship between the metabolic abnormality and the diabetic complications are examined. The disadvantages of the uncontrolled diabetes mellitus can be divided into two major categories-short-term and long-term. The short-term disadvantages of controlled diabetes mellitus include the following: (1) ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar coma; (2) intracellular dehydration; (3) electrolyte imbalance; (4) decreased phagocytosis; (5) immunologic and lymphocyte activity; (6) impairment of wound healing; and (7) abnormality of lipids. The long-term disadvantages of uncontrolled diabetes melitus include the following: (1) nephropathy; (2) neuropathy; (3) retinopathy; (4) cataract formation; (5) effect on perinatal mortality; (6) complications of vascular disease; and (7) the evaluation of various clinical studies suggesting the relationship of elevated blood glucose levels and complications of diabetes mellitus. It is suggested that until the question of control can absolutely be resolved, the recommendation is that the blood glucose levels should be controlled as close to the normal as possible.

  16. Blood-Oxygenation-Level-Dependent-(BOLD- Based R2′ MRI Study in Monkey Model of Reversible Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Zhang

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the value of BOLD-based reversible transverse relaxation rate (R2′ MRI in detecting ischemic penumbra (IP in a monkey model of reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO and time evolution of relative R2′ (rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia. Materials and Methods. 6 monkeys were used to make MCAO by the microcatheter method. MR scans were performed at 0 h (1 h after MCAO, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h, 12 h, 24 h, and 48 h after reperfusion. R2′ was calculated using quantitative T2 and T2∗ maps. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core, IP and oligemia. rR2′ was calculated respectively. Results. Reversible MCAO model for 4/6 monkeys was made successfully. rR2′ values were significantly different at each time point, being highest in oligemia followed by IP and infarcted core (<.05. With reperfusion time evolution, rR2′ in infarcted core showed a decreased trend: sharply decreased within 6 hours and maintained at 0 during 6–48 hours (<.05. rR2′ values in IP and oligemia showed similar increased trend: sharply increased within 6 hours, maintained a plateau during 6–24 hours, and slightly increased until 48 hours. Conclusion. BOLD-based R2′ MRI can be used to describe changes of cerebral oxygen extract in acute ischemic stroke, and it can provide additional information in detecting IP. The time evolution rR2′ in infarcted core, IP, and oligemia is in accordance with the underlying pathophysiology.

  17. A model for oxygen-dependent backscattering spectroscopic contrast from single red blood cells (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongrong; Yi, Ji; Chen, Siyu; Zhang, Hao F.; Backman, Vadim

    2016-03-01

    The oxygen-dependent absorption of hemoglobin provides the fundamental contrast for all label-free techniques measuring blood oxygenation. When hemoglobin is packaged into red blood cells (RBCs), the structure of the cells creates light scattering which also depends on the absorption based on the Kramers-Kronig relationship. Thus a proper characterization of the optical behaviors of blood has been a key to any accurate measurement of blood oxygenation, particularly at the capillary level where RBCs are dispersed individually in contrast to a densely packed whole blood. Here we provided a theoretical model under Born Approximation to characterize the oxygen dependent backscattering spectroscopic contrast from single RBCs. Using this theoretical model, we conducted simulations on both oxygenated and deoxygenated single RBCs with different sizes for standard and possible deformed cell geometries in blood flow, all which suggested similar backscattering spectroscopic contrast and were confirmed by Mie Theory and experiments using visible Optical Coherence Tomography (visOCT). As long as the cell size satisfies Gaussian distribution with a coefficient variance (C.V.) large enough, there is clear absorption contrast between the backscattering spectra of oxygenated and deoxygenated single RBCs calculated by this model, so oxygen saturation can then be characterized. Thus, this theoretical model can be extended to extract absorption features of other scattering particles as long as they satisfy Born Approximation.

  18. Cerebral blood oxygenation changes induced by visual stimulation in humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, Rudiger; Obrig, Hellmuth; Ruben, Jan; Villringer, Kersten; Thiel, Andreas; Bernarding, Johannes; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Villringer, Arno

    1996-10-01

    We examined local changes of cerebral oxygenation in response to visual stimuli by means of near infrared spectroscopy. A sharply outlined colored moving stimulus which is expected to evoke a broad activation of the striate and prestriate cortex was presented to sixteen healthy subjects. Six of these subjects were also exposed to a colored stationary and a gray stationary stimulus. In two subjects the colored moving stimulus was tested against the colored stationary with an optode position presumably over area V5/MT. As a control condition, subjects performed a simple finger opposition task. Since the calcarine fissure varies greatly with respect to bony landmarks, optodes were positioned individually according to 3D reconstructed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Concentration changes in oxyhemoglobin (oxy-Hb) and deoxyhemoglobin (deoxy-Hb) were continuously monitored with a temporal resolution of 1 s, using an NIRO 500. In response to the visual stimulus, the grand average across all sixteen subjects resulted in a significant increase in oxy-Hb of 0.33 +/- 0.09 arbitrary units mirrored by a significant decrease in deoxy-Hb of -0.18 +/- 0.02 arbitrary units, while the motor control condition elicited no significant changes in any parameters. When the near infrared spectroscopy probes were positioned over area V5/MT, the drop of deoxy-Hb associated with the moving stimulus was significantly more pronounced than with the stationary stimulus in both subjects examined. No significant differences between the visual stimuli were observed at the optode position close to the calcarine fissure. The oxygenation changes observed in this study are consistent with the pattern we have reported for motor activation. They are in line with physiological considerations and functional MRI studies relying on blood oxygenation level-dependent contrast.

  19. Blood flow regulation and oxygen uptake during high intensity forearm exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyberg, Stian Kwak; Berg, Ole Kristian; Helgerud, Jan; Wang, Eivind

    2017-01-05

    The vascular strain is very high during heavy handgrip exercise, but the intensity and kinetics to reach peak blood flow, and peak oxygen uptake, are uncertain. We included 9 young (25±2yr) healthy males to evaluate blood flow and oxygen uptake responses during continuous dynamic handgrip exercise with increasing intensity. Blood flow was measured using Doppler-ultrasound and venous blood was drawn from a deep forearm vein to determine arteriovenous oxygen difference (a-vO2diff) during 6-minutes bouts of 60, 80 and 100% of maximal work rate (WRmax), respectively. Blood flow and oxygen uptake increased (pBlood velocity (49.5±11.5 cm∙sec(-1) to 58.1±11.6 cm∙sec(-1)) and brachial diameter (0.49±0.05cm to 0.50±0.06 cm) showed concomitant increases (pblood flow from 60% to 80%WRmax, while no differences were observed in a-vO2diff Shear rate also increased (pblood flow (60%WRmax:50±22s; 80%WRmax:51±20s; 100%WRmax:51±23s) than a-vO2diff (60%WRmax:29±9s; 80%WRmax:29±5s; 100%WRmax:20±5s), but not different from oxygen uptake (60%WRmax:44±25s; 80%WRmax:43±14s; 100%WRmax:41±32s). No differences were observed in MRT for blood flow or oxygen uptake with increased exercise intensity. In conclusion, when approaching maximal intensity, oxygen uptake appeared to reach a critical level at ~80% of WRmax and be regulated by blood flow. This implies that high, but not maximal, exercise intensity may be an optimal stimulus for shear stress-induced small muscle mass training adaptations.

  20. Which blood oxygen can sensitively indicate shock severity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Boan; Li, Kai; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    Clinical shock-monitoring mainly depends on measuring oxygen saturations from SVC blood samples invasively. The golden standard indicator is the central internal jugular vein oxygenation (SjvO2). Using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) also can monitor shock in some papers published, but there is no discussion about which oxygen saturation (cerebral venous oxygen saturation, ScvO2; tissue oxygen saturation of internal jugular area; tissue oxygen saturation of extremities areas) can monitor shock patient more sensitively and accurately. The purpose of this paper is to examine which one is most effective. In order to discuss the problem, we continuously detected 56 critical patients who may be into shock state using NIRS oximeter at prefrontal, internal jugular vein area and forearm, and chose 24 patients who were into shock and then out of shock from the 56 critical patients. Combined with the patients' condition, the pulse oxygen saturation is most sensitively to monitoring shock than the others, and the internal jugular vein area oxygen saturation is most effective.

  1. Photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy for assessing red blood cell aggregation and oxygenation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hysi, Eno; Saha, Ratan K.; Kolios, Michael C.

    2012-12-01

    Red blood cell (RBC) aggregation and oxygenation are important markers for a variety of blood disorders. No current technique is capable of simultaneously measuring aggregation/oxygenation levels noninvasively. We propose using photoacoustic ultrasound spectroscopy (PAUS) for assessing both phenomena. This technique relies on frequency-domain analysis of the PA signals by extracting parameters such as the ultrasound spectral slope and the midband fit. To investigate the effect of hematocrit, aggregation, and oxygenation levels on PAUS parameters, a Monte Carlo-based theoretical model and an experimental protocol using porcine RBCs were developed. The samples were illuminated at 750 and 1064 nm and changes in the PAUS parameters were compared to the oxygen-dependent optical absorption coefficients to assess the oxygenation level. Good agreement between the theoretical and experimental spectral parameters was obtained for the spectral slope of the nonaggregated spectra (˜0.3 dB/MHz). The experimental midband fit increased by ˜5 dB for the largest aggregate size. Based on the analysis of the PA signals, the oxygen saturation level of the most aggregated sample was >20% greater than the nonaggregated sample. The results provide a framework for using PA signals' spectroscopic parameters for monitoring the aggregation and oxygenation levels of RBCs.

  2. Blood creatinine level in postmortem cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishida, Atsushi; Funaki, Hironao; Kobayashi, Masaki; Tanaka, Yuka; Akasaka, Yoshihisa; Kubo, Toshikazu; Ikegaya, Hiroshi

    2015-05-01

    Blood chemical analysis for the diagnosis of diseases in forensic cases should be conducted in the same way as for clinical cases. However, it is sometimes difficult to obtain serum samples in forensic cases because of postmortem changes such as hemolysis and putrefaction. This study aimed to evaluate renal function in postmortem cases by blood creatinine analysis. The blood creatinine level was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using whole blood samples taken from 77 postmortem cases, and the relationships between blood creatinine level, postmortem interval, and cause of death were examined. The median blood creatinine level was found to be 1.15 mg/dL, with no significant differences between blood samples taken from different parts of the body. The blood creatinine level was stable for 3 days after death and gradually increased after that period, in line with a previous study using enzymatic analysis that found the serum creatinine level was stable in the early postmortem period. The blood creatinine level was high in the cases of blunt injury, intoxication, and in deaths caused by fire. This was considered to reflect acute renal dysfunction. However, the postmortem blood creatinine level remained higher than the clinical normal value despite omitting cases with renal dysfunction from the analysis. Therefore, we next investigated the change in postmortem creatinine levels in mice and found that the blood creatinine level increased with the emergence of rigor mortis. Our findings indicate that HPLC is useful in the postmortem evaluation of renal function even in the cases where serum cannot be obtained. However, the presence of rigor mortis should be considered in the evaluation of blood creatinine values.

  3. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyriacou, P. A.; Shafqat, K.; Pal, S. K.

    2007-10-01

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO2 sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures. Both pulse

  4. Arterial blood oxygen saturation during blood pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyriacou, P A [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Shafqat, K [School of Engineering and Mathematical Sciences, City University, London EC1V 0HB (United Kingdom); Pal, S K [St Andrew' s Centre for Plastic Surgery and Burns, Broomfield Hospital, Chelmsford, CM1 7ET (United Kingdom)

    2007-10-15

    Pulse oximetry has been one of the most significant technological advances in clinical monitoring in the last two decades. Pulse oximetry is a non-invasive photometric technique that provides information about the arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) and heart rate, and has widespread clinical applications. When peripheral perfusion is poor, as in states of hypovolaemia, hypothermia and vasoconstriction, oxygenation readings become unreliable or cease. The problem arises because conventional pulse oximetry sensors must be attached to the most peripheral parts of the body, such as finger, ear or toe, where pulsatile flow is most easily compromised. Pulse oximeters estimate arterial oxygen saturation by shining light at two different wavelengths, red and infrared, through vascular tissue. In this method the ac pulsatile photoplethysmographic (PPG) signal associated with cardiac contraction is assumed to be attributable solely to the arterial blood component. The amplitudes of the red and infrared ac PPG signals are sensitive to changes in arterial oxygen saturation because of differences in the light absorption of oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin at these two wavelengths. From the ratios of these amplitudes, and the corresponding dc photoplethysmographic components, arterial blood oxygen saturation (SpO{sub 2}) is estimated. Hence, the technique of pulse oximetry relies on the presence of adequate peripheral arterial pulsations, which are detected as photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pressure cuff-induced hypoperfusion on photoplethysmographic signals and arterial blood oxygen saturation using a custom made finger blood oxygen saturation PPG/SpO{sub 2} sensor and a commercial finger pulse oximeter. Blood oxygen saturation values from the custom oxygen saturation sensor and a commercial finger oxygen saturation sensor were recorded from 14 healthy volunteers at various induced brachial pressures

  5. Limitations of potentiometric oxygen sensors operating at low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Anders; Jacobsen, Torben; Hansen, Karin Vels;

    2011-01-01

    The electrochemical processes that limit the range of oxygen partial pressures in which potentiometric oxygen sensors can be used, were analysed using a theoretical and an experimental approach. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was performed on porous Pt/yttria stabilised zirconia (YSZ......) electrodes between 10−6 and 0.2 bar and at temperatures between 500 and 950 °C. The flow of oxide ions and electron holes through a sensor cell, with a YSZ electrolyte, were calculated under similar conditions. The oxygen permeation of the sensor cell was insignificant at an oxygen partial pressure of 10......−6 bar for an inlet flow rate higher than 2 L h−1 between 600 and 800 °C. The polarisation resistance measured between 10−6 and 10−4 bar was found to be inversely proportional to the oxygen partial pressure, nearly temperature independent and inversely proportional to the inlet gas flow rate, which shows...

  6. [Effects of breathing high concentrations of oxygen on changes in blood indices during bicycle exercise].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, A; Yoshida, M; Fuke, T; Miyazato, I; Shiba, K

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine effects of hyperoxic gas mixtures on changes of blood indices during bicycle exercise of human. Oxygen-enriched gases (30% O2) were inspired during the ramp load exercise of 25 watt/min. Changes of blood indices were analyzed with Sequential Multiple Analyzer with the computer (SMAC). The improvement of exercise performance were discussed about relationship between function of hyperoxic gas and physiological mechanism. Three experimental conditions were set as follows (I) 30% O2 +N2 gases balance, (II) air (21% O2), and (III) 30% O2 +2% CO2 +N2 gases balance. Arterial blood were sampled from the radial artery of the forearm in order to analyze following items; 1) pH level, PaO2, PaCO2, and HCO3 of these blood gases, 2) Blood sugar, TG, and F-CH of the blood contents, 3) red blood corpuscle, white blood corpuscle, Hb, and Ht values, 4) LDH, CK, GOT, and GPT of the blood enzymes, 5) TP, ALB, Na, K, Ca and Cl of the electric ions. In the case of inspiring hyperoxic gases, the recovery rate of blood indices increased after this ramp load exercise remarkably, and the whole exercise metabolism were removed from acidosis tendency to alkalosis value of the resting condition significantly. At hyperoxic experimental conditions, the blood sugar and oxygen consumption were much more decreased than these at normal oxygen content one during both states of exercise and recovery times. These data of the blood indices would support strongly to the hypothesis that improvement of oxygen delivery should be depended upon the enhanced performance with the hyperoxic gases. There might be effects of the hyperoxia on the cellular metabolism and on function of the vascular muscle during those aerobic exercise.

  7. Low-Chlorinated Non-Dioxin-like Polychlorinated Biphenyls Present in Blood and Breast Milk Induce Higher Levels of Reactive Oxygen Species in Neutrophil Granulocytes than High-Chlorinated Congeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Hanne Friis; Fonnum, Frode; Walaas, Sven Ivar; Bogen, Inger Lise

    2016-12-01

    Despite their ban several decades ago, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) still pose a health threat to human beings due to their persistent and accumulative nature and continued presence in the environment. Non-dioxin-like (NDL)-PCBs have earlier been found to have effects on the immune system, including human neutrophil granulocytes. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between ortho-chlorinated NDL-PCBs with a low or high degree of chlorination in their capability to induce the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in human neutrophil granulocytes in vitro. We used some of the congeners occurring at the highest levels in blood, breast milk and food: PCB 52 representing the low-chlorinated congeners and PCB 180 the high-chlorinated congeners. In addition, the extensively studied PCB 153 was included as a reference compound. ROS production was assessed with the luminol-amplified chemiluminescence and DCF fluorescence assays. The involvement of intracellular signalling mechanisms was investigated using different pharmacological substances. At high concentrations (10-20 μM), PCB 52 induced more ROS than PCB 153 and PCB 180. The role of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 and/or ERK 5 signalling in PCB-induced ROS production was implicated through the reduction in ROS in the presence of the specific inhibitor U0126, whereas reduced ROS production after the use of SB203580 and SP600125 indicated the involvement of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and c-Jun amino-terminal kinase (JNK) pathways, respectively. In addition, the calcineurin inhibitor FK-506, the intracellular calcium chelator BAPTA-AM and the antioxidant vitamin E reduced the levels of ROS. The intracellular signalling mechanisms involved in ROS production in human neutrophil granulocytes appeared to be similar for PCB 52, PCB 153 and PCB 180. Based on the results from the present and previous studies, we conclude that for abundant ortho-chlorinated PCBs

  8. Noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring: clinical test of multiwavelength optoacoustic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrov, Y. Y.; Prough, D. S.; Petrova, I.; Patrikeev, I. A.; Cicenaite, I.; Esenaliev, R. O.

    2007-02-01

    Continuous monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation is critically important for treatment of patients with life-threatening conditions like severe brain injury or during cardiac surgery. We designed and built a novel multiwavelength optoacoustic system for noninvasive, continuous, and accurate monitoring of cerebral blood oxygenation. We use an Optical Parametric Oscillator as a light source. We successfully tested the system in vitro as well as in vivo in large animals (sheep) through thick tissues overlying blood vessels which drain venous blood out of the brain (e.g., superior sagittal sinus or jugular vein). Here we present the results of clinical tests of the system for continuous noninvasive cerebral blood oxygenation monitoring in the internal jugular vein of healthy volunteers. We applied our custom-built optoacoustic probe (which incorporated a wide-band acoustic transducer and an optical fiber) to the neck area overlying the internal jugular vein. We performed measurements with volunteers at 18 wavelengths in the near-infrared spectral range. Despite a thick layer of overlying connective tissue and low energy used in the experiments, we recorded signals with high signal-to-noise ratios for all volunteers. We found that the temporal (independent of signal amplitude) parameters of recorded profiles for different levels of blood oxygenation correlated well with the spectrum of effective attenuation coefficients of blood.

  9. Correlation between Oxygen Saturation and Hemoglobin and Hematokrit Levels in Tetralogy of Fallot Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhatul Inayah Adiputri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Hemoglobin and hematocrit levels increase in Tetralogy of Fallot (TOF but the oxygen saturation declines. Reduced hemoglobin in circulating blood as a parameter of cyanosis does not indicate rising hemoglobin due to the ‘not-working’ hemoglobins that affect the oxygen saturation. Increasing hematocrit is the result of secondary erythrocytosis caused by declining oxygen level in blood, which is related to the oxygen saturation. This study was conducted to find the correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin and hematocrite levels in TOF patients. Methods: This study was undertaken at Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital in the period of January 2011 to December 2012 using the cross-sectional analytic method with total sampling technique. Inclusion criteria were medical records of TOF patients diagnosed based on echocardiography that included data on oxygen saturation, hemoglobin, and hematocrite. Exclusion criteria was the history of red blood transfusion. Results: Thirty medical records of TOF patiens from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Bandung were included in this study. Due to skewed data distribution, Spearman correlation test was used to analyze the data. There was a significant negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrit level (r= -0.412; p=0.024 and insignificant correlation between oxygen saturation and hemoglobin (r=-0.329; p= 0.076. Conclusions: There is a weak negative correlation between oxygen saturation and hematocrite levels

  10. The Cumulative Influence of Hyperoxia and Hypercapnia on Blood Oxygenation and R2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faraco, Carlos C.; Strother, Megan K.; Siero, JCW; Arteaga, Daniel F.; Scott, Allison O.; Jordan, Lori C.; Donahue, Manus J.

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)-weighted blood-oxygenation-level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) experiments are frequently used in conjunction with hyperoxia. Owing to complex interactions between hyperoxia and hypercapnia, quantitative effects of these gas mixtures on BOLD respons

  11. Oxygenation and Blood Volume Periodic Waveforms in the Brain

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir

    2011-01-01

    Results of an experiment are presented whose aim is to explore the relationship between respiration and cerebral oxygenation. Measurements of end tidal CO2 (EtCO2) were taken simultaneously with cerebral oxygen saturation (rSO2) using the INVOS Cerebral Oximeter of Somanetics. Due to the device limitations we could explore only subjects who could perform with a breathing rate of around 2/min or less. Six subjects were used who were experienced in yoga breathing techniques. They performed an identical periodic breathing exercise including periodicity of about 2/min. The results of all six subjects clearly show a periodic change of cerebral oxygenation with the same period as the breathing exercises. Similar periodic changes in blood volume index were observed as well.

  12. Myocytes oxygenation and high energy phosphate levels during hypoxia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nurulqadr Jameel

    Full Text Available Decrease of ambient oxygen level has been used in myocytes culture experiments in examining the responsiveness to stress secondary to hypoxia. However, none of these studies measure the myocytes oxygenation levels resulting in ambiguity as to whether there is insufficient oxygen delivery. This study examined the hypothesis that at a basal myocardial work state, adequate myocyte oxygenation would be maintained until extremely low arterial pO2 levels were reached. Myocyte pO2 values in normal dogs were calculated from the myocardial deoxymyoglobin (Mb- δ levels using (1H-spectroscopy (MRS and were normalized to Mb-δ obtained after complete LAD occlusion. During Protocol 1 (n = 6, Mb-δ was measured during sequential reductions of the oxygen fraction of inspired gas (FIO2 from 40, 21, 15, 10, and 5%, while in protocol 2 (n = 10 Mb-δ was measured at FIO2 of 3%. Protocol 3 (n = 9 evaluated time course of Mb-δ during prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5%. Myocardial blood flow (MBF was measured with microspheres and high energy phosphate (HEP levels were determined with (31P-MRS. MVO2 progressively increased in response to the progressive reduction of FIO2 that is accompanied by increased LV pressure, heart rate, and MBF. Mb-δ was undetectable during FIO2 values of 21, 15, 10, and 5%. However, FIO2 of 3% or prolonged exposure to FIO2 of 5% caused progressive increases of Mb-δ which were associated with decreases of PCr, ATP and the PCr/ATP ratio, as well as increases of inorganic phosphate. The intracellular PO2 values for 20% reductions of PCr and ATP were approximately 7.4 and 1.9 mmHg, respectively. These data demonstrate that in the in vivo system over a wide range of FIO2 and arterial pO2 levels, the myocyte pO2 values remain well above the K(m value with respect to cytochrome oxidase, and oxygen availability does not limit mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation at 5% FIO2.

  13. The jumbo squid, Dosidicus gigas (Ommastrephidae), living in oxygen minimum zones II: Blood-oxygen binding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seibel, Brad A.

    2013-10-01

    Dosidicus gigas is a large, metabolically active squid that migrates across a strong oxygen and temperature gradient in the Eastern Pacific. Here we analyze the oxygen-binding properties of the squid's respiratory protein (hemocyanin, Hc) that facilitate such activity. A high Hc-oxygen affinity, strong temperature dependence, and pronounced pH sensitivity (P50=0.009T2.03, pH 7.4; Bohr coefficient=ΔlogP50/ΔpH=-1.55+0.034T) of oxygen binding facilitate night-time foraging in the upper water column, and support suppressed oxygen demand in hypoxic waters at greater depths. Expanding hypoxia may act to alter the species habitable depth range. This analysis supports the contention that ocean acidification could limit oxygen carrying capacity in squids at warmer temperature leading to reduced activity levels or altered distribution.

  14. Retinal hemodynamic oxygen reactivity assessed by perfusion velocity, blood oximetry and vessel diameter measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klefter, Oliver Niels; Lauritsen, Anne Øberg; Larsen, Michael

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: To test the oxygen reactivity of a fundus photographic method of measuring macular perfusion velocity and to integrate macular perfusion velocities with measurements of retinal vessel diameters and blood oxygen saturation. METHODS: Sixteen eyes in 16 healthy volunteers were studied at two...... examination sessions using motion-contrast velocimetry and retinal oximetry with vessel diameter corrections. To test oxygen reactivity, participants were examined during normoxia, after 15 min of hyperoxia and finally after 45 min of normoxia. Repeatability was assessed by intraclass correlation coefficients...... retinal arterial oxygen saturation from 95.1 ± 5.0% to 96.6 ± 6.4% (p = 0.038) and increased retinal venous oxygen saturation from 62.9 ± 6.7% to 70.3 ± 7.8% (p = 0.0010). Parameters returned to baseline levels after subsequent normoxia. Saturation and vessel diameter ICCs were 0.88-0.98 (range...

  15. Hyperestrogenemia and increased blood mercury level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Viroj Wiwanitkit

    2012-01-01

    Hyperestrogenemia is an important reproductive hormone abnormality. This condition is not common in male patients. In this report, the author presents a case study on hyperestrogenemia with increased blood mercury level. The metalloestrogen phenomenon is discussed.

  16. Brain oxygen saturation assessment in neonates using T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderliesten, Thomas; De Vis, Jill B; Lemmers, Petra Ma; Hendrikse, Jeroen; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank; Benders, Manon Jnl; Petersen, Esben T

    2017-03-01

    Although near-infrared spectroscopy is increasingly being used to monitor cerebral oxygenation in neonates, it has a limited penetration depth. The T2-prepared Blood Imaging of Oxygen Saturation (T2-BIOS) magnetic resonance sequence provides an oxygen saturation estimate on a voxel-by-voxel basis, without needing a respiratory calibration experiment. In 15 neonates, oxygen saturation measured by T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation and near-infrared spectroscopy were compared. In addition, these measures were compared to cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus. A strong linear relation was found between the oxygen saturation measured by magnetic resonance imaging and the oxygen saturation measured by near-infrared spectroscopy ( R(2 )= 0.64, p infrared spectroscopy oxygen saturation, and magnetic resonance imaging measures of frontal cerebral blood flow, whole brain cerebral blood flow and venous oxygen saturation in the sagittal sinus ( R(2 )= 0.71, 0.50, 0.65; p infrared spectroscopy and T2-prepared blood imaging of oxygen saturation, confirming the validity of using of these techniques for determining cerebral oxygenation.

  17. Noninvasive optical quantification of absolute blood flow, blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate in exercising skeletal muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurley, Katelyn; Shang, Yu; Yu, Guoqiang

    2012-07-01

    This study investigates a method using novel hybrid diffuse optical spectroscopies [near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS)] to obtain continuous, noninvasive measurement of absolute blood flow (BF), blood oxygenation, and oxygen consumption rate (\\Vdot O2) in exercising skeletal muscle. Healthy subjects (n=9) performed a handgrip exercise to increase BF and \\Vdot O2 in forearm flexor muscles, while a hybrid optical probe on the skin surface directly monitored oxy-, deoxy-, and total hemoglobin concentrations ([HbO2], [Hb], and THC), tissue oxygen saturation (StO2), relative BF (rBF), and relative oxygen consumption rate (r\\Vdot O2). The rBF and r\\Vdot O2 signals were calibrated with absolute baseline BF and \\Vdot O2 obtained through venous and arterial occlusions, respectively. Known problems with muscle-fiber motion artifacts in optical measurements during exercise were mitigated using a novel gating algorithm that determined muscle contraction status based on control signals from a dynamometer. Results were consistent with previous findings in the literature. This study supports the application of NIRS/DCS technology to quantitatively evaluate hemodynamic and metabolic parameters in exercising skeletal muscle and holds promise for improving diagnosis and treatment evaluation for patients suffering from diseases affecting skeletal muscle and advancing fundamental understanding of muscle and exercise physiology.

  18. Effects of acetazolamide on cerebral blood flow and brain tissue oxygenation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, N A; Friberg, L; Kastrup, J

    1987-01-01

    Oral administration of 1 g of acetazolamide to 8 normal subjects studied at sea level and in normoxia caused an acute increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF). During the subsequent prolonged oral treatment with 1 g of acetazolamide daily, CBF returned to normal within 2 days. The alveolar CO2 tension...... decreased gradually to 70% of the control value, indicating hyperventilation. At sea level hyperventilation will not increase brain oxygenation significantly in normal man, as the arterial oxygen content only increases minimally, while CBF is unchanged. At high altitude the beneficial effects...... of acetazolamide on the symptoms of acute mountain sickness may well be due to an improved oxygen supply to the brain, as hyperventilation will, at the low ambient PO2, cause a significant increase of the arterial oxygen content, while CBF presumably is unaffected by the drug. During hypoxia at high altitude...

  19. A blood-oxygenation-dependent increase in blood viscosity due to a static magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toru; Nagayama, Yuki; Tamura, Mamoru

    2004-07-21

    As the magnetic field of widely used MR scanners is one of the strongest magnetic fields to which people are exposed, the biological influence of the static magnetic field of MR scanners is of great concern. One magnetic interaction in biological subjects is the magnetic torque on the magnetic moment induced by biomagnetic substances. The red blood cell is a major biomagnetic substance, and the blood flow may be influenced by the magnetic field. However, the underlying mechanisms have been poorly understood. To examine the mechanisms of the magnetic influence on blood viscosity, we measured the time for blood to fall through a glass capillary inside and outside a 1.5 T MR scanner. Our in vitro results showed that the blood viscosity significantly increased in a 1.5 T MR scanner, and also clarified the mechanism of the interaction between red blood cells and the external magnetic field. Notably, the blood viscosity increased depending on blood oxygenation and the shear rate of the blood flow. Thus, our findings suggest that even a 1.5 T magnetic field may modulate blood flow.

  20. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in the Rett syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshikawa, Hideto; Fueki, Noboru; Suzuki, Hisaharu; Sakuragawa, Norio; Iio, Masaaki (National Central Hospital for Mental, Nervous and Muscular Disorders, Tokyo (Japan))

    1992-05-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on six patients with the Rett syndrome and the results were compared with the concurrent clinical status of the patients. The cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) was low in five patients, and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) was low in four patients; both had a tendency to decline with advancing age. Although the cause is unknown, it is suggested that impaired oxidative metabolism exists in the Rett syndrome. An analysis of the distribution among brain regions showed that the ratios of values for the frontal cortex to those for the temporal cortex for both the cerebral blood flow (CBF) and CMRO{sub 2} were lower than those for the controls, which may indicate the loss of of hyperfrontality in the Rett syndrome. Distribution of brain metabolism may be immature in the Rett syndrome. (author).

  1. Effects of Hemoglobin-Based Oxygen Carriers on Blood Coagulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kimia Roghani

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available For many decades, Hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs have been central in the development of resuscitation agents that might provide oxygen delivery in addition to simple volume expansion. Since 80% of the world population lives in areas where fresh blood products are not available, the application of these new solutions may prove to be highly beneficial (Kim and Greenburg 2006. Many improvements have been made to earlier generation HBOCs, but various concerns still remain, including coagulopathy, nitric oxide scavenging, platelet interference and decreased calcium concentration secondary to volume expansion (Jahr et al. 2013. This review will summarize the current challenges faced in developing HBOCs that may be used clinically, in order to guide future research efforts in the field.

  2. From artificial red blood cells, oxygen carriers, and oxygen therapeutics to artificial cells, nanomedicine, and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Thomas M S

    2012-06-01

    The first experimental artificial red blood cells have all three major functions of red blood cells (rbc). However, the first practical one is a simple polyhemoglobin (PolyHb) that only has an oxygen-carrying function. This is now in routine clinical use in South Africa and Russia. An oxygen carrier with antioxidant functions, PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase, can fulfill two of the three functions of rbc. Even more complete is one with all three functions of rbc in the form of PolyHb-catalase-superoxide dismutase-carbonic anhydrase. The most advanced ones are nanodimension artificial rbc with either PEG-lipid membrane or PEG-PLA polymer membrane. Extensions into oxygen therapeutics include a PolyHb-tyrosinase that suppresses the growth of melanoma in a mice model. Another is a PolyHb-fibrinogen that is an oxygen carrier with platelet-like function. Research has now extended well beyond the original research on artificial rbc into many areas of artificial cells. These include nanoparticles, nanotubules, lipid vesicles, liposomes, polymer-tethered lipid vesicles, polymersomes, microcapsules, bioencapsulation, nanocapules, macroencapsulation, synthetic cells, and others. These are being used in nanotechnology, nanomedicine, regenerative medicine, enzyme/gene therapy, cell/stem cell therapy, biotechnology, drug delivery, hemoperfusion, nanosensers, and even by some groups in agriculture, industry, aquatic culture, nanocomputers, and nanorobotics.

  3. Blood Transfusion Strategies in Patients Undergoing Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyoung Soo Kim

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO is frequently associated with bleeding and coagulopathy complications, which may lead to the need for transfusion of multiple blood products. However, blood transfusions are known to increase morbidity and mortality, as well as hospital cost, in critically ill patients. In current practice, patients on ECMO receive a transfusion, on average, of 1-5 packed red blood cells (RBCs/day, with platelet transfusion accounting for the largest portion of transfusion volume. Generally, adult patients require more transfusions than neonates or children, and patients receiving venovenous ECMO for respiratory failure tend to need smaller transfusion volumes compared to those receiving venoarterial ECMO for cardiac failure. Observation studies have reported that a higher transfusion volume was associated with increased mortality. To date, the evidence for transfusion in patients undergoing ECMO is limited; most knowledge on transfusion strategies was extrapolated from studies in critically ill patients. However, current data support a restrictive blood transfusion strategy for ECMO patients, and a low transfusion trigger seems to be safe and reasonable.

  4. The cumulative influence of hyperoxia and hypercapnia on blood oxygenation and R2*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraco, Carlos C; Strother, Megan K; Siero, Jeroen CW; Arteaga, Daniel F; Scott, Allison O; Jordan, Lori C; Donahue, Manus J

    2015-01-01

    Cerebrovascular reactivity (CVR)-weighted blood-oxygenation-level-dependent magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-MRI) experiments are frequently used in conjunction with hyperoxia. Owing to complex interactions between hyperoxia and hypercapnia, quantitative effects of these gas mixtures on BOLD responses, blood and tissue R2*, and blood oxygenation are incompletely understood. Here we performed BOLD imaging (3 T; TE/TR=35/2,000 ms; spatial resolution=3 × 3 × 3.5 mm3) in healthy volunteers (n=12; age=29±4.1 years) breathing (i) room air (RA), (ii) normocapnic–hyperoxia (95% O2/5% N2, HO), (iii) hypercapnic–normoxia (5% CO2/21% O2/74% N2, HC-NO), and (iv) hypercapnic–hyperoxia (5% CO2/95% O2, HC-HO). For HC-HO, experiments were performed with separate RA and HO baselines to control for changes in O2. T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI was used to calculate basal venous oxygenation. Signal changes were quantified and established hemodynamic models were applied to quantify vasoactive blood oxygenation, blood–water R2*, and tissue–water R2*. In the cortex, fractional BOLD changes (stimulus/baseline) were HO/RA=0.011±0.007; HC-NO/RA=0.014±0.004; HC-HO/HO=0.020±0.008; and HC-HO/RA=0.035±0.010; for the measured basal venous oxygenation level of 0.632, this led to venous blood oxygenation levels of 0.660 (HO), 0.665 (HC-NO), and 0.712 (HC-HO). Interleaving a HC-HO stimulus with HO baseline provided a smaller but significantly elevated BOLD response compared with a HC-NO stimulus. Results provide an outline for how blood oxygenation differs for several gas stimuli and provides quantitative information on how hypercapnic BOLD CVR and R2* are altered during hyperoxia. PMID:26174329

  5. Longitudial observation of dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging combined with diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is initially used for visual cortex location.However, the application of fMRI in investigating the development of visual pathway lesions needs to be further observed.OBJECTIVE: This study is to longitudially observe the dynamic changes in cortical function and white matter fibrous structure of patients with visual pathway lesions by blood oxygenation level dependent-functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI) combined with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and to analyze the characteristics of brain function and structural recombination at convalescent period of lesions.DESIGN: Randomized controlled observation.SETTING: Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA.PARTICIPANTS: Eight patients with unilateral or bilateral visual disorder caused by visual pathway lesions,who admitted to Department of Radiology, the General Hospital of Nanjing Military Area Command of Chinese PLA from January to September 2006 were involved, and served as experimental subjects. The patients, 6 males and 2 females, were aged 16 - 67 years. They had visual disorder confirmed by clinical examination, i.e. visual pathway lesion, which was further diagnosed by MR or CT. Another 12 subjects generally matching to those patients of experimental group in gender, age and sight, who received health examination in synchronization were involved and served as controls. The subjects had no history of eye diseases. Their binocular visual acuity (or corrected visual acuity) was over 1.0. Both routine examination of ophthalmology and examination of fundus were normal. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: Signa Excite HD 1.5T magnetic resonance imaging system with 16 passages (GE Company,USA) and coil with 8 passages were used; brain functional stimulus apparatus (SAV-8800. Meide Company) was used for showing experimental mission. At the early stage

  6. Perfluorocarbon emulsion improves oxygen transport of normal and sickle cell human blood in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres Filho, Ivo P; Pedro, José Ricardo P; Narayanan, Srinivasan V; Nguyen, Nguyen M; Roseff, Susan D; Spiess, Bruce D

    2014-07-01

    Perfluorocarbons (PFC) are compounds with high gas solubility that could help deliver O2 to tissues and have been suggested as adjunct therapy to ischemia. Using a newly designed in vitro system, we tested the hypothesis that a third generation PFC emulsion (Oxycyte) increased O2 transport of blood by measuring changes in O2 extraction ratio. The system included a computer-controlled pump and blood-gas exchange chambers to oxygenate and deoxygenate the blood from nine sickle cell disease (SCD) patients and five healthy donors. The flowing blood reached various levels of hemoglobin O2 saturation and O2 partial pressures (PO2), measured using a CO-oximeter and a blood gas analyzer. The mixtures were kept at physiological blood pressure and temperature, constant flow, normobaric conditions, and FiO2 = 0.30. After adding PFC, the measurements suggested an increase in the transport of O2 and CO. Addition of PFC resulted in larger PO2 difference from 15 ± 2 mmHg to 23 ± 2 mmHg. Using normal blood and blood from SCD patients, the average O2 extraction ratio (O2ER) after PFC was significantly higher than baseline. Addition of saline did not cause statistically significant changes. The data suggest increased (facilitated) O2 transport by this PFC emulsion in both normal and SCD blood.

  7. Improving aeration for efficient oxygenation in sea bass sea cages. Blood, brain and gill histology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berillis Panagiotis

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An air diffusion based system (Airx was developed to control the dissolved oxygen levels in aquaculture sea cages. The system was introduced and then tested for 37 days in a sea bass sea cage (aerated cage. A second sea bass sea cage, without the AirX, was used as a control. Oxygen levels were measured in both cages at the start of the trial, before the AirX system was introduced, and during the working period of the AirX system. Fish samples were collected 15 days after the AirX system was introduced and at the end of the experiment. Blood smears were prepared and examined microscopically. Erythrocyte major axis, minor axis and area of fish erythrocytes were measured. Leucocyte differentiation was also examined. In the control cage, the fish had significantly larger red blood cells when compared with the red blood cells of the fish in the aerated cage. Histological examination of the gills and brain revealed no morphological differences or alterations between the two groups of fish. This study demonstrated that an air diffuser system could improve the water quality of fish farmed in sea cages and enhance sea bass physiological performance, especially if DO levels fall below 60% oxygen saturation.

  8. Umbilical cord blood mercury levels in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiqin Wu,; Chonghuai Yan; Jian Xu; Wei Wu; Hui Li; Xin Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a well-known neurotoxicant.Hg exposure at high levels can harm individuals of all ages.Even low level exposure to Hg can damage the brain of fetuses and young children,and affect their central nervous system and cognitive development.The aims of our study were to measure total Hg levels in infant umbilical cord blood and to investigate the risk factors associated with total Hg cord blood levels in various cities in China.Our goal was to provide clues for the prevention of Hg exposure in utero.The results indicated that the average cord blood mercury levels (CBMLs) were (1.81 ± 1.93) μg/L,which were lower than those found in most previous studies.The concentrations also differed according to geographic region.The CBMLs were not only associated with family economic and living conditions,but also with diet in pregnant women,especially the intake of marine fish,shellfish,poultry,formula milk and fruits.

  9. Effects of Different Exercise Intensities with Isoenergetic Expenditures on C-Reactive Protein and Blood Lipid Levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsao, Te Hung; Yang, Chang Bin; Hsu, Chin Hsing

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of different exercise intensities on C-reactive protein (CRP), and whether changes in CRP levels correlated with blood lipid levels. Ten men exercised at 25%, 65%, and 85% of their maximum oxygen consumption rates. Participants' blood was analyzed for CRP and blood lipid levels before and after the exercise sessions.…

  10. Blood lead levels of British competitive cyclists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkinson, G; Maclaren, D; Taylor, C

    1994-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the potentially toxic lead particulates emitted from motor vehicles are absorbed by competitive cyclists. A time trial (n = 5), a road race (n = 5), and a sedentary control group (n = 5) were examined with respect to blood lead (PbB) levels. In the two cycling groups, the PbB levels were measured before and after (1) a time trial (80 km) held on a dual carriageway; and (2) a road race (120 km) which took place in a rural area. Mean (+/- SE) resting PbB levels for the sedentary subjects, time trialists, and road racers were 0.442 +/- 0.041, 0.490 +/- 0.111 and 0.384 +/- 0.061 mumol l-1 respectively (p > 0.05). Mean post-race PbB levels of the time trialists (0.528 +/- 0.046 mumol l-1) and road racers (0.346 +/- 0.024 mumol l-1) did not differ significantly from the pre-race levels (p > 0.05). However, after their respective races, the mean PbB level of the time trialists was higher than that of the road racers (p cycling (70% VO2 max) in a laboratory containing approximately 1 microgram m3 of airborne lead did not affect blood lead levels. All PbB levels compiled with EC regulations regarding lead exposure. Despite a positive relationship between the amount of training and the PbB levels (r = 0.64, p road racing.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. A novel method of combining blood oxygenation and blood flow sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to measure the cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism responses to an unknown neural stimulus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron B Simon

    Full Text Available Simultaneous implementation of magnetic resonance imaging methods for Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD imaging makes it possible to quantitatively measure the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2 that occur in response to neural stimuli. To date, however, the range of neural stimuli amenable to quantitative analysis is limited to those that may be presented in a simple block or event related design such that measurements may be repeated and averaged to improve precision. Here we examined the feasibility of using the relationship between cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal to improve dynamic estimates of blood flow fluctuations as well as to estimate metabolic-hemodynamic coupling under conditions where a stimulus pattern is unknown. We found that by combining the information contained in simultaneously acquired BOLD and ASL signals through a method we term BOLD Constrained Perfusion (BCP estimation, we could significantly improve the precision of our estimates of the hemodynamic response to a visual stimulus and, under the conditions of a calibrated BOLD experiment, accurately determine the ratio of the oxygen metabolic response to the hemodynamic response. Importantly we were able to accomplish this without utilizing a priori knowledge of the temporal nature of the neural stimulus, suggesting that BOLD Constrained Perfusion estimation may make it feasible to quantitatively study the cerebral metabolic and hemodynamic responses to more natural stimuli that cannot be easily repeated or averaged.

  12. A novel method of combining blood oxygenation and blood flow sensitive magnetic resonance imaging techniques to measure the cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism responses to an unknown neural stimulus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Aaron B; Griffeth, Valerie E M; Wong, Eric C; Buxton, Richard B

    2013-01-01

    Simultaneous implementation of magnetic resonance imaging methods for Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) and Blood Oxygenation Level Dependent (BOLD) imaging makes it possible to quantitatively measure the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) that occur in response to neural stimuli. To date, however, the range of neural stimuli amenable to quantitative analysis is limited to those that may be presented in a simple block or event related design such that measurements may be repeated and averaged to improve precision. Here we examined the feasibility of using the relationship between cerebral blood flow and the BOLD signal to improve dynamic estimates of blood flow fluctuations as well as to estimate metabolic-hemodynamic coupling under conditions where a stimulus pattern is unknown. We found that by combining the information contained in simultaneously acquired BOLD and ASL signals through a method we term BOLD Constrained Perfusion (BCP) estimation, we could significantly improve the precision of our estimates of the hemodynamic response to a visual stimulus and, under the conditions of a calibrated BOLD experiment, accurately determine the ratio of the oxygen metabolic response to the hemodynamic response. Importantly we were able to accomplish this without utilizing a priori knowledge of the temporal nature of the neural stimulus, suggesting that BOLD Constrained Perfusion estimation may make it feasible to quantitatively study the cerebral metabolic and hemodynamic responses to more natural stimuli that cannot be easily repeated or averaged.

  13. The influence of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation on oxygen free radicals metabolism in rabbits with soman intoxication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation (UBIO) on the metabolism of oxygen free radicals in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. Methods: One hundred rabbits were randomly divided into 5 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group, UBIO therapy group and combined therapy group. After 14 d, the concentration of malondiadehyde (MDA) and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathionperoxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT)and total antioxidative capacity (T-AOC) in serum were determined respectively. Results: Compared with the normal control group, the concentration of MDA and activity of CAT in the intoxication group were significantly higher (P < 0. 05 ), but SOD, GSH-Px activity and T-AOC were significantly lower (P<0.05). After UBIO or combined therapy, serum MDA level was significantly lower in comparison with intoxication group (P<0.05), but the activity of SOD, GSH-Px, CAT and T AOC were higher than intoxication group(P<0.05). Conclusion: There is an obvious oxygen free radical injury in rabbits with acute soman intoxication. UBIO can improve the antioxidation ability of rabbits and may be applied to treat acute soman intoxication as adjunctive therapy.

  14. The relation between oxygen saturation level and retionopathy of prematurity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Gharavi Fard

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oxygen therapy used for preterm infant disease might be associated with oxygen toxicity or oxidative stress. The exact oxygen concentration to control and maintain the arterial oxygen saturation balance is not certainly clear. We aimed to compare the efficacy of higher or lower oxygen saturations on the development of severe retinopathy of prematurity which is a major cause of blindness in preterm neonates. Methods: PubMed was searched for obtaining the relevant articles. A total of seven articles were included after studying the titles, abstracts, and the full text of retrieved articles at initial search. Inclusion criteria were all the English language human clinical randomized controlled trials with no time limitation, which studied the efficacy of low versus high oxygen saturation measured by pulse oximetry in preterm infants.Result: It can be suggested that lower limits of oxygen saturations have higher efficacy at postmesetural age of ≤28 weeks in preterm neonates. This relation has been demonstrated in five large clinical trials including three Boost trials, COT, and Support.Discussion: Applying higher concentrations of oxygen supplementations at mesentural age ≥32 weeks reduced the development of retinopathy of prematurity. Lower concentrations of oxygen saturation decreased the incidence and the development of retinopathy of prematurity in preterm neonates while applied soon after the birth.Conclusions: Targeting levels of oxygen saturation in the low or high range should be performed cautiously with attention to the postmesentural age in preterm infants at the time of starting the procedures.

  15. Cerebral blood flow and oxygenation in infants after birth asphyxia. Clinically useful information?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Greisen, Gorm

    2014-01-01

    The term 'luxury perfusion' was coined nearly 50 years ago after observation of bright-red blood in the cerebral veins of adults with various brain pathologies. The bright-red blood represents decreased oxygen extraction and hence the perfusion is 'luxurious' compared to oxygen needs. Gradual loss...

  16. BLOOD COMPATIBILITY OF 2 DIFFERENT TYPES OF MEMBRANE-OXYGENATOR DURING CARDIOPULMONARY BYPASS IN INFANTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GU, YJ; BOONSTRA, PW; AKKERMAN, C; MUNGROOP, H; TIGCHELAAR, [No Value; VANOEVEREN, W

    1994-01-01

    The contact of blood with the artificial extracorporeal circuit causes a systemic inflammatory response due to blood activation. In this study, we compared two different paediatric membrane oxygenators used for extracorporeal circulation: a hollow fibre membrane oxygenator (Dideco Masterflo D-701, n

  17. High-affinity hemoglobin and blood oxygen saturation in diving emperor penguins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meir, Jessica U; Ponganis, Paul J

    2009-10-01

    The emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri) thrives in the Antarctic underwater environment, diving to depths greater than 500 m and for durations longer than 23 min. To examine mechanisms underlying the exceptional diving ability of this species and further describe blood oxygen (O2) transport and depletion while diving, we characterized the O2-hemoglobin (Hb) dissociation curve of the emperor penguin in whole blood. This allowed us to (1) investigate the biochemical adaptation of Hb in this species, and (2) address blood O2 depletion during diving, by applying the dissociation curve to previously collected partial pressure of O2 (PO2) profiles to estimate in vivo Hb saturation (SO2) changes during dives. This investigation revealed enhanced Hb-O2 affinity (P50=28 mmHg, pH 7.5) in the emperor penguin, similar to high-altitude birds and other penguin species. This allows for increased O2 at low blood PO2 levels during diving and more complete depletion of the respiratory O2 store. SO2 profiles during diving demonstrated that arterial SO2 levels are maintained near 100% throughout much of the dive, not decreasing significantly until the final ascent phase. End-of-dive venous SO2 values were widely distributed and optimization of the venous blood O2 store resulted from arterialization and near complete depletion of venous blood O2 during longer dives. The estimated contribution of the blood O2 store to diving metabolic rate was low and highly variable. This pattern is due, in part, to the influx of O2 from the lungs into the blood during diving, and variable rates of tissue O2 uptake.

  18. Oxygen consumption and blood flow coupling in human motor cortex during intense finger tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi Vafaee, Manouchehr; Vang, Kim; Bergersen, Linda H

    2012-01-01

    Rates of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and glucose consumption (CMR(glc)) rise in cerebral cortex during continuous stimulation, while the oxygen-glucose index (OGI) declines as an index of mismatched coupling of oxygen consumption (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen-CMRO(2)) to CBF and CMR...

  19. The effect of home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation on blood gas changes and the life quality in patients with overlap syndrome%家庭氧疗及双水平无创通气对重叠综合征患者血气分析结果和生活质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚桂飞; 冯加喜; 龚柳阳

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive ventilation ( BiPAP) on blood gas changes and life quality of patients with overlap syndrome. Methods 38 patients with home oxygen therapy treatment and 42 patients with BiPAP treatment were selected, and blood gas analysis ( pH, PaO2 ,and PaCO2 values) and questionnaire of life quality were used to analyze the home oxygen therapy and non-invasive bi-level positive ventilation (BiPAP) on blood gas changes and life quality. Results Blood pH and PaO2 of BiPAP group after treatment were significantly higher than those before treatment (P <0. 05). Blood PaCO2 of BiPAP group after treatment were significantly lower than those before treatment (P <0. 05) . There was no significant differ-ence between blood PH,PO2 and blood PaCO2 of home oxygen therapy group before and after treatment. Blood pH and PaO2 BiPAP group increased with time during the treatment period ( P < 0. 05 ) , and blood PaC02 of BiPAP group decreased gradually the normal level(P <0.05) ,there was no significant difference between blood pH,PaO2 and blood PaC02 of home oxygen therapy group during the treatment period. Life quality of the patients of BiPAP group significantly was improved,but not in the home oxygen therapy group. Conclusion The non-invasive bi-level positive pressure ventilation (BiPAP) can improve effect blood gas changes and life quality of patients with overlap syndrome more significant than the home oxygen therapy.%目的 探讨家庭氧疗及双水平无创通气对重叠综合征患者血气分析结果和生活质量的影响.方法 38例经家庭氧疗和42例经双水平无创通气治疗的重叠综合征患者,分析治疗前后患者血液中pH、PaO2,PaCO2值变化情况,并通过调查问卷方式分析治疗前后生活质量.结果 双水平无创通气组治疗后血pH和血PaO2均显著高于治疗前(均P<0.05),血PaCO2显著低于治疗前(P<0.05);家庭氧疗

  20. Blood flow mechanics and oxygen transport and delivery in the retinal microcirculation: multiscale mathematical modeling and numerical simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Causin, Paola; Guidoboni, Giovanna; Malgaroli, Francesca; Sacco, Riccardo; Harris, Alon

    2016-06-01

    The scientific community continues to accrue evidence that blood flow alterations and ischemic conditions in the retina play an important role in the pathogenesis of ocular diseases. Many factors influence retinal hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation, including blood pressure, blood rheology, oxygen arterial permeability and tissue metabolic demand. Since the influence of these factors on the retinal circulation is difficult to isolate in vivo, we propose here a novel mathematical and computational model describing the coupling between blood flow mechanics and oxygen ([Formula: see text]) transport in the retina. Albeit in a simplified manner, the model accounts for the three-dimensional anatomical structure of the retina, consisting in a layered tissue nourished by an arteriolar/venular network laying on the surface proximal to the vitreous. Capillary plexi, originating from terminal arterioles and converging into smaller venules, are embedded in two distinct tissue layers. Arteriolar and venular networks are represented by fractal trees, whereas capillary plexi are represented using a simplified lumped description. In the model, [Formula: see text] is transported along the vasculature and delivered to the tissue at a rate that depends on the metabolic demand of the various tissue layers. First, the model is validated against available experimental results to identify baseline conditions. Then, a sensitivity analysis is performed to quantify the influence of blood pressure, blood rheology, oxygen arterial permeability and tissue oxygen demand on the [Formula: see text] distribution within the blood vessels and in the tissue. This analysis shows that: (1) systemic arterial blood pressure has a strong influence on the [Formula: see text] profiles in both blood and tissue; (2) plasma viscosity and metabolic consumption rates have a strong influence on the [Formula: see text] tension at the level of the retinal ganglion cells; and (3) arterial [Formula: see text

  1. Forearm muscle oxygenation decreases with low levels of voluntary contraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Kahan, N. J.; Hargens, A. R.; Rempel, D. M.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of our investigation was to determine if the near infrared spectroscopy technique was sensitive to changes in tissue oxygenation at low levels of isometric contraction in the extensor carpi radialis brevis muscle. Nine subjects were seated with the right arm abducted to 45 degrees, elbow flexed to 85 degrees, forearm pronated 45 degrees, and wrist and forearm supported on an armrest throughout the protocol. Altered tissue oxygenation was measured noninvasively with near infrared spectroscopy. The near infrared spectroscopy probe was placed over the extensor carpi radialis brevis of the subject's right forearm and secured with an elastic wrap. After 1 minute of baseline measurements taken with the muscle relaxed, four different loads were applied just proximal to the metacarpophalangeal joint such that the subjects isometrically contracted the extensor carpi radialis brevis at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction for 1 minute each. A 3-minute recovery period followed each level of contraction. At the end of the protocol, with the probe still in place, a value for ischemic tissue oxygenation was obtained for each subject. This value was considered the physiological zero and hence 0% tissue oxygenation. Mean tissue oxygenation (+/-SE) decreased from resting baseline (100% tissue oxygenation) to 89 +/- 4, 81 +/- 8, 78 +/- 8, and 47 +/- 8% at 5, 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction, respectively. Tissue oxygenation levels at 10, 15, and 50% of the maximum voluntary contraction were significantly lower (p muscle contraction and that near infrared spectroscopy is a sensitive technique for detecting deoxygenation noninvasively at low levels of forearm muscle contraction. Our findings have important implications in occupational medicine because oxygen depletion induced by low levels of muscle contraction may be directly linked to muscle fatigue.

  2. Relationship between muscle oxygenation by NIRS and blood lactate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu Guodong [School of Physical Education, Jianghan University, Hubei Wuhan 430056 (China); Mao Zongzhen; Ye Yanjie; Lv Kunru, E-mail: xguodong@wipe.edu.cn [School of Health Sciences, Wuhan Institute of Physical Education, Hubei Wuhan 430079 (China)

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship of muscle oxygenation in term of oxy-hemoglobin concentration change ({Delta}HbO{sub 2}) by NIRS and blood lactate (BLA) in local skeletal muscle and evaluate the capability of NIRS in the research of exercise physiology Twenty-three athlete in the national fin-swimming team took the increasing load training on the power bicycle while their {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA were simultaneously recorded. The initial powers used in the training were set as 100 w for males and 40 w for females. During the experiment, the power kept constant for 3 min before each abrupt increment of 30 w until the limit of the athlete's capability. Statistical analysis and data visualization were performed. Following the increasing load training, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} step-likely increased in the phase of aerobic metabolism but linearly decreased in the phase of anaerobic metabolism. The variation tendency of BLA was the same as {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and the concurrency of crucial turning points between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA was revealed. This relationship between {Delta}HbO{sub 2} and BLA presented in the increasing load training suggested that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} might be capable for taking the place of the invasively measured parameter BLA. Considering that {Delta}HbO{sub 2} can be noninvasively measured by NIRS, {Delta}HbO{sub 2} has the potential in the evaluation of athletes' physiological function and training effect on the athletes and accordingly NIRS can be well used in this field.

  3. Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease: The relationship between regional cerebral blood flow, blood volume and oxygen metabolism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herold, S.

    1985-03-01

    Positron emission tomography in cerebrovascular disease has demonstrated the importance of the relationship between regional cerebral blood flow and the cerebral metabolic activity. In acute stroke it has been found that within the first hours after the onset of symptoms cerebral blood flow in the affected area is more depressed than cerebral oxygen utilisation. This relative preservation of oxygen utilisation results from an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio far above its normal value. However, the oxygen extraction fraction subsequently falls in the following days indicating the transition from a situation of possibly reversible ischaemia to irreversible infarction. In patients with carotid occlusive disease an increase in the oxygen extraction ratio has been observed only in very few cases. It has been shown, however, that at an earlier stage the relationship between CBF and CBV (as CBF/CBV-ratio) provides a sensitive measure of diminished perfusion pressure which could be helpful for the selection of patients for EC-IC bypass surgery. In patients with sickle cell anaemia it has been found that oxygen delivery to the brain is maintained by an increase in cerebral blood flow, whereas the oxygen extraction ratio is not increased despite the presence of a low oxygen affinity haemoglobin. Preliminary observations in classical migraine suggest an ischaemic situation during the attack.

  4. [Significance of considering hemoglobin derivatives and acid-base balance in the evaluation of the blood oxygen-transport system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matiushichev, V B; Shamratova, V G; Krapivko, Iu K

    2009-12-01

    Factor analysis was used to study the pattern of relationships of a number of hematological parameters in clinically healthy young subjects and in patients with moderate anemia. The level of total hemoglobin and the concentration of red blood cells were ascertained to control blood oxygen-transporting function in not full measure and these might be referred to as basic characteristics only conventionally. To clarify the picture, these criteria should be supplemented by the information on other parameters. It is concluded that the introduction of the ratio of a number of hemoglobin derivatives, blood oxygen regimen and acid-base balance can substantially increase the validity of clinical opinions as to this blood function.

  5. Protective coating and hyperthermal atomic oxygen texturing of optical fibers used for blood glucose monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Bruce A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Disclosed is a method of producing cones and pillars on polymethylmethacralate (PMMA) optical fibers for glucose monitoring. The method, in one embodiment, consists of using electron beam evaporation to deposit a non-contiguous thin film of aluminum on the distal ends of the PMMA fibers. The partial coverage of aluminum on the fibers is randomly, but rather uniformly distributed across the end of the optical fibers. After the aluminum deposition, the ends of the fibers are then exposed to hyperthermal atomic oxygen, which oxidizes the areas that are not protected by aluminum. The resulting PMMA fibers have a greatly increased surface area and the cones or pillars are sufficiently close together that the cellular components in blood are excluded from passing into the valleys between the cones and pillars. The optical fibers are then coated with appropriated surface chemistry so that they can optically sense the glucose level in the blood sample than that with conventional glucose monitoring.

  6. Sedation agents differentially modulate cortical and subcortical blood oxygenation: evidence from ultra-high field MRI at 17.2 T.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynn Uhrig

    Full Text Available Sedation agents affect brain hemodynamic and metabolism leading to specific modifications of the cerebral blood oxygenation level. We previously demonstrated that ultra-high field (UHF MRI detects changes in cortical blood oxygenation following the administration of sedation drugs commonly used in animal research. Here we applied the UHF-MRI method to study clinically relevant sedation drugs for their effects on cortical and subcortical (thalamus, striatum oxygenation levels.We acquired T2*-weighted images of Sprague-Dawley rat brains at 17.2T in vivo. During each MRI session, rats were first anesthetized with isoflurane, then with a second sedative agent (sevoflurane, propofol, midazolam, medetomidine or ketamine-xylazine after stopping isoflurane. We computed a T2*-oxygenation-ratio that aimed at estimating cerebral blood oxygenation level for each sedative agent in each region of interest: cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and striatum.The T2*-oxygenation-ratio was consistent across scan sessions. This ratio was higher with inhalational agents than with intravenous agents. Under sevoflurane and medetomidine, T2*-oxygenation-ratio was homogenous across the brain regions. Intravenous agents (except medetomidine induced a T2*-oxygenation-ratio imbalance between cortex and subcortical regions: T2*-oxygenation-ratio was higher in the cortex than the subcortical areas under ketamine-xylazine; T2*-oxygenation-ratio was higher in subcortical regions than in the cortex under propofol or midazolam.Preclinical UHF MRI is a powerful method to monitor the changes in cerebral blood oxygenation level induced by sedative agents across brain structures. This approach also allows for a classification of sedative agents based on their differential effects on cerebral blood oxygenation level.

  7. Oxygen Level and LFP in Task-Positive and Task-Negative Areas: Bridging BOLD fMRI and Electrophysiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bentley, William J; Li, Jingfeng M; Snyder, Abraham Z; Raichle, Marcus E; Snyder, Lawrence H

    2016-01-01

    The human default mode network (DMN) shows decreased blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in response to a wide range of attention-demanding tasks. Our understanding of the specifics regarding the neural activity underlying these "task-negative" BOLD responses remains incomplete. We paired oxygen polarography, an electrode-based oxygen measurement technique, with standard electrophysiological recording to assess the relationship of oxygen and neural activity in task-negative posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a hub of the DMN, and visually responsive task-positive area V3 in the awake macaque. In response to engaging visual stimulation, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity in PCC showed transient activation followed by sustained suppression. In V3, oxygen, LFP power, and multi-unit activity showed an initial phasic response to the stimulus followed by sustained activation. Oxygen responses were correlated with LFP power in both areas, although the apparent hemodynamic coupling between oxygen level and electrophysiology differed across areas. Our results suggest that oxygen responses reflect changes in LFP power and multi-unit activity and that either the coupling of neural activity to blood flow and metabolism differs between PCC and V3 or computing a linear transformation from a single LFP band to oxygen level does not capture the true physiological process.

  8. 共济失调患者手运动时脑激活区域的定量分析%Quantitative analysis of the hand motor cortex in ataxia patients using blood oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    元小冬; 王小洁; 王德; 赵丽君; 王守红

    2010-01-01

    Objective To study the characteristics of the hand motor cortex in ataxia patients during active and passive finger-to-thumb opposition movements using bold oxygenation level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD-fMRI). Methods Ten right-handed healthy volunteers and 16 ataxia patients with motor cortex lesions were selected, and whole-brain BOLD-fMRI examinations were made while the subjects were performing the active and passive movements. Activated volume and intensity were recorded from the corresponding motor cortex and analyzed quantitatively. Meanwhile, the patients' coordination was evaluated using the international cooperative ataxia rating scale (ICARS). Results During passive movement of the ataxia patient's affected hands, the ipsilateral supplementary motor area (SMA) activated volume was larger than that during normal ipsilateral hand movement, and the activation intensity was also higher than that in the healthy controls. The ipsilateral cerebellum activated volume and intensity were significantly lower than those in the control group, and the frequency of appearance of the cerebellum was also less. The patients' activated volume and intensity in the ipsilateral cerebellum showed no correlation with ICARS scores. Conclusions When the ataxia patients' affected side cerebellum was dysfunctional, the ipsilateral SMA could compensate for the weak cerebellum function. The ICARS does not reflect cerebellum function.%目的 利用血氧水平依赖性功能性磁共振成像(BOLD-fMRI)技术,探讨共济失调患者在主动与被动复杂对指运动模式下关键脑功能区激活体积和强度的变化.方法 选取共济失调患者16例作为病例组,另选10名健康志愿者作为正常组.入选者均进行主动与被动复杂对指运动,在这两种运动模式下进行BOLD-fMRl检查,记录相应脑运动功能区的激活体积和强度并进行定量分析.采用共济失调量表(ICARS)对共济失调患者的

  9. Signals Analysis and Clinical Validation of Blood and Oxygen Data in Human Brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Kai-yang; LIU Li-jun; WANG Xiang; QIN Zhao; XIE Ze-ping

    2005-01-01

    With a self-made near-infrared analytical instrument to blood and oxygen parameters in human brain, 80 cases in which 20 are healthy persons and 30are anaesthetised cases and others are patients with heart function lack is taken to examine, and the data of blood and oxygen in brain tissue were collected and analyzed by the method of power spectrum and correlation function. The results indicate that: (1) The average brain oxygen saturation of healthy persons and anaesthetised cases is about 80%, in accord with normal parameter of physiology. Contrastively, the average brain oxygen saturation of patients with heart function lack is 72. 8%, which is obviously less than that of healthy persons and anaesthetised cases. The probability of medical statistics is less than 0. 01. (2) The shapes of wave of brain blood and oxygen for the healthy person and the anaesthetised case reveal small periodical fluctuations with stable shape and base line, and the trend of increase or decrease of blood and oxygen parameters in brain tissue is synchronous and a phase reversal, but for the patient with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state, the shapes of wave are irregular. This is a hint that near infrared light passing through tissue can reflect the intuitionistic change of brain blood and oxygen parameters. (3) The power spectra of brain blood and oxygen for the healthy person and the anaesthetised case has a clear main peak, narrow bandwidth and perfect superposition each other, but the power spectra for the patient with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state is on the contrary. (4) The average cross correlation coefficient of brain blood and oxygen for healthy persons and anaesthetised cases is -0. 9825±0. 1027 close to -1. But the average cross correlation coefficient for patients with heart function lack in a brain oxygen lack state is merely -0. 8923± 0. 1035 which is obviously greater than -1 and the probability of medical statistics is less than 0. 01

  10. Image-based modeling of blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, Philip; Jensen, Oliver

    2016-11-01

    During pregnancy, oxygen diffuses from maternal to fetal blood through the placenta. At the smallest scale of the feto-placental vasculature are the "terminal villi", bulbous structures that are thought to be the main sites for oxygen transfer in the final trimester of pregnancy. The objective of this study is to investigate blood flow and oxygen transfer in the terminal villi of the placenta. Three-dimensional representations of villous and capillary surfaces, obtained from confocal laser scanning microscopy, are converted to finite-element meshes. Simulations of blood flow and oxygen transfer are performed to calculate the vascular flow resistance of the capillaries and the total oxygen transfer rate from the maternal blood. Scaling arguments, which predict the oxygen transfer across a range of Peclet numbers, are shown to be an efficient tool for quantifying the effect of statistical variability and experimental uncertainty. The effect of commonly observed localised dilations in the fetal vasculature on oxygen transfer is quantified using an idealised model in a simplified geometry. The model predicts how, for a fixed pressure drop through a capillary, oxygen transfer is maximised by an optimal shape of the dilation, leading to an increase in oxygen transfer of up to 15%.

  11. Investigation of tissue oxygenation by in vivo laser-induced photodissociation of cutaneous arterial blood oxyhemoglobin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, M. M.; Korolevich, A. N.

    2008-06-01

    A novel method of direct control of local tissue oxygenation based on laser-induced photodissociation of oxyhemoglobin in cutaneous blood vessels is discussed. New technology in selective and local increase of the concentration of free molecular oxygen in tissue that enhances metabolism of cells is demonstrated. Direct in vivo measurements of the tissue oxygen tension are carried out on human skin. Kinetics of oxygen tension in tissue is investigated under the effect of He-Ne laser radiation at the power of 1mW relatively to initial value of tissue oxygen tension. The results of experimental study the kinetics of oxygen distribution into tissue from arterial blood is presented. Biomedical applications of proposed new technology in laser therapy of pathologies where elimination of local tissue hypoxia is critical are discussed.

  12. Earliest land plants created modern levels of atmospheric oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Dahl, Tais W.; Daines, Stuart J.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.; Ozaki, Kazumi; Saltzman, Matthew R.; Porada, Philipp

    2016-08-01

    The progressive oxygenation of the Earth’s atmosphere was pivotal to the evolution of life, but the puzzle of when and how atmospheric oxygen (O2) first approached modern levels (˜21%) remains unresolved. Redox proxy data indicate the deep oceans were oxygenated during 435-392 Ma, and the appearance of fossil charcoal indicates O2 >15-17% by 420-400 Ma. However, existing models have failed to predict oxygenation at this time. Here we show that the earliest plants, which colonized the land surface from ˜470 Ma onward, were responsible for this mid-Paleozoic oxygenation event, through greatly increasing global organic carbon burial—the net long-term source of O2. We use a trait-based ecophysiological model to predict that cryptogamic vegetation cover could have achieved ˜30% of today’s global terrestrial net primary productivity by ˜445 Ma. Data from modern bryophytes suggests this plentiful early plant material had a much higher molar C:P ratio (˜2,000) than marine biomass (˜100), such that a given weathering flux of phosphorus could support more organic carbon burial. Furthermore, recent experiments suggest that early plants selectively increased the flux of phosphorus (relative to alkalinity) weathered from rocks. Combining these effects in a model of long-term biogeochemical cycling, we reproduce a sustained +2‰ increase in the carbonate carbon isotope (δ13C) record by ˜445 Ma, and predict a corresponding rise in O2 to present levels by 420-400 Ma, consistent with geochemical data. This oxygen rise represents a permanent shift in regulatory regime to one where fire-mediated negative feedbacks stabilize high O2 levels.

  13. Near-infrared spectroscopy measurement of blood oxygenation content and its application in sports practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guodong; Gong, Hui; Ge, Xinfa; Luo, Qingming

    2003-12-01

    To research the change characteristics of blood oxygenation content in skeletal muscle, the change regularity between blood oxygenation content and exercise intensity as well as HbO2 and blood lactate acid while taking incremental exercises, we took an in vivo, real-time and continuous measurement on the blood oxygenation content of eight sportsmen when they did incremental exercises of five degrees on a power bicycle using a portable tissue oximeter which is based on the principle of near-infrared spectroscopy(NIRS), simultaneously, we detected the blood lactate acid of subjects after each degree of incremental physical load instantly using a blood lactate analysis equipment. The results showed that the content of HbO2 descended regularly while that of Hb ascended; blood volume decreased; and the density of lactate increased as the intensity of exercises was heightened. The statistics analyses showed that the relationship between HbO2 and blood lactate is rather close (correlation coefficient r=-0.918). With this discovery, a theoretical basis in measuring the relative change of blood oxygenation content non-invasively was evidenced, and a novel technology for assessing the physical situation of sportsman, grasping sports density and evaluating the training effect could be imported.

  14. Extracorporeal blood oxygenation and ozonation: clinical and biological implications of ozone therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Paolo, N; Gaggiotti, E; Galli, F

    2005-01-01

    Some lines of evidence have suggested that the challenge to antioxidants and biomolecules provoked by pro-oxidants such as ozone may be used to generate a controlled stress response of possible therapeutic relevance in some immune dysfunctions and chronic, degenerative conditions. Immune and endothelial cells have been proposed to be elective targets of the positive molecular effects of ozone and its derived species formed during blood ozonation. On the bases of these underlying principles and against often prejudicial scepticism and concerns about its toxicity, ozone has been used in autohemotherapy (AHT) for four decades with encouraging results. However, clinical application and validation of AHT have been so far largely insufficient. Latterly, a new and more effective therapeutic approach to ozone therapy has been established, namely extracorporeal blood oxygenation and ozonation (EBOO). This technique, first tested in vitro and then in vivo in sheep and humans (more than 1200 treatments performed in 82 patients), is performed with a high-efficiency apparatus that makes it possible to treat with a mixture of oxygen-ozone (0.5-1 microg/ml oxygen) in 1 h of extracorporeal circulation up to 4800 ml of heparinized blood without technical or clinical problems, whereas only 250 ml of blood can be treated with ozone by AHT. The EBOO technique can be easily adapted for use in hemodialysis also. The standard therapeutic cycle lasts for 7 weeks in which 14 treatment sessions of 1 h are performed. After a session of EBOO, the interaction of ozone with blood components results in 4-5-fold increased levels of thiobarbituric acid reactants and a proportional decrease in plasma protein thiols without any appreciable erythrocyte haemolysis. On the basis of preliminary in vitro evidence, these simple laboratory parameters may represent a useful complement in the routine monitoring of biological compliance to the treatment. The clinical experience gained so far confirms the

  15. Evaluation of blood zinc, calcium and blood lead levels among children aged 1-36 months

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Xiaojun

    Full Text Available Background: Early childhood lead exposure is associated with numerous adverse health effects. Biomonitoring among susceptible populations, such as children, has not been previously conducted. The aim of the study is to evaluate the blood lead (Pb and total blood calcium (Ca levels; blood zinc (Zn levels. Methods: A cross-sectional study was designed to collect healthy children age 1-36 months (Mean ± SD: 1.5 ± 0.6 age, 60% boys in the study from January 2010 to September 2011. Results: The overall mean blood Pb levels were 42.18 ± 12.13 μg/L, the overall mean blood Zn and total blood Ca concentrations were 62.18 ± 12.33 μmol/L and 1.78 ± 0.13 mmol/L, respectively. The prevalence of elevated blood Pb levels in all children was 1.3%. A significant difference was found between female and male subjects for the blood Pb and Zn. After controlling for gender and age, there was a weak positive correlation between total blood Ca and Zn level. Conclusions: The blood Pb levels had a significant negative correlation with total blood Ca level after adjusting for age and gender, and these findings suggest that Pb had effect on positive blood Zn and total blood Ca levels; parents should pay more attention to the nutrition of girls.

  16. Effects of Intensified Vasodilatory Antihypertensive Treatment on Renal Function, Blood supply and Oxygenation in Chronic Kidney Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khatir, Dinah Sherzad; Pedersen, Michael; Ivarsen, Per

    2015-01-01

    Background: Progression of Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may result from tissue hypoxia induced by small artery structural narrowing, with increased renal vascular resistance (RVR) and impaired blood supply. We investigated whether vasodilating therapy (VT) is superior to non-vasodilating therapy...... (nonVT) for improvement of RVR, tissue oxygenation, and preservation of kidney function. Methods: Eighty-two hypertensive grade 3-4 CKD patients (glomerular filtration rate (GFR) 36±15 ml/min/1.73 m2) were randomised to renin-angiotensin inhibition combined with either VT (amlodipine) or nonVT (beta......-blocker metoprolol). At baseline and following 18 months of therapy we determined forearm resistance by venous occlusion plethysmography. Using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) renal artery blood flow was measured for calculation of RVR, and blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) MRI was used as a marker of renal...

  17. Alveolar gas exchange and tissue oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rissanen, Antti-Pekka E; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Koponen, Anne S; Aho, Jyrki M; Hägglund, Harriet; Lindholm, Harri; Peltonen, Juha E

    2012-01-01

    The magnitude and timing of oxygenation responses in highly active leg muscle, less active arm muscle, and cerebral tissue, have not been studied with simultaneous alveolar gas exchange measurement during incremental treadmill exercise. Nor is it known, if blood O(2) carrying capacity affects the tissue-specific oxygenation responses. Thus, we investigated alveolar gas exchange and tissue (m. vastus lateralis, m. biceps brachii, cerebral cortex) oxygenation during incremental treadmill exercise until volitional fatigue, and their associations with blood O(2) carrying capacity in 22 healthy men. Alveolar gas exchange was measured, and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to monitor relative concentration changes in oxy- (Δ[O(2)Hb]), deoxy- (Δ[HHb]) and total hemoglobin (Δ[tHb]), and tissue saturation index (TSI). NIRS inflection points (NIP), reflecting changes in tissue-specific oxygenation, were determined and their coincidence with ventilatory thresholds [anaerobic threshold (AT), respiratory compensation point (RC); V-slope method] was examined. Blood O(2) carrying capacity [total hemoglobin mass (tHb-mass)] was determined with the CO-rebreathing method. In all tissues, NIPs coincided with AT, whereas RC was followed by NIPs. High tHb-mass associated with leg muscle deoxygenation at peak exercise (e.g., Δ[HHb] from baseline walking to peak exercise vs. tHb-mass: r = 0.64, p capacity for blood O(2) carrying was associated with a high level of m. vastus lateralis deoxygenation at peak exercise.

  18. Rising levels of atmospheric oxygen and evolution of Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gacesa, Ranko; Dunlap, Walter C; Barlow, David J; Laskowski, Roman A; Long, Paul F

    2016-01-01

    In mammals, the master transcription regulator of antioxidant defences is provided by the Nrf2 protein. Phylogenetic analyses of Nrf2 sequences are used here to derive a molecular clock that manifests persuasive evidence that Nrf2 orthologues emerged, and then diverged, at two time points that correlate with well-established geochemical and palaeobiological chronologies during progression of the 'Great Oxygenation Event'. We demonstrate that orthologues of Nrf2 first appeared in fungi around 1.5 Ga during the Paleoproterozoic when photosynthetic oxygen was being absorbed into the oceans. A subsequent significant divergence in Nrf2 is seen during the split between fungi and the Metazoa approximately 1.0-1.2 Ga, at a time when oceanic ventilation released free oxygen to the atmosphere, but with most being absorbed by methane oxidation and oxidative weathering of land surfaces until approximately 800 Ma. Atmospheric oxygen levels thereafter accumulated giving rise to metazoan success known as the Cambrian explosion commencing at ~541 Ma. Atmospheric O2 levels then rose in the mid Paleozoic (359-252 Ma), and Nrf2 diverged once again at the division between mammals and non-mammalian vertebrates during the Permian-Triassic boundary (~252 Ma). Understanding Nrf2 evolution as an effective antioxidant response may have repercussions for improved human health.

  19. Amyloid β levels in human red blood cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takehiro Kiko

    Full Text Available UNLABELLED: Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ is hypothesized to play a key role by oxidatively impairing the capacity of red blood cells (RBCs to deliver oxygen to the brain. These processes are implicated in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD. Although plasma Aβ has been investigated thoroughly, the presence and distribution of Aβ in human RBCs are still unclear. In this study, we quantitated Aβ40 and Aβ42 in human RBCs with ELISA assays, and provided evidence that significant amounts of Aβ could be detected in RBCs and that the RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. The RBC Aβ levels increased with aging. On the other hand, providing an antioxidant supplement (astaxanthin, a polar carotenoid to humans was found to decrease RBC Aβ as well as oxidative stress marker levels. These results suggest that plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 bind to RBCs (possibly with aging, implying a pathogenic role of RBC Aβ. Moreover, the data indicate that RBC Aβ40 and Aβ42 may constitute biomarkers of AD. As a preventive strategy, therapeutic application of astaxanthin as an Aβ-lowering agent in RBCs could be considered as a possible anti-dementia agent. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Controlled-Trials.com ISRCTN42483402.

  20. The Choroidal Eye Oximeter - An instrument for measuring oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, R. A.; Danisch, L. A.; Young, L. R.

    1975-01-01

    The Choroidal Eye Oximeter is an electro-optical instrument that noninvasively measures the oxygen saturation of choroidal blood in the back of the human eye by a spectrophotometric method. Since choroidal blood is characteristic of blood which is supplied to the brain, the Choroidal Eye Oximeter can be used to monitor the amount of oxygen which is supplied to the brain under varying external conditions. The instrument consists of two basic systems: the optical system and the electronic system. The optical system produces a suitable bi-chromatic beam of light, reflects this beam from the fundus of the subject's eye, and onto a low-noise photodetector. The electronic system amplifies the weak composite signal from the photodetector, computes the average oxygen saturation from the area of the fundus that was sampled, and displays the value of the computed oxygen saturation on a panel meter.

  1. Blood Oxygen Conservation in Diving Sea Lions: How Low Does Oxygen Really Go?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Does Oxygen Really Go? Paul J. Ponganis Center for Marine Biotechnology and Biomedicine Scripps Institution of Oceanography 8655 Discovery Way...demands of exercise for energy conservation at depth. Journal of Experimental Biology 202: 2739-2748.

  2. Cerebral oxygen extraction, oxygen consumption, and regional cerebral blood flow during the aura phase of migraine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friberg, L; Olesen, Jes; Lassen, N A

    1994-01-01

    The aura phase of migraine is associated with focal blood flow changes, but it has been largely unknown whether these changes are correlated to changes in the cerebral metabolism.......The aura phase of migraine is associated with focal blood flow changes, but it has been largely unknown whether these changes are correlated to changes in the cerebral metabolism....

  3. Red blood cells in sports: Effects of exercise and training on oxygen supply by red blood cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heimo eMairbäurl

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available During exercise the cardiovascular system has to warrant substrate supply to working muscle. The main function of red blood cells in exercise is the transport of O2 from the lungs to the tissues and the delivery of metabolically produced CO2 to the lungs for expiration. Hemoglobin also contributes to the blood’s buffering capacity, and ATP and NO release from red blood cells contributes to vasodilation and improved blood flow to working muscle. These functions require adequate amounts of red blood cells in circulation. Trained athletes, particularly in endurance sports, have a decreased hematocrit, which is sometimes called sports anemia. This is not anemia in a clinical sense because athletes have in fact an increased total mass of red blood cells and hemoglobin in circulation relative to sedentary individuals. The slight decrease in hematocrit by training is brought about by an increased plasma volume. The mechanisms that increase total red blood cell mass by training are not understood fully. Despite stimulated erythropoiesis, exercise can decrease the red blood cell mass by intravascular hemolysis mainly of senescent red blood cells, which is caused by mechanical rupture when red blood cells pass through capillaries in contracting muscles, and by compression of red cells e.g. in foot soles during running or in hand palms in weightlifters. Together, these adjustments cause a decrease in the average age of the population of circulating red blood cells in trained athletes. These younger red cells are characterized by improved oxygen release and deformability, both of which also improve tissue oxygen supply during exercise.

  4. Blood lead levels in preschool children in Cape Town

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deveaux, P.; Kibel, M.A.; Dempster, W.S.; Pocock, F.; Formenti, K.

    1986-03-29

    Blood lead levels were assessed in 293 children aged between 4 and 6 years attending preschool centers in metropolitan Cape Town in order to establish the degree of lead absorption. Anthropometric data, blood count, zinc protoporphyrin and blood lead level were obtained for each child. A questionnaire was used to determine socio-economic status, dietary habits and history of pica. Thirteen children, or 4,4% of those sampled, had blood levels of greater than or equal to 30 micrograms/dl. The majority of these children lived in close proximity to one another in a socially deprived inner urban environment. Environmental sampling for lead was carried out in the homes of children with the highest blood levels as well as in the homes of a matched control group with low levels living in the same area. The only difference was a significantly higher incidence of pica in the children with high levels.

  5. Cerebral blood flow, oxygen and glucose metabolism with PET in progressive supranuclear palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Makoto; Ichiya, Yuici; Kuwabara, Yasuo (Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Faculty of Medicine) (and others)

    1989-11-01

    Cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen metabolic rate and cerebral glucose metabolic rate were measured with positron emission tomography (PET) in four patients with progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). Decreased blood flow and hypometabolism of oxygen and glucose were found in both subcortical and cortical regions, particularly in the striatum including the head of the caudate nucleus and the frontal cortex. The coupling between blood flow and metabolism was preserved even in the regions which showed decreased blood flow and hypometabolism. These findings indicated the hypofunction, as revealed by decreased blood flow and hypometablolism on PET, both in the striatum and the frontal cortex, and which may underlie the pathophysiological mechanism of motor and mental disturbance in PSP. (author).

  6. Application of a modified regularization procedure for estimating oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yildirim, Isa; Ansari, Rashid; Samil Yetik, I.; Shahidi, Mahnaz

    2010-03-01

    Phosphorescence lifetime measurement based on a frequency domain approach is used to estimate oxygen tension in large retinal blood vessels. The classical least squares (LS) estimation was initially used to determine oxygen tension indirectly from intermediate variables. A spatial regularized least squares (RLS) method was later proposed to reduce the high variance of oxygen tension estimated by LS method. In this paper, we provide a solution using a modified RLS (MRLS) approach that utilizes prior knowledge about retinal vessels oxygenation based on expected oxygen tension values in retinal arteries and veins. The performance of MRLS method was evaluated in simulated and experimental data by determining the bias, variance, and mean absolute error (MAE) of oxygen tension measurements and comparing these parameters with those derived with the use of LS and RLS methods.

  7. Whole blood viscosity issues VI: Association with blood salicylate level and gastrointestinal bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ezekiel Uba Nwose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : This series on whole blood viscosity issues has been trying to elucidate the sensitivity, specificity and usefulness of the laboratory parameter in clinical practice. The postulation has been that since antiplatelet is used in the management of stasis, of which blood viscosity is an index, the latter would be useful laboratory indication and/or contraindication. Aim : The aim of this study was to observe whether blood level of acetylsalicylic acid differs with the level of whole blood viscosity. Patients and Methods : Out of the ten years database, 538 cases that were concomitantly tested for haematocrit, total proteins and blood level of salicylate were selected for this study. A separate nine cases of positive faecal occult blood tests were audited for blood viscosity and reviewed. Results : A statistically significant difference is observed with lower blood viscosity being associated with higher salicylate level in comparison of the former between the highest vs. lowest quartiles (p < 0.002. This observation demonstrates the effect of aspirin in lowering blood stasis. Reviewing the positive faecal occult blood cases indicate that gastrointestinal bleeding is characterized by relative hypoviscosity and that hyperviscosity is not present during bleeding complications. Conclusion : The findings affirm that whole blood viscosity is a valid clinical laboratory parameter for evidence-based contraindication, indication and monitoring of antiplatelet medication. It calls for better appreciation and clinical utility of whole blood viscosity, which (in the absence of viscometer can now be extrapolated from haematocrit and total proteins.

  8. Raynaud's phenomenon in a child presenting as oxygen desaturation during transfusion with cold blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Coté, Charles J

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Raynaud's phenomenon (RP) triggered by transfusion of cold blood to a pediatric burn patient under general anesthesia. The child was febrile so a decision was made to not use a blood warmer. When the blood was rapidly administered the child suddenly developed 'desaturation'. The child was placed on 100% oxygen, adequate ventilation assured, and the color of his oral mucosa assessed as 'pink'. Placement of the oximeter on the opposite hand revealed 100% saturation. To our knowledge, this is the first case of apparent RP reported in a pediatric patient triggered by transfusion of cold blood.

  9. Image-Based Modeling of Blood Flow and Oxygen Transfer in Feto-Placental Capillaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownbill, Paul; Janáček, Jiří; Jirkovská, Marie; Kubínová, Lucie; Chernyavsky, Igor L.; Jensen, Oliver E.

    2016-01-01

    During pregnancy, oxygen diffuses from maternal to fetal blood through villous trees in the placenta. In this paper, we simulate blood flow and oxygen transfer in feto-placental capillaries by converting three-dimensional representations of villous and capillary surfaces, reconstructed from confocal laser scanning microscopy, to finite-element meshes, and calculating values of vascular flow resistance and total oxygen transfer. The relationship between the total oxygen transfer rate and the pressure drop through the capillary is shown to be captured across a wide range of pressure drops by physical scaling laws and an upper bound on the oxygen transfer rate. A regression equation is introduced that can be used to estimate the oxygen transfer in a capillary using the vascular resistance. Two techniques for quantifying the effects of statistical variability, experimental uncertainty and pathological placental structure on the calculated properties are then introduced. First, scaling arguments are used to quantify the sensitivity of the model to uncertainties in the geometry and the parameters. Second, the effects of localized dilations in fetal capillaries are investigated using an idealized axisymmetric model, to quantify the possible effect of pathological placental structure on oxygen transfer. The model predicts how, for a fixed pressure drop through a capillary, oxygen transfer is maximized by an optimal width of the dilation. The results could explain the prevalence of fetal hypoxia in cases of delayed villous maturation, a pathology characterized by a lack of the vasculo-syncytial membranes often seen in conjunction with localized capillary dilations. PMID:27788214

  10. [Sauna effect on blood oxygen transport function and proxidant/antioxidant balance in youths].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinchuk, V V; Zhad'ko, D D

    2012-01-01

    There was investigated sauna effect on blood oxygen transport function and proxidant/antioxidant balance in 18 to 22 years old males. Subjects being tested underwent thermal exposure once per week over a period of 5 months (20 procedures). There were two exposure over the course of sauna bathing (temperature 85-90 degrees C, humidity 10-15%): the first exposure lasted for 5 minutes and the second one for 10 minutes. Dry air sauna in youth's leads to respiratory alkalosis, increases pO2, decreases haemoglobin binding capacity to venous blood oxygen thus facilitating oxygen transport into body tissues. Single sauna visit results in oxidative stress (augmentation of free radical processes and deterioration of antioxidant defence mechanisms), while its manifestations being diminished after multiple thermal exposures. Increase in nitrogen monoxide formation being observed might matter for the modification of the oxygen dependent processes of the human body.

  11. Limited oxygen index levels of impregnated Scots pine wood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomak, Eylem Dizman, E-mail: eylemdizman@yahoo.com [Forest Industry Engineering Department, Faculty of Forestry, Bursa Technical University, 16200 Bursa (Turkey); Cavdar, Ayfer Donmez [Interior Architecture Department, Faculty of Architecture, Karadeniz Technical University, 61080 Trabzon (Turkey)

    2013-12-10

    Highlights: • Scots pine samples were treated with 4 wood preservatives with various concentrations. • Limited oxygen index level was evaluated both for leached and un-leached samples. • All treatments improved fire retardance of samples despite some chemicals leached out. • Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results. • LOI of samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil was not changed by leaching. - Abstract: In this study, effect of various concentrations of boron powder, mixture of boric acid and borax, fireproof agent based on liquid blend of limestone, and silicon oil on limited oxygen index levels (LOI) of S. pine wood was investigated. Wood samples were first vacuum treated with the preservatives, and then were subjected to leaching procedure. Samples treated with fireproof agent showed the best results for improving the fire retardancy of wood, furthermore, samples treated with 25%, 50% and 100% of the solution did not burn. Leaching did not considerably change the LOI of wood samples treated with boron powder and silicon oil; however, LOI levels of samples treated with the mixture of boric acid and borax and fireproof agent were affected by leaching procedure probably arising those preservatives did not chemically bond to main wood components. All treatments improved fire retardancy of samples despite some amount of preservatives leached out from wood.

  12. S35: a new parameter in blood gas analysis for monitoring the systemic oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trouwborst, A; Tenbrinck, R; Van Woerkens, E C

    1990-01-01

    In the estimation of oxygen transport the term oxygen availability is used as the product of cardiac output and the arterial oxygen content (CaO2). Attempts can be made to modify the concept of oxygen availability by subtracting from the CaO2 the venous content at a critical PO2 as measured in mixed venous blood (Pv-O2), where oxygen diffusion into tissue becomes compromised and oxygen uptake (VO2) may decrease. The real arterial available oxygen content (CavlO2) can be calculated by estimating the saturation at the critical Pv-O2. For our concept S35 was chosen as such a dynamic baseline. Similar modification of oxygen extraction ratio (ERav) defined as VO2 divided by the real oxygen availability (O2av) should give, more than the classic ER, a realistic indices of oxygen availability in relation to oxygen consumption. It can be hypothesized that VO2 starts to decline when ERav is around 1.0. During isovolemic hemodilution VO2 started to drop when ERav reached 1.08 +/- 0.09. The S35 changed from 55.0 +/- 2.1% to 41.5 +/- 4.1%, correlated with changes in Pv-O2. A direct correlation was also found between the increase of the classic ER and the change in S35. We conclude that the S35, the CavlO2 and the ERav can be of value in monitoring the systemic oxygenation and that the concept also includes the effect of changes in oxyhemoglobin characteristics on oxygen delivery.

  13. Manipulation of oxygenation and flow-induced shear stress can increase the in vitro yield of platelets from cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lasky, Larry C; Sullenbarger, Brent

    2011-11-01

    A method to produce clinically useful platelets in vitro would help overcome the frequent shortages, donor deferrals, disease transmission, and alloimmunization with volunteer donor-derived platelets. Using CD34 positively selected cord blood cells, we investigated ways to increase platelet quality and yield in a three-dimensional modular perfusion bioreactor system. We found a two- to threefold increase in platelet numbers produced only when the early phases of the culture process were carried out at 5% oxygen, versus when 20% oxygen was used throughout the culture period (pplatelets increased two- to threefold (pplatelet production from proplatelets. The use of altered oxygen levels and cross flow enhanced platelet numbers and quality, and will contribute to eventual in vitro platelet production for clinical use.

  14. Blood flow and oxygenation in peritendinous tissue and calf muscle during dynamic exercise in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boushel, R; Langberg, Henning; Green, Stefan Mathias;

    2000-01-01

    1. Circulation around tendons may act as a shunt for muscle during exercise. The perfusion and oxygenation of Achilles' peritendinous tissue was measured in parallel with that of calf muscle during exercise to determine (1) whether blood flow is restricted in peritendinous tissue during exercise......, and (2) whether blood flow is coupled to oxidative metabolism. 2. Seven individuals performed dynamic plantar flexion from 1 to 9 W. Radial artery and popliteal venous blood were sampled for O2, peritendinous blood flow was determined by 133Xe-washout, calf blood flow by plethysmography, cardiac output...... by dye dilution, arterial pressure by an arterial catheter-transducer, and muscle and peritendinous O2 saturation by spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). 3. Calf blood flow rose 20-fold with exercise, reaching 44 +/- 7 ml (100 g)-1 min-1 (mean +/- s.e.m. ) at 9 W, while Achilles' peritendinous flow...

  15. A retrospective cohort study of blood hemoglobin levels in blood donors and competitive rowers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansson, P. I.; Ullum, H.; Jensen, Kurt;

    2009-01-01

    To investigate the distribution of blood hemoglobin levels in healthy blood donors and elite athletes, a retrospective cohort study from 2001 to 2005 of candidate blood donors and elite rowers in Denmark was performed. Eighty-five thousand eight hundred and forty-six blood donors were identified.......3% of the females demonstrated values above the recommended limit for athletic competition. Thus, the prevalence of a high hemoglobin value was greater in the rowers, of both gender, than in the candidate blood donors (P... people and especially in competition athletes....

  16. Hypoxia effects on gill surface area and blood oxygen-carrying capacity of the Atlantic stingray, Dasyatis sabina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dabruzzi, Theresa F; Bennett, Wayne A

    2014-08-01

    Atlantic stingrays, Dasyatis sabina, are common residents of shallow-water seagrass habitats that experience natural cycles of severe hypoxia during summer months. We hypothesized that stingrays exposed to hypoxic episodes would improve their hypoxia tolerance by increasing branchial surface area and altering blood oxygen-carrying capacity. To this end, we compared critical oxygen minimum, gill morphology, and hemoglobin/hematocrit levels in a control group of Atlantic stingrays held at continuous oxygen saturations of 80-90% (≥5.5 mg/l), to treatment groups exposed to a 7-h hypoxic interval at 55% (~4.0 mg/l), or 30% oxygen saturation (~2.0 mg/l). Stingrays in hypoxic treatment groups significantly improved their hypoxia tolerance. Critical oxygen minimum values fell from 0.7 ± 0.11 mg/l in control fish to 0.4 ± 0.05 and 0.4 ± 0.06 mg/l in the 55 and 30% saturation treatment groups, respectively. Mass-specific gill surface area between control fish and the 30% saturation treatment group increased by 1.7-fold, from 85 to 142 mm(2)/g. Although stingrays did not show an increase in hematocrit or hemoglobin levels, production of more efficient hemoglobin isoforms could not be ruled out. An increase in hypoxia tolerance allows Atlantic stingrays to forage for longer times and across a wide range of hypoxic habitats that are less accessible to predators and competitors.

  17. Hepatic encephalopathy is associated with decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism and blood flow, not increased ammonia uptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Gitte; Keiding, Susanne; Munk, Ole L

    2013-01-01

    Studies have shown decreased cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO(2)) and blood flow (CBF) in patients with cirrhosis with hepatic encephalopathy (HE). It remains unclear, however, whether these disturbances are associated with HE or with cirrhosis itself and how they may relate to arterial blood...... ammonia concentration and cerebral metabolic rate of blood ammonia (CMRA). We addressed these questions in a paired study design by investigating patients with cirrhosis during and after recovery from an acute episode of HE type C. CMRO(2), CBF, and CMRA were measured by dynamic positron emission...

  18. Predicting Blood Lactate Concentration and Oxygen Uptake from sEMG Data during Fatiguing Cycling Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petras Ražanskas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a study of the relationship between electromyographic (EMG signals from vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, biceps femoris and semitendinosus muscles, collected during fatiguing cycling exercises, and other physiological measurements, such as blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. In contrast to the usual practice of picking one particular characteristic of the signal, e.g., the median or mean frequency, multiple variables were used to obtain a thorough characterization of EMG signals in the spectral domain. Based on these variables, linear and non-linear (random forest models were built to predict blood lactate concentration and oxygen consumption. The results showed that mean and median frequencies are sub-optimal choices for predicting these physiological quantities in dynamic exercises, as they did not exhibit significant changes over the course of our protocol and only weakly correlated with blood lactate concentration or oxygen uptake. Instead, the root mean square of the original signal and backward difference, as well as parameters describing the tails of the EMG power distribution were the most important variables for these models. Coefficients of determination ranging from R2 = 0:77 to R2 = 0:98 (for blood lactate and from R2 = 0:81 to R2 = 0:97 (for oxygen uptake were obtained when using random forest regressors.

  19. [Studies of the blood antioxidant system and oxygen-transporting properties of human erythrocytes during 105-day isolation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazhe, N A; Baĭzhumanov, A A; Parshina, E Iu; Iusipovich, A I; Akhalaia, M Ia; Iarlykova, Iu V; Labetskaia, O I; Ivanova, S M; Morukov, B V; Maksimov, G V

    2011-01-01

    Effects of strict 105-d isolation on blood antioxidant status, erythrocyte membrane processes and oxygen-binding properties of hemoglobin were studied in 6 male volunteers (25 to 40 y.o.) in ground-based simulation of a mission to Mars (experiment Mars-105). The parameters were measured using venous blood samples collected during BDC, on days 35, 70 and 105 of the experiment and on days 7 and 14-15 after its completion. Methods of biochemistry (determination of enzyme activity and thin-layer chromatography) and biophysical (laser interference microscopy, Raman spectroscopy) showed changes in relative content of lipid and phospholipid fractions suggesting growth of membrane microviscosity and increase in TBA-AP (active products of lipids peroxidation interacting with thiobarbituric acid). A significant increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and superoxide dismutase activities against reduction of catalase activity points to both reparative processes in erythrocytes and disbalance between the number of evolving active forms of oxygen and antioxidant protection mechanisms in cells. Hemoglobin sensitivity of oxygen and blood level of oxyhemoglobin were found to increase, too. It is presumed that adaptation of organism to stresses experienced during and after the experiment may destroy balance of the antioxidant protection systems which is conducive to oxidation of membrane phospholipids, alteration of their content, increase of membrane microviscosity and eventual failure of the gas-exchange function of erythrocytes.

  20. Optical methods for correction of oxygen-transport characteristics of blood and their biomedical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zalesskaya, G. A.; Akulich, N. V.; Marochkov, A. V.; Laskina, O. V.; Mit'kovskaya, N. P.

    2010-07-01

    We have carried out a comprehensive analysis of the spectral characteristics of blood and blood components, gas-exchange and oximetry parameters for venous and arterial blood, central hemodynamic parameters, and the results of a complete blood count and chemistry panel before and after extracorporeal UV irradiation of the blood (UBI, ultraviolet blood irradiation) or intravenous exposure of blood to low-intensity emission from an He-Ne laser (LBI, laser blood irradiation). We have demonstrated the possibility of correcting the oxygentransport characteristics of blood by laser optical methods based on photodissociation of blood oxyhemoglobin. We have shown that the therapeutic effects initiated both by UBI and LBI are based on a single mechanism: a change in the balance between production of active oxygen species and their inhibition by antioxidants. The data obtained are of interest not only for studying the primary (molecular) mechanisms of action for photohemotherapy and their effect on processes occurring in the living body, but also can provide a basis for designing next-generation laser optical instruments and for development of not yet existing methods for assessing the therapeutic efficacy of photohemotherapy.

  1. Ontogenetic oxygen changes alter zebra fish size, behavior, and blood glucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, C; Kaut, K P; Moore, F B-G; Bagatto, B

    2012-01-01

    Four male and four female zebra fish were crossed in all possible combinations, resulting in 389 offspring. These offspring were divided among four treatments: normoxia for 90 d, hypoxia for 90 d, normoxia for 30 d followed by hypoxia for 60 d, and hypoxia for 30 d followed by normoxia for 60 d. The effects of early oxygen environment, later oxygen environment, and genotype were then assessed with respect to zebra fish behavior, size, and blood glucose. Fish were tested in an arena where they could shoal with conspecifics before, during, and after the introduction of a novel stimulus. Blood glucose and size were also measured. Early oxygen environment influenced fish size, time spent swimming, and reactivity to a novel stimulus. Environmentally induced plasticity was predominate, with little evidence of among-sire variation for any of the measured parameters.

  2. Feed-derived volatile basic nitrogen increases reactive oxygen species production of blood leukocytes in lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsunoda, Ei; Gross, Josef J; Kawashima, Chiho; Bruckmaier, Rupert M; Kida, Katsuya; Miyamoto, Akio

    2017-01-01

    The present study investigated over 9 months the changes of fermentative quality of total mixed rations (TMR) containing grass silage (GS) as a major component, associated with changes in the volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) levels in an experimental dairy farm. Effects of VBN levels in TMR on metabolic parameters, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by blood polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) and conception rates for dairy cows were analyzed. According to VBN levels in TMR during survey periods, three distinct phases were identified; phase A with low VBN; phase B with high VBN; and phase C with mid-VBN. Metabolic parameters in blood were all within normal range. However, during phases B and C, nitrogen metabolic indices such as blood urea nitrogen and milk urea nitrogen showed higher levels compared to those in phase A, and a simultaneous increase in ROS production by blood PMNs and the load on hepatic function in metabolic parameters was observed in the cows with a lower conception rate. This suggests that feeding TMR with elevated VBN levels due to poor fermented GS results in stimulation of ROS production by PMNs by ammonia, and negatively affects metabolism and reproductive performance in lactating dairy cow.

  3. Ion fluxes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) juveniles exposed to different dissolved oxygen levels

    OpenAIRE

    Felipe Link de Rosso; Keidi C. S. Bolner; Bernardo Baldisserotto

    2006-01-01

    Low dissolved oxygen levels in the water (hypoxia) can be provoked by oxygen consumption by fish and other organisms, organic matter decomposition, phytoplankton blooms, and temperature increase. The objective of the present study was to investigate Na+, Cl-, K+, and ammonia fluxes in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen) exposed to different dissolved oxygen levels. Juveniles (9 ± 1g) maintained at 6.0 mg.L-1 dissolved oxygen were transferred to four 40 L aquaria with different dissolved oxygen le...

  4. Evaluation of hydrogen and oxygen impurity levels on silicon surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenny, M.J.; Wielunski, L.S.; Netterfield, R.P.; Martin, P.J.; Leistner, A. [Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), Lindfield, NSW (Australia). Div. of Applied Physics

    1996-12-31

    This paper reports on surface analytical techniques used to quantify surface concentrations of impurities such as oxygen and hydrogen. The following analytical techniques were used: Rutherford and Backscattering, elastic recoil detection, time-of-flight SIMS, spectroscopic ellipsometry, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results have shown a spread in thickness of oxide layer, ranging from unmeasurable to 1.6 nm. The data must be considered as preliminary at this stage, but give some insight into the suitability of the techniques and a general idea of the significance of impurities at the monolayer level. These measurements have been carried out on a small number of silicon surfaces both semiconductor grade <111> crystalline material and silicon which has been used in sphere fabrication. 5 refs., 1 fig.

  5. Replacing the Transfusion of 1–2 Units of Blood with Plasma Expanders that Increase Oxygen Delivery Capacity: Evidence from Experimental Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy G. Tsai

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available At least a third of the blood supply in the world is used to transfuse 1–2 units of packed red blood cells for each intervention and most clinical trials of blood substitutes have been carried out at this level of oxygen carrying capacity (OCC restoration. However, the increase of oxygenation achieved is marginal or none at all for molecular hemoglobin (Hb products, due to their lingering vasoactivity. This has provided the impetus for the development of “oxygen therapeutics” using Hb-based molecules that have high oxygen affinity and target delivery of oxygen to anoxic areas. However it is still unclear how these oxygen carriers counteract or mitigate the functional effects of anemia due to obstruction, vasoconstriction and under-perfusion. Indeed, they are administered as a low dosage/low volume therapeutic Hb (subsequently further diluted in the circulatory pool and hence induce extremely small OCC changes. Hyperviscous plasma expanders provide an alternative to oxygen therapeutics by increasing the oxygen delivery capacity (ODC; in anemia they induce supra-perfusion and increase tissue perfusion (flow by as much as 50%. Polyethylene glycol conjugate albumin (PEG-Alb accomplishes this by enhancing the shear thinning behavior of diluted blood, which increases microvascular endothelial shear stress, causes vasodilation and lowering peripheral vascular resistance thus facilitating cardiac function. Induction of supra-perfusion takes advantage of the fact that ODC is the product of OCC and blood flow and hence can be maintained by increasing either or both. Animal studies suggest that this approach may save a considerable fraction of the blood supply. It has an additional benefit of enhancing tissue clearance of toxic metabolites.

  6. Blood gas analyzer utility in evaluating oxygen kinetics of the aqueous humor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Ersan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To measure the partial pressure of oxygen (PO2 and carbon dioxide (PCO2 and the pH of aqueous humor (AH and arterial blood samples from rabbits using a blood gas analyzer. Methods: Twenty New Zealand rabbits were anesthetized intramuscularly with ketamine and xylazine and were then allowed to breathe room air. Using a gas blood analyzer, arterial blood and AH samples were analyzed for PO2, PCO2, and pH. Results: The mean arterial blood pressure was 87.14 ± 15.0 mmHg. The mean blood and AH PO2 were 95.18 ± 11.76 mmHg and 88.83 ± 9.92 mmHg, the mean blood and AH PCO2 were 25.86 ± 5.46 mmHg and 29.50 ± 5.36 mmHg, and the mean blood and AH pH were 7.38 ± 0.06 and 7.33 ± 0.09, respectively. Conclusion: Conclusions: The blood gas analyzer was easily employed to evaluate the aqueous humor in rabbits. When comparing the results of studies evaluating aqueous PO2, care should be taken to determine the methods used in these studies.

  7. Blood lead levels following consumption of game meat in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fustinoni, Silvia; Sucato, Sabrina; Consonni, Dario; Mannucci, Pier Mannuccio; Moretto, Angelo

    2017-02-08

    The aim of this study was to measure lead (Pb) levels in blood (Pb-blood) in consumers of game meat, taking into account other possible sources of lead exposure. A spot blood sample was obtained from 95 subjects, and a questionnaire was used to collect general information and data on game meat consumption, hunting, wine drinking and other possible sources of lead exposure. Pb-blood was measured by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Pb-blood was not influenced by age, sex, residence in an urban or rural area, consumption of game meat, tobacco smoking or hobbies associated with potential exposure to lead, and median Pb-blood was 1.7 (5th-95th percentile 1.0-5.3)µg/dL and 3.4 (0.9-6.1)µg/dL for game meat non-eaters and eater, respectively. A multiple linear regression analysis (containing the covariates sex, age, hunting, wine drinking, game meat consumption, tobacco smoking, shooting range, and occupational exposure) found an association with hunting (Pb-blood almost double in hunters) and wine drinking (40% higher in drinkers) but not with consumption of game meat or other parameters. Whether the higher Pb-blood level was due to inhalation of lead fumes while shooting with lead ammunition, to handling lead ammunition or both could not be ascertained.

  8. Meal-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake in middle-aged healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan L; Søndergaard, Susanne B; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    healthy men (52-76 years). Splanchnic blood flow was measured during hepatic vein catheterization by indirect Fick principle with indocyanine green as the indicator. Splanchnic oxygen uptake was calculated from splanchnic blood flow and the arteriovenous oxygen difference. RESULTS: The meal induced...

  9. Coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism is conserved for chromatic and luminance stimuli in human visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leontiev, Oleg; Buracas, Giedrius T; Liang, Christine; Ances, Beau M; Perthen, Joanna E; Shmuel, Amir; Buxton, Richard B

    2013-03-01

    The ratio of the changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO(2)) during brain activation is a critical determinant of the magnitude of the blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response measured with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Cytochrome oxidase (CO), a key component of oxidative metabolism in the mitochondria, is non-uniformly distributed in visual area V1 in distinct blob and interblob regions, suggesting significant spatial variation in the capacity for oxygen metabolism. The goal of this study was to test whether CBF/CMRO(2) coupling differed when these subpopulations of neurons were preferentially stimulated, using chromatic and luminance stimuli to preferentially stimulate either the blob or interblob regions. A dual-echo spiral arterial spin labeling (ASL) technique was used to measure CBF and BOLD responses simultaneously in 7 healthy human subjects. When the stimulus contrast levels were adjusted to evoke similar CBF responses (mean 65.4% ± 19.0% and 64.6% ± 19.9%, respectively for chromatic and luminance contrast), the BOLD responses were remarkably similar (1.57% ± 0.39% and 1.59% ± 0.35%) for both types of stimuli. We conclude that CBF-CMRO(2) coupling is conserved for the chromatic and luminance stimuli used, suggesting a consistent coupling for blob and inter-blob neuronal populations despite the difference in CO concentration.

  10. Changes in oxygen content and acid-base balance in arterial and portal blood in response to the dietary electrolyte balance in pigs during a 9-h period after a meal

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dersjant-Li, Y.; Verstegen, M.W.A.; Jansman, A.; Schulze, H.; Schrama, J.W.; Verreth, J.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    The effect of two dietary electrolyte balance (dEB, Na K - Cl-) levels on arterial and portal blood oxygen content, blood pH, and acid-base status in pigs was studied during a 9-h period after a meal, using a crossover experimental design. The dEB levels were established by changing the Cl- level in

  11. Blood flow and muscle oxygenation during low, moderate, and maximal sustained isometric contractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeil, Chris J; Allen, Matti D; Olympico, Eric; Shoemaker, J Kevin; Rice, Charles L

    2015-09-01

    A reduction of blood flow to active muscle will precipitate fatigue, and sustained isometric contractions produce intramuscular and compartmental pressures that can limit flow. The present study explored how blood flow and muscle oxygenation respond to isometric contractions at low, moderate, and maximal intensities. Over two visits, 10 males (26 ± 2 yr; means ± SD) performed 1-min dorsiflexion contractions at 30, 60, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque. Doppler ultrasound of the anterior tibial artery was used to record arterial diameter and mean blood velocity and to calculate absolute blood flow. The tissue oxygenation index (TOI) of tibialis anterior was acquired with near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). There was a progressive increase in blood flow at 30% MVC (peak of 289 ± 139% resting value), no change from rest until an increase in the final 10 s of exercise at 60% MVC (peak of 197 ± 102% rest), and an initial decrease (59 ± 30% resting value) followed by a progressive increase at 100% MVC (peak of 355 ± 133% rest). Blood flow was greater at 30 and 100% than 60% MVC during the last 30 s of exercise. TOI was ∼63% at rest and, within 30 s of exercise, reached steady-state values of ∼42%, ∼22%, and ∼22% for 30, 60, and 100% MVC, respectively. Even maximal contraction of the dorsiflexors is unable to cause more than a transient decrease of flow in the anterior tibial artery. Unlike dynamic or intermittent isometric exercise, our results indicate blood flow is not linearly graded with intensity or directly coupled with oxygenation during sustained isometric contractions.

  12. Nitrate poisoning in cattle. 4. The effect of nitrite dosing during parturition on the oxygen capacity of maternal blood and the oxygen supply to the unborn calf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malestein, A; Geurink, J H; Schuyt, G; Schotman, A J; Kemp, A; van 't Klooster, A T

    1980-07-15

    In a series of experiments the effect of administering KNO2 was studied, during parturition, on the capability of oxygen transport of maternal blood and on oxygen transfer to foetal blood. The following blood parameters were analysed, MHb percentage, pO2, O2-saturation, pH, pCO2, and (NO2) in maternal arterial blood (carotid art.) and venous blood (jugular vein) and in foetal arterial blood (umbilical art.) and venous blood (umbilical vein). The relative O2-saturation was calculated from the estimated O2-saturation by multiplying with the factor Hb (mmol/l) minus MHb (mmol/l), divided by Hb (mmol/l). In addition, blood pressure in the carotid artery, heart rate, and respiration rate in the dam were continuously recorded for some hours. A dosage of 9 to 12 mg of NO1/kg body weight intravenously or of 30 mg of NO2/kg body weight orally to the dam caused much higher MHb percentages and NO2 contents in the maternal blood than in the foetal blood. In maternal blood the ratio of NO2 content to MHb percentage was proportional to that in foetal blood. In the arterial blood, MHb percentages were almost as high as in the venous blood. After administering of nitrite, relative O2-saturation dropped simultaneously with the increase in methaemoglobin. Nitrite treatment caused a drop in the maternal blood pressure; heart rate and respiration rate increased. O2-saturation in the blood in the umbilical vein was much lower in the animals with nitrite treatment than in those without. These experimental results show clearly that the oxygen capacity of the blood decreases after nitrite treatment. In pregnant cows the oxygen supply to the foetus will be adversely affected after nitrate intake, especially by the lower oxygen transfer via the placenta, though hardly at all by methaemoglobin formation in the foetal blood. When the oxygen transfer to the foetal blood decreases too sharply, intra-uterine death and ultimately abortion may result.

  13. Electrolytes Disturbance and Cyclosporine Blood Levels among Kidney Transplant Recipients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einollahi, B.; Nemati, E.; Rostami, Z.; Teimoori, M.; Ghadian, A. R.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Kidney transplantation is associated with various biochemical abnormalities such as changes in serum blood level of sodium (Na), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and phosphorous (P). Although cyclosporine (CsA) is used commonly, the prevalence of its side effects, including electrolytes disturbance, is not well understood. Objective: To find the prevalence of electrolytes disturbance and its relation to CsA blood levels. Methods: In a retrospective study, 3308 kidney transplant recipients transplanted between 2008 and 2011 were studied. We evaluated the relation between serum Ca, P, Na, K and CsA trough (C0) and 2-hour post-dose (C2) levels. Results: The mean±SD age of recipients was 37±15 years; 63% of patients were male. Overall, C2 levels had correlation with Ca blood level (p=0.018; OR: 1.13, 95%CI: 1.02–1.25), C0 levels had also correlation with blood levels of P and Cr (p<0.001; OR: 1.83, 95% CI: 1.59–2.11). Conclusion: Electrolyte disturbances are prevalent. Higher serum levels of CsA can worsen the allograft function by disturbing the serum P and Ca levels. PMID:25013642

  14. Pregnancy hypertension and umbilical cord blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabinowitz, M.; Bellinger, D.; Leviton, A. (Children' s Hospital, Boston, MA (USA)); Needleman, H. (Children' s Hospital, Pittsburgh, PA (USA)); Schoenbaum, S. (Harvard Community Health Plan, Brookline Village, MA (USA))

    Pregnancy hypertension, blood pressure during labor, and the umbilical cord blood lead concentration were assessed in 3,851 women for whom additional demographic, medical, and personal information was available. Lead levels correlated with both systolic and diastolic blood pressure during labor. The incidence of clinically defined pregnancy hypertension, nearly 11% overall, increased with lead level. A series of multivariate models of pregnancy hypertension and of systolic blood pressure as a function of maternal age, parity, hematocrit, ponderal index, race, season, and diabetes were improved by including lead as a predictor variable. These other risk factors are not affected by the lead term. The relative risk for pregnancy hypertension doubles when lead increases from 2 to 15 {mu}g/dl. The effect is statistically strong, with a magnitude of about 3 mm for a 10 {mu}g/dl range, about the same magnitude associated with diabetes. At these observed levels (mean blood lead = 6.0 {mu}g/dl, SD = 3.3, range 0 > 35), not currently recognized as overtly toxic, lead has a small but demonstrable association with pregnancy hypertension and blood pressure at the time of delivery, but not with pre-eclampsia nor toxemia. Although this association is not likely to influence the clinical management of hypertension, it indicates that lead at typical contemporary urban levels, does effect multiple physiological functions.

  15. Hemorheological implications of perfluorocarbon based oxygen carrier interaction with colloid plasma expanders and blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez, Diana M; Ortiz, Daniel; Alvarez, Oscar A; Briceño, Juan C; Cabrales, Pedro

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorocarbon (PFC) emulsions used as artificial oxygen carriers lack colloid osmotic pressure (COP) and must be administered with colloid-based plasma expanders (PEs). Although PFC emulsions have been widely studied, there is limited information about PFC emulsion interaction with PEs and blood. Their interaction forms aggregates due to electrostatic and rheological phenomena, and change blood rheology and blood flow. This study analyzes the effects of the interaction between PFC emulsions with blood in the presence of clinically-used PEs. The rheological behavior of the mixtures was analyzed in vitro in parallel with in vivo analysis of blood flow in the microcirculation using intravital microscopy, when PEs were administered in a clinically relevant scenario. The interaction between the PFC emulsion and PE with blood produced PFC droplets and red blood cell (RBCs) aggregation and increased blood viscosity in a shear dependent fashion. The PFC droplets formed aggregates when mixed with PEs containing electrolytes, and the aggregation increased with the electrolyte concentration. Mixtures of PFC with PEs that produced PFC aggregates also induced RCBs aggregation when mixed with blood, increasing blood viscosity at low shear rates. The more viscous suspension at low shear rates produced a blunted blood flow velocity profile in vivo compared to nonaggregating mixtures of PFC and PEs. For the PEs evaluated, human serum albumin produced minimal to undetectable aggregation. PFC and PEs interaction with blood can affect sections of the microcirculation with low shear rates (e.g., arterioles, venules, and pulmonary circulation) when used in a clinical setting, because persistent aggregates could cause capillary occlusion, decreased perfusion, pulmonary emboli or focal ischemia.

  16. [Effect of hyperbaric oxygenation on local tissue blood flow to a small intestine transplant intended for esophagoplasty].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinnitskiĭ, L I; Piuskiulian, L I; Zhidkov, I L; Demurov, E A

    1981-04-01

    The time course of the local tissue blood flow in the small intestinal graft used for esophagoplasty was studied in 54 acute experiments on rabbits exposed to hyperbaric oxygenation (1 hour, 2 ata). It has been shown that hyperbaric oxygenation prevents alterations in the local tissue blood flow in the small intestine. This fact provides evidence in favour of hyperbaric oxygenation application under clinical conditions.

  17. Experimental study on therapy of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation in acute soman intoxication in rabbits

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Xian-qing; MU Shi-jie; ZHANG Xiao-di; CHEN Rui; XIA Ai-jun; LIANG Xin; HAI Chun-xu

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To study the therapy effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation(UBIO) on blood AChe activity and lung injury due to acute soman intoxication in rabbits. Methods :Forty rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups: normal control group, intoxication group, routine therapy group and UBIO therapy group. Blood AChe activity and artery blood gas were analyzed 2 h after intoxication. ACP and AKP activities in BALF were determined respectively. Results:Blood AChe activity in intoxication group was lower than that in normal control group (P<0. 05). BALF ACP and AKP activities in intoxication group were higher than that in normal control group. Blood AChe activities in UBIO therapy group increased and were higher than that in intoxication and routine therapy groups. Compared with intoxication group, BALF ACP and AKP activities were decreased (P<0.05) in UBIO therapy group,while artery blood pH, PaO2 and SaO2 increased (P<0.05). Conclusion: UBIO therapy can elevate blood AChe activity and alleviate lung injury induced by soman intoxication. So it may be a new way to treat acute soman intoxication.

  18. Maternal blood metal levels and fetal markers of metabolic function

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashley-Martin, Jillian [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Dodds, Linda, E-mail: l.dodds@dal.ca [Perinatal Epidemiology Research Unit, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia (Canada); Arbuckle, Tye E. [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Ettinger, Adrienne S. [Yale University, New Haven, CT (United States); Shapiro, Gabriel D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Fisher, Mandy [Health Canada, Ottawa (Canada); Taback, Shayne [University of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada); Bouchard, Maryse F. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Monnier, Patricia [McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dallaire, Renee [Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec (Canada); Fraser, William D. [University of Montreal, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); CHU Sainte-Justine Research Centre, Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    Exposure to metals commonly found in the environment has been hypothesized to be associated with measures of fetal growth but the epidemiological literature is limited. The Maternal–Infant Research on Environmental Chemicals (MIREC) study recruited 2001 women during the first trimester of pregnancy from 10 Canadian sites. Our objective was to assess the association between prenatal exposure to metals (lead, arsenic, cadmium, and mercury) and fetal metabolic function. Average maternal metal concentrations in 1st and 3rd trimester blood samples were used to represent prenatal metals exposure. Leptin and adiponectin were measured in 1363 cord blood samples and served as markers of fetal metabolic function. Polytomous logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association between metals and both high (≥90%) and low (≤10%) fetal adiponectin and leptin levels. Leptin levels were significantly higher in female infants compared to males. A significant relationship between maternal blood cadmium and odds of high leptin was observed among males but not females in adjusted models. When adjusting for birth weight z-score, lead was associated with an increased odd of high leptin. No other significant associations were found at the top or bottom 10th percentile in either leptin or adiponectin models. This study supports the proposition that maternal levels of cadmium influence cord blood adipokine levels in a sex-dependent manner. Further investigation is required to confirm these findings and to determine how such findings at birth will translate into childhood anthropometric measures. - Highlights: • We determined relationships between maternal metal levels and cord blood adipokines. • Cord blood leptin levels were higher among female than male infants. • Maternal cadmium was associated with elevated leptin in male, not female infants. • No significant associations were observed between metals and

  19. Relationship of blood lead levels to obstetric outcome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angell, N.F.; Lavery, J.P.

    1982-01-01

    Lead represents a significant environmental hazard to pregnant women and their offspring. Exposure to high environmental levels of lead has been associated with spontaneous abortion, premature rupture of fetal membranes (PROM), and preterm delivery. The relationship between lower exposures and obstetric complications is unknown. The concentration of lead in the blood was measured in 635 specimens of umbilical cord blood collected at delivery. No relationship was found between concentrations of lead in cord blood and the incidence of PROM, preterm delivery, preeclampsia, or meconium staining. Maternal and infant capillary blood was collected 24 hours post partum from 154 of these deliveries. The concentrations of lead in the blood did not vary significantly among cord, infant, and maternal samples, and the three measurements were highly correlated. Levels of zinc protoporphyrin (ZnP) were increased in cord blood as compared with mothers' blood, but no concentration-response relationships between the ratio of cord ZnP to maternal ZnP and lead were found.

  20. Comparison of Cerebral Oxygen Saturation and Cerebral Perfusion Computed Tomography in Cerebral Blood Flow in Patients with Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, Alexey O; Kalentiev, George; Voennov, Oleg; Grigoryeva, Vera

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygen saturation and cerebral blood volume in patients with traumatic brain injury. Perfusion computed tomography of the brain was performed in 25 patients with traumatic brain injury together with simultaneous SctO2 level measurement using cerebral near-infrared oxymetry. The mean age of the injured persons was 34.5±15.6 years (range 15-65); 14 men, 11 women. The Injury Severity Score (ISS) values were 44.4±9.7 (range 25-81). The Glasgow Coma Score (GCS) mean value before the study was 10.6±2.1 (range 5-13). SctO2 ranged from 51 to 89%, mean 62±8.2%. Cerebral blood volume (CBV) values were 2.1±0.67 ml/100 g (min 1.1; max 4.3 ml/100 g). Cerebral blood flow (CBF) was 31.99±13.6 ml/100 g×min. Mean transit time (MTT) values were 5.7±4.5 s (min 2.8; max 34.3 s). The time to peak (TTP) was 22.2±3.1 s. A statistically significant correlation was found between SctO2 level and cerebral blood volume (CBV) level (R=0.9; pperfusion.

  1. Feather growth influences blood mercury level of young songbirds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Condon, Anne M; Cristol, Daniel A

    2009-02-01

    Dynamics of mercury in feathers and blood of free-living songbirds is poorly understood. Nestling eastern bluebirds (Sialia sialis) living along the mercury-contaminated South River (Virginia, USA) had blood mercury levels an order of magnitude lower than their parents (nestling: 0.09 +/- 0.06 mg/kg [mean +/- standard deviation], n = 156; adult: 1.21 +/- 0.57 mg/kg, n = 86). To test whether this low blood mercury was the result of mercury sequestration in rapidly growing feathers, we repeatedly sampled free-living juveniles throughout the period of feather growth and molt. Mean blood mercury concentrations increased to 0.52 +/- 0.36 mg/kg (n = 44) after the completion of feather growth. Some individuals had reached adult blood mercury levels within three months of leaving the nest, but levels dropped to 0.20 +/- 0.09 mg/kg (n = 11) once the autumn molt had begun. Most studies of mercury contamination in juvenile birds have focused on recently hatched young with thousands of rapidly growing feathers. However, the highest risk period for mercury intoxication in young birds may be during the vulnerable period after fledging, when feathers no longer serve as a buffer against dietary mercury. We found that nestling blood mercury levels were not indicative of the extent of contamination because a large portion of the ingested mercury ended up in feathers. The present study demonstrates unequivocally that in songbirds blood mercury level is influenced strongly by the growth and molt of feathers.

  2. Growth of jaguar cichlid (Cichlasoma managuense juveniles at different oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Acosta Nassar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The dependence of growth on the disolved oxygen level was analyzed in juveniles of the guapote tigre, Cichlasoma managuense, in a recirculated system. The guapote tigre is relatively tolerant to low oxygen levels, averaging only a 17% reduction in growth rate per ppm oxygen in the range between 2 and 5 ppm.

  3. Association of low-level blood lead and blood pressure in NHANES 1999-2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scinicariello, Franco, E-mail: fes6@cdc.gov [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Abadin, Henry G.; Edward Murray, H. [Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry, Division of Toxicology and Environmental Medicine, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States)

    2011-11-15

    This study investigated whether low blood-lead levels ({<=}10 {mu}g/dL) were associated with blood pressure (BP) outcomes. The authors analyzed data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 1999-2006 and participants aged 20 years or older. Outcome variables were systolic and diastolic BP measurements, pulse pressure, and hypertension status. Multivariable linear and logistic regressions stratified by race/ethnicity and gender were performed. Blood lead levels (BLL) were significantly correlated with higher systolic BP among black men and women, but not white or Mexican-American participants. BLLs were significantly associated with higher diastolic BPs among white men and women and black men, whereas, a negative association was observed in Mexican-American men that had, also, a wider pulse pressure. Black men in the 90th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{>=}3.50 {mu}g/dL) compared to black men in the 10th percentile of blood lead distribution (BLL{<=}0.7 {mu}g/dL) had a significant increase of risk of having hypertension (adjusted POR=2.69; 95% CI: 1.08-6.72). In addition, blood cadmium was significantly associated with hypertension and systolic and diastolic blood. This study found that, despite the continuous decline in blood lead in the U.S. population, lead exposure disparities among race and gender still exist.

  4. White blood cells, neutrophils, and reactive oxygen metabolites among asymptomatic subjects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Kotani

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Chronic inflammation and oxidative stress are associated with health and the disease status. The objective of the present study was to investigate the association among white blood cell (WBC counts, neutrophil counts as a WBC subpopulation, and diacron reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs levels in an asymptomatic population. Methods: The clinical data, including general cardiovascular risk variables and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP, were collected from 100 female subjects (mean age, 62 years in outpatient clinics. The correlation of the d-ROMs with hs-CRP, WBC, and neutrophil counts was examined. Results: The mean/median levels were WBC counts 5.9 × 10 9 /L, neutrophil counts 3.6 × 10 9 /L, hs-CRP 0.06 mg/dL, and d-ROMs 359 CURR U. A simple correlation analysis showed a significant positive correlation of the d-ROMs with the WBC counts, neutrophil counts, or hs-CRP levels. The correlation between d-ROMs and neutrophil counts (β = 0.22, P < 0.05, as well as that between d-ROMs and hs-CRP (β = 0.28, P < 0.01, remained significant and independent in a multiple linear regression analysis adjusted for other variables. A multiple linear regression analysis showed that WBC counts had only a positive correlation tendency to the d-ROMs. Conclusions: Neutrophils may be slightly but more involved in the oxidative stress status, as assessed by d-ROMs, in comparison to the overall WBC. Further studies are needed to clarify the biologic mechanism(s of the observed relationship.

  5. Fantofarone (SR33557): effects on myocardial oxygen consumption and coronary blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodeige, D; Chatelain, P; Manning, A

    1994-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of a novel calcium antagonist, fantofarone (SR 33557) on myocardial oxygen consumption (MO2C) and coronary blood flow in anaesthetized dogs during periods of normal and elevated heart rate. 25 micrograms/kg i.v. fantofarone induced a transient increase in coronary blood flow (+25% after 2 min; p MO2C (-50% after 5 min; p MO2C was reduced by 67% after 5 min (p MO2C was observed during the pacing periods (32% after 10 min; p MO2C consumption during periods of elevated heart rate.

  6. Blood pressure, acid-base and blood gas status and indicators of oxidative stress in healthy male rats exposed to acute hyperbaric oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drenjancevic, Ines; Kibel, Aleksandar; Kibel, Dijana; Seric, Vatroslav; Cosic, Anita

    2013-01-01

    Different protocols of hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO2) are used for research purposes; however, data on the changes in blood pressure, oxidative stress and acid-base and gas status induced by various oxygenation protocols are scarce and conflicting. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of an acute session of HBO2 [2 bar (200 kPa) for two hours] on arterial systolic and diastolic blood pressure, arterial blood gases and acid-base status, and oxidative stress in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats (12-15 weeks) were examined prior to, immediately and 24 hours after a two-hour HBO2 exposure at 2 bars. The femoral artery was cannulated to determine blood pressure, and blood samples were collected to measure blood gases and acid-base status, Ferric reducing antioxidant power ability of plasma (FRAP) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS). Immediately after HBO2 systolic and diastolic blood pressure significantly decreased (from 138 +/- 14/103 +/- 13 to 113 +/- 12/72 +/- 16 mmHg). However, these values were still inside the normal physiological range. pH decreased (from 7.34 +/- 0.05 to 7.28 +/- 0.05), pCO2 decreased (from 7.07 +/- 0.89 to 5.76 +/- 0.50 kPa), pO2 increased (from 12.48 +/- 0.88 to 13.68 +/- 2.4 kPa), plasma bicarbonate decreased (from 27.04 +/- 3.25 to 20.52 +/- 3.02 mmol/L). Exposure to HBO2 immediately increased TBARS levels (from 0.17 +/- 0.09 to 21.79 +/- 1.05 microM/MDA), while FRAP levels were not significantly changed. Measurements on separate animals 24 hours after a single HBO2 exposure showed no differences in comparison to control animals, except for pO2, which was significantly lower (11.10 +/- 0.31 kPa). The results define values of important parameters, serving as a necessary basis for complex analysis of HBO2 effects in research on rat animal models.

  7. T2 and T2* measurements of fetal brain oxygenation during hypoxia with MRI at 3T: correlation with fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wedegaertner, Ulrike; Adam, Gerhard [Universitaetsklinikum Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Diagnostic and Interventional Radiology, Hamburg (Germany); Kooijman, Hendrik [Philips Medical Systems, Best (Netherlands); Andreas, Thomas; Beindorff, Nicola; Hecher, Kurt [University Hospital Hamburg-Eppendorf, Department of Obstetrics and Prenatal Medicine, Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-01-15

    The purpose of this prospective study was to determine the oxygen saturation of blood in the fetal brain based on T2 and T2* measurements in a fetal sheep model. Five sheep fetuses were investigated during normoxia and hypoxia by 3T MRI. Multi-echo gradient-echo and turbo-spin-echo sequences were performed on the fetal brain. MR-determined oxygen saturation (MR-sO{sub 2}) of blood in the fetal brain was calculated based on T2 and T2* values. Fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation (blood-sO{sub 2}) was measured during the two experimental phases. The slope of MR-sO{sub 2} as a function of blood-sO{sub 2} was estimated and tested for compatibility using the one-sample t-test. During normoxia, mean values for carotid blood oxygen saturation were 67%, 83 ms for T2*, 202 ms for T2 and 96% for MR-sO{sub 2}. During hypoxia, arterial blood oxygen saturation, T2* and calculated MR-sO{sub 2} decreased to 22%, 64 ms, and 68% respectively. The one-sample t-test revealed the slope to be significantly different from 0(T=5.023, df=4, P=0.007). It is feasible to perform quantitative T2 and T2* measurements in the fetal brain. MR-sO{sub 2} and fetal arterial blood oxygen saturation correlated significantly. However, based on these data a reliable quantification of fetal brain tissue oxygenation is not possible. (orig.)

  8. Effects of oxygenation and the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol on the viscosity of blood from the trout oncorhynchus mykiss

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bodil; Weber, Roy

    1995-01-01

    Although the concentrations of the stress hormones adrenaline and cortisol in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) blood increase upon hypoxic exposure, the combined effects of these hormones and O2 lack upon fish blood rheology have not been investigated. Deoxygenated blood taken by caudal puncture...... exhibited lower viscosities than oxygenated samples at low shear rates, whereas the opposite was true at high shear rates. However, blood from cannulated trout had similar viscosities in its deoxygenated and oxygenated states. In the deoxygenated state, addition of adrenaline lowered viscosity at low shear...... rates and increased it at high shear rates, resembling the effects of deoxygenation observed in blood taken by venepuncture. In oxygenated blood on the contrary, no marked adrenaline effects were observed. In deoxygenated blood, addition of cortisol lowered viscosity at all measured shear rates compared...

  9. Closed versus open endotracheal suctioning in preterm infants: effects on cerebral oxygenation and blood volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosca, F A; Colnaghi, M; Lattanzio, M; Bray, M; Pugliese, S; Fumagalli, M

    1997-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare, using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), the effects on cerebral intracellular oxygenation and cerebral blood volume (CBV) of closed endotracheal suctioning (CS), which permits continuous ventilation of the patient, with open endotracheal suctioning (OS), which requires disconnection from the ventilator. Eleven preterm infants were studied. Each patient underwent one CS, followed, after 60 min, by one OS, or vice versa, three times during the same day. Modifications in CBV and oxidized cytochrome oxidase (CytO2) were continuously detected by NIRS; arterial oxygen saturation (SaO2) heart rate (HR), transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension and mean arterial blood pressure were simultaneously recorded. Significant reductions in HR and SaO2 were observed following OS; the magnitude and duration of these negative effects of suctioning were significantly reduced with CS. In addition, the decrease in CBV was more pronounced than following CS. No changes in CytO2 concentration were seen.

  10. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-06-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology.

  11. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Nunes, Antonio; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Spectral corruption has limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic spectroscopic methods, and impeded the goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical goal for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. Here we describe light fluence in the spectral domain and introduce eigenspectra multispectral optoacoustic tomography (eMSOT) to account for wavelength-dependent light attenuation, and estimate blood sO2 within deep tissue. We validate eMSOT in simulations, phantoms and animal measurements and spatially resolve sO2 in muscle and tumours, validating our measurements with histology data. eMSOT shows substantial sO2 accuracy enhancement over previous optoacoustic methods, potentially serving as a valuable tool for imaging tissue pathophysiology. PMID:27358000

  12. Benznidazole levels in blood vary with age in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina Fernanda Bulffer

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Benznidazole (Bz exhibits toxic side effects in animal studies and clinical use. Reductive metabolism of Bz in liver microsomes modulates the duration of its chemotherapeutic effect and its toxicity. The rate of this metabolism depends on age and is less intense in newborns and youngsters than in adults. In the present study, we determined Bz blood levels in rats of different ages that received Bz intragastrically (100 mg/kg. We developed and validated a high-pressure liquid chromatography with UV detector method for determination of Bz levels in whole blood. Bz levels were significantly higher and persisted for longer periods of time in the blood of young rats when compared to that of adult animals.

  13. Reactive Oxygen Species Production in Peripheral Blood Neutrophils of Obstructive Sleep Apnea Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Guoda Pilkauskaite; Skaidrius Miliauskas; Raimundas Sakalauskas

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) as well as obesity is associated with increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Neutrophils produce great amounts of ROS. The aim was to evaluate peripheral blood neutrophils ROS production in men with OSA and to establish relations with disease severity and obesity. Methods. Forty-six men with OSA and 10 controls were investigated. OSA was confirmed by polysomnography (PSG), when apnea/hypopnea index was >5/h. Body mass index (BMI) was evaluated. Ne...

  14. Cubilin maintains blood levels of HDL and albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A; Wilkerson, Brent A; Argraves, Kelley M; Remaley, Alan T; Argraves, W Scott

    2014-05-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and apoA-I and significantly increased urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I. Moreover, cubilin HT mice displayed significantly decreased blood levels of albumin, apoA-I, and HDL. The levels of albumin and apoA-I protein or mRNA expressed in the liver, kidney, or intestine of cubilin HT mice did not change significantly. The clearance rate of small HDL3 particles (density>1.13 g/ml) from the blood increased significantly in cubilin HT mice. In contrast, the rate of clearance of larger HDL2 particles from the blood did not change significantly, indicating a decreased half-life for HDL particles capable of filtering through the glomerulus. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that cubilin deficiency reduces renal salvage and delivery back to the blood of albumin and apoA-I, which decreases blood levels of albumin and apoA-I/HDL. These findings raise the possibility that therapeutic increase of renal cubilin expression might reduce proteinuria and increase blood levels of albumin and HDL.

  15. Umbilical Cord Blood Lead Levels and Neonatal Behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. L. de Cáceres

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available Negative correlations have been found between cord blood lead levels and scores on the Brazelton Neonatal Behaviour Assessment in 30 otherwise healthy newborns. Items in the Habituation, Orientation and Regulation of state clusters, particularly those items related to self-regulatory, self-quieting and auditory habituation, showed lower scores (worse performance in those newborns with higher cord blood lead levels. These disturbances are potentially important since this type of behavior may interfere with the normal process of adaptation to their environment, leading to a less than optimal bonding between newborns and their carers.

  16. Relation between blood lead levels and childhood anemia in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Nitin B; Laden, Francine; Guller, Ulrich; Shankar, Anoop; Kazani, Shamsah; Garshick, Eric

    2005-05-15

    Lead pollution is a substantial problem in developing countries such as India. The US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has defined an elevated blood lead level in children as > or = 10 microg/dl, on the basis of neurologic toxicity. The US Environmental Protection Agency suggests a threshold lead level of 20-40 microg/dl for risk of childhood anemia, but there is little information relating lead levels anemia. Therefore, the authors examined the association between lead levels as low as 10 mug/dl and anemia in Indian children under 3 years of age. Anemia was divided into categories of mild (hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl), moderate (hemoglobin level 8-9.9 g/dl), and severe (hemoglobin level Lead levels lead levels > or = 10-19.9 microg/dl and 97 (9%) had levels > or = 20 microg/dl. After adjustment for child's age, duration of breastfeeding, standard of living, parent's education, father's occupation, maternal anemia, and number of children in the immediate family, children with lead levels > or = 10 microg/dl were 1.3 (95% confidence interval: 1.0, 1.7) times as likely to have moderate anemia as children with lead levels anemia was 1.7 (95% confidence interval: 1.1, 2.6). Health agencies in India should note the association of elevated blood lead levels with anemia and make further efforts to curb lead pollution and childhood anemia.

  17. A review of blood substitutes: examining the history, clinical trial results, and ethics of hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiin-Yu Chen

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The complications associated with acquiring and storing whole blood for transfusions have launched substantial efforts to develop a blood substitute. The history of these efforts involves a complicated mixture of science, ethics, and business. This review focuses on clinical trials of the three hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOC that have progressed to Phase II or III clinical trials: HemAssist (Baxter; Deerfield, IL, US, PolyHeme (Northfield; Evanston, IL, US, and Hemopure (Biopure; Cambridge, MA, US. Published animal studies and clinical trials carried out in a perioperative setting have demonstrated that these products successfully transport and deliver oxygen, but all may induce hypertension and lead to unexpectedly low cardiac outputs. Overall, these studies suggest that HBOCs resulted in only modest blood saving during and after surgery, no improvement in mortality and an increased incidence of adverse reactions. To date, the results from these perioperative studies have not led to regulatory approval. All three companies instead chose to focus their efforts on large trials of trauma patients in the pre-hospital setting. Baxter abandoned the development of HemAssist after a trial in the U.S. was prematurely halted when the first 100 patients showed significantly increased mortality rates as compared to patients treated with blood products. Northfield's PolyHeme trial demonstrated a non-significant trend towards increased mortality and a very modest reduction in the subsequent need for blood. The testing of Biopure's Hemopure for trauma patients has been halted for several years because of FDA concerns over trial design and study justification. Ethical concerns have also been raised regarding the design and implementation of all HBOC clinical trials. Thus, the available evidence suggests that HemAssist, Polyheme, and Hemopure are associated with a significant level of cardiovascular dysfunction. The next generation of HBOCs remains

  18. Aminoguanidine effects on nerve blood flow, vascular permeability, electrophysiology, and oxygen free radicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kihara, Mikihiro; Schmelzer, J.D.; Poduslo, J.F.; Curran, G.L.; Nickander, K.K.; Low, P.A. (Mayo Foundation, Rochester, MN (United States))

    1991-07-15

    Since advanced glycosylation end products have been suggested to mediate hyperglycemia-induced microvascular atherogenesis and because aminoguanidine (AG) prevents their generation, the authors examined whether AG could prevent or ameliorate the physiologic and biochemical indices of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental diabetic neuropathy. Four groups of adult Sprague-Dawley rats were studied: group I received STZ plus AG, group II received STZ plus AG, group III received STZ alone, and group IV was a control. They monitored conduction and action potential amplitudes serially in sciatic-tibial and caudal nerves, nerve blood flow, oxygen free radical activity (conjugated dienes and hydroperoxides), and the product of the permeability coefficient and surface area to {sup 125}I-labeled albumin. STZ-induced diabetes (group III) caused a 57% reduction in nerve blood flow and in abnormal nerve conduction and amplitudes and a 60% increase in conjugated dienes. Nerve blood flow was normalized by 8 weeks with AG (groups I and II) and conduction was significantly improved, in a dose-dependent manner, by 16 and 24 weeks in sciatic-tibial and caudal nerves, respectively. The permeability coefficient was not impaired, suggesting a normal blood-nerve barrier function for albumin, and the oxygen free-radical indices were not ameliorated by AG. They suggest that AG reverses nerve ischemia and more gradually improves their electrophysiology by an action on nerve microvessels. AG may have potential in the treatment of diabetic neuropathy.

  19. The dual roles of red blood cells in tissue oxygen delivery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Frank Bo

    2009-01-01

    Vertebrate red blood cells (RBCs) seem to serve tissue oxygen delivery in two distinct ways. Firstly, RBCs enable the adequate transport of O2 between respiratory surfaces and metabolizing tissues by means of their high intracellular concentration of hemoglobin (Hb), appropriate allosteric...... that enhance blood flow in hypoxic tissues. This latter function could be important in matching tissue O2 delivery with local O2 demand. Three main mechanisms by which RBCs can regulate their own distribution in the microcirculation have been proposed. These are: (1) deoxygenation-dependent release of ATP from...... with regard to their mechanisms, experimental evidence in their support and details that remain unresolved. The prime focus is on human/mammalian models, where most evidence for a role of erythrocyte ATP and NO release in blood flow regulation have accumulated. Information from other vertebrate groups...

  20. Anti-Toxoplasma gondii Antibody Levels in Blood Supply of Shiraz Blood Transfusion Institute, Iran.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minoo Shaddel

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Toxoplasma gondii infection in the blood donors has been poorly studied. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of acute and chronic toxoplasmosis in blood products.A total of 250 blood products (112 fresh frozen plasma and 138 packed cells in the Blood Transfusion Institute, Shiraz, Iran were tested for specific T. gondii antibodies (IgG and IgM by ELISA method in 2013. Positive IgG anti-T. gondii samples were further tested for IgM anti-T. gondii antibody. A positive IgG test with the negative and positive IgM test was interpreted as a chronic and acute toxoplasmosis, respectively. The relationship of jobs, blood types, sex, marital status and residency of participants with chronic toxoplasmosis prevalence were statistically analyzed by χ(2.Of 250 samples, 58 (23.2% and one were positive for IgG anti-T. T. gondii (chronic and IgM anti-T. T. gondii (acute antibodies levels, respectively. Twenty nine (25.9% of fresh frozen plasma (FFP samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondiiiand 1(0.89% of them was positive for IgM anti-T. gondiii antibody. Thirty (21.74% of packed cell samples were positive for IgG anti-T. gondii antibody. The prevalence of chronic toxoplasmosis was significantly higher in workers, farmers, house wives, unemployed and free jobs (P=0.007, people with low education levels (P=0.035 and B type of blood ABO system (P=0.0001. However, there were no significant differences regarding to age, sex, marital status, residency and type of blood products.There were chronic and acute toxoplasmosis in blood products and the prevalence of toxoplasmosis especially chronic form was high. Therefore screening of blood for T. gondii antibodies may be considered.

  1. [Analysis of blood glucose levels in 746 cases of schistosomiasis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, An-Ming; Wu, Guo-Hua; Zhang, Gui-Lin

    2011-04-01

    The levels of blood glucose of 746 inpatients with chronic or advanced schistosomiasis were assayed last 3 years and the results were analyzed. There was no significant difference between the pure chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients and normal population. However, there was a significant difference between the chronic or advanced schistosomiasis patients with viral hepatitis and normal population.

  2. Blood and Brain Glutamate Levels in Children with Autistic Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, Tamer H.; Abdelrahman, Hadeel M.; Fattah, Nelly R. Abdel; El-Masry, Nagda M.; Hashim, Haitham M.; El-Gerby, Khaled M.; Fattah, Nermin R. Abdel

    2013-01-01

    Despite of the great efforts that move forward to clarify the pathophysiologic mechanisms in autism, the cause of this disorder, however, remains largely unknown. There is an increasing body of literature concerning neurochemical contributions to the pathophysiology of autism. We aimed to determine blood and brain levels of glutamate in children…

  3. An upgraded camera-based imaging system for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jun; Zhang, Xiao; Qiu, Lina; Leotta, Daniel F.

    2016-07-01

    A camera-based imaging system was previously developed for mapping venous blood oxygenation in human skin. However, several limitations were realized in later applications, which could lead to either significant bias in the estimated oxygen saturation value or poor spatial resolution in the map of the oxygen saturation. To overcome these issues, an upgraded system was developed using improved modeling and image processing algorithms. In the modeling, Monte Carlo (MC) simulation was used to verify the effectiveness of the ratio-to-ratio method for semi-infinite and two-layer skin models, and then the relationship between the venous oxygen saturation and the ratio-to-ratio was determined. The improved image processing algorithms included surface curvature correction and motion compensation. The curvature correction is necessary when the imaged skin surface is uneven. The motion compensation is critical for the imaging system because surface motion is inevitable when the venous volume alteration is induced by cuff inflation. In addition to the modeling and image processing algorithms in the upgraded system, a ring light guide was used to achieve perpendicular and uniform incidence of light. Cross-polarization detection was also adopted to suppress surface specular reflection. The upgraded system was applied to mapping of venous oxygen saturation in the palm, opisthenar and forearm of human subjects. The spatial resolution of the oxygenation map achieved is much better than that of the original system. In addition, the mean values of the venous oxygen saturation for the three locations were verified with a commercial near-infrared spectroscopy system and were consistent with previously published data.

  4. Effects of race and sex on cerebral hemodynamics, oxygen delivery and blood flow distribution in response to high altitude

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jie; Liu, Yang; Ren, Li-Hua; Li, Li; Wang, Zhen; Liu, Shan-Shan; Li, Su-Zhi; Cao, Tie-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    To assess racial, sexual, and regional differences in cerebral hemodynamic response to high altitude (HA, 3658 m). We performed cross-sectional comparisons on total cerebral blood flow (TCBF = sum of bilateral internal carotid and vertebral arterial blood flows = QICA + QVA), total cerebrovascular resistance (TCVR), total cerebral oxygen delivery (TCOD) and QVA/TCBF (%), among six groups of young healthy subjects: Tibetans (2-year staying) and Han (Han Chinese) at sea level, Han (2-day, 1-year and 5-year) and Tibetans at HA. Bilateral ICA and VA diameters and flow velocities were derived from duplex ultrasonography; and simultaneous measurements of arterial pressure, oxygen saturation, and hemoglobin concentration were conducted. Neither acute (2-day) nor chronic (>1 year) responses showed sex differences in Han, except that women showed lower TCOD compared with men. Tibetans and Han exhibited different chronic responses (percentage alteration relative to the sea-level counterpart value) in TCBF (‑17% vs. 0%), TCVR (22% vs. 12%), TCOD (0% vs. 10%) and QVA/TCBF (0% vs. 2.4%, absolute increase), with lower resting TCOD found in SL- and HA-Tibetans. Our findings indicate racial but not sex differences in cerebral hemodynamic adaptations to HA, with Tibetans (but not Han) demonstrating an altitude-related change of CBF distribution.

  5. Biological effects of short-term, high-concentration exposure to methyl isocyanate. IV. Influence on the oxygen-binding properties of guinea pig blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Maginniss, L A; Szewczak, J M; Troup, C M

    1987-01-01

    Whole blood oxygen equilibrium curves (O2 ECs), blood buffer lines, and several hematologic properties were determined for adult guinea pigs exposed to 700 ppm methyl isocyanate (MIC) for 15 min. MIC inhalation effected a significant reduction of blood O2 affinity; the half-saturation pressure (P50) at 38 degrees C increased from the control (untreated) level of 22.8 +/- 0.1 mm Hg to values ranging from 28.5 to 43.7 mm Hg for experimental animals. MIC exposure had no apparent influence on O2 ...

  6. RSI: oxygen consumption, blood flow, and reoxygenation in patients suffering RSI measured by noninvasive optical spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thijssen, Dick H. J.; van Uden, Caro J. T.; Krijgsman, Hans; Colier, Willy N. J. M.

    2003-07-01

    Background: Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI) is a major problem in nowadays health care and creates high financial costs and personal distress. Average prevalence rates in the Netherlands vary from 20-40% of the working population. Insight into the patho-physiological mechanism of RSI is important in order to establish adequate treatment and prevention programs. Objective: The aim of this study was to gain insight in muscle oxygen consumption (mVO2), blood flow (BF), and reoxygenation (ReOx) in the forearm of computer workers with stage III Repetitive Strain Injury (RSI). Method: We have used continuous wave infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to measure these variables. Measurements were conducted on the extensor and flexor muscle in both arms as well in RSI-patients (n=10) as in control subjects (n=21). A protocol of increased isometric repetitive contraction in a handgrip ergonometer was used with increasing levels of strength. Results: mVO2 in the extensor muscle in RSI-subjects (dominant side) was increased compared to control subjects and compared to the non-dominant side (pmuscle). However, there was a tendency towards statistical significance (p=0.065). BF in rest was equal in both groups, however after exercise it tended to be increased. Half-time recovery (T ») was measured during only one part of the protocol and it was significantly increased (p<0.05). Conclusion: mVO2 in RSI is impaired. BF and ReOx did not show difference between both groups. Future research should aim at a microvascular dysfunction in RSI.

  7. Cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in dementia with Lewy bodies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yoshitomo; Takahashi, Satoshi; Yonezawa, Hisashi [Iwate Medical Univ., Morioka (Japan). School of Medicine

    2000-06-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), oxygen metabolism (rCMRO{sub 2}) and the oxygen extraction fraction (rOEF) were measured using the steady-state {sup 15}O technique and positron emission tomography (PET) in six patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and compared with ten patients with Alzheimer disease (AD) and six normal controls. In the AD patients, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in the frontal, parietal, and temporal cortices compared with controls. In DLB patients, rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were decreased in the frontal, parietal, temporal, and occipital cortices compared with controls, and were decreased more diffusely than in AD patients. rCBF and rCMRO{sub 2} were significantly decreased in occipital cortex compared with AD patients. rOEF was significantly increased in the parieto-temporal cortex in AD patients compared with controls. In DLB patients, rOEF was significantly increased not only in the parieto-temporal cortex but also in the occipital and frontal cortices compared with controls, and was significantly increased in the occipital cortex compared with AD patients. The diffuse reduction of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism including the occipital cortex may be related to visual hallucination and other visuospatial deficits frequently seen in DLB patients. The increase in rOEF may be mainly due to the reduction in the vascular bed associated with decreased activity in the vasodilatory cholinergic system. (author)

  8. Blood oxygen- and carbon dioxide-carrying properties in captive penguins: effects of moulting and inter-specific comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxime, Valérie; Hassani, Sami

    2014-02-01

    Venous blood gas-carrying properties were compared in the three captive species of penguins (king, gentoo and rockhopper) at Océanopolis (France). Captivity permitted to control environmental influences. Given their different ecology and diving behaviour in the wild, it was wondered whether milder conditions and dive privation have repercussions on parameters determining oxygen storage and acid-base status of these birds. In addition, this work provided the opportunity to study the effects of moulting in king penguins. This annual event that imposes deep metabolic adjustments is liable to affect blood gas levels. Because of the regular food supply and probably also of the blood sampling conditions, the blood pH of captive penguins was low. This effect was increased in moulting penguins and supposedly due to both the decreased energetic metabolism and the production of uric acid resulting from new feather synthesis. The decrease in the anion gap also revealed the use of plasmatic albumin for this synthesis. The elevated venous PO2 in all birds is not likely due to stress caused by sampling conditions. The other data, in accordance with those in the literature, show neither major influence of captivity nor fundamental interspecific differences, despite potential diving aptitude.

  9. Expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Hui Zhang; Liang-Hua Xia; Jia-Mei Jin; Ming Zong; Ming Chen; Bo Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the relationship between the expression level of miR-155 and the severity of coronary lesion, and explore the action mechanism.Methods: Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were isolated form blood simple from patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI), unstable angina (UAP), stable angina (SAP) and chest pain syndrome (CPS). RT-PCR was performed to analysis the expression level of miR-155 in peripheral blood mononuclear cells, plasma and RAW264.7 macrophagocyte. MTT was used to analyze the cell viability of OxLDL treated RAW264.7 macrophagocyte.Results: The expression level of miR-155 in blood sample from coronary heart disease patients was much lower than in the blood sample of non-coronary heart disease (P<0.05). The level of miR-155 in PBMCs was much higher in the blood sample from CPS group than the other three group, and the level of miR-155 in plasma was higher in the CPS group than in the UAP and the AMI group, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). The expression level of miR-155 in PBMCs is positively associated with the level in the plasma (r=0.861,P=0.000). OxLDL can induce the expression of miR-155 in RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, decrease the cell viability of RAW264.7 macrophagocyte, and with the concentration and the treatment time of OxLDL increased, the effort become more obvious. The inhibition effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte with high miR-155 expression is much lower than the control group, and it is statistically significant after treated for 12, 24 and 48 h.Conclusions: miR-155 plays a protective role in the progression of atherosclerosis, and it may be achieved by reducing the apoptosis effort of OxLDL to RAW264.7 macrophagocyte.

  10. Betel Leaf Extract (Piper betle L. Antihyperuricemia Effect Decreases Oxidative Stress by Reducing the Level of MDA and Increase Blood SOD Levels of Hyperuricemia Wistar Rats (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Made Sumarya

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Betel leaf extracts (Piper betle L. antioxidant activity and enzyme inhibitors of XO. Hyperuricemia cause oxidative stress by increasing the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS cause lipid peroxidation and oxygenation of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the betel leaf extract as an anti hyperuricemia that can lower the blood uric acid levels and oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increase the SOD of hyperuricemia of the rat’s blood. Method: Experimental research was conducted with the design of The Randomized Post Test Only Control Group Design, on normal Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus, administered with oxonic potassium (hyperuricemia and the hyperuricemia rats either given betel leaf extract and allopurinol. After the experiment of uric acid levels, MDA and SOD in rat blood determined. Results: The results showed that the betel leaf extract significantly (p <0.05 lower uric acid levels, MDA and increase levels of SOD in rat blood. There is a positive correlation between the levels of uric acid with MDA levels and a negative correlation, although not significantly with SOD (p >0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the betel leaf extract as an anti-hyperuricemia can lower the uric acid levels and decreases oxidative stress by lowering the levels of MDA and increasing the SOD.

  11. Changes in cerebral blood oxygenation induced by active standing test in children with POTS and NMS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Ayumi; Fujita, Yukihiko; Fuchigami, Tatsuo; Takahashi, Shori; Mugishima, Hideo; Skatani, Kaoru

    2014-01-01

    Orthostatic dysregulation (OD) has been classified into subtypes by heart rate and blood pressure; however, the hemodynamics of brains have not yet been revealed. Therefore, we investigated changes in cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during an active standing test to clarify the pathophysiology of two subtypes: postural tachycardia syndrome (POTS) and neurally mediated syncope (NMS). We studied 31 children (15 boys, 16 girls; mean age, 14.0 ± 1.7 years) who presented with OD at the Department of Pediatrics and Child Health, Nihon University School of Medicine between 2009 and 2011. OD was diagnosed using the Japanese clinical guidelines for juvenile orthostatic dysregulation. After a 10-min resting period in the supine position, patients were asked to quickly stand up and keep upright for 10 min. Cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation were measured using transcranial Doppler sonography and near-infrared spectroscopy. POTS showed a significant decrease of oxy-Hb and resistance index (RI), suggesting transient ischemia with maintainable cerebral autoregulation. NMS showed a decrease of oxy-Hb and an increase of RI, suggesting ischemia and impairment of autoregulation.

  12. Significance of affinity and cooperativity in oxygen binding to hemoglobin of horse fetal and maternal blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Kobayashi, Keiko; Sasagawa, Keisuke; Imai, Kiyohiro; Kobayashi, Michiyori

    2003-09-01

    The physiological significance of the position and shape of the oxygen equilibrium curve (OEC) of horse hemoglobin (Hb) is considered from the viewpoint of oxygen (O2) transport efficiency and the effectiveness of the Bohr effect. In horse fetal and maternal bloods, their physiological O2 affinities are nearly optimized with respect to the effectiveness of the Bohr shift occurring at the O2 release site, when it is measured by the change in O2 saturation per unit change in P50. With relatively low cooperativity (n=2.69) of horse Hb under physiological conditions, the effectiveness of the Bohr shift for fetal blood at O2 uptake site and maternal blood at O2 release site is high. These facts imply that the position and the cooperativity of horse Hb OEC are optimized to receive maximal benefit from the double Bohr shift. Before exercise, the position of the OEC for adult mares is nearly optimized for the effectiveness of the Bohr shift occurring at the O2 release site, whereas, at maximal exercise, the position of the OEC tends to become advantageous for O2 transport efficiency.

  13. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlstam Erika

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1 the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2 if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range -1. In the control group the median lactate level was 1,2 mmol l-1 (range -1. Of the 31 bitches 19 (61% fulfilled 2 or more criteria for SIRS at inclusion, 10 bitches (32% fulfilled 3 of the SIRS criteria whereas none accomplished more than 3 criteria. Lactate levels did not differ significantly between the pyometra and control group, or between the SIRS positive and SIRS negative dogs with pyometra. Increased lactate concentration (>2.5 mmol l-1 was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%, and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate

  14. Simple exercises that significantly increase cerebral blood flow and cerebral oxygenation

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander; Raz, Amir; Fried, Robert

    2011-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that simple exercises may significantly increase cerebral blood flow (CBF) and/or cerebral oxygenation. Eighteen subjects ranging in age from nineteen to thirty nine participated in a four-stage study during which measurements of end tidal CO_2 (EtCO2 - by capnometer) and local brain oxygenation (by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) sensor) were taken. The four stages were 1) baseline, 2) breathing exercises, 3) solving an arithmetic problem, and 4) biofeedback. During the breathing exercises there was a significant increase in EtCO2 indicating a significant increase in global CBF. The increase in global CBF was estimated on the basis of a theoretical model. During the arithmetic and biofeedback tasks there was a significant increase in the local (Fp1) oxygenation, but it varied between the different participants. The results may lead to new clinical applications of CBF and brain oxygenation monitoring and behavioral control. We foresee future more detailed investigations in the contr...

  15. Real-time frequency-domain fiber optic sensor for intra-arterial blood oxygen measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcala, J. R.; Scott, Ian L.; Parker, Jennifer W.; Atwater, Beauford W.; Yu, Clement; Fischer, Russell; Bellingrath, K.

    1993-05-01

    A real time frequency domain phosphorimeter capable of measuring precise and accurate excited state lifetimes for determining oxygen is described. This frequency domain instrument does not make use of cross correlation techniques traditionally used in frequency domain fluorometers. Instead, the electrical signal from the detector is filtered to contain only the first several harmonics. This filtered signal is then sampled and averaged over a few thousand cycles. The absolute phase and absolute modulation of each sampled harmonic of the excitation and of the luminescence is computed by employing fast Fourier transform algorithms. The phase delay and the modulation ratio is then calculated at each harmonic frequency. A least squares fit is performed in the frequency domain to obtain the lifetimes of discrete exponentials. Oxygen concentrations are computed from these lifetimes. Prototypes based on these techniques were built employing commercially available components. Results from measurements in saline solution and in the arterial blood of dogs show that oxygen concentrations can be determined reproducibly. The system drift is less than 1% in over 100 hours of continuous operation. The performance of fiber optic sensors was evaluated in dogs over a period of 10 hours. The sensors tracked changes in arterial oxygen tension over the course of the experiment without instabilities. The overall response of the system was about 90 seconds. The update time was 3 seconds.

  16. Blood pressure load does not add to ambulatory blood pressure level for cardiovascular risk stratification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Yan; Thijs, Lutgarde; Boggia, José

    2014-01-01

    Experts proposed blood pressure (BP) load derived from 24-hour ambulatory BP recordings as a more accurate predictor of outcome than level, in particular in normotensive people. We analyzed 8711 subjects (mean age, 54.8 years; 47.0% women) randomly recruited from 10 populations. We expressed BP...

  17. Cutaneous oxygen uptake and its relation to skin blood perfusion and ambient salinity in the plaice, Pleuronectes platessa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, J F; Lomholt, J P

    1985-01-01

    Oxygen uptake across plaice skin was unaffected by temporary arrest of skin blood flow. This indicates that oxygen taken up across the skin is consumed by the skin itself. Weight specific rate of O2-consumption of skin is estimated to be 1.7-1.9 times that of the entire fish. Total resting O2...

  18. Eigenspectra optoacoustic tomography achieves quantitative blood oxygenation imaging deep in tissues

    CERN Document Server

    Tzoumas, Stratis; Olefir, Ivan; Stangl, Stefan; Symvoulidis, Panagiotis; Glasl, Sarah; Bayer, Christine; Multhoff, Gabriele; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2015-01-01

    Light propagating in tissue attains a spectrum that varies with location due to wavelength-dependent fluence attenuation by tissue optical properties, an effect that causes spectral corruption. Predictions of the spectral variations of light fluence in tissue are challenging since the spatial distribution of optical properties in tissue cannot be resolved in high resolution or with high accuracy by current methods. Spectral corruption has fundamentally limited the quantification accuracy of optical and optoacoustic methods and impeded the long sought-after goal of imaging blood oxygen saturation (sO2) deep in tissues; a critical but still unattainable target for the assessment of oxygenation in physiological processes and disease. We discover a new principle underlying light fluence in tissues, which describes the wavelength dependence of light fluence as an affine function of a few reference base spectra, independently of the specific distribution of tissue optical properties. This finding enables the introd...

  19. Impaired cerebral blood flow and oxygenation during exercise in type 2 diabetic patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Yu-Sok; Seifert, Thomas; Brassard, Patrice

    2015-01-01

    Endothelial vascular function and capacity to increase cardiac output during exercise are impaired in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We tested the hypothesis that the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF) during exercise is also blunted and, therefore, that cerebral oxygenation becomes...... affected and perceived exertion increased in T2DM patients. We quantified cerebrovascular besides systemic hemodynamic responses to incremental ergometer cycling exercise in eight male T2DM and seven control subjects. CBF was assessed from the Fick equation and by transcranial Doppler-determined middle...... at higher workloads in T2DM patients and their work capacity and increase in cardiac output were only ~80% of that established in the control subjects. CBF and cerebral oxygenation were reduced during exercise in T2DM patients (P

  20. Challenges in understanding the impact of blood pressure management on cerebral oxygenation in the preterm brain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aminath eAzhan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Systemic hypotension in preterm infants has been related to increased mortality, cerebrovascular lesions and neurodevelopmental morbidity. Treatment of hypotension with inotropic medications aims at preservation of end organ perfusion and oxygen delivery, especially the brain. The common inotropic medications in preterm infants include dopamine, dobutamine, adrenalin, with adjunctive use of corticosteroids in cases of refractory hypotension. Whether maintenance of mean arterial blood pressure (MAP by use of inotropic medication is neuroprotective or not remains unclear. This review explores the different inotropic agents and their effects on perfusion and oxygenation in the preterm brain, in clinical studies as well as in animal models. Dopamine and adrenalin, because of their -adrenergic vasoconstrictor actions, have raised concerns of reduction in cerebral blood flow (CBF. Several studies in hypotensive preterm infants have shown that dopamine elevates CBF together with increased MAP, in keeping with limited cerebro-autoregulation. Adrenaline is also effective in raising cerebral perfusion together with MAP in preterm infants. Experimental studies in immature animals show no cerebro-vasoconstrictive effects of dopamine or adrenaline, but demonstrate the consistent findings of increased cerebral perfusion and oxygenation with the use of dopamine, dobutamine and adrenaline, alongside with raised MAP. Both clinical and animal studies report the transitory effects of adrenaline in increasing plasma lactate, and blood glucose, which might render its use as a 2nd line therapy. To investigate the cerebral effects of inotropic agents in long-term outcome in hypotensive preterm infants, carefully designed prospective research possibly including preterm infants with permissive hypotension is required. Preterm animal models would be useful in investigating the relationship between the physiological effects of inotropes and histopathology outcomes in

  1. Simultaneous blood flow and blood oxygenation measurements using a combination of diffuse speckle contrast analysis and near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seong, Myeongsu; Phillips, Zephaniah; Mai, Phuong Minh; Yeo, Chaebeom; Song, Cheol; Lee, Kijoon; Kim, Jae Gwan

    2016-02-01

    A combined diffuse speckle contrast analysis (DSCA)-near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) system is proposed to simultaneously measure qualitative blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in human tissue. The system employs an optical switch to alternate two laser sources at two different wavelengths and a CCD camera to capture the speckle image. Therefore, an optical density can be measured from two wavelengths for NIRS measurements and a speckle contrast can be calculated for DSCA measurements. In order to validate the system, a flow phantom test and an arm occlusion protocol for arterial and venous occlusion were performed. Shorter exposure times (<1 ms) show a higher drop (between 50% and 66%) and recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion (approximately 150%), but longer exposure time (3 ms) shows more consistent hemodynamic changes. For four subjects, the 1/KS2 values dropped to an average of 82.1±4.0% during the occlusion period and the average recovery of 1/KS2 values after occlusion was 109.1±0.8%. There was also an approximately equivalent amplitude change in oxyhemoglobin (OHb) and deoxyhemoglobin (RHb) during arterial occlusion (max RHb=0.0085±0.0024 mM/DPF, min OHb=-0.0057±0.0044 mM/DPF). The sensitivity of the system makes it a suitable modality to observe qualitative hemodynamic trends during induced physiological changes.

  2. Toward an Inexpensive Test for Vitamin D Levels in Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Various synthetic redox mediators were tried and cobalt sepulchrate trichloride (Co(sep)3+/2+) was found to...25(OH)D (circulating form of vitamin D in blood) levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Cytochrome P450, mediated electrochemistry, direct electron chemistry...activity of the enzyme using non-natural redox mediators . This work provides a path forward for developing this enzyme into a biosensor for Vitamin D

  3. Three-dimensional multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy reveals melanin and blood oxygenation in human skin in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Mathias; Buehler, Andreas; Aguirre, Juan; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2016-01-01

    Optical imaging plays a major role in disease detection in dermatology. However, current optical methods are limited by lack of three-dimensional detection of pathophysiological parameters within skin. It was recently shown that single-wavelength optoacoustic (photoacoustic) mesoscopy resolves skin morphology, i.e. melanin and blood vessels within epidermis and dermis. In this work we employed illumination at multiple wavelengths for enabling three-dimensional multispectral optoacoustic mesoscopy (MSOM) of natural chromophores in human skin in vivo operating at 15-125 MHz. We employ a per-pulse tunable laser to inherently co-register spectral datasets, and reveal previously undisclosed insights of melanin, and blood oxygenation in human skin. We further reveal broadband absorption spectra of specific skin compartments. We discuss the potential of MSOM for label-free visualization of physiological biomarkers in skin in vivo.

  4. Blood lactate levels in 31 female dogs with pyometra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagman, Ragnvi; Reezigt, Bert Jan; Bergström Ledin, Hanna; Karlstam, Erika

    2009-01-01

    Background Canine pyometra is a life-threatening disease common in countries where spaying of dogs is not routinely performed. The disease is associated with endotoxemia, sepsis, systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and a 3–4% mortality rate. Blood lactate analysis is clinically valuable in predicting prognosis and survival, evaluating tissue perfusion and treatment response in human and veterinary critical care settings. The aims of the present study were to investigate 1) the blood lactate levels of female dogs with pyometra by a hand-held analyser and 2) if these levels are related with the clinical status or other biochemical or hematological disorders. Methods In total 31 female dogs with pyometra admitted for surgical ovariohysterectomy and 16 healthy female control dogs were included in the present study. A complete physical examination including SIRS-status determination was performed. Blood samples for lactate concentrations, hematological and biochemical parameters, acid-base and blood gas analysis and other laboratory parameters were collected and subsequently analysed. The diagnosis pyometra was verified with histopathological examination of the uterus and ovaries. Increased hospitalisation length and presence of SIRS were used as indicators of outcome. Results In the pyometra group the median blood lactate level was 1,6 mmol l-1 (range 2.5 mmol l-1) was demonstrated in one female dog with pyometra (3%), and was not associated with longer hospitalisation or presence of SIRS. Lactate measurement was not indicative of peritonitis. None of the bitches died during or within two months of the hospital stay. The measurements of temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, percentage bandforms of neutrophilic granulocytes, α2-globulins, creatinin, pvCO2, TCO2 and base excess showed significant differences between the SIRS positive and the SIRS negative pyometra cases. Conclusion Increased blood lactate concentrations were demonstrated in 3% (1

  5. Inhibition of fungal growth with extreme low oxygen levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Per Væggemose; Haasum, Iben

    1998-01-01

    contaminants of a wide range of products, and to determine the limit of growthFungi isolated from a wide range of products were incubated for up to three weeks at 25oC , 90% relative humidity at 1.0, 0.5, 0.25, 0.1, and 0.05% oxygen respectively in a custom made incubator with an interlock system...

  6. Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Zafrani (Lara); B. Ergin (Bulent); Kapucu, A. (Aysegul); C. Ince (Can)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractBackground: The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury. Methods: Twenty-seven Wistar

  7. Diving Related Changes in the Blood Oxygen Stores of Rehabilitating Harbor Seal Pups (Phoca vitulina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Amber; Ono, Kathryn

    2015-01-01

    Harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups begin diving within hours of birth, stimulating the development of the blood oxygen (O2) stores necessary to sustain underwater aerobic metabolism. Since harbor seals experience a brief nursing period, the early-life development of these blood O2 stores is necessary for successful post-weaning foraging. If mothers and pups become prematurely separated, the pup may be transported to a wildlife rehabilitation center for care. Previous studies suggest that the shallow pools and lack of diving in rehabilitation facilities may lead to under-developed blood O2 stores, but diving behavior during rehabilitation has not been investigated. This study aimed to simultaneously study the diving behaviors and blood O2 store development of rehabilitating harbor seal pups. Standard hematology measurements (Hct, Hb, RBC, MCV, MCH, MCHC) were taken to investigate O2 storage capacity and pups were equipped with time-depth recorders to investigate natural diving behavior while in rehabilitation. Linear mixed models of the data indicate that all measured blood parameters changed with age; however, when compared to literature values for wild harbor seal pups, rehabilitating pups have smaller red blood cells (RBCs) that can store less hemoglobin (Hb) and subsequently, less O2, potentially limiting their diving capabilities. Wild pups completed longer dives at younger ages (maximum reported dives were observed (maximum during rehabilitation: 13.6 min at 89 days of age). Further, this study suggests that there may be a positive relationship between RBC size and the frequency of long duration dives. Thus, rehabilitating harbor seal pups should be encouraged to make frequent, long duration dives to prepare themselves for post-release foraging.

  8. Increased platelet oxidative metabolism, blood oxidative stress and neopterin levels after ultra-endurance exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Lucas, Ricardo Dantas; Caputo, Fabrizio; Mendes de Souza, Kristopher; Sigwalt, André Roberto; Ghisoni, Karina; Lock Silveira, Paulo Cesar; Remor, Aline Pertile; da Luz Scheffer, Débora; Guglielmo, Luiz Guilherme Antonacci; Latini, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify muscle damage, inflammatory response and oxidative stress blood markers in athletes undertaking the ultra-endurance MultiSport Brazil race. Eleven well-trained male athletes (34.3 ± 3.1 years, 74.0 ± 7.6 kg; 172.2 ± 5.1 cm) participated in the study and performed the race, which consisted of about 90 km of alternating off-road running, mountain biking and kayaking. Twelve hours before and up to 15 minutes after the race a 10 mL blood sample was drawn in order to measure the following parameters: lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, lipid peroxidation, catalase activity, protein carbonylation, respiratory chain complexes I, II and IV activities, oxygen consumption and neopterin concentrations. After the race, plasma lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities were significantly increased. Erythrocyte TBA-RS levels and plasma protein carbonylation were markedly augmented in post-race samples. Additionally, mitochondrial complex II activity and oxygen consumption in post-race platelet-rich plasma were also increased. These altered biochemical parameters were accompanied by increased plasma neopterin levels. The ultra-endurance event provoked systemic inflammation (increased neopterin) accompanied by marked oxidative stress, likely by increasing oxidative metabolism (increased oxidative mitochondrial function). This might be advantageous during prolonged exercise, mainly for efficient substrate oxidation at the mitochondrial level, even when tissue damage is induced.

  9. An immune response network associated with blood lipid levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Inouye

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available While recent scans for genetic variation associated with human disease have been immensely successful in uncovering large numbers of loci, far fewer studies have focused on the underlying pathways of disease pathogenesis. Many loci which are associated with disease and complex phenotypes map to non-coding, regulatory regions of the genome, indicating that modulation of gene transcription plays a key role. Thus, this study generated genome-wide profiles of both genetic and transcriptional variation from the total blood extracts of over 500 randomly-selected, unrelated individuals. Using measurements of blood lipids, key players in the progression of atherosclerosis, three levels of biological information are integrated in order to investigate the interactions between circulating leukocytes and proximal lipid compounds. Pair-wise correlations between gene expression and lipid concentration indicate a prominent role for basophil granulocytes and mast cells, cell types central to powerful allergic and inflammatory responses. Network analysis of gene co-expression showed that the top associations function as part of a single, previously unknown gene module, the Lipid Leukocyte (LL module. This module replicated in T cells from an independent cohort while also displaying potential tissue specificity. Further, genetic variation driving LL module expression included the single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP most strongly associated with serum immunoglobulin E (IgE levels, a key antibody in allergy. Structural Equation Modeling (SEM indicated that LL module is at least partially reactive to blood lipid levels. Taken together, this study uncovers a gene network linking blood lipids and circulating cell types and offers insight into the hypothesis that the inflammatory response plays a prominent role in metabolism and the potential control of atherogenesis.

  10. The effect of ageing on ocular blood flow, oxygen tension and retinal function during and after intraocular pressure elevation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeremiah K H Lim

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the effect of ageing on the recovery of ocular blood flow, intravitreal oxygen tension and retinal function during and after intraocular pressure (IOP elevation. METHODS: Long Evans rats (3- and 14-month-old underwent acute stepwise IOP elevation from 10 to 120 mmHg (5 mmHg steps each 3 minutes. IOP was then returned to baseline and recovery was monitored for 2 hours. Photopic electroretinograms (ERG were recorded at each IOP step during stress and at each minute during recovery. Ocular blood flow and vitreal oxygen tension (pO2 were assayed continuously and simultaneously using a combined laser Doppler flow meter (LDF and an oxygen sensitive fibre-optic probe, respectively. The combined sensor was placed in the vitreous chamber, proximal to the retina. Data were binned into 3 minute intervals during stress and 1 min intervals during recovery. Recovery data was described using a bi-logistic function. RESULTS: Rats of both ages showed similar susceptibility to IOP elevation, with pO2 showing a closer relationship to ERG than LDF. During recovery, both ages showed a distinctive two-phased recovery for all three measures with the exception of the LDF in 3-month-old rats, which showed only 1 phase. In all animals, LDF recovered fastest (1 hour. 14-month-old rats showed surprisingly faster and greater LDF recovery compared to the younger group, with similar levels of pO2 recovery. However, the ERG in these middle-aged animals did not fully recover after two hours, despite showing no difference in susceptibility to IOP during stress compared to the young group. CONCLUSIONS: Young and middle-aged eyes showed similar susceptibility to IOP elevation in terms of pO2, LDF and ERG. Despite this lack of difference during stress, older eyes did not completely recover function, suggesting a more subtle age-related susceptibility to IOP.

  11. Low Cerebral Oxygen Consumption and Blood Flow in Patients With Cirrhosis and an Acute Episode of Hepatic Encephalopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Peter; Bak, Lasse Kristoffer; Waagepetersen, Helle Sønderby

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND & AIMS: It is unclear whether patients with hepatic encephalopathy (HE) have disturbed brain oxygen metabolism and blood flow. METHODS: We measured cerebral oxygen metabolism rate (CMRO(2)) by using (15)O-oxygen positron emission tomography (PET), and cerebral blood flow (CBF) by using....../min in patients with HE, 0.47 +/- 0.02 in patients without HE, and 0.49 +/- 0.03 in healthy subjects. CMRO(2) and CBF were correlated, and both variables correlated negatively with arterial ammonia concentration. Analysis of regional values, using individual magnetic resonance co-registrations, showed...... that the reductions in CMRO(2) and CBF in patients with HE were essentially generalized throughout the brain. CONCLUSIONS: The observations imply that reduced cerebral oxygen consumption and blood flow in cirrhotic patients with an acute episode of overt HE are associated with HE and not cirrhosis as such...

  12. Blood Triglycerides Levels and Dietary Carbohydrate Indices in Healthy Koreans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Ji Yeon

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Previous studies have obtained conflicting findings regarding possible associations between indices measuring carbohydrate intake and dyslipidemia, which is an established risk factor of coronary heart disease. In the present study, we examined cross-sectional associations between carbohydrate indices, including the dietary glycemic index (GI), glycemic load (GL), total amount of carbohydrates, and the percentage of energy from carbohydrates, and a range of blood lipid parameters. Methods: This study included 1530 participants (554 men and 976 women) from 246 families within the Healthy Twin Study. We analyzed the associations using a generalized linear mixed model to control for familial relationships. Results: Levels of the Apo B were inversely associated with dietary GI, GL, and the amount of carbohydrate intake for men, but these relationships were not significant when fat-adjusted values of the carbohydrate indices were used. Triglyceride levels were positively associated with dietary GI and GL in women, and this pattern was more notable in overweight participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥25 kg/m2). However, total, low-density lipoprotein and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were not significantly related with carbohydrate intake overall. Conclusions: Of the blood lipid parameters we investigated, only triglyceride levels were positively related with dietary carbohydrate indices among women participants in the Healthy Twin Study, with an interactive role observed for BMI. However, these associations were not observed in men, suggesting that the association between blood lipid levels and carbohydrate intake depends on the type of lipid, specific carbohydrate indices, gender, and BMI. PMID:27255074

  13. Influence of arterial dissolved oxygen level on venous oxygen saturation: don't forget the PaO2!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legrand, Matthieu; Vallée, Fabrice; Mateo, Joaquim; Payen, Didier

    2014-06-01

    Dissolved oxygen (i.e., unbound to hemoglobin) is often neglected as a determinant of central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in review articles and textbooks. These statements may lead to potential misinterpretation of SCvO2 value across FiO2 changes. In this study, we aimed to explore the influence of PaO2 and FiO2 on ScvO2 in ventilated critically ill patients. This was a prospective observational study in two surgical intensive care units. Mechanically ventilated and sedated patients with cardiac output and ScvO2 monitoring and PaO2/FiO2 > 200 with inspiratory oxygen (FiO2) ≤ 0.5 were enrolled (cohort [ScvO2]). A second cohort of brain-injured patients with jugular venous oxygen saturation monitoring was studied to assess the application of the results to regional circulation (cohort [SjvO2]). Central venous oxygen saturation was measured at baseline FiO2 and at FiO2 = 1. We finally estimated the participation of the dissolved oxygen (PadissolvO2) to the ScvO2 variations. Twenty patients formed the cohort ScvO2 and eight formed the cohort SjvO2. Central venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (69%-76%) to 84% (78%-88%) after increasing FiO2, whereas PaO2 rose from 100 (85-124) mmHg to 387 (360-449) mmHg. The rise of ScvO2 was mostly ascribable to the dissolved oxygen. The increase of ScvO2 was not explained by changes in cardiac output or hemoglobin levels. Jugular venous oxygen saturation rose from 71% (58%-78%) to 83% (78%-89%) after increasing FiO2. Arterial dissolved oxygen level can significantly influence the ScvO2 value. Therefore, PaO2 should not be overlooked while considering the ScvO2 value as a therapeutic goal. Interpretation of ScvO2 variations in response to a therapeutic challenge (i.e., fluid challenge, inotropic drug initiation) should be performed at constant FiO2.

  14. 3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI技术对注入碘对比剂后肾脏损害评价的实验研究%Experimental study of renal damage assessment after injection of iodine contrast medium: the role of blood oxygen level-dependent functional MRI with a 3.0 T system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘玉品; 梁长虹; 张水兴; 刘波; 冉鹏程

    2010-01-01

    目的 探讨3.0 T血氧水平依赖功能MRI(fMRI-BOLD)技术在碘对比剂大鼠肾脏损害评价中的应用价值.方法 29只SD大鼠分别于注入碘对比剂前、注入碘对比剂碘普胺后20 min、24 h、48 h、72 h不同时间点进行常规MR序列及BOLD序列扫描;注入碘对比剂前作为对照组.BOLD序列扫描图像在工作站处理后,测量大鼠肾脏皮质、外髓及内髓的T2*值,计算表观自旋-自旋弛豫率(R2*值)(R2*值=1/T2 *值).对照组大鼠双肾不同部位R2*值的比较采用方差分析,对照组和实验组不同时间、不同部位右肾和左肾R2*值的比较采用t检验.结果 对照组大鼠左、右肾脏外髓R2*值[分别为(31.76±2.73)/s和(32.77±3.07)/s]均高于相应皮质[分别为(30.20±3.48)/s和(28.84±3.11)/s]及内髓[分别为(29.54±2.42)/s和(28.37±2.80)/s],F值分别为3.357和14.961,P值均<0.05.左肾和右肾内髓、外髓和皮质的R2*值差异均无统计学意义(P值均>0.05).注入碘对比剂后不同时间点,以外髓R2*值变化明显.在注射对比剂20 min时,肾脏外髓R2*值最高[右肾和左肾分别为(44.58±3.13)/s和(43.57±3.84)/s],24 h后R2*值逐渐降低[右肾和左肾分别为(42.89±3.40)/s和(42.07±4.82)/s].内髓及皮质R2*值仅表现为轻微改变.结论 R2*值能反映出大鼠肾脏皮、髓质氧分压的变化,判断髓质缺血缺氧程度.BOLD成像技术能反映肾脏皮髓质氧代谢情况,评估肾脏损害程度,是一种简单、可行及重复性较好的方法.%Objective To evaluate blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) MRI on assessing renal damage after injection of iodine contrast medium with a 3.0 T system. Methods Routine MRI examination,including T1WI and T2WI, and BOLD MRI were performed in 29 SD rats with a 3.0 T system before the injection of iodine contrast agent and 20 min, 24 h, 48 h, 72 h after the injection, respectively. T2 * and R2 * ( = 1/T2 * ) measurements were obtained in the cortex, inner and outer medulla

  15. Effects of diving and oxygen on autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winklewski, Pawel J; Kot, Jacek; Frydrychowski, Andrzej F; Nuckowska, Magdalena K; Tkachenko, Yurii

    2013-09-01

    Recreational scuba diving is a popular leisure activity with the number of divers reaching several millions worldwide. Scuba diving represents a huge challenge for integrative physiology. In mammalian evolution, physiological reflexes developed to deal with lack of oxygen, rather than with an excess, which makes adaptations to scuba diving more difficult to describe and understand than those associated with breath-hold diving. The underwater environment significantly limits the use of equipment to register the organism's functions, so, in most instances, scientific theories are built on experiments that model real diving to some extent, like hyperbaric exposures, dive reflexes or water immersion. The aim of this review is to summarise the current knowledge related to the influence exerted by physiological conditions specific to diving on the autonomic nervous system and cerebral blood flow. The main factors regulating cerebral blood flow during scuba diving are discussed as follows: 1) increased oxygen partial pressure; 2) immersion-related trigemino-cardiac reflexes and 3) exposure to cold, exercise and stress. Also discussed are the potential mechanisms associated with immersion pulmonary oedema.

  16. Oximeter for reliable clinical determination of blood oxygen saturation in a fetus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Mark R. (Albuquerque, NM); Haaland, David M. (Albuquerque, NM); Ward, Kenneth J. (Madison, WI)

    1996-01-01

    With the crude instrumentation now in use to continuously monitor the status of the fetus at delivery, the obstetrician and labor room staff not only over-recognize the possibility of fetal distress with the resultant rise in operative deliveries, but at times do not identify fetal distress which may result in preventable fetal neurological harm. The invention, which addresses these two basic problems, comprises a method and apparatus for non-invasive determination of blood oxygen saturation in the fetus. The apparatus includes a multiple frequency light source which is coupled to an optical fiber. The output of the fiber is used to illuminate blood containing tissue of the fetus. In the preferred embodiment, the reflected light is transmitted back to the apparatus where the light intensities are simultaneously detected at multiple frequencies. The resulting spectrum is then analyzed for determination of oxygen saturation. The analysis method uses multivariate calibration techniques that compensate for nonlinear spectral response, model interfering spectral responses and detect outlier data with high sensitivity.

  17. Assessment of skin flaps using optically based methods for measuring blood flow and oxygenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payette, Jeri R; Kohlenberg, Elicia; Leonardi, Lorenzo; Pabbies, Arone; Kerr, Paul; Liu, Kan-Zhi; Sowa, Michael G

    2005-02-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two noninvasive techniques, laser Doppler and optical spectroscopy, for monitoring hemodynamic changes in skin flaps. Animal models for assessing these changes in microvascular free flaps and pedicle flaps were investigated. A 2 x 3-cm free flap model based on the epigastric vein-artery pair and a reversed MacFarlane 3 x 10-cm pedicle flap model were used in this study. Animals were divided into four groups, with groups 1 (n = 6) and 2 (n = 4) undergoing epigastric free flap surgery and groups 3 (n = 3) and 4 (n = 10) undergoing pedicle flap surgery. Groups 1 and 4 served as controls for each of the flap models. Groups 2 and 3 served as ischemia-reperfusion models. Optical spectroscopy provides a measure of hemoglobin oxygen saturation and blood volume, and the laser Doppler method measures blood flow. Optical spectroscopy proved to be consistently more reliable in detecting problems with arterial in flow compared with laser Doppler assessments. When spectroscopy was used in an imaging configuration, oxygen saturation images of the entire flap were generated, thus creating a visual picture of global flap health. In both single-point and imaging modes the technique was sensitive to vessel manipulation, with the immediate post operative images providing an accurate prediction of eventual outcome. This series of skin flap studies suggests a potential role for optical spectroscopy and spectroscopic imaging in the clinical assessment of skin flaps.

  18. Low oxygen levels as a trigger for enhancement of respiratory metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiebe Marilyn G

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The industrially important yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is able to grow both in the presence and absence of oxygen. However, the regulation of its metabolism in conditions of intermediate oxygen availability is not well characterised. We assessed the effect of oxygen provision on the transcriptome and proteome of S. cerevisiae in glucose-limited chemostat cultivations in anaerobic and aerobic conditions, and with three intermediate (0.5, 1.0 and 2.8% oxygen levels of oxygen in the feed gas. Results The main differences in the transcriptome were observed in the comparison of fully aerobic, intermediate oxygen and anaerobic conditions, while the transcriptome was generally unchanged in conditions receiving different intermediate levels (0.5, 1.0 or 2.8% O2 of oxygen in the feed gas. Comparison of the transcriptome and proteome data suggested post-transcriptional regulation was important, especially in 0.5% oxygen. In the conditions of intermediate oxygen, the genes encoding enzymes of the respiratory pathway were more highly expressed than in either aerobic or anaerobic conditions. A similar trend was also seen in the proteome and in enzyme activities of the TCA cycle. Further, genes encoding proteins of the mitochondrial translation machinery were present at higher levels in all oxygen-limited and anaerobic conditions, compared to fully aerobic conditions. Conclusion Global upregulation of genes encoding components of the respiratory pathway under conditions of intermediate oxygen suggested a regulatory mechanism to control these genes as a response to the need of more efficient energy production. Further, cells grown in three different intermediate oxygen levels were highly similar at the level of transcription, while they differed at the proteome level, suggesting post-transcriptional mechanisms leading to distinct physiological modes of respiro-fermentative metabolism.

  19. Increased Blood-Reelin-Levels in First Episode Schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Hornig

    Full Text Available Reelin is an extracellular glycoprotein involved in several functions of brain development, synaptogenesis and dendritic proliferation. Numerous studies found perturbation in the reelin system and altered serum reelin levels in neuropsychiatric patients using the western blot procedure. In the international literature, this is the first study that made use of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to analyze serum reelin protein concentration quantitatively.In order to study possible alterations in reelin blood levels in schizophrenia, we analyzed this signal in schizophrenic patients with a first episode hallucinatory and paranoid syndrome and control subjects in a pilot study design.We found increased blood reelin protein concentration in schizophrenic patients compared to healthy controls.Our findings point to a relevant role of reelin metabolism in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia.Reelin could be a biomarker for the course of disease or psychopharmacological treatment.We conclude that the reelin protein blood concentration might be a relevant signal with respect to the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  20. Glycated hemoglobin in camel: Minimal correlation with blood glucose level

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    Bazzi Mohammad D.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Glucose and glycated hemoglobin (Hb in the blood of camel (Camelus dromedarius and cow (Bos taurus were analyzed and compared with human values. Camel displayed high blood glucose concentration (9.7±2.8 mM but a low level of glycated-Hb (3.4± 0.23%.Cow blood samples did not show sufficient variations in glucose concentrations (5.7±0.73 mM or glycated Hb levels (3.2± 0.11% compared to human values. The low glycation of camel Hb at higher glucose concentrations suggest that certain factors protect the Hb from glycation at high glucose concentrations. Camel Hb also exhibited a higher electrophoretic mobility than normal hemoglobin of human or cow. Camel Hb migrated at a rate corresponding to that of human Hb-C. Bioinformatics tools were used to explore the biochemical basis for the difference in camel Hb migratory position and its apparent resistance to glycation.

  1. Tissue gas and blood analyses of human subjects breathing 80% argon and 20% oxygen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horrigan, D. J.; Wells, C. H.; Guest, M. M.; Hart, G. B.; Goodpasture, J. E.

    1979-01-01

    Eight human volunteers, individually studied in a hyperbaric chamber, breathed: (1) air at 1 ATA; (2) 80% argon and 20% oxygen at 1 ATA for 30 min; (3) air at 1 ATA for 30 min; (4) 100% O2 at 1 ATA for 30 min; (5) air at 1 ATA for 30 min; (6) 100% O2 at 2 ATA for 60 min; and (7) 80% argon and 20% oxygen at 1 ATA for 30 min. Oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, and argon tensions were measured in muscle and subcutaneous tissue by mass spectroscopic analyses. Venous blood obtained at regular intervals was analyzed for coagulation and fibrinolytic factors. Inert gas narcosis was not observed. After breathing argon for 30 min, muscle argon tensions were almost three times the subcutaneous tensions. Argon wash-in mirrored nitrogen wash-out. Argon wash-in and wash-out had no effect on tissue PO2 or PCO2. Coagulation and fibrinolytic changes usually associated with vascular bubbles were absent.

  2. Carboxylated nanodiamond and re-oxygenation process of gamma irradiated red blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acosta-Elias, M. [Doctorado en Nanotecnologia, Universidad de Sonora (Mexico); Sarabia-Sainz, A.; Silva-Campa, E.; Angulo-Molina, A.; Soto-Puebla, D.; Barboza-Flores, M.; Melendrez, R.; Alvarez-Garcia, S.; Pedroza-Montero, M. [Departamento de Investigacion en Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Pedroso-Santana, S. [Doctorado en Ciencias (Fisica), Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico); Santacruz-Gomez, K.; Castaneda, B. [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad de Sonora, Hermosillo (Mexico)

    2015-11-15

    Nanodiamonds (NDs) possess exceptional physical, chemical, and biological properties, which make them suitable for potential biomedical applications. They are biocompatible and their usefulness as effective Raman/fluorescence probes for labeling as well as for drug delivery has been demonstrated. Related to their biocompatibility, the interaction between NDs and red blood cells (RBCs) is of great interest. In this work, the influence of carboxylated NDs (cNDs) in the re-oxygenation capability of both γ-irradiated and stored RBCs was studied. The standard 25 Gy γ dose recommended to prevent transfusion associated graft-versus-host disease was used. A 5-day maximum storage time was used to evaluate the ''storage lesion''. The hemoglobin (Hb) oxygenation state was assessed by Raman microspectroscopy and the morphologic changes on cells were tracked by optical imaging. Our results show that irradiated RBCs have a better re-oxygenation capability and morphological recovery when they are in presence of cNDs. (copyright 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  3. Correlation Between Blood Lead Level and Hemoglobin Level in Mitrovica Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutllovci-Zogaj, Drita; Krasniqi, Selvete; Elezaj, Isa; Ramadani, Naser; Gjergji, Tahire; Zogaj, Dukagjin; Kutllovci, Arben; Jaka, Arbëresha; Ukëhaxhaj, Antigona; Gashi, Sanije; Bince, Ergyl

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: Lead toxicity is a serious health threat, especially in developing countries due to environmental pollution. It was thus aimed to investigate correlation between blood lead level and concentration level of hemoglobin in the blood of children involved in research. Material and methods: The research included 250 children of which 31(12.4%) kindergarten children, 166 (66.4%) of primary school pupils in Mitrovica and 53(21.2%) of primary school pupils in Shtime as control group. From the 250 children included in the survey 129 or 51.6% were female children and 48.4% male children. Children were selected randomly, while tests for concentration of Pb and blood hemoglobin were done at the National Institute of Public Health. Results: The average value of blood lead level of Mitrovica pupils was 2.4 µg/dL (SD±1.9µg/dL), range 0.5 to 16.3µg/dL. The average value of blood lead level of Shtime pupils was 2.3µg/dL (SD±0.7µg/dL), range 1.2 to 5.2 µg/dL with no statistical difference (P = 0.191). The average value of blood lead level in kindergarten children of Mitrovica was 3.8µg/dL (SD±1.3µg/dL), range 2.2 to 7.7µg/dL with significant difference between the average values of blood lead levels of pupils and kindergarten children of Mitrovica (P <0.0001). The average value of hemoglobin in the pupils of Mitrovica was 14.0g/dL(SD± 3.7g/dL), range 9.4 to 25.6 g/dL. The average value of hemoglobin to pupils of Shtime was 11.4g/dl(SD±0.8 g/dl), range 9.2 to 13.0 g/dl with significant difference between mean values of hemoglobin pupils of Mitrovica and Shtime (U ‘= 6440.0, P <0.0001). With Spearman correlation is found significant correlation of a medium scale (r = -0.305, df = 248, p <0.0001) between blood lead levels and hemoglobin level in the blood. PMID:25568564

  4. Blood vitamin levels in dogs with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galler, A; Tran, J L; Krammer-Lukas, S; Höller, U; Thalhammer, J G; Zentek, J; Willmann, M

    2012-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) may affect excretion and metabolism of vitamins but data for dogs are limited. In this study, blood vitamin levels were investigated in 19 dogs with chronic renal failure. High performance liquid chromatography was used to quantify retinol, retinyl esters, tocopherol, thiamine, riboflavin, pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, ascorbic acid and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol concentrations, whereas cobalamin, folate, biotin and pantothenic acid were measured by microbiological methods. Levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, ascorbic acid, and vitamins B1, B2 and B6 were increased compared to healthy dogs. Dogs with CKD showed decreased concentrations of 25-hydroxycholecalciferol and folate. Alpha-tocopherol, biotin, pantothenate and cobalamin levels were not significantly different between controls and dogs with CKD. Whether lower vitamin D and folate concentrations in dogs with CKD justify supplementation has to be evaluated in future studies.

  5. Correlation of Salivary Glucose Level with Blood Glucose Level in Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arati S. Panchbhai

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is alarming rise in number of people with diabetes mellitus over these years. If glucose in saliva is linked to glucose in blood it can be used to detect diabetes mellitus at an early stage. The present study is undertaken with the aim to assess the correlation of salivary glucose level with blood glucose level in people with diabetes mellitus. Material and Methods: For investigations, 2 sets of samples of people with diabetes and the age and sex matched non-diabetic subjects were recruited. The salivary glucose was analyzed in unstimulated whole saliva samples using glucose oxidase method. Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was applied to assess the correlation between salivary glucose level and blood glucose level. Results: The significant (P < 0.05 positive correlation of salivary glucose level and fasting blood glucose level was observed in people with uncontrolled diabetes in both the sets of samples.Conclusions: Although study suggests some potential for saliva as a marker in monitoring of diabetes mellitus, there are many aspects that need clarification before we reach to a conclusion.

  6. A novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Pan, Boan; Gao, Yuan; Ruan, Zhengshang; Li, Ting

    2016-03-01

    This article introduces a novel method to estimate oxygen saturation of the internal jugular vein blood (SjvO2) by using Near Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS). The different positions of patients can affect the cross-sectional area (CSA) of the internal jugular vein (IJV), in other words, it causes the sectional change of the IJV blood volume. When lying position of patients, the CSA is larger than that keeping upper body 80 degree, and the CSA can compute quantitatively by the use of ultrasound and digital image processing methods. The entire method consist of constructing different position of patient (upper body rotation 0 and 80 degree), comparing the light absorption changes. SjvO2 has been determined from light absorption measurements in two wavelength, before and after the position changes. The method has been applied to the vertical area over the IJV of 11 patients who were placed a central venous catheter into a large vein in the neck for medical uses, using wavelength of 735 and 850 nm. At last, comparing the SjvO2NIRS which measured by NIRS noninvasively with SjvO2IJVBG which was quantified using a whole blood gas analyzer, we found there were some certain relativity. The results were influenced by vascular depth greatly.

  7. Left ventricular dysfunction and blood glycohemoglobin levels in young diabetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydiner, A.; Oto, A.; Oram, E.; Oram, A.; Ugurlu, S.; Karamehmetoglu, A. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Cardiology); Aras, T.; Bekdik, C.F. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Medicine); Gedik, O. (Hacettepe Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Endocrinology)

    1991-10-01

    Left ventricular function including regional wall motion (RWM) was evaluated by {sup 99m}Tc first-pass and equilibrium gated blood pool ventriculography and glycohemoglobin (HbA1c) blood levels determined by a quantitative column technique in 25 young patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus without clinical evidence of heart diesease, and in healthy controls matched for age and sex. Phase analysis revealed abnormal RWM in 19 of 21 diabetic patients. The mean left ventricular global ejection fraction, the mean regional ejection fraction and the mean 1/3 filling fraction were lower and the time to peak ejection, the time to peak filling and the time to peak ejection/cardiac cycle were longer in diabetics than in controls. We found high HbA1c levels in all diabetics. There was no significant difference between patients with and without retinopathy and with and without peripheral neuropathy in terms of left ventricular function and HbA1c levels. (orig.).

  8. Blood oxygenation during hyperpressure intraperitoneal fluid administration in a rabbit model of severe liver injury: Evaluation of a novel concept for control of pre-hospital liver bleeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh, Siavash; Azizi, Saeed; Dalir-Naghadeh, Bahram; Maham, Masoud

    2012-01-01

    Oxygen is an essential part of the most important metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. Oxygen delivery is merely dependent on blood, rendering blood loss a devastating event. Traumatic pre-hospital liver bleeding is a major cause of early trauma deaths in human and animals, with no established therapeutic method yet. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) has been shown to reduce liver bleeding by half. Although reduction of blood loss could be in favor of blood oxygen delivery, however, the complex interaction between increased IAP and respiratory mechanics during severe hemorrhagic shock remained unclear. We used a novel model of liver trauma in 16 rabbits and randomly assigned them to either normotensive abdomen group or increased IAP by fluid infusion (HA) groups (n=8 each). Liver size and the amount of liver injury were evaluated. Various blood oxygenation parameters were recorded. Both groups were identical in terms of the liver size and injury. The HA group had significantly lower shock index. Arterial oxygen capacity and oxygen content were higher in the HA group. No significant statistical difference was seen between groups in terms of abdominal perfusion pressure; alveolar pressure of oxygen; dissolved oxygen in blood plasma; alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient; arterial to alveolar oxygen pressure ratio; the ratio between partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; and respiratory index. In conclusion, the novel therapeutic method of increasing IAP by fluid infusion in a rabbit model of liver hemorrhage preserved blood oxygenation better than the classic therapeutic method.

  9. Blood oxygenation during hyperpressure intraperitoneal fluid administration in a rabbit model of severe liver injury: Evaluation of a novel concept for control of pre-hospital liver bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siavash Ahmadi-Noorbakhsh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen is an essential part of the most important metabolic pathways in aerobic organisms. Oxygen delivery is merely dependent on blood, rendering blood loss a devastating event. Traumatic pre-hospital liver bleeding is a major cause of early trauma deaths in human and animals, with no established therapeutic method yet. Increasing intra-abdominal pressure (IAP has been shown to reduce liver bleeding by half. Although reduction of blood loss could be in favor of blood oxygen delivery, however, the complex interaction between increased IAP and respiratory mechanics during severe hemorrhagic shock remained unclear. We used a novel model of liver trauma in 16 rabbits and randomly assigned them to either normotensive abdomen group or increased IAP by fluid infusion (HA groups (n=8 each. Liver size and the amount of liver injury were evaluated. Various blood oxygenation parameters were recorded. Both groups were identical in terms of the liver size and injury. The HA group had significantly lower shock index. Arterial oxygen capacity and oxygen content were higher in the HA group. No significant statistical difference was seen between groups in terms of abdominal perfusion pressure; alveolar pressure of oxygen; dissolved oxygen in blood plasma; alveolar to arterial oxygen tension gradient; arterial to alveolar oxygen pressure ratio; the ratio between partial pressure of arterial oxygen and fraction of inspired oxygen; and respiratory index. In conclusion, the novel therapeutic method of increasing IAP by fluid infusion in a rabbit model of liver hemorrhage preserved blood oxygenation better than the classic therapeutic method.

  10. The role of blood flow distribution in the regulation of cerebral oxygen availability in fetal growth restriction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luria, Oded; Bar, Jacob; Kovo, Michal; Malinger, Gustavo; Golan, Abraham; Barnea, Ofer

    2012-04-01

    Fetal growth restriction (FGR) elicits hemodynamic compensatory mechanisms in the fetal circulation. These mechanisms are complex and their effect on the cerebral oxygen availability is not fully understood. To quantify the contribution of each compensatory mechanism to the fetal cerebral oxygen availability, a mathematical model of the fetal circulation was developed. The model was based on cardiac-output distribution in the fetal circulation. The compensatory mechanisms of FGR were simulated and their effects on cerebral oxygen availability were analyzed. The mathematical analysis included the effects of cerebral vasodilation, placental resistance to blood flow, degree of blood shunting by the ductus venosus and the effect of maternal-originated placental insufficiency. The model indicated a unimodal dependency between placental blood flow and cerebral oxygen availability. Optimal cerebral oxygen availability was achieved when the placental blood flow was mildly reduced compared to the normal flow. This optimal ratio was found to increase as the hypoxic state of FGR worsens. The model indicated that cerebral oxygen availability is increasingly dependent on the cardiac output distribution as the fetus gains weight.

  11. Determination of blood oxygenation in the brain by time-resolved reflectance spectroscopy: influence of the skin, skull, and meninges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hielscher, Andreas H.; Liu, Hanli; Wang, Lihong; Tittel, Frank K.; Chance, Britton; Jacques, Steven L.

    1994-07-01

    Near infrared light has been used for the determination of blood oxygenation in the brain but little attention has been paid to the fact that the states of blood oxygenation in arteries, veins, and capillaries differ substantially. In this study, Monte Carlo simulations for a heterogeneous system were conducted, and near infrared time-resolved reflectance measurements were performed on a heterogeneous tissue phantom model. The model was made of a solid polyester resin, which simulates the tissue background. A network of tubes was distributed uniformly through the resin to simulate the blood vessels. The time-resolved reflectance spectra were taken with different absorbing solutions filled in the network. Based on the simulation and experimental results, we investigated the dependence of the absorption coefficient obtained from the heterogeneous system on the absorption of the actual absorbing solution filled in the tubes. We show that light absorption by the brain should result from the combination of blood and blood-free tissue background.

  12. Influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui Lu; Ning-Ning Cui; Bin-Cheng Wang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease. Methods:A total of 58 patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease in our hospital from April 2015 to January 2016 were selected as the study object, and 58 patients were randomly divided into two groups, 29 patients in control group were treated with routine treatment, 29 patients in observation group were treated with remote ischemic preconditioning on the basic treatment of control group, then the cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of two groups before the treatment and at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were respectively detected and compared.Results:The cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of two groups before the treatment all showed no significant differences (allP>0.05), while the cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of observation group at first, third and sixth month after the treatment were all significantly better than those before the treatment, and the results were all significantly better than those of control group at the same time too (allP>0.05).Conclusions: The influence of remote ischemic preconditioning on cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow indexes of patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease are better, and its application value for the patients with ischemic cerebrovascular disease is higher.

  13. Low oxygen level increases proliferation and metabolic changes in bovine granulosa cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiratsuki, Shogo; Hara, Tomotaka; Munakata, Yasuhisa; Shirasuna, Koumei; Kuwayama, Takehito; Iwata, Hisataka

    2016-12-05

    The present study addresses molecular backgrounds underlying low oxygen induced metabolic changes and 1.2-fold change in bovine granulosa cell (GCs) proliferation. RNA-seq revealed that low oxygen (5%) upregulated genes associated with HIF-1 and glycolysis and downregulated genes associated with mitochondrial respiration than that in high oxygen level (21%). Low oxygen level induced high glycolytic activity and low mitochondrial function and biogenesis. Low oxygen level enhanced GC proliferation with high expression levels of HIF-1, VEGF, AKT, mTOR, and S6RP, whereas addition of anti-VEGF antibody decreased cellular proliferation with low phosphorylated AKT and mTOR expression levels. Low oxygen level reduced SIRT1, whereas activation of SIRT1 by resveratrol increased mitochondrial replication and decreased cellular proliferation with reduction of phosphorylated mTOR. These results suggest that low oxygen level stimulates the HIF1-VEGF-AKT-mTOR pathway and up-regulates glycolysis, which contributes to GC proliferation, and downregulation of SIRT1 contributes to hypoxia-associated reduction of mitochondria and cellular proliferation.

  14. The Relationship Between Blood Lead Level and Preeclampsia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Fatemeh; Akbari, Sedigheh Amir Ali; Dabirioskoei, Atousa; Nasiri, Malihe; Mellati, Aliosat

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Lead is a heavy metal to which people are commonly exposed. One of the possible mechanisms of tissue damages caused by this toxic metal is oxidative stress, which in turn may cause numerous pregnancy complications such as preeclampsia. The present study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal Blood Lead Level (BLL) and preeclampsia. Methods The present case-control study was conducted on 158 pregnant women admitted to a hospital in Zanjan, Iran, from August 2015 to March 2016. To measure their BLL, 1.5 cc of blood was drawn from each participant. The demographic and obstetric details of the patients were recorded in a form. The potentiometric method was used to test the samples. The data obtained were analyzed by SPSS version 22, using Mann-Whitney U test, the Chi square, independent-samples t-test, Pearson product-moment correlation, and simple linear regression analysis. Results The mean BLL was 6.24±1.74 μg/dl in the control group and 8.04±3.4 μg/dl in the preeclampsia group. The two groups were matching in terms of the mother’s age and education and the household income. A significant relationship was observed between BLL and preeclampsia (p=0.028), as per every unit of increase (1 μg/dl) in BLL, systolic blood pressure increased by 0.014 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure by 0.013 mm Hg (p=0.004). Conclusion The results obtained suggest a relationship between BLL and preeclampsia. Global health measures should be taken to remove the exposure to lead so as to reduce its absorption by pregnant women. PMID:28163864

  15. Seasonal variation in blood and muscle oxygen stores attributed to diving behavior, environmental temperature and pregnancy in a marine predator, the California sea lion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas-Amtmann, Stella; Atkinson, Shannon; Paras-Garcia, Alberto; Costa, Daniel P

    2012-08-01

    Survival depends on an animal's ability to find and acquire prey. In diving vertebrates, this ability is directly related to their physiological capability (e.g. oxygen stores). We studied the seasonal variation in oxygen stores, body temperature and body condition in California sea lions (Zalophus californianus) (CSL) as a function of seasonal variation in temperature, primary productivity, diving behavior and reproductive stage. During summer, blood oxygen stores were significantly greater and muscle oxygen stores were significantly lower than in winter. Total oxygen stores, body condition and body temperature did not change between seasons but variations in body temperature were greater during summer. Changes in oxygen stores are partly attributed to diving behavior, temperature and pregnancy that could increase oxygen consumption. Blood and muscle oxygen stores appear to be influenced by reproductive state. Blood oxygen stores are more likely influenced by diving behavior and temperature than muscle oxygen stores.

  16. The oxygen transport system of red blood cells during diabetic ketoacidosis and recovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzel, J; Standl, E

    1975-08-01

    Daily evaluations of 8 newly detected ketoacidotic diabetics showed the Bohr-effect of haemoglobin to be decreased by 50% while erythrocyte 2,3-DPG was decreased below 10 mumoles/g Hb. 2,3-DPG correlated strongly with pH during acidosis and with plasma inorganic phosphate (Pi) subsequently to the first insulin administration. Oxygen affinity of haemoglobin, measured as P50 act pH, was unchanged in ketoacidosis compared to the time, however, P50 act pH fell striking (p less than 0.001) and remained decreased up to 7 days depending upon the resynthesis of 2,3-DPG in relation to Pi. The Hill-coefeficient in reflecting the slope of the oxygen dissociation curve was diminished in ketoacidosis (p less than 0.005), and decreased further after pH-normalization (p less than 0.005). There was a close association of n with 2,3-DPG (p less than 0.001) and additionally with Pi at 2,3-DPG-levels below 10 mumoles/g Hb. Based on these findings a decreased erythrocyte oxygen release of one fifth during acidosis and more than one third after pH-correction can be hypothesised. In view of the intimate relation of Pi to the oxygen transport system it is suggesed that treatment of ketoacidosis should include Pi-sugstitution.

  17. The Effect of the Antioxidant Drug “U-74389G” on Haemoglobin Levels Following a Hypoxemia/ Re-oxygenation Protocol in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsompos Constantinos

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Critically ill patients usually present with circulatory hypoxemia and this is associated with a poorer prognosis. The aim of this experimental study was to examine the effect of U-74389G with specific regard to a hypoxemia/re-oxygenation protocol, on mean blood haemoglobin (Hgb levels in rats.

  18. High plasma corticosterone levels persist during frequent automatic blood sampling in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abelson, Klas S P; Adem, Bashir; Royo, Felix

    2005-01-01

    Corticosterone levels in blood may be used as a marker of stress in rodents, provided that the blood sampling procedure itself is non-stressful. Automated blood sampling equipment (Accusampler) allows blood sampling without any interference with the animal and might be useful as a tool for an on...... the importance of considering the frequency of blood withdrawal during automated blood sampling. This parameter may have an impact on the experimental results when using blood corticosterone levels as a stress marker, but also during any in vivo study where blood is collected, since high corticosterone levels...... may affect the normal physiology of the animals....

  19. Dependence of riverine nitrous oxide emissions on dissolved oxygen levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosamond, Madeline S.; Thuss, Simon J.; Schiff, Sherry L.

    2012-10-01

    Nitrous oxide is a potent greenhouse gas, and it destroys stratospheric ozone. Seventeen per cent of agricultural nitrous oxide emissions come from the production of nitrous oxide in streams, rivers and estuaries, in turn a result of inorganic nitrogen input through leaching, runoff and sewage. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change and global nitrous oxide budgets assume that riverine nitrous oxide emissions increase linearly with dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads, but data are sparse and conflicting. Here we report measurements over two years of nitrous oxide emissions in the Grand River, Canada, a seventh-order temperate river that is affected by agricultural runoff and outflow from a waste-water treatment plant. Emissions were disproportionately high in urban areas and during nocturnal summer periods. Moreover, annual emission estimates that are based on dissolved inorganic nitrogen loads overestimated the measured emissions in a wet year and underestimated them in a dry year. We found no correlations of nitrous oxide emissions with nitrate or dissolved inorganic nitrogen, but detected negative correlations with dissolved oxygen, suggesting that nitrate concentrations did not limit emissions. We conclude that future increases in nitrate export to rivers will not necessarily lead to higher nitrous oxide emissions, but more widespread hypoxia most likely will.

  20. Smoking normalizes cerebral blood flow and oxygen consumption after 12-hour abstention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seyedi Vafaee, Manouchehr; Gjedde, Albert; Imamirad, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    measurements of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO2) in 12 smokers who had refrained from smoking overnight, and in a historical group of nonsmokers, testing the prediction that overnight abstinence results in widespread, coupled reductions of CBF and CMRO2. At the end......Acute nicotine administration stimulates [14C]deoxyglucose trapping in thalamus and other regions of rat brain, but acute effects of nicotine and smoking on energy metabolism have rarely been investigated in human brain by positron emission tomography (PET). We obtained quantitative PET...... of the abstention period, global grey-matter CBF and CMRO2 were both reduced by 17% relative to nonsmokers. At 15 minutes after renewed smoking, global CBF had increased insignificantly, while global CMRO2 had increased by 11%. Regional analysis showed that CMRO2 had increased in the left putamen and thalamus...

  1. Continuous Perfusion of Saphenous Vein by Oxygenated Blood during Beating Coronary Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hossein Mandegar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: The saphenous vein remains the most commonly used conduit for coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG. However, the long-term success of surgical revascularization is largely limited by development of occlusion in vein grafts. Objectives: We sought to reduce graft ischemia by maintaining the blood flow into the harvested vein throughout surgery at lowest costs and without special devices. Patients and Methods: This study was conducted on three hundred patients aged 58.5 ± 8 years undergoing elective first-time off-pump CABG with saphenous veins. Results: In addition to preserving nutritional materials and oxygen, the veins harvested via this novel technique did not go into spasm and were not subjected to high-pressure distension, eventually resulting in minimal damage to the endothelium. Conclusions: This technique confers favorable myocardial function and protection in the presence of left ventricular dysfunction, especially in elderly patients.

  2. Meal-induced changes in splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake in middle-aged healthy humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jan Lysgård; Søndergaard, SB; Møller, Søren

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: For decades, the determination of changes in splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake after a meal has been used in the management of patients with suspected chronic intestinal ischaemia. However, little is known about the normal meal-induced responses. The aim of the present study...... was therefore to measure the splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake before and after a standardized meal in a group of middle-aged normal volunteers. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Splanchnic blood flow and oxygen uptake were determined at baseline and after a 3600-kJ mixed meal in 8 healthy women (50-70 years) and 10...... in middle-aged healthy humans. Our data may be relevant for the evaluation of corresponding data from patients with suspected chronic intestinal ischaemia....

  3. 组织细胞氧合障碍的机制及其对策%Mechanism and strategy of oxygenation dysfunction in tissue and cell levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵良

    2013-01-01

    According to theory of oxygen transport, mechanism of oxygenation dysfunction in tissue and cell levels can be divided into five types: low oxygen supply, high oxygen consumption, decreased oxygen extraction, oxygen utilization dysfunction and mixed pattern. Up to now, clinically corresponding strategy have been taken. Oxygen supply in global levels can be increased by blood transfusion, use of positive inotropic drugs, elevation of inspired oxygen fraction. Oxygen supply in tissue levels can be elevated by regulation of blood vessel tension, improvement of blood hemorheology. Oxygen consumption can be decreased by anesthesia, sedation, muscle relaxation, hypothermia and mechanical ventilation. Improvement of capillary permeability can increase oxygen uptake by enlargement in diffusion area of oxygen. On basis of osmotic pressure elevation, the edema eliminated by diuresis or dehydration can facilitate oxygen extraction through shortening diffusion distance of oxygen.%依据氧输送原理可以将组织细胞氧合障碍的机制划分为五种类型:①低氧供;②高氧耗;③氧摄取能力减退;④氧利用障碍;⑤混合型.迄今为止,临床上能够采取的相应对策有输血、应用正性肌力药物、提高吸氧浓度以增加系统水平氧供给,调节血管张力、改善血液流变学来增加组织水平氧供给.麻醉、镇静、肌肉松弛、降温和机械通气等措施降低氧耗;改善毛细血管通透性,通过扩大氧弥散面积,增加组织水平氧摄取;在提高胶体渗透压基础上利尿、脱水消除水肿,通过缩短氧弥散距离,易化组织水平氧摄取.

  4. Effects of Changes in Colored Light on Brain and Calf Muscle Blood Concentration and Oxygenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Weinzirl

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Color light therapy is a therapeutic method in complementary medicine. In color therapy, light of two contrasting colors is often applied in a sequential order. The aim of this study was to investigate possible physiological effects, i.e., changes in the blood volume and oxygenation in the brain and calf muscle of healthy subjects who were exposed to red and blue light in sequential order. The hypothesis was that if a subject is first exposed to blue and then red light, the effect of the red light will be enhanced due to the contrastingly different characteristics of the two colors. The same was expected for blue light, if first exposing a subject to red and then to blue light. Twelve healthy volunteers (six male, six female were measured twice on two different days by near-infrared spectroscopy during exposure to colored light. Two sequences of colored light were applied in a controlled, randomized, crossover design: first blue, then red, and vice versa. For the brain and muscle, the results showed no significant differences in blood volume and oxygenation between the two sequences, and a high interindividual physiological variability. Thus, the hypothesis had to be rejected. Comparing these data to results from a previous study, where subjects were exposed to blue and red light without sequential color changes, shows that the results of the current study appear to be similar to those of red light exposure. This may indicate that the exposure to red light was preponderant and thus effects of blue light were outweighed.

  5. Oxygen transport and acid-base balance in the blood of the sheatfish, Silurus glanis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, C; Götz, K H; Welbers, P

    1981-12-01

    Oxygen binding and buffer properties of the blood of the sheatfish, Silurus glanis, were investigated in vitro at 20 and 10 degrees C. The O2 binding curves were hyperbolic with P50 = 10.1 mm Hg (20 degrees C, pH = 7.5) and 4.6 (10 degrees C, pH = 7.5). There was a very large Bohr effect with an average delta log P 50/delta pH of - 1.14. At 20 degrees C this value tended to be higher than at 10 degrees C. As a consequence the apparent heat of oxygenation depended on pH. The mean value of delta H was -10.4 kcal/mol. The Haldane effect was pronounced too (delta pH/delta S = -0.14) as was the Root effect. Isoelectric focussing revealed 3 major hemoglobin fractions with isoionic points in a more alkaline region than in carp hemoglobin. The non-bicarbonate buffer value was -10 mmol . 1-1. pH -1. The intraerythrocytic pH depended on the extracellular pH and the O2 saturation: pH = (0.87 - 0.14 S) (pHe -6.68 + 6.48). Delta pH/delta t for a constant CO2 content was -0.0166.

  6. Calculating acid-base and oxygenation status during COPD exacerbation using mathematically arterialised venous blood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rees, Stephen Edward; Rychwicka-Kielek, Beate A; Andersen, Bjarne F

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background: Repeated arterial puncture is painful. A mathematical method exists for transforming peripheral venous pH, PCO2 and PO2 to arterial eliminating the need for arterial sampling. This study evaluates this method to monitor acid-base and oxygenation during admission for exacerbat......Abstract Background: Repeated arterial puncture is painful. A mathematical method exists for transforming peripheral venous pH, PCO2 and PO2 to arterial eliminating the need for arterial sampling. This study evaluates this method to monitor acid-base and oxygenation during admission...... were assessed with previously defined rules. Differences between maximal changes of calculated and measured values were compared using a t-test, with trends analysed by inspection of plots. Results: Fifty-four patients, median age 67 years (range 62-75), were studied on average 3 days. Mean values of p......H, PCO2 and PO2 were 7.432±0.047, 6.8±1.7 kPa and 9.2±1.5 kPa, respectively. Calculated and measured arterial pH and PCO2 agreed well, differences having small bias and SD (0.000±0.022 pH, -0.06±0.50 kPa PCO2), significantly better than venous blood alone. Calculated PO2 obeyed the clinical rules...

  7. Oxygen uptake and blood metabolic responses to a 400-m run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanon, Christine; Lepretre, Pierre-Marie; Bishop, David; Thomas, Claire

    2010-05-01

    This study aimed to investigate the oxygen uptake and metabolic responses during a 400-m run reproducing the pacing strategy used in competition. A portable gas analyser was used to measure the oxygen uptake (VO2) of ten specifically trained runners racing on an outdoor track. The tests included (1) an incremental test to determine maximal VO2 (VO2max) and the velocity associated with VO2(max) (v - VO2max), (2) a maximal 400-m (400T) and 3) a 300-m running test (300T) reproducing the exact pacing pattern of the 400T. Blood lactate, bicarbonate concentrations [HCO3(-)], pH and arterial oxygen saturation were analysed at rest and 1, 4, 7, 10 min after the end of the 400 and 300T. The peak VO2 recorded during the 400T corresponded to 93.9 +/- 3.9% of VO2max and was reached at 24.4 +/- 3.2 s (192 +/- 22 m). A significant decrease in VO2 (P < 0.05) was observed in all subjects during the last 100 m, although the velocity did not decrease below v - VO2max. The VO2 in the last 5 s was correlated with the pH (r = 0.86, P < 0.0005) and [HCO3(-)] (r = 0.70, P < 0.05) measured at the end of 300T. Additionally, the velocity decrease observed in the last 100 m was inversely correlated with [HCO3(-)] and pH at 300T (r = -0.83, P < 0.001, r = -0.69, P < 0.05, respectively). These track running data demonstrate that acidosis at 300 m was related to both the VO2 response and the velocity decrease during the final 100 m of a 400-m run.

  8. CELL RESPIRATION STUDIES : II. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE OXYGEN CONSUMPTION OF BLOOD FROM NORMAL INDIVIDUALS AND PATIENTS WITH INCREASED LEUCOCYTE COUNTS (SEPSIS; CHRONIC MYELOGENOUS LEUCEMIA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daland, G A; Isaacs, R

    1927-06-30

    1. The oxygen consumption of blood of normal individuals, when the hemoglobin is saturated with oxygen, is practically zero within the limits of experimental error of the microspirometer used. 2. The oxygen consumed in a microspirometer by the blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia with a high white blood cell count, and of one with leucocytosis from sepsis, was proportional to the number of adult polymorphonuclear neutrophils in the blood. 3. No correlation could be made between the rate of oxygen absorption and the total number of white blood cells in the blood, or the total number of immature cells, or the number of red blood cells, or the amount of oxyhemoglobin. 4. The blood of patients with chronic myelogenous leucemia continued to use oxygen in the microspirometer longer than that of normal individuals, and the hemoglobin, in the leucemic bloods, became desaturated even though exposed to air. 5. In blood in which the bulk. of the cells were immature and the mature cells few, the oxygen consumption was lower than in blood in which the mature cells predominated. The rate of oxygen consumption of the immature cells was relatively low as compared to the mature. 6. The slower rate of oxygen absorption by the immature leucocytes in chronic myelogenous leucemia as compared to the mature cells, places them, in accord with Warburg's reports, in the class of the malignant tissues in this respect rather than in the group of young or embryonic cells.

  9. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Heijer, T; Skoog, [No Value; Oudkerk, M; de Leeuw, FE; de Groot, JC; Hofman, A; Breteler, MMB

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  10. Association between blood pressure levels over time and brain atrophy in the elderly.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijer, T.; Skoog, I.; Oudkerk, M.; Leeuw, H.F. de; Groot, J.C. de; Hofman, A.W.I.M.; Breteler, M.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    The relation between blood pressure level and degree of global brain atrophy is equivocal. We evaluated past and present blood pressure levels and change in blood pressure over 20 years in relation to the degree of cortical atrophy on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In 1995-1996, we measured blood

  11. Measurement and interpretation of low levels of dissolved oxygen in ground water

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, A.F.; Peterson, M.L.; Solbau, R.D.

    1990-01-01

    A Rhodazine-D colorimetric technique was adapted to measure low-level dissolved oxygen concentrations in ground water. Prepared samples containing between 0 and 8.0 ??moles L-1 dissolved oxygen in equilibrium with known gas mixtures produced linear spectrophotometric absorbance with a lower detection limit of 0.2 ??moles L-1. Excellent reproducibility was found for solutions ranging in composition from deionized water to sea water with chemical interferences detected only for easily reduced metal species such as ferric ion, cupric ion, and hexavalent chromium. Such effects were correctable based on parallel reaction stoichiometries relative to oxygen. The technique, coupled with a downhole wire line tool, permitted low-level monitoring of dissolved oxygen in wells at the selenium-contaminated Kesterson Reservoir in California. Results indicated a close association between low but measurable dissolved oxygen concentrations and mobility of oxidized forms of selenium. -from Authors

  12. Acute effects of nicotine and smoking on blood flow, tissue oxygen, and aerobe metabolism of the skin and subcutis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Jørgensen, Stig; Petersen, Lars J

    2009-01-01

    and subcutaneous blood flow (QBF, SqBF) was assessed by Laser Doppler and 133Xe clearance. Tissue oxygen tension (TO(2)) was measured by a LICOX O(2)-electrode. Tissue glucose and lactate (Tgluc, Tlact) were assessed by microdialysis. The parameters were studied after intravenous infusion of 1.0 mg nicotine......, smoking of one cigarette, arterial occlusion, and reperfusion. RESULTS: Nicotine infusion decreased SqBF from 4.2 +/- 2.0 to 3.1 +/- 1.2 mL/100 g tissue/min (P ... by smoking, which distinctly decreases tissue blood flow, oxygen tension, and aerobe metabolism independent of smoking status....

  13. Portable High Sensitivity and High Resolution Sensor to Determine Oxygen Purity Levels Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of this Phase I STTR project is to develop a highly sensitive oxygen (O2) sensor, with high accuracy and precision, to determine purity levels of high...

  14. Preparation, characterization and in vivo investigation of blood-compatible hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles as oxygen carriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Mingzi; Zhao, Caiyan; Wang, Quan; You, Guoxing; Wang, Ying; Deng, Hongzhang; Chen, Gan; Xia, Sha; Zhao, Jingxiang; Wang, Bo; Li, Xianlei; Shao, Leihou; Wu, Yan; Zhao, Lian; Zhou, Hong

    2016-03-01

    Although many attempts have been made to design advanced hemoglobin-based oxygen carriers (HBOCs), no clinically viable product has been widely approved, because they do not perform normal blood functions, such as coagulation, hematologic reactions and stability. Additionally, the in vivo oxygenation of hemoglobin-loaded nanoparticles (HbPs) encapsulated with polymers has seldom been proved. Herein, HbPs of approximately 200nm with good stability were successfully fabricated and exhibited oxygen-carrying capacity. The HbPs preserve the biological and structure features of hemoglobin according to UV-vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and circular dichroism (CD) spectral analysis. In vitro, the HbPs showed a viscosity comparable to that of blood with no obvious effects on red blood cell aggregation. At the same time, blood compatibility was characterized in terms of platelet function, clot strength, speed of clot formation, degree of fibrin cross-linking and hemolysis rate. After intravenous administration of HbPs to mice with controlled hemorrhages, blood flow recovery and maintenance of systemic oxygenation were observed.

  15. Study of blood pressure and blood sugar levels in adolescence and comparison with body mass index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwin Borade

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity is increasing and its consequences prompted the WHO to designate obesity as a global epidemic in 2002. Being overweight is a risk factor for significant illness, especially diabetes and hypertension in adult life. Objectives : To study the blood pressure and blood sugar levels and lifestyle parameters in adolescence and comparison with body mass index. Materials and Methods: In a prospective case control study, out of the 1000 screened, a total of 200 adolescents were considered out of which 100 were with high body mass index (BMI and the other 100 were with normal BMI. Height, weight, BMI, waist hip ratio (WHR, blood pressure (BP, BSL, and associated risk factors like physical activity, fast food consumption, and computer/television watching were measured and screened. Results and Observations: 109 (54.5% males and 91 (45.5% females were included. Maximum number [90 (45%] of adolescents screened were in the age group of 17-19 years, while 54 (27% and 56 (28% adolescents were in the age group of 10-13 years and 14-16 years, respectively. According to CDC charts 2000, prevalence of overweight was 24% which was double when compared to WHO charts 2007. There was significant difference in prevalence of obesity; according to CDC chart it was 26%, whereas according to WHO chart it was 39%. The difference in blood pressures between cases and controls as per both CDC and WHO charts was found to be statistically significant (P 0.05 with BMI. Conclusion: The adolescents seem to have become heavier owing to environmental influences on growth patterns. So, a consideration should be given to shift the cut-offs for overweight and obesity to higher BMI percentiles if recent growth charts are to be followed. Adolescents with a BMI above the 95 >th percentile (obese are most likely to have obesity-related health risks.

  16. Elevation of blood ciclosporin levels by voriconazole leading to leukoencephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qu Caihong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report that one 18-year-old female patient with no epilepsia history developed severe epileptiform seizures while she was receiving "ciclosporin A (CsA-mycophenolate-methylprednisolone" antirejection therapy after combining one week′s voriconazole administration following allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (allo-HSCT for myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS. Her blood concentration of CsA was 378 ng/ml (elevated ↑64%, contrasted with the level before the addition of voriconazole on the second day of admission, and the MRI of head showed leukoencephalopathy in bilateral occipital and left frontal lobe on the 4 th day of admission. The most likely mechanism is that because of voriconazole′s enzyme inhibition and CsA as the substrate of hepatic enzymes, voriconazole elevated the blood concentration of CsA and enhanced its toxicity. This case highlights the importance of clinical pharmacists joining the medical team and optimizing the patients′ treatment protocols by performing a systematic literature research, accumulating the knowledge of the potential drug interaction and examining prescriptions.

  17. Atmospheric oxygen regulation at low Proterozoic levels by incomplete oxidative weathering of sedimentary organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daines, Stuart J.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-02-01

    It is unclear why atmospheric oxygen remained trapped at low levels for more than 1.5 billion years following the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event. Here, we use models for erosion, weathering and biogeochemical cycling to show that this can be explained by the tectonic recycling of previously accumulated sedimentary organic carbon, combined with the oxygen sensitivity of oxidative weathering. Our results indicate a strong negative feedback regime when atmospheric oxygen concentration is of order pO2~0.1 PAL (present atmospheric level), but that stability is lost at pO2biological productivity and resultant organic carbon burial drove the Great Oxidation Event.

  18. Changes of blood flow, oxygen tension, action potential and vascular permeability induced by arterial ischemia or venous congestion on the spinal cord in canine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Yoshizawa, Hidezo; Shimada, Seiichiro; Guerrero, Alexander Rodríguez; Miyachi, Masaya

    2013-01-01

    It is generally considered that the genesis of myelopathy associated with the degenerative conditions of the spine may result from both mechanical compression and circulatory disturbance. Many references about spinal cord tissue ischemic damage can be found in the literature, but not detailed studies about spinal cord microvasculature damage related to congestion or blood permeability. This study investigates the effect of ischemia and congestion on the spinal cord using an in vivo model. The aorta was clamped as an ischemia model of the spinal cord and the inferior vena cava was clamped as a congestion model at the 6th costal level for 30 min using forceps transpleurally. Measurements of blood flow, partial oxygen pressure, and conduction velocity in the spinal cord were repeated over a period of 1 h after release of clamping. Finally, we examined the status of blood-spinal cord barrier under fluorescence and transmission electron microscope. Immediately after clamping of the inferior vena cava, the central venous pressure increased by about four times. Blood flow, oxygen tension and action potential were more severely affected by the aorta clamping; but this ischemic model did not show any changes of blood permeability in the spinal cord. The intramedullar edema was more easily produced by venous congestion than by arterial ischemia. In conclusions, venous congestion may be a preceding and essential factor of circulatory disturbance in the compressed spinal cord inducing myelopathy.

  19. Surface solar ultraviolet radiation for paleoatmospheric levels of oxygen and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, J. S.

    1980-01-01

    Many investigators have concluded that the level of solar ultraviolet radiation (200-300 nm) reaching the surface was a key parameter in the origin and evolution of life on earth. The level of solar ultraviolet radiation between 200 and 300 nm is controlled primarily by molecular absorption by ozone, whose presence is strongly coupled to the level of molecular oxygen. In this paper, a series of calculations is presented of the solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the surface for oxygen levels ranging from 0.0001 the present atmospheric level to the present level. The solar spectrum between 200 and 300 nm has been divided into 34 spectral intervals. For each spectral interval, the solar ultraviolet radiation reaching the earth's surface has been calculated by considering the attenuation of the incoming beam due to ozone and oxygen absorption. A one-dimensional photochemical model of the atmosphere was used for these calculations.

  20. Effect of Folk Dance Training on Blood Oxidative Stress Level, Lipids, and Lipoproteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okdan Bora

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Folk dance is a form of physical activity which helps develop the ability to use the whole body in a coordinated way with music, and folk dancers’ characteristics vary according to the particular type of dance practised in a given geographic region. The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of 12-week folk dance training on blood oxidative stress level, lipids, lipoproteins, as well as muscle damage markers and to define some physical and physiological properties of folk dancers. Material and methods. Thirty-eight healthy male folk dancers aged 21-28 years having an average of 11 years of dance training experience voluntarily participated in the study. All of the physical and physiological measurements and the blood analysis were performed twice, before and after the training period which focused on different regional dances (Caucasus, Bar, Zeybek, Spoon Dance, Thracian dances, and Horon. The training was done 2 hours per day (a total of 10 hours a week, during a 12-week-long period. Results. All the blood parameters were found to be within the specified reference ranges. The training programme had no significant effect on the blood lipid profile, whereas it was found to have positive effects on body fat (p ≤ 0.012, peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak; p = 0.000, muscle damage markers (creatine kinase, Δ% = −19.6, and total antioxidant capacity (p ≤ 0.002. Conclusions. Regular folk dance training was found to have positive effects on body fat, VO2peak, blood total antioxidant capacity, and muscle damage markers. Based on these results, the community should be encouraged to perform folk dance as a recreational physical activity, and public awareness should be raised about the health benefits of practising folk dances.

  1. Blood oxygenation level dependent effect of cerebral ischemic penumbra in monkey reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion model%猴可复性大脑中动脉闭塞模型脑缺血半暗带的血氧水平依赖效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敬; 陈英敏; 张云亭

    2010-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MRI in detecting monkey cerebral ischemic penumbra (IP). Methods Six monkeys were used to make reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model by an interventional microcatheter method. MR DWI, PWI mean transit time (MTT), T_2WI and quantitative T_2 map, T_2~* map were performed at MCAO (0 h) and 1,3,6,12,24,48 h after reperfusion. Reversible transverse relaxation rate (R_2') BOLD imaging was calculated using quantitative T_2 and T_2~* maps. Lesion volume percentage (lesion volume/bilateral hemispheres volume) were measured on 0 h DWI,48 h T_2WI and TTC staining. Ischemic area was subdivided into infracted core (high signal area on both 0 h DWI and 48 h T_2 WI), IP (high signal on 0 h DWI, iso on 48 h T_2 WI) and oligemia (0 h delayed MTT, iso signal on both 0 h DWI and 48 h T_2 WI). Relative R_2' (rR_2') was calculated to get ratio between the lesion and mirror area in contralateral healthyhemisphere. Paired t test and correlation analysis were used for comparison of lesion volume percentage. rR_2' values at each time point were compared by ANOVA. Results Reversible MCAO models were made successfully in 4 of 6 monkeys. Lesion volume porcentage on 48 h T_2 WI was reduced compared to that on Oh DWI [ (8.16±0.55)% vs (11.37±1.41)% ,t=6.472,P0.05], which showed significant positive correlation (r=0.98, P0.05),两者呈明显正相关(r=0.98,P<0.05).梗死核心、IP、低灌注区rR_2'在各时间点差异均有统计学意义,梗死核心低于IP,IP低于低灌注区(P<0.05),三者rR_2'值:0 h时分别为1.129±0.108、1.329±0.081、1.584±0.103(F=36.19,P<0.05).1 h分别为0.668±0.082、1.237±0.072、1.435±0.066(F=134.09,P<0.05).3 h分别为0.536±0.075、1.453±0.081、1.770±0.141(F=256.30,P<0.05).6 h分别为0.259±0.050、2.435±0.131、2.957±0.177(F=803.25,P<0.05).12 h分别为0.385±0.054、2.447±0.148、3.254±0.184(F=743.74,P<0.05).24 h分别为0.083±0.026、1

  2. Enhanced diffusion of oxygen depending on Fermi level position in heavily boron-doped silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torigoe, Kazuhisa, E-mail: ktorigoe@sumcosi.com; Fujise, Jun; Ono, Toshiaki [Technology Division, Advanced Evaluation and Technology Development Department, SUMCO Corporation, 1-52 Kubara, Yamashiro-cho, Imari, Saga 849-4256 (Japan); Nakamura, Kozo [Department of Communication Engineering, Okayama Prefectural University, 111 Kuboki, Soja, Okayama 719-1197 (Japan)

    2014-11-21

    The enhanced diffusivity of oxygen in heavily boron doped silicon was obtained by analyzing oxygen out-diffusion profile changes found at the interface between a lightly boron-doped silicon epitaxial layer and a heavily boron-doped silicon substrate by secondary ion mass spectrometry. It was found that the diffusivity is proportional to the square root of boron concentration in the range of 10{sup 18 }cm{sup −3}–10{sup 19 }cm{sup −3} at temperatures from 750 °C to 950 °C. The model based on the diffusion of oxygen dimers in double positive charge state could explain the enhanced diffusion. We have concluded that oxygen diffusion enhanced in heavily boron-doped silicon is attributed to oxygen dimers ionized depending on Fermi level position.

  3. Atmospheric oxygen levels affect mudskipper terrestrial performance: implications for early tetrapods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jew, Corey J; Wegner, Nicholas C; Yanagitsuru, Yuzo; Tresguerres, Martin; Graham, Jeffrey B

    2013-08-01

    The Japanese mudskipper (Periophthalmus modestus), an amphibious fish that possesses many respiratory and locomotive specializations for sojourns onto land, was used as a model to study how changing atmospheric oxygen concentrations during the middle and late Paleozoic Era (400-250 million years ago) may have influenced the emergence and subsequent radiation of the first tetrapods. The effects of different atmospheric oxygen concentrations (hyperoxia = 35%, normoxia = 21%, and hypoxia = 7% O2) on terrestrial performance were tested during exercise on a terrestrial treadmill and during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Endurance and elevated post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC; the immediate O2 debt repaid post-exercise) correlated with atmospheric oxygen concentration indicating that when additional oxygen is available P. modestus can increase oxygen utilization both during and following exercise. The time required post-exercise for mudskippers to return to a resting metabolic rate did not differ between treatments. However, in normoxia, oxygen consumption increased above hyperoxic values 13-20 h post-exercise suggesting a delayed repayment of the incurred oxygen debt. Finally, following exercise, ventilatory movements associated with buccopharyngeal aerial respiration returned to their rest-like pattern more quickly at higher concentrations of oxygen. Taken together, the results of this study show that P. modestus can exercise longer and recover quicker under higher oxygen concentrations. Similarities between P. modestus and early tetrapods suggest that increasing atmospheric oxygen levels during the middle and late Paleozoic allowed for elevated aerobic capacity and improved terrestrial performance, and likely led to an accelerated diversification and expansion of vertebrate life into the terrestrial biosphere.

  4. Elevated red blood cell 2,3-diphosphoglycerate levels in black blood donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H

    1978-01-01

    Mean levels of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate (DPG) were significantly increased in erythrocytes (RBC) from 43 nonanemic black blood donors (4.80 +/- 0.06 micromoles/l RBC) compared with 22 white donors 4.47 +/- 0.08 micromoles/l RBCs from eight of the 12 black donors with DPG levels greater than 5 micromoles/l RBC. Although a potentially hemolytic disorder could be defined in four (AS hemoglobin, beta-Thalassemia minor, G6PD deficiency), reticulocyte counts were normal. However, when RBCs from the subgroup were compared to RBCs from an additional 25 unselected white donors, the following suggested an abnormally large population of young RBCs in the subgroup: 1) normal or elevated RBC-ATP with normal serum phosphate level; 2) significantly increased activities of RBC age-dependent enzymes hexokinase (p less than 0.02), pyruvate kinase (p less than 0.05), and glutamicoxaloacetic transaminase (p less than 0.01), with normal activity of phosphoglycerate kinase, an age-independent enzyme; 3) decreased dense (older) RBCs as determined by sedimentation in phthalate esters. Since DPG is increased in young RBCs and falls as the RBC ages, loss of older relatively DPG depleted RBCs due to shortened survival could account for the elevated DPG levels seen in the subgroup.

  5. Blood antioxidant enzyme levels in patients with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Jalali

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA is an autoimmune disorder with unknown etiology. In recent years, a great number of studies have investigated the possible role of reactive oxygen species in the etiology and pathogenesis of Rheumatoid Arthritis. The aim of this study was to analyze the level of activities of catalase, glutathione peroxidas (GSH-Px, Super oxide dismotase (SOD in patients with RA compared with the healthy subjects. Methods: In a case-control study sixty rheumatoid arthritis patients 18-75 years old and 60 healthy sex and age-matched controls were selected, Catalase activity was measured by determining the constant rate (k of hydrogen peroxide decomposition. GSH-Px activity of plasma was measured with spectrophotometer by Glutathione oxide generation due to GSH-Px. SOD activity is measured by degree of inhibition effect of SOD in generating super oxide radicals by xanthine and xanthine oxidase. C-reactive protein and rheumatoid factor values were determined by agglutination and latex tests. Results: The plasma activity of catalase (p0.05. There was a negative significant relation between C reactive protein and Rheumatoid factor values with the erythrocyte activity of catalase and GSH-Px (p<0.01. Conclusion: These results suggested that oxidative stress plays a very important role in the inflammation and pathogenesis of RA.

  6. Comparisons of polybrominated diphenyl ethers levels in paired South Korean cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Hyung; Bang, Du Yeon; Lim, Hyun Jung; Won, A Jin; Ahn, Mee Young; Patra, Nabanita; Chung, Ki Kyung; Kwack, Seung Jun; Park, Kui Lea; Han, Soon Young; Choi, Wahn Soo; Han, Jung Yeol; Lee, Byung Mu; Oh, Jeong-Eun; Yoon, Jeong-Hyun; Lee, Jaewon; Kim, Hyung Sik

    2012-03-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), commonly used flame retardants, have been reported as potential endocrine disruptor and neurodevelopmental toxicants, thus giving rise to the public health concern. The goal of this study was to investigate the relationship between umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk concentrations of PBDEs in South Korean. We assessed PBDE levels in paired samples of umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk. The levels of seven PBDE congeners were measured in 21 paired samples collected from the Cheil Woman's Hospital (Seoul, Korea) in 2008. We also measured thyroid hormones levels in maternal and cord blood to assess the association between PBDEs exposure and thyroid hormone levels. However, there was no correlation between serum thyroxin (T4) and total PBDEs concentrations. The total PBDEs concentrations in the umbilical cord blood, maternal blood, and breast milk were 10.7±5.1 ng g(-1) lipid, 7.7±4.2 ng g(-1) lipid, and 3.0±1.8 ng g(-1) lipid, respectively. The ranges of total PBDE concentrations observed were 2.28-30.94 ng g(-1) lipid in umbilical cord blood, 1.8-17.66 ng g(-1) lipid in maternal blood, and 1.08-8.66 ng g(-1) lipid in breast milk. BDE-47 (45-73% of total PBDEs) was observed to be present dominantly in all samples, followed by BDE-153. A strong correlation was found for major BDE-congeners between breast milk and cord blood or maternal blood and cord blood samples. The measurement of PBDEs concentrations in maternal blood or breast milk may help to determine the concentration of PBDEs in infant.

  7. Imaging changes in blood volume and oxygenation in the newborn infant brain using three-dimensional optical tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hebden, Jeremy C [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Gibson, Adam [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Austin, Topun [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Yusof, Rozarina Md [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Everdell, Nick [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Delpy, David T [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, 11-20 Capper Street, London WC1E 6JA (United Kingdom); Arridge, Simon R [Department of Computer Science, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom); Meek, Judith H [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom); Wyatt, John S [Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University College London, 5 University Street, London WC1E 6JJ (United Kingdom)

    2004-04-07

    Induced haemodynamic and blood oxygenation changes occurring within the brain of a ventilated newborn infant have been imaged in three dimensions using optical tomography. Noninvasive measurements of the flight times of transmitted light were acquired during illumination of the brain by laser pulses at wavelengths of 780 nm and 815 nm. The oxygen and carbon dioxide partial pressures were adjusted through alterations to the ventilator settings, resulting in changes to the cerebral blood volume and oxygenation. Three-dimensional images were generated using the physiologically associated differences in the measured data, obviating the need for data calibration using a separate reference measurement. The results exhibit large changes in absorption coefficient at both wavelengths. Images corresponding to differences in concentrations of oxy- and deoxyhaemoglobin are in qualitative agreement with known physiological data.

  8. Effect of oxygen breathing on micro oxygen bubbles in nitrogen-depleted rat adipose tissue at sea level and 25 kPa altitude exposures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Randsoe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2012-01-01

    The standard treatment of altitude decompression sickness (aDCS) caused by nitrogen bubble formation is oxygen breathing and recompression. However, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen), injected into adipose tissue, grow and stabilize at 25 kPa regardless of continued oxygen breathing...... and the tissue nitrogen pressure. To quantify the contribution of oxygen to bubble growth at altitude, micro oxygen bubbles (containing 0% nitrogen) were injected into the adipose tissue of rats depleted from nitrogen by means of preoxygenation (fraction of inspired oxygen = 1.0; 100%) and the bubbles studied...... prebreathing at 101.3 kPa (sea level). Micro oxygen bubbles of 500-800 nl were then injected into the exposed abdominal adipose tissue. The oxygen bubbles were studied for up to 3.5 h during continued oxygen breathing at either 101.3 or 25 kPa ambient pressures. At 101.3 kPa, all bubbles shrank consistently...

  9. Erythrocytes and the regulation of human skeletal muscle blood flow and oxygen delivery: role of erythrocyte count and oxygenation state of haemoglobin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Alonso, José; Mortensen, Stefan P; Dawson, Ellen A; Secher, Niels H; Damsgaard, Rasmus

    2006-04-01

    Blood flow to dynamically contracting myocytes is regulated to match O(2) delivery to metabolic demand. The red blood cell (RBC) itself functions as an O(2) sensor, contributing to the control of O(2) delivery by releasing the vasodilators ATP and S-nitrosohaemoglobin with the offloading of O(2) from the haemoglobin molecule. Whether RBC number is sensed remains unknown. To investigate the role of RBC number, in isolation and in combination with alterations in blood oxygenation, on muscle and systemic perfusion, we measured local and central haemodynamics during one-legged knee-extensor exercise ( approximately 50% peak power) in 10 healthy males under conditions of normocythaemia (control), anaemia, anaemia + plasma volume expansion (PVX), anaemia + PVX + hypoxia, polycythaemia, polycythaemia + hyperoxia and polycythaemia + hypoxia, which changed either RBC count alone or both RBC count and oxyhaemoglobin. Leg blood flow (LBF), cardiac output (Q) and vascular conductance did not change with either anaemia or polycythaemia alone. However, LBF increased with anaemia + PVX (28 +/- 4%) and anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (46 +/- 6%) and decreased with polycythaemia + hyperoxia (18 +/- 5%). LBF and Q with anaemia + PVX + hypoxia (8.0 +/- 0.5 and 15.8 +/- 0.7 l min(-1), respectively) equalled those during maximal knee-extensor exercise. Collectively, LBF and vascular conductance were intimately related to leg arterial-venous (a-v) O(2) difference (r(2)= 0.89-0.93; P < 0.001), suggesting a pivotal role of blood O(2) gradients in muscle microcirculatory control. The systemic circulation accommodated to the changes in muscle perfusion. Our results indicate that, when coping with severe haematological challenges, local regulation of skeletal muscle blood flow and O(2) delivery primarily senses alterations in the oxygenation state of haemoglobin and, to a lesser extent, alterations in the number of RBCs and haemoglobin molecules.

  10. Increased neurofilament light chain blood levels in neurodegenerative neurological diseases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Gaiottino

    Full Text Available Neuronal damage is the morphological substrate of persisting neurological disability. Neurofilaments (Nf are cytoskeletal proteins of neurons and their release into cerebrospinal fluid has shown encouraging results as a biomarker for neurodegeneration. This study aimed to validate the quantification of the Nf light chain (NfL in blood samples, as a biofluid source easily accessible for longitudinal studies.We developed and applied a highly sensitive electrochemiluminescence (ECL based immunoassay for quantification of NfL in blood and CSF.Patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD (30.8 pg/ml, n=20, Guillain-Barré-syndrome (GBS (79.4 pg/ml, n=19 or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS (95.4 pg/ml, n=46 had higher serum NfL values than a control group of neurological patients without evidence of structural CNS damage (control patients, CP (4.4 pg/ml, n=68, p<0.0001 for each comparison, p=0.002 for AD patients and healthy controls (HC (3.3 pg/ml, n=67, p<0.0001. Similar differences were seen in corresponding CSF samples. CSF and serum levels correlated in AD (r=0.48, p=0.033, GBS (r=0.79, p<0.0001 and ALS (r=0.70, p<0.0001, but not in CP (r=0.11, p=0.3739. The sensitivity and specificity of serum NfL for separating ALS from healthy controls was 91.3% and 91.0%.We developed and validated a novel ECL based sandwich immunoassay for the NfL protein in serum (NfL(Umea47:3; levels in ALS were more than 20-fold higher than in controls. Our data supports further longitudinal studies of serum NfL in neurodegenerative diseases as a potential biomarker of on-going disease progression, and as a potential surrogate to quantify effects of neuroprotective drugs in clinical trials.

  11. Low Mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals

    OpenAIRE

    Noah J. Planavsky; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Wang, Xiangli; Thomson, Danielle; McGoldrick, Peter; Rainbird, Robert H.; Johnson, Thomas; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-01-01

    The oxygenation of Earth’s surface fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles and ultimately paved the way for the rise of metazoans at the end of the Proterozoic. However, current estimates for atmospheric oxygen (O₂) levels during the billion years leading up to this time vary widely. On the basis of chromium (Cr) isotope data from a suite of Proterozoic sediments from China, Australia, and North America, interpreted in the context of data from similar depositional environments from...

  12. Effects of headspace and oxygen level on off-gas emissions from wood pellets in storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Xingya; Shankar, Tumuluru Jaya; Sokhansanj, Shahab; Lim, C Jim; Bi, Xiaotao T; Melin, Staffan

    2009-11-01

    Few papers have been published in the open literature on the emissions from biomass fuels, including wood pellets, during the storage and transportation and their potential health impacts. The purpose of this study is to provide data on the concentrations, emission factors, and emission rate factors of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) from wood pellets stored with different headspace to container volume ratios with different initial oxygen levels, in order to develop methods to reduce the toxic off-gas emissions and accumulation in storage spaces. Metal containers (45 l, 305 mm diameter by 610 mm long) were used to study the effect of headspace and oxygen levels on the off-gas emissions from wood pellets. Concentrations of CO(2), CO, and CH(4) in the headspace were measured using a gas chromatograph as a function of storage time. The results showed that the ratio of the headspace ratios and initial oxygen levels in the storage space significantly affected the off-gas emissions from wood pellets stored in a sealed container. Higher peak emission factors and higher emission rates are associated with higher headspace ratios. Lower emissions of CO(2) and CO were generated at room temperature under lower oxygen levels, whereas CH(4) emission is insensitive to the oxygen level. Replacing oxygen with inert gases in the storage space is thus a potentially effective method to reduce the biomass degradation and toxic off-gas emissions. The proper ventilation of the storage space can also be used to maintain a high oxygen level and low concentrations of toxic off-gassing compounds in the storage space, which is especially useful during the loading and unloading operations to control the hazards associated with the storage and transportation of wood pellets.

  13. Surfactant protein D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood of premature infants. The influence of perinatal factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Marianne; Holmskov, Uffe; Husby, Steffen

    2006-01-01

    of SP-D in capillary blood day 1 was 1,466 ng/mL (range 410-5,051 ng/mL), with lowest values in infants born with ROM and delivered vaginally. High SP-D levels in umbilical cord blood and capillary blood on day 1 were found to be more likely in infants in need for respiratory support or surfactant...

  14. Precambrian oxygen levels estimated from the biochemistry and physiology of early eukaryotes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Runnegar, Bruce

    1991-12-01

    Recent work on the biochemistry of living organisms has shown that the organelles which eukaryotic cells use for photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are of bacterial origin, and that they were imported by eubacterial endosymbionts some time after the existence of the last common ancestor of all modern eukaryotes. However, all living eukaryotes need a certain amount of molecular oxygen for the biosynthesis of vital compounds such as the sterols that are used to stiffen cell membranes. It follows that some dissolved oxygen must have been available to the ancestral "anaerobic" eukaryotes before they acquired their organelles. A minimum age for the first occurrence of such organisms is given by the discovery of modified sterols (steranes) in organic-rich sedimentary rocks about 1.7 Ga old from the McArthur Basin of northern Australia. Fully organelled eukaryotes need even more oxygen if they are to use their mitochondria for aerobic respiration. Some of the oldest fossils that are likely to be the remains of photosynthetic eukaryotes are also from the McArthur Basin. If these sizeable, unicellular algae had functional mitochondria as well as chloroplasts, the oxygen concentration of surface waters some 1.6-1.8 Ga ago is unlikely to have been less than that required for aerobic respiration (> - 0.01 PAL). The oldest convincing megascopic eukaryote, Grypania spiralis, is found ˜1.4 Ga-old strata in China, India, and the U.S.A. Grypania was a corkscrew-shaped "alga" up to 2 mm in diameter and 0.6 m in length which seems to have lived attached to the sea floor. Unless Grypania used oxygen produced by its own chloroplasts, it should have needed between a hundredth and tenth of the present atmospheric level of oxygen (0.01-0.1 PAL O 2) to survive. A similar atmospheric oxygen concentration may have been more than enough to sustain the sheet-like animals of the Ediacara fauna. However, it is possible that their extraordinary geometry was an adaptation to low oxygen levels

  15. Association between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of coronary heart disease patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valensia, Rosy; Masulili, Sri Lelyati C.; Lessang, Robert; Radi, Basuni

    2017-02-01

    Coronary heart disease (CHD) is an abnormal narrowing of heart arteries associated with local accumulation of lipids, in the form of cholesterol and triglycerides. Periodontal disease is a chronic inflammatory that suggests link to the development of CHD. In periodontitis have been reported changes in lipid profile, include increased of cholesterol levels of blood. Objective: to analyse correlation between blood cholesterol level with periodontal status of CHD and non CHD subjects. Methods: Periodontal status and blood cholesterol level of 60 CHD and 40 non CHD subjects was measured. Result: Blood cholesterol level in CHD subjects differs from non CHD subjects (p=0.032). Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.003) and clinical attachment loss (CAL) (p=0.000) in CHD subjects. Blood cholesterol level correlates with pocket depth (p=0.010) in non CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level and bleeding on probing (BOP) in CHD subjects. There is no significant correlation between blood cholesterol level with BOP and CAL in non CHD subjects. Conclusion: Blood cholesterol level in control group is higher than CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.375) and CAL (r=0.450) in CHD patients. Blood cholesterol level is positively associated with pocket depth (r=0.404) in control group.

  16. Effects of Walking with Blood Flow Restriction on Excess Post-exercise Oxygen Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendonca, G V; Vaz, J R; Pezarat-Correia, P; Fernhall, B

    2015-02-09

    This study determined the influence of walking with blood flow restriction (BFR) on the excess post-exercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) of healthy young men. 17 healthy young men (22.1±2.9 years) performed graded treadmill exercise to assess VO2peak. In a randomized fashion, each participant performed 5 sets of 3-min treadmill exercise at their optimal walking speed with 1-min interval either with or without BFR. Participants were then seated in a chair and remained there for 30 min of recovery. Expired gases were continuously monitored during exercise and recovery. BFR increased the O2 cost of walking as well as its relative intensity and cumulative O2 deficit (pEPOC magnitude after walking with BFR was greater than in the non-BFR condition (pEPOC. The EPOC magnitude was no longer different between conditions after controlling for the differences in relative intensity and in the cumulative O2 deficit (p>0.05). These data indicate that walking with BFR increases the magnitude of EPOC. Moreover, they also demonstrate that such increment in EPOC is likely explained by the effects of BFR on walking relative intensity and cumulative O2 deficit.

  17. Correlation between cerebral oxygen metabolism and cerebral blood flow simultaneously measured before and after acetazolamide administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Hiroichiro; Yamauchi, Hideto; Hazama, Shiro; Hamamoto, Hirotsugu; Inoue, Nobuhiro

    1999-10-01

    The cerebral circulation and metabolism of ten preoperative cardiac surgery patients were assessed. Alterations in regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF), measured by 123I-N- isopropyl-p-iodo-amphetamine single-photon emission computed tomography, and in cerebral oxygen metabolism, simultaneously detected by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) before and after acetazolamide administration, were investigated. The rCBF (ml/min/100 g) increased significantly from 40.21 +/- 7.65 to 56.24 +/- 13.69 (p equals 0.001), and a significant increase in oxyhemoglobin (Oxy-Hb) of 13.9% (p equals 0.0022) and total hemoglobin (Total-Hb) of 5.7% (0.0047) along with a significant decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (Deoxy-Hb) of 8.9% (p equals 0.0414) were observed concomitantly. Thus, the Oxy-Hb/Total- Hb ratio (%Oxy-Hb) rose significantly from 67.26 +/- 9.82% to 72.98 +/- 8.09% (p equals 0.0022). Examination of the relationships between individual parameters showed that the percentage changes in rCBF and Oxy-Hb were significantly correlated (r equals 0.758, p equals 0.011). The percentage changes in rCBF and %Oxy-Hb were also correlated significantly (r equals 0.740, p equals 0.014). In conclusion, this evidence suggested that NIRS is able to detect relative changes in cerebral hemodynamics and reflect luxury perfusion induced by acetazolamide.

  18. Hormonal Influence on Coenzyme Q10 Levels in Blood Plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Pontecorvi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, also known as ubiquinone for its presence in all body cells, is an essential part of the cell energy-producing system. However, it is also a powerful lipophilic antioxidant protecting lipoproteins and cell membranes. Due to these two actions, CoQ10 is commonly used in clinical practice in chronic heart failure, male infertility, and neurodegenerative disease. However, it is also taken as an anti-aging substance by healthy people aiming for long-term neuroprotection and by sportsmen to improve endurance. Many hormones are known to be involved in body energy regulation, in terms of production, consumption and dissipation, and their influence on CoQ10 body content or blood values may represent an important pathophysiological mechanism. We summarize the main findings of the literature about the link between hormonal systems and circulating CoQ10 levels. In particular the role of thyroid hormones, directly involved in the regulation of energy homeostasis, is discussed. There is also a link with gonadal and adrenal hormones, partially due to the common biosynthetic pathway with CoQ10, but also to the increased oxidative stress found in hypogonadism and hypoadrenalism.

  19. Oxygen saturation, red blood cell tissue fraction and speed resolved perfusion - A new optical method for microcirculatory assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonasson, Hanna; Fredriksson, Ingemar; Pettersson, Anders; Larsson, Marcus; Strömberg, Tomas

    2015-11-01

    We have developed a new fiber-optic system that combines diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) and laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) for a multi-modal assessment of the microcirculation. Quantitative data is achieved with an inverse Monte Carlo algorithm based on an individually adaptive skin model. The output parameters are calculated from the model and given in absolute units: hemoglobin oxygen saturation (%), red blood cell (RBC) tissue fraction (%), and the speed resolved RBC perfusion separated into three speed regions; 0-1mm/s, 1-10mm/s and above 10mm/s (% mm/s). The aim was to explore microcirculatory parameters using the new optical method, integrating DRS and LDF in a joint skin model, during local heating of the dorsal foot and venous and arterial occlusion of the forearm in 23 healthy subjects (age 20-28years). There were differences in the three speed regions in regard to blood flow changes due to local heating, where perfusion for high speeds increased the most. There was also a high correlation between changes in oxygenation and changes in perfusion for higher speeds. Oxygen saturation at baseline was 44% on foot, increasing to 83% at plateau after heating. The larger increase in perfusion for higher speeds than for lower speeds together with the oxygenation increase during thermal provocation, shows a local thermoregulatory blood flow in presumably arteriolar dermal vessels. In conclusion, there are improved possibilities to assess microcirculation using integrated DRS and LDF in a joint skin model by enabling both oxygenation and speed resolved blood flow assessment simultaneously and in the same skin site. Output parameters in absolute units may also yield new insights about the microcirculatory system.

  20. Resonance Raman study of the oxygenation cycle of optically trapped single red blood cells in a microfluidic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramser, Kerstin; Logg, Katarina; Enger, Jonas; Goksor, Mattias; Kall, Mikael; Hanstorp, Dag

    2004-10-01

    The average environmental response of red blood cells (RBCs) is routinely measured in ensemble studies, but in such investigations valuable information on the single cell level is obscured. In order to elucidate this hidden information is is important to enable the selection of single cells with certain properties while subsequent dynamics triggered by environmental stimulation are recorded in real time. It is also desirable to manipulate and control the cells under phsyiological conditions. As shown here, this can be achieved by combining optical tweezers with a confocal Raman set-up equipped with a microfluidic system. A micro-Raman set-up is combined with an optical trap with separate optical paths, lasers and objectives, which enables the acquisition of resonance Raman profils of single RBCs. The microfluidic system, giving full control over the media surrounding the cell, consists of a pattern of channels and reservoirs produced by electron beam lithography and moulded in PDMS. Fresh Hepes buffer or buffer containing sodium dithionite are transported through the channels using electro-osmotic flow, while the direct Raman response of the single optically trapped RBC is registered in another reservoir in the middle of the channel. Thus, it is possible to monitor the oxygenation cycle in a single cell and to study photo-induced chemistry. This experimental set-up has high potential for monitoring the drug response or conformational changes caused by other environmental stimuli for many types of single functional cells since "in vivo" conditions can be created.

  1. Surface dust wipes are the best predictors of blood leads in young children with elevated blood lead levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulson, Brian, E-mail: brian.gulson@mq.edu.au [Graduate School of the Environment, Macquarie University, North Ryde NSW 2109 (Australia); CSIRO Earth Science and Resource Engineering, North Ryde NSW 2113 (Australia); Anderson, Phil [Information and Statistics Group, Australian Institute of Health and Welfare, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Faculty of Health, University of Canberra, Canberra ACT 2601 (Australia); Taylor, Alan [Department of Psychology, Macquarie University, Sydney NSW 2109 (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Background: As part of the only national survey of lead in Australian children, which was undertaken in 1996, lead isotopic and lead concentration measurements were obtained from children from 24 dwellings whose blood lead levels were ≥15 µg/dL in an attempt to determine the source(s) of their elevated blood lead. Comparisons were made with data for six children with lower blood lead levels (<10 µg/dL). Methods: Thermal ionisation and isotope dilution mass spectrometry were used to determine high precision lead isotopic ratios ({sup 208}Pb/{sup 206}Pb, {sup 207}Pb/{sup 206}Pb and {sup 206}Pb/{sup 204}Pb) and lead concentrations in blood, dust from floor wipes, soil, drinking water and paint (where available). Evaluation of associations between blood and the environmental samples was based on the analysis of individual cases, and Pearson correlations and multiple regression analyses based on the whole dataset. Results and discussion: The correlations showed an association for isotopic ratios in blood and wipes (r=0.52, 95% CI 0.19–0.74), blood and soil (r=0.33, 95% CI −0.05–0.62), and blood and paint (r=0.56, 95% CI 0.09–0.83). The regression analyses indicated that the only statistically significant relationship for blood isotopic ratios was with dust wipes (B=0.65, 95% CI 0.35–0.95); there were no significant associations for lead concentrations in blood and environmental samples. There is a strong isotopic correlation of soils and house dust (r=0.53, 95% CI 0.20–0.75) indicative of a common source(s) for lead in soil and house dust. In contrast, as with the regression analyses, no such association is present for bulk lead concentrations (r=−0.003, 95% CI −0.37–0.36), the most common approach employed in source investigations. In evaluation of the isotopic results on a case by case basis, the strongest associations were for dust wipes and blood. -- Highlights: • Children with elevated blood lead ≥15 µg/dL compared with a group with <10

  2. Seven-Day Mortality Can Be Predicted in Medical Patients by Blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory Rate, Loss of Independence, and Peripheral Oxygen Saturation (the PARIS Score)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Mikkel; Lassen, Annmarie Touborg; Knudsen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most existing risk stratification systems predicting mortality in emergency departments or admission units are complex in clinical use or have not been validated to a level where use is considered appropriate. We aimed to develop and validate a simple system that predicts seven....... The outcome was defined as seven-day all-cause mortality. 76 patients (2.5%) met the endpoint in the development cohort, 57 (2.0%) in the first validation cohort, and 111 (4.3%) in the second. Systolic blood Pressure, Age, Respiratory rate, loss of Independence, and peripheral oxygen Saturation were...

  3. The effects of hyperbaric air and hyperbaric oxygen on blood-brain barrier integrity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cevik, Nihal Gunes; Orhan, Nurcan; Yilmaz, Canan Ugur; Arican, Nadir; Ahishali, Bulent; Kucuk, Mutlu; Kaya, Mehmet; Toklu, Akin Savas

    2013-09-19

    Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) treatment yields conflicting results on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity under various pathological conditions and the effects of HBO on healthy brain is poorly understood. In this experimental study, the effects of HBO on BBB integrity were investigated in comparison with hyperbaric air (HBA) in intact rats. Four sessions of HBA or HBO were applied to intact rats in 24h. BBB integrity was functionally and structurally evaluated by determining extravasation of Evans blue (EB) dye and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) tracers. In immunohistochemical evaluation, relative staining intensity for occludin, a tight junction (TJ) protein, and aquaporin 4 (AQP4), a water-channel protein, was detected in the barrier type of microvessels of brain by image analysis. BBB permeability to EB dye significantly increased in animals in HBO treatment group compared to those in HBA and control groups (p<0.05). The immunoreactivity of occludin, a tight junction protein, remained essentially unaltered in capillaries of hippocampus in all groups. In animals exposed to HBO, AQP4 immunoreactivity significantly increased in parietal cortex compared to those in HBA and control groups (p<0.01). Ultrastructurally, frequent vesicles containing HRP reaction products were observed in capillary endothelial cells in cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats subjected to both HBA and HBO. Our results indicate that the HBO administration to intact rats increased BBB permeability to both EB and HRP while HBA increased only HRP extravasation in these animals. The results of this study suggest that HBA also impairs the BBB integrity in intact rats as well as HBO.

  4. Relationship between leptin levels in maternal blood,amniotic fluid,arterial and venous cord blood and fetal growth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林丽莎; 薛昭卿; 宋岩峰; 何晓宇

    2003-01-01

    Objective:To study the relationship between leptin concentration and fetal growth.Methods: Levels of leptin in maternal serum, amniotic fluid, arterial and venouscord blood of 65 normal parturients (gestational age 37-42weeks) were measured by ra-dioimmunoassay (RIA) method. At the same time, maternal blood lipids were detected.Neonates were divided into three groups: small for gestational age (SGA) group (n=10), appropriate for gestational age (AGA) group (n=45), large for gestational age(LGA) group (n= 10). Statistical analysis was performed by t test, variance analysisand correlation analysis.Results: (1) There was no obvious correlation between leptin concentrations in ma-ternal serum and arterial/ venous cord blood, amniotic fluid, and also no correlationwith birth weight and placental weight (P>0.05). Maternal body mass index signifi-cantly correlated with birth weight and neonatal length and leptin levels in arterial andvenous cord blood (P<0.01). Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood positivelycorrelated significantly with placental and neonatal weight and body length (P<0.01)and negatively correlated with high density lipoprotein (P<0. 01). There was no obvi-ous correlation between fetal gender and leptin concentrations in maternal serum, arteri-al and venous cord blood and amniotic fluid; (2) Leptin levels in arterial and venouscord blood , placental weight in LGA group were significantly higher than those in SGAand AGA group (P<0.05). Among three groups, leptin concentrations in maternalblood were significantly higher than those in arterial and venous cord blood (P<0.05).Conclusions: (1)Fetal leptin is synthesized in uterus, born of itself and placenta.Leptin levels in arterial and venous cord blood are related to the intrauterine growthpattern. It might positively regulate birth weight and body fat content. (2)Either mater-nal or fetal leptin was not correlated with fetal gender. There is no gender difference infetal leptin

  5. Relationship of endothelial nitric oxide synthase gene polymorphism with blood pressure,lipid profile and blood glucose level

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    To study the relationship of the polymorphism of endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS)gene and blood pressure,lipid profiles and blood glucose level.By using PCR-RFLP,the eNOS Glu298Asp gene polymorphism was detected in 184 patients with essential hypertension and 196 matched healthy individuals with normal blood pressure.Taking into account eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphisms,the relationship of blood pressure with triglycerides(TG),total cholesterol(TC),high density lipoprotein(HDL),low density lipoprotein(LDL)and blood glucose level was analyzed.The distribution of eNOS Glu298Asp polymorphism had no significant difference between different blood pressure groups and gender groups,but there was a significant difference between different age groups,diastolic blood pressure groups or BMI groups(P<0.05).Asp/Asp genotype significantly increased the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC above 5.4 mmol/L(P=0.03,OR=2.65).eNOSGlu298Asp polymorphism and serum lipid could synergistically modulate the blood pressure,eNOS Asp/Asp genotype could significantly increase the risk of hypertension in individuals with serum TC over 5.4 mmol/L,eNOS Glu298Asp in combination with serum TC could be used to predict the risk of hypertension.

  6. Association between regional quadriceps oxygenation and blood oxygen saturation during normoxic one-legged dynamic knee extension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esaki, Kazuki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Rådegran, Göran;

    2005-01-01

    one-legged dynamic knee extension exercise (1L-KEE). Five healthy male subjects (age 25+/-2 year, height 177.8+/-4.8 cm, body weight 67.1 +/- 5.0 kg; mean +/- SD) performed 1L-KEE at 20, 40, and 60% of peak work rate (WR-peak) each for 4 min. S(fv)o2 was measured at rest and during the 3rd minute......It is not clear whether muscle oxygenation (O(2-NIRS)) measured by near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) correlates with femoral venous SO2 (S(fv)o2) during normoxic exercise. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to compare physiologically calibrated O(2-NIRS) with S(fv)o2 in subjects performing...

  7. Polymer/hemoglobin assemblies: biodegradable oxygen carriers for artificial red blood cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Taihang; Jing, Xiabin; Huang, Yubin

    2011-07-07

    In routine clinical procedures, blood transfusion is now suffering from the defects of the blood products, like cross-matching, short storage time and virus infection. Various blood substitutes have been designed by researchers through continual efforts. With recent progress in nanotechnology, new types of artificial red blood cells with cellular structure are available. This article aims to describe some artificial red blood cells which encapsulate or conjugate hemoglobin molecules through various approaches, especially the nanoscale self-assembly technique, to mitigate the adverse effects of free hemoglobin molecules. These types of artificial red blood cell systems, which make use of biodegradable polymers as matrix materials, show advantages over the traditional types.

  8. Blood oxygenation changes resulting from trains of low frequency transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Richard H; Maller, Jerome J; Daskalakis, Zafiris J; Fitzgerald, Paul B

    2012-04-01

    The evoked responses to transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) have been previously demonstrated to be on average greater at the beginning of a session; however the physiological reason for this remains uncertain. In order to investigate a possible hemodynamic mechanism for this phenomenon, changes in oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) following trains of single pulse TMS was investigated using near infra-red spectroscopy (NIRS). TMS was delivered in trains of two and four pulses to left pre-frontal cortex (PFC) at a typical intensity and frequency (.2 Hz) used in neuroscience research. Both trains resulted in significant drops of HbO that remained after the cessation of TMS. The changes observed imply that arterial supply drops following suprathreshold TMS and oxygen consumption outstrips supply, resulting in a net drop of HbO. This study provides evidence that at typical TMS delivery frequencies, local HbO levels remain at a sustained lower level than at the beginning of the session, potentially explaining changes in sensitivity to stimulation with repeated TMS pulses.

  9. Do blood components affect the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS by equine synovial cells in vitro?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia M. Brossi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Blood-derived products are commonly administered to horses and humans to treat many musculoskeletal diseases, due to their potential antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects. Nevertheless, antioxidant effects have never been shown upon horse synovial fluid cells in vitro. If proved, this could give a new perspective to justify the clinical application of blood-derived products. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antioxidant effects of two blood-derived products - plasma (unconditioned blood product - UBP and a commercial blood preparation (conditioned blood product - CBP¹ - upon stimulated equine synovial fluid cells. Healthy tarsocrural joints (60 were tapped to obtain synovial fluid cells; these cells were pooled, processed, stimulated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS or phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, and evaluated by flow cytometry for the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS. Upon addition of any blood-derived product here used - UBP and CBP - there was a significant decrease in the oxidative burst of synovial fluid cells (P<0.05. There was no difference between UBP and CBP effects. In conclusion, treatment of stimulated equine synovial cells with either UBP or CBP efficiently restored their redox equilibrium.

  10. Speech therapy changes blood circulation and oxygenation in the brain and muscle: a near-infrared spectrophotometry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Martin; von Bonin, Dietrich; Wolf, Ursula

    2011-01-01

    Recently it has been shown that artistic speech therapy (AST) has effects on heart rate variability. The aim of this pilot study was to investigate whether AST also affects hemodynamics and tissue oxygenation in the brain and skeletal muscle measured by near infrared spectrophotometry(NIRS). The results show that ATS has effects on important physiological parameters, i.e., it leads to a decrease in cerebral blood flow during recitation and to brain activation thereafter.

  11. Pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK solution during cardiac surgery for postoperative pulmonary function in COPD patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buggeskov, Katrine B; Wetterslev, Jørn; Secher, Niels H;

    2013-01-01

    Five to thirty percent of patients undergoing cardiac surgery present with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and have a 2- to 10-fold higher 30-day mortality risk. Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) creates a whole body systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) that could impair pulmona...... function. Impaired pulmonary function can, however, be attenuated by pulmonary perfusion with oxygenated blood or custodiol HTK (histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate) solution....

  12. Level of Mercury Manometer With Respect to Heart: Does it Affect Blood Pressure Measurement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapoor, Raj; Roy, V K; Manna, S; Bhattacharjee, M

    2015-01-01

    Measurement of blood pressure is an integral part of clinical examination. Over the years various types of instruments have been used to measure blood pressure but till date the mercury sphygmomanometer is regarded as the gold standard. However, there is a myth prevalent among health professionals regarding the level of the manometer in relation to heart at the time of measuring of blood pressure. Many professionals insist that it has to be placed at the level of the heart. We argue that the limb from which pressure is measured must be at the heart level rather than the manometer. We conducted a study in which we measured the blood pressure in adults by placing the manometer at three different levels with respect to the heart. The values of blood pressure obtained at all levels were similar and did not show any statistically significant difference. We therefore conclude that the level of sphygmomanometer per se does not affect blood pressure measurement.

  13. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A;

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... no studies directly comparing blood BDNF levels to brain BDNF levels in different species. We examined blood, serum, plasma and brain-tissue BDNF levels in three different mammalian species: rat, pig, and mouse, using an ELISA method. As a control, we included an analysis of blood and brain tissue from...... conditional BDNF knockout mice and their wild-type littermates. Whereas BDNF could readily be measured in rat blood, plasma and brain tissue, it was undetectable in mouse blood. In pigs, whole-blood levels of BDNF could not be measured with a commercially available ELISA kit, but pig plasma BDNF levels (mean...

  14. Central Cardiovascular Responses of Quadriplegic Subjects to Arm Exercise at Varying Levels of Oxygen Uptake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figoni, Stephen F.

    The purpose of this study was to assess selected central cardiovascular functions of spinal cord injured, quadriplegic subjects at varying levels of oxygen uptake (VO sub 2). Subjects included 11 untrained, male college students with C5, C6, or C7 complete quadriplegia and 11 able-bodied reference subjects. Exercise was performed on a Monark cycle…

  15. The coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism with brain activation is similar for simple and complex stimuli in human primary visual cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffeth, Valerie E M; Simon, Aaron B; Buxton, Richard B

    2015-01-01

    Quantitative functional MRI (fMRI) experiments to measure blood flow and oxygen metabolism coupling in the brain typically rely on simple repetitive stimuli. Here we compared such stimuli with a more naturalistic stimulus. Previous work on the primary visual cortex showed that direct attentional modulation evokes a blood flow (CBF) response with a relatively large oxygen metabolism (CMRO2) response in comparison to an unattended stimulus, which evokes a much smaller metabolic response relative to the flow response. We hypothesized that a similar effect would be associated with a more engaging stimulus, and tested this by measuring the primary human visual cortex response to two contrast levels of a radial flickering checkerboard in comparison to the response to free viewing of brief movie clips. We did not find a significant difference in the blood flow-metabolism coupling (n=%ΔCBF/%ΔCMRO2) between the movie stimulus and the flickering checkerboards employing two different analysis methods: a standard analysis using the Davis model and a new analysis using a heuristic model dependent only on measured quantities. This finding suggests that in the primary visual cortex a naturalistic stimulus (in comparison to a simple repetitive stimulus) is either not sufficient to provoke a change in flow-metabolism coupling by attentional modulation as hypothesized, that the experimental design disrupted the cognitive processes underlying the response to a more natural stimulus, or that the technique used is not sensitive enough to detect a small difference.

  16. Fetal Growth Retardation And Its Relationship To Maternal Blood Lead Levels, Antioxidants And Pregnancy Induced Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ragab H. EL-Yamani* and Ahmed E. Karim

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Lead intoxication in human being has been documented since the second century BC and its deleterious effects continue to be a major health hazard for the population, it is demonstrated that lead exposure might decrease the defense mechanism of the cell to the oxidative stress, and therefore, elevate the reactive oxygen species (ROS generation which enhance vascular reactivity. Since vitamin E (Vit. E and vitamin C (Vit. C are natural antioxidants, changes in their status may reflect alterations in free radical production rate and their concentrations are biological markers of oxidative stress. This study was conducted to determine the relationship between maternal blood lead levels and the antioxidants Vit.E and Vit.C in a step to understand the mechanism of action of lead and its possible influence on maternal blood pressure and fetal growth at the lower community exposure levels. The study included, 42 patients with pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH with or without proteinuria, 31 patients with fetal growth retardation (FGR and 23 women with uncomplicated pregnancy. We demonstrated that, the maternal blood lead levels were significantly high in the PIH (30.5 ±0.978 µg/dl and FGR groups (28.87 ±1.21 µg/dl as compared with the uncomplicated pregnancy group (17.82 ±110µg/dl at P0.00l Vit.E concentrations were significantly lower in both PIH and FGR (0.941 ±0.033 mg/dl and 0.866 ± 0.055 mg/dl respectively when compared with normal group (2.00±0.085 mg/dl. Regarding Vit.C in the 2 studied groups there was significantly low levels in PIH group (0.772 ±0.030 mg/dl and FGR (0.847 ±0.039 mg/dl in comparison with control group (l.23 ±0.06 mg/dl. We observed significant negative correlation between maternal blood lead levels and Vit.E in PIH and FGR group. A significant negative correlation was also observed between maternal lead levels and Vit.C in both studied groups. We concluded that high blood lead levels in pregnancy are associated

  17. Dextrose in the banked blood products does not seem to affect the blood glucose levels in patients undergoing liver transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kwok-Wai Cheng; King-Wah Chiu; Shih-Hor Wang; Chih-Che Lin; Tsan-Shiun Lin; Yueh-Wei Liu; Bruno Jawan; Chao-Long Chen; Yu-Fan Cheng; Chia-chih Tseng; Chih-Hsien Wang; Yaw-Sen Chen; Chih-Chi Wang; Tung Liang Huang; Hock-Liew Eng

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Hyperglycemia commonly seen in liver transplantation (LT) has often been attributed to the dextrose in the storage solution of blood transfusion products. The purpose of the study is to compare the changes of the blood glucose levels in transfused and non-transfused patients during LT. METHODS: A retrospective study on 60 biliary pediatric patients and 16 adult patients undergoing LT was carried out. Transfused pediatric patients were included in Group Ⅰ (GI), those not transfused in Group Ⅱ (GⅡ). Twelve adult patients were not given transfusion and assigned to Group Ⅲ (GⅢ); whereas, four adult patients who received massive transfusion were assigned to Group Ⅳ (GⅣ). The blood glucose levels, volume of blood transfused, and the volume of crystalloid infused were recorded, compared and analyzed. RESULTS: Results showed that the changes in bloodglucose levels during LT for both non-transfused and minimally transfused pediatric groups and non-transfused and massively-transfused adult groups were almost the same. CONCLUSION: We conclude that blood transfusion does not cause significant changes in the blood glucose levels inthis study.

  18. Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen levels using the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayakawa, Mineji; Gando, Satoshi; Ono, Yuichi; Mizugaki, Asumi; Katabami, Kenichi; Maekawa, Kunihiko; Miyamoto, Daisuke; Wada, Takeshi; Yanagida, Yuichiro; Sawamura, Atsushi

    2015-04-01

    Rapid evaluation of fibrinogen (Fbg) levels is essential for maintaining homeostasis in patients with massive bleeding during severe trauma and major surgery. This study evaluated the accuracy of fibrinogen levels measured by the CG02N whole blood coagulation analyzer (A&T Corporation, Kanagawa, Japan) using heparinized blood drawn for blood gas analysis (whole blood-Fbg). A total of 100 matched pairs of heparinized blood samples and citrated blood samples were simultaneously collected from patients in the intensive care unit. Whole blood-Fbg results were compared with those of citrated plasma (standard-Fbg). The whole blood coagulation analyzer measured fibrinogen levels within 2 minutes. Strong correlations between standard-Fbg and whole blood-Fbg were observed (ρ = 0.91, p blood-Fbg was 0.980 (95% confidence interval 0.951-1.000, p blood coagulation analyzer can rapidly measure fibrinogen levels in heparinized blood and could be useful in critical care settings where excessive bleeding is a concern.

  19. Differential Responses of Post-Exercise Recovery of Leg Blood Flow and Oxygen Uptake Kinetics in HFpEF versus HFrEF.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Richard B; Pagano, Joseph J; Mathewson, Kory W; Paterson, Ian; Dyck, Jason R; Kitzman, Dalane W; Haykowsky, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The goals of the current study were to compare leg blood flow, oxygen extraction and oxygen uptake (VO2) after constant load sub-maximal unilateral knee extension (ULKE) exercise in patients with heart failure with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF) compared to those with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). Previously, it has been shown that prolonged whole body VO2 recovery kinetics are directly related to disease severity and all-cause mortality in HFrEF patients. To date, no study has simultaneously measured muscle-specific blood flow and oxygen extraction post exercise recovery kinetics in HFrEF or HFpEF patients; therefore it is unknown if muscle VO2 recovery kinetics, and more specifically, the recovery kinetics of blood flow and oxygen extraction at the level of the muscle, differ between HF phenotypes. Ten older (68±10yrs) HFrEF (n = 5) and HFpEF (n = 5) patients performed sub-maximal (85% of maximal weight lifted during an incremental test) ULKE exercise for 4 minutes. Femoral venous blood flow and venous O2 saturation were measured continuously from the onset of end-exercise, using a novel MRI method, to determine off-kinetics (mean response times, MRT) for leg VO2 and its determinants. HFpEF and HFrEF patients had similar end-exercise leg blood flow (1.1±0.6 vs. 1.2±0.6 L/min, p>0.05), venous saturation (42±12 vs. 41±11%, p>0.05) and VO2 (0.13±0.08 vs. 0.11±0.05 L/min, p>0.05); however HFrEF had significantly delayed recovery MRT for flow (292±135sec. vs 105±63sec., p = 0.004) and VO2 (95±37sec. vs. 47±15sec., p = 0.005) compared to HFpEF. Impaired muscle VO2 recovery kinetics following ULKE exercise differentiated HFrEF from HFpEF patients and suggests distinct underlying pathology and potential therapeutic approaches in these populations.

  20. Baseline blood levels of manganese, lead, cadmium, copper, and zinc in residents of Beijing suburb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Long-Lian, E-mail: Longlian57@163.com [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Lu, Ling [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Pan, Ya-Juan; Ding, Chun-Guang [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Xu, Da-Yong [Department of Occupational Diseases Control and Prevention, Fengtai Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Beijing 100071 (China); Huang, Chuan-Feng; Pan, Xing-Fu [Institute for Occupational Health and Poison Control in China Center for Disease Prevention and Control, Beijing 100050 (China); Zheng, Wei, E-mail: wzheng@purdue.edu [School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Baseline blood concentrations of metals are important references for monitoring metal exposure in environmental and occupational settings. The purpose of this study was to determine the blood levels of manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and cadmium (Cd) among the residents (aged 12–60 years old) living in the suburb southwest of Beijing in China and to compare the outcomes with reported values in various developed countries. Blood samples were collected from 648 subjects from March 2009 to February 2010. Metal concentrations in the whole blood were determined by ICP-MS. The geometric means of blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and Cd were 11.4, 802.4, 4665, 42.6, and 0.68 µg/L, respectively. Male subjects had higher blood Pb than the females, while the females had higher blood Mn and Cu than the males. There was no gender difference for blood Cd and Zn. Smokers had higher blood Cu, Zn, and Cd than nonsmokers. There were significant age-related differences in blood levels of all metals studied; subjects in the 17–30 age group had higher blood levels of Mn, Pb, Cu, and Zn, while those in the 46–60 age group had higher Cd than the other age groups. A remarkably lower blood level of Cu and Zn in this population as compared with residents of other developed countries was noticed. Based on the current study, the normal reference ranges for the blood Mn were estimated to be 5.80–25.2 μg/L; for blood Cu, 541–1475 μg/L; for blood Zn, 2349–9492 μg/L; for blood Pb, <100 μg/L; and for blood Cd, <5.30 μg/L in the general population living in Beijing suburbs. - Highlights: • Baseline blood levels of metals in residents of Beijing suburb are investigated. • BMn and BPb in this cohort are higher than those in other developed countries. • Remarkably lower blood levels of Cu and Zn in this Chinese cohort are noticed. • The reference values for blood levels of Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd are established.

  1. Investigation of source-detector separation optimization for an implantable perfusion and oxygenation sensor for liver blood vessels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baba, Justin S [ORNL; Akl, Tony [Texas A& M University; Cote, Gerard L. [Texas A& M University; Wilson, Mark A. [University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, Pittsburgh PA; Ericson, Milton Nance [ORNL

    2011-01-01

    An implanted system is being developed to monitor transplanted liver health during the critical 7-10 day period posttransplantation. The unit will monitor organ perfusion and oxygen consumption using optically-based probes placed on both the inflow and outflow blood vessels, and on the liver parenchymal surface. Sensing probes are based on a 3- wavelength LED source and a photodiode detector. Sample diffuse reflectance is measured at 735, 805, and 940 nm. To ascertain optimal source-to-photodetector spacing for perfusion measurement in blood vessels, an ex vivo study was conducted. In this work, a dye mixture simulating 80% blood oxygen saturation was developed and perfused through excised porcine arteries while collecting data for various preset probe source-to-photodetector spacings. The results from this study demonstrate a decrease in the optical signal with decreasing LED drive current and a reduction in perfusion index signal with increasing probe spacing. They also reveal a 2- to 4-mm optimal range for blood vessel perfusion probe source-to-photodetector spacing that allows for sufficient perfusion signal modulation depth with maximized signal to noise ratio (SNR). These findings are currently being applied to guide electronic configuration and probe placement for in vivo liver perfusion porcine model studies.

  2. The determination of phenazone in blood plasma for obtained sistem suitable test of monitoring drug level

    OpenAIRE

    Mochamad Lazuardi

    2007-01-01

    The determining of Phenazone to human blood plasma from healthy man after separated by solid phase extraction (SPE) and spectroscopic measurements has been investigated. The objective of that research was to obtain system suitable test for determine the Phenazone level in biological fluids (human blood plasma), for new performed dosage regimented in clinical dentistry. The method can be divided into the following four steps. 1. Centrifugation the blood sample, 2. Extraction from blood plasma ...

  3. Improvement of lipase production at different stirring speeds and oxygen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.O.M. Alonso

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Lipase production by a Brazilian wild strain of Yarrowia lipolytica at different stirring speeds and air flow rates was studied. The relationship among lipid consumption, cell growth and lipase production by this microorganism is presented. The most pronounced effect of oxygen on lipase production was determined by stirring speed. Maximum lipase activity was detected in the late stationary phase at 200 rpm and an air flow rate of 1-2 dm³/min (0.8-1.7 vvm when the lipid source had been fully consumed. Higher stirring speeds resulted in mechanical and/or oxidative stress, while lower stirring speeds seemed to limit oxygen levels. An increase in the availability of oxygen at higher air flow rates led to faster lipid uptake and anticipation of enzyme release into the culture medium. The highest lipase production was obtained at 200 rpm and 1 dm³/min (0.8 vvm.

  4. Elevated global cerebral blood flow, oxygen extraction fraction and unchanged metabolic rate of oxygen in young adults with end-stage renal disease: an MRI study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Gang; Lou, Yaxian; Pan, Zhiying; Liu, Ya [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Nanjing University of Aeronautics and Astronautics, College of Aivil Aviation, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Wen, Jiqiu; Li, Xue; Zhang, Zhe [Medical School of Nanjing University, National Clinical Research Center of Kidney Diseases, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Lu, Hanzhang [University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Advanced Imaging Research Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Liu, Wei [Siemens Shenzhen Magnetic Resonance Ltd., Shenzhen, Guangdong (China); Liu, Hui [Siemens MR NEA Collaboration, Siemens Ltd., Shanghai (China); Chen, Huijuan; Kong, Xiang; Luo, Song; Jiang, Xiaolu; Zhang, Zongjun; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China)

    2016-06-15

    To noninvasively assess global cerebral blood flow (CBF), oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) and cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen (CMRO{sub 2}) in young adults with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Thirty-six patients and 38 healthy volunteers were included and took part in MR examinations, blood and neuropsychological tests. CBF and OEF were measured by phase-contrast and T2-relaxation-under-spin-tagging MRI techniques, respectively. CMRO{sub 2} was computed from CBF, OEF and hematocrit according to Fick's principle. Correlations were performed between MR measurements, blood biochemistry measurements and neuropsychological test scores. Compared with controls, ESRD patients had elevated CBF (72.9 ± 12.5 vs. 63.8 ± 8.5 ml min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P < 0.001), elevated OEF (47.2 ± 10.2 vs. 35.8 ± 5.4 %, P < 0.001), but unaffected CMRO{sub 2} (199.5 ± 36.4 vs. 193.8 ± 28.6 μmol O{sub 2} min{sup -1} 100 g{sup -1}, P = 0.879). Hematocrit negatively correlated with CBF (r = -0.640, P < 0.001) and OEF (r = -0.701, P < 0.001), but not with CMRO{sub 2}. Altered neuropsychological test scores of ESRD patients were associated with OEF and CBF, but not with CMRO{sub 2}. There were weak relationships between eGFR and hematocrit (r = 0.308, P = 0.068) or CBF (r = 0.318, P = 0.059). Our findings suggested that anaemic young adults with ESRD may afford higher CBF and OEF to maintain a normal CMRO{sub 2}. Despite this compensatory process, however, cognitive function was still impaired and its severity was correlated with their CBF and OEF abnormality. (orig.)

  5. Predictive Factors of Arterial Blood Oxygen Desaturation During Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy in Nonsedated Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O Alimardani

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypoxemia can occur during upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with or without pharmacological sedation. Pulse oximetry saturation (SpO2 levels were assessed in patients attending for routine unsedated diagnostic upper gastrointestinal endoscopy to identify factors associated with oxygen desaturation. Methods: A total of 300 patients who underwent upper gastrointestinal endoscopy without sedation were monitored with continuous pulse oximetry. Factors related to the patient, the examination, and the monitoring data that could predict severe desaturation were evaluated. Results: Mild desaturation (SpO2 between 1-4% was found in 143(47.7% of the patients, while severe desaturation (SpO2≥5% and hypoxemia occurred in 65 (21.7% of patients, 40 (61.5% of those had previous illnesses (p<0.001. The variables found to predict severe desaturation were basal SpO2 <95%, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, anemia, age more than 60 years and coronary artery disease. Conclusion: The decrease in SpO2 is related to increase in age, basal SaO2 < 95%, respiratory disease, coronary artery disease, and anemia, .We recommend continuous monitoring of SpO2 in these high-risk patients undergoing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy.

  6. Sound levels inside incubators and oxygen hoods used with nebulizers and humidifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckham, R W; Mishoe, S C

    1982-01-01

    Degree of hearing loss in the infant is related to high-intensity or high-frequency sound (noise). We measured sound levels of 6 models of pneumatic nebulizers and 8 models of humidifiers at various flowrates, FIO2 settings, and water levels, when they were attached to incubators and oxygen hoods; we also evaluated sound levels from 2 models of ultrasonic nebulizers at various output settings. Among the pneumatic nebulizers, the recommended 58-dbA maximum sound level was exceeded by the Aquapak 621, Ohio Deluxe, and Puritan All-Purpose devices. The Bard Parker, Foregger, and Inspiron pneumatic nebulizers' sound levels were 58 dbA or below except during the dry water-level condition. Among the humidifiers, all produced sound levels below the recommended 58-dbA maximum except the Travenol humidifier; the Bennett Cascade, Conchapak, Foregger, and Hudson humidifiers produced mean sound levels in the 43.0- to 43.5-dbA range. Sound levels increased under all conditions when the devices were used with oxygen hoods. The ultrasonic nebulizers produced low sound levels, but the high-frequency ultrasound they also produce may be undesirable for infants; this question requires further investigation.

  7. The influence of nanodiamond on the oxygenation states and micro rheological properties of human red blood cells in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Tsai, Lin-Wei; Perevedentseva, Elena; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Lin, Ching-Hui; Sun, Der-Shan; Lugovtsov, Andrei E.; Priezzhev, Alexander; Mona, Jani; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Nanodiamond has been proven to be biocompatible and proposed for various biomedical applications. Recently, nanometer-sized diamonds have been demonstrated as an effective Raman/fluorescence probe for bio-labeling, as well as, for drug delivery. Bio-labeling/drug delivery can be extended to the human blood system, provided one understands the interaction between nanodiamonds and the blood system. Here, the interaction of nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro is discussed. Measurements have been facilitated using Raman spectroscopy, laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser diffractometry (ektacytometry). Data on cell viability and hemolytic analysis are also presented. Results indicate that the nanodiamonds in the studied condition do not cause hemolysis, and the cell viability is not affected. Importantly, the oxygenation/deoxygenation process was not found to be altered when nanodiamonds interacted with the RBC. However, the nanodiamond can affect some RBC properties such as deformability and aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that the nanodiamond can be used as an effective bio-labeling and drug delivery tool in ambient conditions, without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. However, controlling the blood properties including deformability of RBCs and rheological properties of blood is necessary during treatment.

  8. The influence of nanodiamond on the oxygenation states and micro rheological properties of human red blood cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chung; Tsai, Lin-Wei; Perevedentseva, Elena; Chang, Hsin-Hou; Lin, Ching-Hui; Sun, Der-Shan; Lugovtsov, Andrei E; Priezzhev, Alexander; Mona, Jani; Cheng, Chia-Liang

    2012-10-01

    Nanodiamond has been proven to be biocompatible and proposed for various biomedical applications. Recently, nanometer-sized diamonds have been demonstrated as an effective Raman/fluorescence probe for bio-labeling, as well as, for drug delivery. Bio-labeling/drug delivery can be extended to the human blood system, provided one understands the interaction between nanodiamonds and the blood system. Here, the interaction of nanodiamonds (5 and 100 nm) with human red blood cells (RBC) in vitro is discussed. Measurements have been facilitated using Raman spectroscopy, laser scanning fluorescence spectroscopy, and laser diffractometry (ektacytometry). Data on cell viability and hemolytic analysis are also presented. Results indicate that the nanodiamonds in the studied condition do not cause hemolysis, and the cell viability is not affected. Importantly, the oxygenation/deoxygenation process was not found to be altered when nanodiamonds interacted with the RBC. However, the nanodiamond can affect some RBC properties such as deformability and aggregation in a concentration dependent manner. These results suggest that the nanodiamond can be used as an effective bio-labeling and drug delivery tool in ambient conditions, without complicating the blood's physiological conditions. However, controlling the blood properties including deformability of RBCs and rheological properties of blood is necessary during treatment.

  9. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morsy Amal A

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional performed on 60 children. Venous blood samples were taken from the studied population for estimating hematological parameters as well as iron and ferritin levels. The concentrations of zinc, copper, and lead were measured. The studied population was divided into anemic and non-anemic (control groups. The anemic group was further classified into mild, moderate and severe anemia. The study subjects were also categorized into low and high blood lead level groups. Findings Approximately 63.33% of children had blood lead levels ≥ 10 μg/dl. At the blood lead level range of 10-20 μg/dl, a significant association was found for mild and severe anemia. The blood level of iron and ferritin was found to be significantly lower in high blood lead level and anemic groups than those of the low blood lead level and control groups. Lead level in drinking water was higher than the permissible limit. Conclusion Lead level ≥ 10 μg/dl was significantly associated with anemia, decreased iron absorption and hematological parameters affection. High blood lead levels were associated with low serum iron and ferritin. Lead level in drinking water was found to be higher than the permissible limits.

  10. Low Mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J.; Reinhard, Christopher T.; Wang, Xiangli; Thomson, Danielle; McGoldrick, Peter; Rainbird, Robert H.; Johnson, Thomas; Fischer, Woodward W.; Lyons, Timothy W.

    2014-10-01

    The oxygenation of Earth’s surface fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles and ultimately paved the way for the rise of metazoans at the end of the Proterozoic. However, current estimates for atmospheric oxygen (O2) levels during the billion years leading up to this time vary widely. On the basis of chromium (Cr) isotope data from a suite of Proterozoic sediments from China, Australia, and North America, interpreted in the context of data from similar depositional environments from Phanerozoic time, we find evidence for inhibited oxidation of Cr at Earth’s surface in the mid-Proterozoic (1.8 to 0.8 billion years ago). These data suggest that atmospheric O2 levels were at most 0.1% of present atmospheric levels. Direct evidence for such low O2 concentrations in the Proterozoic helps explain the late emergence and diversification of metazoans.

  11. Earth history. Low mid-Proterozoic atmospheric oxygen levels and the delayed rise of animals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Planavsky, Noah J; Reinhard, Christopher T; Wang, Xiangli; Thomson, Danielle; McGoldrick, Peter; Rainbird, Robert H; Johnson, Thomas; Fischer, Woodward W; Lyons, Timothy W

    2014-10-31

    The oxygenation of Earth's surface fundamentally altered global biogeochemical cycles and ultimately paved the way for the rise of metazoans at the end of the Proterozoic. However, current estimates for atmospheric oxygen (O2) levels during the billion years leading up to this time vary widely. On the basis of chromium (Cr) isotope data from a suite of Proterozoic sediments from China, Australia, and North America, interpreted in the context of data from similar depositional environments from Phanerozoic time, we find evidence for inhibited oxidation of Cr at Earth's surface in the mid-Proterozoic (1.8 to 0.8 billion years ago). These data suggest that atmospheric O2 levels were at most 0.1% of present atmospheric levels. Direct evidence for such low O2 concentrations in the Proterozoic helps explain the late emergence and diversification of metazoans.

  12. Blood pressure response to low level static contractions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fallentin, Nils; Jørgensen, Kurt

    1992-01-01

    The present study re-examines the 15% MVC concept, i.e. the existence of a circulatory steady-state in low intensity static contractions below 15% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC). Mean arterial blood pressure was studied during static endurance contractions of the elbow flexor and extensor...... muscles at forces corresponding to 10% and 40% MVC. Mean value for endurance time at 10% MVC was significantly longer for flexion [111.3 (SD 56.1) min] than for extension [18.1 (SD 7.5) min;n = 7]. At 40% MVC the difference in mean endurance time disappeared [2.3 (SD 0.7) min for elbow flexion and 2.3 (SD...... 0.7) min for elbow extension]. Mean arterial blood pressure exhibited a continuous and progressive increase during the 10% MVC contractions indicating that the 15% MVC concept would not appear to be valid. The terminal blood pressure value recorded at the point of exhaustion in the 10% MVC elbow...

  13. Association between the levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and blood lipids in healthy individuals

    OpenAIRE

    WANG, SI-PING; Chen, Yan-Hong; Li, Hong

    2012-01-01

    The levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) in blood is closely associated with the status of the health of individuals; in particular, the lack of ω-3 fatty acids may lead to the development of numerous diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the levels of PUFAs, and their correlation with triglycerides and other factors in blood. The levels of PUFAs and blood lipids were detected in 156 healthy individuals; the blood samples were tested by combined thin-layer and gas liquid...

  14. Zinc and copper levels in plasma, erythrocytes, and whole blood in cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldor, Y; Walach, N; Modai, D; Horn, Y

    1982-04-01

    Zinc and copper levels in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood were determined in 35 cancer patients and compared with 24 normal individuals. A decrease in zinc was found in all three blood constituents of the cancer patients. The decrease was significant in plasma and whole blood and nonsignificant in erythrocytes. Copper levels in the cancer group showed a slight and nonsignificant increase in erythrocytes, plasma, and whole blood. The copper to zinc ratio revealed a significant increase only for plasma levels. Further investigations are indicated to determine whether these two elements could serve as indicators for diagnosis or prognosis in cancer patients.

  15. Whole blood BDNF levels in healthy twins discordant for affective disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trajkovska, Viktorija; Vinberg, Maj; Aznar, Susana

    2008-01-01

    and protected against affective disorder. Whole blood assessed for BDNF concentrations and correlated to risk status, neuroticism, and number of stressful life events. RESULTS: Between the groups, we found no significant difference in whole blood BDNF levels. Women at high-risk for depression who had...... neuroticism scores and two or less recent stressful events were associated with decreased whole blood BDNF levels (n=50, p

  16. Spatial and temporal oxygen distribution measured with oxygen microsensors in growing media with different levels of compaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresbøll, Dorte; Thorup-Kristensen, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    Oxygen microsensors were used to determine oxygen profiles in situ from the top to the bottom layer of the growing medium for potted plants of Rosa sp. ‘Dior’. The growing medium was peat- based and compacted uniformly to 3 different bulk densities of 0.14, 0.18 and 0.23 g cm-3 (0, 20 and 40% com...

  17. 25(OHD3 Levels Relative to Muscle Strength and Maximum Oxygen Uptake in Athletes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Książek Anna

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Vitamin D is mainly known for its effects on the bone and calcium metabolism. The discovery of Vitamin D receptors in many extraskeletal cells suggests that it may also play a significant role in other organs and systems. The aim of our study was to assess the relationship between 25(OHD3 levels, lower limb isokinetic strength and maximum oxygen uptake in well-trained professional football players. We enrolled 43 Polish premier league soccer players. The mean age was 22.7±5.3 years. Our study showed decreased serum 25(OHD3 levels in 74.4% of the professional players. The results also demonstrated a lack of statistically significant correlation between 25(OHD3 levels and lower limb muscle strength with the exception of peak torque of the left knee extensors at an angular velocity of 150°/s (r=0.41. No significant correlations were found between hand grip strength and maximum oxygen uptake. Based on our study we concluded that in well-trained professional soccer players, there was no correlation between serum levels of 25(OHD3 and muscle strength or maximum oxygen uptake.

  18. Presión parcial de oxígeno, pH, hematocrito, hemoglobina e índice cardíaco en pollos de engorde a 2.600 metros sobre el nivel del mar Arterial blood oxygen partial pressure, hematocrit, haemoglobin, and cardiac index in broilers at 2600 m above sea level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. JIMENEZ

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available La incidencia de hipertensión arterial pulmonar (HP en pollosparrilleros constituye un problema económico importante. Dentrode los mecanismos de adaptación del organismo a la altitud se encuentran,además del aumento de la tensión arterial pulmonar, el incremento de la masa muscular ventricular derecha, la policitemía y posiblemente la hiperventilación con la subsecuente alcalosis respiratoria. Es factible que el alto nivel de energía en la ración incremente la hipoxemia derivada de la hipoxia; con lo anterior, el grado de policitemia se puede elevar y producirse un efecto agravante de la HP. Para establecer valores de pO2, Ht, Hb e IC en pollos parrilleros residentes a 2.600 m de altura sobre el nivel del mar, se estudiaron 24 aves de ambos sexos, de una población de 400 animales. Los valores promedios obtenidos fueron los siguientes: a pO2: 67.21 mmHg ± 5.21. Hubo diferencias estadísticas (pWideman y Buss (1985y Julian y col. (1985. La correlación inversa entre el IC y la pO2 arterial indican el efecto de la hipoxia de las vías aéreas en la hipoxemia y en el grado de hipertrofia e hiperplasia ventricular derecha.High incidence of cardiac failure in broilers due to hypoxic pulmonaryhypertension (PH, produces huge economical losses. Adaptive responsesinclude right ventricular hypertrophy and polycythemia. High energy levelin feed could increase hypoxemia and therefore the degree of polycythemia,thus increasing PH. To establish normal values in arterial oxygen partialpressure (pO2, pH, hematocrit (Ht, haemoglobin (Hb, and cardiacindex (CI, 24 broilers (12 males and 12 females, chosen at random, froma population of 400 birds, were studied in Bogotá, Colombia, 2600m above sea level. Mean values obtained were as follows: a pO2:67.21 ± 5.21 mmHg; statistical differences between sexes and among ages were found (p<0.05; b pH: 7.5 ± 0.05; c Ht: 37.13 ± 3.27%. In males, Ht values were higher at 24 and 37 days. In females, therewas a

  19. Effect of oxygen breathing on micro oxygen bubbles in nitrogen-depleted rat adipose tissue at sea level and 25 kPa altitude exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randsoe, Thomas; Hyldegaard, Ole

    2012-08-01

    The standard treatment of altitude decompression sickness (aDCS) caused by nitrogen bubble formation is oxygen breathing and recompression. However, micro air bubbles (containing 79% nitrogen), injected into adipose tissue, grow and stabilize at 25 kPa regardless of continued oxygen breathing and the tissue nitrogen pressure. To quantify the contribution of oxygen to bubble growth at altitude, micro oxygen bubbles (containing 0% nitrogen) were injected into the adipose tissue of rats depleted from nitrogen by means of preoxygenation (fraction of inspired oxygen = 1.0; 100%) and the bubbles studied at 101.3 kPa (sea level) or at 25 kPa altitude exposures during continued oxygen breathing. In keeping with previous observations and bubble kinetic models, we hypothesize that oxygen breathing may contribute to oxygen bubble growth at altitude. Anesthetized rats were exposed to 3 h of oxygen prebreathing at 101.3 kPa (sea level). Micro oxygen bubbles of 500-800 nl were then injected into the exposed abdominal adipose tissue. The oxygen bubbles were studied for up to 3.5 h during continued oxygen breathing at either 101.3 or 25 kPa ambient pressures. At 101.3 kPa, all bubbles shrank consistently until they disappeared from view at a net disappearance rate (0.02 mm(2) × min(-1)) significantly faster than for similar bubbles at 25 kPa altitude (0.01 mm(2) × min(-1)). At 25 kPa, most bubbles initially grew for 2-40 min, after which they shrank and disappeared. Four bubbles did not disappear while at 25 kPa. The results support bubble kinetic models based on Fick's first law of diffusion, Boyles law, and the oxygen window effect, predicting that oxygen contributes more to bubble volume and growth during hypobaric conditions. As the effect of oxygen increases, the lower the ambient pressure. The results indicate that recompression is instrumental in the treatment of aDCS.

  20. Cubilin Maintains Blood Levels of HDL and Albumin

    OpenAIRE

    Aseem, Obaidullah; Smith, Brian T; Cooley, Marion A.; Wilkerson, Brent A.; Argraves, Kelley M.; Remaley, Alan T.; Argraves, W Scott

    2013-01-01

    Cubilin is an endocytic receptor highly expressed in renal proximal tubules, where it mediates uptake of albumin and filtered forms of apoA-I/HDL. Cubilin deficiency leads to urinary loss of albumin and apoA-I; however, the consequences of cubilin loss on the homeostasis of blood albumin and apoA-I/HDL have not been studied. Using mice heterozygous for cubilin gene deletion (cubilin HT mice), we show that cubilin haploinsufficiency leads to reduced renal proximal tubular uptake of albumin and...

  1. Increased apparatus dead space and tidal volume increase blood concentrations of oxygen and sevoflurane in overweight patients: a randomised controlled clinical study.

    OpenAIRE

    Enekvist, Bruno; Bodelsson, Mikael; Johansson, Anders

    2011-01-01

    General anaesthesia impairs respiratory function in overweight patients. We wanted to determine whether increased tidal volume (VT), with unchanged end-tidal carbon dioxide partial pressure (PETCO2), affects blood concentrations of oxygen and sevoflurane in overweight patients.

  2. Graphene with different oxygenated levels in transparent resistive switching memory applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chun-Chieh; Tsai, Shuo-Wen; Zeng, Zih-Lun

    2017-04-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) is a two-dimensional material with a high light transmittance. The conductivity of GO can be altered by applying an electrical signal, which can be used in nonvolatile resistive switching memories. In this work, the effects of the GO oxygenated level on resistive switching properties are studied. The GO-based device with a higher oxygenated level exhibits better resistive switching properties. The transmittance of the GO-based device is demonstrated. A possible resistive switching model and band diagrams of the GO-based device are also proposed. The reported GO-based resistive switching memory device can possibly be used in new-generation nonvolatile memory and transparent devices.

  3. Increases in arterial blood oxygen during exercise in the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    BUSHNELL, PG; LUTZ, PL; STEFFENSEN, JF;

    1982-01-01

    Polyethylene cannulae were implanted in pre- and post-branchial blood vessels allowing nonstressful blood sampling over a variety of activity ranges in an active tropical elasmobranch, the lemon shark (Negaprion brevirostris). TheP 50 was found to be 11.8 Torr at 24°C and pH of 7.7. A Bohr shift...

  4. Levels of perfluoroalkylated compounds in whole blood from Sweden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaerrman, A.; Bavel, B. van; Hardell, L.; Lindstroem, G. [Oerebro Univ. (Sweden). Man-Technology-Environmental Research Centre; Jaernberg, U. [Stockholm Univ. (Sweden). Inst. of Applied Environmental Research

    2004-09-15

    Historically the reports on perfluoroalkylated (PFA) compounds have been limited to mainly perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) but recently a number of other, potentially bioaccumulating, perfluorinated acids were reported in wildlife and in human blood. PFOS is the PFA compound that has been reported most frequently and in the < 1-82 pg/{mu}l range in human serum from the general population of several countries. PFOS and its salts represents only a fraction of the total fluoroproduction but can occur as an impurity in other products and is suspected to be the stable degradation product from other perfluorinated compounds, for example derivatives of perfluorooctane sulfonamide (PFOSA). Recent studies indicate that more volatile fluorotelomer alcohols (FTOHs) and sulfonamidethanols can degrade biotic to different PFA compounds. FTOHs and sulfonamidoalcohols are used in both industrial and household applications and have been found in the trophosphere. Since possible degradation pathways, distribution and exposure routes for this group of compounds are still under investigation; information of human exposure to a larger number of PFAs is valuable. In this study we analysed 66 whole blood samples from the Swedish general population with respect to 12 perfluorinated sulfonates and carboxylates (including perfluorooctane sulfonamide) with carbon chain length between 4 and 14.

  5. Characterization at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples of shear stress preventing red blood cells aggregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K; Kinnunen, M; Danilina, A V; Ustinov, V D; Shin, S; Meglinski, I; Priezzhev, A V

    2016-05-03

    The aggregation of red blood cells (RBC) is an intrinsic feature of blood that has a strong impact on its microcirculation. For a number of years it has been attracting a great attention in basic research and clinical studies. Here, we study a relationship between the RBC aggregation parameters measured at the individual cell level and in a whole blood sample. The home made optical tweezers were used to measure the aggregating and disaggregating forces for a pair of interacting RBCs, at the individual cell level, in order to evaluate the corresponding shear stresses. The RheoScan aggregometer was used for the measurements of critical shear stress (CSS) in whole blood samples. The correlation between CSS and the shear stress required to stop an RBC pair from aggregating was found. The shear stress required to disaggregate a pair of RBCs using the double channel optical tweezers appeared to be about 10 times higher than CSS. The correlation between shear stresses required to prevent RBCs from aggregation at the individual cell level and in whole blood samples was estimated and assessed quantitatively. The experimental approach developed has a high potential for advancing hemorheological studies.

  6. Anaerobic Nitrogen Turnover by Sinking Diatom Aggregates at Varying Ambient Oxygen Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter eStief

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available In the world’s oceans, even relatively low oxygen (O2 levels inhibit anaerobic nitrogen cycling by free-living microbes. Sinking organic aggregates, however, might provide oxygen-depleted microbial hotspots in otherwise oxygenated surface waters. Here we show that sinking diatom aggregates can host anaerobic nitrogen cycling at ambient O2 levels well above the hypoxic threshold. Aggregates were produced from the ubiquitous diatom Skeletonema marinoi and the natural microbial community of seawater. Microsensor profiling through the center of sinking aggregates revealed internal anoxia at ambient 40% air saturation (~100 µmol O2 L-1 and below. Accordingly, anaerobic nitrate turnover inside the aggregates was evident within this range of ambient O2 levels. In incubations with 15N-labeled nitrate, individual Skeletonema aggregates produced NO2- (up to 10.7 nmol N h-1 per aggregate, N2 (up to 7.1 nmol N h-1, NH4+ (up to 2.0 nmol N h-1, and N2O (up to 0.2 nmol N h-1. Intriguingly, nitrate stored inside the diatom cells served as an additional, internal nitrate source for N2 production, which may partially uncouple anaerobic nitrate turnover by diatom aggregates from direct ambient nitrate supply. Sinking diatom aggregates can contribute directly to fixed-nitrogen loss in low-oxygen environments in the ocean and vastly expand the ocean volume in which anaerobic nitrogen turnover is possible, despite relatively high ambient O2 levels. Depending on the extent of intracellular nitrate consumption during the sinking process, diatom aggregates may also be involved in the long-distance export of nitrate to the deep ocean.

  7. Low zinc serum levels and high blood lead levels among school-age children in coastal area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramono, Adriyan; Panunggal, Binar; Rahfiludin, M. Zen; Swastawati, Fronthea

    2017-02-01

    The coverage of environmental lead toxicant was quiet wide. Lead exposure recently has been expected to be associated with zinc deficiency and blood indices disturbance. Emphasizing on children, which could absorb more than 50 % of lead that enters the body. Lead became the issue on the coastal area due to it has polluted the environment and waters as the source of fisheries products. This was a cross sectional study to determined nutritional status, blood lead levels, zinc serum levels, blood indices levels, fish intake among school children in coastal region of Semarang. This study was carried out on the school children aged between 8 and 12 years old in coastal region of Semarang. Nutritional status was figured out using anthropometry measurement. Blood lead and zinc serum levels were analyzed using the Atomic Absorbent Spectrophotometry (AAS) at a wavelength of 213.9 nm for zinc serum and 283.3 nm for blood lead. Blood indices was measured using auto blood hematology analyzer. Fish intake was assessed using 3-non consecutive days 24-hours food recall. The children had high lead levels (median 34.86 μg/dl, range 11.46 - 58.86 μg/dl) compared to WHO cut off. Zinc serum levels was low (median 18.10 μg/dl, range 10.25 – 41.39 μg/dl) compared to the Joint WHO/UNICEF/IAEA/IZiNCG cut off. Approximately 26.4% of children were anemic. This study concluded that all school children had high blood lead levels, low zinc serum, and presented microcytic hypochromic anemia. This phenomenon should be considered as public health concern.

  8. Effect of Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hilsted Linda

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hydrogen cyanide (HCN and carbon monoxide (CO may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure and animal experiments have shown that in rats exposed to CN intoxication, HBO can increase the concentration of CN in whole blood. Objective The purpose of the present study was to determine whole blood CN concentrations in fire victims before and after HBO treatment. Materials and methods The patients included were those admitted to the hospital because of CO intoxication, either as fire victims with smoke inhalation injuries or from other exposures to CO. In thirty-seven of these patients we measured CN concentrations in blood samples, using a Conway/microdiffusion technique, before and after HBO. The blood samples consisted of the remaining 2 mL from the arterial blood gas analysis. CN concentration in blood from fire victims was compared to 12 patients from non-fire accidents but otherwise also exposed to CO intoxication. Results The mean WB-CN concentration before patients received HBO did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients (p = 0.42. The difference between WB-CN before and after HBO did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients (p = 0.7. Lactate in plasma before and after did not differ significantly between the two groups of patients. Twelve of the 25 fire patients and one of the non-fire patients had been given a dose of hydroxycobalamin before HBO. Discussion and Conclusion CN

  9. Effect of ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation on nerve function and function of the red blood cell membrane pump in patients with acute cerebral infarction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiaquan Wang; Chun Mao; Kaifu Ma; Shiqing Wang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Ultraviolet blood irradiation and oxygenation (UBIO) has obtained better clinical effect in treating acute cerebral infarction, but the mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of UBIO on the nerve function and activities of K+-Na+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase activities on the red blood cell (RBC) membrane of patients with acute cerebral infarction.DESIGN: A randomized and controlled study.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Xiangfan Central Hospital.PARTICIPANTS: From January 2000 to December 2001, excluding those above 70 years old, 58 cases of 700 patients with acute cerebral infarction admitted in the Department of Neurology, Xiangfan Central Hospital, were recruited and divided into two groups according to the random number table: UBIO treated group (n=28), including 17 males and 11 females, aged 40-68 years; and control group (n=30), including 20males and 10 females, aged 44-69 years. All the patients agreed to participate in the therapeutic program and detected items. The general informations were comparable without obvious differences between the two groups (P > 0.05).METHODS: ① The patients in both groups received routine treatments, besides, those in the UBIO treated group were given UBIO treatment by using the XL-200 type therapeutic apparatus produced in Shijiazhuang, whose ultraviolet wave was set at 253.7 nm with the energy density of 0.568 J/m2 per second, UBIO treatment started from the second day after admission, once every other day, with a single course consisting of 5-7 treatments. ② In the UBIO treated group, the venous blood was sampled before and after the first, third and the completion of the treatment course respectively, the venous blood was taken at each corresponding time point in the control group. After centrifugation of the blood at 10 000 rounds per minute,the RBC membrane was separated and then the activities of K+-Na+-ATPase and Ca2+-Mg2+-ATPase were detected by means of

  10. Assessment of blood and oxygen delivery to flaps of rhesus using near infrared steady-state spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy has been considered as a potentially ideal noninvasive technique for the postoperative monitoring of plastic surgery. In this study, 6 flaps were raised on rhesus monkeys' forearms. Blood and oxygen delivery to these flaps was monitored following vascular occlusions and inhalation of pure oxygen. Optical fibers were adopted in the probe of the oximeter so that the cutaneous detection could be performed in reflectance mode. Different and repeatable patterns of changes were measured following vascular occlusions on flaps. It is clear that the near infrared spectroscopy is capable of postoperatively monitoring vascular problems in flaps, especially the venous problem. Near infrared spectroscopy showed high sensitivity to detect the dynamic changes in flaps induced by inhalation of pure oxygen in this study. The experimental results indicated that it was potential to assess tissue viability utilizing the dynamic changes induced by some noninvasive stimulation (such as inhaling pure oxygen). It may be a new assessing method that is rapid, little influenced by other factors and less inconvenient to patients.

  11. Effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Seong Hoon

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] This study determined the effects of passive static stretching on blood glucose levels in patients with type 2 diabetes. [Subjects] Fifteen patients (8 males and 7 females) with type 2 diabetes were recruited and randomly assigned to the control group or passive static stretching group. [Methods] Glycated hemoglobin was measured before and after the 8-week training period. [Results] Glycated hemoglobin levels decreased significantly in the passive static stretching group, and there were significant differences in blood glucose levels between the 2 groups. [Conclusion] Passive static stretching of the skeletal muscles may be an alternative to exercise to help regulate blood glucose levels in diabetes patients.

  12. Comparison of Oxygen Carrying Capacity of Red Blood Cell in Salvaged Blood of Patients Undergoing Orthopedic Surgery vs Peripheral Blood Before Anesthesia%骨科手术中回收血红细胞与患者麻醉前红细胞携氧能力的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱颐; 丁玉美; 崔永武; 安敏

    2011-01-01

    [Objective]To compare the difference of oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cell between salvaged blood of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery and peripheral blood before anesthesia. [Methods] Thirty patients undergoing orthopedic surgery received autologous blood transfusion by using blood salvage machine during operation. Thirty blood samples in each of salvaged blood processed by blood salvage machine and peripheral blood before anesthesia were drawn.The pH of blood samples in two groups was measured. The formula was used to calculate 50 % partial pressure of oxygen (P50) in blood samples. The level of 2,3-diphosphoglycerate(2,3- DPG) in erythrocytes was measured by radioimmunoas say and red cell deformability index(RCD) was determined on blood rheology instrument. [Results] The pH and P50 in salvaged blood were higher than those in peripheral blood before anesthesia, but there was no significant difference( P > 0.05). There was also no significant difference in 2,3 DPG level and RCD between salvaged blood and peripheral blood before anesthesia( P >0.05). [Conclusion] The oxygen carrying capacity of red blood cell in salvaged blood of patients undergoing orthopedic surgery is the same as that in peripheral blood before anesthesia.%[目的]比较骨科患者术中回收血红细胞与麻醉前红细胞携氧能力的差异.[方法]使用血液回收机对30例骨科手术患者行术中自体血液回收.取血液回收机处理后的回收血和麻醉前患者外周血各30份,检测两组血样的pH、根据公式计算血样的50%氧分压(P50),采用放射免疫法测定红细胞内2,3-二磷酸甘油酸浓度(2,3-DPG)、在血液流变仪上测定红细胞变形指数(RCD).[结果]回收血样pH值、P50高于麻醉前血样,但无显著性差异(P>0.05);2,3-DPG 浓度、RCD与麻醉前血样比较差异亦无显著性(P>0.05).[结论]骨科患者术中回收血红细胞与麻醉前外周血红细胞具有相同的携氧能力.

  13. An artificial pancreas provided a novel model of blood glucose level variability in beagles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munekage, Masaya; Yatabe, Tomoaki; Kitagawa, Hiroyuki; Takezaki, Yuka; Tamura, Takahiko; Namikawa, Tsutomu; Hanazaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Although the effects on prognosis of blood glucose level variability have gained increasing attention, it is unclear whether blood glucose level variability itself or the manifestation of pathological conditions that worsen prognosis. Then, previous reports have not been published on variability models of perioperative blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to establish a novel variability model of blood glucose concentration using an artificial pancreas. We maintained six healthy, male beagles. After anesthesia induction, a 20-G venous catheter was inserted in the right femoral vein and an artificial pancreas (STG-22, Nikkiso Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan) was connected for continuous blood glucose monitoring and glucose management. After achieving muscle relaxation, total pancreatectomy was performed. After 1 h of stabilization, automatic blood glucose control was initiated using the artificial pancreas. Blood glucose level varied for 8 h, alternating between the target blood glucose values of 170 and 70 mg/dL. Eight hours later, the experiment was concluded. Total pancreatectomy was performed for 62 ± 13 min. Blood glucose swings were achieved 9.8 ± 2.3 times. The average blood glucose level was 128.1 ± 5.1 mg/dL with an SD of 44.6 ± 3.9 mg/dL. The potassium levels after stabilization and at the end of the experiment were 3.5 ± 0.3 and 3.1 ± 0.5 mmol/L, respectively. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrated that an artificial pancreas contributed to the establishment of a novel variability model of blood glucose levels in beagles.

  14. Regional differences in the coupling of cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism changes in response to activation: implications for BOLD-fMRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ances, Beau M; Leontiev, Oleg; Perthen, Joanna E; Liang, Christine; Lansing, Amy E; Buxton, Richard B

    2008-02-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signal changes is a sensitive tool for mapping brain activation, but quantitative interpretation of the BOLD response is problematic. The BOLD response is primarily driven by cerebral blood flow (CBF) changes, but is moderated by M, a scaling parameter reflecting baseline deoxyhemoglobin, and n, the ratio of fractional changes in CBF to cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption (CMRO(2)). We compared M and n between cortical (visual cortex, VC) and subcortical (lentiform nuclei, LN) regions using a quantitative approach based on calibrating the BOLD response with a hypercapnia experiment. Although M was similar in both regions (~5.8%), differences in n (2.21+/-0.03 in VC and 1.58+/-0.03 in LN; Cohen d=1.71) produced substantially weaker (~3.7x) subcortical than cortical BOLD responses relative to CMRO(2) changes. Because of this strong sensitivity to n, BOLD response amplitudes cannot be interpreted as a quantitative reflection of underlying metabolic changes, particularly when comparing cortical and subcortical regions.

  15. Sustained action tetracycline preparation--tetrabid-organon blood level study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucas, C R; Mugglestone, C J; Thomas, D R

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the plasma levels of tetracycline obtained whilst taking standard therapeutic doses of Tetrabid-Organon was made in twelve healthy volunteers. Two standard production batches were used in the study which was conducted under double-blind conditions. Sampling 12 hours and 8 hours after dosing showed no significant differences in plasma levels, with each batch. Even at these lowest levels satisfactory concentrations were rapidly obtained following initial administration, and were maintained when the drug was given at 12-hourly intervals. No side-effects of the drug were noted.

  16. The Effects of Blood Glucose Levels on Cognitive Performance: A Review of the Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jolene; Barshi, Immanuel

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this review paper is to discuss the research literature on the effects of blood glucose levels on executive and non-executive functions in humans. The review begins with a brief description of blood glucose, how it has been studied, previous syntheses of prior studies, and basic results regarding the role of blood glucose on cognitive functioning. The following sections describe work that investigated the effect of blood glucose on both non-executive and executive functions (e.g., sensory processing, psychomotor functioning, attention, vigilance, memory, language and communication, judgement and decision-making, and complex task performance). Within each section, summaries of the findings and challenges to the literature are included. Measurement conversions of blood glucose levels, blood glucose values, and associated symptoms are depicted. References to the types of tests used to investigate blood glucose and cognitive performance are provided. For more detailed descriptions of references within (and in addition to) this paper, an annotated bibliography is also provided. Several moderator variables including individual differences and contextual variables related to the effects of blood glucose levels on performance (e.g., age, gender, time of day, familiarity with the task and symptom awareness, expectancy effects, dose dependent effects, time dependent effects, task specific effects, rising and falling blood glucose levels, and speed and/or accuracy trade-offs) are addressed later in the paper. Some suggestions for future experimental methodologies are also made.

  17. Variation in levels of reactive oxygen species is explained by maternal identity, sex and body-size-corrected clutch size in a lizard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsson, Mats; Wilson, Mark; Uller, Tobias; Mott, Beth; Isaksson, Caroline

    2009-01-01

    Many organisms show differences between males and females in growth rate and crucial life history parameters, such as longevity. Considering this, we may expect levels of toxic metabolic by-products of the respiratory chain, such as reactive oxygen species (ROS), to vary with age and sex. Here, we analyse ROS levels in female Australian painted dragon lizards ( Ctenophorus pictus) and their offspring using fluorescent probes and flow cytometry. Basal level of four ROS species (singlet oxygen, peroxynitrite, superoxide and H2O2) measured with a combined marker, and superoxide measured specifically, varied significantly among families but not between the sexes. When blood cells from offspring were chemically encouraged to accelerate the electron transport chain by mitochondrial uncoupling, net superoxide levels were three times higher in daughters than sons (resulting in levels outside of the normal ROS range) and varied among mothers depending on offspring sex (significant interaction between maternal identity and offspring sex). In offspring, there were depressive effects on ROS of size-controlled relative clutch size, which relies directly on circulating levels of vitellogenin, a confirmed antioxidant in some species. Thus, levels of reactive oxygen species varies among females, offspring and in relation to reproductive investment in a manner that makes its regulatory processes likely targets of selection.

  18. Integrated Measurements of Electrical Activity, Oxygen Tension, Blood Flow, and Ca2+ -Signaling in Rodents In Vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Claus; Thomsen, Kirsten; Lauritzen, Martin

    2014-01-01

    in rodent preparation. We also describe methods for recording of cerebral blood flow (CBF), tissue partial pressure of oxygen (tpO2), and cytosolic calcium transients. We finally give examples where electrophysiology, blood flow, metabolism, and calcium transients have been studied together.......In order to assess perfusion and metabolic responses in relation to neural function we need to know the cellular signaling network, which types of neurons and astrocytes are involved, and the timing of their activation. We here present the basic electrophysiological indicators of neuronal function......, short description of the methods commonly used for recording of electrophysiological signals, examples of data analysis and limitations of the methods. This chapter describes the origin of the extracellularly recorded electrical signal, with special regard to the EEG, local field potentials, and spikes...

  19. The stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests on stored horse blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celi, P; Sullivan, M; Evans, D

    2010-02-01

    Increasing interest in the role of oxidative stress (OS) in equine medicine has highlighted the need to develop reliable methods to quantify it. In this study we describe the effect of refrigeration (at 4 degrees C) on the stability of the reactive oxygen metabolites (d-ROMs) and biological antioxidant potential (BAP) tests carried out on 15 healthy horses. Blood samples, collected from the jugular vein, were immediately placed on ice and analysed using both the d-ROMs and BAP tests. Samples were also refrigerated at 4 degrees C and tested after 3, 7 and 24 h. The average results were similar for up to 24 h and minimal variations were found for each horse. The findings suggest that refrigeration is suitable for preserving equine blood samples for these assays and this approach will provide veterinarians with a technically simple, reliable test to measure OS under field conditions.

  20. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karen A.M. O’ Callaghan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  1. An Assessment of the Influence of the Industry Distribution Chain on the Oxygen Levels in Commercial Modified Atmosphere Packaged Cheddar Cheese Using Non-Destructive Oxygen Sensor Technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Callaghan, Karen A M; Papkovsky, Dmitri B; Kerry, Joseph P

    2016-06-20

    The establishment and control of oxygen levels in packs of oxygen-sensitive food products such as cheese is imperative in order to maintain product quality over a determined shelf life. Oxygen sensors quantify oxygen concentrations within packaging using a reversible optical measurement process, and this non-destructive nature ensures the entire supply chain can be monitored and can assist in pinpointing negative issues pertaining to product packaging. This study was carried out in a commercial cheese packaging plant and involved the insertion of 768 sensors into 384 flow-wrapped cheese packs (two sensors per pack) that were flushed with 100% carbon dioxide prior to sealing. The cheese blocks were randomly assigned to two different storage groups to assess the effects of package quality, packaging process efficiency, and handling and distribution on package containment. Results demonstrated that oxygen levels increased in both experimental groups examined over the 30-day assessment period. The group subjected to a simulated industrial distribution route and handling procedures of commercial retailed cheese exhibited the highest level of oxygen detected on every day examined and experienced the highest rate of package failure. The study concluded that fluctuating storage conditions, product movement associated with distribution activities, and the possible presence of cheese-derived contaminants such as calcium lactate crystals were chief contributors to package failure.

  2. Blood Pressure Levels in Male Carriers of Arg82Cys in CD300LG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Støy, Julie; Grarup, Niels; Hørlyck, Arne

    2014-01-01

    (122 mmHg versus 115; p = 0.01) and diastolic blood pressure (77 mmHg versus 72; pgroups. Metalloproteinase-9 level was higher in CT-carriers than in CC-carriers (P... found to be associated with fasting HDL-cholesterol and triglyceride levels. The polymorphism has not been detected in hypertension GWAS potentially due to its low frequency, but CD300LG has been linked to blood pressure as CD300LG knockout mice have changes in blood pressure. Twenty......-four-hour ambulatory blood pressure was obtained in human CD300LG CT-carriers to follow up on these observations. METHODS: Twenty healthy male CD300LG rs72836561 CT-carriers matched for age and BMI with 20 healthy male CC-carriers. Office blood pressure, 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure, carotid intima...

  3. Atmospheric oxygen regulation at low Proterozoic levels by incomplete oxidative weathering of sedimentary organic carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daines, Stuart J.; Mills, Benjamin J. W.; Lenton, Timothy M.

    2017-01-01

    It is unclear why atmospheric oxygen remained trapped at low levels for more than 1.5 billion years following the Paleoproterozoic Great Oxidation Event. Here, we use models for erosion, weathering and biogeochemical cycling to show that this can be explained by the tectonic recycling of previously accumulated sedimentary organic carbon, combined with the oxygen sensitivity of oxidative weathering. Our results indicate a strong negative feedback regime when atmospheric oxygen concentration is of order pO2∼0.1 PAL (present atmospheric level), but that stability is lost at pO2<0.01 PAL. Within these limits, the carbonate carbon isotope (δ13C) record becomes insensitive to changes in organic carbon burial rate, due to counterbalancing changes in the weathering of isotopically light organic carbon. This can explain the lack of secular trend in the Precambrian δ13C record, and reopens the possibility that increased biological productivity and resultant organic carbon burial drove the Great Oxidation Event. PMID:28148950

  4. Acute supplementation of N-acetylcysteine does not affect muscle blood flow and oxygenation characteristics during handgrip exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Joshua R; Broxterman, Ryan M; Ade, Carl J; Evans, Kara K; Kurti, Stephanie P; Hammer, Shane M; Barstow, Thomas J; Harms, Craig A

    2016-04-01

    N-acetylcysteine (NAC; antioxidant and thiol donor) supplementation has improved exercise performance and delayed fatigue, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. One possibility isNACsupplementation increases limb blood flow during severe-intensity exercise. The purpose was to determine ifNACsupplementation affected exercising arm blood flow and muscle oxygenation characteristics. We hypothesized thatNACwould lead to higher limb blood flow and lower muscle deoxygenation characteristics during severe-intensity exercise. Eight healthy nonendurance trained men (21.8 ± 1.2 years) were recruited and completed two constant power handgrip exercise tests at 80% peak power until exhaustion. Subjects orally consumed either placebo (PLA) orNAC(70 mg/kg) 60 min prior to handgrip exercise. Immediately prior to exercise, venous blood samples were collected for determination of plasma redox balance. Brachial artery blood flow (BABF) was measured via Doppler ultrasound and flexor digitorum superficialis oxygenation characteristics were measured via near-infrared spectroscopy. FollowingNACsupplementaiton, plasma cysteine (NAC: 47.2 ± 20.3 μmol/L vs.PLA: 9.6 ± 1.2 μmol/L;P = 0.001) and total cysteine (NAC: 156.2 ± 33.9 μmol/L vs.PLA: 132.2 ± 16.3 μmol/L;P = 0.048) increased. Time to exhaustion was not significantly different (P = 0.55) betweenNAC(473.0 ± 62.1 sec) andPLA(438.7 ± 58.1 sec). RestingBABFwas not different (P = 0.79) withNAC(99.3 ± 31.1 mL/min) andPLA(108.3 ± 46.0 mL/min).BABFwas not different (P = 0.42) during exercise or at end-exercise (NAC: 413 ± 109 mL/min;PLA: 445 ± 147 mL/min). Deoxy-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] and total-[hemoglobin+myoglobin] were not significantly different (P = 0.73 andP = 0.54, respectively) at rest or during exercise between conditions. We conclude that acuteNACsupplementation does not alter oxygen delivery during exercise in men.

  5. Association of food consumption during pregnancy with mercury and lead levels in cord blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Hee; Lee, Su Jin; Kim, Su Young; Choi, Gyuyeon; Lee, Jeong Jae; Kim, Hai-Joong; Kim, Sungjoo; Park, Jeongim; Moon, Hyo-Bang; Choi, Kyungho; Kim, Sungkyoon; Choi, Soo Ran

    2016-09-01

    In utero exposure to mercury and lead has been linked to various adverse health effects related to growth and development. However, there was no evidence on the relationship between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood. Therefore we measured mercury and lead levels in bloods, urines, and cord bloods obtained from 302 pregnant women and estimated relationships between food consumption during pregnancy and mercury or lead level in cord blood to identify perinatal mercury and lead exposures originated from foods during pregnancy. Relationship between food consumption and mercury or lead level was estimated using a generalized linear model after adjustment for body mass index (BMI), delivery experience, income, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for mercury and age, BMI, cesarean section, delivery experience, recruitment year, and other dietary factors for lead. Fish consumption was positively associated with mercury level in cord blood (p=0.0135), while cereal and vegetable consumptions were positively associated with lead level in cord blood (p=0.0517 for cereal and p=0.0504 for vegetable). Furthermore, tea consumption restrained increase of lead level in cord blood (p=0.0014). Our findings support that mercury or lead exposure in Korean pregnant women may come from frequent fish and cereal or vegetable consumption while tea consumption may decrease lead exposure in pregnant women. Therefore, careful intervention through food consumption should be considered.

  6. Emperor penguin oxygen consumption, heart rate and plasma lactate levels during graded swimming exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooyman, G L; Ponganis, P J

    1994-10-01

    Oxygen consumption (VO2), heart rate and blood chemistry were measured in four emperor penguins, Aptenodytes forsteri (Gray), during graded swimming exercise. The maximum VO2 obtained, 52 ml O2 kg-1 min-1, was 7.8 times the measured resting VO2 of 6.7 ml O2 kg-1 min-1 and 9.1 times the predicted resting VO2. As the swimming effort rose, a linear increase in surface and submerged heart rates (fH) occurred. The highest average maximum surface and submersion heart rates of any bird were 213 and 210 beats min-1, respectively. No increase in plasma lactate concentrations occurred until VO2 was greater than 25 ml O2 kg-1 min-1. At the highest VO2 values measured, plasma lactate concentration reached 9.4 mmol l-1. In comparison with other animals of approximately the same mass, the aerobic capacity of the emperor penguin is less than those of the emu and dog but about the same as those of the seal, sea lion and domestic goat. For aquatic animals, a low aerobic capacity seems to be consistent with the needs of parsimonious oxygen utilization while breath-holding.

  7. Respiratory adaptations in carp blood. Influences of hypoxia, red cell organic phosphates, divalent cations and CO2 on hemoglobin-oxygen affinity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Roy E.; Lykkeboe, G.

    1978-01-01

    This study concerns the adaptation of oxygen transporting function of carp blood to environment hypoxia, tracing the roles played by erythrocytic cofactors, inorganic cations, carbon dioxide and hemoglobin multiplicity. Carp acclimated to hypoxia ( 30 mmHg) display striking increases in blood...

  8. Relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production in Nellore steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaves, A S; Nascimento, M L; Tullio, R R; Rosa, A N; Alencar, M M; Lanna, D P

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relationship of efficiency indices with performance, heart rate, oxygen consumption, blood parameters, and estimated heat production (EHP) in Nellore steers. Eighteen steers were individually lot-fed diets of 2.7 Mcal ME/kg DM for 84 d. Estimated heat production was determined using oxygen pulse (OP) methodology, in which heart rate (HR) was monitored for 4 consecutive days. Oxygen pulse was obtained by simultaneously measuring HR and oxygen consumption during a 10- to 15-min period. Efficiency traits studied were feed efficiency (G:F) and residual feed intake (RFI) obtained by regression of DMI in relation to ADG and midtest metabolic BW (RFI). Alternatively, RFI was also obtained based on equations reported by the NRC's to estimate individual requirement and DMI (RFI calculated by the NRC [1996] equation [RFI]). The slope of the regression equation and its significance was used to evaluate the effect of efficiency indices (RFI, RFI, or G:F) on the traits studied. A mixed model was used considering RFI, RFI, or G:F and pen type as fixed effects and initial age as a covariate. For HR and EHP variables, day was included as a random effect. There was no relationship between efficiency indices and back fat depth measured by ultrasound or daily HR and EHP ( > 0.05). Because G:F is obtained in relation to BW, the slope of G:F was positive and significant ( consumption per beat was not related to G:F; however, it was lower for RFI- and RFI-efficient steers, and consequently, oxygen volume (mL·min·kg) and OP (μL O·beat·kg) were also lower ( 0.05); however, G:F-efficient steers showed lower hematocrit and hemoglobin concentrations ( consumption and OP were detected, indicating that the OP methodology may be useful to predict growth efficiency.

  9. Burning of forest materials under late Paleozoic high atmospheric oxygen levels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildman, Richard A., Jr.; Hickey, Leo J.; Dickinson, Matthew B.; Berner, Robert A.; Robinson, Jennifer M.; Dietrich, Michael; Essenhigh, Robert H.; Wildman, Craig B.

    2004-05-01

    Theoretical models suggest that atmospheric oxygen reached concentrations as high as 35% O2 during the past 550 m.y. Previous burning experiments using strips of paper have challenged this idea, concluding that ancient wildfires would have decimated plant life if O2 significantly exceeded its present level of 21%. New thermochemistry and flame-spread experiments using natural fuels contradict these results and indicate that sustained burning of forest fuels at moisture contents common to living plants does not occur between 21% and 35% O2. Therefore, the fires under atmospheres with high oxygen concentrations would not have prevented the persistence of plant communities. Times of high O2 also agree with observations of concurrent fire-resistant plant morphology, large insects, and high concentrations of fossil charcoal.

  10. Dietary fiber stabilizes blood glucose and insulin levels and reduces physical activity in sows (Sus scrofa)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leeuw, de J.A.; Jongbloed, A.W.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to test whether a diet with a high level of fermentable dietary fiber can stabilize interprandial blood glucose and insulin levels, prevent declines below basal levels, and reduce physical activity in limited-fed breeding sows. Stable levels of glucose and insulin may preve

  11. The effects of graded changes in oxygen and carbon dioxide tension on coronary blood velocity independent of myocardial energy demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boulet, Lindsey M; Stembridge, Mike; Tymko, Michael M; Tremblay, Joshua C; Foster, Glen E

    2016-08-01

    In humans, coronary blood flow is tightly regulated by microvessels within the myocardium to match myocardial energy demand. However, evidence regarding inherent sensitivity of the microvessels to changes in arterial partial pressure of carbon dioxide and oxygen is conflicting because of the accompanied changes in myocardial energy requirements. This study aimed to investigate the changes in coronary blood velocity while manipulating partial pressures of end-tidal CO2 (Petco2) and O2 (Peto2). It was hypothesized that an increase in Petco2 (hypercapnia) or decrease in Peto2 (hypoxia) would result in a significant increase in mean blood velocity in the left anterior descending artery (LADVmean) due to an increase in both blood gases and energy demand associated with the concomitant cardiovascular response. Cardiac energy demand was assessed through noninvasive measurement of the total left ventricular mechanical energy. Healthy subjects (n = 13) underwent a euoxic CO2 test (Petco2 = -8, -4, 0, +4, and +8 mmHg from baseline) and an isocapnic hypoxia test (Peto2 = 64, 52, and 45 mmHg). LADVmean was assessed using transthoracic Doppler echocardiography. Hypercapnia evoked a 34.6 ± 8.5% (mean ± SE; P < 0.01) increase in mean LADVmean, whereas hypoxia increased LADVmean by 51.4 ± 8.8% (P < 0.05). Multiple stepwise regressions revealed that both mechanical energy and changes in arterial blood gases are important contributors to the observed changes in LADVmean (P < 0.01). In summary, regulation of the coronary vasculature in humans is mediated by metabolic changes within the heart and an inherent sensitivity to arterial blood gases.

  12. Changes in blood gas transport of altitude native soccer players near sea-level and sea-level native soccer players at altitude (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachsmuth, Nadine; Kley, Marlen; Spielvogel, Hilde; Aughey, Robert J; Gore, Christopher J; Bourdon, Pitre C; Hammond, Kristal; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D; Sanchez, Rudy Soria; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Schmidt, Walter F; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A

    2013-01-01

    Objectives The optimal strategy for soccer teams playing at altitude is not known, that is, ‘fly-in, fly-out’ versus short-term acclimatisation. Here, we document changes in blood gas and vascular volumes of sea-level (Australian, n=20) and altitude (Bolivian, n=19) native soccer players at 3600 m. Methods Haemoglobin-oxygen saturation (Hb-sO2), arterial oxygen content (CaO2), haemoglobin mass (Hbmass), blood volume (BV) and blood gas concentrations were measured before descent (Bolivians only), together with aerobic fitness (via Yo-YoIR1), near sea-level, after ascent and during 13 days at 3600 m. Results At baseline, haemoglobin concentration [Hb] and Hbmass were higher in Bolivians (mean±SD; 18.2±1.0 g/dL, 12.8±0.8 g/kg) than Australians (15.0±0.9 g/dL, 11.6±0.7 g/kg; both p≤0.001). Near sea-level, [Hb] of Bolivians decreased to 16.6±0.9 g/dL, but normalised upon return to 3600 m; Hbmass was constant regardless of altitude. In Australians, [Hb] increased after 12 days at 3600 m to 17.3±1.0 g/dL; Hbmass increased by 3.0±2.7% (p≤0.01). BV decreased in both teams at altitude by ∼400 mL. Arterial partial pressure for oxygen (PaO2), Hb-sO2 and CaO2 of both teams decreased within 2 h of arrival at 3600 m (p≤0.001) but increased over the following days, with CaO2 overcompensated in Australians (+1.7±1.2 mL/100 mL; p≤0.001). Yo-YoIR1 was lower on the 3rd versus 10th day at altitude and was significantly related to CaO2. Conclusions The marked drop in PaO2 and CaO2 observed after ascent does not support the ‘fly-in, fly-out’ approach for soccer teams to play immediately after arrival at altitude. Although short-term acclimatisation was sufficient for Australians to stabilise their CaO2 (mostly due to loss of plasma volume), 12 days appears insufficient to reach chronic levels of adaption. PMID:24282216

  13. Elevated blood-lead levels in first nation people of Northern Ontario Canada: policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuji, L J S; Wainman, B C; Martin, I D; Weber, J-P; Sutherland, C; Liberda, E N; Nieboer, E

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the preliminary impact of the Canadian "non-toxic" shotshell policy, for the hunting of migratory game birds, by examining blood-lead levels of First Nations people living in sub-arctic Canada. If the use of lead shotshell was the major source of lead exposure as has been postulated and the ban on the use of lead shotshell for hunting migratory birds was immediately effective, we would expect that blood-lead levels would be typical of a geographic area remote from industrialization. Our findings present some concern in that approximately 18% of the 196 First Nations people examined had blood-lead levels > or =100 microg/L.

  14. Association of reactive oxygen species levels and radioresistance in cancer stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diehn, Maximilian; Cho, Robert W; Lobo, Neethan A; Kalisky, Tomer; Dorie, Mary Jo; Kulp, Angela N; Qian, Dalong; Lam, Jessica S; Ailles, Laurie E; Wong, Manzhi; Joshua, Benzion; Kaplan, Michael J; Wapnir, Irene; Dirbas, Frederick M; Somlo, George; Garberoglio, Carlos; Paz, Benjamin; Shen, Jeannie; Lau, Sean K; Quake, Stephen R; Brown, J Martin; Weissman, Irving L; Clarke, Michael F

    2009-04-09

    The metabolism of oxygen, although central to life, produces reactive oxygen species (ROS) that have been implicated in processes as diverse as cancer, cardiovascular disease and ageing. It has recently been shown that central nervous system stem cells and haematopoietic stem cells and early progenitors contain lower levels of ROS than their more mature progeny, and that these differences are critical for maintaining stem cell function. We proposed that epithelial tissue stem cells and their cancer stem cell (CSC) counterparts may also share this property. Here we show that normal mammary epithelial stem cells contain lower concentrations of ROS than their more mature progeny cells. Notably, subsets of CSCs in some human and murine breast tumours contain lower ROS levels than corresponding non-tumorigenic cells (NTCs). Consistent with ROS being critical mediators of ionizing-radiation-induced cell killing, CSCs in these tumours develop less DNA damage and are preferentially spared after irradiation compared to NTCs. Lower ROS levels in CSCs are associated with increased expression of free radical scavenging systems. Pharmacological depletion of ROS scavengers in CSCs markedly decreases their clonogenicity and results in radiosensitization. These results indicate that, similar to normal tissue stem cells, subsets of CSCs in some tumours contain lower ROS levels and enhanced ROS defences compared to their non-tumorigenic progeny, which may contribute to tumour radioresistance.

  15. Magnesium blood levels and preterm labor: a prospective clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantoushzadeh S

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Over the past two decades we have seen a marked increase in the survival of very low birth weight infants. This increase in survival has been attributed to increased use of corticosteroids, regionalization of perinatal care, improved methods of mechanical ventilation, availability of exogenous surfactant, and improved nutritional therapy. However, the reduction in mortality has not been accompanied by a reduction in neonatal morbidity or long-term handicaps. Preterm labor is a major issue in Iran. Besides various etiologies, preterm labor may be due to a biochemical alteration, such as magnesium. It is known that magnesium plasma levels fall during pregnancy. Since magnesium has an inhibitory role on myometrial contractions attention has been paid to the role of magnesium deficiency in preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia leads to neuromuscular hyperexcitability resulting in muscle cramps and uterine hyperactivity. The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between serum magnesium levels and preterm delivery in order to circumvent the high morbidity of preterm delivery by early diagnosis of this deficiency.Methods: Serum magnesium was measured in 42 cases of preterm labor of idiopathic etiology (28-37 weeks and 42 normal pregnancies at the same gestational age.Results: Hypomagnesemia was variable in preterm labor cases, with only slightly low values in normal pregnant women.Conclusion: Our study indicates that serum magnesium levels during pregnancy can be a valuable predictive tool for preterm labor. Hypomagnesemia must be considered in all pregnant women with preterm labor and supplementation must be provided effectively.

  16. Temporal pattern in the effect of postnatal blood lead level on intellectual development of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnaas, L; Rothenberg, S J; Perroni, E; Martínez, S; Hernández, C; Hernández, R M

    2000-01-01

    To determine the temporal pattern of the effect of postnatal blood lead level on the General Cognitive Index (GCI) of the McCarthy Scales of Children's Abilities, we used data from 112 children of the Mexico City Prospective Lead Study with complete evaluations from 36 to 60 months of age at 6-month intervals. We measured blood lead level every 6 months from 6 to 54 months. We controlled for 5-min Apgar, birth weight, birth order, sex, socioeconomic level, maternal IQ, and maximum maternal educational level in a repeated measures ANCOVA using child blood lead level grouped by 6-18 month (geometric mean 10.1 microg/dl, range 3.5-37.0 microg/dl), 24-36 month (geometric mean 9.7 microg/dl, range 3.0-42.7 microg/dl), and 42-54 month (geometric mean 8.4 microg/dl, range 2.5-44.8 microg/dl) averages. There were significant interactions between the 6-18 month blood lead level and age with GCI as the endpoint and between 24-36 month blood lead level and age. The regression coefficient of blood lead at 6-18 months became more negative with age until 48 months, when the rate of decline moderated (linear polynomial contrast p=0. 047). The regression coefficient of blood lead at 24-36 months with CGI became more negative as well from 36 to 48 months but then started decreasing toward zero from 48 to 60 months (quadratic polynomial contrast p=0.019). Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 24-36 month blood lead level at 48 months (p=0.021) and at 54 months (p=0.073). The greatest effect (at 48 months) was a 5.8-point GCI decrease with each natural log unit increase in blood lead. Significant between-subjects lead effects on GCI were found for 42-54 month blood lead level at 54 months (p=0. 040) and at 60 months (p=0.060). The effect of postnatal blood lead level on GCI reaches its maximum approximately 1-3 years later, and then becomes less evident. Four to five years of age appears to be a critical period for the manifestation of the earlier postnatal

  17. Reduced cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism in extremely preterm neonates with low-grade germinal matrix- intraventricular hemorrhage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Pei-Yi; Hagan, Katherine; Fenoglio, Angela; Grant, P. Ellen; Franceschini, Maria Angela

    2016-05-01

    Low-grade germinal matrix-intraventricular hemorrhage (GM-IVH) is the most common complication in extremely premature neonates. The occurrence of GM-IVH is highly associated with hemodynamic instability in the premature brain, yet the long-term impact of low-grade GM-IVH on cerebral blood flow and neuronal health have not been fully investigated. We used an innovative combination of frequency-domain near infrared spectroscopy and diffuse correlation spectroscopy (FDNIRS-DCS) to measure cerebral oxygen saturation (SO2) and an index of cerebral blood flow (CBFi) at the infant’s bedside and compute an index of cerebral oxygen metabolism (CMRO2i). We enrolled twenty extremely low gestational age (ELGA) neonates (seven with low-grade GM-IVH) and monitored them weekly until they reached full-term equivalent age. During their hospital stay, we observed consistently lower CBFi and CMRO2i in ELGA neonates with low-grade GM-IVH compared to neonates without hemorrhages. Furthermore, lower CBFi and CMRO2i in the former group persists even after the resolution of the hemorrhage. In contrast, SO2 does not differ between groups. Thus, CBFi and CMRO2i may have better sensitivity than SO2 in detecting GM-IVH-related effects on infant brain development. FDNIRS-DCS methods may have clinical benefit for monitoring the evolution of GM-IVH, evaluating treatment response, and potentially predicting neurodevelopmental outcome.

  18. Blood flow and oxygenation changes due to low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation of the cerebral cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesquita, Rickson C.; Faseyitan, Olufunsho K.; Turkeltaub, Peter E.; Buckley, Erin M.; Thomas, Amy; Kim, Meeri N.; Durduran, Turgut; Greenberg, Joel H.; Detre, John A.; Yodh, Arjun G.; Hamilton, Roy H.

    2013-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) modulates processing in the human brain and is therefore of interest as a treatment modality for neurologic conditions. During TMS administration, an electric current passing through a coil on the scalp creates a rapidly varying magnetic field that induces currents in the cerebral cortex. The effects of low-frequency (1 Hz), repetitive TMS (rTMS) on motor cortex cerebral blood flow (CBF) and tissue oxygenation in seven healthy adults, during/after 20 min stimulation, is reported. Noninvasive optical methods are employed: diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) for blood flow and diffuse optical spectroscopy (DOS) for hemoglobin concentrations. A significant increase in median CBF (33%) on the side ipsilateral to stimulation was observed during rTMS and persisted after discontinuation. The measured hemodynamic parameter variations enabled computation of relative changes in cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption during rTMS, which increased significantly (28%) in the stimulated hemisphere. By contrast, hemodynamic changes from baseline were not observed contralateral to rTMS administration (all parameters, p>0.29). In total, these findings provide new information about hemodynamic/metabolic responses to low-frequency rTMS and, importantly, demonstrate the feasibility of DCS/DOS for noninvasive monitoring of TMS-induced physiologic effects.

  19. Blood levels of polychlorinated biphenyls and their hydroxylated metabolites in Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica): emphasis on interspecies comparison, gender difference and association with blood thyroid hormone levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaeda, Daisuke; Nomiyama, Kei; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Iwata, Hisato; Tsydenova, Oyuna; Amano, Masao; Petrov, Evgeny A; Batoev, Valeriy B; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2014-11-01

    We have previously demonstrated that Baikal seals (Pusa sibirica) are still being exposed to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and the population is at risk. In the present study, we measured the residue levels of PCBs and their hydroxylated metabolites (OH-PCBs) in the blood of Baikal seals and assessed the impact of OH-PCBs on the thyroid function. Blood concentrations of PCBs and OH-PCBs were in the range of 2.8-130 ng g(-1)wet wt. and 0.71-4.6 ng g(-1)wetwt., respectively. Concentrations of higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs (hexa- to octa-PCBs) were more than 70% to total OH-PCB concentrations, indicating Baikal seals are mostly risked by higher-chlorinated OH-PCBs. High levels of 4OH-CB146 and 4OH-CB187 and low levels of 4OH-CB107/4'OH-CB108 found in Baikal seals were different from those in other phocidae species, suggesting the unique drug-metabolizing enzyme activities and/or contamination sources in this species. Concentrations of some OH-PCBs in males were significantly higher than those in females. These results suggest that these isomers may be preferentially transferred from mother to pup via cord blood. However, concentrations of almost all the isomers were not significantly correlated with the levels of blood total T3 and T4, implying less impact of PCB-related compounds on the thyroid hormone circulation.

  20. Effects of nicardipine and nisoldipine on myocardial metabolism, coronary blood flow and oxygen supply in angina pectoris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, M F; Vincent, M F; Van Hoof, F; Van den Berghe, G; Charlier, A A; Pouleur, H

    1984-12-01

    The effects of the calcium antagonists nicardipine and nisoldipine on left ventricular (LV) metabolism were analyzed in 32 patients with angina pectoris. Measurements were made at a fixed heart rate under the basal state and during a cold pressor test (CPT). After administration of the drugs, coronary blood flow increased significantly and the mean aortic pressure decreased by 10% (p less than 0.01) in the basal state and by 11% (p less than 0.01) during CPT. Despite the reduction in pressure-rate product, myocardial oxygen consumption was unchanged in the basal state (18 +/- 4 vs 19 +/- 4 ml/min, difference not significant) and during CPT (21 +/- 5 vs 21 +/- 5 ml/min, difference not significant); this discrepancy between a reduced pressure-rate product and an unchanged oxygen consumption was also noted when nicardipine was given after propranolol (0.1 mg/kg; 12 patients). Both agents also increased LV lactate uptake, particularly during CPT (+13 mumol/min, p less than 0.05 vs control CPT) and reduced LV glutamine production. In 10 patients in whom 14C-lactate was infused, the chemical LV lactate extraction ratio increased more than the 14C-lactate extraction ratio after administration of the drugs, indicating a reduction in LV lactate production. The data are consistent with the hypothesis that nicardipine and nisoldipine improve perfusion and aerobic metabolism in chronically ischemic areas, resulting in an augmented oxygen consumption and in a reduced lactate production.

  1. One-legged endurance training: leg blood flow and oxygen extraction during cycling exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rud, B; Foss, O; Krustrup, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Aim: As a consequence of enhanced local vascular conductance, perfusion of muscles increases with exercise intensity to suffice the oxygen demand. However, when maximal oxygen uptake (VO(2) max) and cardiac output are approached, the increase in conductance is blunted. Endurance training increases...... training, while VO(2) of the trained leg (TL) and control leg (CL) during cycling was determined after training. Results: VO(2) max for cycling was unaffected by training, although one-legged VO(2) max became 6.7 (2.3)% (mean ± SE) larger with TL than with CL. Also TL citrate synthase activity was higher...... muscle metabolic capacity, but to what extent that affects the regulation of muscle vascular conductance during exercise is unknown. Methods: Seven weeks of one-legged endurance training was carried out by twelve subjects. Pulmonary VO(2) during cycling and one-legged cycling was tested before and after...

  2. Early outcome and blood-brain barrier integrity after co-administered thrombolysis and hyperbaric oxygenation in experimental stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michalski Dominik

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background After promising results in experimental stroke, normobaric (NBO or hyperbaric oxygenation (HBO have recently been discussed as co-medication with tissue plasminogen activator (tPA for improving outcome. This study assessed the interactions of hyperoxia and tPA, focusing on survival, early functional outcome and blood-brain barrier (BBB integrity following experimental stroke. Methods Rats (n = 109 underwent embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion or sham surgery. Animals were assigned to: Control, NBO (60-minute pure oxygen, HBO (60-minute pure oxygen at 2.4 absolute atmospheres, tPA, or HBO+tPA. Functional impairment was assessed at 4 and 24 hours using Menzies score, followed by intravenous application of FITC-albumin as a BBB permeability marker, which was allowed to circulate for 1 hour. Further, blood sampling was performed at 5 and 25 hours for MMP-2, MMP-9, TIMP-1 and TIMP-2 concentration. Results Mortality rates did not differ significantly between groups, whereas functional improvement was found for NBO, tPA and HBO+tPA. NBO and HBO tended to stabilize BBB and to reduce MMP-2. tPA tended to increase BBB permeability with corresponding MMP and TIMP elevation. Co-administered HBO failed to attenuate these early deleterious effects, independent of functional improvement. Conclusions The long-term consequences of simultaneously applied tPA and both NBO and HBO need to be addressed by further studies to identify therapeutic potencies in acute stroke, and to avoid unfavorable courses following combined treatment.

  3. Assessing anxiety levels and empathic tendency in blood and platelet donors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kılıç, Suar Çakı; Doğan, Erdoğan; Sevimligül, Gülgün; Yücel, Birsen; Bolat, Fatih; Kavakçı, Onder; Sencan, Mehmet

    2013-06-01

    In spite of a constantly-increasing requirement for blood transfusion in the world, blood donation does not exhibit an increase at the same rate. In Turkey with a population of 74 million, only 15 per 10,000 people donate blood regularly and rate of voluntary blood donation is very low compared to developed countries. The aim of this study is to determine empathic level of donors and anxiety levels of blood and platelet donors and also to enable comfort and motivation of donors by taking precautions for reducing their anxieties. This prospective and descriptive study was conducted with 100 voluntary donors (50 blood donors, 50 platelet donors) who admitted to Blood Centre of Cumhuriyet University Hospital between 15 March 2012 and 30 April 2012. Average age of these donors was 27 (19-48)years. The mean scores of donors from Empathic Tendency Scale (ETS), State Anxiety Invertory (SAI) and Trait Anxiety Inventory (TAI) were 70 (49-83), 40 (33-45) and 34 (30-44), respectively. ETS score of those donating blood/platelet for the first time was low, >1 is higher in those who donated previously. SAI and TAI scores of blood donors were higher than those of platelet donors (pempathy. Donation made during the continuous disclosure is an important factor for being a donor.

  4. Average blood flow and oxygen uptake in the human brain during resting wakefulness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, P L; Holm, S; Herning, M;

    1993-01-01

    tracer between the brain and its venous blood is not reached. As a consequence, normal values for CBF and CMRO2 of 54 ml 100 g-1 min-1 and 3.5 ml 100 g-1 min-1 obtained with the Kety-Schmidt technique are an overestimation of the true values. Using the Kety-Schmidt technique we have performed 57...

  5. 早期脓毒症大鼠脑氧代谢与乳酸的变化%Preliminary study of cerebral oxygen metabolism and change of blood lactate in early stage of sepsis in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱欣; 郑峥; 汤罗嘉; 陈锋

    2011-01-01

    Objective To observe the change of cerebral oxygen metablism and the level of blood lactate in early stage of sepsis in rats.Method Sixty-four SD rats were randomly(random number)divided into septic group and control group.The sepsis model of rat was made by lipopolysaccharide (LPS,10 mg/kg)injected intra-abdominally,and rats of control group were treated with the same amount of physiological saline instead.And each group was further divided into 4 sub-groups of4 h,6 h,12 h and 24 h after treatment.At each interval,blood samples were obtained via jugular vein for detecting blood oxygen saturation (Sjv02)and blood lactate(LA).The blood oxygen saturation(Sa02)of ventral aorta was also measured.Arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVD02) and oxygen extraction fraction (OEF) were studied.These four variables were analyzed and compared between two groups.Results The AVD02 and OEF in sepsis group were higher than those in control groups of 3 h,6 h and 12 h (P0.05).LA in sepsis group was higher than that in control group in each interval (P0.05).脓毒症组各时间点LA含量与对照组相比均有不同程度升高,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 脓毒症早期可出现脑贯注及脑氧摄取的增强;Sjv02,AVDO2,OEF结合LA水平的监测,能更准确的评估脓毒症早期脑供氧、耗氧和脑贯注状态.

  6. Changes in Arsenic Levels in the Precambrian Oceans in Relation to the Upcome of Free Oxygen

    OpenAIRE

    Arvestål, Emma

    2013-01-01

    Life on Earth could have existed already 3.8 Ga ago, and yet, more complex, multicellular life did not evolve until over three billion years later, about 700 Ma ago. Many have searched for the reason behind this apparent delay in evolution, and the dominating theories put the blame on the hostile Precambrian environment with low oxygen levels and sulphide-rich oceans. There are, however, doubts whether this would be the full explanation, and this thesis therefore focuses on a new hypothesis; ...

  7. Correlation Correlation of Blood Lead Levels, Anemia and Water Source in Children

    OpenAIRE

    Gurukripa, Sowmya Sanjeeva; Shetty, Anil

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exposure to lead and its consequences is a health risk frequently encountered in developing countries.Aims & Objectives: This study was undertaken to ascertain whether the source of water poses a risk for high blood levels and consequently anemia.Material & Methods: 30 children with proven anemia and an equal number of children without anemia were enrolled in the study and an atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used to analyse and quantify their blood lead levels. Thei...

  8. Blood lead levels of traffic- and gasoline-exposed professionals in the city of Athens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapaki, E N; Varelas, P N; Syrigou, A I; Spanaki, M V; Andreadou, E; Kakami, A E; Papageorgiou, C T

    1998-01-01

    During the past 10 y, blood lead levels in the population of Athens, Greece, have decreased steadily. This decrease has paralleled the reduction of tetraethyl lead in gasoline and the introduction of unleaded fuel. Blood lead levels and other parameters were studied in 42 gas-station employees, 47 taxi drivers, 47 bus drivers, and 36 controls, all of whom worked in Athens. The blood lead levels did not differ significantly among the four groups (5.64+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.96+/-1.7 microg/dl, 5.88+/-1.3 microg/dl, and 5.76+/-1.7 microg/dl, respectively). Glutamic-oxaloacetic transaminase (i.e., aspartate aminotransferase) and glutamic-pyruvic transaminase (i.e., alanine aminotransferase) were elevated in gas-station employees, and the former was elevated in taxi drivers. Gas-station employees who smoked had higher blood lead levels than their nonsmoking counterparts. The absence of any difference in the blood lead levels of individuals for whom physical examinations were either normal or abnormal suggests that either lead was not the cause of increased blood lead levels or that its contribution may have been important in the past.

  9. Storage and survival of red blood cells with elevated sodium levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallas, C H; Harris, A S; Wetherall, N T

    1982-01-01

    Approximately 25 percent of black blood donors have an elevated red blood cell (RBC) sodium (Nai) level compared with white donors. This elevation results in a significant increase in the mean Nai from black (9.00 +/- 2.96 mmoles/l RBC) as compared to white blood donors (7.04 +/- 1.48 mmoles/l RBC, p less than 0.001). Red blood cells from four black donors with mean Nai levels of 15 +/- 2.8 mmoles/l RBC were stored for 35 days in citrate-phosphate-dextrose-adenine and compared to that of four donors with normal levels of Nai. Serial measurements of red blood cell adenosine triphosphate, diphosphoglycerate, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, pyruvic kinase, lactate production rates, and intracellular cations showed no differences between the two donor groups. Furthermore, the mean 24-hour posttransfusion survival was not significantly different for the high Nai group (83.2 +/- 5.6%) as compared with the control group (82.3 +/- 6.9%). Based on this study, it is not necessary to eliminate individuals with an elevated red blood cell Nai level as blood donors.

  10. Validation of measurement protocols to assess oxygen consumption and blood flow in the human forearm by near-infrared spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Beekvelt, Mireille C. P.; Colier, Willy N.; van Engelen, Baziel G. M.; Hopman, Maria T. E.; Wevers, Ron A.; Oeseburg, Berend

    1998-01-01

    Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has been used to monitor oxygenation changes in muscle. Quantitative values for O2 consumption, blood flow and venous saturation have been reported by several investigators. The amount of these measurements is, however, still limited and complete validation has not yet been established. The aim of this study was to investigate the different NIRS methods to calculate O2 consumption (VO2) and forearm blood flow (FBF) and to validate the data with the accepted method of strain-gauge plethysmography and blood sampling. Thirteen subjects were tested in rest and during static isometric handgrip exercise at 10% MVC. The NIRS optodes were positioned on the flexor region of the arm. A significant correlation was found between plethysmograph data and NIRS [tHb] during venous occlusion in rest (r EQ 0.925 - 0.994, P exercise (r equals 0.895 - 0.990, P exercise. It seems that although NIRS is a good qualitative monitoring technique, quantification is difficult due to the great variability that is found between the subjects.

  11. Control of nitratation in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification rotating biological contactor through disc immersion level variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courtens, Emilie N P; Boon, Nico; De Clippeleir, Haydée; Berckmoes, Karla; Mosquera, Mariela; Seuntjens, Dries; Vlaeminck, Siegfried E

    2014-03-01

    With oxygen supply playing a crucial role in an oxygen-limited autotrophic nitrification/denitrification (OLAND) rotating biological contactor (RBC), its controlling factors were investigated in this study. Disc rotation speeds (1.8 and 3.6rpm) showed no influence on the process performance of a lab-scale RBC, although abiotic experiments showed a significant effect on the oxygenation capacity. Estimations of the biological oxygen uptake rate revealed that 85-89% of the oxygen was absorbed by the microorganisms during the air exposure of the discs. Indeed, increasing the disc immersion (50 to 75-80%) could significantly suppress undesired nitratation, on the short and long term. The presented results demonstrated that nitratation could be controlled by the immersion level and revealed that oxygen control in an OLAND RBC should be predominantly based on the atmospheric exposure percentage of the discs.

  12. SCREENING OF PRESCHOOL CHILDREN FOR BLOOD LEAD LEVELS AT KIMS HOSPITAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chandrakala

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to screen preschool children for blood lead level with an objective to estimate ZPP levels among preschool children attending OPD and admitted to wards and to confirm blood lead levels in children whose ZPP is>_35ugm/dl. METHODS: hospital based descriptive study conducted at KIMS, BANGALORE from 1st July 2007 to 31st July 2008. 100 preschool children aged between 1 to 6 years who came to OPD and were admitted, were chosen randomly. Data was collected in a simple questionnaire which included demographic, clinical, investigations. Venous blood, 2 ml was drawn and estimated for ZPP. If ZPP >_ 35ugm/dl, then blood samples were estimated for blood lead levels. The data collected in this study was analyzed statistically using chi square test and standard normal variate (Z test for proportions. RESULTS: Out of 100 children, 37% of them had ZPP > 35 ugm/dl .Among these 20% had blood level more >10ugm/dl. Socio economic status affects lead exposure with poor socio economic status group being most prone for lead absorption. Among the 20% who had blood lead levels >10 ugm/dl, 15% of them belonged to urban area and 5% belonged to rural area. Location of the house of children in this study was observed that in industrial area were 85%, mechanic factory were 7%, battery factory were 3%, automobile and cottage industry were 2% . Among 100 children, 57 had hemoglobin % of > 10 gm and 43 were anemic having hemoglobin <10 gm%. CONCLUSION: As lead poisoning patients can be asymptomatic or symptomatic with only vague presentations, screening of blood lead levels should be made as a routine investigation. Awareness should be created regarding the sources of lead, its exposure and potential health effects

  13. Probing Brain Oxygenation with Near Infrared spectroscopy, the Role of Carbon Dioxide and Blood Pressure

    CERN Document Server

    Gersten, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The fundamentals of near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are reviewed. Among the major factors controlling the cerebral blood flow (CBF), the effect of PaCO2 is peculiar in that it violates autoregulatory CBF mechanisms and allows to explore the full range of the CBF. A simple physical model, with a four parameter formula, relating the CBF to PaCO2 is presented. It can be used to transform the fits of one animal to the fits of another one. It enable the use of rats data as monkeys data simply by rescaling the PaCO2 values and the CBF data. Controlled breathing can change the PaCO2. Experiments on human subjects relating the PaCO2 to rSO2, measured with brain oximeters, are presented. A simple model relating the mean blood pressure to CBF is worked out.

  14. Influence of low-intensity laser radiation on degree of oxygenation and speed microcirculation of blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korolevich, Alexander N.; Dubina, Natali S.; Vecherinski, Sergei I.

    2000-11-01

    The paper investigated in vivo the influence of low-intensity laser radiation (he-Ne laser with wavelength 0,63 nm) on the mean velocity of their movement. It is known that characteristic of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are microcirculation disturbances and disorder in rheological properties of blood. Therefore these investigations were carried out on cardiac ischemia patients. The blood perfusion valve and the mean velocity were measured by the method of photon correlation spectroscopy with the use of fiber optic cables. As the radiation source, a semiconductor laser with wavelength 780 nm (0,8 mW) was used. It has been found that, between the erythrocytes and the mean velocity of their movement there is an inverse dependence on the time of irradiation of patients.

  15. Atmospheric oxygen levels in the precambrian: a review of isotopic and geological evidence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, I. B.; Donnelly, T. H.

    1991-12-01

    The significant change in the sulfur isotope record in the early Proterozoic implies global scale oxidation of the previously reduced and sulfate-poor hydrosphere. Changes in the nature/abundance of uranium, iron and manganese deposits are consistent with the evolution of significant oxygen levels in the atmosphere in this period. It is suggested that global oxidation occurred in the early Proterozoic as a result of widespread development of sedimentary environments favourable for the proliferation of phytosynthetic organisms, coupled with steadily decreasing availability of ferrous iron, an important oxygen buffer, because of generally declining igneous and hydrothermal activity. There is a predominance of positive δ34S values for sulfides in Proterozoic carbonaceous strata and sediment-hosted mineral deposits, although the uncommonly preserved evaporitic sulfate deposits do not provide evidence of unusual 34S-enrichment in contemporaneous seawater. These data can be explained in terms of a supercontinent on which there was extensive sedimentation in major intracratonic troughs and platforms. This model is consistent with geological and palaeomagnetic data for this era. In the many sedimentary basins which had only occasional, or no, access to the open ocean, variably 34S-enriched sulfides accumulated by high rates and high degrees of biological sulfate reduction, and also by hydrothermal processes. Pyrite in Proterozoic open marine strata should have had mainly variable negative δ34S values, but few examples of such sequences occur in the geological record for this era. Late Proterozoic carbonates (ca. 900-600 m.y.) from different regions are characterised by mainly positive δ13C values. These are explained as the result of long-term global oceanic anoxia, which may have been a function of prolonged crustal stability preceding continental dispersion around the Proterozoic-Cambrian boundary. Significant rises in atmospheric oxygen levels would have resulted

  16. Distribution of blood lead, blood cadmium, urinary cadmium, and urinary arsenic levels in employees of a copper smelter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lilis, R.; Valciukas, J.A.; Weber, J.P.; Fischbein, A.; Nicholson, W.J.; Campbell, C.; Malkin, J.; Selikoff, I.J.

    1984-02-01

    A cross-sectional medical examination of a copper smelter work force included determination of blood lead (Pb-B), zinc protoporphyrin (ZPP), blood cadmium (Cd-B), urinary cadmium (Cd-U), and urinary arsenic (As-U), since it was known that such metal impurities were present in the copper concentrate. A total of 776 copper smelter employees (680 active and 96 retirees and ex-employees) were examined. Another 144 men, never employed in the smelter, but who had worked in copper mines (and sometimes in gold mines) were also examined. Mean Pb-B, ZPP, Cd-B, and As-U were significantly higher in active copper smelter employees than in retirees or miners, indicating exposure and absorption in the copper smelter. Significant correlations between Pb-B and Cd-B, and Cd-U and As-U were present, confirming the common source of absorption. Although there was evidence for an increased lead absorption, this was very moderate, with practically no Pb-B levels in excess of 60 ..mu..g/dl. A marked effect of smoking on blood cadmium levels was present; nevertheless, for all smoking categories Cd-B levels were significantly higher in active employees, indicating the independent contribution of exposure to cadmium in the smelter. Cd-U did not exceed 10 ..mu..g/g creatinine, the generally accepted critical level for the kidney, but was higher than 2 ..mu..g/g cretinine, a level very rarely exceeded in the general population, in a sizable proportion of those examined. The highest Cd-U levels were found in retired copper smelter employees; age might have been a contributing factor, besides a longer duration of exposure in the smelter.

  17. Environmental lead exposure among preschool children in Shanghai, China: blood lead levels and risk factors.

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    Jia Cao

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To determine blood lead levels and to identify related risk factors among children in Shanghai; to explore the lead change trend of children after industrial transformation and to provide data for policy development to control environmental lead pollution in Shanghai. METHODS: A stratified-clustered-random sampling method was used. A tungsten atomizer absorption spectrophotometer was employed to determine blood lead levels. RESULTS: The arithmetic mean, geometric mean and median of blood lead levels of 0- to 6-year-old children from Shanghai were 22.49 µg/L, 19.65 µg/L and 19.5 µg/L, including 0.26% (6/2291 with concentrations ≥100 µg/L and 2.7% (61/2291 with concentrations ≥50 µg/L. Boys' levels (23.57 µg/L were greater than those of girls (21.2 µg/L. The blood lead levels increased with age. This survey showed that the Chongming district was the highest and Yangpu district was the lowest, this result is completely opposite with the earlier survey in Shanghai. Risk factors for lead contamination included housing environment, parents' education levels, social status, hobbies, and children's nutritional status. CONCLUSIONS: The blood lead levels of children in Shanghai were lower than the earlier data of Shanghai and those of published studies in China, but higher than the blood lead levels of developed countries. The blood lead levels of urban districts are higher than the central districts with the industrial transformation. Society and the government should take an active interest in childhood lead poisoning of urban areas.

  18. Total and antigen-specific Ige levels in umbilical cord blood

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    Sybilski AJ

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The present study was conducted to learn whether the perinatal and environmental factors could influence the total and antigen-specific IgE levels in umbilical cord blood. Retrospective data were obtained from 173 mother-infant pairs. Total and specific (for children's food, wheat/grass and house dust mite-HDM cord blood IgE levels were determined using the immunoassay test. The total cord blood IgE was between 0.0-23.08 IU/ml (mean 0.55 ± 2.07 IU/ml; median 0.16 IU/ml. Total IgE levels were significantly higher in boys compared with girls (OR = 2.2; P = 0.007, and in newborns with complicated pregnancy (OR = 2.7; P = 0.003. A greater number of siblings correlated with increases in the total cord blood IgE (P

  19. Nanostructures formed on carbon-based materials with different levels of crystallinity using oxygen plasma treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Tae-Jun [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Matter, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Jo, Wonjin; Lee, Heon Ju [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Matter, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Kyu Hwan [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Myoung-Woon, E-mail: mwmoon@kist.re.kr [Institute for Multidisciplinary Convergence of Matter, Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Seoul 136-791 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-09-01

    Nanostructure formation was explored for various carbon-based materials, such as diamond, carbon fiber, polyethylene terephthalate and poly (methyl methacrylate), which have different levels of crystallinity, ranging from perfect crystal to polymeric amorphous. After treatment of oxygen plasma glow discharge, the nanostructures on these carbon-based materials were found to evolve via preferential etching due to the co-deposition of metal elements sputtered from the metal cathode plate. Local islands or clusters formed by the metal co-deposition have a low etching rate compared to pristine regions on each material, resulting in anisotropic patterns on the carbon-based materials. This pattern formation mechanism was confirmed by covering the cathode or preventing the co-deposition of metallic sources with a polymeric material. Regardless of the level of crystallinity of the carbon-based materials, no patterns were observed on the surfaces covered with the polymeric material, and the surfaces were uniformly etched. It was found that the materials with low crystallinity had a high etching rate due to low carbon atom density, which thus easily formed high-aspect-ratio nanostructures for the same plasma treatment duration. - Highlight: • Reactive ion etching & metal deposition were occurred in oxygen plasma treatment. • High-aspect-ratio nanostructures can be fabricated on carbon-based materials. • Materials with low crystallinity easily formed high-aspect-ratio nanostructure. • Amount of etching inhibitors affects the pattern formation and configuration.

  20. Inspiratory Muscle Training and Arterial Blood Oxygen Saturation in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

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    Bakhshandeh Bavarsad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background One of the problems of the patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is the weakness of the respiratory muscles that causes oxygen desaturation at rest and activity and decreases exercise tolerance. Objectives This study aimed to investigate the effect of inspiratory muscle training on arterial oxygen saturation (SPO2. Patients and Methods Forty patients with mild to very severe COPD were recruited for this study, which is a randomized control trail. The patients were randomized to IMT (inspiratory muscle training and control group. Training was performed with Respivol (a kind of inspiratory muscle trainer for 8 weeks (15 min/d for 6 d/week. SPSS software version 16 was used to analyze the data by performing independent t test, paired t test, and Fisher exact test. Results Results showed that, after 8 weeks of inspiratory muscle training, there was a little increase (but not statistically significant improvement in SPO2 (from 92.6 ± 8.71 % to 95.13 ± 7.08 %, with P = 0.06, whereas it remained unchanged in the control group (from 96.0 ± 3.46 % to 96.4 ± 3.35 % with P = 0.51. No statistically significant difference was seen between the two groups (P > 0.05. Conclusions Although inspiratory muscles training can prevent desaturation, which is caused by activity, it fails to improve it.

  1. A new fibre optic pulse oximeter probe for monitoring splanchnic organ arterial blood oxygen saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hickey, M; Samuels, N; Randive, N; Langford, R; Kyriacou, P A

    2012-12-01

    A new, continuous method of monitoring splanchnic organ oxygen saturation (SpO(2)) would make the early detection of inadequate tissue oxygenation feasible, reducing the risk of hypoperfusion, severe ischaemia, and, ultimately, death. In an attempt to provide such a device, a new fibre optic based reflectance pulse oximeter probe and processing system were developed followed by an in vivo evaluation of the technology on seventeen patients undergoing elective laparotomy. Photoplethysmographic (PPG) signals of good quality and high signal-to-noise ratio were obtained from the small bowel, large bowel, liver and stomach. Simultaneous peripheral PPG signals from the finger were also obtained for comparison purposes. Analysis of the amplitudes of all acquired PPG signals indicated much larger amplitudes for those signals obtained from splanchnic organs than those obtained from the finger. Estimated SpO(2) values for splanchnic organs showed good agreement with those obtained from the finger fibre optic probe and those obtained from a commercial device. These preliminary results suggest that a miniaturized 'indwelling' fibre optic sensor may be a suitable method for pre-operative and post-operative evaluation of splanchnic organ SpO(2) and their health.

  2. Waist circumference as a predictor for blood glucose levels in adults

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    Shinta L Hardiman

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Anthropometric indexes such as body mass index (BMI, waist circumference (WC, hip ciucumference (HC, and waist–hip ratio (WHR, are all useful anthropometric measurements to provide important information on blood glucose concentrations. The aim of this study was to determine different anthropometric measurements, in particular BMI, waist circumference, hip circumference and waist-to-hip ratio, in their ability to predict the blood glucose levels in men and women 40 to 60. A cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 44 men and 127 women aged 40 to 50 who lived in Cipete Selatan subdistrict, South Jakarta. Blood glucose levels was assessed and anthropometric measurements comprising BMI, WC, HC, WHR were collected. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to determine the best predictor for blood glucose levels. The study showed that the prevalence of DM type 2 was 25.7% and the prevalence was higher in men (40.9% compared to women (23.5%. The significant predictive variables in the simple regression analysis were age and waist circumference. Multiple linear regression showed that after adjustment for age, WC was positively associated with blood glucose levels. Standardized a value was 0.172 (p=0.026. WC predict blood glucose levels, beyond that explained by traditional diabetic risk factors and BMI. These findings provide support for the recommendation that WC be a routine measure for identification of diabetes mellitus type 2 in men and women aged 40 to 60 years.

  3. Effect of cholesterol and triglycerides levels on the rheological behavior of human blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Solis, Antonio; Manero, Octavio

    2015-02-01

    Important public health problems worldwide such as obesity, diabetes, hyperlipidemia and coronary diseases are quite common. These problems arise from numerous factors, such as hyper-caloric diets, sedentary habits and other epigenetic factors. With respect to Mexico, the population reference values of total cholesterol in plasma are around 200 mg/dL. However, a large proportion has higher levels than this reference value. In this work, we analyze the rheological properties of human blood obtained from 20 donors, as a function of cholesterol and triglyceride levels, upon a protocol previously approved by the health authorities. Samples with high and low cholesterol and triglyceride levels were selected and analyzed by simple-continuous and linear-oscillatory shear flow. Rheometric properties were measured and related to the structure and composition of human blood. In addition, rheometric data were modeled by using several constitutive equations: Bautista-Manero-Puig (BMP) and the multimodal Maxwell equations to predict the flow behavior of human blood. Finally, a comparison was made among various models, namely, the BMP, Carreau and Quemada equations for simple shear rate flow. An important relationship was found between cholesterol, triglycerides and the structure of human blood. Results show that blood with high cholesterol levels (400 mg/dL) has flow properties fully different (higher viscosity and a more pseudo-plastic behavior) than blood with lower levels of cholesterol (tendency to Newtonian behavior or viscosity plateau at low shear rates).

  4. EFFECT OF SAPPAN WOOD (Caesalpinnia sappan L EXTRACT ON BLOOD GLUCOSE LEVEL IN WHITE RATS

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    Saefudin Saefudin

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Sappan wood or kayu secang (Caesalpinia sappan L. was reported of having medicinal properties, such as natural antioxidant, relieve vomiting of blood, and mix of ingredients for malaria drugs. The research was conducted to study the influence of ethanol extract from sappan wood on blood glucose level of white rats. The study of the blood glucose level in rats was carried out by using glucose tolerance method. It was measured by Refloluxs (Accutrend GC with Chloropropamide 50 mg/200 g BW (Body weight as positive control. The ethanol extracts were used in various concentrations 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg/200 g BW per-oral and was observed every hour, beginning one hour before to 7 hours after the extract being administered. The results showed that treatment of ethanol extract of sappan wood by administer doses gave remarkable effect on the blood glucose level in white rat. It reduced the glucose level in the blood compared to the negative and positive control. Treatment of dose 30 mg/200 g BW gave similar effect to positive controls, while a dose of 50 mg/200 g BW gave lower blood glucose level (93 mg/dl than the positive controls.

  5. Arterial oxygen content is precisely maintained by graded erythrocytotic responses in settings of high/normal serum iron levels, and predicts exercise capacity: an observational study of hypoxaemic patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations.

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    Vatshalan Santhirapala

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Oxygen, haemoglobin and cardiac output are integrated components of oxygen transport: each gram of haemoglobin transports 1.34 mls of oxygen in the blood. Low arterial partial pressure of oxygen (PaO2, and haemoglobin saturation (SaO2, are the indices used in clinical assessments, and usually result from low inspired oxygen concentrations, or alveolar/airways disease. Our objective was to examine low blood oxygen/haemoglobin relationships in chronically compensated states without concurrent hypoxic pulmonary vasoreactivity. METHODOLOGY: 165 consecutive unselected patients with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations were studied, in 98 cases, pre/post embolisation treatment. 159 (96% had hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Arterial oxygen content was calculated by SaO2 x haemoglobin x 1.34/100. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: There was wide variation in SaO2 on air (78.5-99, median 95% but due to secondary erythrocytosis and resultant polycythaemia, SaO2 explained only 0.1% of the variance in arterial oxygen content per unit blood volume. Secondary erythrocytosis was achievable with low iron stores, but only if serum iron was high-normal: Low serum iron levels were associated with reduced haemoglobin per erythrocyte, and overall arterial oxygen content was lower in iron deficient patients (median 16.0 [IQR 14.9, 17.4]mls/dL compared to 18.8 [IQR 17.4, 20.1]mls/dL, p<0.0001. Exercise tolerance appeared unrelated to SaO2 but was significantly worse in patients with lower oxygen content (p<0.0001. A pre-defined athletic group had higher Hb:SaO2 and serum iron:ferritin ratios than non-athletes with normal exercise capacity. PAVM embolisation increased SaO2, but arterial oxygen content was precisely restored by a subsequent fall in haemoglobin: 86 (87.8% patients reported no change in exercise tolerance at post-embolisation follow-up. SIGNIFICANCE: Haemoglobin and oxygen measurements in isolation do not indicate the more physiologically relevant

  6. Prenatal exposure to lead in Spain: Cord blood levels and associated factors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Llop, Sabrina, E-mail: llop_sab@gva.es [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); Carlos III Health Institute (ISCIII), 20220 Majadahonda, Madrid (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Aguinagalde, Xabier [Public Health Laboratory of Alava, Direccion de Salud Publica, Gobierno Vasco, Santiago 11, 01002, Vitoria-Gasteiz, Basque Country (Spain); Vioque, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Universidad Miguel Hernandez, Av de Alicante KM 87, 03550, Sant Joan d' Alacant (Spain); Ibarluzea, Jesus [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Departamento de Sanidad Gobierno Vasco, Subdireccion de Salud Publica de Gipuzkoa, Avenida de Navarra 4, 20013 San Sebastian (Spain); Biodonostia, Instituto de Investigacion Biomedica, San Sebastian (Spain); Guxens, Monica [CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Casas, Maribel [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Murcia, Mario [Centre of Public Health Research (CSISP), Av Catalunya 21, 46020, Valencia (Spain); CIBER de Epidemiologia y Salud Publica (CIBERESP), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Ruiz, Maria [Centre for Research of Environmental Epidemiology (CREAL), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); Municipal Institute of Medical Research (IMIM-Hospital del Mar), Doctor Aiguader 88, 8003 Barcelona (Spain); and others

    2011-05-01

    Introduction and Objective: Lead is a known neurotoxic. Fetuses and infants are very vulnerable to lead exposure, since their blood-brain barrier is not completely formed. Hence, there is an importance for monitoring of blood lead levels prenatally and during early infancy. The aim of this study is to evaluate the prenatal exposure to lead and its association with maternal factors in four population based mother-child cohorts in Spain. The present research was carried out within the framework of the INMA project INfancia y Medio Ambiente (Environment and Childhood). Methods: A total of 1462 pregnant women were recruited between 2004 and 2008. Lead was analyzed in a sample of cord blood by thermal decomposition, amalgation, and Atomic Absorption Spectrometry. Maternal sociodemographic, lifestyle and dietary factors were obtained by questionnaires during pregnancy. A multivariate logistic regression model was constructed. The dependent variable was a dichotomous lead level variable (detected vs no detected, i.e. {>=} vs < 2 {mu}g/dL). Results: A low percentage of cord blood samples with lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL were found (5.9%). Geometric mean and maximum were 1.06 {mu}g/dL and 19 {mu}g/dL, respectively. Smoking at the beginning of pregnancy, age, social class, weight gain during pregnancy, gravidity, and place of residence were the maternal factors associated with detectable cord blood lead levels. Mother's diet does not appear to be a determining factor of lead exposure. Nevertheless, daily intake of iron and zinc may act as a protective factor against having cord blood lead levels {>=} 2 {mu}g/dL. Conclusion: In the different regions of Spain taking part in this study, lead levels to which newborns are exposed are low. Mobilization of lead from bones may be the main contributor to the cord blood levels. - Research Highlights: {yields} Pb is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant with harmful effects on neurodevelopment. {yields} Cord blood Pb levels in

  7. Correlation between low neuraminidase blood levels and a predisposition toward family-related breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rothenberg, R E; Laraja, R D; Imran-Ul-Hag; Saber, A A; Nadkarni, M

    1996-11-01

    It has been shown that high sialic acid levels are often found in conjunction with breast cancer, and these high concentrations are thought to be due to deficiency of the enzyme neuraminidase. The study proposes to elicit a relationship between low levels of blood neuraminidase and a family history of breast cancer. Neuraminidase blood levels were measured in 30 healthy women between the ages of 35 and 65 years with no evidence of a family history of breast cancer (control group), and in 33 healthy women between the ages of 35 to 65 years, all of whom had immediate members of their families with breast cancer (study group). The mean level of the blood neuraminidase was found to be 1.375 units in the control group. On the other hand, the mean level for the study group was 1.256 units. The difference between the two groups is statistically significant, (P value breast cancer.

  8. Alcohol levels in cerebrospinal fluid and blood samples from patients under pathological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agapejev, S; Vassilieff, I; Curi, P R

    1992-11-01

    We measured alcohol levels by the Cordebard method in 148 CSF samples from individuals who had abstained from alcohol for at least 7 days prior to the beginning of the study. Each blood sample was accompanied by a CSF sample from the same patient. CSF samples found to be normal after analysis were used as controls. Mean alcohol concentration in blood did not differ significantly between the control group and the groups with altered CSF. The group with altered CSF had statistically higher alcohol levels in CSF than in blood. CSF lactate, glucose and protein levels were not correlated with alcohol level. The results suggest the presence of endogenous alcohol in the CSF, with levels increasing in the presence of pathological processes involving the nervous system.

  9. The impact of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels

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    Adams OP

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available O Peter AdamsFaculty of Medical Sciences, the University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St Michael, BarbadosBackground: Moderate-intensity exercise improves blood glucose (BG, but most people fail to achieve the required exercise volume. High-intensity exercise (HIE protocols vary. Maximal cycle ergometer sprint interval training typically requires only 2.5 minutes of HIE and a total training time commitment (including rest and warm up of 25 minutes per session. The effect of brief high-intensity exercise on blood glucose levels of people with and without diabetes is reviewed.Methods: HIE (≥80% maximal oxygen uptake, VO2max studies with ≤15 minutes HIE per session were reviewed.Results: Six studies of nondiabetics (51 males, 14 females requiring 7.5 to 20 minutes/week of HIE are reviewed. Two weeks of sprint interval training increased insulin sensitivity up to 3 days postintervention. Twelve weeks near maximal interval running (total exercise time 40 minutes/week improved BG to a similar extent as running at 65% VO2max for 150 minutes/week. Eight studies of diabetics (41 type 1 and 22 type 2 subjects were reviewed. Six were of a single exercise session with 44 seconds to 13 minutes of HIE, and the others were 2 and 7 weeks duration with 20 and 2 minutes/week HIE, respectively. With type 1 and 2 diabetes, BG was generally higher during and up to 2 hours after HIE compared to controls. With type 1 diabetics, BG decreased from midnight to 6 AM following HIE the previous morning. With type 2 diabetes, a single session improved postprandial BG for 24 hours, while a 2-week program reduced the average BG by 13% at 48 to 72 hours after exercise and also increased GLUT4 by 369%.Conclusion: Very brief HIE improves BG 1 to 3 days postexercise in both diabetics and nondiabetics. HIE is unlikely to cause hypoglycemia during and immediately after exercise. Larger and longer randomized studies are needed to determine the safety, acceptability, long

  10. Effects of ovarian stimulation on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Oian, P; Kjeldsen, S E; Holst, N; Eide, I

    1993-07-01

    Effects of ovarian stimulation for in vitro fertilization on blood pressure and plasma catecholamine levels were studied in 10 women. The examinations were carried out before hormonal treatment with human menopausal gonadotropin (day three of the menstrual cycle, mean serum oestradiol concentration 0.2 nmol l-1, and on the day after ovulation induction with human chorionic gonadotropin (cycle days 10-12, mean serum oestradiol concentration 7.4 nmol l-1). Systolic and diastolic blood pressures (mean +/- SD) decreased 6.7 +/- 8.6 mm Hg, p = 0.049, and 5.3 +/- 4.7 mm Hg, p = 0.009, respectively), and venous plasma noradrenaline increased (42 +/- 44 pg ml-1, p = 0.02) during ovarian stimulation. No significant change was observed in either arterial noradrenaline, arterial adrenaline or venous adrenaline. After stimulation a positive correlation was observed between systolic blood pressure and arterial adrenaline (r = 0.73, p = 0.027), and between systolic blood pressure and the arterial-venous difference for adrenaline (r = 0.81, p = 0.007). The increased venous noradrenaline levels may be a reflex-mediated activation of the sympathetic nervous tone due to a decrease in blood pressure, or may indicate reduced neuronal re-uptake of released noradrenaline. The mechanisms behind the strong correlation between adrenaline and blood pressure are unclear, but may be induced by the supraphysiological oestradiol levels. Thus, adrenaline seems to be more important for blood pressure control in this particular setting.

  11. Effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen balance in neurosurgical patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈绍洋; 王强; 熊利泽; 胡胜; 曾祥龙

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To assess the effects of various anesthetic techniques and PaCO2 levels on cerebral oxygen supply/consumption balance during craniotomy for removal of tumors, and to explore an anesthetic technique for neurosurgery and an appropriate degree of PaCO2 during neuroanesthesia. Methods: One hundred and fourteen patients with supratentorial tumors for elective craniotomy, ASA grade Ⅰ-Ⅱ, were randomly allocated to six groups. Patients were anesthetized with continuous intravenous infusion of 2% procaine 1.0 mg*kg-1*min-1 in Group Ⅰ, inhalation of 1.0%-1.5% isoflurane in Group Ⅱ, and infusion of 2% procaine 0.5 mg*kg-1*min-1 combined with inhalation of 0.5%-0.7% isoflurane in Group Ⅲ during the period of study. The end-tidal pressure of CO2 (PET CO2 )was maintained at 4.0 kPa in these 3 groups. In Group Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ, the anesthetic technique was the same as that in Group Ⅰ but the PETCO2 was adjusted to 3.5, 4.0 and 4.5 kPa respectively for 60 min during which the study was performed. The radial arterial and retrograde jugular venous blood samples were obtained at the onset and the end of this study for determining jugular venous bulb oxygen saturation (SjvO2), arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO2) and cerebral extraction of oxygen (CEO2). Results: In Group Ⅰ and Ⅲ SjvO2, AVDO2 and CEO2 remained stable. Although SjvO2 kept constant, AVDO2 and CEO2 decreased significantly (P<0.05) in Group Ⅱ. Moreover, AVDO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅱ were significantly lower than those of Group Ⅲ (P<0.05). In Group Ⅳ, 60 min after hyperventilation, SjvO2 and jugular venous oxygen content(CjvO2) decreased markedly (P<0.01) while CEO2 increased significantly (P<0.01). In addition, SjvO2, CjvO2 and CEO2 in Group Ⅳ were significantly different from the corresponding parameters in Group Ⅴ and Group Ⅵ (P<0.05). In view of sustained excessive hyperventilation, SjvO2 was less than 50% in 37.5% patients of Group Ⅳ. Conclusion: Anesthesia with

  12. Sestrin2 decreases renal oxidative stress, lowers blood pressure, and mediates dopamine D2 receptor-induced inhibition of reactive oxygen species production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yu; Cuevas, Santiago; Yang, Sufei; Villar, Van Anthony; Escano, Crisanto; Asico, Laureano; Yu, Peiying; Jiang, Xiaoliang; Weinman, Edward J; Armando, Ines; Jose, Pedro A

    2014-10-01

    The dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) decreases renal reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and regulates blood pressure, in part, via positive regulation of paraoxonase 2. Sestrin2, a highly conserved antioxidant protein, regulates intracellular ROS level by regenerating hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins. We hypothesized that sestrin2 may be involved in preventing excessive renal ROS production and thus contribute to the maintenance of normal blood pressure. Moreover, the D2R may decrease ROS production, in part, through the regulation of sestrin2. Renal sestrin2 expression was lower (-62±13%) in D2R(-/-) than in D2R(+/+) mice. Silencing D2R in human renal proximal tubule cells decreased sestrin2 expression (-53±3%) and increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.9-fold). Stimulation of D2R in renal proximal tubule cells increased sestrin2 expression (1.6-fold), decreased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (-61±3%), and reduced ROS production (-31±4%). Silencing sestrin2 in renal proximal tubule cells increased hyperoxidized peroxiredoxins (2.1-fold) and ROS production (1.3-fold). Silencing sestrin2 also abolished D2R-induced decrease in peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation and partially prevented the inhibitory effect of D2R stimulation on ROS production. Silencing paraoxonase 2 increased sestrin2 ubiquitinylation (2.8-fold), decreased sestrin2 expression (-30±3%), and increased ROS production (1.3-fold), peroxiredoxin hyperoxidation (2.9-fold), and lipid peroxidation (2.3-fold), and blocked the increase in sestrin2 that occurs with D2R stimulation. In vivo renal selective silencing of sestrin2 by the renal subcapsular infusion of sestrin2 small interfering RNA (3 μg/day; 7 days) in mice increased renal oxidative stress (1.3-fold) and blood pressure. These results suggest that the D2R, via paraoxonase 2 and sestrin2, keeps normal renal redox balance, which contributes to the maintenance of normal blood pressure.

  13. Effects of blood glucose level on FDG uptake by liver: a FDG-PET/CT study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Kazuo, E-mail: kkubota@cpost.plala.or.j [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Watanabe, Hiroshige; Murata, Yuji [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan); Yukihiro, Masashi; Ito, Kimiteru; Morooka, Miyako; Minamimoto, Ryogo [Division of Nuclear Medicine, Department of Radiology, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Hori, Ai [Department of Epidemiology and International Health, Research Institute, National Center for Global Health and Medicine, Tokyo 162-8655 (Japan); Shibuya, Hitoshi [Department of Radiology, Faculty of Medicine, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo 113-8519 (Japan)

    2011-04-15

    In FDG-PET for abdominal malignancy, the liver may be assumed as an internal standard for grading abnormal FDG uptake both in early images and in delayed images. However, physiological variables of FDG uptake by the liver, especially the effects of blood glucose level, have not yet been elucidated. Methods: FDG-PET studies of 70 patients examined at 50 to 70 min after injection (60{+-}10 min: early images) and of 68 patients examined at 80 to 100 min after injection (90{+-}10 min: delayed images) were analyzed for liver FDG uptake. Patients having lesions in the liver, spleen and pancreas; patients having bulk tumor in other areas; and patients early after chemotherapy or radiotherapy were excluded; also, patients with blood glucose level over 125 mg/dl were excluded. Results: Mean standardized uptake value (SUV) of the liver, blood glucose level and sex showed no significant differences between early images and delayed images. However, liver SUV in the delayed image showed a larger variation than that in the early image and showed significant correlation to blood glucose level. The partial correlation coefficient between liver SUV and blood glucose level in the delayed image with adjustment for sex and age was 0.73 (P<.0001). Multivariate regression coefficient (95% confidence interval) of blood glucose was 0.017 (0.013-0.021). Conclusion: Blood glucose level is an important factor affecting the normal liver FDG uptake in nondiabetic patients. In the case of higher glucose level, liver FDG uptake is elevated especially in the delayed image. This may be due to the fact that the liver is the key organ responsible for glucose metabolism through gluconeogenesis and glycogen storage.

  14. The whole blood oxygen binding properties of a large but presumably sluggish polar elasmobranch, the Greenland shark Somniosus microcephalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steffensen, John Fleng

    2012-01-01

    Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Auckland, N.Z., December 2012. Herbert, N.A.1, Skov, p.V.l, Tirsgaard, B.z and Steffensen, J.F. Z Only a few species of elasmobranch live in cold polar waters and the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus) is the m......Australian and New Zealand Society for Comparative Physiology and Biochemistry. Auckland, N.Z., December 2012. Herbert, N.A.1, Skov, p.V.l, Tirsgaard, B.z and Steffensen, J.F. Z Only a few species of elasmobranch live in cold polar waters and the Greenland shark (Somniosus microcephalus......) is the most notable example. These extremely large and long-lived sharks are thought to be sluggish but their active hunting lifestyle has recently been questioned by the finding of mobile prey species in their stomach (i.e. squid, fish and seal). The whole blood oxygen binding property of S. microcephalus...

  15. Intraoperative blood glucose levels in neurosurgical patients : an evaluation of two fluid regimens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swamy M

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the evidence that hyperglycaemia aggravates ischaemic cerebral injury, it has been suggested that blood glucose levels be kept within 200 mg/dL during intracranial neurosurgery. Hypoglycaemia, however, can be a serious problem if glucose-containing solutions are avoided during the first four hours, as suggested in some studies. In order to explore the possibility of administering glucose in moderation so that the blood glucose levels are within acceptable limits, but at the same time the risk of hyoglycaemia is eliminated, we compared two intraoperative fluid regimens. Of the 52 neurosurgical patients studied, 32 patients received alternately 500 ml of 5% dextrose in normal saline and Ringer′s lactate (DNS/RL Group and 18 patients received alternately 500 ml of Ringer′s lactate and normal saline (RL/NS Group. Blood glucose concentrations were determined at the end of each unit of fluid, until the patient received 4 units of fluid. In the DNS/RL group, blood glucose values peaked with the administration of each unit of DNS and tended to return towards the baseline with the subsequent RL, but remained higher than the previous control value. In the RL/NS group, there was a progressive increase in blood glucose values throughout the study period, but the increase was not statistically significant. The blood glucose levels were significantly different between the two groups after each unit of fluid except at the end of the fourth unit. Two patients in the RL/NS group had hypoglycaemia. In conclusion, the DNS/RL regimen maintains blood glucose levels within acceptable limits while avoiding the risk of hyperglycaemia. Withholding glucose completely, lowers blood glucose levels, but carries a risk of hypoglycaemia in some patients.

  16. Effect of storage levels of nitric oxide derivatives in blood components [v1; ref status: indexed, http://f1000r.es/WDkFtz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa A Qazi

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Potential deleterious effects of red blood cell (RBC transfusions, especially from blood kept at length, have been ascribed to biochemical changes during storage, including those of nitric oxide (NO metabolism. Study methods and design: In this study, NO metabolites, nitrite and nitrate, were quantified in RBCs and whole blood with time of storage. Whole blood (WB, leukoreduced (LR, and non-leukoreduced (NLR components were obtained from healthy volunteer donors and stored in polyvinyl chloride bags for 42 days. Nitrite and nitrate were measured using reductive gas-phase chemiluminescence. Results: Nitrite concentrations initially decreased rapidly from about 150nmol/L, but stabilized at about 44nmol/L in room air for up to 42 days. Nitrate concentrations remained stable during storage at about 35µmol/L. Cells from bags maintained in an argon chamber showed decreased nitrite levels compared to those maintained in room air. Inhibition of enzymes implicated in the NO cycle did not alter nitrite levels. Conclusion: As erythrocytes may contribute to the control of blood flow and oxygen delivery through reduction of nitrite to NO under hypoxic conditions, the present findings provide insight into possible effects of blood transfusion. These measurements may explain some adverse effects of RBC transfusion and suggest ways of optimizing the preservation of stored blood.

  17. Lead, mercury, and organochlorine compound levels in cord blood in Québec, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhainds, M; Levallois, P; Dewailly, E; Ayotte, P

    1999-01-01

    We conducted this study to evaluate blood levels of lead, mercury, and organochlorine compounds in newborns in the Province of Quebec. During 1993 to 1995, we carried out a survey in 10 hospitals located in southern Quebec. During that time, umbilical cord blood samples were obtained from 1109 newborns, and we analyzed each for lead, mercury, 14 polychlorinated biphenyl congeners, and 11 chlorinated pesticides. We used the geometric mean and 95% confidence interval (CI) to describe the results. Mean concentrations of lead and mercury in cord blood were 0.076 micromol/l (95% CI = 0.074, 0.079) and 4.82 nmol/l (95% CI = 4.56, 5.08), respectively. The mean concentrations of total polychlorinated biphenyls (Aroclor 1260) and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene were 0.514 microg/I (95% CI = .493, 0.536) and 0.412 microg/l (95% CI = 0.390, 0.435), respectively. We observed a statistically significant relationship between maternal age and cord blood concentrations of (a) lead, (b) mercury, (c) polychlorinated biphenyls, and (d) dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene. In addition, maternal smoking during pregnancy was associated with cord blood lead levels. The cord blood concentrations of lead, mercury, polychlorinated biphenyls, and dichlorodiphenyl dichloroethylene we measured in our study were the lowest levels recently reported in industrialized countries. The results of this study underline the role of public health authorities in the evaluation of biological levels of environmental contaminants among children for the assessment of risk of adverse health effects.

  18. Investigation and Evaluation of Children's Blood Lead Levels around a Lead Battery Factory and Influencing Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Feng; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Hengdong; Ban, Yonghong; Wang, Jianfeng; Liu, Jian; Zhong, Lixing; Chen, Xianwen; Zhu, Baoli

    2016-05-28

    Lead pollution incidents have occurred frequently in mainland China, which has caused many lead poisoning incidents. This paper took a battery recycling factory as the subject, and focused on measuring the blood lead levels of environmental samples and all the children living around the factory, and analyzed the relationship between them. We collected blood samples from the surrounding residential area, as well as soil, water, vegetables. The atomic absorption method was applied to measure the lead content in these samples. The basic information of the generation procedure, operation type, habit and personal protect equipment was collected by an occupational hygiene investigation. Blood lead levels in 43.12% of the subjects exceeded 100 μg/L. The 50th and the 95th percentiles were 89 μg/L and 232 μg/L for blood lead levels in children, respectively, and the geometric mean was 94 μg/L. Children were stratified into groups by age, gender, parents' occupation, distance and direction from the recycling plant. The difference of blood lead levels between groups was significant (p factory, the higher the value of BLL and lead levels in vegetable and environment samples. The lead level in the environmental samples was higher downwind of the recycling plant.

  19. Association between calcium intake, parathormone levels and blood pressure during pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anibal Nieto

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the association between calcium intake from diet, calciotropic hormones (PTH, PTH-rp, vasoactive regulators (endothelin, nitric oxide and blood pressure levels during pregnancy, birth and puerperium.Method: In a prospective study 149 healthy normotensive primigravidas were followed-up from 15 weeks of gestation to puerperium. Daily calcium intake, calciuria, PTH, PTH-rp, endothelin, nitrite-nitrate, and Holter Test were assessed. Linear regression models were performed to evaluate the association between calcium intake, blood pressure levels and the laboratory tests. Multivariate regression models were performed to control potential confounders.Results: A significant increase of calcium intake during pregnancy was observed (931±301 mg/day to 1,195±467 mg/day, p<0.001. Plasma PTH-rp, endothelin, and nitrite-nitrate levels did not change during pregnancy. Among the women 38 (25.4% had low calcium intake (<800 mg/day with a larger increase of systolic and diastolic blood pressure during pregnancy (p=0.04 birth (p=0.006 and puerperium (p=0.01. After adjusting for other factors the multivariate analyses showed statistical association between low calcium intake, high parathormone levels and high systolic blood pressure levels during pregnancy (p=0.002.Conclusion: Low calcium intake during pregnancy is associated with a larger increase of systolic blood pressure and high parathormone levels.

  20. Blood BDNF concentrations reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels across species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Anders B; Williamson, Rebecca; Santini, Martin A

    2011-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is involved in synaptic plasticity, neuronal differentiation and survival of neurons. Observations of decreased serum BDNF levels in patients with neuropsychiatric disorders have highlighted the potential of BDNF as a biomarker, but so far there have been...... positive correlation between frontal cortex and hippocampal BDNF levels in mice (r2=0.81, p=0.0139). Our data support the view that measures of blood and plasma BDNF levels reflect brain-tissue BDNF levels....

  1. Multigenerational Effects of Rearing Atmospheric Oxygen Level on the Tracheal Dimensions and Diffusing Capacities of Pupal and Adult Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klok, C Jaco; Kaiser, Alexander; Socha, John J; Lee, Wah-Keat; Harrison, Jon F

    2016-01-01

    Insects are small relative to vertebrates, and were larger in the Paleozoic when atmospheric oxygen levels were higher. The safety margin for oxygen delivery does not increase in larger insects, due to an increased mass-specific investment in the tracheal system and a greater use of convection in larger insects. Prior studies have shown that the dimensions and number of tracheal system branches varies inversely with rearing oxygen in embryonic and larval insects. Here we tested whether rearing in 10, 21, or 40 kPa atmospheric oxygen atmospheres for 5-7 generations affected the tracheal dimensions and diffusing capacities of pupal and adult Drosophila. Abdominal tracheae and pupal snorkel tracheae showed weak responses to oxygen, while leg tracheae showed strong, but imperfect compensatory changes. The diffusing capacity of leg tracheae appears closely matched to predicted oxygen transport needs by diffusion, perhaps explaining the consistent and significant responses of these tracheae to rearing oxygen. The reduced investment in tracheal structure in insects reared in higher oxygen levels may be important for conserving tissue PO2 and may provide an important mechanism for insects to invest only the space and materials necessary into respiratory structure.

  2. Comparison of Maternal and Umbilical Cord Blood Selenium Levels in Low and Normal Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lyly Nazemi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:To compare the maternal and umbilical cord serum selenium concentrations in Low and normal birth weight neonates.Materials and methods:A case-control study was carried out in Vali-Asr and Akbarabadi Hospitals (Jan. to Dec. 2013. Two groups; case group; 91 mothers who delivered a low birth weight (LBW neonate and control group; 86 subjects who delivered a normal birth weight neonate were selected. Immediately after birth, 5 ml of maternal blood and umbilical cord blood were collected, and sent to laboratory to assay Se concentrations. To compare both groups' blood Se concentration, data were analyzed in SPSS 16.0.Results:Eighty six (48.6% mothers with normal birth weight neonates and 91 (51.4% mothers with low birth weight infants entered the study. Mean maternal mothers' age and mean maternal blood Se were 28.55+5.90 years and 79.3756+26.46915. A significant association was seen between maternal blood and cord blood Se level in control and case group (P value<0.0001, r = 0.69 and(P value<0.001, r = 0.79. On the other hand no differences were seen between 2 groups' maternal blood Se level (P Value = 0.65. Umbilical Cord blood Se concentration was not also different between case and control group (P value = 0.46.Conclusion:We found that maternal and umbilical cord blood Se concentrations were not different in low and adequate birth weight infants, however; umbilical cord Se concentrations were positively correlated with maternal blood Se concentrations.

  3. Cerebral tissue oxygenation index and superior vena cava blood flow in the very low birth weight infant.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Moran, M

    2012-02-01

    BACKGROUND: Superior vena cava (SVC) flow assesses blood flow from the upper body, including the brain. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) provides information on brain perfusion and oxygenation. AIM: To assess the relationship between cerebral tissue oxygenation index (cTOI) and cardiac output measures in the very low birth weight (VLBW) infant in the first day of life. METHODS: A prospective observational cohort study. Neonates with birth weight less than 1500 g (VLBW) were eligible for enrollment. Newborns with congenital heart disease, major congenital malformations and greater than Papile grade1 Intraventricular Haemorrhage on day 1 of life were excluded. Echocardiographic evaluation of SVC flow was performed in the first 24 h of life. Low SVC flow states were defined as a flow less than 40 mL\\/kg\\/min. cTOI was measured using NIRO 200 Hamamatsu. RESULTS: Twenty-seven VLBW neonates had both echocardiography and NIRS performed. The median (range) gestation was 29\\/40 (25 + 3 to 31 + 5 weeks) and median birth weight was 1.2 kg (0.57-1.48 kg). The mean (SD) TOI was 68.1 (7.9)%. The mean (SD) SVC flow was 70.36(39.5) mLs\\/kg\\/min. The correlation coefficient of cerebral tissue oxygenation and SVC flow was r = 0.53, p-value 0.005. There was a poor correlation between right and left ventricular output and cTOI which is not surprising considering the influence of intra- and extracardiac shunts. CONCLUSION: There is a positive relationship between cerebral TOI values and SVC flow in the very low birth infant on day one of life.

  4. Relation between anemia and blood levels of lead, copper, zinc and iron among children

    OpenAIRE

    Morsy Amal A; Abd el-hafez Manal A; Zaher Manal M; Hegazy Amal A; Saleh Raya A

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Anemia is a health problem among infants and children. It is often associated with a decrease in some trace elements (iron, zinc, copper) and an increase in heavy metals as lead. This study was done to determine the association of blood lead level > 10 μg/dl, with the increased risk to anemia, also, to investigate the relationship between anemia and changes in blood iron, zinc and copper levels, and measure lead level in drinking water. The study is a cross-sectional perfo...

  5. Genetic factors influencing ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Erik; Rigas, Andreas S; Thørner, Lise W;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Many biologic functions depend on sufficient iron levels, and iron deficiency is especially common among blood donors. Genetic variants associated with iron levels have been identified, but the impact of genetic variation on iron levels among blood donors remains unclear. STUDY DESIGN...... AND METHODS: The effect of six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on ferritin levels in 14,126 blood donors were investigated in four genes: in Human Hemochromatosis Protein gene (HFE; rs1800562 and rs179945); in Transmembrane Protease gene, Serine 6 (TMPRSS6-regulating hepcidin; rs855791); in BTB domain....../mL). RESULTS: In HFE, the G-allele of rs1800562 was associated with lower iron stores in both sexes. This was also true for the C-allele of rs179945, but in men only. Also, the T-allele of TMPRSS6 rs855791 was negatively associated with iron stores in men. Homozygocity for C in rs1799945 was associated...

  6. Seaweed intake and blood pressure levels in healthy pre-school Japanese children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamamoto Keiko

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have examined whether dietary factors might affect blood pressure in children. We purposed to investigate whether seaweed intake is associated with blood pressure level among Japanese preschool children. Methods The design of the study was cross-sectional and it was conducted in autumn 2006. Subjects were healthy preschoolers aged 3-6 years in Aichi, Japan. Blood pressure and pulse were measured once by an automated sphygmomanometer, which uses oscillometric methods. Dietary data, including seaweed intake, were assessed using 3-day dietary records covering 2 consecutive weekdays and 1 weekend day. Of a total of 533 children, 459 (86.1 percent agreed to be enrolled in our study. Finally, blood pressure measurement, complete dietary records and parent-reported height and weight were obtained for 223 boys and 194 girls. Results When we examined Spearman's correlation coefficients, seaweed intake was significantly negatively related to systolic blood pressure in girls (P = 0.008. In the one-way analysis of covariance for blood pressure and pulse after adjustments for age and BMI, the boys with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake had diastolic blood pressure readings of 62.8, 59.3 and 59.6 mmHg, respectively (P = 0.11, trend P = 0.038. Girls with higher seaweed intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure readings (102.4, 99.2 and 96.9 mmHg for girls with the lowest, middle and highest tertiles of seaweed intake, respectively; P = 0.037, trend P = 0.030. Conclusion Our study showed that seaweed intake was negatively related to diastolic blood pressure in boys and to systolic blood pressure in girls. This suggests that seaweed might have beneficial effects on blood pressure among children.

  7. Epidemiology of high-level parvovirus B19 viraemia among Dutch blood donors, 2003-2009

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Kooistra; H.J. Mesman; M. de Waal; M.H.G.M. Koppelman; H.L. Zaaijer

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Plasma derivatives and blood components with low levels of parvovirus B19 (B19) seem not infectious, but recently infected, highly viraemic donors may transmit B19. We studied the incidence of high-level B19 viraemia (B19 DNA > 106 IU/ml) in 6 center dot 5 million Dutch blo

  8. Blood lead: Its effect on trace element levels and iron structure in hemoglobin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, C. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Li, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China)], E-mail: LY@sinap.ac.cn; Li, Y.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Zou, Y. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Graduate School of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100039 (China); Zhang, G.L. [Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 201800 (China); Normura, M. [Photon Factory, Institute of Materials Structure Science, KEK, Oho, Tsukuba 305 (Japan); Zhu, G.Y. [Institute of Radiation Medicine, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)

    2008-08-15

    Lead is a ubiquitous environmental pollutant that induce a broad range of physiological and biochemical dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate its effects on trace elements and the iron structure in hemoglobin. Blood samples were collected from rats that had been exposed to lead. The concentration of trace elements in whole blood and blood plasma was determined by ICP-MS and the results indicate that lead exists mainly in the red blood cells and only about 1-3% in the blood plasma. Following lead exposure, the concentrations of zinc and iron in blood decrease, as does the hemoglobin level. This indicates that the heme biosynthetic pathway is inhibited by lead toxicity and that lead poisoning-associated anemia occurs. The selenium concentration also decreases after lead exposure, which may lead to an increased rate of free radical production. The effect of lead in the blood on iron structure in hemoglobin was determined by EXAFS. After lead exposure, the Fe-O bond length increases by about 0.07 A and the Fe-Np bond length slightly increases, but the Fe-N{sub {epsilon}} bond length remains unchanged. This indicates that the blood content of Hb increases, but that the content of HbO{sub 2} decreases.

  9. Relation between Cord Blood Mercury Levels and Early Child Development in a World Trade Center Cohort

    OpenAIRE

    Lederman, Sally Ann; Jones, Robert L.; Caldwell, Kathleen L.; Rauh, Virginia; Sheets, Stephen E.; Tang, Deliang; Viswanathan, Sheila; Becker, Mark; Stein, Janet L.; Wang, Richard Y; Perera, Frederica P.

    2008-01-01

    Objective This study was designed to determine whether prenatal mercury exposure, including potential releases from the World Trade Center (WTC) disaster, adversely affects fetal growth and child development. Methods We determined maternal and umbilical cord blood total mercury of nonsmoking women who delivered at term in lower Manhattan after 11 September 2001, and measured birth outcomes and child development. Results Levels of total mercury in cord and maternal blood were not significantly...

  10. Device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovska, Tetyana I.; Sander, Sergii V.; Zlepko, Sergii M.; Vasilenko, Valentina B.; Pavlov, Volodymyr S.; Dumenko, Victoria P.; Klapouschak, Andrii Yu.; Maciejewski, Marcin; DzierŻak, RóŻa; Surtel, Wojciech

    2016-09-01

    The paper evaluated the diagnostic value of laser photoplethysmography when examining patients with chronic lower limb ischemia. A statistical analysis of the research results was made, and diagrams of relationship between the degrees of ischemia and blood flow are presented. Development of the device to determine the level of peripheral blood circulation and saturation was presented. Also additional accessories in the form of optical fibers for different applications were suggested.

  11. Incense burning at home and the blood lead level of preschoolers in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Yaw-Huei; Lin, Yi-Shuan; Lin, Chia-Yu; Wang, I-Jen

    2014-12-01

    The growth and intellectual development of children less than 6 years old may be affected by exposure to low levels of lead. To further reduce environmental lead exposure, this study examined possible household-related factors that affect the blood lead levels of Taiwanese children. In total, based on a stratified random sampling strategy, 934 kindergarten students were recruited throughout Taiwan from April to October 2011 after their parents signed a statement of consent. A venous blood sample was drawn from each participant and analyzed for lead content using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Information on the demographics and household environment of the study subjects was collected by administering a questionnaire (Table 1). The geometric mean lead level in the blood samples of the study subjects was 1.84 μg/dL with a geometric standard deviation of 1.55. The blood lead level was negatively correlated with household income and parental educational levels (p Incense burning in the home, an ethnic tradition, was also identified as a significant factor for increased blood lead levels (p incense burning at home (p = 0.0022). Because the health effects of low levels of lead exposure have been reported in recent years and because no consensus has been reached regarding a safety threshold for blood lead level in children, any trivial factor is worth investigating to further prevent lead exposure in children. Incense burning at home is a common traditional religious activity in Taiwan; therefore, more study is warranted to further eliminate the lead content in incense and reduce lead exposure for the families who practice this activity.

  12. 原发性失眠伴认知功能障碍患者静息态功能MRI的局部一致性研究%Regional homogeneity of primary insomnia with cognitive impairment:a blood oxygenation level dependent functional MRI study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏歆; 李传明; 周振华; 王健

    2016-01-01

    Ho下降能反映睡眠障碍和认知功能下降程度,左侧海马旁回的ReHo升高可能与睡眠障碍脑功能代偿有关。%Objective To investigate the regional homogeneity (ReHo) changes of primary insomnia (PI) with cognitive impairment using resting⁃state fMRI. Methods Twenty-one patients with primary insomnia and cognitive impairment and 25 healthy volunteers matched with age, gender and education level were collected from Southwest Hospital of China from November 2014 to June 2015. Pittsburgh sleep quality index (PSQI), Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA), Mini-mental State Examination (MMSE), Activity of Daily Living Scale (ADL), Hamilton depression scale (HAMD), and Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA) were conducted to evaluate the sleep and cognitive conditions of all subjects. Independent sample t⁃test was performed to evaluate the significant difference of neuropsychology scores of two groups. ReHo of rs⁃fMRI were evaluated and compared between two groups using independent sample T⁃test, meanwhile, the partial correlation analysis was conducted in ReHo values of different brain regions and neuropsychology scores (age, gender and education level were regarded as covariates). Results Compared with normal controls, patients with primary insomnia and cognitive impairment showed significant higher PSQI score and lower MoCA and MMSE scores(P<0.05). The patient group also showed significant increased ReHo in the left medial temporal gyrus(54 voxels, t=3.14), left inferior temporal gyrus(76 voxels, t=4.80), right inferior temporal gyrus(84 voxels, t=4.30) and left parahippocampal gyrus(301 voxels, t=4.44) (P<0.05) and decreased ReHo in the left superior temporal lobe(79 voxels, t=-3.38), right fusiform gyrus(50 voxels, t=-3.17), right superior temporal gyrus(283 voxels, t=-5.34), right inferior frontal gyrus(56 voxels, t=-3.98), right anterior cingulate(233 voxels, t=-3.91), left parietal lobe angular gyrus(67 voxels, t=-3.27) and superior parietal

  13. Effect of L-arginine, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA and the association of L-arginine and DMSA on tissue lead mobilization and blood pressure level in plumbism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malvezzi C.K.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Lead (Pb-induced hypertension is characterized by an increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS and a decrease in nitric oxide (NO. In the present study we evaluated the effect of L-arginine (NO precursor, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA, a chelating agent and ROS scavenger, and the association of L-arginine/DMSA on tissue Pb mobilization and blood pressure levels in plumbism. Tissue Pb levels and blood pressure evolution were evaluated in rats exposed to: 1 Pb (750 ppm, in drinking water, for 70 days, 2 Pb plus water for 30 more days, 3 Pb plus DMSA (50 mg kg-1 day-1, po, L-arginine (0.6%, in drinking water, and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA for 30 more days, and 4 their respective matching controls. Pb exposure increased Pb levels in the blood, liver, femur, kidney and aorta. Pb levels in tissues decreased after cessation of Pb administration, except in the aorta. These levels did not reach those observed in nonintoxicated rats. All treatments mobilized Pb from the kidney, femur and liver. Pb mobilization from the aorta was only effective with the L-arginine/DMSA treatment. Blood Pb concentrations in Pb-treated groups were not different from those of the Pb/water group. Pb increased blood pressure starting from the 5th week. L-arginine and DMSA treatments (4th week and the combination of L-arginine/DMSA (3rd and 4th weeks decreased blood pressure levels of intoxicated rats. These levels did not reach those of nonintoxicated rats. Treatment with L-arginine/DMSA was more effective than the isolated treatments in mobilizing Pb from tissues and in reducing the blood pressure of intoxicated rats.

  14. Simultaneous monitoring of intracellular ATP and oxygen levels in chondrogenic differentiation using a dual-color bioluminescence reporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Hyuck Joon; Ohmiya, Yoshihiro; Yasuda, Kazunori

    2014-12-01

    A number of assay methods which measure cellular metabolic activity have only measured intracellular ATP levels because it has been speculated that ATP production and oxygen consumption are obligatorily coupled to each other under normal conditions. However, there exist many cases in which ATP production and oxygen consumption are uncoupled. Therefore, measurement of only intracellular ATP levels has a limit for understanding the overall metabolic states during various cellular functions. Here, we report a novel system for simultaneously monitoring intracellular ATP and oxygen levels using a red-emitting Phrixothrix hirtus luciferase (PxRe) and a blue-emitting Renilla luciferase (Rluc). Using this system, we monitored the dynamic changes in both intracellular ATP and oxygen levels during chondrogenesis. We found that the oxygen level oscillated at twice the frequency of ATP in chondrogenesis and the oxygen oscillations have an antiphase mode to the ATP oscillations; we also found an independent mode for the ATP oscillations. This result indicates that both mitochondrial and non-mitochondrial respiration oscillate and thus play a role in chondrogenesis. This dual-color monitoring system is useful for studying metabolic regulations that underlie diverse cellular processes.

  15. Blood oxygen saturation measured in the presence of a mixture of cyclopropane, sulfur hexafluoride, and ethane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, V A; Burse, R L; Cymerman, A

    1997-01-01

    Some anesthetic gases interfere with the determination of blood O2 values. We evaluated, for its potential for such interference, a gas mixture containing (v/v) approximately 70% ethane, 20% sulfur hexafluoride, and 10% cyclopropane, as is currently used in trace amounts to determine ventilation-perfusion (v/Q) ratios. Normal human blood samples were first tonometered with control gas mixtures containing (v/v): (1) 20.9% O2, 0.04% CO2; (2) 16.0% O2, 4.0% CO2; and (3) 9.9% O2, 7.8% CO2. A large quantity (20.9%) of the v/Q mixture was blended experimentally into the control mixture and the tonometry repeated. The entire experiment was then repeated substituting pure N2 for the v/Q mixture as a dilution control. O2 values were determined by three methods: (1) a polarographic electrode, ABL-300 (ABL); (2) a spectrophotometric method, Co-Oximeter (COOX); and (3) a galvanic cell, Lex-O2-Con (LEX). The v/Q gas mixture lowered significantly all measured LEX values by 2.5-3.6 saturation percent (sat%), but showed no effect, dilution or otherwise, on the O2 values determined by the COOX and ABL methods. The N2 dilution lowered the LEX values by an average of only 0.9 sat%; the ABL and the COOX were approximately 0.6 sat% lower. We therefore suggest that, if any of these O2 measurement methods are used in the presence of the v/Q mixture, baseline O2 values should be determined both before and after injection of the mixture into the bloodstream, prior to performing other experimental manipulations. The difference between the two values, if any, can then be used to interpret subsequent results.

  16. How Effective is Swedish Massage on Blood Glucose Level in Children with Diabetes Mellitus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Sajedi

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available "nThis study was conducted to determine the effect of Swedish massage on blood glucose level in children with diabetes mellitus (DM. It was prospective randomized controlled trial study that conducted on 36 children, 6-12 years old with DM, recruited from a hospital in Qom City, Iran. The children were randomly assigned to intervention and control groups. Swedish massage was performed 15 minutes, 3 times a week, for 3 months in intervention group. The blood glucose levels were evaluated immediately after every session of massage in two groups. The mean ages of children in the intervention (n=18 and control (n=18 groups were 9.05 ± 1.55 and 9.83 ±2.03 years respectively. There was statistically no significant difference in blood glucose levels before intervention between two groups (P=0.586, but the blood glucose levels were lower significantly in intervention group in comparison with control group after intervention (P<0.0001. Addition of Swedish massage to daily routines; exercise, diet and medication regimens, is an effective intervention to reduce blood glucose level in diabetic children.

  17. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OKID PARAMA ASTIRIN

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Harini M, Astirin OP. 2009. Blood cholesterol levels of hypercholesterolemic rat (Rattus norvegicus after VCO treatment. Nusantara Bioscience 1: 53-58. This study aims to determine treatment effect of VCO on blood cholesterol levels in hypercholesterolemic white rat (Rattus norvegicus L.. This study used 25 male rats of Wistar strain divided into five treatment groups, namely: control, simvastatin (1.3 mL/270 g BW, cholesterol (9:1 lard, VCO 1 (1 mL/270 g BW, and VCO 2 (1.3 mL/270 g BW. Treatment was given orally. Total cholesterol, LDL and HDL cholesterol levels were measured at day 1, day 14 and day 28. Cholesterol data (total cholesterol, LDL and HDL were analyzed by Ancova and followed by contrast test at significance level of 5%.. The results showed that treatment of VCO at different doses significantly affected the decrease in blood total cholesterol, blood LDL levels, increasing blood HDL in hipercholesterolemic white rat.

  18. Axillary versus peripheral blood levels of sialic acid, ferritin, and CEA in patients with breast cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, M; Catania, S; Locatelli, E; Gandini, R; Reggiani, A; Cunietti, E

    1990-12-01

    Serum levels of total sialic acid, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), ferritin, lactate dehydrogenase, and creatine phosphokinase were measured both in tumor drainage blood (axillary vein) and in peripheral blood obtained from 121 breast cancer patients during surgery. No significant differences between mean values in peripheral and tumor draining blood, between cancer patients and healthy controls, or between patients with or without axillary lymph node metastases were found for any of the markers. Both ferritin and CEA levels were higher in axillary and peripheral blood from patients with central breast cancer versus other sites but the difference was significant only for CEA (p less than 0.05). CEA levels were significantly higher (p less than 0.01) in patients with greater than 2 cm diameter carcinomas versus T1 stage patients in axillary but not in peripheral blood. When the cephalic vein was clamped before the axillary sample was taken, ferritin showed a significant increase (p less than 0.05). We conclude that measurement of sialic acid, CEA, and ferritin in axillary venous blood in breast cancer patients is not of clinical benefit, although further data are needed to clarify whether other advantages can be derived.

  19. The effect of hepatic vascular exclusion on hepatic blood flow and oxygen supply--uptake ratio in the pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López Santamaria, M; Gamez, M; Murcia, J; Paz Cruz, J A; Bueno, J; Canser, E; Qi, B; Lobato, R; Martinez, L; Jara, P; Tovar, J A

    1997-10-01

    The hemodynamic disturbances produced by total hepatic vascular exclusion (THVE) for 40 minutes were studied in 7 pigs (19-22 kg). THVE was produced by clamping the hepatic pedicle and inferior vena cava, above and below the liver, for a 40-minutes period, followed by unclamping. Compared to baseline values, 30 minutes after onset of THVE, there was a decrease in cardiac output (3.86 +/- 0.55 vs 1.23 +/- 0.23 L x min-1), systemic arterial pressure (97.54 +/- 13.58 vs 43.43 +/- 11.38 mm Hg), and pulmonary artery pressure (16.57 +/- 6.38 vs 12.57 +/- 3.58) and an increase in systemic and pulmonary vascular resistance (1772 +/- 198 vs 2351 +/- 462, and 182 +/- 66 vs 361 +/- 124 dyn x s x cm-5 respectively). As a result of diminished cardiac output, the systemic oxygen supply decreased (461 +/- 131 vs 101 +/- 46 ml x min-1), but the systemic oxygen extraction rate rose from 17.3% t0 31.2%. Thirty minutes after unclamping, the changes had reversed and all the parameters tended to normalize. Total hepatic blood flow 30 minutes after unclamping was higher than at baseline (5.08 +/- 1.2 vs 6.66 +/- 0.67 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1), because of the increase in portal blood flow (4.52 +/- 1.21 vs 6.07 +/- 0.70 ml x min-1 x 100 g-1). There were no significant differences in hepatic oxygen supply and uptake at baseline and after unclamping (152.6 +/- 23.0 vs 187.0 +/- 34.7 and 22.7 +/- 4.9 vs 28.7 +/- 8.4 ml O2 respectively). AST rose (29 +/- 7 vs 136 +/- 91 U/l), but there was no change in the remaining liver enzymes, glucose, creatinine and serum electrolytes, so we conclude that the hemodynamic disturbances produced by 40 minutes of THVE are manageable and spontaneously reversible. Liver metabolism was not greatly disturbed, so THVE was judged to be a viable technique to be added to the surgeon's range of options.

  20. Comparative effects of isoproterenol and dopamine on myocardial oxygen consumption, blood flow distribution and total body oxygen consumption in conscious lambs with and without an aortopulmonary left to right shunt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bartelds, B; Gratama, JWC; Meuzelaar, KJ; Dalinghaus, M; Koers, JH; Heikens, WF; Zijlstra, WG; Kuipers, JRG

    1998-01-01

    Objectives. We sought to study the effects of catecholamines on myocardial oxygen consumption ((V) over dot O-2)), regional blood flows and total body (V) over dot O-2, in lambs with circulatory congestion. Background. Catecholamines are often used to support cardiovascular function in children with

  1. Large-scale fluctuations in Precambrian atmospheric and oceanic oxygen levels from the record of U in shales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partin, C. A.; Bekker, A.; Planavsky, N. J.; Scott, C. T.; Gill, B. C.; Li, C.; Podkovyrov, V.; Maslov, A.; Konhauser, K. O.; Lalonde, S. V.; Love, G. D.; Poulton, S. W.; Lyons, T. W.

    2013-05-01

    The atmosphere-ocean system experienced a progressive change from anoxic to more oxidizing conditions through time. This oxidation is traditionally envisaged to have occurred as two stepwise increases in atmospheric oxygen at the beginning and end of the Proterozoic Eon. Here, we present a study of the redox-sensitive element, uranium, in organic-rich shales to track the history of Earth's surface oxidation at an unprecedented temporal resolution. Fluctuations in the degree of uranium enrichment in organic-rich shales suggest that the initial rise of atmospheric oxygen ~2.4 billion yr ago was followed by a decline to less oxidizing conditions during the mid-Proterozoic. This redox state persisted for almost 1 billion yr, ending with a second oxygenation event in the latest Neoproterozoic. The U record tracks major fluctuations in surface oxygen level and challenges conventional models that suggest the Earth underwent a unidirectional rise in atmospheric oxygen during the Precambrian.

  2. Blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Also, blood is either Rh-positive or Rh-negative. So if you have type A blood, it's either A positive or A negative. Which type you are is important if you need a blood transfusion. And your Rh factor could be important ...

  3. Remifentanil Prevents Increases of Blood Glucose and Lactate Levels during Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaki, Tomohiro; Nawa, Yuko; Tamashiro, Keishi; Mizuno, Eri; Hirata, Naoyuki; Yamakage, Michiaki

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) can cause stress response that increases levels of cytokine and catecholamine in plasma, resulting in hyperglycemia. In adults, it has been demonstrated that remifentanil infusion during CPB could prevent increases of cytokine, catecholamine, and blood glucose levels, but such effects of remifentanil in children have not been elucidated. Aim: In this study, we investigated the preventive effects of remifentanil on blood glucose and lactate levels during CPB in children. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included children who underwent ventricular septal defect or atrial septal defect closure. Data for patients who did not receive, during CPB period, remifentanil infusion (non-Remi group) and patients who received remifentanil infusion at 0.5 μg/kg/min (Remi group) during CPB were used for analysis. Primary outcomes were lactate and blood glucose levels just before and after CPB. Data are presented as medians and interquartile ranges. Data were analyzed by the Mann–Whitney U-test and Chi-square test. A P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: During CPB, 13 and 11 patients were allocated into Remi and non-Remi groups, respectively. Pre-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels were not significantly different between the two groups, but post-CPB lactate and blood glucose levels in the Remi group were significantly lower than that in the non-Remi group. Conclusion: 0.5 μg/kg/min remifentanil infusion during CPB suppresses the increases of blood glucose and lactate levels in children. PMID:28074792

  4. Simultaneous mapping of temporally-resolved blood flow velocity and oxygenation in femoral artery and vein during reactive hyperemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Langham Michael C

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Post-occlusive hyperemia is often used as a paradigm to evaluate vascular reactivity, for example by measuring post-ischemic flow-mediated dilation, arterial blood flow or temporally resolved venous blood oxygenation (HbO2. Here we demonstrate the feasibility of a simultaneous measurement of blood flow and HbO2 in the femoral circulation as part of a single procedure. Methods A multi-echo GRE pulse sequence was designed and implemented to collect velocity-encoded projections in addition to full-image echoes for field mapping as a means to quantify intravascular magnetic susceptibility. The method's feasibility was evaluated at 3T in a small pilot study involving two groups of healthy subjects (mean ages 26 ± 1.6 and 59 ± 7.3 years, N = 7 and 5, respectively in terms of six parameters characterizing the time-course of reactive hyperemia and their sensitivity to differentiate age effects. The reproducibility was assessed on two of the seven young healthy subjects with three repeated measurements. Results The physiological parameters agree with those obtained with current methods that quantify either velocity or HbO2 alone. Of the six measures of vascular reactivity, one from each group was significantly different in the two subject groups (p Conclusion The proposed method is able quantify multiple parameters that may lead to more detailed assessment of peripheral vascular reactivity in a single cuff paradigm rather than in separate procedures as required previously, thereby improving measurement efficiency and patient comfort.

  5. Low oxygen tension favored expansion and hematopoietic reconstitution of CD34(+) CD38(-) cells expanded from human cord blood-derived CD34(+) Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ziyan; Du, Zheng; Cai, Haibo; Ye, Zhaoyang; Fan, Jinli; Tan, Wen-Song

    2016-07-01

    Oxygen tension is an important factor that regulates hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) in both in vivo hematopoietic microenvironment and ex vivo culture system. Although the effect of oxygen tension on ex vivo expansion of HSCs was extensively studied, there were no clear descriptions on physiological function and gene expression analysis of HSCs under different oxygen tensions. In this study, the effects of oxygen tension on ex vivo expansion characteristics of human umbilical cord blood (UCB)-derived CD34(+) cells are evaluated. Moreover, the physiological function of expanded CD34(+) cells was assessed by secondary expansion ability ex vivo and hematopoietic reconstitution ability in vivo. Also, genetic profiling was applied to analyze the expression of genes related to cell function. It was found that low oxygen tension favored expansion of CD34(+) CD38(-) cells. Additionally, CD34(+) cells expanded under low oxygen tension showed better secondary expansion ability and reconstitution ability than those under atmospheric oxygen concentration. Finally, the genetic profiling of CD34(+) CD38(-) cells cultured under low oxygen tension was more akin to freshly isolated cells. These results collectively demonstrate that low oxygen tension was able to better maintain both self-renewal and hematopoietic reconstitution potential and may lay an experimental basis for clinical transplantation of HSCs.

  6. Synergistic effects of elevated homocysteine level and abnormal blood lipids on the onset of stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Hao; Zhenzhen Cheng; Qiang Wu; Shuzhang Li; Liming Chen; Xiaoyong Sai; Zhefeng Liu; Guang Yang; Rongzeng Yan; Lili Wang; Caiyun Fu; Xuan Xu

    2013-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia and abnormal blood lipids are independent risk factors for stroke. However, whether both factors exert a synergistic effect in the onset of stroke remains unclear. The present study is a retrospective analysis of 2 089 cases of stroke and 2 089 control cases of simple inter-vertebral disk protrusion using a paired multivariate logistic regression method. Adjusting for known confounding variables including the patients’ age, gender, smoking status, alcohol consumption status, patient and family medical history, and clinical biochemical indices, elevated homocysteine level was related to the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids showed a 40.9%increase in the risk for stroke compared to patients with normal ho-mocysteine levels and blood lipids (odds ratio 1.409;95%confidence interval 1.127-1.761). These results indicate that elevated homocysteine and abnormal blood lipids exert synergistic effects in the onset of stroke. Patients with elevated homocysteine levels and abnormal blood lipids are predis-posed to stroke.

  7. Determinants of maternal and umbilical blood lead levels: a cross-sectional study, Mosul, Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Jomard Raghad A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The populations who are most sensitive to lead exposure from various sources are pregnant women and their newborns. Aiming to explore the presence of correlation between maternal and cord blood lead levels and to identify potential predictors that may influence both levels, the present study has been conducted. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted covering 350 full terms maternal-newborns pairs from Mosul maternity hospitals. Data were obtained directly from women just before delivery by the use of a detailed questionnaire form. Maternal and umbilical blood lead levels were estimated using LEADCARE® Blood Lead Testing System and Kits. Results A positive significant correlation was found between maternal and cord blood lead values (r = 0.856, p = 0.001. By backward stepwise logistic regression analysis the followings emerged as significant potential predictors of high maternal blood lead: low parity, smoking and Hb level Conclusion Study results have provided baseline data needed to be transformed to decision makers to implement measures to eliminate lead from the environment and protect future generation from its deleterious effects.

  8. The influence of dissolved oxygen level and medium on biofilm formation by Campylobacter jejuni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teh, Amy Huei Teen; Lee, Sui Mae; Dykes, Gary A

    2017-02-01

    Campylobacter jejuni survival in aerobic environments has been suggested to be mediated by biofilm formation. Biofilm formation by eight C. jejuni strains under both aerobic and microaerobic conditions in different broths (Mueller-Hinton (MH), Bolton and Brucella) was quantified. The dissolved oxygen (DO) content of the broths under both incubation atmospheres was determined. Biofilm formation for all strains was highest in MH broth under both incubation atmospheres. Four strains had lower biofilm formation in MH under aerobic as compared to microaerobic incubation, while biofilm formation by the other four strains did not differ under the 2 atm. Two strains had higher biofilm formation under aerobic as compared to microaerobic atmospheres in Bolton broth. Biofilm formation by all other strains in Bolton, and all strains in Brucella broth, did not differ under the 2 atm. Under aerobic incubation DO levels in MH > Brucella > Bolton broth. Under microaerobic conditions levels in MH = Brucella > Bolton broth. Levels of DO in MH and Brucella broth were lower under microaerobic conditions but those of Bolton did not differ under the 2 atm. Experimental conditions and especially the DO of broth media confound previous conclusions drawn about aerobic biofilm formation by C. jejuni.

  9. Detection of the Level of Reactive Oxygen Species Induced by Ionizing Radiation in Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Kyu; Chung, Dong Min; Kim, Jin-Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    By definition, the direct effect is referred to interaction between photon and DNA molecule, whereas the indirect effect is mediated by the reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by radiolysis and subsequent reaction. It has been reported that ROS produced after exposure to IR can react with cellular materials such as DNA, proteins, carbohydrates and lipids. ROS is free radicals such as the superoxide anion, hydroxyl radicals and the non-radical hydrogen peroxide. Cells generate ROS during aerobic metabolism. Excessive production of ROS can lead to oxidative stress, genetic alteration and even cell death. It has been reported that ROS plays a critical role in radiation-induced cell injury. Thus, it is of great interest to determine the radiation-induced ROS level. Many kinds of methods to detect the level of ROS have been developed so far. There were random changes of fluorescence intensity in the treatment after irradiation. This result meant that this protocol was not appropriate for determination of radiation-induced ROS. On the other hand, the fluorescence intensity was increased in a dose-dependent manner when the cells were treated with the DCFH-DA solution before irradiation. Conclusions can be drawn from the experimental results of this study. In order to properly measure the ROS level in the cells exposed to ionizing radiation, the cells should be treated with the DCFH-DA solution before irradiation.

  10. Effects of respiratory muscle unloading on leg muscle oxygenation and blood volume during high-intensity exercise in chronic heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi-Silva, Audrey; Carrascosa, Cláudia; Oliveira, Cristino Carneiro; Barroco, Adriano C; Berton, Danilo C; Vilaça, Debora; Lira-Filho, Edgar B; Ribeiro, Dirceu; Nery, Luiz Eduardo; Neder, J Alberto

    2008-06-01

    Blood flow requirements of the respiratory muscles (RM) increase markedly during exercise in chronic heart failure (CHF). We reasoned that if the RM could subtract a fraction of the limited cardiac output (QT) from the peripheral muscles, RM unloading would improve locomotor muscle perfusion. Nine patients with CHF (left ventricle ejection fraction = 26 +/- 7%) undertook constant-work rate tests (70-80% peak) receiving proportional assisted ventilation (PAV) or sham ventilation. Relative changes (Delta%) in deoxy-hemoglobyn, oxi-Hb ([O2Hb]), tissue oxygenation index, and total Hb ([HbTOT], an index of local blood volume) in the vastus lateralis were measured by near infrared spectroscopy. In addition, QT was monitored by impedance cardiography and arterial O2 saturation by pulse oximetry (SpO2). There were significant improvements in exercise tolerance (Tlim) with PAV. Blood lactate, leg effort/Tlim and dyspnea/Tlim were lower with PAV compared with sham ventilation (P 0.05). Unloaded breathing, however, was related to enhanced leg muscle oxygenation and local blood volume compared with sham, i.e., higher Delta[O2Hb]% and Delta[HbTOT]%, respectively (P < 0.05). We conclude that RM unloading had beneficial effects on the oxygenation status and blood volume of the exercising muscles at similar systemic O2 delivery in patients with advanced CHF. These data suggest that blood flow was redistributed from respiratory to locomotor muscles during unloaded breathing.

  11. Blood cadmium levels are associated with a decline in lung function in males

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Chang-Mo [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); The Korea Central Cancer Registry, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of); Oh, In-Hwan; Lee, Jong-Keun [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yoon Hyung [Departments of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Soonchunhyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Choe, Bong-Keun; Yoon, Tai-Young [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Joong-Myung, E-mail: jmchoi@khu.ac.kr [Department of Preventive Medicine, School of Medicine, Kyung Hee University, Seoul 130-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-07-15

    Background: Cadmium exposure was found to cause a decline in lung function among the general population, but these findings were limited to smokers and gender differences were not explored. Objectives: To examine the relationship between cadmium and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) according to gender and smoking status in Korea. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2008 to 2011 were analyzed. COPD was defined by a pre-bronchodilator forced expiratory volume in 1 s divided by forced vital capacity of <0.70. A logistic regression model was used to elucidate the association between blood cadmium levels and COPD according to gender and smoking status. Results: Among 3861 eligible participants, 3622 were included in the analysis. The prevalence of COPD demonstrated an increasing trend in males (P for trend<0.001), but not in females (P for trend=0.67). After adjusting for covariates, a higher blood cadmium level, but within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never-smoked (P for trend <0.001 and P for trend=0.008). However, a higher blood cadmium level was not significantly associated with COPD in females, including those who had never smoked (P for trend=0.39 and P for trend=0.43). Conclusions: A higher blood cadmium level, within the normal range, was associated with COPD in males, including those who had never smoked. However, there was no significant association between blood cadmium levels and COPD in females. - Highlights: • Elevated blood cadmium level is associated with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in male. • This association can be seen even in never smoked male. • However, this association is present only in male, but not in female.

  12. Blood serotonin levels in autism spectrum disorder: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, Stefano; Sacco, Roberto; Persico, Antonio M

    2014-06-01

    Elevated blood serotonin (5-HT) levels were the first biomarker identified in autism research. Many studies have contrasted blood 5-HT levels in autistic patients and controls, but different measurement protocols, technologies, and biomaterials have been used through the years. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide an overall estimate of effect size and between-study heterogeneity, while verifying whether and to what extent different methodological approaches influence the strength of this association. Our literature search strategy identified 551 papers, from which 22 studies providing patient and control blood 5-HT values were selected for meta-analysis. Significantly higher 5-HT levels in autistic patients compared to controls were recorded both in whole blood (WB) [O.R.=4.6; (3.1-5.2); P=1.0×10(-12]), and in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) [O.R.=2.6 (1.8-3.9); P=2.7×10(-7)]. Predictably, studies measuring 5-HT levels in platelet-poor plasma (PPP) yielded no significant group difference [O.R.=0.54 (0.2-2-0); P=0.36]. Altogether, elevated 5-HT blood levels were recorded in 28.3% in WB and 22.5% in PRP samples of autistic individuals, as reported in 15 and 4 studies, respectively. Studies employing HPLC vs fluorometric assays yield similar cumulative effect sizes, but the former display much lower variability. In summary, despite some limitations mainly due to small study sample sizes, our results significantly reinforce the reliability of elevated 5-HT blood levels as a biomarker in ASD, providing practical indications potentially useful for its inclusion in multi-marker diagnostic panels for clinical use.

  13. Maternal-Cord Blood Vitamin D Correlations Vary by Maternal Levels

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D levels of pregnant women and their neonates tend to be related; however, it is unknown whether there are any subgroups in which they are not related. 25-Hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was measured in prenatal maternal and child cord blood samples of participants (n = 241 pairs) in a birth cohort. Spearman correlations were examined within subgroups defined by prenatal and delivery factors. Cord blood as a percentage of prenatal 25(OH)D level was calculated and characteristics compared b...

  14. Measurement of myocardial blood flow with oxygen-15 labelled water: comparison of different administration protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermansen, F; Rosen, S D; Fath-Ordoubadi, F; Kooner, J S; Clark, J C; Camici, P G; Lammertsma, A A

    1998-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) in conjunction with C15O2 or H215O can be used to measure myocardial blood flow (MBF) and tissue fraction (TF), i.e. the fraction of the tissue mass in the volume of the region of interest. However, with C15O2 inhalation, the tissue fraction in the septum is overestimated. Bolus injection of H215O together with arterial cannulation gives very precise results but is invasive. The purpose of this study was to develop a method which circumvents these problems. A four-parameter model with parameters for MBF, TF and spill-over fractions from both left and right ventricular cavities was developed. This method was compared with a three-parameter model (no right ventricular cavity spill-over) in both septal and non-septal regions of interest for three different administration protocols: bolus injection of H215O, infusion of H215O and inhalation of C15O2. It was found that MBF can be measured with intravenous administration of H215O without the requirement for arterial cannulation. The four-parameter protocol with bolus injection was stable in clinical studies. The four-parameter model proved essential for the septum, where it gave highly significantly better fits than did the three-parameter model (P<0.00003 in each of 15 subjects). Administration of H215O together with this four-parameter model also circumvented the problem of overestimation of TF in the septum seen with C15O2 inhalation. In addition, the radiation dose of H215O protocols is lower than that of C15O2 inhalation. Using a left atrial input curve instead of a left ventricular cavity input curve gave the same mean MBF and TF.

  15. Severe familial hypercholesterolemia impairs the regulation of coronary blood flow and oxygen supply during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, Shawn B; de Beer, Vincent J; Tharp, Darla L; Bowles, Douglas K; Laughlin, M Harold; Merkus, Daphne; Duncker, Dirk J

    2016-11-01

    Accelerated development of coronary atherosclerosis is a defining characteristic of familial hypercholesterolemia (FH). However, the recent data highlight a significant cardiovascular risk prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis. We, therefore, examined the hypothesis that FH produces coronary microvascular dysfunction and impairs coronary vascular control at rest and during exercise in a swine model of FH. Coronary vascular responses to drug infusions and exercise were examined in chronically instrumented control and FH swine. FH swine exhibited ~tenfold elevation of plasma cholesterol and diffuse coronary atherosclerosis (20-60 % plaque burden). Similar to our recent findings in the systemic vasculature in FH swine, coronary smooth muscle nitric oxide sensitivity was increased in vivo and in vitro with maintained endothelium-dependent vasodilation in vivo in FH. At rest and during exercise, FH swine exhibited increased myocardial O2 extraction resulting in reduced coronary venous SO2 and PO2 versus control. During exercise in FH swine, the transmural distribution of coronary blood flow was unchanged; however, a shift toward anaerobic cardiac metabolism was revealed by increased coronary arteriovenous H(+) concentration gradient. This shift was associated with a worsening of cardiac efficiency (relationship between cardiac work and O2 consumption) in FH during exercise owing, in part, to a generalized reduction in stroke volume which was associated with increased left atrial pressure in FH. Our data highlight a critical role for coronary microvascular dysfunction as a contributor to impaired myocardial O2 balance, cardiac ischemia, and impaired cardiac function prior to the development of critical coronary stenosis in FH.

  16. Differences in whole blood serotonin levels based on a typology of parasuicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rilke, O; Safar, C; Israel, M; Barth, T; Felber, W; Oehler, J

    1998-01-01

    Suicidal behavior has to be considered as a multifactorial phenomenon, which can be analyzed in a classifying-phenomenological manner. We have examined the relation of parasuicide typology to whole blood concentrations of serotonin, HVA, and tryptophan in 58 patients classified into 4 groups of parasuicide typology compared to 22 nonsuicidal depressed patients and 20 healthy subjects. Suicidal patients classified as impetuous, desperate and ambivalent types had significantly reduced whole blood 5-HT levels in comparison with the appealing type as well as nonsuicidal subjects. No differences were detected in the HVA content, but whole blood tryptophan concentrations were significantly reduced in impetuous suicidal patients and depressed patients compared to healthy subjects. This study provides evidence for reduced whole blood serotonin content based on different types of parasuicide.

  17. Determinants of blood-lead levels in children in Callao and Lima metropolitan area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Espinoza Rocío

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To determine blood lead levels in urban populations of children (n=2 510 and women (n=874 in the early postpartum in certain districts of Lima and Callao, and to correlate those levels with particular exposures. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Between July 1998 and January 1999 cross sectional study was conducted. The study population was selected using three sampling strategies in the government operated school system and from public pediatric and maternity hospitals at Lima and Callao, Peru. Study personnel were trained to collect finger stick blood samples with a protocol that minimizes external lead contamination. Lead determinations in blood and environmental samples were performed at the study site using portable anodic striping voltamenters. To determine the simultaneous effects of different predictors on blood lead levels, multivariate regression models were used to estimate adjusted mean differences. RESULTS: The mean blood lead level in the children studied was 9.9 µg/dl ranging from I µg/dl to 64 µg/dl with 29% of the children displaying values greater than 10 µg/dl and 9.4% at levels greater than 20 µg/dl. Among the women, the mean was 3.5 µg/dl (SD=2.4 µg/dl, and 2.4% (n=21 displayed levels greater than 10 µg/dl. Important differences were observed between the sample locations, and the highest levels were documented in the port region near Callao. The mean level of blood lead in this group was 25.6 µg/dl (SD=4.6 µg/dl, while among the rest of the sample it was 7.1 µg/dl (SD=5.1 µg/dl. The presence of a mineral storage area signified a difference in exposure in excess of 13 µg/dl for children living near the port area in contrast to the other children who were not as close to such fixed sources of lead exposure. For the participants in Lima, the risk of showing levels above 10 µg/dl was associated with exposure to high vehicular traffic. CONCLUSIONS: In metropolitan Lima, we conclude that the mean blood lead levels of

  18. Correlation of blood lead level with iron, zinc and calcium as well as neonatal neurobehavioral development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiguang Li; Guoping Wang; Shenghui Li; Xianguo Wu; Chunru Qi; Yingyi Liang

    2006-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Endothelial cell in brain of undeveloped fetus cannot inhibit entrance of lead so as to cause toxic effect. Over-accumulation of lead can cause toxic effect on children's growth and development, especially on development of nervous system. Lead in fetus body is mainly derived from its mother's; therefore, blood lead reflects the level of mother's lead.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the correlations among blood lead level, trace elements, mental development index (MDI) and psychomotor development index (PDI) of 3-month-old children. DESIGN: Contrast observation. SETTING: Maternity and Child Care Hospital, Shanxi Provincial Children Hospital. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 128 neonates with spontaneous delivery were provided by Shanxi Maternity and Child Care Hospital and Jiexiu Municipal Maternity and Child Care Hospital from September 2004 to January 2005. There were 76 boys and 52 girls. All subjects did not have history of ischemia and hypoxia during perinatal period and umbilical blood was accepted to be used in experiments. METHODS: ① Levels of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood: 0.5 mL umbilical blood and 2 mL blood samples were selected from neonates to measure lead content with graphite-oven atom absorption spectrum and contents of iron, calcium and zinc in umbilical blood with atom absorption spectrum. ② Grouping: According to level of blood lead, neonates were divided into high-dosage lead group (blood lead ≥ 0.24 μmol/L) and low-dosage lead group (blood lead < 0.24 μmol/L). ③ Evaluation of neurobehavioral development: Neurobehavioral development of 3-month-old neonates was evaluated with Bayley scale, which was consisted of intelligence scale, motor scale and behavioral scale. Intelligence scale, which was expressed as intelligence development index, contained 163 items, such as adaptability, behavior, language, pilot activities, etc. Motor scale, which was expressed as mental motor development index, contained 81 items, such as vulgar

  19. Blood selenium levels and contribution of food groups to selenium intake in adolescent girls in Iceland

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    Ingibjorg Gunnarsdottir

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/objectives: Significant changes have been reported in dietary habits and food availability in Iceland that would be expected to compromise selenium intake and status, especially among young people. These include substantial decreases in the consumption of fish and milk, as well as the selenium content of imported wheat. The aim of this study was to assess selenium in the diet and whole blood of adolescent girls, as well as define the most important foods contributing to intake and blood concentrations of selenium. Design: The subjects were 96 randomly selected girls, aged 16–20, who answered a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ for dietary assessment. Selenium intake from each food group was calculated in µg/day. Blood samples were collected for measurement of whole blood selenium. Results: Mean dietary selenium was 51±25 µg/day. Milk/dairy products, including cheese, contributed 36±14% of total dietary selenium; fish 18±12%; and bread/cereal products 13±6%. Mean whole blood selenium was 117±12 µg/l (range 90–208; nearly 90% of subjects were above the optimal level of 100 µg/l. Fish and bread/cereal products were the only foods significantly correlated with selenium in blood (r=0.32; P = 0.002 and r=0.22; P = 0.04, respectively while no correlation was found with milk and dairy products in spite of their greater contribution to total selenium intake. Conclusion: In this population of Icelandic adolescent girls, selenium intake and status seem acceptable. Judging from associations between intake and blood levels, fish and cereals may be the most important contributors to blood selenium.

  20. Prenatal caffeine exposure induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin mainly via placental mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yi-Meng; Luo, Han-Wen; Kou, Hao; Wen, Yin-Xian; Shen, Lang; Pei, Ling-Guo; Zhou, Jin; Zhang, Yuan-Zhen; Wang, Hui

    2015-11-15

    It's known that blood leptin level is reduced in intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) fetus, and placental leptin is the major source of fetal blood leptin. This study aimed to investigate the decreased fetal blood leptin level by prenatal caffeine exposure (PCE) and its underlying placental mechanisms. Pregnant Wistar rats were intragastrically administered caffeine (30-120 mg/kg day) from gestational day 9 to 20. The level of fetal serum leptin and the expression of placental leptin-related genes were analyzed. Furthermore, we investigated the molecular mechanism of the reduced placental leptin's expression by treatment with caffeine (0.8-20 μM) in the BeWo cells. In vivo, PCE significantly decreased fetal serum leptin level in caffeine dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, placental mRNA expression of adenosine A2a receptor (Adora2a), cAMP-response element binding protein (CREB), a short-type leptin receptor (Ob-Ra) and leptin was reduced in the PCE groups. In vitro, caffeine significantly decreased the mRNA expression of leptin, CREB and ADORA2A in concentration and time-dependent manners. The addition of ADORA2A agonist or adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonist reversed the inhibition of leptin expression induced by caffeine. PCE induced a lower level of fetal blood leptin, which the primary mechanism is that caffeine inhibited antagonized Adora2a and AC activities to decreased cAMP synthesis, thus inhibited the expression of the transcription factor CREB and target gene leptin in the placenta. Meantime, the reduced transportation of maternal leptin by placental Ob-Ra also contributed to the reduced fetal blood leptin. Together, PCE decreased fetal blood leptin mainly via reducing the expression and transportation of leptin in the placenta.

  1. Delicious Low GL space foods by using Low GI materials -Checked of blood sugar level-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Naomi; Kuwayama, Akemi; Space Agriculture Task Force, J.

    Enough life-support systems are necessary to stay in space for a long term. The management of the meal for astronauts is in particular very important. When an astronaut gets sick in outer space, it means death. To astronauts, the delicious good balance space foods are essential for their work. Therefore, this study was aimed at evaluating space foods menu for the healthy space-life by measuring blood sugar level. We made space foods menu to referred to Japanese nutrition standard in 2010. We made space foods menu which are using "brown rice, wheat, soy bean, sweet potato and green-vegetable" and " loach and insects which are silkworm pupa, snail, mud snail, turmait, fly, grasshopper, bee". We use ten health adults as subjects. Ten subjects performed the sensory test of the questionnaire method. There was the sensuality examination in the item of "taste, a fragrance, color, the quantity" and acquired a mark at ten points of perfect scores. The blood sugar level was measured with peripheral blood, before and after a meal for each 15 minutesduring 120 minutes. Statistical analysis was analysed by Excel statistics. As a result of having measured blood sugar level, the space foods menu understood that hyperglycosemia value after a meal was hard to happen. As a result of sensuality exam-ination of the subject, ten points of evaluation of the taste exceeded eight points in a perfect score. The healthy space foods which were hard to go up of the blood sugar level were made deliciously. We can evaluate space foods leading to good health maintenance of the balance by measuring blood sugar level. An astronaut must be healthy to stay in the space for a long term. Therefore the development of the delicious space foods which increase of the health is essential. I devise a combination and the cooking method of the cooking ingredient and want to make healthier space foods menu.

  2. Gluteal blood flow and oxygenation during electrical stimulation-induced muscle activation versus pressure relief movements in wheelchair users with a spinal cord injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smit, C. A. J.; Zwinkels, M.; van Dijk, T.; de Groot, S.; Stolwijk-Swuste, J. M.; Janssen, T. W. J.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Prolonged high ischial tuberosities pressure (IT pressure), decreased regional blood flow (BF) and oxygenation (%SO2) are risk factors for developing pressure ulcers (PUs) in patients with spinal cord injury (SCI). Electrical stimulation (ES)-induced gluteal and hamstring muscle activati

  3. Quantitative spatially resolved measurement of tissue chromophore concentrations using photoacoustic spectroscopy: application to the measurement of blood oxygenation and haemoglobin concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laufer, Jan; Delpy, Dave; Elwell, Clare; Beard, Paul [Department of Medical Physics and Bioengineering, University College London, Malet Place Engineering Building, London WC1E 6BT (United Kingdom)

    2007-01-07

    A new approach based on pulsed photoacoustic spectroscopy for non-invasively quantifying tissue chromophore concentrations with high spatial resolution has been developed. The technique is applicable to the quantification of tissue chromophores such as oxyhaemoglobin (HbO{sub 2}) and deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) for the measurement of physiological parameters such as blood oxygen saturation (SO{sub 2}) and total haemoglobin concentration. It can also be used to quantify the local accumulation of targeted contrast agents used in photoacoustic molecular imaging. The technique employs a model-based inversion scheme to recover the chromophore concentrations from photoacoustic measurements. This comprises a numerical forward model of the detected time-dependent photoacoustic signal that incorporates a multiwavelength diffusion-based finite element light propagation model to describe the light transport and a time-domain acoustic model to describe the generation, propagation and detection of the photoacoustic wave. The forward model is then inverted by iteratively fitting it to measurements of photoacoustic signals acquired at different wavelengths to recover the chromophore concentrations. To validate this approach, photoacoustic signals were generated in a tissue phantom using nanosecond laser pulses between 740 nm and 1040 nm. The tissue phantom comprised a suspension of intralipid, blood and a near-infrared dye in which three tubes were immersed. Blood at physiological haemoglobin concentrations and oxygen saturation levels ranging from 2% to 100% was circulated through the tubes. The signal amplitude from different temporal sections of the detected photoacoustic waveforms was plotted as a function of wavelength and the forward model fitted to these data to recover the concentrations of HbO{sub 2} and HHb, total haemoglobin concentration and SO{sub 2}. The performance was found to compare favourably to that of a laboratory CO-oximeter with measurement resolutions of {+-}3

  4. Use of Esophageal Hemoximetry to Assess the Effect of Packed Red Blood Cell Transfusion on Gastrointestinal Oxygenation in Newborn Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Farha M; Gates, Judy; Gerard, Kimberley; Hanson, Shawn; Applegate, Richard L; Blood, Arlin B

    2017-01-18

    Objectives There are no widely accepted methods of continuously monitoring gut oxygenation in the newborn during packed red blood cell transfusion. We investigated the use of an orally inserted light spectroscopy probe to measure lower esophageal oxyhemoglobin saturations (eStO2) before, during, and after transfusion and made comparisons with abdominal near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) flow. Study Design Thirteen neonates with corrected gestational ages ranging from 22 weeks, 0 day to 37 weeks, 5 days were enrolled. eStO2 and NIRS measurements were recorded continuously for a 25-hour period starting 1 hour prior to starting the 4-hour transfusion. Transabdominal ultrasound was used to measure SMA flow prior to, upon completion, and 20 hours after the transfusion. Results Twelve infants completed the study. eStO2 was well-tolerated and was weakly (r = 0.06) correlated (p < 0.001) with NIRS. Compared with NIRS, eStO2 demonstrated a markedly greater variation in oxyhemoglobin values. NIRS and SMA flow measurements did not change, while eStO2 increased from 48 ± 5% and 45 ± 5% in the pre- and intratransfusion periods to 57 ± 4% in the posttransfusion period (p = 0.03). Conclusion Measurement of eStO2 is feasible in neonates and may provide a continuous and sensitive index of rapid changes in mesenteric oxygenation in this patient population.

  5. Baseline blood Pb levels of black-necked stilts on the upper Texas coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Thomas V.; Conway, Warren C.; Haukos, David A.; Moon, Jena A.; Comer, Christopher E.

    2015-01-01

    There are no known biological requirements for lead (Pb), and elevated Pb levels in birds can cause a variety of sub-lethal effects and mortality. Historic and current levels of Pb in mottled ducks (Anas fulvigula) suggest that environmental sources of Pb remain available on the upper Texas coast. Because of potential risks of Pb exposure among coexisting marsh birds, black-necked stilt (Himantopus mexicanus) blood Pb concentrations were measured during the breeding season. Almost 80 % (n = 120) of 152 sampled stilts exceeded the background threshold (>20 μg/dL) for Pb exposure. However, blood Pb concentrations did not vary by age or gender, and toxic or potentially lethal concentrations were rare (blood Pb concentrations of black-necked stilts in this study suggest the presence of readily bioavailable sources of Pb, although potential impacts on local stilt populations remain unclear.

  6. Blood Glutamate Levels in Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Zheng

    Full Text Available Glutamate plays an important role in brain development, neuronal migration, differentiation, survival and synaptogenesis. Recent studies have explored the relationship between blood glutamate levels and autism spectrum disorder (ASD. However, the findings are inconsistent. We undertook the first systematic review with a meta-analysis of studies examining blood glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls.A literature search was conducted using PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library for studies published before March 2016. A random-effects model was used to calculate the pooled standardized mean difference (SMD of the outcomes. Subgroup analyses were used to explore the potential sources of heterogeneity, and the publication bias was estimated using Egger's tests.Twelve studies involving 880 participants and 446 incident cases were included in this meta-analysis. The meta-analysis provided evidence for higher blood glutamate levels in ASD [SMD = 0.99, 95% confidence interval (95% CI = 0.58-1.40; P < 0.001] with high heterogeneity (I2 = 86%, P < 0.001 across studies. The subgroup analyses revealed higher glutamate levels in ASD compared with controls in plasma [SMD = 1.04, 95% CI = 0.58-1.50; P < 0.001] but not true in serum [SMD = 0.79, 95% CI = -0.41-1.99; P = 0.20]. Studies employing high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS assays also revealed higher blood glutamate levels in ASD. A sensitivity analysis found that the results were stable, and there was no evidence of publication bias.Blood glutamate levels might be a potential biomarker of ASD.

  7. Saturated fat consumption may not be the main cause of increased blood lipid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, C B; Garg, R; Wood, L G; Garg, M L

    2014-02-01

    Consumption of foods rich in saturated fatty acids (SFA) has often been associated with elevated blood lipid levels and consequently with risk for chronic diseases, including coronary heart disease. However, epidemiological and interventional studies on this topic are contradictory. While some studies have established a positive link, other studies have failed to show a significant association between saturated fat consumption and blood lipid levels, and others have even found an inverse association. Moreover, studies using animal models have demonstrated that dietary saturated fats raise blood lipid (cholesterol and triglycerides) levels only when the diet is deficient in omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3PUFA). The n-3PUFA are known for their potential in the management of hyperlipidaemia for the prevention of coronary heart disease, as well as for their anti-arrhythmic, anti-aggregatory and anti-inflammatory potential. We believe that with an adequate consumption of n-3PUFA dietary saturated fat may not result in elevated blood lipid levels. Therefore, we critically evaluated the literature regarding saturated fat and blood lipid level, with an emphasis on the role of n-3PUFA on this relationship. Evidence from animal studies and few clinical trials lead to the hypothesis that there are beneficial or neutral effects of saturated fatty acids when combined with recommended levels of n-3PUFA in the diet. However, an intervention focusing on the background fat when the volunteers' diet is supplemented with n-3PUFA is yet to be done. Proving the authenticity of this hypothesis would mean a substantial change in public health messages regarding saturated fats and their health effects; and also a change in the strategies related to prevention of chronic cardiac and artery diseases.

  8. Relationship between androgen levels and blood pressure in young women with polycystic ovary syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Mei-Jou; Yang, Wei-Shiung; Yang, Jehn-Hsiahn; Chen, Chi-Ling; Ho, Hong-Nerng; Yang, Yu-Shih

    2007-06-01

    The role of testosterone on the development of hypertension is controversial, especially in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) who have higher prevalence of obesity and insulin resistance than women without PCOS. Little is known about the association between serum testosterone level and blood pressure in young women with PCOS. In the 151 young Taiwanese women with PCOS enrolled in this cross-sectional study, we measured the body mass index, waist circumference, blood pressure, fasting glucose, fasting insulin, lipid profile, and hormone profiles. The free androgen index, total testosterone, and sex hormone-binding globulin, but not the level of dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, significantly correlated with both systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP). In multiple linear regression models adjusted for age, body mass index, and other anthropometric, metabolic, and hormonal variables, the level of serum free androgen index or total testosterone, but not the sex hormone-binding globulin, were independently related to SBP and DBP. The age- and body mass index-adjusted least-square mean of serum-free androgen index levels were significantly different between the highest quartile and other quartiles of the SBP and DBP levels. The high bioavailable testosterone levels (free androgen index: >or=19%) in women with PCOS increased the risk of elevated blood pressure (SBP >or=130 mm Hg and/or DBP >or=85 mm Hg) with an odds ratio of 3.817 (P=0.029; 95% CI: 1.14 to 12.74) after adjustment for age, anthropometric measures, and metabolic profiles. Our results suggest that the characteristic hyperandrogenemia in young women with PCOS was associated with an elevated SBP and DBP independent of age, insulin resistance, obesity, or dyslipidemia.

  9. Systematic review and meta-analysis of circulating S100B blood levels in schizophrenia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katina Aleksovska

    Full Text Available S100B is a calcium-binding protein secreted in central nervous system from astrocytes and other glia cells. High blood S100B levels have been linked to brain damage and psychiatric disorders. S100B levels have been reported to be higher in schizophrenics than healthy controls. To quantify the relationship between S100B blood levels and schizophrenia a systematic literature review of case-control studies published on this topic within July 3rd 2014 was carried out using three bibliographic databases: Medline, Scopus and Web of Science. Studies reporting mean and standard deviation of S100B blood levels both in cases and controls were included in the meta-analysis. The meta-Mean Ratio (mMR of S100B blood levels in cases compared to controls was used as a measure of effect along with its 95% Confidence Intervals (CI. 20 studies were included totaling for 994 cases and 785 controls. Schizophrenia patients showed 76% higher S100B blood levels than controls with mMR = 1.76 95% CI: 1.44-2.15. No difference could be found between drug-free patients with mMR = 1.84 95%CI: 1.24-2.74 and patients on antipsychotic medication with mMR = 1.75 95% CI: 1.41-2.16. Similarly, ethnicity and stage of disease didn't affect results. Although S100B could be regarded as a possible biomarker of schizophrenia, limitations should be accounted when interpreting results, especially because of the high heterogeneity that remained >70%, even after carrying out subgroups analyses. These results point out that approaches based on traditional categorical diagnoses may be too restrictive and new approaches based on the characterization of new complex phenotypes should be considered.

  10. Blood optical properties at various glucose level values in THz frequency range

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, S. I.; Borovkova, M. A.; Strepitov, M. A.; Khodzitsky, M. K.

    2015-07-01

    The number of diabetics is rapidly growing every day in all parts of the world. By the year 2010, the number of patients suffering from diabetes had amounted to more than 230 million people, which is estimated as 3.5% of the whole world adult population [1]. According to expert forecasts, this number is projected to double by the year 2025, which is going to be 7% of whole Earth population. It was calculated that every 10 seconds someone in the world dies due to diabetes and its complications, which is 3 million people per year. The average life expectancy of children with diabetes is less than 28.3 years of onset. Diabetes is considered to be the fourth most common cause of death in industrialized countries. Vascular complications due to diabetes cause early disability and high mortality. Mortality from heart diseases and strokes is 2-3 times more likely for patients suffering from diabetes, whereas blindness, nephropathy and lower limbs gangrene happen respectively 10, 12-15 times, and almost 20 times more often for diabetics than general population. The number and strength of complications depend directly on the blood glucose level control quality. At the moment, the blood glucose level measurements are performed by glucometers [2,3]. This method requires that a patient makes a finger puncture for every measurement. About five punctures per day should be done for proper glucose monitoring, which is about 1,800 punctures per year. Besides, each measurement by glucometer requires a distinct test strip. Expenses for 1,800 test strips could be estimated as about 450 euros per year. It is also necessary to take into account that each puncture has a risk of blood poisoning. Using non-invasive techniques for glucose level control could reduce the amount of possible risky manipulations by 1800 per year. Moreover, it is worth mentioning that only eight of ten fingers are suitable for puncturing, and the constant skin damage which cannot be avoided is quite annoying for

  11. The effect of food with different glycaemic index on the blood glucose level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Kouřimská

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Blood glucose levels are affected by many factors including the type of foods consumed, processing technology and cooking method. Hormone insulin lowers blood glucose to its constant level, while glucagon, growth hormone, adrenalin and glucocorticoids have the opposite effect. High steepness of the blood glucose level rise after meals may be unfavourable for the organism. Sugars are transferred into the blood at different speeds according to the type of food. Therefore the aim of this study was to confirm experimentally the effect of food on blood glucose levels in men and women of different ages. Two types of low, medium and high-glycaemic index (GI foods were given to 4 men and 4 women of different age (from 35 to 65 years. All volunteers were healthy, slightly overweight, and without any regular sporting activity. None of them had any idea about their daily carbohydrates consumption and what the term glycaemic index meant. The volunteers came to the GI determination fasted in the morning. Their rise in blood glucose level was monitored by glucometer before the meal and after 1 and 2 hours of the consumption of baked potatoes (GI 85, white bread bun (GI 70, boiled potatoes (GI 64, rye bread (GI 62, potato dumplings (GI 52 and white cooked spaghetti (GI 41. Fasting blood sugar levels of volunteers highly depended on their age (p <0.0001 and gender (p <0.0001. The blood glucose values increased with age and were higher in men than in women. Significant influence of food GI on blood glucose levels in both men and women in all the age categories was observed (p <0.0001. An interaction between age and gender was also statistically highly significant (p <0.0001. One hour after consuming food the blood glucose values were significantly different from the values of fasting (p = 0.0035. The differences of these values did not depend on the age (p = 0.0574 and sex (p = 0.8256 of volunteers, but there was a significant difference on the GI value of food

  12. [Relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetes patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkafri, I H; Mashlah, A; Shaqifa, A

    2014-03-13

    This study was evaluated the relationship between blood glucose levels and salivary pH and buffering capacity in type II diabetic patients. The sample comprised 210 participants (age ranged 40-60 years). Based on fasting blood glucose levels the participants were divided into 3 groups: controls with normal